Science.gov

Sample records for aged marine air

  1. Air Age Education Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes a three-day program aimed at public school educators and community leaders. The goal was to encourage these people to include air age education in their programs. Activities included hands-on projects. (MA)

  2. Marine antifouling from thin air.

    PubMed

    Arnott, Jaimys; Wu, Alex H F; Vucko, Matthew J; Lamb, Robert N

    2014-10-01

    The dynamic relationship between the settlement behaviour of marine biota (cells, spores, larvae) and the longevity of an entrapped air layer (plastron) on submersed superhydrophobic surfaces was systematically investigated. Plastron lifetime decreased with increasing hydrophobic polymer loadings, and was correlated with the settlement rate of a range of fouling species of varying length scale, motility and hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface preference. The results show that the level of fouling on immersed superhydrophobic surfaces was greater when plastron lifetimes were minimal, regardless of the length scale, motility and the surface preference of the organisms. This is the first direct demonstration of the broad-spectrum attachment-inhibiting properties of a plastron on an immersed superhydrophobic surface. PMID:25329518

  3. Marine04 Marine radiocarbon age calibration, 26 ? 0 ka BP

    SciTech Connect

    Hughen, K; Baille, M; Bard, E; Beck, J; Bertrand, C; Blackwell, P; Buck, C; Burr, G; Cutler, K; Damon, P; Edwards, R; Fairbanks, R; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T; Kromer, B; McCormac, F; Manning, S; Bronk-Ramsey, C; Reimer, P; Reimer, R; Remmele, S; Southon, J; Stuiver, M; Talamo, S; Taylor, F; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C

    2004-11-01

    New radiocarbon calibration curves, IntCal04 and Marine04, have been constructed and internationally ratified to replace the terrestrial and marine components of IntCal98. The new calibration datasets extend an additional 2000 years, from 0-26 ka cal BP (Before Present, 0 cal BP = AD 1950), and provide much higher resolution, greater precision and more detailed structure than IntCal98. For the Marine04 curve, dendrochronologically dated tree-ring samples, converted with a box-diffusion model to marine mixed-layer ages, cover the period from 0-10.5 ka cal BP. Beyond 10.5 ka cal BP, high-resolution marine data become available from foraminifera in varved sediments and U/Th-dated corals. The marine records are corrected with site-specific {sup 14}C reservoir age information to provide a single global marine mixed-layer calibration from 10.5-26.0 ka cal BP. A substantial enhancement relative to IntCal98 is the introduction of a random walk model, which takes into account the uncertainty in both the calendar age and the radiocarbon age to calculate the underlying calibration curve. The marine datasets and calibration curve for marine samples from the surface mixed layer (Marine04) are discussed here. The tree-ring datasets, sources of uncertainty, and regional offsets are presented in detail in a companion paper by Reimer et al.

  4. Chemistry in Clean Marine Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundja, J. O.; Tshiala, M.

    2009-05-01

    Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO]<3 ppt) are reported. Measurements were made during the second Southern Ocean Photochemistry Experiment (SOAPEX-2), The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 17 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx) concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5-10%. The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL) air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations. Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D) and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of O(1D) to OH and HCHO to HO2 conversion. A 2σ standard deviation of 30-40% for OH and 25-30% for HO2 was estimated for the model calculations using a Monte Carlo technique coupled with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS).

  5. HOCl and Cl2 observations in marine air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, M. J.; Sander, R.; Carpenter, L. J.; Lee, J. D.; von Glasow, R.; Sommariva, R.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2011-08-01

    Cl atoms in the marine atmosphere may significantly impact the lifetimes of methane and other hydrocarbons. However, the existing estimates of Cl atom levels in marine air are based on indirect evidence. Here we present measurements of the Cl precursors HOCl and Cl2 in the marine boundary layer during June of 2009 at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory in the eastern tropical Atlantic. These are the first measurements of tropospheric HOCl. HOCl and Cl2 levels were low in air with open ocean back trajectories, with maximum levels always below 60 and 10 ppt (pmol/mol), respectively. In air with trajectories originating over Europe, HOCl and Cl2 levels were higher, with HOCl maxima exceeding 100 ppt each day and Cl2 reaching up to 35 ppt. The increased Cl cycling associated with long distance pollutant transport over the oceans likely impacts a wide geographic area and represents a mechanism by which human activities have increased the reactivity of the marine atmosphere. Data-constrained model simulations indicate that Cl atoms account for approximately 15 % of methane destruction on days when aged polluted air arrives at the site. A photochemical model does not adequately simulate the observed abundances of HOCl and Cl2, raising the possibility of an unknown HOCl source.

  6. GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL SITE PLAN, HAMILTON AIR FORCE BASE, MARIN COUNTY, CALIFORNIA. Pencil on paper, dated December 4, 1952. Also marked "PWC 103474." By J.Y. Long Company, Engineers, Oakland, California - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  7. Age determination of late Pleistocene marine transgression in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Dating molluscs from sediments representing the Kotzebuan marine transgression in Alaska yields an average uranium-series age of 104,000 ?? 22,000 yrs B.P. This and other selected Pleistocene marine deposits of western Alaska are tentatively correlated with radiometrically dated units of eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. ?? 1982.

  8. HOCl and Cl2 observations in marine air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, M. J.; Sander, R.; Carpenter, L. J.; Lee, J. D.; von Glasow, R.; Sommariva, R.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2011-03-01

    Cl atoms in the marine atmosphere may significantly impact the lifetimes of methane and other hydrocarbons. However, the existing estimates of Cl atom levels in marine air are based on indirect evidence. Here we present measurements of the Cl precursors HOCl and Cl2 in the marine boundary layer during June of 2009 at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory in the eastern tropical Atlantic. These are the first measurements of tropospheric HOCl. HOCl and Cl2 levels were low in air with open ocean back trajectories, with maximum levels always below 60 and 10 ppt (pmol/mol), respectively. In air with trajectories originating over Europe, HOCl and Cl2 levels were higher, with HOCl maxima exceeding 100 ppt each day and Cl2 reaching up to 34 ppt. The increased Cl cycling associated with long distance pollutant transport over the oceans likely impacts a wide geographic area and represents a mechanism by which human activities have increased the reactivity of the marine atmosphere. The data indicate that Cl atoms accounted for as much as 15% of the methane destruction at this site during the study period. A photochemical model does not adequately simulate the observed abundances of HOCl and Cl2, raising the possibility of an unknown HOCl source.

  9. Aerosol chemical components in Alaska air masses: 1. Aged pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Glenn E.

    1991-12-01

    A 4-year Alaska chemical data set of aerosols or "dust" in the air clearly reveals a mixture of distinct aerosol components with different and interesting chemical composition, one or two being ascribed to pollution imported to Alaska by winds all the way from other continents. Of particular note is a strong chemical contrast between what we imagine to be highly scavenged, orographically lifted, northern Pacific air (Pacific marine air mass) and stagnant Arctic air (polar air mass), the latter containing seasonal average concentrations of between 2-4 times the concentration of the former, at least for pollution markers noncrustal vanadium, noncrustal manganese, arsenic, selenium, bromine, and antimony. The findings concur our old discovery that Arctic air is persistently polluted (Arctic haze), but Pacific air is relatively clean, in spite of the fact that Alaska is downwind of major pollution sources in the Orient. This is remarkable. In this the first of a two-part paper, we concentrate on the pollution component found primarily during incursion of Arctic polar air. Two major occurrences of visual haze with optical depths of approximately 0.2 and elevated aerosol concentration lasting about a month (spring 1985 and 1986) were affiliated with strong incoming transport of polar air, temperatures ranging from 10° to 20°C below normal (polar air) and air trajectory hindcasts leading back to industrial pollution sources in Eurasia. These long-range transport pollution events brought metal-rich aerosol of removal-resistant submicron particles. The size, chemistry, and meteorology all strongly suggest the presence of a well-aged (10-100 day) polluted air mass. An important implication is that in spring a large fraction of the Arctic polar air mass becomes charged with by-products of industrial pollution. In this multiyear chemical data set one finds a notable summer-winter contrast, changing by factors of 2 to 4 for pollution markers As, Se, Sb, and noncrustal

  10. Radiocarbon dating of marine material: mollusc versus foraminifera ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callard, L.; Long, A. J.; Plets, R. M.; Cooper, A.; Belknap, D. F.; Edwards, R.; Jackson, D.; Kelley, J. T.; Long, D.; Milne, G. A.; Monteys, X.; Quinn, R.

    2013-12-01

    A key challenge in reconstructing Quaternary environmental change from marine archives is developing a robust chronology. During the last ~50k a-1, radiocarbon dating is the mainstay for many studies. Often investigators are restricted in the material that is available for dating, with studies relying on AMS dating of either mono-specific or mixed assemblages of foraminifera. In some instances, marine molluscs (broken or whole, articulated or disarticulated) may also be present and can provide an alternative or complementary dating target. Previous radiocarbon dating of paired foraminiferal and marine molluscan samples from the Kattegat (Denmark) revealed significant age offsets between these materials, inferred to reflect greater reworking of foraminifera compared to the marine molluscs (Heier-Nielsen et al., 1995). Here we present the results of a comparable study from the Irish Sea Basin, which forms part of a wider investigation into the evidence for the Late Glacial sea-level minima at offshore sites from around Britain and Ireland. We have collected and AMS 14C-dated twelve paired samples of foraminifera and marine shells. The results shows a systematic age offset with the monospecific foraminifera samples consistently giving older ages than their shell counterparts. This offset increases with sample age, reaching a maximum offset of 3000 years in the oldest sample (~ 13 ka cal a BP). These results are consistent with the observations of Heier-Nielsen et al. (1995), and we hypothesize that foraminifera may be more susceptible to reworking from older deposits because of their lower effective density than the shell samples. However, foraminifera size and shape may also be contributing factors. These findings are potentially significant for studies that develop chronologies based on radiocarbon dating of foraminifera alone, since the resulting dates may over-estimate sample age by several thousand years. We conclude by outlining an experimental design that seeks

  11. 33 CFR 334.235 - Potomac River, Marine Corps Base Quantico (MCB Quantico) in vicinity of Marine Corps Air Facility...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potomac River, Marine Corps Base Quantico (MCB Quantico) in vicinity of Marine Corps Air Facility (MCAF), restricted area. 334.235 Section 334.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED...

  12. Ageing and Caloric Restriction in a Marine Planktonic Copepod.

    PubMed

    Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Griffell, Kaiene; Bersano, José Guilherme F; Isari, Stamatina; Solé, Montserrat; Peters, Janna; Alcaraz, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic copepods are a key group in the marine pelagic ecosystem, linking primary production with upper trophic levels. Their abundance and population dynamics are constrained by the life history tradeoffs associated with resource availability, reproduction and predation pressure. The tradeoffs associated with the ageing process and its underlying biological mechanisms are, however, poorly known. Our study shows that ageing in copepods involves a deterioration of their vital rates and a rise in mortality associated with an increase in oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation); the activity of the cell-repair enzymatic machinery also increases with age. This increase in oxidative damage is associated with an increase in the relative content of the fatty acid 22:6(n-3), an essential component of cell membranes that increases their susceptibility to peroxidation. Moreover, we show that caloric (food) restriction in marine copepods reduces their age-specific mortality rates, and extends the lifespan of females and their reproductive period. Given the overall low production of the oceans, this can be a strategy, at least in certain copepod species, to enhance their chances to reproduce in a nutritionally dilute, temporally and spatially patchy environment. PMID:26455575

  13. Ageing and Caloric Restriction in a Marine Planktonic Copepod

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Griffell, Kaiene; Bersano, José Guilherme F.; Isari, Stamatina; Solé, Montserrat; Peters, Janna; Alcaraz, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic copepods are a key group in the marine pelagic ecosystem, linking primary production with upper trophic levels. Their abundance and population dynamics are constrained by the life history tradeoffs associated with resource availability, reproduction and predation pressure. The tradeoffs associated with the ageing process and its underlying biological mechanisms are, however, poorly known. Our study shows that ageing in copepods involves a deterioration of their vital rates and a rise in mortality associated with an increase in oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation); the activity of the cell-repair enzymatic machinery also increases with age. This increase in oxidative damage is associated with an increase in the relative content of the fatty acid 22:6(n-3), an essential component of cell membranes that increases their susceptibility to peroxidation. Moreover, we show that caloric (food) restriction in marine copepods reduces their age-specific mortality rates, and extends the lifespan of females and their reproductive period. Given the overall low production of the oceans, this can be a strategy, at least in certain copepod species, to enhance their chances to reproduce in a nutritionally dilute, temporally and spatially patchy environment. PMID:26455575

  14. Ageing and Caloric Restriction in a Marine Planktonic Copepod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Griffell, Kaiene; Bersano, José Guilherme F.; Isari, Stamatina; Solé, Montserrat; Peters, Janna; Alcaraz, Miquel

    2015-10-01

    Planktonic copepods are a key group in the marine pelagic ecosystem, linking primary production with upper trophic levels. Their abundance and population dynamics are constrained by the life history tradeoffs associated with resource availability, reproduction and predation pressure. The tradeoffs associated with the ageing process and its underlying biological mechanisms are, however, poorly known. Our study shows that ageing in copepods involves a deterioration of their vital rates and a rise in mortality associated with an increase in oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation); the activity of the cell-repair enzymatic machinery also increases with age. This increase in oxidative damage is associated with an increase in the relative content of the fatty acid 22:6(n-3), an essential component of cell membranes that increases their susceptibility to peroxidation. Moreover, we show that caloric (food) restriction in marine copepods reduces their age-specific mortality rates, and extends the lifespan of females and their reproductive period. Given the overall low production of the oceans, this can be a strategy, at least in certain copepod species, to enhance their chances to reproduce in a nutritionally dilute, temporally and spatially patchy environment.

  15. Constraints on reactive chlorine cycling mechanisms in remote marine air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, M. J.; Saltzman, E. S.; Sander, R.

    2010-12-01

    Reaction with chlorine atoms derived from marine aerosols may be a significant sink for climate-relevant trace gases, including methane, ozone, volatile organic compounds, and dimethyl sulfide. However, Cl atom levels and the mechanisms that control them are poorly constrained by observations. Here we examine the rates and possible mechanisms of reactive Cl cycling in the eastern tropical Atlantic using observations of HOCl and Cl2 at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory. Enhanced Cl cycling was observed in pollutant-impacted marine air, with typical daytime HOCl levels of 60-100 ppt and nighttime Cl2 maxima of 13-35 ppt. Two aspects of the observations are not well replicated by a multiphase photochemical box model with halogen chemistry. First, the model cannot reproduce the high HOCl levels observed given reasonable input parameters. Second, if an additional source of HOCl is imposed, Cl2 levels are overpredicted due to efficient conversion of HOCl to Cl2 in model aerosols. We propose that 1) there must be an additional photochemical source of HOCl (possibly a photosensitized or surface-enhanced reaction), and 2) that aerosol conversion of HOCl to Cl2 is inhibited, due either to a lower-than-expected aerosol uptake rate of HOCl or an aqueous phase reactive chlorine loss. Cl atom levels are inferred from various model assumptions and the impacts of chlorine chemistry at Cape Verde are estimated.

  16. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from...

  17. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from...

  18. 9 CFR 3.114 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., rail, air and marine). 3.114 Section 3.114 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... animal cargo space must be constructed and maintained in a manner that will prevent the ingress of...

  19. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from...

  20. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). (a) The animal cargo space of primary conveyances used in... constructed and maintained in a manner to prevent the ingress of engine exhaust fumes and gases from...

  1. Update: Exertional rhabdomyolysis, active component, U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    Among active component members of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps in 2015, there were 456 incident episodes of rhabdomyolysis likely due to physical exertion or heat stress ("exertional rhabdomyolysis"). Annual rates of incident diagnoses of exertional rhabdomyolysis increased 17% between 2014 and 2015. In 2015, the highest incidence rates occurred in service members who were male; younger than 20 years of age; black, non-Hispanic; members of the Marine Corps and Army; recruit trainees; and in combat-specific occupations. Most cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis were diagnosed at installations that support basic combat/recruit training or major ground combat units of the Army or Marine Corps. Medical care providers should consider exertional rhabdomyolysis in the differential diagnosis when service members (particularly recruits) present with muscular pain and swelling, limited range of motion, or the excretion of dark urine (e.g., myoglobinuria) after strenuous physical activity, particularly in hot, humid weather. PMID:27030929

  2. Confirmation of Late Miocene Age for Marine Strata on Isla Tiburón, Gulf of California, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckmaster, N. G.; Bennett, S. E.; Oskin, M. E.; Ford, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Marine strata exposed on southwest corner of Isla Tiburón have been cited as the only exposed evidence for extensive middle Miocene marine incursion in the Gulf of California. Two sets of isotopic ages bracket the age of the marine strata: a capping rhyodacite flow and dike dated 11.2 ± 1.3 Ma, 4.2 ± 1.8 Ma and 3.7 ± 0.9 Ma, and pyroclastic flows previously interpreted to be intercalated near the base of the marine section, including a rhyolitic tuff dated 5.7 ± 0.2 Ma and an andesitic breccia dated 12.9 ± 0.5 Ma. The older ages, reported together by Smith et al. (1985), suggest marine sedimentation throughout the ca. 12 to 6 Ma proto-Gulf period, prior to lithispheric rupture in the adjacent Tiburón Basin. The younger late Miocene and Pliocene ages are consistent with marine microfossils reported from the marine strata, leading Oskin and Stock (2003) to reject a proto-Gulf origin for these sediments. Here we report new, detailed geologic mapping and geochronology that confirms that the southwest Isla Tiburón marine section is latest Miocene to early Pliocene age. New, 60 cm-resolution satellite imagery not available to earlier researchers greatly aided field mapping efforts, and shows previously undocumented shear and compressional structures likely related to transpression adjacent to the dextral La Cruz fault. We find that a distinct package of four rock units underlies the marine section. The lowest unit is (1) comprised of andesitic volcaniclastic rocks and lava flows. This unit is unconformably overlain by (2) a rhyolitic non- to poorly-welded ash flow tuff (10% lithic fragments and 15% phenocrysts: quartz ≥ K-spar > hornblende > biotite > muscovite). This tuff yielded an inverse isochron 40Ar/39Ar date of 6.7 ± 0.8 Ma. The tuff is conformably overlain by (3) bedded air fall and lapilli tuff, and (4) a mono-lithologic landslide breccia comprised of welded rhyolite tuff clasts. The emplacement of thicker landslide breccia deposits caused minor

  3. Age dependent course of EAE in Aire-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Rina; Aricha, Revital; Eilam, Raya; From, Ido; Mizrahi, Keren; Arnon, Ruth; Souroujon, Miriam C; Fuchs, Sara

    2013-09-15

    This study explores the consequences of deficiency in the autoimmune regulator (Aire) on the susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Increased susceptibility to EAE was found in Aire knockout (KO) compared to wild type (WT) in 6month old mice. In contrast, 2month old Aire KO mice were less susceptible to EAE than WT mice, and this age-related resistance correlated with elevated proportions of T regulatory (Treg) cells in their spleen and brain. Combined with our previous findings in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis, we suggest an age-related association between Aire and Treg cells in the susceptibility to autoimmunity. PMID:23849800

  4. Extensive Air Shower Characteristics as Functions of Shower Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giller, Maria; Stojek, Hubert; Wieczorek, Grzegorz

    We show that extensive air showers (EAS) are all very similar when described by shower age and Molière length unit. This allows to analyze fluorescence and Cherenkov light emitted by showers in a unified and simple way.

  5. The Contribution of Marine Organics to the Air Quality of the Western United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The contribution of marine organic emissions to the air quality in coastal areas of the western United States is studied using the latest version of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regional-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQv4.7) modeling system. Emissions ...

  6. Air Pollution Stress and the Aging Phenotype: The Telomere Connection.

    PubMed

    Martens, Dries S; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-09-01

    Aging is a complex physiological phenomenon. The question why some subjects grow old while remaining free from disease whereas others prematurely die remains largely unanswered. We focus here on the role of air pollution in biological aging. Hallmarks of aging can be grouped into three main categories: genomic instability, telomere attrition, and epigenetic alterations leading to altered mitochondrial function and cellular senescence. At birth, the initial telomere length of a person is largely determined by environmental factors. Telomere length shortens with each cell division and exposure to air pollution as well as low residential greens space exposure is associated with shorter telomere length. Recent studies show that the estimated effects of particulate air pollution exposure on the telomere mitochondrial axis of aging may play an important role in chronic health effects of air pollution. The exposome encompasses all exposures over an entire life. As telomeres can be considered as the cellular memories of exposure to oxidative stress and inflammation, telomere maintenance may be a proxy for assessing the "exposome". If telomeres are causally related to the aging phenotype and environmental air pollution is an important determinant of telomere length, this might provide new avenues for future preventive strategies. PMID:27357566

  7. Reassessment of MIPAS age of air trends and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haenel, F. J.; Stiller, G. P.; von Clarmann, T.; Funke, B.; Eckert, E.; Glatthor, N.; Grabowski, U.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Reddmann, T.

    2015-11-01

    A new and improved setup of the SF6 retrieval together with a newly calibrated version of MIPAS-ENVISAT level 1b spectra (version 5, ESA data version 5.02/5.06) was used to obtain a new global SF6 data set, covering the total observational period of MIPAS from July 2002 to April 2012 for the first time. Monthly and zonally averaged SF6 profiles were converted into mean age of air using a tropospheric SF6-reference curve. The obtained data set of age of air was compared to airborne age of air measurements. The temporal evolution of the mean age of air was then investigated in 10° latitude and 1-2 km altitude bins. A regression model consisting of a constant and a linear trend term, two proxies for the quasi-biennial oscillation variation, sinusoidal terms for the seasonal and semiannual variation and overtones was fitted to the age of air time series. The annual cycle for particular regions in the stratosphere was investigated and compared to other studies. The age of air trend over the total MIPAS period consisting of the linear term was assessed and compared to previous findings of Stiller et al. (2012). While the linear increase of mean age is confirmed to be positive for the northern midlatitudes and southern polar middle stratosphere, differences are found in the northern polar upper stratosphere, where the mean age is now found to increase as well. The magnitude of trends in the northern midlatitude middle stratosphere is slightly lower compared to the previous version and the trends fit remarkably well to the trend derived by Engel et al. (2009). Negative age of air trends found by Stiller et al. (2012) are confirmed for the lowermost tropical stratosphere and lowermost southern midlatitudinal stratosphere. Differences to the previous data versions occur in the middle tropical stratosphere around 25 km, where the trends are now negative. Overall, the new latitude-altitude distribution of trends appears to be less patchy and more coherent than the previous

  8. Late Quaternary marginal marine deposits and palaeoenvironments from northeastern Buenos Aires Province, Argentina: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, M. L.; Whatley, R. C.

    The late Quaternary marginal marine deposits along eastern Argentina (Southwestern Atlantic) are reviewed according to our present knowledge. In the northeastern coastal area of Buenos Aires Province they have been assigned to a series of transgressions and regressions ranging from the late Pliocene to the late Quaternary. The most widely accepted model is Frenguelli's (1957) classical chronostratigraphical scheme of: 'Belgranense', late Pleistocene marine sediments at 3-6 m above m.s.l. and ca. 26,000->35,000 14C years BP, the 'Querandinense', Pleistocene-Holocene estuarine sediments below or at present m.s.l., and the most extensive 'Platense', mid-Holocene marine deposits at 4.5-2 m above m.s.l. dated at ca. 8000-1340 14C years BP. The restricted 'Belgranense' deposits, recorded in Samborombon Bay, in Magdalena at ca. 32,000 BP, near Mar Chiquita at ca. 24,900 and 30,500 BP and southwards in Bahía Blanca at ca. 26,000-35,500 BP, may belong to an interstadial (González et al., 1986). The molluscan composition suggests a marine invasion of the area but not a typical interglacial cycle characterized by euhaline and warm water elements. However, the oxygen isotope record argues against an interstadial during the interval 34-27 ka and the chronological control for these deposits is very poor, suggesting that they most probably have been elevated neotectonically. The Pleistocene-Holocene 'Querandinense' deposits, extensively distributed along the Bonaerensian coastal plain and continental shelf (ca. 11,000 14C years BP), with very low faunal diversity, abundance of freshwater ostracods and absence of the warm water molluscs characteristic of the Holocene ridges, indicate low salinity and cool water conditions. Further dating and isotope analysis of these deposits are required for a better understanding of the chronology of climatic events by the end of the Pleistocene in this area and to establish whether or not they could correspond to the Younger Dryas event of

  9. Heat loss in air of an Antarctic marine mammal, the Weddell seal.

    PubMed

    Mellish, Jo-Ann; Hindle, Allyson; Skinner, John; Horning, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The conflicting needs of homeostasis in air versus water complicate our understanding of thermoregulation in marine mammals. Large-scale modeling efforts directed at predicting the energetic impact of changing sea ice conditions on polar ecosystems require a better understanding of thermoregulation in air of free-ranging animals. We utilized infrared imaging as an indirect approach to determine surface temperatures of dry, hauled-out Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii, n = 35) of varying age and body condition during the Antarctic summer. The study groups provided a fivefold range in body mass and a threefold range in blubber depth. Surface temperature (T s) did not vary by body region (head, shoulder, axilla, torso, hip, flippers). Average seal T s (mean 13.9 ± 11.2 °C) was best described through a combination of the physical traits of body mass and environmental variables of ambient temperature T air, and wind speed. Additional factors of ice temperature (T ice), relative humidity and cloud cover did not improve the model. Heat transfer model estimates suggested that radiation contributed 56.6 ± 7.7 % of total heat loss. Convection and conduction accounted for the remaining 15.7 ± 12.3 and 27.7 ± 9.3 %, respectively. Heat loss by radiation was primarily influenced by body mass and wind speed, whereas convective heat loss was influenced primarily by blubber depth and wind speed. Conductive heat loss was modeled largely as a function of physical traits of mass and blubber depth rather than any environmental covariates, and therefore was substantially higher in animals in leaner condition. PMID:25378218

  10. K-Ar ages confirm Pliocene age for oldest Neogene marine strata near Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, H.

    1987-05-01

    Beds of pumiceous tuff interbedded with mollusk-rich sedimentary rocks provide new age constraints on the timing of the late Neogene subsidence and marine transgression a few kilometers north of Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico. The lower part of the Neogene section consists of approximately 1500 m of early to middle Miocene nonmarine volcanic-derived sandstone, breccia, and porphyritic andesite and dacite lavas, called the Comondu Formation or Comondu Group by previous workers. The Miocene rocks are unconformably overlain by nearly 1000 m of predominantly marine sandstone, siltstone, conglomerate, coquina, and tuff of Pliocene age. This 1000-m section grades upward from unfossiliferous fanglomerate, sandstone, and pelitic red beds that are interpreted to be nonmarine into mollusk-rich marine strata; this sequence indicates that marine transgression occurred within the Pliocene section. Plagioclase and hornblende from three pumiceous tuff beds stratigraphically located near the base, middle, and top of the marine section yield K-Ar ages of 3.2, 1.9, and 1.8 Ma, respectively; these ages are similar to Pliocene ages indicated by reconnaissance studies of ostracods, diatoms, and foraminifers. The diatoms indicate open-ocean waters and the foraminifers indicate outer shelf depth. Ostracods, oysters, pectens, and other fossil bivalves seem to indicate a shallow-water embayment. Lateral distribution of nonmarine and marine facies suggests a paleoenvironment in which alluvial fans fed coarse debris into a series of coastal fan deltas. The Pliocene basin may have been a largely landlocked embayment similar to the modern Bahia Concepcion, located 70 km north of Loreto. Marine and volcanic rocks are assumed to be associated with the opening of the Gulf of California. If this assumption is correct, the beds near Loreto suggest that the opening occurred during the Pliocene.

  11. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. J.; Keywood, M. D.; Galbally, I. E.; Gras, J. L.; Cainey, J. M.; Cope, M. E.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Bentley, S. T.; Meyer, C. P.; Ristovski, Z.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    (ΔO3 / ΔCO 0.001-0.074). A short-lived increase in NMOCs by a factor of 10 corresponded with a large CO enhancement, an increase of the NMOC / CO emission ratio (ER) by a factor of 2-4 and a halving of the BC / CO ratio. Rainfall on Robbins Island was observed by radar during this period which likely resulted in a lower fire combustion efficiency, and higher emission of compounds associated with smouldering. This highlights the importance of relatively minor meteorological events on BB emission ratios. Emission factors (EFs) were derived for a range of trace gases, some never before reported for Australian fires, (including hydrogen, phenol and toluene) using the carbon mass balance method. This provides a unique set of EFs for Australian coastal heathland fires. Methyl halide EFs were higher than EFs reported from other studies in Australia and the Northern Hemisphere which is likely due to high halogen content in vegetation on Robbins Island. This work demonstrates the substantial impact that BB plumes can have on the composition of marine air, and the significant changes that can occur as the plume interacts with terrestrial, aged urban and marine emission sources.

  12. Centuries of marine radiocarbon reservoir age variation within archaeological Mesodesma Donacium shells from Southern Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, K.B.; Hodgins, G.W.L.; Etayo-Cadavid, M. F.; Andrus, C.F.T.; Sandweiss, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Mollusk shells provide brief (<5 yr per shell) records of past marine conditions, including marine radiocarbon reservoir age (R) and upwelling. We report 21 14C ages and R calculations on small (~2 mg) samples from 2 Mesodesma donacium (surf clam) shells. These shells were excavated from a semi-subterranean house floor stratum 14C dated to 7625 ?? 35 BP at site QJ-280, Quebrada Jaguay, southern Peru. The ranges in marine 14C ages (and thus R) from the 2 shells are 530 and 170 14C yr; R from individual aragonite samples spans 130 ?? 60 to 730 ?? 170 14C yr. This intrashell 14C variability suggests that 14C dating of small (time-slice much less than 1 yr) marine samples from a variable-R (i.e. variable-upwelling) environment may introduce centuries of chronometric uncertainty. ?? 2010 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona.

  13. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.37 Section 3.37 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of...

  14. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.62 Section 3.62 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of...

  15. 9 CFR 3.138 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine). 3.138 Section 3.138 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation...

  16. Pilot Age and Error in Air-Taxi Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Qiang, Yandong; Baker, Susan P.; Li, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The associations of pilot error with the type of flight operations and basic weather conditions are well documented. The correlation between pilot characteristics and error is less clear. This study aims to examine whether pilot age is associated with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Methods Investigation reports from the National Transportation Safety Board for crashes involving non-scheduled Part 135 operations (i.e., air taxis) in the United States between 1983 and 2002 were reviewed to identify pilot error and other contributing factors. Crash circumstances and the presence and type of pilot error were analyzed in relation to pilot age using Chi-square tests. Results Of the 1751 air-taxi crashes studied, 28% resulted from mechanical failure, 25% from loss of control at landing or takeoff, 7% from visual flight rule conditions into instrument meteorological conditions, 7% from fuel starvation, 5% from taxiing, and 28% from other causes. Crashes among older pilots were more likely to occur during the daytime rather than at night and off airport than on airport. The patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes were similar across age groups. Of the errors identified, 27% were flawed decisions, 26% were inattentiveness, 23% mishandled aircraft kinetics, 15% mishandled wind and/or runway conditions, and 11% were others. Conclusions Pilot age is associated with crash circumstances but not with the prevalence and patterns of pilot error in air-taxi crashes. Lack of age-related differences in pilot error may be attributable to the “safe worker effect.” PMID:19601508

  17. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is emitted in the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources, these last accounting for one third of the total emissions. Since the pre-industrial age, the atmospheric deposition of mercury have increased notably, while ocean emissions have doubled owing to the re-emission of anthropogenic mercury. Exchange between the atmosphere and ocean plays an important role in cycling and transport of mercury. We present the preliminary results from a study on the distribution and evasion flux of mercury at the atmosphere/sea interface in the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, southern Italy), a semi-enclosed marine area affected by a high degree of contamination (heavy metals and PHA) due to the oil refineries placed inside its commercial harbor. It seems that the intense industrial activity of the past have lead to an high Hg pollution in the bottom sediments of the basin, whose concentrations are far from the background mercury value found in most of the Sicily Strait sediments. The release of mercury into the harbor seawater and its dispersion by diffusion from sediments to the surface, make the Augusta basin a potential supplier of mercury both to the Mediterranean Sea and the atmosphere. Based on these considerations, mercury concentration and flux at the air-sea interface of the Bay have been estimated using a real-time atomic adsorption spectrometer (LUMEX - RA915+) and an home-made accumulation chamber, respectively. Estimated Total Atmospheric Mercury (TGM) concentrations during the cruise on the bay were in the range of 1-3 ng · m-3, with a mean value of about 1.4 ng · m-3. These data well fit with the background Hgatm concentration values detected on the land (1-2 ng · m-3, this work), and, more in general, with the background atmospheric TGM levels found in the North Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng · m-3)a. Besides, our measurements are in the range of those reported for other important polluted marine areas. The mercury evasion flux at the air-sea interface

  18. Effect of postmortem aging time on tumbling marination performance of broiler breast fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous data demonstrated that water-holding capacity (WHC), as measured by the salt-induced water uptake method, increases with aging up to 24 h postmortem in early-deboned chicken breast fillets (pectoralis major). Therefore, it was hypothesized that 24 h postmortem aging may enhance marination ...

  19. Mortality of inshore marine mammals in eastern Australia is predicted by freshwater discharge and air temperature.

    PubMed

    Meager, Justin J; Limpus, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding environmental and climatic drivers of natural mortality of marine mammals is critical for managing populations effectively and for predicting responses to climate change. Here we use a 17-year dataset to demonstrate a clear relationship between environmental forcing and natural mortality of inshore marine mammals across a subtropical-tropical coastline spanning a latitudinal gradient of 13° (>2000 km of coastline). Peak mortality of inshore dolphins and dugongs followed sustained periods of elevated freshwater discharge (9 months) and low air temperature (3 months). At a regional scale, these results translated into a strong relationship between annual mortality and an index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The number of cyclones crossing the coastline had a comparatively weak effect on inshore marine mammal mortality, and only in the tropics. Natural mortality of offshore/migratory cetaceans was not predicted by freshwater discharge, but was related to lagged air temperature. These results represent the first quantitative link between environmental forcing and marine mammal mortality in the tropics, and form the basis of a predictive tool for managers to prepare responses to periods of elevated marine mammal mortality. PMID:24740149

  20. Mortality of Inshore Marine Mammals in Eastern Australia Is Predicted by Freshwater Discharge and Air Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Meager, Justin J.; Limpus, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Understanding environmental and climatic drivers of natural mortality of marine mammals is critical for managing populations effectively and for predicting responses to climate change. Here we use a 17-year dataset to demonstrate a clear relationship between environmental forcing and natural mortality of inshore marine mammals across a subtropical-tropical coastline spanning a latitudinal gradient of 13° (>2000 km of coastline). Peak mortality of inshore dolphins and dugongs followed sustained periods of elevated freshwater discharge (9 months) and low air temperature (3 months). At a regional scale, these results translated into a strong relationship between annual mortality and an index of El Niño-Southern Oscillation. The number of cyclones crossing the coastline had a comparatively weak effect on inshore marine mammal mortality, and only in the tropics. Natural mortality of offshore/migratory cetaceans was not predicted by freshwater discharge, but was related to lagged air temperature. These results represent the first quantitative link between environmental forcing and marine mammal mortality in the tropics, and form the basis of a predictive tool for managers to prepare responses to periods of elevated marine mammal mortality. PMID:24740149

  1. Composition of 15-85 nm particles in marine air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, M. J.; Whitehead, J.; O'Dowd, C.; Monahan, C.; McFiggans, G.; Smith, J. N.

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of 15-85 nm diameter particles was measured at Mace Head, Ireland, during May 2011 using the TDCIMS (thermal desorption chemical ionization mass spectrometer). Measurable levels of chloride, sodium, and sulfate were present in essentially all collected samples of these particles at this coastal Atlantic site. Acetaldehyde and benzoic acid were also frequently detected. Concomitant particle hygroscopicity observations usually showed a sea-salt mode and a lower hygroscopicity mode with growth factors near to that of ammonium sulfate. There were many periods lasting from hours to about 2 days during which the 10-60 nm particle number increased dramatically in polar oceanic air. These periods were correlated with the presence of benzoic acid in the particles and an increase in the number of lower hygroscopicity mode particles. Very small (< 10 nm) particles were also present, suggesting that new particle formation contributed to these nanoparticle enhancement events.

  2. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-08-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  3. Marine Mammal Train Oil Production Methods: Experimental Reconstructions of Norwegian Iron Age Slab-Lined Pits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Gørill

    2016-02-01

    Seal hunting and whaling have played an important part of people's livelihoods throughout prehistory as evidenced by rock carvings, remains of bones, artifacts from aquatic animals and hunting tools. This paper focuses on one of the more elusive resources relating to such activities: marine mammal blubber. Although marine blubber easily decomposes, the organic material has been documented from the Mesolithic Period onwards. Of particular interest in this article are the many structures in Northern Norway from the Iron Age and in Finland on Kökar, Åland, from both the Bronze and Early Iron Ages in which these periods exhibited traits interpreted as being related to oil rendering from marine mammal blubber. The article discusses methods used in this oil production activity based on historical sources, archaeological investigations and experimental reconstruction of Iron Age slab-lined pits from Northern Norway.

  4. Update: Exertional hyponatremia, active component, U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps, 2000-2015.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    From 2000 through 2015, there were 1,542 incident diagnoses of exertional hyponatremia among active component members of the U.S. Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps. Annual incidence rates rose sharply from 2008 through 2010 but then decreased by more than 50% from 2010 through 2013. In 2015, the number of cases (n=116) increased by approximately 20% from the previous year. The recent increase in rates overall reflects increased rates in the Army and the Marine Corps. Relative to their respective counterparts, crude incidence rates of exertional hyponatremia for the entire 16-year surveillance period were higher among females, those in the youngest age group, Marines, and recruit trainees. Service members (particularly recruit trainees) and their supervisors must be vigilant for early signs of heat-related illnesses and must be knowledgeable of the dangers of excessive water consumption and the prescribed limits for water intake during prolonged physical activity (e.g., field training exercises, personal fitness training, recreational activities) in hot, humid weather. PMID:27030930

  5. Composition of 15-80 nm particles in marine air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawler, M. J.; Whitehead, J.; O'Dowd, C.; Monahan, C.; McFiggans, G.; Smith, J. N.

    2014-01-01

    The chemical composition of 15-80 nm diameter particles was measured at Mace Head, Ireland, during May 2011 using the TDCIMS (Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer). Measurable levels of chloride, sodium, and sulfate were present in essentially all collected samples of these particles at this coastal Atlantic site. Organic compounds were rarely detectable, but this was likely an instrumental limitation. Concomitant particle hygroscopicity observations usually showed two main modes, one which contained a large sea salt component and another which was likely dominated by sulfate. There were several occasions lasting from hours to about two days during which 10-60 nm particle number increased dramatically in polar oceanic air. During these events, the sulfate mode increased substantially in number. This observation, along with the presence of very small (<10 nm) particles during the events, suggests that the particles were formed by homogeneous nucleation, followed by subsequent growth by sulfuric acid and potentially other vapors. The frequency of the events and similarity of event particles to background particles suggest that these events are important contributors of nanoparticles in this environment.

  6. Factors influencing the marine boundary layer during a cold-air outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stage, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The model for the cloud-topped marine boundary layer during a cold air outbreak developed by Stage and Businger (1981a) is used in conjunction with a test profile based on a fall outbreak episode over Lake Ontario to study factors influencing marine boundary-layer evolution. Sensitivity tests are done which show changes in layer evolution resulting from variation of wind speed, radiative sky temperature, water surface temperature, humidity of the shoreline sounding and divergence. The behavior of the layer in the presence of a region of cold-water upwelling near the shore is also investigated. It is found that the main effect of the upwelling region is to delay modification of the boundary-layer air.

  7. Impact of air gun noise on the behaviour of marine fish and squid.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, J L; McCauley, R D

    2012-05-01

    In this study various species of captive marine fish and one species of squid were exposed to the noise from a single air gun. Six trials were conducted off the coast of Western Australia with each trial using a different noise exposure regime. Noise levels received by the animals ranged between 120 and 184 dB re 1 μPa(2).s (SEL). Behavioural observations of the fish and squid were made before, during and after air gun noise exposure. Results indicate that as air gun noise levels increase, fish respond by moving to the bottom of the water column and swimming faster in more tightly cohesive groups. Significant increases in alarm responses were observed in fish and squid to air gun noise exceeding 147-151 dB re 1 μPa SEL. An increase in the occurrence of alarm responses was also observed as noise level increased. PMID:22385754

  8. Final Report Recommended Actions to Reduce Electrical Peak Loads at the Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hail, John C.; Brown, Daryl R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.; Underhill, Ronald M.

    2001-05-08

    PNNL conducted a walk-through audit of Marine Corps Air Station at Camp Pendleton. The audit inspected a significant portion of the site and identified a large number of similar energy saving opportunities across all building types.

  9. Aging Aircraft Transparencies: AN Italian Air Force Fleet Case History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caucci, D.; Aiello, L.; Bagnoli, F.; Bernabei, M.

    2008-08-01

    Aircraft acrylic transparencies are structural components that must withstand flight and ground loads. Crazing occurrence, known as Environmental Stress Cracking (ESC), causes their substitution during aircraft maintenance operations. This form of aging is mainly a physical phenomenon due to the interaction of transparencies base material with an active liquid and leads craze formation at lower stress that would be required in air. In this paper, an extensive phenomenon of network ESC occurred on transparencies of many aircrafts operating in the same fleet was investigated. Cover application while parking was found to be the critical aspect in crazing appearance, thus acting as physical shield for condensed water and heat transferring.

  10. Effect of postmortem aging on marination performance of broiler breast pectoralis major categorized by color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of postmortem aging on marinade uptake and retention by early-deboned chicken breast fillets with different color lightness. Effects of marination on product yield and muscle shear force were also determined. Early deboned (2 h postmortem) broiler butterflies...

  11. Interspecies comparison of marine reservoir ages at the Kitakogane shell midden, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Minoru; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Morita, Masatoshi; Hirota, Masashi; Suzuki, Ryo; Uzawa, Kazuhiro; Ohshima, Naoyuki; Dodo, Yukio

    2004-08-01

    Apparent 14C ages of human and faunal remains from the Kitakogane shell midden assigned to the Early Jomon period were measured to estimate the reservoir effect on different species. In previous studies, northern fur seal and Japanese deer had showed significant age differences of 860 14C yr, in concordance with the large reservoir ages observed in pre-bomb shells from the western North Pacific. However, the present study suggests that other sedentary marine organisms, including porpoise, Japanese sea lion and scallop, show a smaller reservoir age-offset at 720 14C yr at the same site. The ethology of northern fur seal was probably responsible for this discrepancy because of a larger reservoir age in the Sea of Okhotsk into which they migrated. This suggests the reservoir effect on humans was more complicated than a simple linear mixing between marine and terrestrial reservoirs in the case of the NW Pacific coast. It was suggested that an interspecies comparison of 14C age-offsets could produce more precise estimation of the marine reservoir effect in the past.

  12. The variability of California summertime marine stratus: Impacts on surface air temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2013-08-01

    study investigates the variability of clouds, primarily marine stratus clouds, and how they are associated with surface temperature anomalies over California, especially along the coastal margin. We focus on the summer months of June to September when marine stratus are the dominant cloud type. Data used include satellite cloud reflectivity (cloud albedo) measurements, hourly surface observations of cloud cover and air temperature at coastal airports, and observed values of daily surface temperature at stations throughout California and Nevada. Much of the anomalous variability of summer clouds is organized over regional patterns that affect considerable portions of the coast, often extend hundreds of kilometers to the west and southwest over the North Pacific, and are bounded to the east by coastal mountains. The occurrence of marine stratus is positively correlated with both the strength and height of the thermal inversion that caps the marine boundary layer, with inversion base height being a key factor in determining their inland penetration. Cloud cover is strongly associated with surface temperature variations. In general, increased presence of cloud (higher cloud albedo) produces cooler daytime temperatures and warmer nighttime temperatures. Summer daytime temperature fluctuations associated with cloud cover variations typically exceed 1°C. The inversion-cloud albedo-temperature associations that occur at daily timescales are also found at seasonal timescales.

  13. The variability of California summertime marine stratus: impacts on surface air temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iacobellis, Sam F.; Cayan, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the variability of clouds, primarily marine stratus clouds, and how they are associated with surface temperature anomalies over California, especially along the coastal margin. We focus on the summer months of June to September when marine stratus are the dominant cloud type. Data used include satellite cloud reflectivity (cloud albedo) measurements, hourly surface observations of cloud cover and air temperature at coastal airports, and observed values of daily surface temperature at stations throughout California and Nevada. Much of the anomalous variability of summer clouds is organized over regional patterns that affect considerable portions of the coast, often extend hundreds of kilometers to the west and southwest over the North Pacific, and are bounded to the east by coastal mountains. The occurrence of marine stratus is positively correlated with both the strength and height of the thermal inversion that caps the marine boundary layer, with inversion base height being a key factor in determining their inland penetration. Cloud cover is strongly associated with surface temperature variations. In general, increased presence of cloud (higher cloud albedo) produces cooler daytime temperatures and warmer nighttime temperatures. Summer daytime temperature fluctuations associated with cloud cover variations typically exceed 1°C. The inversion-cloud albedo-temperature associations that occur at daily timescales are also found at seasonal timescales.

  14. The effects of mixing on age of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garny, H.; Birner, T.; Bönisch, H.; Bunzel, F.

    2014-06-01

    Mean age of air (AoA) measures the mean transit time of air parcels along the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC) starting from their entry into the stratosphere. AoA is determined both by transport along the residual circulation and by two-way mass exchange (mixing). The relative roles of residual circulation transport and two-way mixing for AoA, and for projected AoA changes are not well understood. Here effects of mixing on AoA are quantified by contrasting AoA with the transit time of hypothetical transport solely by the residual circulation. Based on climate model simulations, we find additional aging by mixing throughout most of the lower stratosphere, except in the extratropical lowermost stratosphere where mixing reduces AoA. We use a simple Lagrangian model to reconstruct the distribution of AoA in the GCM and to illustrate the effects of mixing at different locations in the stratosphere. Predicted future reduction in AoA associated with an intensified BDC is equally due to faster transport along the residual circulation as well as reduced aging by mixing. A tropical leaky pipe model is used to derive a mixing efficiency, measured by the ratio of the two-way mixing mass flux and the net (residual) mass flux across the subtropical boundary. The mixing efficiency remains close to constant in a future climate, suggesting that the strength of two-way mixing is tightly coupled to the strength of the residual circulation in the lower stratosphere. This implies that mixing generally amplifies changes in AoA due to uniform changes in the residual circulation.

  15. Data Quality Objectives Supporting Radiological Air Emissions Monitoring for the Marine Sciences Laboratory, Sequim Site

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Meier, Kirsten M.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Antonio, Ernest J.; Fritz, Brad G.; Poston, Theodore M.

    2012-12-27

    This document of Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) was prepared based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance on Systematic Planning Using the Data Quality Objectives Process, EPA, QA/G4, 2/2006 (EPA 2006), as well as several other published DQOs. The intent of this report is to determine the necessary steps required to ensure that radioactive emissions to the air from the Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) headquartered at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Sequim Marine Research Operations (Sequim Site) on Washington State’s Olympic Peninsula are managed in accordance with regulatory requirements and best practices. The Sequim Site was transitioned in October 2012 from private operation under Battelle Memorial Institute to an exclusive use contract with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Pacific Northwest Site Office.

  16. Age of stratospheric air in the ERA-Interim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, M.; Legras, B.; Chedin, A.

    2012-07-01

    The age of stratospheric air is calculated over 22 yr of the ERA-Interim reanalysis using an off-line Lagrangian transport model and heating rates. At low and mid-latitudes, the mean age of air is in good agreement with observed ages from aircraft flights, high altitude balloons and satellite observations of CO2 and SF6. The mid-latitude age spectrum in the lower stratosphere exhibits a long tail with a peak at 0.5 yr, which is maximum at the end of the winter, and a secondary flat maximum between 4 and 5 yr due to the combination of fast and slow branches of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and the reinforced barrier effect of the jet. At higher altitudes, the age spectrum exhibits the footprint of the annual modulation of the deep Brewer-Dobson circulation. The variability of the mean age is analysed through a decomposition in terms of annual cycle, QBO, ENSO and trend. The annual modulation is the dominating signal in the lower stratosphere and in the tropical pipe with amplitude up to one year. The phase of the oscillation is opposite in both hemisphere beyond 20° and is also reversed below and above 25 km with maximun arising in mid-March in the Northern Hemisphere and in mid-September in the Southern Hemisphere. The tropical pipe signal is in phase with the lower southern stratosphere and the mid northern stratosphere. The maximum amplitude of the QBO modulation is of about 0.5 yr and is mostly concentrated within the tropics between 25 and 35 km. It lags the QBO wind at 30 hPa by about 8 months. The ENSO signal is small and limited to the lower northen stratosphere. The trend is significant and negative, of the order of -0.3 to -0.5 yr dec-1, within the lower stratosphere in the Southern Hemisphere and under 40° N in the Northern Hemisphere below 25 km. It is positive (of the order of 0.3 yr dec-1) in the mid stratosphere but there is no region of consistent significance. This suggests that the shallow and deep Brewer-Dobson circulations may evolve in

  17. Stratospheric age of air variations between 1600 and 2100

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthers, S.; Kuchar, A.; Stenke, A.; Schmitt, J.; Anet, J. G.; Raible, C. C.; Stocker, T. F.

    2016-05-01

    The current understanding of preindustrial stratospheric age of air (AoA), its variability, and the potential natural forcing imprint on AoA is very limited. Here we assess the influence of natural and anthropogenic forcings on AoA using ensemble simulations for the period 1600 to 2100 and sensitivity simulations for different forcings. The results show that from 1900 to 2100, CO2 and ozone-depleting substances are the dominant drivers of AoA variability. With respect to natural forcings, volcanic eruptions cause the largest AoA variations on time scales of several years, reducing the age in the middle and upper stratosphere and increasing the age below. The effect of the solar forcing on AoA is small and dominated by multidecadal total solar irradiance variations, which correlate negatively with AoA. Additionally, a very weak positive relationship driven by ultraviolett variations is found, which is dominant for the 11 year cycle of solar variability.

  18. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  19. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  20. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  1. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  2. Variability of 14C reservoir age and air-sea flux of CO2 in the Peru-Chile upwelling region during the past 12,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carré, Matthieu; Jackson, Donald; Maldonado, Antonio; Chase, Brian M.; Sachs, Julian P.

    2016-01-01

    The variability of radiocarbon marine reservoir age through time and space limits the accuracy of chronologies in marine paleo-environmental archives. We report here new radiocarbon reservoir ages (ΔR) from the central coast of Chile (~ 32°S) for the Holocene period and compare these values to existing reservoir age reconstructions from southern Peru and northern Chile. Late Holocene ΔR values show little variability from central Chile to Peru. Prior to 6000 cal yr BP, however, ΔR values were markedly increased in southern Peru and northern Chile, while similar or slightly lower-than-modern ΔR values were observed in central Chile. This extended dataset suggests that the early Holocene was characterized by a substantial increase in the latitudinal gradient of marine reservoir age between central and northern Chile. This change in the marine reservoir ages indicates that the early Holocene air-sea flux of CO2 could have been up to five times more intense than in the late Holocene in the Peruvian upwelling, while slightly reduced in central Chile. Our results show that oceanic circulation changes in the Humboldt system during the Holocene have substantially modified the air-sea carbon flux in this region.

  3. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew

    2015-05-04

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim.This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, ''National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.'' The EDE to the MSL MEI due to routine operations in 2014 was 9E-05 mrem (9E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2014. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  4. Marine Sciences Laboratory Radionuclide Air Emissions Report for Calendar Year 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Sandra F.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Ballinger, Marcel Y.

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science (DOE-SC) Pacific Northwest Site Office (PNSO) has oversight and stewardship duties associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) located on Battelle Land – Sequim (Sequim). This report is prepared to document compliance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Protection of the Environment, Part 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP), Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities” and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) Chapter 246-247, “Radiation Protection–Air Emissions.” The EDE to the Sequim MEI due to routine operations in 2013 was 5E-05 mrem (5E-07 mSv). No non-routine emissions occurred in 2013. The MSL is in compliance with the federal and state 10 mrem/yr standard.

  5. Evidence of inorganic chlorine gases other than hydrogen chloride in marine surface air

    SciTech Connect

    Pszenny, A.A.P.; Keene, W.C.; Jacob, D.J.; Fan, S.; Maben, J.R.; Zetwo, M.P.; Springer-Young, M.; Galloway, J.N.

    1993-02-01

    The authors report the first measurements of inorganic chlorine gases in the marine atmosphere using a new tandem mist chamber method. Surface air was sampled during four days including one diel cycle in January, 1992, at Virginia Key, Florida. Concentrations of HCl* (including HCl, ClNO[sub 3], ClNO[sub 2], and NOCl) were in the range 40 to 268 pptv and concentrations of Cl[sub 2]* (including Cl[sub 2] and any HOCl not trapped in the acidic mist chamber) were in the range <26 to 254 pptv Cl. Concentrations of Cl[sub 2]* increased during the night, and decreased after sunrise as HCl* concentrations increased by similar amounts. The measurements suggest an unknown source of either HOCl or Cl[sub 2] to the marine atmosphere. Photochemical model calculations indicate that photolysis of the observed Cl[sub 2]* would yield a chlorine atom (Cl*) concentration of order 10[sup 4]-10[sup 5] cm[sup [minus]3]. Oxidation by Cl* would then represent a significant sink for alkanes and dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the marine boundary layer. The cycling of Cl* could provide either a source or a sink for O[sub 3], depending on NO[sub x] levels. 11 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Age-related lung cell response to urban Buenos Aires air particle soluble fraction.

    PubMed

    Ostachuk, Agustín; Evelson, Pablo; Martin, Susana; Dawidowski, Laura; Sebastián Yakisich, J; Tasat, Deborah R

    2008-06-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) may alter lung homeostasis inducing changes in fluid balance and host defense. Bioavailability of soluble PM compounds like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and transition metals has been shown to play a key role in lung injury. We have previously characterized the size, shape, and chemical components of urban air particles from Buenos Aires (UAP-BA) and their biological impact on lungs. Herein, we evaluate the possible toxic effect of UAP-BA-soluble fraction (UAP-BAsf) on pulmonary cells obtained from young (1-2 months old) and aged (9-12 months old) Wistar rats using phagocytosis, oxidant-antioxidant generation, and apoptosis as endpoints. UAP-BA were collected in downtown BA and residual oil fly ash (ROFA), employed as a positive control, was collected from Boston Edison Co., Mystic Power Plant, Mystic, CT, USA. Both particle-soluble fractions (sf) were employed at concentrations ranging from 0 to 100 microg/mL. UAP-BAsf and ROFAsf even at the lowest dose assayed (10 microg/mL) showed in both lung cell populations the ability to stimulate phagocytosis and increase superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) generation. Both types of air particles caused a marked intracellular oxidant stress in aged pulmonary cells that may contribute to subsequent cell activation and production of proinflammatory mediators, leading to cell dysfunction. These data suggest that the impact of UAP-BAsf on phagocytosis, oxidant radical generation, and apoptosis is clearly dependent on the maturational state of the animal and might have different mechanisms of action. PMID:18313661

  7. Spatial variation in age structure among colonies of a marine snake: the influence of ectothermy.

    PubMed

    Bonnet, Xavier; Brischoux, François; Pinaud, David; Michel, Catherine Louise; Clobert, Jean; Shine, Richard; Fauvel, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Several tetrapod lineages that have evolved to exploit marine environments (e.g. seals, seabirds, sea kraits) continue to rely upon land for reproduction and, thus, form dense colonies on suitable islands. In birds and mammals (endotherms), the offspring cannot survive without their parents. Terrestrial colonies contain all age classes. In reptiles (ectotherms), this constraint is relaxed, because offspring are independent from birth. Hence, each age class has the potential to select sites with characteristics that favour them. Our studies of sea snakes (sea kraits) in the lagoon of New Caledonia reveal marked spatial heterogeneity in age structure among colonies. Sea krait colonies exhibit the endothermic 'seal-seabird' pattern (mixed-age classes within populations) only where the lagoon is narrow. Where the lagoon is wide, most snake colonies are comprised primarily of a single age cohort. Nurseries are located near the coast, adult colonies offshore and mixed colonies in-between. We suggest that ectothermy allows individuals to utilize habitats that are best suited to their own ecological requirements, a flexibility not available to endothermic marine taxa with obligate parental care. PMID:25785869

  8. Uranium-series ages of marine terraces, La Paz Peninsula, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sirkin, L.; Szabo, B. J.; Padilla, G.A.; Pedrin, S.A.; Diaz, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Uranium-series dating of coral samples from raised marine terrace deposits between 1.5 and 10 m above sea level in the La Paz Peninsula area, Baja California Sur, yielded ages between 123 ka and 138 ka that are in agreement with previously reported results. The stratigraphy and ages of marine units near the El Coyote Arroyo indicate the presence of two high stands of the sea during the last interglacial or oxygen isotope substage 5e at about 140 ka and 123 ka. Accepting 5 m for the sea level during the last interglacial transgression, we calculate average uplift rates for the marine terraces of about ???70 mm/ka and 40 mm/ka. These slow rates of uplift indicate a relative stability of the La Paz peninsula area for the past 140 000 years. In contrast, areas of Baja California affected by major faultf experienced higher rates of uplift. Rockwell et al. (1987) reported vertical uplift rates of 180 to 300 mm/ka at Punta Banda within the Aqua Blanea fault zone in northern Baja California. ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag.

  9. Dynamic analysis and design of air spring mounting system for marine propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lin; Xu, Wei; Bu, Wenjun; Shi, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Marine propulsion unit (MPU) is one of the dominant vibration and noise sources onboard ship. Its vibration can be attenuated effectively by isolating MPU with low-frequency mounting system. But this is difficult to implement due to the stringent requirement of MPU alignment with the propulsion shafting. In this paper a novel air spring mounting system (ASMS) for propulsion system is proposed consisting of air spring subsystem, alignment control subsystem and safety protection subsystem. The load distribution optimization method and dynamic model of ASMS are presented. The factors that affect system stability and natural frequencies are analyzed, as well as the design measures to enhance system performance. A theoretical model is presented to estimate the isolation effect of ASMS. The monitoring model of alignment between MPU and propulsion shafting is established, followed by the alignment control algorithm and converge rule which assures the fast and uniform convergence of both air springs load distribution and alignment control process. Safety protection mechanism is designed to ensure that the MPU can operate safely in case of ASMS failure or other extreme circumstances. A scaled ASMS prototype is manufactured and tested on a special experimental setup. Experimental results validate the effectiveness of theoretical models and show that the performance of ASMS satisfies the operation requirements of MPU.

  10. Variation in bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants based on octanol-air partitioning: Influence of respiratory elimination in marine species.

    PubMed

    Moses, Sara K; Harley, John R; Lieske, Camilla L; Muir, Derek C G; Whiting, Alex V; O'Hara, Todd M

    2015-11-15

    Risk assessments of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are often based on octanol-water (KOW) partitioning dynamics and may not adequately reflect bioaccumulation in air-breathing organisms. It has been suggested that compounds with low KOW and high octanol-air partitioning (KOA) coefficients have the potential to bioaccumulate in air-breathing organisms, including marine mammals. Here we evaluate differences in concentrations of POPs for two trophically matched Arctic species, spotted seal (Phoca largha) and sheefish (Stenodus leucichthys). We compared concentrations of 108 POPs in matched tissues (liver and muscle) across three ranges of KOW. We found a significant positive correlation between POP concentration and log KOA in spotted seal tissues for low log KOW compounds (log KOW <5.5, p<0.05). This provides further evidence for empirical models and observed bioaccumulation patterns in air-breathing organisms, and highlights the potential for bioaccumulation of these compounds in Arctic marine mammals. PMID:26440545

  11. Urban and Rural Air Pollution: A Cross-Age Study of School Students' Ideas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, George; Boyes, Edward; Stanisstreet, Martin

    2000-01-01

    Explores ideas about the causes and consequences of urban and rural air pollution of secondary school students aged 11-16 years (n=786) using a questionnaire. Students thought the air in towns and cities was more polluted than the air in the countryside. (Author/SAH)

  12. 78 FR 49729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Air Force Launches, Aircraft and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... has received a request from the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for authorization to take marine mammals... (MMPA), NMFS is announcing our receipt of the USAF's request for the development and implementation of... comments on the USAF's application and request. DATES: Comments and information must be received no...

  13. Application of geophysical methods to the delineation of paleochannels and missing confining units above the Castle Hayne Aquifer at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniel, C. C., III; Miller, R.D.; Wrege, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, is underlain by four freshwater-bearing aquifers--the surficial, Yorktown, and upper and lower Castle Hayne. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the principal supply of freshwater for the Air Station. The potential for movement of contaminated water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. Missing confining units may indicate the presence of paleochannels filled with permeable material. Seismic-reflection techniques were successful in delinea- ting paleochannels of Quaternary and Tertiary age within unconsoli- dated sediments less than 180 feet deep at several locations. Continuous single-channel marine seismic-reflection profiling in the Neuse River was effective in delineating a large paleochannel complex consisting of at least two superimposed paleochannels within hydrogeologic units overlying the upper Castle Hayne aquifer. The complex was found immediately north of the Air Station and is thought to continue south beneath the Air Station. Shallow high-resolution land seismic-reflection techniques were used at the Air Station to delineate structures and correlate strati- graphy between the limestone of the upper Castle Hayne aquifer and the Yorktown confining unit. Three different land seismic-reflection techniques proved effective for the horizontal extrapolation of geo- logic features and identification of paleochannels at several locations. The northeastern margin of a large paleochannel was identified beneath the southern part of the Air Station. This feature strikes northwest to southeast and cuts through the Yorktown and upper Castle Hayne aquifer confining units.

  14. Air pollution control in an age of prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the case of air pollution control technology, the case for pollution prevention is frequently cast as a case against pollution control technology. The errors in this argument are that pollution control technology is always the more expensive compliance option and that pollution prevention techniques exist to solve all or most of US air quality problems. A true market-based clean air policy would not contain these assumptions, would set a goal and appoint the market as the arbiter of final compliance decisions. This article discusses the market-based option and the balance needed between pollution prevention and pollution control technologies.

  15. Radiocarbon ages of sedimentary lipids as tracers of organic carbon input to marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Eglinton, T.I.; Nelson, B.; McNichol, A.P.

    1996-10-01

    A novel analytical approach, Preparative Capillary Gas Chromatography (PCGC), has been used to isolate sufficient quantities of individual hydrocarbon lipids from two marine surface sediments (Black Sea, Arabian Sea) for radiocarbon dating by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). {Delta}{sup 14}C values for bulk sedimentary organic carbon (OC) from the Black and Arabian Sea samples are -105 and -112{per_thousand} respectively. In the Black Sea, extended [higher plant] n-alkanes (n-C{sub 29}, n-C{sub 31}) are significantly enriched relative to bulk OC (ave -80{per_thousand}), indicating input of {open_quotes}fresh{close_quotes} terrestrial organic matter, while shorter chain homologues (n-C{sub 23}, n-C{sub 25}) exhibit depleted (ca. -160{per_thousand}) values, in keeping with the total hydrocarbon fraction (-150{per_thousand}). Arabian Sea hydrocarbons exhibit a much wider range of {Delta}{sup 14}C values (from -38 to -780{per_thousand}). Markers for diatoms (highly branched isoprenoid alkenes) show the youngest radiocarbon ages while saturated hydrocarbons display the oldest ages. We interpret these variations in terms of uptake of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and contributions from relic carbon sources. These and related data will be discussed in the context of organic carbon input and preservation in these marine systems.

  16. Bioaerosol DNA Extraction Technique from Air Filters Collected from Marine and Freshwater Locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, M.; Crandall, S. G.; Barnes, A.; Paytan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Bioaerosols are composed of microorganisms suspended in air. Among these organisms include bacteria, fungi, virus, and protists. Microbes introduced into the atmosphere can drift, primarily by wind, into natural environments different from their point of origin. Although bioaerosols can impact atmospheric dynamics as well as the ecology and biogeochemistry of terrestrial systems, very little is known about the composition of bioaerosols collected from marine and freshwater environments. The first step to determine composition of airborne microbes is to successfully extract environmental DNA from air filters. We asked 1) can DNA be extracted from quartz (SiO2) air filters? and 2) how can we optimize the DNA yield for downstream metagenomic sequencing? Aerosol filters were collected and archived on a weekly basis from aquatic sites (USA, Bermuda, Israel) over the course of 10 years. We successfully extracted DNA from a subsample of ~ 20 filters. We modified a DNA extraction protocol (Qiagen) by adding a beadbeating step to mechanically shear cell walls in order to optimize our DNA product. We quantified our DNA yield using a spectrophotometer (Nanodrop 1000). Results indicate that DNA can indeed be extracted from quartz filters. The additional beadbeating step helped increase our yield - up to twice as much DNA product was obtained compared to when this step was omitted. Moreover, bioaerosol DNA content does vary across time. For instance, the DNA extracted from filters from Lake Tahoe, USA collected near the end of June decreased from 9.9 ng/μL in 2007 to 3.8 ng/μL in 2008. Further next-generation sequencing analysis of our extracted DNA will be performed to determine the composition of these microbes. We will also model the meteorological and chemical factors that are good predictors for microbial composition for our samples over time and space.

  17. Late Quaternary continental and marine sediments of northeastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina): Fossil content and paleoenvironmental interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucks, Enrique; Aguirre, Marina; Deschamps, Cecilia M.

    2005-10-01

    Abundant invertebrate and vertebrate fossil remains that exhibit excellent preservation and were collected from deposits of both continental and marine origins at Pilar (Buenos Aires, Argentina) add paleoenvironmental data from the northeastern Buenos Aires province area linked to sea-level oscillations and climate variability since approximately 120 ka BP (marine oxygen isotope stage [MOIS] 5e). Two new fossiliferous localities discovered in the Luján River Valley allow for detailed geological studies and new dating of molluscan shells and bones. The studies suggest salinity changes during the Last Interglacial (8 m above m.s.l., min. 14C>40 ka) and the mid-Holocene transgression (5 m above m.s.l., 7-3 14C ka BP) compared with the modern pattern along the adjacent littoral (Río de la Plata). The marine sequences represent the innermost boundary of the sea-level transgression in that area and contain a biogenic record (bivalves, gastropods, forams, ostracods) that indicates marginal marine environments (higher salinity than at present). Vertebrates and molluscs from the continental sequence suggest a freshwater habitat in which remains of marine fish must be allochthonous, probably incorporated by postmortem fluvial transport to the final depositional environment.

  18. Application of continuous seismic-reflection techniques to delineate paleochannels beneath the Neuse River at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardinell, Alex P.

    1999-01-01

    A continuous seismic-reflection profiling survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Neuse River near the Cherry Point Marine Corps Air Station during July 7-24, 1998. Approximately 52 miles of profiling data were collected during the survey from areas northwest of the Air Station to Flanner Beach and southeast to Cherry Point. Positioning of the seismic lines was done by using an integrated navigational system. Data from the survey were used to define and delineate paleochannel alignments under the Neuse River near the Air Station. These data also were correlated with existing surface and borehole geophysical data, including vertical seismic-profiling velocity data collected in 1995. Sediments believed to be Quaternary in age were identified at varying depths on the seismic sections as undifferentiated reflectors and lack the lateral continuity of underlying reflectors believed to represent older sediments of Tertiary age. The sediments of possible Quaternary age thicken to the southeast. Paleochannels of Quaternary age and varying depths were identified beneath the Neuse River estuary. These paleochannels range in width from 870 feet to about 6,900 feet. Two zones of buried paleochannels were identified in the continuous seismic-reflection profiling data. The eastern paleochannel zone includes two large superimposed channel features identified during this study and in re-interpreted 1995 land seismic-reflection data. The second paleochannel zone, located west of the first paleochannel zone, contains several small paleochannels near the central and south shore of the Neuse River estuary between Slocum Creek and Flanner Beach. This second zone of channel features may be continuous with those mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1995 using land seismic-reflection data on the southern end of the Air Station. Most of the channels were mapped at the Quaternary-Tertiary sediment boundary. These channels appear to have been cut into the older sediments

  19. Targeting Net Zero Energy at Marine Corps Air Station Miramar: Assessment and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, S.; Barnett, J.; Burman, K.; Hambrick, J.; Helwig, M.; Westby, R.

    2010-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) is the largest energy consumer in the U.S. government. Present energy use impacts DoD global operations by constraining freedom of action and self-sufficiency, demanding enormous economic resources, and putting many lives at risk in logistics support for deployed environments. There are many opportunities for DoD to more effectively meet energy requirements through a combination of human actions, energy efficiency technologies, and renewable energy resources. In 2008, a joint initiative was formed between DoD and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to address military energy use. This initiative created a task force comprised of representatives from each branch of the military, the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to examine the potential for ultra high efficiency military installations. This report presents an assessment of Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, selected by the task force as the initial prototype installation based on its strong history of energy advocacy and extensive track record of successful energy projects.

  20. Mars, highlands-lowlands: Viking contributions to mariner relative age studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.H.

    1978-01-01

    Stratigraphic relations between lowland plains and highlands, two major types of Martian geologic-terrain units, were not directly distinguishable on Mariner-9 images. Morphologic characteristics and crater densities suggested that the lava plains beneath their eolian cover were younger than adjacent highland rocks, which form a plateau bounded in many places by highly dissected escarpments. Alternatively, the lowland plains could be the older unit and represent a broad erosional surface exhumed by southward retreat of the highlands along their frontal scarp. Viking photos across five areas of the highland-lowland boundary, however, tend to confirm the younger age of the plains-forming lava flows. A time interval of several hundred million years probably occurred between the retreat of the highland scarp and its latest embayment by lava extrusions in the lowlands. ?? 1978.

  1. Premature aging in bone of fish from a highly polluted marine area.

    PubMed

    Scopelliti, Giovanna; Di Leonardo, Rossella; Tramati, Cecilia D; Mazzola, Antonio; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2015-08-15

    Fish species have attracted considerable interest in studies assessing biological responses to environmental contaminants. In this study, the attention has been focussed on fishbone of selected fish species from a highly polluted marine area, Augusta Bay (Italy, Central Mediterranean) to evaluate if toxicant elements had an effect on the mineralogical structure of bones, although macroscopic deformations were not evident. In particular, an attempt was made to evaluate if bone mineral features, such as crystallinity, mineral maturity and carbonate/phosphate mineral content, determined by XR-Diffraction and FT-IR Spectroscopy, suffered negative effects due to trace element levels in fishbone, detected by ICP-OES. Results confirmed the reliability of the use of diffractometric and spectroscopic techniques to assess the degree of crystallinity and the mineral maturity in fishbone. In addition, in highly polluted areas, Hg and Cr contamination induced a process of premature aging of fishbone, altering its biochemical and mineral contents. PMID:26073800

  2. Statistical averaging of marine magnetic anomalies and the aging of oceanic crust.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Visual comparison of Mesozoic and Cenozoic magnetic anomalies in the North Pacific suggests that older anomalies contain less short-wavelength information than younger anomalies in this area. To test this observation, magnetic profiles from the North Pacific are examined from crust of three ages: 0-2.1, 29.3-33.1, and 64.9-70.3Ma. For each time period, at least nine profiles were analyzed by 1) calculating the power density spectrum of each profile, 2) averaging the spectra together, and 3) computing a 'recording filter' for each time period by assuming a hypothetical seafloor model. The model assumes that the top of the source is acoustic basement, the source thickness is 0.5km, and the time scale of geomagnetic reversals is according to Ness et al. (1980). The calculated power density spectra of the three recording filters are complex in shape but show an increase of attenuation of short-wavelength information as the crust ages. These results are interpreted using a multilayer model for marine magnetic anomalies in which the upper layer, corresponding to pillow basalt of seismic layer 2A, acts as a source of noise to the magnetic anomalies. As the ocean crust ages, this noisy contribution by the pillow basalts becomes less significant to the anomalies. Consequently, magnetic sources below layer 2A must be faithful recorders of geomagnetic reversals.-AuthorPacific power density spectrum

  3. Chemical characterization of particulate air pollutants Case studies on indoor air quality, cultural heritage and the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horemans, Benjamin

    When attempting to discuss the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM), it is important to address both physical and chemical aspects of this pollutant. This work reports on the results of three separate case studies, each approaching a specific problem of air pollution by evaluating the chemical composition of PM. 1. In the US and Europe, office workers often complain about work-related health symptoms. These symptoms are collectively referred as the 'sick building syndrome'. This work could be considered as one of the largest data collections on particulate pollutants in Belgian offices. It helps to understand the sources as well as the behavior and fate of PM at our workplace environments. Especially the chemical information on PM makes the results unique, since it enables a better evaluation of the health risks connected to office dust. 2. The Alhambra and Generalife bring every year more than 3 million people to Granada in Southern Spain. Recently, the increasing urbanization of Granada and the immense pressure of mass tourism form a threat for this heritage. Despite the fact that atmospheric pollutants are known to he potentially aggressive for our cultural patrimony. this case study is the first to assess the effects of environmental aerosols on the Alhambra monument. The results of this study could help decision-makers at the Alhambra and the city of Granada with the formulation of preventive conservation measures. They show how local vehicular traffic is the main source for atmospheric pollution in and around the Alhambra monument. Targeted strategies are necessary in order to maximally preserve these monuments and their UNESCO world cultural heritage label. 3. Excessive input of nitrogen-containing atmospheric nutrients via dry and wet deposition can cause entrophication of marine regions, which is also a common, seasonal phenomenon along the coasts of the North Sea. This study is the first to give a complete quantitative description of the

  4. OH and HO2 chemistry in clean marine air during SOAPEX-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommariva, R.; Haggerstone, A.-L.; Carpenter, L. J.; Carslaw, N.; Creasey, D. J.; Heard, D. E.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Pilling, M. J.; Zádor, J.

    2004-01-01

    Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO]<3 ppt) are reported. Measurements were made during the second Southern Ocean Photochemistry Experiment (SOAPEX-2), held in austral summer 1999 at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in north-western Tasmania, Australia. The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 15 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx) concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5-10%. The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL) air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations. Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D) and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of O(1D) to OH and HCHO to HO2 conversion. A 2σ standard deviation of 30-40% for OH and 25-30% for HO2 was

  5. OH and HO2 chemistry in clean marine air during SOAPEX-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommariva, R.; Haggerstone, A.-L.; Carpenter, L. J.; Carslaw, N.; Creasey, D. J.; Heard, D. E.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Pilling, M. J.; Zádor, J.

    2004-06-01

    Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO]<3 ppt) are reported. Measurements were made during the second Southern Ocean Photochemistry Experiment (SOAPEX-2), held in austral summer 1999 at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in north-western Tasmania, Australia.

    The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 17 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx) concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5-10%.

    The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion) technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL) air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations.

    Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D) and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of O(1D) to OH and

  6. Investigating the influence of regional climate and oceanography on marine radiocarbon reservoir ages in southwest New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinojosa, Jessica L.; Moy, Christopher M.; Prior, Christine A.; Eglinton, Timothy I.; McIntyre, Cameron P.; Stirling, Claudine H.; Wilson, Gary S.

    2015-12-01

    The New Zealand fjords are located at a latitude where distinct oceanic and atmospheric fronts separate carbon reservoirs of varying residence time. The marine radiocarbon reservoir age in this region is likely to deviate from the global average reservoir age over space and time as frontal boundaries migrate north and south. Here we present new estimates of modern radiocarbon reservoir age using the radiocarbon content of bivalve shells collected live before 1950. Multiple measurements from hydrographically distinct sites support the use of a ΔR, defined as the regional offset between measured and modeled marine radiocarbon reservoir age, of 59 ± 35 years for the New Zealand fjords. We also assess the radiocarbon content of bulk surface sediments throughout the fjord region. Sediment with a higher proportion of marine organic carbon has relatively less radiocarbon than more terrestrial sediment, suggesting a short residence time of organic carbon on land before deposition in the fjords. Additionally, we constrain reservoir age variability throughout the Holocene using coeval terrestrial and marine macrofossils. Although our modern results suggest spatial consistency in ΔR throughout the fjords, large deviations from the global average marine radiocarbon reservoir age exist in the paleo record. We find four ancient ΔR values, extending back to ˜10.2 cal kyr BP, to be negative or near zero. A likely cause of younger radiocarbon reservoir ages at select intervals throughout the Holocene is the increased influence of the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds, which cause extreme precipitation in the region that delivers terrestrial carbon, enriched in radiocarbon, to fjord basins. However, bivalve depth habitat may also influence radiocarbon content due to a stratified water column containing distinct carbon pools. This work highlights the need for thorough assessment of local radiocarbon cycling in similar regions of dynamic ocean/atmosphere frontal zones

  7. Development of a Model to Assess Masking Potential for Marine Mammals by the Use of Air Guns in Antarctic Waters.

    PubMed

    Wittekind, Dietrich; Tougaard, Jakob; Stilz, Peter; Dähne, Michael; Clark, Christopher W; Lucke, Klaus; von Benda-Beckmann, Sander; Ainslie, Michael A; Siebert, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    We estimated the long-range effects of air gun array noise on marine mammal communication ranges in the Southern Ocean. Air gun impulses are subject to significant distortion during propagation, potentially resulting in a quasi-continuous sound. Propagation modeling to estimate the received waveform was conducted. A leaky integrator was used as a hearing model to assess communication masking in three species due to intermittent/continuous air gun sounds. Air gun noise is most probably changing from impulse to continuous noise between 1,000 and 2,000 km from the source, leading to a reduced communication range for, e.g., blue and fin whales up to 2,000 km from the source. PMID:26611093

  8. Characterization of Dry-Air Aged Granules of Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Fryxell, Glen E.; Robinson, Matthew J.

    2012-09-01

    This is a letter report to complete level 3 milestone "Assess aging characteristics of silica aerogels" for DOE FCRD program. Recently, samples of Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel were aged in flowing dry air for up to 6 months and then loaded with iodine. This dry-air aging simulated the impact of long-term exposure to process gases during process idling. The 6-month aged sample exhibited an iodine sorption capacity of 32 mass%, which was 9 mass % lower than that for an un-aged Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel. In an attempt to understand this decrease in sorption capacity, we characterized physical properties of the aged samples with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed no impact of aging on the aerogel microstructure or the silver nanoparticles in the aerogel, including their spatial distribution and morphology.

  9. Genus age, provincial area and the taxonomic structure of marine faunas

    PubMed Central

    Harnik, Paul G.; Jablonski, David; Krug, Andrew Z.; Valentine, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Species are unevenly distributed among genera within clades and regions, with most genera species-poor and few species-rich. At regional scales, this structure to taxonomic diversity is generated via speciation, extinction and geographical range dynamics. Here, we use a global database of extant marine bivalves to characterize the taxonomic structure of climate zones and provinces. Our analyses reveal a general, Zipf–Mandelbrot form to the distribution of species among genera, with faunas from similar climate zones exhibiting similar taxonomic structure. Provinces that contain older taxa and/or encompass larger areas are expected to be more species-rich. Although both median genus age and provincial area correlate with measures of taxonomic structure, these relationships are interdependent, nonlinear and driven primarily by contrasts between tropical and extra-tropical faunas. Provincial area and taxonomic structure are largely decoupled within climate zones. Counter to the expectation that genus age and species richness should positively covary, diverse and highly structured provincial faunas are dominated by young genera. The marked differences between tropical and temperate faunas suggest strong spatial variation in evolutionary rates and invasion frequencies. Such variation contradicts biogeographic models that scale taxonomic diversity to geographical area. PMID:20534619

  10. Genus age, provincial area and the taxonomic structure of marine faunas.

    PubMed

    Harnik, Paul G; Jablonski, David; Krug, Andrew Z; Valentine, James W

    2010-11-22

    Species are unevenly distributed among genera within clades and regions, with most genera species-poor and few species-rich. At regional scales, this structure to taxonomic diversity is generated via speciation, extinction and geographical range dynamics. Here, we use a global database of extant marine bivalves to characterize the taxonomic structure of climate zones and provinces. Our analyses reveal a general, Zipf-Mandelbrot form to the distribution of species among genera, with faunas from similar climate zones exhibiting similar taxonomic structure. Provinces that contain older taxa and/or encompass larger areas are expected to be more species-rich. Although both median genus age and provincial area correlate with measures of taxonomic structure, these relationships are interdependent, nonlinear and driven primarily by contrasts between tropical and extra-tropical faunas. Provincial area and taxonomic structure are largely decoupled within climate zones. Counter to the expectation that genus age and species richness should positively covary, diverse and highly structured provincial faunas are dominated by young genera. The marked differences between tropical and temperate faunas suggest strong spatial variation in evolutionary rates and invasion frequencies. Such variation contradicts biogeographic models that scale taxonomic diversity to geographical area. PMID:20534619

  11. Age of the Dawson Arkose, southwestern Air Force Academy, Colorado, and implications for the uplift history of the Front Range

    SciTech Connect

    Kluth, C.F.; Nelson, S.N. )

    1988-01-01

    An angular unconformity within the synorogenic Dawson Arkose (Late Cretaceous-Eocene) is preserved and exposed in areas south of Denver, Colorado, along the eastern side of the Front Range uplift. In the southwestern part of the Air Force Academy, the basal Dawson is concordant with the underlying Laramie and Fox Hills formations and dips 72-84{degree} eastward. Above an intraformational angular unconformity, younger units of the Dawson dip 24{degree}-46{degree} eastward. Smaller angular unconformities (10{degree}{plus minus}), and beds with gradually decreasing dip occur higher in the Dawson section. Rocks above the largest unconformity contain a rich palynomorph assemblage of Late Maestrichtain age. These data indicate that approximately 30{degree}-40{degree}, and possibly as much as approximately 70{degree}, of tilting of the underlying rocks occurred during the Late Maestrichtian (66-70 Ma). It is also possible that approximately 30{degree}-40{degree} of the tilting of the Late Cretaceous rocks occurred between latest Maestrichtian and Eocene (approximately 45 Ma). These results suggest that the transition from a tectonically quiet marine environment to a non-marine, tectonically active condition took place rapidly, probably within a few million years. When combined with published data, the authors study indicates that the Front Range has different tectonic histories on its eastern and its western side, and that the deformation is diachronous along the strike of the eastern side of the Front Range.

  12. A new study of shower age distribution in near vertical showers by EAS air shower array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaudhuri, N.; Goswami, G. C.; Basak, D. K.; Ghosh, B.

    1984-01-01

    The air shower array has been developed since it started operation in 1931. The array covering an area of 900 sq m now incorporates 21 particle density sampling detectors around two muon magnetic spectrographs. The air showers are detected in the size range 10 to the 4th power to 10 to the 6th power particles. A total of 11000 showers has so far been detected. Average values of shower age have been obtained in various shower size ranges to study the dependence of shower age on shower size. The core distance dependence of shower age parameter has also been analyzed for presentation.

  13. Associated terrestrial and marine fossils in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation, southern Maine, USA, and the marine reservoir effect on radiocarbon ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, W.B.; Griggs, C.B.; Miller, N.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Weddle, T.K.; Kilian, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Excavations in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation at Portland, Maine, uncovered tree remains and other terrestrial organics associated with marine invertebrate shells in a landslide deposit. Buds of Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) occurred with twigs of Picea glauca (white spruce) in the Presumpscot clay. Tree rings in Picea logs indicate that the trees all died during winter dormancy in the same year. Ring widths show patterns of variation indicating responses to environmental changes. Fossil mosses and insects represent a variety of species and wet to dry microsites. The late-glacial environment at the site was similar to that of today's Maine coast. Radiocarbon ages of 14 tree samples are 11,907??31 to 11,650??5014C yr BP. Wiggle matching of dated tree-ring segments to radiocarbon calibration data sets dates the landslide occurrence at ca. 13,520+95/??20calyr BP. Ages of shells juxtaposed with the logs are 12,850??6514C yr BP (Mytilus edulis) and 12,800??5514C yr BP (Balanus sp.), indicating a marine reservoir age of about 1000yr. Using this value to correct previously published radiocarbon ages reduces the discrepancy between the Maine deglaciation chronology and the varve-based chronology elsewhere in New England. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  14. Associated terrestrial and marine fossils in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation, southern Maine, USA, and the marine reservoir effect on radiocarbon ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Woodrow B.; Griggs, Carol B.; Miller, Norton G.; Nelson, Robert E.; Weddle, Thomas K.; Kilian, Taylor M.

    2011-05-01

    Excavations in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation at Portland, Maine, uncovered tree remains and other terrestrial organics associated with marine invertebrate shells in a landslide deposit. Buds of Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) occurred with twigs of Picea glauca (white spruce) in the Presumpscot clay. Tree rings in Picea logs indicate that the trees all died during winter dormancy in the same year. Ring widths show patterns of variation indicating responses to environmental changes. Fossil mosses and insects represent a variety of species and wet to dry microsites. The late-glacial environment at the site was similar to that of today's Maine coast. Radiocarbon ages of 14 tree samples are 11,907 ± 31 to 11,650 ± 50 14C yr BP. Wiggle matching of dated tree-ring segments to radiocarbon calibration data sets dates the landslide occurrence at ca. 13,520 + 95/-20 cal yr BP. Ages of shells juxtaposed with the logs are 12,850 ± 65 14C yr BP ( Mytilus edulis) and 12,800 ± 55 14C yr BP ( Balanus sp.), indicating a marine reservoir age of about 1000 yr. Using this value to correct previously published radiocarbon ages reduces the discrepancy between the Maine deglaciation chronology and the varve-based chronology elsewhere in New England.

  15. Air Pollution modifies the association between successful and pathological aging throughout the frailty condition.

    PubMed

    Fougère, Bertrand; Vellas, Bruno; Billet, Sylvain; Martin, Perrine J; Gallucci, Maurizio; Cesari, Matteo

    2015-11-01

    The rapid growth in the number of older adults has many implications for public health, including the need to better understand the risks posed by environmental exposures. Aging leads to a decline and deterioration of functional properties at the cellular, tissue and organ level. This loss of functional properties yields to a loss of homeostasis and decreased adaptability to internal and external stress. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by weakness, weight loss, and low activity that is associated with adverse health outcomes. Frailty manifests as an age-related, biological vulnerability to stressors and decreased physiological reserves. Ambient air pollution exposure affects human health, and elderly people appear to be particularly susceptible to its adverse effects. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of air pollution in the modulation of several biological mechanisms involved in aging. Evidence is presented on how air pollution can modify the bidirectional association between successful and pathological aging throughout the frailty conditions. PMID:26462883

  16. Variations of the glacio-marine air mass front in West Greenland through water vapor isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopec, B. G.; Lauder, A. M.; Posmentier, E. S.; Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    While the isotopic distribution of precipitation has been widely used for research in hydrology, paleoclimatology, and ecology for decades, intensive isotopic studies of atmospheric water vapor has only recently been made possible by spectral-based technology. New instrumentation based on this technology opens up many opportunities to investigate short-term atmospheric dynamics involving the water cycle and moisture transport. We deployed a Los Gatos Water Vapor Isotope Analyzer (WVIA) at Kangerlussuaq, Greenland from July 21 to August 15, and measured the water vapor concentration and its isotopic ratios continuously at 10s intervals. A Danish Meteorological Institute site is located about 1 km from the site of the deployment, and meteorological data is collected at 30 min intervals. During the observation period, the vapor concentration of the ambient air ranges from 5608.4 to 11189.4 ppm; dD and d18O range from -254.5 to -177.7 ‰ and -34.2 to -23.2 ‰, respectively. The vapor content (dew point) and the isotopic ratios are both strongly controlled by the wind direction. The easterly winds are associated with dry, isotopically depleted air masses formed over the glacier, while westerly winds are associated with moist and isotopically enriched air masses from the marine/fjord surface. This region typically experiences katabatic winds off of the ice sheet to the east. However, during some afternoons, the wind shifts 180 degrees, blowing off the fjord to the west. This wind switch marks the onset of a sea breeze, and significant isotopic enrichment results. Enrichment in deuterium is up to 60 ‰ with a mean of 15‰, and oxygen-18 is enriched by 3‰ on average and up to 8 ‰. Other afternoons have no change in wind, and only small changes in humidity and vapor isotopic ratios. The humidity and isotopic variations suggest the local atmosphere circulation is dominated by relatively high-pressure systems above the cold glaciers and cool sea surface, and diurnal

  17. The age curves of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in marine sulfate and their mutual interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claypool, George E.; Holser, William T.; Kaplan, Isaac R.; Sakai, Hitoshi; Zak, Israel

    1980-01-01

    Three hundred new samples of marine evaporite sulfate, of world-wide distribution, were analyzed for δ34S, and 60 of these also for δ18O in the sulfate ion. Detailed δ34S age curves for Tertiary—Cretaceous, Permian—Pennsylvanian, Devonian, Cambrian and Proterozoic times document large variations in δ34S. A summary curve forδ18O also shows definite variations, some at different times than δ34S, and always smaller. The measured δ34S and δ18O correspond to variations in these isotopes in sulfate of the world ocean surface. The variations of δ18O are controlled by input and output fluxes of sulfur in the ocean, three of which are the same that control δ34S: deposition and erosion of sulfate, and deposition of sulfide. Erosion of sulfide differs in its effect on the S and O systems. δ18O in the sulfate does not seem to be measurably affected by equilibration with either seawater or with subsurface waters after crystallization. In principle, the simultaneous application of both δ34S and δ18O age curves should help reduce the number of assumptions in calculations of the cycles of sulfur and oxygen through geological time, and a new model involving symmetrical fluxes is introduced here to take advantage of the oxygen data. However, all previously published models as well as this one lead to anomalies, such as unreasonable calcium or oxygen depletions in the ocean—atmosphere system. In addition, most models are incapable of reproducing the sharp rises of the δ34S curve in the late Proterozoic, the Devonian and the Triassic which would be the result of unreasonably fast net sulfide deposition. This fast depletion could result from an ocean that has not always been mixed (as previously assumed in all model calculations).

  18. Nitrogen mineralization from anaerobically digested centrifuge cake and aged air-dried biosolids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate nitrogen (N) mineralization of anaerobically digested centrifuge cake from the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) and Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP), lagoon-aged air-dried biosolids from the CWRP, and Milorganite at three rates of application (0, 12.5 and 25 Mg ha(-1)). The N mineralized varied among biosolids as follows: Milorganite (44%) > SWRP centrifuge cake (35%) > CWRP centrifuge cake (31%) > aged air-dried (13%). The N mineralized in the SWRP cake (32%) and CWRP aged air-dried biosolids (12%) determined from the 15N study were in agreement with the first study. The N mineralization value for centrifuge cake biosolids observed in our study is higher than the value given in the Part 503 rule and Illinois Part 391 guidelines. These results will be used to fine-tune biosolids application rate to match crop N demand without compromising yield while minimizing any adverse effect on the environment. PMID:25327023

  19. Aging and the 4-kHz Air-Bone Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Tweed, Ted S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed age- and sex-related patterns in the prevalence and 10-year incidence of 4-kHz air-bone gaps and associated factors. Method: Data were obtained as part of the longitudinal, population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study ( Cruickshanks et al., 1998). An air-bone gap at 4 kHz was defined as an…

  20. The marine boundary layer - new findings from the Östergarnsholm air-sea interaction site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedman, A.; Högström, U.

    2003-04-01

    From studies at the air-sea interaction site Östergarnsholm, a coherent picture of how waves interact with the atmosphere is now beginning to emerge. It is clear that the surface of the ocean behaves similar to that of a solid surface with regard to the turbulence structure in the surface layer only for conditions of pure wind sea, i.e. during the phase when waves are in the process of being built up by increasing wind. At that stage of wave development, the dominant waves are short and move slowly relative to the wind. Then the drag coefficient CDN is a function only of the wave age, expressed as u*/c_p (where u* is friction velocity and c_p is the phase velocity of the dominant waves). The relation obtained by us is identical to the corresponding expression obtained from several recent ocean experiments, Drennan et al. (2000). As soon as the wave field develops behind the "pure wind sea" stage towards conditions where relatively long waves start to gain importance, inter-actions caused by these longer waves are felt in the atmosphere at our lowest turbulence measuring height, 10 m. For example it is demonstrated that the logarithmic wind law is not valid in near-neutral conditions except when pure wind sea conditions prevail and, further that for mixed seas and swell conditions, CDN is a function not only of the wave age parameter u*/c_p but also of a second wave parameter E_1/E_2, which is a measure of the proportion of energy of relatively long waves to short waves. The neutral Stanton Number, CHN, is found to follow predictions from surface-renewal theory quite well for unstable conditions up to a wind speed of about 10 ms-1. For higher wind speed CHN increases with increasing wind speed and the interpretation is made that spray is the cause of the increase.

  1. Observed Temporal Evolution of Global Mean Age of Stratospheric Air for the 2002 to 2010 Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, G. P.; von Clarmann, T.; Haenel, F.; Funke, B.; Glatthor, N.; Grabowski, U.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Lossow, S.; Lopez-Puertas, M.

    2011-12-01

    According to model calculations, the meridional circulation is expected to intensify as a result of climate change, and mean age of stratospheric air is expected to decrease. However, an observational data set presented recently (Engel et al., 2009) and consisting of 27 balloon samples of the age of air tracers carbon dioxide and sulfur hexafluoride covering the years 1975 to 2005 did not confirm the model predictions. As a contribution to the ongoing discussion, an extensive observational data set, consisting of more than 1 Million SF6 vertical profiles distributed globally is presented here. It has been derived from the MIPAS instrument covering the period 2002 to 2010 and has been converted into mean age of stratospheric air by referring to a combined data set of in-situ and flask global mean tropospheric SF6 measurements provided by NOAA/ESRL. During conversion into age of air, the non-linearity of tropospheric SF6 increase has been corrected for by convolution with the age spectrum within an iterative approach. Monthly zonal means of mean age of air, binned at 10 deg latitude and 1-2 km altitude, were analyzed with respect to their temporal variation by fitting a regression model consisting of a constant and a linear increase term, 2 proxies for the QBO variation, sinusoidal terms for the seasonal and semi-annual variation and overtones for the correction of the shapes to the observed data set. The impact of subsidence of mesospheric SF6-depleted air and in-mixing into non-polar latitudes on mid-latitudinal absolute age of air and the age-of-air linear increase was assessed and found to be small. The linear increase of mean age of stratospheric air was found to be positive and partly larger than the trend derived by Engel et al. (2009) for most of the Northern mid-latitudes, the middle stratosphere in the tropics, and parts of the Southern mid-latitudes, as well as for the Southern polar upper stratosphere. Multi-year decrease of age of air was found for the

  2. Quantifying the effects of mixing and residual circulation on trends of stratospheric mean age of air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploeger, Felix; Abalos, Marta; Birner, Thomas; Konopka, Paul; Legras, Bernard; Müller, Rolf; Riese, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Trends in stratospheric mean age of air are driven both by changes in the (slow, large scale) residual mean mass circulation and by changes in (fast, locally acting) eddy mixing. However, to what degree both effects affect mean age trends is an open question. Here, we present a method that allows the effects of mixing and residual circulation on trends of mean age of air to be quantified. This method is based on mean age simulations with the Lagrangian chemistry transport model CLaMS driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis, and on the mean age tracer continuity equation integrated along the residual circulation. CLaMS simulated climatological mean age in the lower stratosphere shows reliable agreement with balloon borne in-situ obsevations and with satellite observations by MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding). During 1990--2013, CLaMS simulated mean age decreases throughout most of the stratosphere, qualitatively consistent with results based on climate model simulations (e.g., Butchart et al., 2010). Remarkably, in the Northern hemisphere subtropics and mid-latitudes above about 24km CLaMS mean age trends are insignificant, consistent with published mean age trends from in-situ observations (Engel et al., 2009). Furthermore, during 2002--2012 CLaMS mean age changes show a clear hemispheric asymmetry in agreement with MIPAS satellite observations (Stiller et al., 2012; Ploeger et al., 2014) and HCl decadal changes (Mahieu et al., 2014). We find that changes in the transit time along the residual circulation alone cannot explain the mean age trends, and including the effect of mixing integrated along the air parcel history is essential. Therefore, differences in mean age trends between models or between models and observations are likely related to differences in the integrated effect of mixing on mean age of air. Above about 550K, trends in the integrated mixing effect appear to be likely coupled to residual circulation changes. References

  3. Preservation of Cognitive Performance with Age during Exertional Heat Stress under Low and High Air Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Wright Beatty, Heather E.; Keillor, Jocelyn M.; Hardcastle, Stephen G.; Boulay, Pierre; Kenny, Glen P.

    2015-01-01

    Older adults may be at greater risk for occupational injuries given their reduced capacity to dissipate heat, leading to greater thermal strain and potentially cognitive decrements. Purpose. To examine the effects of age and increased air velocity, during exercise in humid heat, on information processing and attention. Methods. Nine young (24 ± 1 years) and 9 older (59 ± 1 years) males cycled 4 × 15 min (separated by 15 min rest) at a fixed rate of heat production (400 W) in humid heat (35°C, 60% relative humidity) under 0.5 (low) and 3.0 (high) m·s−1 air velocity wearing coveralls. At rest, immediately following exercise (end exercise), and after the final recovery, participants performed an abbreviated paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT, 2 sec pace). Results. PASAT numbers of correct responses at end exercise were similar for young (low = 49 ± 3; high = 51 ± 3) and older (low = 46 ± 5; high = 47 ± 4) males and across air velocity conditions, and when scored relative to age norms. Psychological sweating, or an increased sweat rate with the administration of the PASAT, was observed in both age groups in the high condition. Conclusion. No significant decrements in attention and speeded information processing were observed, with age or altered air velocity, following intermittent exercise in humid heat. PMID:25874223

  4. Marine Creatures and the Sea in Bronze Age Greece: Ambiguities of Meaning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Ina

    2013-06-01

    Like most cultures, prehistoric Greek communities had an ambiguous relationship with the sea and the creatures that inhabit it. Positive and negative associations always co-existed, though the particular manifestations changed over time. By drawing together evidence of consumption of marine animals, seafaring, fishing, and iconography, this article unites disparate strands of evidence in an attempt to illuminate the relationship prehistoric Greeks had with marine creatures and the sea. Based on the marked reduction in seafood consumption after the Mesolithic and the use of marine creatures in funerary iconography in the post-palatial period, it becomes apparent that the sea—then as now—is an inherently ambiguous medium that captures both positive and negative emotions. On the one hand, the sea and the animals residing in it are strongly associated with death. On the other hand, the sea's positive dimensions, such as fertility and rebirth, are expressed in conspicuous marine consumption events.

  5. Aging assessment of nuclear air-treatment system HEPA filters and adsorbers. Volume 1, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Winegardner, W.K.

    1993-08-01

    A Phase I aging assessment of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters and activated carbon gas adsorption units (adsorbers) was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program. Information concerning design features; failure experience; aging mechanisms, effects, and stressors; and surveillance and monitoring methods for these key air-treatment system components was compiled. Over 1100 failures, or 12 percent of the filter installations, were reported as part of a Department of Energy (DOE) survey. Investigators from other national laboratories have suggested that aging effects could have contributed to over 80 percent of these failures. Tensile strength tests on aged filter media specimens indicated a decrease in strength. Filter aging mechanisms range from those associated with particle loading to reactions that alter properties of sealants and gaskets. Low radioiodine decontamination factors associated with the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident were attributed to the premature aging of the carbon in the adsorbers. Mechanisms that can lead to impaired adsorber performance include oxidation as well as the loss of potentially available active sites as a result of the adsorption of pollutants. Stressors include heat, moisture, radiation, and airborne particles and contaminants.

  6. Impact of Air Pollutants on Oxidative Stress in Common Autophagy-Mediated Aging Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Numan, Mohamed Saber; Brown, Jacques P.; Michou, Laëtitia

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric pollution-induced cellular oxidative stress is probably one of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in most of the common autophagy-mediated aging diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer’s, disease, as well as Paget’s disease of bone with or without frontotemporal dementia and inclusion body myopathy. Oxidative stress has serious damaging effects on the cellular contents: DNA, RNA, cellular proteins, and cellular organelles. Autophagy has a pivotal role in recycling these damaged non-functional organelles and misfolded or unfolded proteins. In this paper, we highlight, through a narrative review of the literature, that when autophagy processes are impaired during aging, in presence of cumulative air pollution-induced cellular oxidative stress and due to a direct effect on air pollutant, autophagy-mediated aging diseases may occur. PMID:25690002

  7. Air

    MedlinePlus

    ... do to protect yourself from dirty air . Indoor air pollution and outdoor air pollution Air can be polluted indoors and it can ... this chart to see what things cause indoor air pollution and what things cause outdoor air pollution! Indoor ...

  8. Perinatal air pollution exposure and development of asthma from birth to age 10 years.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution exposure affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school age" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65 254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until age 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and age-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between exposure to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5 years) and school age (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school age periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal age and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years. PMID:26862123

  9. Pleistocene glaciations in the weatern Arctic Ocean: Tentative age model of marine glacial landforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, Frank; Stein, Rüdiger; Matthiessen, Jens; Jensen, Laura; Nam, Seung-Il; Schreck, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Recently glacial landforms were presented and interpreted as complex pattern of Pleistocene glaciations in the western Arctic Ocean along the continental margin of the East Siberian and Chukchi seas, (Niessen et al. 2013, Dove et al. 2014). These landforms include moraines, drumlins, glacigenic debris flows, till wedges and mega-scale glacial lineations. Orientations of some of the landforms suggest the presence of former ice sheets on the Chukchi Borderland and the East Siberian shelf. Here we present a tentative age model for some of the younger glacial events by correlation of sediment cores with glacial landforms as seen in subbottom profiles. The database was obtained during RV "Polarstern" cruise ARK-XIII/3 (2008) and RV "Araon" cruise ARA03B (2012), which investigated an area between the Chukchi Borderland and the East Siberian Sea between 165°W and 170°E. The stratigraphic correlation of sediment cores is based on physical properties (wet-bulk density and magnetic susceptibility), lithology and color. The chronology of the area has been proposed by Stein et al. (2010) for a core from the Chukchi Abyssal Plain (PS72/340-5) and includes brown layers B1 to B9 (marine isotope stages MIS 1 to MIS 7), which are used as marker horizons for lateral core correlation. Our tentative age model suggests that the youngest and shallowest (480 m below present water level; mbpwl) grounding event of an ice sheet on the Chukchi Borderland is younger than B2 (interpreted as Last Glacial Maximum; LGM). There is no clear evidence for a LGM glaciation along the East Siberian margin because intensive post LGM iceberg scouring occurred above 350 m present water level. On the slopes of the East Siberian Sea two northerly directed ice advances occurred, both of which are older and younger than B2 and B3, respectively. The younger advance grounded to about 700 m present water depth along the continental slope and the older to 900 m and 1100 m on the Arlis Plateau and the East

  10. Sensitivity of Age-of-Air Calculations to the Choice of Advection Scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Hemler, Richard S.; Mahlman, Jerry D.; Bruhwiler, Lori; Takacs, Lawrence L.

    2000-01-01

    The age of air has recently emerged as a diagnostic of atmospheric transport unaffected by chemical parameterizations, and the features in the age distributions computed in models have been interpreted in terms of the models' large-scale circulation field. This study shows, however, that in addition to the simulated large-scale circulation, three-dimensional age calculations can also be affected by the choice of advection scheme employed in solving the tracer continuity equation, Specifically, using the 3.0deg latitude X 3.6deg longitude and 40 vertical level version of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory SKYHI GCM and six online transport schemes ranging from Eulerian through semi-Lagrangian to fully Lagrangian, it will be demonstrated that the oldest ages are obtained using the nondiffusive centered-difference schemes while the youngest ages are computed with a semi-Lagrangian transport (SLT) scheme. The centered- difference schemes are capable of producing ages older than 10 years in the mesosphere, thus eliminating the "young bias" found in previous age-of-air calculations. At this stage, only limited intuitive explanations can be advanced for this sensitivity of age-of-air calculations to the choice of advection scheme, In particular, age distributions computed online with the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Climate Model (MACCM3) using different varieties of the SLT scheme are substantially older than the SKYHI SLT distribution. The different varieties, including a noninterpolating-in-the-vertical version (which is essentially centered-difference in the vertical), also produce a narrower range of age distributions than the suite of advection schemes employed in the SKYHI model. While additional MACCM3 experiments with a wider range of schemes would be necessary to provide more definitive insights, the older and less variable MACCM3 age distributions can plausibly be interpreted as being due to the semi-implicit semi

  11. The Relation Between Wind Speed and Air-Sea Temperature Difference in the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer off Northwest Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Wind speed and atmospheric stability have an important role in determining the turbulence in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) as well as the surface wave field. The understanding of MABL dynamics in northwest Europe is complicated by fetch effects, the proximity of coastlines, shallow topography, and larger scale circulation patterns (e.g., cold air outbreaks). Numerical models have difficulty simulating the marine atmospheric boundary layer in coastal areas and partially enclosed seas, and this is partly due to spatial resolution problems at coastlines. In these offshore environments, the boundary layer processes are often best understood directly from time series measurements from fixed platforms or buoys, in spite of potential difficulties from platform flow distortion as well as the spatial sparseness of the data sets. This contribution presents the results of time series measurements from offshore platforms in the North Sea and Norwegian Sea in terms of a summary diagnostic - wind speed versus air-sea temperature difference (U-ΔT) - with important implications for understanding atmospheric boundary layer processes. The U-ΔT diagram was introduced in earlier surveys of data from coastal (Sletringen; O.J. Andersen and J. Løvseth, J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 57, 97-109, 1995) and offshore (Statfjord A; K.J. Eidsvik, Boundary-Layer Meteorol., 32, 103-132, 1985) sites in northwest Europe to summarize boundary layer conditions at a given location. Additional information from a series of measurement purpose-built offshore measurement and oil/gas production platforms from the southern North Sea to the Norwegian Sea illustrates how the wind characteristics vary spatially over large distances, highlighting the influence of cold air outbreaks, in particular. The results are important for the offshore wind industry because of the way that wind turbines accrue fatigue damage in different conditions of atmospheric stability and wind speed.

  12. 75 FR 5290 - Notice of the Record of Decision for the United States Marine Corps Grow the Force at Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, Marine Corps Air Station New River, and Marine Corps Air Station Cherry... Corps Base (MCB) Camp Lejeune, Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) New River, and MCAS Cherry Point,...

  13. Marine ice sheets of Pleistocene age on the East Siberian Continental Margin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niessen, F.; Hong, J.; Hegewald, A.; Matthiessen, J. J.; Stein, R. H.; Kim, H.; Kim, S.; Jensen, L.; Jokat, W.; Nam, S.; Kang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Based on swath bathymetry, sediment echosounding, seismic profiling and sediment coring we present results of the RV "Polarstern' cruise ARK-XIII/3 (2008) and RV "Araon" cruise ARA03B (2012), which investigated an area between the Chukchi Borderland and the East Siberian Sea between 165°W and 170°E. At the southern end of the Mendeleev Ridge, close to the Chukchi and East Siberian shelves, evidence is found for the existence of Pleistocene ice sheets/ice shelves, which have grounded several times in up to 1200 m present water depth. We found mega-scale glacial lineations associated with deposition of glaciogenic wedges and debris-flow deposits indicative of sub-glacial erosion and deposition close to the former grounding lines. Glacially lineated areas are associated with large-scale erosion, accentuated by a conspicuous truncation of pre-glacial strata typically capped with mostly thin layers of diamicton draped by pelagic sediments. Our tentative age model suggests that the youngest and shallowest grounding event of an ice sheet should be within Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3. The oldest and deepest event predates MIS 6. According to our results, ice sheets of more than one km in thickness continued onto, and likely centered over, the East Siberian Shelf. They were possibly linked to previously suggested ice sheets on the Chukchi Borderland and the New Siberian Islands. We propose that the ice sheets extended northward as thick ice shelves, which grounded on the Mendeleev Ridge to an area up to 78°N within MIS 5 and/or earlier. These results have important implication for the former distribution of thick ice masses in the Arctic Ocean during the Pleistocene. They are relevant for global sea-level variations, albedo, ocean-atmosphere heat exchange, freshwater export from the Arctic Ocean at glacial terminations and the formation of submarine permafrost. The existence of km-thick Pleistocene ice sheets in the western Arctic Ocean during glacial times predating

  14. Relationships between ozone photolysis rates and peroxy radical concentrations in clean marine air over the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penkett, S. A.; Monks, P. S.; Carpenter, L. J.; Clemitshaw, K. C.; Ayers, G. P.; Gillett, R. W.; Galbally, I. E.; Meyer, C. P.

    1997-06-01

    Measurements of the sum of inorganic and organic peroxy radicals (RO2) and photolysis rate coefficients J(NO2) and J(O1D) have been made at Cape Grim, Tasmania in the course of a comprehensive experiment which studied photochemistry in the unpolluted marine boundary layer. The SOAPEX (Southern Ocean Atmospheric Photochemistry Experiment) campaign included measurements of ozone, peroxides, nitrogen oxides, water vapor, and many other parameters. This first full length paper concerned with the experiment focuses on the types of relationships observed between peroxy radicals and J(NO2), J(O1D) and √[J(O1D)] in different air masses in which ozone is either produced or destroyed by photochemistry. It was found that in baseline air with ozone loss, RO2 was proportional to √[J(O1D)], whereas in more polluted air RO2 was proportional to J(O1D). Simple algorithms were derived to explain these relationships and also to calculate the concentrations of OH radicals in baseline air from the instantaneous RO2 concentrations. The signal to noise ratio of the peroxy radical measurements was up to 10 for 1-min values and much higher than in other previous deployments of the instrument in the northern hemisphere, leading to the confident determination of the relationships between RO2 and J(O1D) in different conditions. The absolute concentration Of RO2 determined in these experiments is in some doubt, but this does not affect our conclusions concerned either with the behavior of peroxy radicals with changing light levels or with the concentrations of OH calculated from RO2. The results provide confidence that the level of understanding of the photochemistry of ozone leading to the production of peroxide via recombination of peroxy radicals in clean air environments is well advanced.

  15. Transitions of cloud-topped marine boundary layers characterized by AIRS, MODIS, and a large eddy simulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Qing; Kahn, Brian; Xiao, Heng; Schreier, Mathias; Fetzer, E. J.; Teixeira, J.; Suselj, Kay

    2013-08-16

    Cloud top entrainment instability (CTEI) is a hypothesized positive feedback between entrainment mixing and evaporative cooling near the cloud top. Previous theoretical and numerical modeling studies have shown that the persistence or breakup of marine boundary layer (MBL) clouds may be sensitive to the CTEI parameter. Collocated thermodynamic profile and cloud observations obtained from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments are used to quantify the relationship between the CTEI parameter and the cloud-topped MBL transition from stratocumulus to trade cumulus in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Results derived from AIRS and MODIS are compared with numerical results from the UCLA large eddy simulation (LES) model for both well-mixed and decoupled MBLs. The satellite and model results both demonstrate a clear correlation between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction. Despite fundamental differences between LES steady state results and the instantaneous snapshot type of observations from satellites, significant correlations for both the instantaneous pixel-scale observations and the long-term averaged spatial patterns between the CTEI parameter and MBL cloud fraction are found from the satellite observations and are consistent with LES results. This suggests the potential of using AIRS and MODIS to quantify global and temporal characteristics of the cloud-topped MBL transition.

  16. 9 CFR 3.62 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rabbits shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of windows, doors, vents, or air... temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal... temperature in the cargo space may be below 45 °F (7.2 °C) if the rabbits are accompanied by a certificate...

  17. Air pollution history elucidated from anthropogenic spherules and their magnetic signatures in marine sediments offshore of Southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horng, Chorng-Shern; Huh, Chih-An; Chen, Kuo-Hang; Huang, Pin-Ru; Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Lin, Hui-Ling

    2009-03-01

    Kaohsiung City and its neighborhood in the southwestern coastal plain of Taiwan have suffered serious air pollution since the region became the largest center for heavy-industry on the island. In order to unravel the air pollution history of the region, four 210Pb- and 137Cs-dated sediment box cores recovered in 2006 from offshore of this area were chosen for magnetic and petrographic analyses. The data were used to distinguish changes in concentration, composition and grain size of magnetic particles in the sediments due to inputs of anthropogenic magnetic spherules. Sedimentation rates have been reasonably constant for the last one hundred years, except at the core tops which were affected by a turbidite layer induced by a typhoon in 2005. Down-core profiles of mass-specific magnetic susceptibility ( χ) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) are similar among the cores, and reflect similar trends to magnetic spherule counts. This reveals that χ and SIRM of modern marine sediments can be used as air pollution indicators for nearby industrialized upwind areas. The studied record indicates that industrialization of the area was gradual during 1950-1980 and boomed afterward, resulting in a high production of airborne magnetic spherules, which is consistent with evidence for poor air quality at that time. Optical and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) surveys of magnetic extracts indicate that the magnetic spherules have grain sizes ranging from a few micrometers up to 50 μm and consist mainly of iron oxides with variable Si, Al, and Ca contents. X-ray diffraction analysis on magnetic extracts from different depths in the cores further indicates that magnetite and pyrrhotite, which are derived from terrigenous detritus, form the magnetic constituents of the sediments before the area was industrialized. In contrast, during the industrial boom, anthropogenic magnetite and hematite spherules became the dominant magnetic particles in the sediments

  18. Observed temporal evolution of global mean age of stratospheric air for the 2002 to 2010 period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiller, G. P.; von Clarmann, T.; Haenel, F.; Funke, B.; Glatthor, N.; Grabowski, U.; Kellmann, S.; Kiefer, M.; Linden, A.; Lossow, S.; López-Puertas, M.

    2012-04-01

    An extensive observational data set from MIPAS measurements, consisting of more than one million SF6 vertical profiles distributed globally has been condensed into monthly zonal means of mean age of air for the period September 2002 to January 2010, binned at 10° latitude and 1-2 km altitude. The data were analysed with respect to their temporal variation by fitting a regression model consisting of: a constant and a linear increase term, 2 proxies for the QBO variation, sinusoidal terms for the seasonal and semi-annual variation and overtones for the correction of the shapes to the observed data set. The impact of subsidence of mesospheric SF6-depleted air and in-mixing into non-polar latitudes on mid-latitudinal age of air and its linear increase was assessed and found to be small. The linear increase of mean age of stratospheric air was found to be positive and partly larger than the trend derived by Engel et al. (2009) for most of the Northern mid-latitudes, the middle stratosphere in the tropics, and parts of the Southern mid-latitudes, as well as for the Southern polar upper stratosphere. Multi-year decrease of age of air was found for the lowermost and the upper stratospheric tropics, for parts of Southern mid-latitudes, and for the Northern polar regions. Analyses of the amplitudes and phases of the seasonal variation shed light on the coupling between different stratospheric regions. In particular, the Northern mid-latitude stratosphere is well coupled to the tropics, while the Northern lowermost mid-latitudinal stratosphere is decoupled, confirming the separation of the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation from the deep branch. We suggest an overall increased tropical upwelling, together with a weakening of mixing barriers, especially in the Northern hemisphere, as possible explanations for the observed patterns. Reference: Engel, A., Möbius, T., Bönisch, H., Schmidt, U., Heinz, R., Levin, I., Atlas, E., Aoki, S., Nakazawa, T., Sugawara, S

  19. Age of air and heating rates: comparison of ERA-40 with ERA-Interim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legras, B.; Fueglistaler, S.

    2009-04-01

    The age of air in the stratosphere is often used as a test for the good representation of the Brewer-Dobson circulation by atmospheric models. This is a critical requirement to modelize the distribution of long-lived species in chemical models. It is often advocated that using heating rates for vertical transport in the stratosphere performs better that standard analysed velocities from weather centers. This work is based on an extensive comparison of the age of air using 5 years of heating rates from the ERA-40 reanalysis and from the new ERA-interim reanalysis built with 4D-Var assimilation. The ERA-40 exhibits both too young ages with analyzed velocities and too old ages with heating rates. The reason for too young ages is spurious transport associated with too noisy wind, as a result of 3D-Var assimilation. Heating rates provide a much less noisy meridional circulation and preserve transport barriers and polar vortex confinement. However, excessive cooling near 30 hPa in the tropics blocks the ascending motion within the tropical pipe over extended periods of time inducing very old ages. This effect is usually corrected by an empirical correction which can exceed in some regions the calculated heating rate in magnitude, with opposite sign. We relate this correction to the assimilation temperature increment that is required to compensate the bias of the model, notably the excessive negative heat transport due to the noisy vertical velocities and the lack of mass conservation in the isentropic frame. The new ERA-interim exhibits much reduced noise in the vertical velocity and is ten times less diffusive than the ERA-40 in the tropics. Age of air is then found to be slightly older than given by the observations. The biases in the heating rate have also been considerably reduced with respect to ERA-40 and the assimilation increment is now only a fraction of the heating rate. The age of air is in fairly good aggreement with the observations at 20 km and higher

  20. NREL Furthers U.S. Marine Corps Air Station Miramar's Move Toward Net Zero Energy (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    A 2008 report from the Defense Science Board concluded that critical missions at military bases are facing unacceptable risks from extended power losses. A first step in addressing this concern is to establish military bases that can produce as much energy as they use over the course of a year, a concept known as a "net zero energy installation" (NZEI). The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has helped the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Miramar, located north of San Diego, California, as it strives to achieve its NZE goal. In conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), NREL partnered with MCAS Miramar to standardize processes and create an NZEI template for widespread replication across the military.

  1. Are there interactions of iodine and sulfur species in marine air photochemistry?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Crutzen, Paul J.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methyl iodide (MI) emissions are analyzed using a two-dimensional photochemical model of a marine tropical tropospheric synoptic system. The model traces the atmospheric transformation cycles of the emissions to aerosols. The study is focused on remote tropical ocean regions and includes simulations of the spatial and diurnal variations of various iodine and sulfur species, and the species OH, HO2, and H2O2. One line of analysis leads to the conclusion that the reaction IO + DMS yields DMSO + I may play a significant role in destroying DMS if it proceeds at the published fast rate. Alternative lines of analyses are presented.

  2. Global analysis of night marine air temperature and its uncertainty since 1880: The HadNMAT2 data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Elizabeth C.; Rayner, Nick A.; Berry, David I.; Saunby, Michael; Moat, Bengamin I.; Kennedy, John J.; Parker, David E.

    2013-02-01

    An updated version of the Met Office Hadley Centre's monthly night marine air temperature data set is presented. It is available on a 5° latitude-longitude grid from 1880 as anomalies relative to 1961-1990 calendar-monthly climatological average night marine air temperature (NMAT). Adjustments are made for changes in observation height; these depend on estimates of the stability of the near surface atmospheric boundary layer. In previous versions of the data set, ad hoc adjustments were also made for three periods and regions where poor observational practice was prevalent. These adjustments are re-examined. Estimates of uncertainty are calculated for every grid box and result from measurement errors, uncertainty in adjustments applied to the observations, uncertainty in the measurement height, and under-sampling. The new data set is a clear improvement over previous versions in terms of coverage because of the recent digitization of historical observations from ships' logbooks. However, the periods prior to about 1890 and around World War II remain particularly uncertain, and sampling is still sparse in some regions in other periods. A further improvement is the availability of uncertainty estimates for every grid box and every month. Previous versions required adjustments that were dependent on contemporary measurements of sea surface temperature (SST); to avoid these, the new data set starts in 1880 rather than 1856. Overall agreement with variations of SST is better for the updated data set than for previous versions, supporting existing estimates of global warming and increasing confidence in the global record of temperature variability and change.

  3. Seasonal and inter-annual variability of lower stratospheric age of air spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploeger, Felix; Birner, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Trace gas transport in the lower stratosphere is investigated by analysing seasonal and inter-annual variations of the age of air spectrum - the probability distribution of stratospheric transit times. Age spectra are obtained using the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) driven by ERA-Interim winds and total diabatic heating rates, and using a time-evolving boundary-impulse-response (BIER) method based on multiple tracer pulses. Seasonal age spectra show large deviations from an idealized stationary uni-modal shape. Multiple modes emerge in the spectrum throughout the stratosphere, strongest at high latitudes, caused by the interplay of seasonally varying tropical upward mass flux, stratospheric transport barriers and recirculation. Inter-annual variations in transport (e.g. quasi-biennial oscillation) cause significant modulations of the age spectrum shape. In fact, one particular QBO phase may determine the spectrum's mode during the following 2-3 years. Interpretation of the age spectrum in terms of transport contributions due to the residual circulation and mixing is generally not straightforward. It turns out that advection by the residual circulation represents the dominant pathway in the deep tropics and in the winter hemisphere extratropics above 500 K, controlling the modal age in these regions. In contrast, in the summer hemisphere, particularly in the lowermost stratosphere, mixing represents the most probable pathway controlling the modal age.

  4. Preliminary Aging Assessment of Nuclear Air-Treatment and Cooling System Fans

    SciTech Connect

    Winegardner,, W. K.

    1995-07-01

    A preliminary aging assessment of the fans used in nuclear air treatment and cooling systems was performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory as part of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program. Details from guides and standards for the design, testing, and installation of fans; results of failure surveys; and information concerning stressors, related aging mechanisms, and inspection, surveillance, and monitoring methods (ISMM) were compiled. Failure surveys suggest that about half of the failures reported for fans are primarily associated with aging. Aging mechanisms associated with the various fan components and resulting from mechanical, thermal, and environmental stressors include wear, fatigue, corrosion, and erosion of metals and the deterioration of belts and lubricants. A bearing is the component most frequently linked to fan failure. The assessment also suggests that ISMM that will detect irregularities arising from improper lubrication, cooling, alignment, and balance of the various components should aid in counteracting many of the aging effects that could impair fan performance. An expanded program, to define and evaluate the adequacy of current ISMM and maintenance practices and to include a documented Phase I aging assessment, is recommended.

  5. New Application of Seawater and Electrolyzed Seawater in Air Pollution Control of Marine Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Sukheon; Nishida, Osami

    It is the purpose of this paper to introduce the usage of seawater and its electrolysis for the exhaust emission control in marine diesel engines. First, with using only seawater that is naturally alkaline (pH typically around 8.1), the SO2 and SO3 are absorbed by relatively high solubility compared to other components of exhaust pollutants, and PMs (Particulate Matter) are removed through direct contact with the sprayed seawater droplets. Besides, the electrolyzed alkaline seawater by electrolysis, which contains mainly NaOH together with alkali metal ions (i. e. Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+), is used as the absorption medium of NOx and CO2. Conditionally, before the NOx absorption treatment with using the alkaline seawater, nitric oxide (NO) must be adequately oxidized to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by the acidic seawater in order to increase NOx absorption rate into the alkaline seawater. Because NOx absorption is the most suited to conditions when both volume fractions (NO: NO2 ratio) are of equal portions. Finally, this research would also plan to treat the effluent by applying electro-dialysis and electro-flotation techniques in the future. The way to reduce emissions from the marine diesel engines is to make it attractive from an operating perspective, as well as an environmental perspective.

  6. The 1998 Guide to the Evaluation of Educational Experiences in the Armed Services. 3: Air Force, Coast Guard, Department of Defense, Marine Corps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide is the standard reference work for recognizing learning acquired by military personnel for conversion to academic credit in degree work at colleges and universities. This volume contains recommendations for formal courses offered by the Air Force, the Coast Guard, the Marine Corps, and the Department of Defense in 1990 and later years.…

  7. Age of stratospheric air unchanged within uncertainties over the past 30years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, A.; Möbius, T.; Bönisch, H.; Schmidt, U.; Heinz, R.; Levin, I.; Atlas, E.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Sugawara, S.; Moore, F.; Hurst, D.; Elkins, J.; Schauffler, S.; Andrews, A.; Boering, K.

    2009-01-01

    The rising abundances of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is associated with an increase in radiative forcing that leads to warming of the troposphere, the lower portion of the Earth's atmosphere, and cooling of the stratosphere above. A secondary effect of increasing levels of greenhouse gases is a possible change in the stratospheric circulation, which could significantly affect chlorofluorocarbon lifetimes, ozone levels and the climate system more generally. Model simulations have shown that the mean age of stratospheric air is a good indicator of the strength of the residual circulation, and that this mean age is expected to decrease with rising levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Here we use balloon-borne measurements of stratospheric trace gases over the past 30years to derive the mean age of air from sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) and CO2 mixing ratios. In contrast to the models, these observations do not show a decrease in mean age with time. If models are to make valid predictions of future stratospheric ozone levels, and of the coupling between ozone and climate change, a correct description of stratospheric transport and possible changes in the transport pathways are necessary.

  8. 9 CFR 3.37 - Primary conveyances (motor vehicle, rail, air, and marine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to transport guinea pigs or hamsters shall be mechanically sound and provide fresh air by means of... containing live guinea pigs or hamsters when the ambient temperature in the animal cargo space is 75 °F (23.9 °C) or higher. The ambient temperature within the animal cargo space shall not exceed 85 °F (29.5...

  9. Marine Technician's Handbook, Instructions for Taking Air Samples on Board Ship: Carbon Dioxide Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Charles D.

    This booklet is one of a series intended to provide explicit instructions for the collection of oceanographic data and samples at sea. The methods and procedures described have been used by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and found reliable and up-to-date. Instructions are given for taking air samples on board ship to determine the…

  10. Photochemical age of air pollutants, ozone, and secondary organic aerosol in transboundary air observed on Fukue Island, Nagasaki, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irei, Satoshi; Takami, Akinori; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Nozoe, Susumu; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Bandow, Hiroshi; Yokouchi, Yoko

    2016-04-01

    To better understand the secondary air pollution in transboundary air over westernmost Japan, ground-based field measurements of the chemical composition of fine particulate matter ( ≤ 1 µm), mixing ratios of trace gas species (CO, O3, NOx, NOy, i-pentane, toluene, and ethyne), and meteorological elements were conducted with a suite of instrumentation. The CO mixing ratio dependence on wind direction showed that there was no significant influence from primary emission sources near the monitoring site, indicating long- and/or mid-range transport of the measured chemical species. Despite the considerably different atmospheric lifetimes of NOy and CO, these mixing ratios were correlated (r2 = 0.67). The photochemical age of the pollutants, t[OH] (the reaction time × the mean concentration of OH radical during the atmospheric transport), was calculated from both the NOx / NOy concentration ratio (NOx / NOy clock) and the toluene / ethyne concentration ratio (hydrocarbon clock). It was found that the toluene / ethyne concentration ratio was significantly influenced by dilution with background air containing 0.16 ppbv of ethyne, causing significant bias in the estimation of t[OH]. In contrast, the influence of the reaction of NOx with O3, a potentially biasing reaction channel on [NOx] / [NOy], was small. The t[OH] values obtained with the NOx / NOy clock ranged from 2.9 × 105 to 1.3 × 108 h molecule cm-3 and were compared with the fractional contribution of the m/z 44 signal to the total signal in the organic aerosol mass spectra (f44, a quantitative oxidation indicator of carboxylic acids) and O3 mixing ratio. The comparison of t[OH] with f44 showed evidence for a systematic increase of f44 as t[OH] increased, an indication of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. To a first approximation, the f44 increase rate was (1.05 ± 0.03) × 10-9 × [OH] h-1, which is comparable to the background-corrected increase rate observed during the New England Air Quality

  11. Bidirectional air-sea exchange and accumulation of POPs (PAHs, PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs) in the nocturnal marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammel, Gerhard; Meixner, Franz X.; Vrana, Branislav; Efstathiou, Christos I.; Kohoutek, Jiři; Kukučka, Petr; Mulder, Marie D.; Přibylová, Petra; Prokeš, Roman; Rusina, Tatsiana P.; Song, Guo-Zheng; Tsapakis, Manolis

    2016-05-01

    As a consequence of long-range transported pollution, air-sea exchange can become a major source of persistent organic pollutants in remote marine environments. The vertical gradients in the air were quantified for 14 species, i.e. four parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), three polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), three organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and two polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) in the gas-phase at a remote coastal site in the southern Aegean Sea in summer. Most vertical gradients were positive (Δc/Δz > 0), indicating downward (net depositional) flux. Significant upward (net volatilisational) fluxes were found for three PAHs, mostly during daytime, and for two OCPs, mostly during night-time, as well as for one PCB and one PBDE during part of the measurements. While phenanthrene was deposited, fluoranthene (FLT) and pyrene (PYR) seem to undergo flux oscillation, hereby not following a day-night cycle. Box modelling confirms that volatilisation from the sea surface has significantly contributed to the night-time maxima of OCPs. Fluxes were quantified based on eddy covariance. Deposition fluxes ranged from -28.5 to +1.8 µg m-2 day-1 for PAHs and -3.4 to +0.9 µg m-2 day-1 for halogenated compounds. Dry particle deposition of FLT and PYR did not contribute significantly to the vertical flux.

  12. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania, 41° S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, S. J.; Keywood, M. D.; Galbally, I. E.; Gras, J. L.; Cainey, J. M.; Cope, M. E.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Bentley, S. T.; Meyer, C. P.; Ristovski, Z.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    Biomass burning (BB) plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non methane organic compounds (NMOCs) (PTR-MS), particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN) > 3 nm, black carbon (BC) concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number, ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monixide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons and meteorology. During the first plume strike event (BB1), a four hour enhancement of CO (max ~ 2100 ppb), BC (~ 1400 ng m-3) and particles > 3 nm (~ 13 000 cm-3) with dominant particle mode of 120 nm were observed overnight. Dilution of the plume resulted in a drop in the dominant particle mode to 50 nm, and then growth to 80 nm over 5 h. This was accompanied by an increase in O3, suggesting that photochemical processing of air and condensation of low volatility oxidation products may be driving particle growth. The ability of particles > 80 nm (CN80) to act as CCN at 0.5 % supersaturation was investigated. The ΔCCN / ΔCN80 ratio was lowest during the fresh BB plume (56 %), higher during the particle growth event (77 %) and higher still (104 %) in background marine air. Particle size distributions indicate that changes to particle chemical composition, rather than particle size, are driving these changes. Hourly average CCN during both BB events were between 2000-5000 CCN cm-3, which were enhanced above typical background levels by a factor of 6-34, highlighting the dramatic impact BB plumes can have on CCN number in clean marine regions. During the 29 h of the second plume strike event (BB2) CO, BC and a range of NMOCs including acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were clearly enhanced and some enhancements in O3 were observed (ΔO3 / ΔCO 0.001-0.074). A shortlived increase in NMOCs by a factor of 10 corresponded

  13. Use of ERTS imagery in air pollution and marine biology studies, tasks 1 through 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, G. E.; Ludwick, J. C.; Marshall, H. G. (Principal Investigator); Bandy, A. R.; Fleischer, P.; Hanna, W. J.; Gosink, T. A.; Bowker, D. W.

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. The general suitability of ERTS imagery in detecting ground originated air pollution has proved to be excellent. The quality and resolution exceeded expectations and has permitted in some instances location of point sources to within a thousand feet. Suitable techniques have not yet been developed for determining or measuring area and line sources of air pollution. A major problem has been cloud cover that has persisted over the area of primary interest, the Chesapeake Bay. Work has been completed on mounting the shipboard transmissometer which will be used for investigations to relate the chlorophyll and suspended sediment content in the waters of the Lower Chesapeake Bay to ERTS-1 imagery. Water sampling, plankton analysis, and preparations for sea collection of water truth along the eastern continental shelf of the U.S. have been completed for use in comparisons with ERTS-1 data.

  14. Distribution of natural halocarbons in marine boundary air over the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokouchi, Yoko; Inoue, Jun; Toom-Sauntry, Desiree

    2013-08-01

    Ongoing environmental changes in the Arctic will affect the exchange of natural volatile organic compounds between the atmosphere and the Arctic Ocean. Among these compounds, natural halocarbons play an important role in atmospheric ozone chemistry. We measured the distribution of five major natural halocarbons (methyl iodide, bromoform, dibromomethane, methyl chloride, and methyl bromide) together with dimethyl sulfide and tetrachloroethylene in the atmosphere over the Arctic Ocean (from the Bering Strait to 79°N) and along the cruise path to and from Japan. Methyl iodide, bromoform, and dibromomethane were most abundant near perennial sea ice in air masses derived from coastal regions and least abundant in the northernmost Arctic, where the air masses had passed over the ice pack, whereas methyl chloride and methyl bromide showed the opposite distribution pattern. Factors controlling those distributions and future prospects for natural halocarbons in the Arctic are discussed.

  15. Air quality impact and physicochemical aging of biomass burning aerosols during the 2007 San Diego wildfires.

    PubMed

    Zauscher, Melanie D; Wang, Ying; Moore, Meagan J K; Gaston, Cassandra J; Prather, Kimberly A

    2013-07-16

    Intense wildfires burning >360000 acres in San Diego during October, 2007 provided a unique opportunity to study the impact of wildfires on local air quality and biomass burning aerosol (BBA) aging. The size-resolved mixing state of individual particles was measured in real-time with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) for 10 days after the fires commenced. Particle concentrations were high county-wide due to the wildfires; 84% of 120-400 nm particles by number were identified as BBA, with particles <400 nm contributing to mass concentrations dangerous to public health, up to 148 μg/m(3). Evidence of potassium salts heterogeneously reacting with inorganic acids was observed with continuous high temporal resolution for the first time. Ten distinct chemical types shown as BBA factors were identified through positive matrix factorization coupled to single particle analysis, including particles comprised of potassium chloride and organic nitrogen during the beginning of the wildfires, ammonium nitrate and amines after an increase of relative humidity, and sulfate dominated when the air mass back trajectories passed through the Los Angeles port region. Understanding BBA aging processes and quantifying the size-resolved mass and number concentrations are important in determining the overall impact of wildfires on air quality, health, and climate. PMID:23750590

  16. Observations of Cl2, Br2, and I2 in coastal marine air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, B. D.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2008-11-01

    Cl2, Br2, and I2 were measured in coastal Pacific air from 2 to 29 January 2006. Air was sampled at 10 m over the sea surface near the end of Scripps Pier (La Jolla, California). The measurements were made using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with tandem mass spectrometry (APCI/MS/MS). Over the course of this study, Cl2, Br2, and I2 levels ranged from below detection limits of 1.0, 0.5, and 0.2 ppt, respectively, to maxima of 26, 19, and 8 ppt, respectively. Mean dihalogen levels for the study period were 2.3 ± 1 ppt for Cl2, 2.3 ± 0.4 ppt for Br2, and 0.7 ± 0.1 ppt for I2 (expressed as geometric mean ±1 geometric standard error). The mixed dihalogens BrCl, ICl, and IBr had geometric mean levels below 0.3 ± 1 ppt and never exceeded their detection limits of 0.5 ppt. Consistent patterns of diurnal variability were observed for Cl2 and I2, with Cl2 maxima during daytime and I2 appearing almost exclusively at night. The detection of I2 appeared to be related to the passage of air over nearby kelp beds. The observed dihalogen levels suggest that (1) chlorine atom oxidation of hydrocarbons makes a significant contribution to the formation of ozone and (2) halogen atom oxidation of airborne mercury contributes to mercury deposition in polluted coastal air.

  17. Heat transport in the marine atmospheric boundary layer during an intense cold air outbreak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Zimmerman, Jeffrey

    1988-01-01

    The generation of the virtual heat flux in the convective MABL associated with the January 28, 1986 intense cold air airbreak offshore of the Carolinas is studied. A technique based on the joint frequency distribution of the virtual potential temperature and vertical motion (Mahrt and Paumier, 1984) is used. The results suggest that, if buoyancy is mainly driven by the temperature flux, the physical processes for generating buoyancy flux are about the same for boundary layers over land and ocean, even with different convective regimes.

  18. The effects of mixing on stratospheric Age of Air in global models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garny, Hella; Birner, Thomas; Bönisch, Harald

    2014-05-01

    The stratospheric Brewer-Dobson circulation is often quantified by the integrated transport measure stratospheric age of air (AoA). AoA is influenced both by mean transport along the residual circulation and by two-way mixing. Therefore, AoA is a good measure of the overall capabilities of a global model to simulate stratospheric transport. Currently, a large spread in the simulation of AoA by global models is found. In this study we use a method that allows us to quantify the effect of mixing on AoA from global model data. AoA is contrasted with a hypothetical age - the age air would have if it was only transported by the residual circulation, the residual circulation transit time (RCTT). The difference of AoA and RCTT is interpreted as the additional aging by mixing. Mixing causes air to be older almost in the entire lower stratosphere (AoA > RCTT). This increase in AoA by mixing is largely due to mixing between the tropics and extratropics, that leads to recirculation of air through the stratosphere. A "mixing efficiency" is defined as the ratio of the two-way mixing mass flux across the subtropical barrier to the net (residual) mass flux. This mixing efficiency controls the ratio of tropical mean AoA to RCTT, and thus the relative increase in AoA by mixing. These diagnostics are applied to a set of global model simulations to examine the causes for the spread in the simulation of AoA in different models. It is found that both differences in the residual circulation strength and in mixing contribute to the spread in simulated AoA. The mixing efficiency varies strongly between models - leading to differences in AoA between models even if the residual circulation strength did not differ. Possible causes for the differences in the mixing efficiency might be found in the model dynamics (e.g. the wave spectrum) and/or numerics (e.g. the advection scheme used). The different mixing efficiencies in models also modulate the response of AoA to long-term changes in the

  19. Air pollution and gene-specific methylation in the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Bind, Marie-Abele; Lepeule, Johanna; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gasparrini, Antonio; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Coull, Brent A; Tarantini, Letizia; Vokonas, Pantel S; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms by which air pollution has multiple systemic effects in humans are not fully elucidated, but appear to include inflammation and thrombosis. This study examines whether concentrations of ozone and components of fine particle mass are associated with changes in methylation on tissue factor (F3), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 6 (IL-6), toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). We investigated associations between air pollution exposure and gene-specific methylation in 777 elderly men participating in the Normative Aging Study (1999–2009). We repeatedly measured methylation at multiple CpG sites within each gene’s promoter region and calculated the mean of the position-specific measurements. We examined intermediate-term associations between primary and secondary air pollutants and mean methylation and methylation at each position with distributed-lag models. Increase in air pollutants concentrations was significantly associated with F3, ICAM-1, and TLR-2 hypomethylation, and IFN-γ and IL-6 hypermethylation. An interquartile range increase in black carbon concentration averaged over the four weeks prior to assessment was associated with a 12% reduction in F3 methylation (95% CI: -17% to -6%). For some genes, the change in methylation was observed only at specific locations within the promoter region. DNA methylation may reflect biological impact of air pollution. We found some significant mediated effects of black carbon on fibrinogen through a decrease in F3 methylation, and of sulfate and ozone on ICAM-1 protein through a decrease in ICAM-1 methylation. PMID:24385016

  20. Air-pulse OCE for assessment of age-related changes in mouse cornea in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiasong; Wang, Shang; Singh, M.; Aglyamov, S.; Emelianov, S.; Twa, M. D.; Larin, K. V.

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrate the use of phase-stabilized swept source optical coherence elastography (PhS-SSOCE) to assess the relaxation rate of deformation created by a focused air-pulse in tissue-mimicking gelatin phantoms of various concentrations and mouse corneas of different ages in vivo. The results show that the relaxation rate can be quantified and is different for gels with varying concentrations of gelatin and mouse corneas of different ages. The results indicate that gel phantoms with higher concentrations of gelatin as well as older mouse corneas have faster relaxation rates indicating stiffer material. This non-contact and non-invasive measurement technique utilizes low surface displacement amplitude (in µm scale) for tissue excitation and, therefore, can be potentially used to study the biomechanical properties of ocular and other sensitive tissues.

  1. The contribution of oceanic halocarbons to marine and free tropospheric air over the tropical West Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Quack, Birgit; Tegtmeier, Susann; Atlas, Elliot; Hepach, Helmke; Shi, Qiang; Raimund, Stefan; Krüger, Kirstin

    2016-06-01

    Emissions of halogenated very-short-lived substances (VSLSs) from the oceans contribute to the atmospheric halogen budget and affect tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. Here, we investigate the contribution of natural oceanic VSLS emissions to the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) and their transport into the free troposphere (FT) over the tropical West Pacific. The study concentrates on bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide measured on ship and aircraft during the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in the South China and Sulu seas in November 2011. Elevated oceanic concentrations for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide of on average 19.9, 5.0 and 3.8 pmol L-1, in particular close to Singapore and to the coast of Borneo, with high corresponding oceanic emissions of 1486, 405 and 433 pmol m-2 h-1 respectively, characterise this tropical region as a strong source of these compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios in the MABL were unexpectedly relatively low with 2.08, 1.17 and 0.39 ppt for bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide. We use meteorological and chemical ship and aircraft observations, FLEXPART trajectory calculations and source-loss estimates to identify the oceanic VSLS contribution to the MABL and to the FT. Our results show that the well-ventilated MABL and intense convection led to the low atmospheric mixing ratios in the MABL despite the high oceanic emissions. Up to 45 % of the accumulated bromoform in the FT above the region originates from the local South China Sea area, while dibromomethane is largely advected from distant source regions and the local ocean only contributes 20 %. The accumulated methyl iodide in the FT is higher than can be explained with local contributions. Possible reasons, uncertainties and consequences of our observations and model estimates are discussed.

  2. Acute exposure to Buenos Aires air particles (UAP-BA) induces local and systemic inflammatory response in middle-aged mice: A time course study.

    PubMed

    Orona, Nadia S; Ferraro, Sebastián A; Astort, Francisco; Morales, Celina; Brites, Fernando; Boero, Laura; Tiscornia, Gisela; Maglione, Guillermo A; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Yakisich, Sebastian; Tasat, Deborah R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to air particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbimortality. However, PM doesn't affect equally to all people, being the old cohort the most susceptible and studied. We hypothesized that another specific life phase, the middle-aged subpopulation, may be negatively affected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze in vivo the acute biological impact of two environmental particles, Urban Air Particles from Buenos Aires and Residual Oil Fly Ash, on the cardiorespiratory system of middle-aged mice, evaluating oxidative metabolism and inflammation. Both PM provoked a local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to a reduced alveolar area in the lung, an epicard inflammation in the heart, an increment of IL-6, and a reduction on PON 1 activity in serum of middle-aged animals. The positive correlation of local parameters with systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation could be responsible for associations of cardiovascular morbimortality in this subpopulation. PMID:26255684

  3. Variability of the northeast Atlantic sea surface Δ 14C and marine reservoir age and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisnérat-Laborde, Nadine; Paterne, Martine; Métivier, Bernard; Arnold, Maurice; Yiou, Pascal; Blamart, Dominique; Raynaud, Stéphane

    2010-09-01

    We compiled new 14C analyses of mollusc shells (bivalves and gastropods) of known age from the collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle de Paris and previously published data to investigate changes in the sea surface Δ 14C and reservoir age in the northeast Atlantic sector (NEA) between 1823 and 1952 AD. The mollusc shells are mainly located off the Atlantic margin between 45°N and 60°N downstream of the North Atlantic Current (NAC). We show that the temporal variability of the NEA Δ 14C is independent of the mollusc species, depth habitat, diet and latitudinal distribution. The quasi-null difference between mollusc Δ 14C and the marine model indicate that the mollusc Δ 14C reflects the Δ 14C values of open marine conditions. Between 1823 and 1850 AD, the pre-anthropogenic mean of Δ 14C is -45 ± 5‰, corresponding to a reservoir age of 380 ± 60 years and a Δ R value of -7 ± 50 years, in agreement with previous estimates. The Δ 14C values show a significant long-term decrease of ˜12‰ from 1823 to 1952 AD attributed to changes in 14C production between 1823 and 1900 AD and the Suess effect between 1900 and 1952 AD. Between 1885 and 1950 AD, Δ 14C fluctuations of ˜10‰ up to 18‰ occurred in the northeast Atlantic, corresponding to reservoir age variations of ˜90 years up to 170 years. These fluctuations are very similar to changes of Δ 14C in the southern Norwegian Sea. Spectral analyses of the NEA Δ 14C exhibit quasi-periodic cycles of about 7.4 years, almost equivalent to the quasi-periodic cycles of the winter index of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) with a period around 6.5 years. We find that changes of NEA Δ 14C cannot be attributed to changes in river runoff or the precipitation/evaporation budget. The Δ 14C lows (or high reservoir ages) correspond to the more intense phase of the winter NAO, with a time lag of ˜1-3 years. Such a time lag may reflect the eastward transit time of upstream changes originating in the

  4. Long-term monitoring of a marine geologic hydrocarbon source by a coastal air pollution station in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Eliza; Leifer, Ira; Roberts, Dar

    2010-12-01

    Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990-2008 from a California air pollution station located near the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field, were analyzed and clearly showed geologic CH 4 emissions as the dominant local source. Annual COP emissions are conservatively estimated as 0.015 Tg CH 4 year -1 and represent a natural and concentrated geologic methane source (24 m 3 m -2 day -1 gas flux at some active seeps, Clark et al., 2010). For a sense of the scale and potential importance to the regional Southern California methane budget, COP emits an amount equivalent to 8% of the estimated Los Angeles County anthropogenic emissions. Station THC measurements near COP showed a strong wind dependency with elevated levels closely correlated with a sonar-derived spatial distribution of seep field emissions. THC varied seasonally, with a maximum in January and minimum in July and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 0.24 ppm. The seasonal signal was more readily apparent midday ( R2 = 0.69 harmonic fit), compared to nighttime and morning ( R2 < 0.45). The bimodal diel THC pattern consisted of seasonally-modulated peaks in the morning and evening. THC temporal and spatial trends were consistent with both transport and source emission variations. Long-term, annual seep field emissions consistently decreased on a field-wide basis until the late 1990s, before increasing consistently, most likely as a function of underlying geologic processes. This study demonstrates the value of municipal air quality monitoring stations for insight into local greenhouse gas sources and highlights the non-negligible and variable contribution from marine geologic seepage.

  5. The contribution of oceanic halocarbons to marine and free troposphere air over the tropical West Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhlbrügge, S.; Quack, B.; Tegtmeier, S.; Atlas, E.; Hepach, H.; Shi, Q.; Raimund, S.; Krüger, K.

    2015-07-01

    Emissions of halogenated very short lived substances (VSLS) from the tropical oceans contribute to the atmospheric halogen budget and affect tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. Here we investigate the contribution of natural oceanic VSLS emissions to the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer (MABL) and their transport into the Free Troposphere (FT) over the tropical West Pacific. The study concentrates in particular on ship and aircraft measurements of the VSLS bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide and meteorological parameters during the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in the South China and Sulu Seas in November 2011. Elevated oceanic concentrations of 19.9 (2.80-136.91) pmol L-1 for bromoform, 5.0 (2.43-21.82) pmol L-1 for dibromomethane and 3.8 (0.55-18.83) pmol L-1 for methyl iodide in particular close to Singapore and at the coast of Borneo with high corresponding oceanic emissions of 1486 ± 1718 pmol m-2 h-1 for bromoform, 405 ± 349 pmol m-2 h-1 for dibromomethane and 433 ± 482 pmol m-2 h-1 for methyl iodide characterize this tropical region as a strong source of these compounds. Unexpectedly atmospheric mixing ratios in the MABL were relatively low with 2.08 ± 2.08 ppt for bromoform, 1.17 ± 1.17 ppt for dibromomethane and 0.39 ± 0.09 ppt for methyl iodide. We use meteorological and chemical ship and aircraft observations, FLEXPART trajectory calculations and source-loss estimates to identify the oceanic VSLS contribution to the MABL and to the FT. Our results show that a convective, well-ventilated MABL and intense convection led to the low atmospheric mixing ratios in the MABL despite the high oceanic emissions in coastal areas of the South-China and Sulu Seas. While the accumulated bromoform in the FT above the region origins almost entirely from the local South China Sea area, dibromomethane is largely advected from distant source regions. The accumulated FT mixing ratio of methyl iodide is higher

  6. On the age of stratospheric air and ozone depletion potentials in polar regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollock, W. H.; Heidt, L. E.; Lueb, R. A.; Vedder, J. F.; Mills, M. J.; Solomon, S.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of the nearly inert, man-made chlorofluorocarbon CFC-115 obtained during January 1989 are used to infer the age of air in the lower stratosphere. These observations together with estimated release rates suggest an average age of high-latitude air at pressure altitudes near 17-21 km of about 3 to 5 yr. This information is used together with direct measurements of HCFC-22, HCFC-142b, CH3Br, H-1301, H-1211, and H-2402 to examine the fractional dissociation of these species within the Arctic polar lower stratosphere compared to that of CFC-11 and hence to estimate their local ozone depletion potentials in this region. It is shown that these HCFCs are much less efficiently dissociated within the stratosphere than CFC-11, lowering their ozone depletion potentials to only about 30-40 percent of their chlorine loading potentials. In contrast, the observations of CH3Br and the Halons considered confirm that they are rapidly dissociated within the stratosphere, with important implications for their ozone depletion potentials.

  7. Depressed rates of origination and extinction during the late Paleozoic ice age: A new state for the global marine ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Steven M.; Powell, Matthew G.

    2003-10-01

    Rates of origination and extinction for marine animal genera dropped to low levels in latest Mississippian time, immediately after massive glaciers formed in the Southern Hemisphere and a second-order mass extinction occurred. Evolutionary turnover and diversity remained low for ˜50 m.y., shifting markedly upward precisely when extensive glaciation ended in Early Permian time. All diverse taxa with good fossil records experienced low rates of origination and extinction during this major ice age. Such sluggish rates would be predicted for faunas of shallow seas on or adjacent to a heavily glaciated supercontinent such as Pangea, where cool and highly seasonal thermal regimes should dictate that species have broad ecological niches, widespread geographic distributions, and large and relatively stable populations.

  8. The age of stratospheric air and its tendency in the ERA-Interim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legras, B.; Diallo, M.; Chédin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The age of stratospheric air is calculated over 22 years of the ERA-Interim reanalysis using an off-line Lagrangian transport model and heating rates. At low and mid-latitudes, the mean age of air is in good agreement with observed ages from aircraft flights, high altitude balloons and satellite observations of CO2 and SF6. The mid-latitude age spectrum in the lower stratosphere exhibits a long tail with a peak at 0.5 yr, which is maximum at the end of the winter, and a secondary flat maximum between 4 and 5 yr due to the combination of fast and slow branches of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and the reinforced barrier effect of the jet. At higher altitudes, the age spectrum exhibits the footprint of the annual modulation of the deep Brewer-Dobson circulation. The variability of the mean age is analysed through a decomposition in terms of annual cycle, QBO, ENSO and trend. The annual modulation is the dominating signal in the lower stratosphere and in the tropical pipe with amplitude up to one year. The phase of the oscillation is opposite in both hemisphere beyond 20N and 20S and is also reversed below and above 25 km with maximun arising in mid-March in the northern hemisphere and in mid-September in the southern hemisphere. The tropical pipe signal is in phase with the lower southern stratosphere and the mid northern stratosphere. The maximum amplitude of the QBO modulation is of about 0.5 yr and is mostly concentrated within the tropics between 25 and 35 km. It lags the QBO wind at 30 hPa by about 8 months. The ENSO signal is small and limited to the lower northen stratosphere. The trend is significant and negative, of the order of -0.3 to -0.5 yr per decade, within the lower stratosphere in the southern hemisphere and under 40N in the northern hemisphere below 25 km. It is positive (of the order of 0.3 yr per decade) in the mid stratosphere but there is no region of consistent significance. This suggests that the shallow and deep Brewer-Dobson circulations may

  9. Occurrence and air/sea-exchange of novel organic pollutants in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinghaus, R.; Xie, Z.

    2006-12-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that several classes of chemicals act as biologically relevant signalling substances. Among these chemicals, many, including PCBs, DDT and dioxins, are semi-volatile, persistent, and are capable of long-range atmospheric transport via atmospheric circulation. Some of these compounds, e.g. phthalates and alkylphenols (APs) are still manufactured and consumed worldwide even though there is clear evidence that they are toxic to aquatic organisms and can act as endocrine disruptors. Concentrations of NP, t-OP and NP1EO, DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, and DEHP have been simultaneously determined in the surface sea water and atmosphere of the North Sea. Atmospheric concentrations of NP and t-OP ranged from 7 to 110 pg m - 3, which were one to three orders of magnitude below coastal atmospheric concentrations already reported. NP1EO was detected in both vapor and particle phases, which ranged from 4 to 50 pg m - 3. The concentrations of the phthalates in the atmosphere ranged from below the method detection limit to 3.4 ng m - 3. The concentrations of t-OP, NP, and NP1EO in dissolved phase were 13-300, 90-1400, and 17-1660 pg L - 1. DBP, BBP, and DEHP were determined in the water phase with concentrations ranging from below the method detection limit to 6.6 ng L - 1. This study indicates that atmospheric deposition of APs and phthalates into the North Sea is an important input pathway. The net fluxes indicate that the air sea exchange is significant and, consequently the open ocean and polar areas will be an extensive sink for APs and phthalates.

  10. Age estimates and uplift rates for late Pleistocene marine terraces: Southern Oregon portion of the Cascadia forearc

    SciTech Connect

    Muhs, D.R.; Whelan, J.F. ); Kelsey, H.M.; McInelly, G.W. ); Miller, G.H. ); Kennedy, G.L. )

    1990-05-10

    Interest in the Cascadia subduction zone has increased because recent investigations have suggested that slip along plates at certain types of convergent margins is characteristically accompanied by large earthquakes. In addition, other investigations have suggested that convergent margins can be broadly classified by the magnitude of their uplift rates. The authors generated new uranium series, amino acid, and stable isotope data for southern Oregon marine terrace fossils. These data, along with terrace elevations and two alternative estimates of sea level at the time of terrace formation, allow one to determine terrace ages and uplift rates. Uranium series analysis of fossil coral yields an age of 83 {plus minus} 5 ka for the Whisky Run terrace at Coquille Point in Bandon, Oregon. A combination of amino acid and oxygen isotope data suggest ages of about 80 and 105 ka for the lowest two terraces at Cape Blanco. These ages indicate uplift rates of 0.45-1.05 and 0.81-1.49 m/kyr for Coquille Point and Cape Blanco, respectively. In order to assess the utility of the southern Oregon uplift rates for predicting the behavior of the Cascadia subduction zone, the authors compared late Quaternary uplift rates derived from terrace data from subduction zones around the world. On the basis of this comparison the southern Oregon rates of vertical deformation are not usually high or low. Furthermore, late Quaternary uplift rates show little relationship to the type of convergent margin. In the case of the southern Oregon coast, variability in uplift rate probably reflects local structures in the overriding plate, and the rate of uplift cannot be used as a simple index of the potential for great earthquakes along the southern Cascadia subduction zone.

  11. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from fresh and aged air pollution in the megacity region of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunthe, S. S.; Rose, D.; Su, H.; Garland, R. M.; Achtert, P.; Nowak, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kuwata, M.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Hu, M.; Shao, M.; Zhu, T.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2011-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. CCN properties were measured and characterized during the CAREBeijing-2006 campaign at a regional site south of the megacity of Beijing, China. Size-resolved CCN efficiency spectra recorded for a supersaturation range of S=0.07% to 0.86% yielded average activation diameters in the range of 190 nm to 45 nm. The corresponding effective hygroscopicity parameters (κ) exhibited a strong size dependence ranging from ~0.25 in the Aitken size range to ~0.45 in the accumulation size range. The campaign average value (κ =0.3 ± 0.1) was similar to the values observed and modeled for other populated continental regions. The hygroscopicity parameters derived from the CCN measurements were consistent with chemical composition data recorded by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and thermo-optical measurements of apparent elemental and organic carbon (EC and OC). The CCN hygroscopicity and its size dependence could be parameterized as a function of only AMS based organic and inorganic mass fractions (forg, finorg) using the simple mixing rule κp ≈ 0.1 · forg + 0.7 · finorg. When the measured air masses originated from the north and passed rapidly over the center of Beijing (fresh city pollution), the average particle hygroscopicity was reduced (κ = 0.2 ± 0.1), which is consistent with enhanced mass fractions of organic compounds (~50%) and EC (~30%) in the fine particulate matter (PM1). Moreover, substantial fractions of externally mixed weakly CCN-active particles were observed at low supersaturation (S=0.07%), which can be explained by the presence of freshly emitted soot particles with very low hygroscopicity (κ < 0.1). Particles in stagnant air from the industrialized region south of Beijing (aged regional pollution) were on average larger and more hygroscopic, which is consistent with enhanced mass fractions (~60%) of soluble inorganic

  12. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) from fresh and aged air pollution in the megacity region of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunthe, S. S.; Rose, D.; Su, H.; Garland, R. M.; Achtert, P.; Nowak, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kuwata, M.; Takegawa, N.; Kondo, Y.; Hu, M.; Shao, M.; Zhu, T.; Andreae, M. O.; Pöschl, U.

    2011-03-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are key elements of the hydrological cycle and climate. CCN properties were measured and characterized during the CAREBeijing-2006 campaign at a regional site south of the megacity of Beijing, China. Size-resolved CCN efficiency spectra recorded for a supersaturation range of S = 0.07% to 0.86% yielded average activation diameters in the range of 190 nm to 45 nm. The corresponding effective hygroscopicity parameters (κ) exhibited a strong size dependence ranging from ~0.25 in the Aitken size range to ~0.45 in the accumulation size range. The campaign average value (κ = 0.3 ± 0.1) was similar to the values observed and modeled for other populated continental regions. The hygroscopicity parameters derived from the CCN measurements were consistent with chemical composition data recorded by an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and thermo-optical measurements of apparent elemental and organic carbon (ECa and OC). The CCN hygroscopicity and its size dependence could be parameterized as a function of AMS based organic and inorganic mass fractions using the simple mixing rule κ p ≍ 0.1 · forg + 0.7 · finorg. When the measured air masses originated from the north and passed rapidly over the center of Beijing (fresh city pollution), the average particle hygroscopicity was reduced (κ = 0.2 ± 0.1), which is consistent with enhanced mass fractions of organic compounds (~50%) and ECa (~30%) in the fine particulate matter (PM1). Moreover, substantial fractions of externally mixed weakly CCN-active particles were observed at low supersaturation (S = 0.07%), which can be explained by the presence of freshly emitted soot particles with very low hygroscopicity (κ<0.1). Particles in stagnant air from the industrialized region south of Beijing (aged regional pollution) were on average larger and more hygroscopic, which is consistent with enhanced mass fractions (~60%) of soluble inorganic ions (mostly

  13. Bacterial Diversity, Sediment Age and Organic Respiration in the Marine Sedimentary Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, E. A.; Kirkpatrick, J. B.; Pockalny, R. A.; Sauvage, J.; Sogin, M. L.; D'Hondt, S.

    2014-12-01

    Subseafloor sediment hosts to a large1, taxonomically rich2 and metabolically diverse3 microbial ecosystem. However, the factors that control microbial diversity in subseafloor sediment have rarely been explored. Here we show that subseafloor bacterial richness varies directly with sediment age and net rate of organic-fueled respiration. We examined three open-ocean sites (in the Bering Sea and equatorial Pacific) and one continental margin site (Indian Ocean), with sediment depths to 404 meters below seafloor. At all locations, taxonomic richness decreases exponentially with increasing sediment age. Richness declines most rapidly for a few hundred thousand years after sediment deposition. This profile generally matches the canonical relationship between rates of organic oxidation and sediment age 4. To examine the potential link between organic oxidation and taxonomic richness we used pore-water chemical profiles to quantify net rates of organic respiration at the three open-ocean sites (the chemical profiles of the ocean-margin site are not in diffusive steady state). Taxonomic richness and total rate of organic-fueled respiration are highest at the high productivity Bering Sea site and lower at the moderate productivity equatorial Pacific sites. At each of these sites, organic-fueled respiration rate and taxonomic richness are highest at the surface and decline together as sediment depth and age increase. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence that taxonomic richness is closely linked to organic-fueled respiration rate and sediment age in subseafloor sediment. References1. Kallmeyer, J., Pockalny, R., Adhikari, R. R., Smith, D. C. & D'Hondt, S. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi:10.1073/pnas.1203849109 (2012). 2. Inagaki, F. et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103, 2815-2820 (2006). 3. D'Hondt, S. et al. Science 306, 2216-2221, doi:10.1126/science.1101155 (2004). 4. Middelburg, J. J. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 53

  14. Air Pollution and DNA Methylation: Interaction by Psychological Factors in the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Madrigano, Jaime; Baccarelli, Andrea; Mittleman, Murray A.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Cantone, Laura; Kubzansky, Laura; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a potential pathway linking air pollution to disease. Studies indicate that psychological functioning modifies the association between pollution and morbidity. The authors estimated the association of DNA methylation with ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) and black carbon, using mixed models. DNA methylation of the inducible nitric oxide synthase gene, iNOS, and the glucocorticoid receptor gene, GCR, was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction pyrosequencing of 1,377 blood samples from 699 elderly male participants in the VA Normative Aging Study (1999–2009). The authors also investigated whether this association was modified by psychological factors including optimism or pessimism, anxiety, and depression. iNOS methylation was decreased after acute exposure to both black carbon and PM2.5. A 1-μg/m3 increase in exposure to black carbon in the 4 hours preceding the clinical examination was associated with a 0.9% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.4, 1.4) in iNOS, and a 10-μg/m3 increase in exposure to PM2.5 was associated with a 0.6% decrease in 5-methylcytosine (95% CI: 0.03, 1.1) in iNOS. Participants with low optimism and high anxiety had associations that were 3–4 times larger than those with high optimism or low anxiety. GCR methylation was not associated with particulate air pollution exposure. PMID:22798479

  15. Assessing changes in stratospheric mean age of air and fractional release using historical trace gas observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laube, Johannes; Bönisch, Harald; Engel, Andreas; Röckmann, Thomas; Sturges, William

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale stratospheric transport is pre-dominantly governed by the Brewer-Dobson circulation. Due to climatic change a long-term acceleration of this residual stratospheric circulation has been proposed (e.g. Austin et al.,2006). Observational evidence has revealed indications for temporary changes (e.g. Bönisch et al., 2011) but a confirmation of a significant long-term trend is missing so far (e.g. Engel et al., 2009). A different aspect is a possible long-term change in the break-down of chemically important species such as chlorofluorocarbons as proposed by Butchart et al. 2001. Recent studies show significant differences adding up to more than 20 % in the chlorine released from such compounds (Newman et al., 2007; Laube et al., 2013). We here use a data set of three long-lived trace gases, namely SF6, CF2Cl2, and N2O, as measured in whole-air samples collected during balloon and aircraft flights between 1975 and 2011, to assess changes in stratospheric transport and chemistry. For this purpose we utilise the mean stratospheric transit times (or mean ages of air) in combination with a measure of the chemical decomposition (i.e. fractional release factors). We also evaluate the influence of different trend correction methods on these quantities and explore their variability with latitude, altitude, and season. References Austin, J. & Li, F.: On the relationship between the strength of the Brewer-Dobson circulation and the age of stratospheric air, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L17807, 2006. Bönisch, H., Engel, A., Birner, Th., Hoor, P., Tarasick, D. W., and Ray, E. A.: On the structural changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation after 2000, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 3937-3948, 2011. Butchart, N. & Scaife, A. A. Removal of chlorofluorocarbons by increased mass exchange between the stratosphere and troposphere in a changing climate. Nature, 410, 799-802, 2001. Engel, A., Möbius, T., Bönisch, H., Schmidt, U., Heinz, R., Levin, I., Atlas, E., Aoki, S., Nakazawa, T

  16. Variability of stratospheric mean age of air linked to residual circulation and eddy mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploeger, Felix; Riese, Martin; Konopka, Paul; Müller, Rolf; Stiller, Gabi

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the effects of the stratospheric residual circulation and eddy mixing on the variability of mean age of air (AoA) within the framework of the isentropic zonal mean continuity equation. The AoA for the period 2002-2012 has been simulated with the Lagrangian chemistry transport model CLaMS driven by ERA-Interim winds and diabatic heating rates. We find that throughout the stratosphere the effects of the residual circulation and of eddy mixing on AoA are opposite and cancel to a large degree, with the net AoA changes resulting from this delicate balance. Mixing increases AoA equatorwards of about 40 degrees by mixing in aged mid-latitude air, whereas it decreases AoA at higher latitudes. Throughout the tropical stratosphere and in the polar upper stratosphere AoA variability is dominated by the residual circulation. In the subtropics and mid-latitudes AoA variability is dominated mainly by eddy mixing and AoA is not a unique proxy for varibility in the residual circulation. The simulated AoA change during the last decade shows a nonuniform pattern, with a significant AoA increase in the northern hemisphere consistent with recent satellite observations by MIPAS, and decreasing AoA in the lowest stratosphere. Interpreting these AoA changes requires careful consideration of both changes in the residual circulation and changes in eddy mixing. The AoA decrease in the lowest stratosphere results from a strengthening residual circulation, related to an accelerating shallow residual circulation branch. Above about 450K simulated AoA evolves differently than below, with a clear increase in the northern subtropics and mid-latitudes and a decrease in the southern hemisphere. This AoA change pattern during the last decade appears to be related to a southward shift of the subtropical mixing barriers, in good agreement with recent analysis of MIPAS mean age and tracer data.

  17. Data from stratigraphic test holes drilled at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, 1994-2001, and periodic water levels, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wrege, Beth M.; Jen, Philip S.

    2004-01-01

    Nine stratigraphic test holes, from 158 to 305 feet deep, were drilled at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station at Cherry Point, North Carolina, between 1994 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey. These test holes and subsequent wells provide information about the lithology, stratigraphy, and geology at the Marine Corps Air Station. In addition, ground-water-level data were collected at the Air Station through 2003. The U.S. Geological Survey also conducted high-resolution marine and land seismic surveys during this investigation. The ground-water-level data and locations of the seismic survey lines are included in this report. The stratigraphic data combined with the seismic data provide a basis for the delineation of paleochannels beneath the Air Station as well as information for the management of water resources at the Air Station.

  18. Ambient air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma: a multi-city assessment of effect modification by age.

    PubMed

    Alhanti, Brooke A; Chang, Howard H; Winquist, Andrea; Mulholland, James A; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Sarnat, Stefanie Ebelt

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found strong associations between asthma morbidity and major ambient air pollutants. Relatively little research has been conducted to assess whether age is a factor conferring susceptibility to air pollution-related asthma morbidity. We investigated the short-term relationships between asthma emergency department (ED) visits and ambient ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Atlanta (1993-2009), Dallas (2006-2009), and St. Louis (2001-2007). City-specific daily time-series analyses were conducted to estimate associations by age group (0-4, 5-18, 19-39, 40-64, and 65+ years). Sub-analyses were performed stratified by race and sex. City-specific rate ratios (RRs) were combined by inverse-variance weighting to provide an overall association for each strata. The overall RRs differed across age groups, with associations for all pollutants consistently strongest for children aged 5-18 years. The patterns of association across age groups remained generally consistent when models were stratified by sex and race, although the strong observed associations among 5-18 year olds appeared to be partially driven by non-white and male patients. Our findings suggest that age is a susceptibility factor for asthma exacerbations in response to air pollution, with school-age children having the highest susceptibility. PMID:26350981

  19. Fish oil and olive oil supplements attenuate the adverse cardiovascular effects of concentrated ambient air pollution particles exposure in healthy middle-aged adult human volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...

  20. Mean Ages of Stratospheric Air Derived From in Situ Observations of CO2, CH4, and N2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, A. E.; Boering, K. A.; Daube, B. C.; Wofsy, S. C.; Loewenstein, M.; Jost, H.; Podolske, J. R.; Webster, C. R.; Herman, R. L.; Scott, D. C.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Accurate mean ages for stratospheric air have been derived from a spatially and temporally comprehensive set of in situ observations of CO2, CH4, and N2O obtained from 1992 to 1998 from the NASA ER-2 aircraft and balloon flights. Errors associated with the tropospheric CO2 seasonal cycle and interannual variations in the CO2 growth rate are less than 0.5 year throughout the stratosphere and less than 0.3 year for air older than 2 years (N2O less than 275 ppbv), indicating that the age spectra are broad enough to attenuate these influences over the time period covered by these observations. The distribution of mean age with latitude and altitude provides detailed, quantitative information about the general circulation of the stratosphere. At 20 km, sharp meridional gradients in the mean age are observed across the subtropics. Between 20 and 30 km, the average difference in mean age between the tropics and midlatitudes is approximately 2 years, with slightly smaller differences at higher and lower altitudes. The mean age in the midlatitude middle stratosphere (approx. 25-32 km) is relatively constant with respect to altitude at 5 plus or minus 0.5 years. Comparison with earlier balloon observations of CO2 dating back to the 1970s indicates that the mean age of air in this region has remained within 11 year of its current value over the last 25 years. A climatology of mean age is derived from the observed compact relationship between mean age and N2O. These characteristics of the distribution of mean age in the stratosphere will serve as critically needed diagnostics for models of stratospheric transport.

  1. Arrival directions of large air showers, low-mu showers and old-age low-mu air showers observed at St. Chacaltaya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagiwara, K.; Yoshii, H.; Martinic, N.; Siles, L.; Miranda, P.; Kakimoto, F.; Obara, T.; Suga, K.; Kaneko, T.; Inoue, N.

    1985-01-01

    Arrival directions of air showers with primary energies in the range 10 to the 16.5 power eV to 10 to the 18th power eV show the first harmonic in right ascension (RA) with amplitude of 2.7 + or - 1.0% and phase of 13-16h. However, the second harmonic in RA slightly seen for showers in the range 10 to the 18th power eV to 10 to the 19th power eV disappeared by accumulation of observed showers. The distribution of arrival directions of low-mu air showers with primary energies around 10 to the 15th power eV observed at Chacaltaya from 1962 to 1967 is referred to, relating to the above-mentioned first harmonic. Also presented in this paper are arrival directions of old-age low-mu air showers observed at Chacaltaya from 1962 to 1967, for recent interest in gamma-ray air showers.

  2. An overview of indoor air quality and its impact on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Choo, Chua Poh; Jalaludin, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The indoor environment is a major source of human exposure to pollutants. Some pollutants can have concentrations that are several times higher indoors than outdoors. Prolonged exposure may lead to adverse biologic effects, even at low concentrations. Several studies done in Malaysia had underlined the role of indoor air pollution in affecting respiratory health, especially for school-aged children. A critical review was conducted on the quantitative literature linking indoor air pollution with respiratory illnesses among school-aged children. This paper reviews evidence of the association between indoor air quality (IAQ) and its implications on respiratory health among Malaysian school-aged children. This review summarizes six relevant studies conducted in Malaysia for the past 10 years. Previous epidemiologic studies relevant to indoor air pollutants and their implications on school-aged children's respiratory health were obtained from electronic database and included as a reference in this review. The existing reviewed data emphasize the impact of IAQ parameters, namely, indoor temperature, ventilation rates, indoor concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matters (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and airborne microbes, on children's respiratory health. The study found that most of the Malaysian school-aged children are exposed to the inadequate environment during their times spent either in their houses or in their classrooms, which is not in compliance with the established standards. Children living in households or studying in schools in urban areas are more likely to suffer from respiratory illnesses compared with children living in homes or studying in schools in rural areas. PMID:25411980

  3. Small for gestational age and exposure to particulate air pollution in the early-life environment of twins.

    PubMed

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Derom, Catherine; Gielen, Marij; Winckelmans, Ellen; Fierens, Frans; Vlietinck, Robert; Zeegers, Maurice P; Nawrot, Tim S

    2016-07-01

    Several studies in singletons have shown that maternal exposure to ambient air pollutants is associated with restricted fetal growth. About half of twins have low birth weight compared with six percent in singletons. So far, no studies have investigated maternal air pollution exposure in association with birth weight and small for gestational age in twins. We examined 4760 twins of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Survey (2002-2013), to study the association between in utero exposure to air pollution with birth weight and small for gestational age. Maternal particulate air pollution (PM10) and nitric dioxide (NO2) exposure was estimated using a spatial temporal interpolation method over various time windows during pregnancy. In the total group of twins, we observed that higher PM10 and NO2 exposure during the third trimester was significantly associated with a lower birth weight and higher risk of small for gestational age. However, the association was driven by moderate to late preterm twins (32-36 weeks of gestation). In these twins born between 32 and 36 weeks of gestation, birth weight decreased by 40.2g (95% CI: -69.0 to -11.3; p=0.006) and by 27.3g (95% CI: -52.9 to -1.7; p=0.04) in association for each 10µg/m³ increment in PM10 and NO2 concentration during the third trimester. The corresponding odds ratio for small for gestational age were 1.68 (95% CI: 1.27-2.33; p=0.0003) and 1.51 (95% CI: 1.18-1.95; p=0.001) for PM10 or NO2, respectively. No associations between air pollution and birth weight or small for gestational age were observed among term born twins. Finally, in all twins, we found that for each 10µg/m³ increase in PM10 during the last month of pregnancy the within-pair birth weight difference increased by 19.6g (95% CI: 3.7-35.4; p=0.02). Assuming causality, an achievement of a 10µg/m³ decrease of particulate air pollution may account for a reduction by 40% in small for gestational age, in twins born moderate to late preterm. PMID

  4. Air injection project breathes fire into aging West Hackberry oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Duey, R.

    1996-02-01

    Amoco, the DOE and LSU seek more oil from Gulf Coast salt dome fields with air injection technique. The West Hackberry Field in Louisiana is a water-driven reservoir. By injecting air into the high-pressure, high-temperature reservoir rock, the water is backed down, allowing the oil to drain off the steeply dipped rock.

  5. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age.

    PubMed

    Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G

    2010-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels. PMID:20625698

  6. An unintended experiment in fisheries science: a marine area protected by war results in Mexican waves in fish numbers-at-age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beare, Doug; Hölker, Franz; Engelhard, Georg H.; McKenzie, Eddie; Reid, David G.

    2010-09-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are attaining increasing importance in the management of marine ecosystems. They are effective for conservation in tropical and subtropical areas (mainly coral and rocky reefs), but it is debated whether they are useful in the management of migratory fish stocks in open temperate regions. World War II created a large marine area within which commercial fishing was prevented for 6 years. Here we analyse scientific trawl data for three important North Sea gadoids, collected between 1928 and 1958. Using statistical models to summarise the data, we demonstrate the potential of MPAs for expediting the recovery of over-exploited fisheries in open temperate regions. Our age-structured data and population models suggest that wild fish stocks will respond rapidly and positively to reductions in harvesting rates and that the numbers of older fish in a population will react before, and in much greater proportion, than their younger counterparts in a kind of Mexican wave. Our analyses demonstrate both the overall increase in survival due to the lack of harvesting in the War and the form of the age-dependent wave in numbers. We conclude that large closed areas can be very useful in the conservation of migratory species from temperate areas and that older fish benefit fastest and in greater proportion. Importantly, any rise in spawning stock biomass may also not immediately result in better recruitment, which can respond more slowly and hence take longer to contribute to higher future harvestable biomass levels.

  7. AGE AND STRAIN INFLUENCES ON LUNG RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AIR PARTICULATES (CAPS) IN RODENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asthma, an inflammatory airways disease, is an urgent health problem. Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated positive associations between ambient air particulate matter concentrations and daily respiratory morbidity ? including exacerbations of asthma. Of note, elderly i...

  8. First assessment of effects of air-gun seismic shooting on marine resources in the central Adriatic sea

    SciTech Connect

    La Bella, G.; Cannata, S.; Froglia, C.

    1996-11-01

    A series of investigations were carried out to test the effects of air-gun seismic shooting on main fishery resources of the Adriatic Sea during summer 1995. The energy source used for the trial was formed by one air-gun array made up by two sub-arrays consisting in 8 air-guns each developing a total volume of c.a. 2500 i{sup 3} at 2000 psi with an amplitude of 60 bar/m. The interval between two was of 25 s. The intensity was of 210 dB re 1 mPa-m/Hz. Acoustical and spectral analysis were performed simultaneously in the surveyed areas to correlate fishery and behavior observations with sound pattern of the energization. Main results were: (1) Analysis of trawl catch data evidenced no significant changes before and after the air-gun seismic profiling. (2) Echosurvey relative estimate of pelagic biomass, performed simultaneously to trawling operations, failed to evidence any significant change in the pelagic biomass subsequent to the seismic shooting. (3) Small differences were observed in the trammel net catch composition, but one single set of pre-post fishing operations could be done in the study period. (4) Similar density estimate were obtained from dredge surveys performed by an hydraulic dredger before and after air-gun seismic profiling over a clam bed in 14 in depth. (5) Video recording of captive fish, kept into cages moored on the sea bottom at 12 in depth, evidenced a Behavioral response to the approach of the sound source; but no lethal event was recorded on captive sea-bass immediately after the seismic shooting. (6) Biochemical and histological analysis were performed to verify if it is to be related to the captive condition or is somewhat consequent to the air-gun energization. These results confirm that no relevant effects are induced on fishery resources by seismic air-gun shooting.

  9. The Middle-Aging 'Eighties in San Diego: Prospects for Lifelong Learning. AIR Forum 1979 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Thomas R.

    The processes and kinds of sources used in comprehensive educational planning employing institutional research are described to serve as a guide to provide recurrent education for a middle-aged population. The concept of lifelong learning has been addressed by postsecondary institutions because the traditional-aged college population has been…

  10. Can Anyone Afford to Retire in an Age of Inflation? AIR Forum 1981 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans H.

    The adequacy of pension plans for persons retiring from colleges and universities is considered. Data are presented showing that people who retired in the late 1960s and early 1970s from higher education institutions at ages 65 and 68 spent most of their working lives earning less than $10,000 a year. The phenomenon of low pensions in an age of…

  11. Perinatal Exposure to Hazardous Air Pollutants and Autism Spectrum Disorders at Age 8

    PubMed Central

    Kalkbrenner, Amy E.; Daniels, Julie L.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Poole, Charles; Emch, Michael; Morrissey, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Background Hazardous air pollutants are plausible candidate exposures for autism spectrum disorders. They have been explored in recent studies for their role in the development of these disorders. Methods We used a prevalent case-control design to screen perinatal exposure to 35 hazardous air pollutants for further investigation in autism etiology. We included 383 children with autism spectrum disorders and, as controls, 2829 children with speech and language impairment. All participants were identified from the records-based surveillance of 8-year-old children conducted by the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network in North Carolina (for children born in 1994 and 1996) and West Virginia (born in 1992 and 1994). Exposures to ambient concentrations of metal, particulate, and volatile organic air pollutants in the census tract of the child’s birth residence were assigned from the 1996 National Air Toxics Assessment annual-average model. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for autism spectrum disorders and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), comparing across the 20th and 80th percentiles of log-transformed hazardous air pollutant concentration among the selected controls, using semi-Bayes logistic models and adjusting for sampling variables (surveillance year and state), a priori demographic confounders from the birth certificate and census, and covarying air pollutants. Results We estimated many near-null ORs, including those for metals, established human neurodevelopmental toxicants, and several pollutants that were elevated in a similar study in California. Hazardous air pollutants with more precise and elevated OR estimates included methylene chloride, 1.4 (95% CI = 0.7–2.5), quinoline, 1.4 (1.0–2.2), and styrene, 1.8 (1.0–3.1). Conclusions Our screening design was limited by exposure misclassification of air pollutants and the use of an alternate developmental disorder as the control group, both of which may have biased results

  12. Ageing Effect on Air-Conducted Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jayashree S.; Sequeira, Nimalka Maria; Bhojwani, Kiran M.

    2015-01-01

    One of the recent diagnostic tests to assess the function of otolithic organs is through vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing. There are equivocal findings on effect of aging on ocular VEMP (oVEMP) parameters with reference to latencies. Hence this study was taken up to investigate the age related changes in oVEMP parameters. This present study considered 30 participants in each age group i.e., young adults, middle-aged adults and older adults. oVEMP were recorded using insert earphone at 100dBnHL at 500hZ short duration tone burst. The results showed in older adult significant difference in response rate, latencies and amplitude as compared to young and middle adult. Hence age should be taken into consideration when interpreting oVEMP results. PMID:26779326

  13. Regional variability in diving physiology and behavior in a widely distributed air-breathing marine predator, the South American sea lion (Otaria byronia).

    PubMed

    Hückstädt, Luis A; Tift, Michael S; Riet-Sapriza, Federico; Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Baylis, Alastair M M; Orben, Rachael A; Arnould, John P Y; Sepulveda, Maritza; Santos-Carvallo, Macarena; Burns, Jennifer M; Costa, Daniel P

    2016-08-01

    Our understanding of how air-breathing marine predators cope with environmental variability is limited by our inadequate knowledge of their ecological and physiological parameters. Because of their wide distribution along both coasts of the sub-continent, South American sea lions (Otaria byronia) provide a valuable opportunity to study the behavioral and physiological plasticity of a marine predator in different environments. We measured the oxygen stores and diving behavior of South American sea lions throughout most of its range, allowing us to demonstrate that diving ability and behavior vary across its range. We found no significant differences in mass-specific blood volumes of sea lions among field sites and a negative relationship between mass-specific oxygen storage and size, which suggests that exposure to different habitats and geographical locations better explains oxygen storage capacities and diving capability in South American sea lions than body size alone. The largest animals in our study (individuals from Uruguay) were the shallowest and shortest duration divers, and had the lowest mass-specific total body oxygen stores, while the deepest and longest duration divers (individuals from southern Chile) had significantly larger mass-specific oxygen stores, despite being much smaller animals. Our study suggests that the physiology of air-breathing diving predators is not fixed, but that it can be adjusted, to a certain extent, depending on the ecological setting and or habitat. These adjustments can be thought of as a 'training effect': as the animal continues to push its physiological capacity through greater hypoxic exposure, its breath-holding capacity increases. PMID:27247316

  14. A diagram of wind speed versus air-sea temperature difference to understand the dynamics of the marine atmospheric boundary layer off northwest Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kettle, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    Wind speed and atmospheric stability have an important role in determining the turbulence in the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) as well as the surface wave field. The understanding of MABL dynamics in northwest Europe is complicated by fetch effects, the proximity of coastlines, shallow topography, and larger scale circulation patterns (e.g., cold air outbreaks). Numerical models have difficulty simulating the marine atmospheric boundary layer in coastal areas and partially enclosed seas, and this is partly due to spatial resolution problems at land-sea coastline discontinuities. In these offshore environments, the boundary layer processes are often best understood directly from time series measurements from measurement platforms or buoys, in spite of potential difficulties from platform flow distortion as well as the spatial sparseness of the data sets. This contribution presents updated results of measurements from offshore platforms in the North Sea and Norwegian Sea in terms of a summary diagnostic - wind speed versus air-sea temperature difference (U-ΔT) - with important implications for understanding atmospheric boundary layer processes. The U-ΔT diagram was introduced in earlier surveys of data from coastal and offshore sites in northwest Europe to summarize boundary layer conditions at a given location. Additional information from a series of measurement purpose-built offshore measurement and oil/gas production platforms from the North Sea illustrates how the wind characteristics vary spatially over large distances. The results are important for the offshore wind industry because of the way that wind turbines accrue fatigue damage in different conditions of atmospheric stability and wind speed.

  15. SMOG CHAMBERS: A TOOL TO EXAMINE EFFECTS OF PHOTOCHEMICALLY AGED AIR POLLUTANTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Irradiative exposure chambers or 'Smog chambers' have been used at the University of North Carolina for over 30 years to study photochemically active mixtures of volatile organic compounds and their transformation products (a significant sub-set of Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAPs)...

  16. Aging Characteristics on Epoxy Resin Surface Under Repetitive Microsecond Pulses in Air at Atmospheric Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Qing; Liu, Xiong; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ruixue; Rao, Zhangquan; Shao, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Research on aging characteristics of epoxy resin (EP) under repetitive microsecond pulses is important for the design of insulating materials in high power apparatus. It is because that very fast transient overvoltage always occurs in a power system, which causes flashover and is one of the main factors causing aging effects of EP materials. Therefore, it is essential to obtain a better understanding of the aging effect on an EP surface resulting from flashover. In this work, aging effects on an EP surface were investigated by surface flashover discharge under repetitive microsecond pulses in atmospheric pressure. The investigations of parameters such as the surface micro-morphology and chemical composition of the insulation material under different degrees of aging were conducted with the aid of measurement methods such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results showed that with the accumulation of aging energy on the material surface, the particles formed on the material surface increased both in number and size, leading to the growth of surface roughness and a reduction in the water contact angle; the surface also became more absorbent. Furthermore, in the aging process, the molecular chains of EP on the surface were broken, resulting in oxidation and carbonisation. supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province (No. E2015502081), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51222701, 51307060), and the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2014CB239505-3)

  17. Components of Air Pollution and Cognitive Function in Middle-aged and Older Adults in Los Angeles

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Nicole M.; Henderson, Victor W.; Hodis, Howard N.; St John, Jan A.; Lurmann, Fred; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Mack, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    While experiments in animals demonstrate neurotoxic effects of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3), epidemiologic evidence is sparse regarding the relationship between different constituencies of air pollution mixtures and cognitive function in adults. We examined cross-sectional associations between various ambient air pollutants [O3, PM2.5 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)] and six measures of cognitive function and global cognition among healthy, cognitively intact individuals (n=1,496, mean age 60.5 years) residing in the Los Angeles Basin. Air pollution exposures were assigned to each residential address in 2000–06 using a geographic information system that included monitoring data. A neuropsychological battery was used to assess cognitive function; a principal components analysis defined six domain-specific functions and a measure of global cognitive function was created. Regression models estimated effects of air pollutants on cognitive function, adjusting for age, gender, race, education, income, study and mood. Increasing exposure to PM2.5 was associated with lower verbal learning (β = −0.32 per 10 ug/m3 PM2.5, 95% CI = −0.63, 0.00; p = 0.05). Ambient exposure to NO2 >20 ppb tended to be associated with lower logical memory. Compared to the lowest level of exposure to ambient O3, exposure above 49 ppb was associated with lower executive function. Including carotid artery intima-media thickness, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, in models as a possible mediator did not attenuate effect estimates. This study provides support for cross-sectional associations between increasing levels of ambient O3, PM2.5 and NO2 and measures of domain-specific cognitive abilities. PMID:24148924

  18. Uranium-Series Ages of Marine Terrace Corals from the Pacific Coast of North America and Implications for Last-Interglacial Sea Level History

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Few of the marine terraces along the Pacific coast of North America have been dated using uranium-series techniques. Ten terrace sequences from southern Oregon to southern Baja California Sur have yielded fossil corals in quantities suitable for U-series dating by alpha spectrometry. U-series-dated terraces representing the ???80,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in five areas (Bandon, Oregon; Point Arena, San Nicolas Island, and Point Loma, California; and Punta Banda, Baja California); terraces representing the ???125,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in eight areas (Cayucos, San Luis Obispo Bay, San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and Point Loma, California; Punta Bands and Isla Guadalupe, Baja California; and Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur). On San Nicolas Island, Point Loma, and Punta Bands, both the ???80,000 and the ???125,000 yr terraces are dated. Terraces that may represent the ???105,000 sea-level high stand are rarely preserved and none has yielded corals for U-series dating. Similarity of coral ages from midlatitude, erosional marine terraces with coral ages from emergent, constructional reefs on tropical coastlines suggests a common forcing mechanism, namely glacioeustatically controlled fluctuations in sea level superimposed on steady tectonic uplift. The low marine terrace dated at ???125,000 yr on Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, presumed to be tectonically stable, supports evidence from other localities for a +6-m sea level at that time. Data from the Pacific Coast and a compilation of data from other coasts indicate that sea levels at ???80,000 and ???105,000 yr may have been closer to present sea level (within a few meters) than previous studies have suggested.

  19. Potential for timing high-energy marine inundation events in the recent geological past through age-dating of reef boulders in Fiji

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terry, James P.; Etienne, Samuel

    2014-12-01

    Transported coastal boulders have increasingly come to represent a valuable element of investigations within the broader framework of multi-proxy approaches applied to coastal hazard studies. Through a case study on Taveuni Island in Fiji, this paper outlines some approaches and hindrances to effective timing of prehistorical high-energy marine inundation events (storms and tsunamis) on tropical coastlines from the evidence of reef-platform carbonate boulders. Various sources of errors are outlined that investigators must consider when attempting to use carbonate boulder ages as a surrogate for timing past events. On Taveuni, uranium : thorium dates with a high level of precision (1-7 years) suggest that major inundation events have a return period of approximately 40-45 years since 1650 AD. Of particular importance, considerably different age dates are provided by coral samples sourced from the top and bottom (i.e. opposite faces) of individual boulders, so highlighting interpretation biases that must be avoided.

  20. Ambient temperature, air pollution, and heart rate variability in an aging population.

    PubMed

    Ren, Cizao; O'Neill, Marie S; Park, Sung Kyun; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-05-01

    Studies show that ambient temperature and air pollution are associated with cardiovascular disease and that they may interact to affect cardiovascular events. However, few epidemiologic studies have examined mechanisms through which ambient temperature may influence cardiovascular function. The authors examined whether temperature was associated with heart rate variability (HRV) in a Boston, Massachusetts, study population and whether such associations were modified by ambient air pollution concentrations. The population was a cohort of 694 older men examined between 2000 and 2008. The authors fitted a mixed model to examine associations between temperature and air pollution and their interactions with repeated HRV measurements, adjusting for covariates selected a priori on the basis of their previous studies. Results showed that higher ambient temperature was associated with decreases in HRV measures (standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals, low-frequency power, and high-frequency power) during the warm season but not during the cold season. These warm-season associations were significantly greater when ambient ozone levels were higher (>22.3 ppb) but did not differ according to levels of ambient fine (≤2.5 μm) particulate matter. The authors conclude that temperature and ozone, exposures to both of which are expected to increase with climate change, might act together to worsen cardiovascular health and/or precipitate cardiovascular events via autonomic nervous system dysfunction. PMID:21385834

  1. Hydrogeologic setting, water levels, and quality of water from supply wells at the US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lloyd, O.B., Jr.; Daniel, C. C., III

    1988-01-01

    The Marine Corps Air Station is located in the Coastal Plain province of North Carolina. Four freshwater aquifers of sand and limestone underlie the area to a depth of about 500 feet. Saline water occurs below this depth. The aquifers are separated by three confining units that are thin and discontinuous in the southern part. Water supply is obtained from 195- to 330 feet wells in the Castle Hayne aquifer. Many wells are near landfills that have received hazardous wastes. Groundwater withdrawals have reduced hydraulic heads in the Castle Hayne some 20 feet around active production wells, creating potential for downward movement of contaminated water from the surface and for upward movement of saline water that occurs at depth. Chemical analyses of water from the Castle Hayne aquifer indicate median concentrations of iron and manganese are 0.78 and 0.08 milligrams per liter, respectively, and lead and (or) nickel exceed drinking water standards in three wells. Chloride increased from 10 to more than 40 milligrams per liter in the deepest operating well over a 45-year period. Benzene concentrations range from 0.5 to 1.9 milligrams per liter in the southern part of the Air Station but were below the 5 milligrams per liter maximum contaminant level for drinking water. Fatty acids were found in concentrations as much as 28 micrograms per liter in water from wells in an area centered around the intersection of Roosevelt Boulevard and Slocum Road. Resampling is needed to verify all constituents that indicate contamination.

  2. Air displacement plethysmography, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and total body water to evaluate body composition in preschool-age children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthropometrics and body mass index are only proxies in the evaluation of adiposity in the pediatric population. Air displacement plethysmography technology was not available for children aged 6 months to 9 years until recently. Our study was designed to test the precision of air displacement plethy...

  3. Sm-Nd in marine carbonates and phosphates - Implications for Nd isotopes in seawater and crustal ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, H. F.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of establishing a record of variations in the isotopic composition of Nd in seawater over geologic time is explored. To construct such a record, a phase must be identified which incorporated Nd with the same isotopic composition as seawater at the time of its formation, preserves that composition, and which is relatively common in sediments. To evaluate the suitability of carbonates and phosphates, the Rb, Sr, Sm, and Nd concentrations and the Nd and Sr isotopic composition of a variety of modern and ancient marine calcite, aragonite, and apatite samples have been measured and the results are presented and discussed.

  4. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in photochemically aged air from the Eastern and Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derstroff, Bettina; Stoenner, Christof; Klüpfel, Thomas; Sauvage, Carina; Crowley, John; Phillips, Gavin; Parchatka, Uwe; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In summer 2014 a comprehensively instrumented measurement campaign (CYPHEX) was conducted in northwest Cyprus in order to investigate atmospheric oxidation chemistry in the Mediterranean region. The site was periodically influenced by the northerly Etesian winds advecting air from Eastern Europe (Turkey and Greece) and from westerly winds bringing more photochemically processed emissions from Western Europe (Spain and France). In this study the data from a Proton Transfer Reaction Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) are analyzed. Generally, oxidized volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) such as methanol and acetone were measured in high mixing ratios (max. 9.5 ppb, min. 1.3 ppb, average 3.2 ppb for methanol, max. 7.9 ppb, min. 1.3 ppb, average 2.4 ppb for acetone ) while precursors like propane showed low values (max. 500 ppt). This demonstrates that the air measured was oxidized to a high degree over the Mediterranean Sea. Low values of acetonitrile throughout the campaign indicated no significant influence of biomass burning on the data. Temporal variations in VOC mixing ratios and precursor/product ratios over the campaign can be explained by using the HYSPLIT backward trajectory model which delineated air masses originating from Eastern and Western Europe. Diel variations of reactive VOCs such as isoprene and terpenes were also observed at the site. A sharp increase in isoprene and monoterpenes at circa 9:00 local time indicated that the 600 m hilltop site was influenced by ascending boundary layer air at this time. In this study, particular emphasis is placed on acetic (ethanoic) acid measured by PTR- TOF-MS and calibrated by a permeation source. Acetic acid is an atmospheric oxidation product of multiple volatile organic compounds, emitted directly from vegetation, and found in abundance in the Mediterranean region (max. 2.7 ppb, min. 0.2 ppb, average 0.8 ppb). Acetic acid contributes to the acidity of precipitation in remote areas, can be incorporated

  5. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  6. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  7. Phase Evolution upon Aging of Air-Plasma Sprayed t'-Zirconia Coatings: I-Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lipkin, Don M; Krogstad, Jessica A; Gao, Yan; Johnson, Curtis A; Nelson, Warren A; Levi, Carlos G

    2012-10-08

    Phase evolution accompanying the isothermal aging of free-standing air-plasma sprayed (APS) 7–8 wt% yttria-stabilized zirconia (8YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) is described. Aging was carried out at temperatures ranging from 982°C to 1482°C in air. The high-temperature kinetics of the phase evolution from the metastable t' phase into a mixture of transformable Y-rich (cubic) and Y-lean (tetragonal) phases are documented through ambient temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization. A Hollomon–Jaffe parameter (HJP), T[27 + ln(t)], was used to satisfactorily normalize the extent of phase decomposition over the full range of times and temperatures. Comparison to vapor deposited TBCs reveal potential differences in the destabilization mechanism in APS coatings. Furthermore, the lattice parameters extracted from Rietveld refinement of the XRD patterns were used to deduce the stabilizer concentrations of the respective phases, which suggest a retrograde tetragonal solvus over the temperature range studied. In concert with a complementary microstructural study presented in Part II, this effort offers new insights into the mechanisms governing the phase evolution and raises implications for the high-temperature use of 8YSZ ceramics.

  8. Sizing alpha emitting particles of aged plutonium on personal air sampler filters using CR-39 autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R B; Hegyi, G; Starling, S C

    2003-01-01

    Methods have been developed to assess the size distribution of alpha emitting particles of reactor fuel of known composition captured on air sampler filters. The sizes of uranium oxide and plutonium oxide particles were determined using a system based on CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detectors. The CR-39 plastic was exposed to the deposited particles across a 400 microm airgap. The exposed CR-39 was chemically etched to reveal clusters of tracks radially dispersed from central points. The number and location of the tracks were determined using an optical microscope with an XY motorised table and image analysis software. The sample mounting arrangement allowed individual particles to be simultaneously viewed with their respective track cluster. The predicted diameters correlated with the actual particle diameters, as measured using the optical microscope. The efficacy of the technique was demonstrated with particles of natural uranium oxide (natUO2) of known size, ranging from 4 to 150 microm in diameter. Two personal air sampler (PAS) filters contaminated with actinide particles were placed against CR-39 and estimated to have size distributions of 0.8 and 1.0 microm activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD). PMID:14526944

  9. Impact of Air Pollution on Age and Gender Related Increase in Cough Reflex Sensitivity of Healthy Children in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Demoulin-Alexikova, Silvia; Plevkova, Jana; Mazurova, Lenka; Zatko, Tomas; Alexik, Mikulas; Hanacek, Jan; Tatar, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose: The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non-asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3 ± 2.6 years (138 females/152 males). Results: CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8–50.2 μmol/l)] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4–112.2 μmol/l), p = 0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2–253.1 μmol/l), p = 0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6–45.6 μmol/l)] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3–533.4 μmol/l); p = 0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7–172.9 μmol/l); p = 0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions: Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least partially

  10. UPb ages of zircon rims: A new analytical method using the air-abrasion technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Winegarden, D.L.; Walter, M.

    1990-01-01

    We present a new technique for directly dating, by conventional techniques, the rims of zircons. Several circumstances, such as a xenocrystic or inherited component in igneous zircon and metamorphic overgrowths on igneous cores, can result in grains with physically distinct age components. Pneumatic abrasion has been previously shown by Krogh to remove overgrowths and damaged areas of zircon, leaving more resistant and isotopically less disturbed parts available for analysis. A new abrader design, which is capable of very gently grinding only tips and interfacial edges of even needle-like grains, permits easy collection of abraded material for dating. Five examples demonstrate the utility of the "dust-collecting" technique, including two studies that compare conventional, ion microprobe and abrader data. Common Pb may be strongly concentrated in the outermost zones of many zircons and this Pb is not easily removed by leaching (even in weak HF). Thus, the benefit of removing only the outermost zones (and avoiding mixing of age components) is somewhat compromised by the much higher common Pb contents which result in less precise age determinations. A very brief abrasion to remove the high common Pb zones prior to collection of material for dating is selected. ?? 1990.

  11. Household air pollution from wood burning in two reconstructed houses from the Danish Viking Age.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J M; Ryhl-Svendsen, M

    2015-06-01

    During 13 winter weeks, an experimental archeology project was undertaken in two Danish reconstructed Viking Age houses with indoor open fireplaces. Volunteers inhabited the houses under living conditions similar to those of the Viking Age, including cooking and heating by wood fire. Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5 ) were measured at varying distances to the fireplace. Near the fireplaces CO (mean) was 16 ppm. PM2.5 (mean) was 3.40 mg/m(3) , however, measured in one house only. The CO:PM mass ratio was found to increase from 6.4 to 22 when increasing the distance to the fire. Two persons carried CO sensors. Average personal exposure was 6.9 ppm, and from this, a personal PM2.5 exposure of 0.41 mg/m(3) was estimated. The levels found here were higher than reported from modern studies conducted in dwellings using biomass for cooking and heating. While this may be due to the Viking house design, the volunteer's lack of training in attending a fire maybe also played a role. Even so, when comparing to today's issues arising from the use of open fires, it must be assumed that also during the Viking Age, the exposure to woodsmoke was a contributing factor to health problems. PMID:25065944

  12. Age and depositional conditions of the marine vertebrate concentration Lagerstätte at Gomez Farías, southern Coahuila, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, Patrick; Beckmann, Seija; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang

    2014-12-01

    A 1.5 m thick coquinite discovered in the Upper Jurassic La Casita Formation of the Sierra El Jabalà near Gomez Farías, Coahuila, northeastern Mexico qualifies as a concentration Lagerstâtte owing to its richness in marine vertebrates. Ichthyosaurs, pliosaurs and crocodilians were described to some detail, but other taxa remained unstudied and the precise biostratigraphical age, as well as paleoecological conditions that led to the formation of the fossil deposit, are not known in detail. Here we describe ammonites, aptychi, bivalves and radiolarians, which allow for a stratigraphic assignation of the deposit to the uppermost Kimmeridgian Beckeri Zone. The unit under consideration accumulated in a hemipelagic mud bottom environment during a period of time characterized by low oxygen conditions, while a short term benthic colonization phase near the top of the coquinite corresponds to increased oxygen availability. A combination of upwelling, bottom currents, winnowing, offshore winds, storm events, circulatory nutrient traps, low oxygenated bottom waters, and a transgressional regime with reduced net sedimentation was crucial factors for the subsequent concentration of fossils, as well as for marine phosphate generation and phosphorus migration.

  13. Hydrogeology and simulation of ground-water flow at US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, 1987-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eimers, J.L.; Daniel, C. C., III; Coble, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical and lithologic well-log data from 30 wells and chloride data, and water-level data from oil-test wells, supply wells, and observation wells were evaluated to define the hydrogeologic framework at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina. Elements of the hydrogeologic framework important to this study include six aquifers and their respective confining units. In descending order, these aquifers are the surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, upper and lower Castle Hayne, and Beaufort. The upper and lower Castle Hayne and Beaufort aquifers and related confining units are relatively continuous throughout the study area. The surficial, Yorktown, Pungo River, and upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers contain freshwater. The upper and lower Castle Hayne aquifers serve as the Air Station?s principal supply of freshwater. However, the lower Castle Hayne aquifer contains brackish water near its base and there is potential for upward movement of this water to supply wells completed in this aquifer. The potential for brackish-water encroachment is greatest if wells are screened too deep in the lower Castle Hayne aquifer or if pumping rates are too high. Lateral movement of brackish water into aquifers incised by estuarine streams is also possible if ground-water flow gradients toward these bodies are reversed by pumping. The potential for the reversed movement of water from the surficial aquifer downward to the water-supply aquifer is greatest in areas where clay confining units are missing. These missing clay units could indicate the presence of a paleochannel of the Neuse River. A quasi three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was constructed and calibrated to simulate conditions at and in the vicinity of the Air Station for the period of 1987-90. Comparisons of 94 observed and computed heads were made, and the average difference between them is -0.2 feet with a root mean square error of 5.7 feet. An analysis was made to

  14. The relation between the lateral profile of giant extensive air showers and the age parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdevielle, Jean-Noël; Cohen, Fabrice

    2005-05-01

    After performing extensive simulations with the code CoRSiKa, we have obtained an analytical description fitting with surprising accuracy the numerical densities up to distances larger than 5 km from the shower axis. This was achieved by using the hypergeometric formalism in place of the traditional NKG approach. The difficulty of cascade theory (validity limited to 3.5 Moliere radii), underlined with reason by the particle data group, is solved here, after overcoming the constraints of approximation B, to show that the distribution of lateral profiles at large distances is also correlated with the age parameter. This is an important step for a coherent interpretation of hybrid events recorded with both surface array and fluorescence telescopes, even with other information coming from Cerenkov or radio emission. A set of hypergeometric Gaussian functions, with a consistent relation between age parameter and total size, is proposed in the ultra-high-energy range (above 1 EeV) for electrons, muons and vertical equivalent muons.

  15. Demography of deep-dwelling red coral populations: Age and reproductive structure of a highly valued marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priori, Cristina; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Erra, Fabrizio; Angiolillo, Michela; Canese, Simonpietro; Santangelo, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    The valuable Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum (Octocorallia Gorgonacea) has been harvested for more than 2 thousand years. Although our knowledge on the demographic features of red coral populations living between 10 and 50 m depth has increased considerably in recent years, the main life-history traits of deeper populations (the main target of current harvesting) are still largely unknown. To increase the demographic knowledge of the latter populations, sampling was carried out during early Summer 2010 in the North-Western Mediterranean (Tyrrhenian Sea - Italy), between 50 and 130 m depth. This paper quantifies the main demographic descriptors of this coral population in terms of size/age and sexual structure. Colony age was estimated by counting annual growth rings on thin sections of 69 colonies. A 2-way ANOVA showed no significant difference between the age estimated by three independent observers. The average annual colony growth rate (basal diameter), showing some decrease with colony age increase, was 0.26 mm/yr. The relationship between age and basal diameter derived from a subsample of colonies was then applied to assess the age of a larger sample of the population and showed 38% of the sampled colonies reached the commercial size (≥7 mm of basal diameter), corresponding to about 30 years in this population and a maximum life span of 93 years; about half of them (51.1%) were in the 21-25 and 26-30 age classes. The analysis of the sexual features revealed a balanced sex ratio, a colony fertility of 90.3% and an average fecundity of 0.83 oocytes or planulae per polyp. The knowledge of these life-history descriptors is needed for our understanding of deep dwelling red coral population dynamics and for matching of harvesting to population growth rate.

  16. Convection Signatures and the Age of Air in the Upper Troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perring, A. E.; Bertram, T. H.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Crounse, J. D.; Wennberg, P. O.; Dibb, J.; Scheuer, E.; Walega, J.; Fried, A.; Vay, S. A.; Hiekes, B.; Kim, S.; Huey, G.; Porter, M.; Fuelberg, H.

    2005-12-01

    Observations of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) over the continental United States reveal strong signatures of convective pumping of both boundary layer and lighting NOx to the Upper Troposphere (UT) (8-12.5km) during the summer (INTEX-NA July-August 2004). This influence may require adjustments to a priori assumptions about NO2 profiles used in OMI or SCIAMACHY NO2 retrievals. As expected, similar profiles during the winter (PAVE January 2005) show no signs of enhanced NOx in the UT. Quantifying the role of convection and lightning is a long standing challenge for tropospheric chemistry. Another challenge has been to provide a clock indicating the time that air has spent in the free troposphere since convection. Following on the suggestion of Jaegle et al. [1998] that convective injection of boundary layer and lightning NOx and concurrent precipitation scavenging of HNO3 offers an initial condition that can be used to provide timing information, we use the ratio of NOx/HNO3 as an indicator of convective influence and a measure of the timing of that influence.

  17. Authigenic heavy minerals a clue to unravel supergene and hypogene alteration of marine and continental sediments of Triassic to Cretaceous age (SE Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dill, Harald G.

    2010-05-01

    Siliciclastic continental-marine sediments of Triassic through Jurassic age, resting unconformably on the crystalline rocks of the Central European Variscides, and marine-(deltaic) sediments of Cretaceous age deposited in a narrow embankment are well exposed in the Wackersdorf area, SE Germany. These sediments were investigated for their variegated spectrum of authigenic heavy minerals (HM) and heavy mineral (HM) aggregates, the majority of which belongs to the (semi)opaque group of minerals, using petrographic and ore microscopy, supplemented by SEM-EDX and by EMPA. These HMs originated from supergene (weathering + diagenesis) and hypogene alteration (hydrothermal processes related to faults and unconformities). The physical and chemical conditions during which these authigenic minerals developed are discussed by means of Eh-pH diagrams under different temperature conditions (< 200 °C). Minerals indicative of supergene alteration in these sediments are apatite, Fe-Mn "limonite", barite, ankerite, Fe-(Ni) sulfides and Pb-Cu-Zn sulfides. The ilmenite-pseudorutile-anatase series may be used as a measure for the intensity of supergene alteration under rising oxygen fugacity. Pseudorutile and anatase also formed during hypogene alteration, and developed different crystal morphologies compared with their supergene counterparts found in the above series. The authigenic HM fluorite, barite, niccolite, acanthite, silver, bravoite, Ni marcasite, pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, chalcocite and rhabdophane-(Ce) were produced by hypogene/ hydrothermal processes. The hypogene mineralization in the Mesozoic foreland sediments belongs to two types: (1) epi-mesothermal REE-F mineralization controlled by the structural reactivation along a deep-seated lineamentary fault zone, and (2) epithermal Ni-Cu-Zn-As-S mineralization related to the geohydraulic plane of the late Variscan unconformity/Permo-Triassic peneplain.

  18. Drilling and thermal gradient measurements at US Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California. Final report, October 1, 1983-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Trexler, D.T.; Flynn, T.; Ghusn, G. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Seven temperature gradient holes were drilled at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California, as part of a cooperative research and development program, jointly funded by the Navy and Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to assess geothermal resources at selected Department of Defense installations. Drill site selection was based on geophysical anomalies delineated by combined gravity, ground magnetic and aeromagnetic surveys. Temperature gradients ranged from 1.3/sup 0/C/100 m (1/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in hole No. 1 to 15.3/sup 0/C/100 m (8.3/sup 0/F/100 ft.) in temperature gradient hole No. 6. Large, positive geothermal gradients in temperature gradient holes 5 and 6, combined with respective bottom hole temperatures of 51.6/sup 0/C (125/sup 0/F) and 67/sup 0/C (153/sup 0/F), indicate that an extensive, moderate-temperature geothermal resource is located on the MCAGCC. The geothermal reservoir appears to be situated in old, unconsolidated alluvial material and is structurally bounded on the east by the Mesquite Lake fault and on the west by the Surprise Spring fault. If measured temperature gradients continue to increase at the observed rate, temperatures in excess of 80/sup 0/C (178/sup 0/F) can be expected at a depth of 2000 feet.

  19. Senstitivity analysis of horizontal heat and vapor transfer coefficients for a cloud-topped marine boundary layer during cold-air outbreaks. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Y. V.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of external parameters on the surface heat and vapor fluxes into the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL) during cold-air outbreaks are investigated using the numerical model of Stage and Businger (1981a). These fluxes are nondimensionalized using the horizontal heat (g1) and vapor (g2) transfer coefficient method first suggested by Chou and Atlas (1982) and further formulated by Stage (1983a). In order to simplify the problem, the boundary layer is assumed to be well mixed and horizontally homogeneous, and to have linear shoreline soundings of equivalent potential temperature and mixing ratio. Modifications of initial surface flux estimates, time step limitation, and termination conditions are made to the MABL model to obtain accurate computations. The dependence of g1 and g2 in the cloud topped boundary layer on the external parameters (wind speed, divergence, sea surface temperature, radiative sky temperature, cloud top radiation cooling, and initial shoreline soundings of temperature, and mixing ratio) is studied by a sensitivity analysis, which shows that the uncertainties of horizontal transfer coefficients caused by changes in the parameters are reasonably small.

  20. Effects of age, adipose percent, and reproduction on PCB concentrations and profiles in an extreme fasting North Pacific marine mammal.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Sarah H; Hassrick, Jason L; Lafontaine, Anne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Crocker, Daniel E; Debier, Cathy; Costa, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are widely distributed and detectable far from anthropogenic sources. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometers to forage in coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean and then return to land where they fast while breeding and molting. Our study examined potential effects of age, adipose percent, and the difference between the breeding and molting fasts on PCB concentrations and congener profiles in blubber and serum of northern elephant seal females. Between 2005 and 2007, we sampled blubber and blood from 58 seals before and after a foraging trip, which were then analyzed for PCBs. Age did not significantly affect total PCB concentrations; however, the proportion of PCB congeners with different numbers of chlorine atoms was significantly affected by age, especially in the outer blubber. Younger adult females had a significantly greater proportion of low-chlorinated PCBs (tri-, tetra-, and penta-CBs) than older females, with the opposite trend observed for hepta-CBs, indicating that an age-associated process such as parity (birth) may significantly affect congener profiles. The percent of adipose tissue had a significant relationship with inner blubber PCB concentrations, with the highest mean concentrations observed at the end of the molting fast. These results highlight the importance of sampling across the entire blubber layer when assessing contaminant levels in phocid seals and taking into account the adipose stores and reproductive status of an animal when conducting contaminant research. PMID:24755635

  1. Effects of Age, Adipose Percent, and Reproduction on PCB Concentrations and Profiles in an Extreme Fasting North Pacific Marine Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Sarah H.; Hassrick, Jason L.; Lafontaine, Anne; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Crocker, Daniel E.; Debier, Cathy; Costa, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), are widely distributed and detectable far from anthropogenic sources. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) biannually travel thousands of kilometers to forage in coastal and open-ocean regions of the northeast Pacific Ocean and then return to land where they fast while breeding and molting. Our study examined potential effects of age, adipose percent, and the difference between the breeding and molting fasts on PCB concentrations and congener profiles in blubber and serum of northern elephant seal females. Between 2005 and 2007, we sampled blubber and blood from 58 seals before and after a foraging trip, which were then analyzed for PCBs. Age did not significantly affect total PCB concentrations; however, the proportion of PCB congeners with different numbers of chlorine atoms was significantly affected by age, especially in the outer blubber. Younger adult females had a significantly greater proportion of low-chlorinated PCBs (tri-, tetra-, and penta-CBs) than older females, with the opposite trend observed for hepta-CBs, indicating that an age-associated process such as parity (birth) may significantly affect congener profiles. The percent of adipose tissue had a significant relationship with inner blubber PCB concentrations, with the highest mean concentrations observed at the end of the molting fast. These results highlight the importance of sampling across the entire blubber layer when assessing contaminant levels in phocid seals and taking into account the adipose stores and reproductive status of an animal when conducting contaminant research. PMID:24755635

  2. Photo-enhanced toxicity of fluoranthene to Gulf of Mexico marine organisms at different larval ages and ultraviolet light intensities.

    PubMed

    Finch, Bryson E; Stubblefield, William A

    2016-05-01

    Significant increases in toxicity have been observed as a result of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in aquatic organisms. Early life stage aquatic organisms are predicted to be more susceptible to PAH photo-enhanced toxicity as a result of their translucence and tendency to inhabit shallow littoral or surface waters. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the sensitivity of varying ages of larval mysid shrimp (Americamysis bahia), inland silverside (Menidia beryllina), sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus), and Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) to photo-enhanced toxicity and to examine the correlation between photo-enhanced toxicity and organism pigmentation. Organisms were exposed to fluoranthene and artificial UV light at different larval ages and results were compared using median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the lethal time-to-death (LT50s). In addition, a high UV light intensity, short-duration (4-h) experiment was conducted at approximately 24 W/m(2) of ultraviolet radiation A (UV-A) and compared with a low-intensity, long-duration (12-h) experiment at approximately 8 W/m(2) of UV-A. The results indicated decreased toxicity with increasing age for all larval organisms. The amount of organism pigmentation was correlated with observed LC50 and LT50 values. High-intensity short-duration exposure resulted in greater toxicity than low-intensity long-duration UV treatments for mysid shrimp, inland silverside, and sheepshead minnow. Data from these experiments suggest that toxicity is dependent on age, pigmentation, UV light intensity, and fluoranthene concentration. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1113-1122. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26590351

  3. Assessment of intrinsic bioremediation of gasoline contamination in the shallow aquifer, Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Chapelle, Francis; Bradley, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory, field, and digital solute-transport- modeling studies demonstrate that microorganisms indigenous to the shallow ground-water system at Laurel Bay Exchange, Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort, South Carolina, can degrade petroleum hydrocarbons in gasoline released at the site. Microorganisms in aquifer sediments incubated in the laboratory under aerobic and anaerobic conditions mineralized radiolabeled carbon 14-toluene to 14C-carbon dioxide with first-order rate constants of Kbio = -0.640 per day and Kbio = -0.003 per day, respectively. Digital solute- transport modeling using the numerical code SUTRA revealed that anaerobic biodegradation of benzene occurs with a first-order rate constant near Kbio = -0.00025 per day. Sandy aquifer material beneath Laurel Bay Exchange is characterized by relatively high hydraulic conductivities (Kaq = 8.9 to 17.3 feet per day), average ground-water flow rate of about 60 feet per year, and a relatively uniform hydraulic gradient of 0.004 feet per foot. The sandy aquifer material also has low adsorptive potentials for toluene and benzene (both about Kad = 2.0 x 10-9 cubic feet per milligram), because of the lack of natural organic matter in the aquifer. The combination of this ground-water-flow rate and absence of significant adsorptive capacity in the aquifer permits toluene and benzene concentrations to be detected downgradient from the source area in monitoring wells, even though biodegradation of these compounds has been demonstrated. Solute-transport simulations, however, indicate that toluene and benzene will not reach the Broad River, the nearest point of contact with wildlife or human populations, about 3,600 feet west of the site boundary. These simulations also show that contamination will not be transported to the nearest Marine Corps property line about 2,400 feet south of the site. This is primarily because the source of contaminants has essentially been removed, and the low adsorptive capacity of the aquifer

  4. Radiocarbon content of pre-bomb marine mollusks and variations in the 14C Reservoir age for coastal areas of the Barents and Kara Seas, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forman, Steven L.; Polyak, Leonid

    Fourteen mollusks, collected alive between 1900 and 1945 from the Russian Barents and Kara seas, were analyzed by AMS 14C dating to evaluate variations in the 14C marine reservoir for arctic coastal sites, which is important for correcting ages in paleoenvironmental time-series and advancing understanding of the exchange of carbon. The 14C ages on the mollusks reveal a range of marine reservoir values (R(t)) from 159 14C yr to 764 14C yr. The oldest R(t) values of 764 to 620 14C yr are for the bivalve Portlandia arctica, which often inhabit cold and low salinity waters and muddy substrates. The depleted 14C content for this bivalve reflects possibly the incorporation of old carbon from freshwater inputs and/or the consumption of old organic matter from the underlying sediments and pore waters. Other mollusks with sessile habitats and pelagic food sources gave significantly lower R(t) values between 159 and 344 14C yr. The youngest R(t) values indicate enrichment in 14C and may partially reflect enhanced transfer of 14C-enriched CO2 from the atmosphere to the ocean surface with wind-generated wave agitation. This study underscores that a variety of processes can lead to variable 14C depletion and enrichment of surface waters yielding a ca. 600 year age span for contemporaneous arctic mollusks. There may be added uncertainty in the 14C reservoir correction for deposit-feeder species such as Portlandia sp. and perhaps for certain benthic foraminifera (e.g. Nonion labradoricum) because these taxa often incorporate old organic matter from the substrate. A reservoir correction of ≥700 years may be more appropriate for infaunal, deposit-eater species, particularly in glacier-dominated environments. Mollusks and foraminifera with sessile habits and pelagic food sources should be selected preferentially for 14C dating, because their shells may more closely reflect the 14C content of the global-ocean mixed layer.

  5. Associations between prenatal exposure to air pollution, small for gestational age, and term low birthweight in a state-wide birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa C; Davis, J Allen; Meyer, Robert E; Messer, Lynne C; Luben, Thomas J

    2014-07-01

    A range of health effects, including adverse pregnancy outcomes, have been associated with exposure to ambient concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3). The objective of this study was to determine whether maternal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and O3 during pregnancy is associated with the risk of term low birthweight and small for gestational age infants in both single and co-pollutant models. Term low birthweight and small for gestational age were determined using all birth certificates from North Carolina from 2003 to 2005. Ambient air concentrations of PM2.5 and O3 were predicted using a hierarchical Bayesian model of air pollution that combined modeled air pollution estimates from the EPA׳s Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with air monitor data measured by the EPA׳s Air Quality System. Binomial regression, adjusted for multiple potential confounders, was performed. In adjusted single-pollutant models for the third trimester, O3 concentration was positively associated with small for gestational age and term low birthweight births [risk ratios for an interquartile range increase in O3: 1.16 (95% CI 1.11, 1.22) for small for gestational age and 2.03 (95% CI 1.80, 2.30) for term low birthweight]; however, inverse or null associations were observed for PM2.5 [risk ratios for an interquartile range increase in PM2.5: 0.97 (95% CI 0.95, 0.99) for small for gestational age and 1.01 (95% CI 0.97, 1.06) for term low birthweight]. Findings were similar in co-pollutant models and linear models of birthweight. These results suggest that O3 concentrations in both urban and rural areas may be associated with an increased risk of term low birthweight and small for gestational age births. PMID:24769562

  6. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-10-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (<=24 years) and older (>=40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Marine Life Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    As a result of widespread ocean dumping and other pollution problems, marine scientists at Morgan State University are studying the populations of various marine organisms to determine the effects of pollution. They are also compiling data on the aging of marine organisms. There now exists a new method of determining the age of the surf clam. They are applying digital image processing to clam aging investigations. Computer creates digitized images of clam sections with annual rings. The image is enhanced -- manipulated to emphasize certain features in order to improve and amplify the information that can be extracted from the image. Also useful in other marine organisms that have growth bands making it easier to get an accurate count.

  8. Variability of stratospheric mean age of air and of the local effects of residual circulation and eddy mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ploeger, F.; Riese, M.; Haenel, F.; Konopka, P.; Müller, R.; Stiller, G.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the variability of mean age of air (AoA) and of the local effects of the stratospheric residual circulation and eddy mixing on AoA within the framework of the isentropic zonal mean continuity equation. AoA for the period 1988-2013 has been simulated with the Lagrangian chemistry transport model CLaMS driven by ERA-Interim winds and diabatic heating rates. Model simulated AoA in the lower stratosphere shows good agreement with both in situ observations and satellite observations from Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, even regarding interannual variability and changes during the last decade. The interannual variability throughout the lower stratosphere is largely affected by the quasi-biennial-oscillation-induced circulation and mixing anomalies, with year-to-year AoA changes of about 0.5 years. The decadal 2002-2012 change shows decreasing AoA in the lowest stratosphere, below about 450 K. Above, AoA increases in the Northern Hemisphere and decreases in the Southern Hemisphere. Mixing appears to be crucial for understanding AoA variability, with local AoA changes resulting from a close balance between residual circulation and mixing effects. Locally, mixing increases AoA at low latitudes (40°S-40°N) and decreases AoA at higher latitudes. Strongest mixing occurs below about 500 K, consistent with the separation between shallow and deep circulation branches. The effect of mixing integrated along the air parcel path, however, significantly increases AoA globally, except in the polar lower stratosphere. Changes of local effects of residual circulation and mixing during the last decade are supportive of a strengthening shallow circulation branch in the lowest stratosphere and a southward shifting circulation pattern above.

  9. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data from well clusters near the wastewater-treatment plant, U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, L.C., Jr.; Daniel, C. C., III

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and ground-water quality data were collected near the wastewater-treatment plant and associated polishing lagoons at the Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, in 1988. Between March and May 1988, two observation wells were installed upgradient and six wells were installed downgradient of the polishing lagoons and sampled for organic and inorganic U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants. Placement of the well screens allowed sampling from both the upper and lower parts of the surficial aquifer. Natural gamma-ray geophysical logs were run in the four deepest wells. Lithologic logs were prepared from split-spoon samples collected during the drilling operations. Laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on samples of fine-grained material recovered from the two confining units that separate the surficial aquifer and the drinking-water supply aquifer; values ranged from 0.011 to 0.014 foot per day (4x10-6 to 5x10-6 centimeters per second). Static water levels were recorded on April 25, 1988. Relatively low concentrations of purgeable organic compounds (up to 2.2 micrograms per liter for dichlorodifluoromethane), acid and base/neutral extractable compounds (up to 58 micrograms per liter for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), or pesticides (up to 0.03 micrograms per liter for diazinon and methyl parathion) were detected in water samples collected from all of the wells. Trace metals were detected in concentrations above minimum detectable limits in all of the wells and were found to be higher in water samples collected from the downgradient wells (up to 320 micrograms per liter for zinc) than in water samples from the upgradient wells.

  10. From the Holocene Thermal Maximum to the Little Ice Age: 11000 years of high resolution marine and terrestrial paleoclimate reconstruction using biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moossen, H. M.; Abell, R.; Quillmann, U.; Andrews, J. T.; Bendle, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Holocene climate change is of significantly smaller amplitude than the Pleistocene Glacial-Interglacial cycles, but climatic variations have affected humans over at least the last 4000 years. Studying Holocene climate variations is important to disentangle climate change caused by anthropogenic influences from natural climate change. Sedimentary records stemming from fjords afford the opportunity to study marine and terrestrial paleo-climatic changes and linking the two together. Typically high sediment accumulation rates of fjordic environments facilitate resolution of rapid climate change (RCC) events. The fjords of Northwest Iceland are ideal for studying Holocene climate change as they receive warm water from the Irminger current, but are also influenced by the east Greenland current which brings polar waters to the region (Jennings et al., 2011). In the Holocene, Nordic Seas and the Arctic have been sensitive to climate change. The 8.2 ka event, a cool interval, highlights the sensitivity of that region. Recent climate variations such as the Little Ice Age have been detected in sedimentary records around Iceland (Sicre et al., 2008). We reconstruct Holocene marine and terrestrial climate change producing high resolution (1sample/ 30 years) records from 10700 cal a BP to 300 cal a BP using biomarkers. Alkenones, terrestrial leaf wax components, GDGTs and C/N ratios from a sediment core (MD99-2266) from the mouth of the Ìsafjardardjúp fjord were studied. For more information on the core and evolution of the fjord during the Holocene consult Quillmann et al., (2010) The average chain length (ACL) of terrestrial n-alkanes indicates changes in aridity, and the alkenone unsaturation index represents changes in sea surface temperature. These independent records exhibit similar trends over the studied time period. Our alkenone derived SST record shows the Holocene Thermal Maximum, Holocene Neoglaciation as well as climate change associated with the Medieval Warm

  11. 78 FR 11632 - Record of Decision for Land Acquisition and Airspace Establishment To Support Large-Scale Marine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ...-Scale Marine Air Ground Task Force Live- Fire and Maneuver Training at the Marine Corps Air Ground... decision to establish a large-scale Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) training facility at the Marine... Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB)-sized MAGTF, including full-scale MEB Exercises and associated...

  12. Strategies for reducing exposure to indoor air pollution from household burning of solid fuels: effects on acute lower respiratory infections in children under the age of 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Havens, Deborah; Jary, Hannah R; Patel, Latifa B; Chiume, Msandeni E; Mortimer, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: This study aims to assess the effects of intervention strategies that reduce exposure to household air pollution from burning solid fuels on episodes of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) in children under the age of 15 years.

  13. The Correlation between Sex, Age, Educational Background, and Hours of Service on Vigilance Level of ATC Officers in Air Nav Surabaya, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Lalu Muhammad; Suwandi, Tjipto; Hamidah

    2016-01-01

    The vigilance of an Air Traffic Control (ATC) officer determines aviation safety. The number of aviation accidents tends to be increasing in recent years. Aviation accidents may be caused by human errors (i.e. errors made by pilot or ATC officer) or unsafe work condition. Sex, age, educational background, and hours of service might affect…

  14. Accurate age scale of the Dome Fuji ice core, Antarctica from O2/N2 ratio of trapped air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Suzuki, K.; Parrenin, F.

    2012-04-01

    Chronology of the first Dome Fuji deep ice core (core length: 2,500 m, ice thickness: 3,035 m) for the age range from 80 kyr to 340 kyr ago was established by orbital tuning of measured O2/N2 ratios in trapped air to local summer insolation, with precision better than about 2,000 years (Kawamura et al., 2007). The O2/N2 ratios found in polar ice cores are slightly lower than the atmospheric ratio because of size-dependent molecular fractionation during bubble close-off. The magnitude of this gas fractionation is believed to be governed by the magnitude of snow metamorphism when the layer was originally at the surface, which in turn is controlled by local summer insolation (Fujita et al., 2009). A strong advantage of the O2/N2 chronology is that there is no need to assume a lag between climatic records in the ice core and orbital forcings, becacuse O2/N2 ratios record local insolation through physical processes. Accuracy of the chronology was validated by comparing the O2/N2 chronology with U-Th radiometric chronology of speleothem records (Cheng et al., 2009) for the ends of Terminations II, III and IV, as well as several large climatic events, for which both ice-core CH4 and speleothem δ18O (a proxy for precipitation) show abrupt shifts as seen in the last glacial period. All ages from O2/N2 and U-Th chronology agreed with each other within ~2,000 yr. The O2/N2 chronology permits comparisons between Antarctic climate, greenhouse gases, astronomically calculated orbital parameters, and radiometrically-dated sea level and monsoon records. Here, we completed the measurements of O2/N2 ratios of the second Dome Fuji ice core, which reached bedrock, for the range from 2,400 to 3,028 m (320 - 700 kyr ago) at approximately 2,000-year time resolution. We made significant improvements in ice core storage practices and mass spectrometry. In particular, the ice core samples were stored at about -50 ° C until the air extraction, except during short periods of transportation

  15. Triacylglycerol accumulation and change in fatty acid content of four marine oleaginous microalgae under nutrient limitation and at different culture ages.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yangmin; Guo, Xiaojing; Wan, Xia; Liang, Zhuo; Jiang, Mulan

    2013-01-01

    Alteration of lipid biosynthesis is one of important biochemical changes when oleaginous microalgae grow under varied environmental conditions. The effects of culture age and nutrient limitation on triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation and fatty acid content were investigated in four eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich marine microalgae. The amounts of TAGs in Chaetoceros sp., Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Nannochloropsis oculata increased sharply from day 4 to day 11, and then the former two remained nearly unchanged while the latter declined gradually during the batch culture. In contrast, no marked increase in TAG accumulation was observed in Pavlova viridis during the culture. Changes in total fatty acid (TFA) content mirrored those observed for TAG accumulation, while the EPA content reached a maximum generally at day 7 or 11 in the range of 11 - 32 mg g(-1) dry cell weight (DCW) and then declined. Nitrogen limitation led to a gradual increase in the amounts of TAGs from N. oculata pronouncedly but almost no change in other three species. The TFA content of the cultures after 5 days of nitrogen limitation was nearly twice that after 1 day in Chaetoceros sp., P. tricornutum and P. viridis, while the lowest increase (220 - 283 mg g(-1) DCW) was observed in N. oculata. TAGs increased gradually under phosphorus limitation in all four species but not sharply compared with that under nitrogen limitation in N. oculata. The TFA content increased gradually under phosphorus limitation and after 5 days of phosphorus limitation it was 1.5 - 2 times that after 1 day. The EPA content was generally not significantly affected by nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Culture age and nutrient limitation could be useful variables for optimizing TAG accumulation and fatty acid content with potential for biodiesel production. PMID:22581481

  16. Uplift of the southern margin of the Central Anatolian Plateau (CAP): age constraints from the youngest marine deposits capping the central Tauride Units in the Gülnar district (Mersin, southern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogretmen, Nazik; Cipollari, Paola; Frezza, Virgilio; Faranda, Costanza; Gliozzi, Elsa; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Radeff, Giuditta; Cosentino, Domenico

    2016-04-01

    In the Gülnar district (Mersin, southern Turkey), Neogene marine deposits unconformably overlie the basement units of the Central Taurides. The age of these marine deposits was classically used to constrain the uplift of the CAP southern margin and, according to the age of the marine deposits cropping out in the Ermenek Basin (Başyayla section), a post-Tortonian age was recently suggested for this event. Indeed, the stratigraphy of the subsiding Adana-Cilicia Basin, to the south of the uplifted CAP southern margin, provides evidence of even younger age (end of the Messinian, ca. 5.45 Ma). Moreover, the stratigraphical architecture of the marine deposits capping the CAP southern margin, which shows an unconformity surface within the late Neogene marine succession, was recently used for defining a multi-phased uplift of the CAP southern margin, with a second uplift phase in the early Calabrian (ca. 1.6 Ma). In the Gülnar area, we sampled the highest marine deposits of the upper Neogene succession that unconformably overlie the basement units of the Central Taurides (Gülnar E section). Biostratigraphical investigations carried out on calcareous nannofossils, benthic and planktonic foraminifera, and ostracods reveal that the Gülnar E section represents the youngest marine deposits, as far known, preserved on top of the uplifted CAP southern margin. These deposits, which unconformably overlie the shallow-water limestones of the Mut Formation (middle-late Miocene), consist mainly of clays and calcareous beds showing a shallowing-upward trend. Five sapropel layers characterize the grey clays of the lowermost part of the section, with an additional possible anoxic event between the second and third sapropel. A spectacular thick slumped-horizon qualifies the uppermost portion of the study section. The Calabrian age of the Gülnar E section is well constrained by the occurrence of different marker species from both calcareous nannofossils and foraminifera. The

  17. Real-time measurements of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging from ambient air in an oxidation flow reactor in the Los Angeles area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, A. M.; Hayes, P. L.; Peng, Z.; Palm, B. B.; Hu, W.; Day, D. A.; Li, R.; Cubison, M. J.; Brune, W. H.; Graus, M.; Warneke, C.; Gilman, J. B.; Kuster, W. C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-08-01

    Field studies in polluted areas over the last decade have observed large formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that is often poorly captured by models. The study of SOA formation using ambient data is often confounded by the effects of advection, vertical mixing, emissions, and variable degrees of photochemical aging. An Oxidation Flow Reactor (OFR) was deployed to study SOA formation in real-time during the CalNex campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. A high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) alternated sampling ambient and reactor-aged air. The reactor produced OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air, achieving equivalent atmospheric aging from hours up to several weeks in 3 min of processing. OH radical concentration was continuously stepped, obtaining measurements of real-time SOA formation and oxidation at multiple equivalent ages from 0.8 days-6.4 weeks. Enhancement of OA from aging showed a maximum net SOA production between 0.8-6 days of aging with net OA mass loss beyond 2 weeks. Reactor SOA mass peaked at night, in the absence of ambient photochemistry, and correlated with trimethylbenzene concentrations. Reactor SOA formation was inversely correlated with ambient SOA and Ox, which along with the short-lived VOC correlation, indicates the importance of relatively reactive (τOH ∼ 0.3 day) SOA precursors in the LA-Basin. Evolution of the elemental composition in the reactor was similar to trends observed in the atmosphere (O : C vs. H : C slope ∼ -0.65). Oxidation state of carbon (OSC) in reactor SOA increased steeply with age and remained elevated (OSC ∼ 2) at the highest photochemical ages probed. The ratio of OA in the reactor output to excess CO (ΔCO, ambient CO above regional background) vs. photochemical age is similar to previous studies at low to moderate ages and also extends to higher ages where OA loss dominates. The mass added at low

  18. The Relationship of Loss, Mean Age of Air and the Distribution of CFC's to Stratospheric Circulation and Implications for Atmospheric Lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Gupta, M. L.; Newman, P. A.; Nielsen, J. E.; Fleming, E. L.

    2008-01-01

    Model-derived estimates of the annually integrated destruction and lifetime for various ozone depleting substances (ODSs) depend on the simulated stratospheric transport and mixing in the global model used to produce the estimate. Observations in the middle and high latitude lower stratosphere show that the mean age of an air parcel (i.e., the time since its stratospheric entry) is related to the fractional release for the ODs (i.e., the amount of the ODS that has been destroyed relative to the amount at the time of stratospheric entry). We use back trajectory calculations to produce an age spectrum, and explain the relationship between the mean age and the fractional release by showing that older elements in the age spectrum have experienced higher altitudes and greater ODs destruction than younger elements. In our study, models with faster circulations produce distributions for the age-of-air that are 'young' compared to a distribution derived from observations. These models also fail to reproduce the observed relationship between the mean age of air and the fractional release. Models with slower circulations produce both realistic distributions for mean age and a realistic relationship between mean age and fractional release. These models also produce a CFCl3 lifetime of approximately 56 years, longer than the 45 year lifetime used to project future mixing ratios. We find that the use of flux boundary conditions in assessment models would have several advantages, including consistency between ODS evolution and simulated loss even if the simulated residual circulation changes due to climate change.

  19. Hydrogeologic, water-level, and water-quality data from monitoring wells at the US Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, L.C., Jr.; Keoughan, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Unlined hazardous-waste disposal sites at the U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, are located near drinking-water supply wells that tap the Castle Hayne aquifer. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data were collected near 2 of these sites from 12 monitoring wells installed in May through June 1987. Near the northernmost landfill site, differences in hydraulic head between the surficial, intermediate Yorktown, and Castle Hayne aquifers indicate a potential for migration of contaminants downward into the intermediate Yorktown and Castle Hayne aquifers. Movement would be impeded, however, by two confining units of silty sand to sandy clay that separate these aquifers. Geophysical and lithologic data show the upper confining unit to be approximately 26 feet thick near this landfill. Near the southernmost landfill, these confining units are thin and discontinuous in an area that coincides with the location of a buried paleochannel. Static water-level data collected in this area indicate that both the Castle Hayne and Yorktown aquifers discharge into the surficial aquifer, minimizing the potential for downward contaminant movement. Ground water in the surficial aquifer at both landfills moves laterally away from nearby drinking-water supply wells and toward Slocum Creek, a tributary of the Neuse River. Concentrations of organic compounds and trace inorganic constituents included on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency?s list of priority pollutants were determined for water samples from the surficial and Yorktown aquifers. High concentrations of two purgeable organic compounds, trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloroethene (4,600 and 4,800 micrograms per liter, respectively), were detected in water samples collected from the surficial aquifer near the southernmost landfill; much smaller concentrations of trichloroethylene and 1,2-dichloroethene were detected in samples from wells in the Yorktown aquifer (up to 16 and 12 micrograms per liter

  20. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Middle-Aged Residents of Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Chen; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Shen, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) have inconsistent findings. Objectives In this study we aimed to evaluate association between 1-year average exposure to traffic-related air pollution and CIMT in middle-aged adults in Asia. Methods CIMT was measured in Taipei, Taiwan, between 2009 and 2011 in 689 volunteers 35–65 years of age who were recruited as the control subjects of an acute coronary heart disease cohort study. We applied land-use regression models developed by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) to estimate each subject’s 1-year average exposure to traffic-related air pollutants with particulate matter diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and the absorbance levels of PM2.5 (PM2.5abs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the urban environment. Results One-year average air pollution exposures were 44.21 ± 4.19 μg/m3 for PM10, 27.34 ± 5.12 μg/m3 for PM2.5, and (1.97 ± 0.36) × 10–5/m for PM2.5abs. Multivariate regression analyses showed average percentage increases in maximum left CIMT of 4.23% (95% CI: 0.32, 8.13) per 1.0 × 10–5/m increase in PM2.5abs; 3.72% (95% CI: 0.32, 7.11) per 10-μg/m3 increase in PM10; 2.81% (95% CI: 0.32, 5.31) per 20-μg/m3 increase in NO2; and 0.74% (95% CI: 0.08, 1.41) per 10-μg/m3 increase in NOx. The associations were not evident for right CIMT, and PM2.5 mass concentration was not associated with the outcomes. Conclusions Long-term exposures to traffic-related air pollution of PM2.5abs, PM10, NO2, and NOx were positively associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged adults. Citation Su TC, Hwang JJ, Shen YC, Chan CC. 2015. Carotid intima–media thickness and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution in middle-aged residents of Taiwan: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Perspect 123:773–778; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408553 PMID:25793433

  1. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  2. Traffic density and stationary sources of air pollution associated with wheeze, asthma, and immunoglobulin E from birth to age 5 years among New York City children

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Molini M.; Quinn, James W.; Jung, Kyung Hwa; Hoepner, Lori; Diaz, Diurka; Perzanowski, Matthew; Rundle, Andrew; Kinney, Patrick L.; Perera, Frederica P.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2011-01-01

    Exposures to ambient air traffic-related pollutants and their sources have been associated with respiratory and asthma morbidity in children. However, longitudinal investigation of the effects of traffic-related exposures during early childhood is limited. We examined associations of residential proximity and density of traffic and stationary sources of air pollution with wheeze, asthma, and immunoglobulin (Ig) E among New York City children between birth and age 5 years. Subjects included 593 Dominican and African American participants from the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health cohort. Prenatally, through age 5 years, residential and respiratory health data were collected every 3-6 months. At ages 2, 3, and 5 years, serum IgE was measured. Spatial data on the proximity and density of roadways and built environment were collected for a 250 meter buffer around subjects’ homes. Associations of wheeze, asthma, total IgE, and allergen-specific IgE with prenatal, earlier childhood, and concurrent exposures to air pollution sources were analyzed using generalized estimating equations or logistic regression. In repeated measures analyses, concurrent residential density of four-way intersections was associated significantly with wheeze (odds ratio: 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.57). Age 1 exposures also were associated with wheeze at subsequent ages. Concurrent proximity to highway was associated more strongly with total IgE (ratio of the geometric mean levels: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.42) than were prenatal or earlier childhood exposures. Positive associations also were observed between percent commercial building area and asthma, wheeze, and IgE and between proximity to stationary sources of air pollution and asthma. Longitudinal investigation suggests that among Dominican and African American children living in Northern Manhattan and South Bronx during ages 0 to 5 years, residence in neighborhoods with high density of traffic and

  3. 77 FR 87 - Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Marine Corps Training Exercises...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment only, incidental to military training exercises at Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS) Cherry Point Range Complex, North Carolina. The USMC's activities......

  4. Real-time measurements of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging from ambient air in an oxidation flow reactor in the Los Angeles area

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ortega, Amber M.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Peng, Zhe; Palm, Brett B.; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A.; Li, Rui; Cubison, Michael J.; Brune, William H.; Graus, Martin; et al

    2016-06-15

    Field studies in polluted areas over the last decade have observed large formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that is often poorly captured by models. The study of SOA formation using ambient data is often confounded by the effects of advection, vertical mixing, emissions, and variable degrees of photochemical aging. An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was deployed to study SOA formation in real-time during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. A high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) alternated sampling ambient andmore » reactor-aged air. The reactor produced OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air. OH radical concentration was continuously stepped, achieving equivalent atmospheric aging of 0.8 days–6.4 weeks in 3 min of processing every 2 h. Enhancement of organic aerosol (OA) from aging showed a maximum net SOA production between 0.8–6 days of aging with net OA mass loss beyond 2 weeks. Reactor SOA mass peaked at night, in the absence of ambient photochemistry and correlated with trimethylbenzene concentrations. Reactor SOA formation was inversely correlated with ambient SOA and Ox, which along with the short-lived volatile organic compound correlation, indicates the importance of very reactive (τOH ~ 0.3 day) SOA precursors (most likely semivolatile and intermediate volatility species, S/IVOCs) in the Greater Los Angeles Area. Evolution of the elemental composition in the reactor was similar to trends observed in the atmosphere (O : C vs. H : C slope ~ –0.65). Oxidation state of carbon (OSc) in reactor SOA increased steeply with age and remained elevated (OSC ~ 2) at the highest photochemical ages probed. The ratio of OA in the reactor output to excess CO (ΔCO, ambient CO above regional background) vs. photochemical age is similar to previous studies at low to moderate ages and

  5. Real-time measurements of secondary organic aerosol formation and aging from ambient air in an oxidation flow reactor in the Los Angeles area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Amber M.; Hayes, Patrick L.; Peng, Zhe; Palm, Brett B.; Hu, Weiwei; Day, Douglas A.; Li, Rui; Cubison, Michael J.; Brune, William H.; Graus, Martin; Warneke, Carsten; Gilman, Jessica B.; Kuster, William C.; de Gouw, Joost; Gutiérrez-Montes, Cándido; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-06-01

    Field studies in polluted areas over the last decade have observed large formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) that is often poorly captured by models. The study of SOA formation using ambient data is often confounded by the effects of advection, vertical mixing, emissions, and variable degrees of photochemical aging. An oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was deployed to study SOA formation in real-time during the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change (CalNex) campaign in Pasadena, CA, in 2010. A high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) alternated sampling ambient and reactor-aged air. The reactor produced OH concentrations up to 4 orders of magnitude higher than in ambient air. OH radical concentration was continuously stepped, achieving equivalent atmospheric aging of 0.8 days-6.4 weeks in 3 min of processing every 2 h. Enhancement of organic aerosol (OA) from aging showed a maximum net SOA production between 0.8-6 days of aging with net OA mass loss beyond 2 weeks. Reactor SOA mass peaked at night, in the absence of ambient photochemistry and correlated with trimethylbenzene concentrations. Reactor SOA formation was inversely correlated with ambient SOA and Ox, which along with the short-lived volatile organic compound correlation, indicates the importance of very reactive (τOH ˜ 0.3 day) SOA precursors (most likely semivolatile and intermediate volatility species, S/IVOCs) in the Greater Los Angeles Area. Evolution of the elemental composition in the reactor was similar to trends observed in the atmosphere (O : C vs. H : C slope ˜ -0.65). Oxidation state of carbon (OSc) in reactor SOA increased steeply with age and remained elevated (OSC ˜ 2) at the highest photochemical ages probed. The ratio of OA in the reactor output to excess CO (ΔCO, ambient CO above regional background) vs. photochemical age is similar to previous studies at low to moderate ages and also extends to

  6. Associations between air pollution and socioeconomic characteristics, ethnicity and age profile of neighbourhoods in England and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Fischer, Paul; Fortunato, Léa; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Marra, Marten; Kruize, Hanneke; Vienneau, Danielle; Beelen, Rob; Hansell, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution levels are generally believed to be higher in deprived areas but associations are complex especially between sensitive population subgroups. We explore air pollution inequalities at national, regional and city level in England and the Netherlands comparing particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and publicly available population characteristics (deprivation, ethnicity, proportion of children and elderly). We saw higher concentrations in the most deprived 20% of neighbourhoods in England (1.5 μg/m(3) higher PM10 and 4.4 μg/m(3) NO2). Concentrations in both countries were higher in neighbourhoods with >20% non-White (England: 3.0 μg/m(3) higher PM10 and 10.1 μg/m(3) NO2; the Netherlands: 1.1 μg/m(3) higher PM10 and 4.5 μg/m(3) NO2) after adjustment for urbanisation and other variables. Associations for some areas differed from the national results. Air pollution inequalities were mainly an urban problem suggesting measures to reduce environmental air pollution inequality should include a focus on city transport. PMID:25622242

  7. Marine biology

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman, H.V.; Webber, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses both taxonomic and ecological topics on marine biology. Full coverage of marine organisms of all five kingdoms is provided, along with interesting and thorough discussion of all major marine habitats. Organization into six major parts allows flexibility. It also provides insight into important topics such as disposal of nuclear waste at sea, the idea that life began on the ocean floor, and how whales, krill, and people interact. A full-color photo chapter reviews questions, and exercises. The contents are: an overview marine biology: fundamental concepts/investigating life in the ocean; the physical ocean, the ocean floor, the nature of water, the nature and motion of ocean water; general ecology, conditions for life in the sea, biological productivity and energy transfer; marine organisms; monera, protista, mycota and metaphyta; the smaller marine animals, the large animals marine habitats, the intertidal zone/benthos of the continental shelf, the photic zone, the deep ocean, the ocean under stress, marine pollution, appendix a: the metric system and conversion factors/ appendix b: prefixes and suffixes/ appendix c: taxonomic classification of common marine organisms, and glossary, and index.

  8. Marine Biomedicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bang, Frederik B.

    1977-01-01

    Describes early scientific research involving marine invertebrate pathologic processes that may have led to new insights into human disease. Discussed are inquiries of Metchnikoff, Loeb, and Cantacuzene (immunolgic responses in sea stars, horseshoe crabs, and marine worms, respectively). Describes current research stemming from these early…

  9. Marine Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewees, Christopher M.; Hooper, Jon K.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of informational material for a course in marine biology or oceanology at the secondary level is presented. Among the topics discussed are: food webs and pyramids, planktonic blooms, marine life, plankton nets, food chains, phytoplankton, zooplankton, larval plankton and filter feeders. (BT)

  10. Air-Conditioning Mechanic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This student guide, one of a series of correspondence training courses designed to improve the job performance of members of the Marine Corps, deals with the skills needed by air conditioning mechanics. Addressed in the four chapters, or lessons, of the manual are the following topics: principles of air conditioning, refrigeration components as…

  11. Using Age, Gender, and Degree Level to Predict Headcount and Credit Hour Enrollment. AIR 1988 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Ann K.; And Others

    To investigate prospects for enrollment decline, institutional researchers from Michigan's 15 public universities participated in an enrollment project grounded in detailed examination of headcounts and credit hours over time. Each institution reported enrollment for 12 fall terms (1974 through 1985) categorized by age group, gender and degree…

  12. Air pollutant exposure and preterm and term small-for-gestational-age births in Detroit, Michigan: Long-term trends and associations

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hien Q.; Batterman, Stuart A.; Wirth, Julia J.; Wahl, Robert L.; Hoggatt, Katherine J.; Sadeghnejad, Alireza; Hultin, Mary Lee; Depa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Studies in a number of countries have reported associations between exposure to ambient air pollutants and adverse birth outcomes, including low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB) and, less commonly, small for gestational age (SGA). Despite their growing number, the available studies have significant limitations, e.g., incomplete control of temporal trends in exposure, modest sample sizes, and a lack of information regarding individual risk factors such as smoking. No study has yet examined large numbers of susceptible individuals. We investigated the association between ambient air pollutant concentrations and term SGA and PTB outcomes among 164,905 singleton births in Detroit, Michigan occurring between 1990 and 2001. SO2, CO, NO2, O3 and PM10 exposures were used in single and multiple pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes, adjusted for the infant’s sex and gestational age, the mother’s race, age group, education level, smoking status and prenatal care, birth season, site of residence, and long-term exposure trends. Term SGA was associated with CO levels exceeding 0.75 ppm (OR=1.14, 95% confidence interval=1.02–1.27) and NO2 exceeding 6.8 ppb (1.11, 1.03–1.21) exposures in the first month, and with PM10 exceeding 35 μg/m3 (1.22, 1.03–1.46) and O3 (1.11, 1.02–1.20) exposure in the third trimester. PTB was associated with SO2 (1.07, 1.01–1.14) exposure in the last month, and with (hourly) O3 exceeding 92 ppb (1.08, 1.02–1.14) exposure in the first month. Exposure to several air pollutants at modest concentrations was associated with adverse birth outcomes. This study, which included a large Black population, suggests the importance of the early period of pregnancy for associations between term SGA with CO and NO2, and between O3 with PTB; and the late pregnancy period for associations between term SGA and O3 and PM10, and between SO2 with PTB. It also highlights the importance of accounting for

  13. Hemispheric asymmetries and seasonality of mean age of air in the lower stratosphere: Deep versus shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konopka, Paul; Ploeger, Felix; Tao, Mengchu; Birner, Thomas; Riese, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Based on multiannual simulations with the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere, (CLaMS) driven by ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, we discuss hemispheric asymmetries and the seasonality of the mean age of air (AoA) in the lower stratosphere. First, the planetary wave forcing of the Brewer-Dobson circulation is quantified in terms of Eliassen Palm flux divergence calculated by using the isentropic coordinate θ. While the forcing of the deep branch at θ = 1000 K (around 10 hPa) has a clear maximum in each hemisphere during the respective winter, the shallow branch of the Brewer-Dobson circulation, i.e., between 100 and 70 hPa (380 < θ < 420 K), shows almost opposite seasonality in both hemispheres with a pronounced minimum between June and September in the Southern Hemisphere. Second, we decompose the time-tendency of AoA into the contributions of the residual circulation and of eddy mixing by analyzing the zonally averaged tracer continuity equation. In the tropical lower stratosphere between ±30°, the air becomes younger during boreal winter and older during boreal summer. During boreal winter, the decrease of AoA due to tropical upwelling outweighs aging by isentropic mixing. In contrast, weaker isentropic mixing outweighs an even weaker upwelling in boreal summer and fall making the air older during these seasons. Poleward of 60°, the deep branch locally increases AoA and eddy mixing locally decreases AoA with the strongest net decrease during spring. Eddy mixing in the Northern Hemisphere outweighs that in the Southern Hemisphere throughout the year.

  14. Biomolecular Markers within the Core Axis of Aging and Particulate Air Pollution Exposure in the Elderly: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Nicky; Janssen, Bram G.; Dewitte, Harrie; Cox, Bianca; Cuypers, Ann; Lefebvre, Wouter; Smeets, Karen; Vanpoucke, Charlotte; Plusquin, Michelle; Nawrot, Tim S.

    2015-01-01

    .5. Citation: Pieters N, Janssen BG, Dewitte H, Cox B, Cuypers A, Lefebvre W, Smeets K, Vanpoucke C, Plusquin M, Nawrot TS. 2016. Biomolecular markers within the core axis of aging and particulate air pollution exposure in the elderly: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Perspect 124:943–950; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509728 PMID:26672058

  15. Aging and service wear of air-operated valves used in safety-related systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, D.F.; McElhaney, K.L.; Staunton, R.H.

    1995-05-01

    Air-operated valves (AOVs) are used in a variety of safety-related applications at nuclear power plants. They are often used where rapid stroke times are required or precise control of the valve obturator is required. They can be designed to operate automatically upon loss of power, which is often desirable when selecting components for response to design basis conditions. The purpose of this report is to examine the reported failures of AOVs and determine whether there are identifiable trends in the failures related to predictable causes. This report examines the specific components that comprise a typical AOV, how those components fail, when they fail, and how such failures are discovered. It also examines whether current testing frequencies and methods are effective in predicting such failures.

  16. Marine fog: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koračin, Darko; Dorman, Clive E.; Lewis, John M.; Hudson, James G.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss physical processes over a wide range of spatial scales that govern the formation, evolution, and dissipation of marine fog. We consider marine fog as the collective combination of fog over the open sea along with coastal sea fog and coastal land fog. The review includes a history of sea fog research, field programs, forecasting methods, and detection of sea fog via satellite observations where similarity in radiative properties of fog top and the underlying sea induce further complexity. The main thrust of the study is to provide insight into causality of fog including its initiation, maintenance, and destruction. The interplay between the various physical processes behind the several stages of marine fog is among the most challenging aspects of the problem. An effort is made to identify this interplay between processes that include the microphysics of fog formation and maintenance, the influence of large-scale circulation and precipitation/clouds, radiation, turbulence (air-sea interaction), and advection. The environmental impact of marine fog is also addressed. The study concludes with an assessment of our current knowledge of the phenomenon, our principal areas of ignorance, and future lines of research that hold promise for advances in our understanding.

  17. Recent high-energy marine events in the sediments of Lagoa de Óbidos and Martinhal (Portugal): recognition, age and likely causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, P. J. M.; Leroy, S. A. G.; Dinis, J. L.; Dawson, A. G.; Kortekaas, S.

    2012-05-01

    A key issue in coastal hazards research is the need to distinguish sediments deposited by past extreme storms from those of past tsunamis. This study contributes to this aim by investigating patterns of sedimentation associated with extreme coastal flood events, in particular, within the Lagoa de Óbidos (Portugal). The recent stratigraphy of this coastal lagoon was studied using a wide range of techniques including visual description, grain-size analysis, digital and x-ray photography, magnetic susceptibility and geochemical analysis. The sequence was dated by 14C, 210Pb and Optically Stimulated Luminescence. Results disclose a distinctive coarser sedimentary unit, within the top of the sequence studied, and shown in quartz sand by the enrichment of elements with marine affinity (e.g., Ca and Na) and carbonates. The unit fines upwards and inland, thins inland and presents a sharp erosive basal contact. A noticeable post-event change in the sedimentary pattern was observed. The likely agent of sedimentation is discussed here and the conceivable association with the Great Lisbon tsunami of AD 1755 is debated, while a comparison is attempted with a possibly synchronous deposit from a tsunami in Martinhal (Algarve, Portugal). The possibility of a storm origin is also discussed in the context of the storminess of the western Portuguese coast and the North Atlantic Oscillation. This study highlights certain characteristics of the sedimentology of the deposits that may have a value in the recognition of extreme marine inundation signatures elsewhere in the world.

  18. Fluctuations of the Greenland Ice Sheet since the last ice age: comparisons of the response of marine and land-terminating ice margins to Holocene climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Laura; Larsen, Nicolaj; Kelly, Meredith; Kjær, Kurt; Bjørk, Anders; Kjeldsen, Kristian; Funder, Svend; Applegate, Patrick; Howley, Jennifer; Virginia, Ross

    2016-04-01

    Fluctuations of the margins of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) in response to Holocene climate change may be used as a proxy for how they may respond to future climate change. Here, we present records of Holocene fluctuations of the margins of the GrIS in southeastern and southwestern Greenland based on geomorphic mapping and 10Be dating of boulders on moraines and boulders on bedrock. We show that in southeastern Greenland the marine-terminating outlet glaciers retreated from the outer coast between 10.4 and 9.4 ka and responded rapidly to early Holocene warming, retreating up-fjord at a rate of ~70-100 m yr-1. These rates are comparable, or higher than, modern retreat rates of 30-100 m yr-1. In contrast, the terrestrial margin of the GrIS in the Kangerlussuaq region of southwestern Greenland retreated only ~25 m yr-1 throughout the early and middle Holocene. These data indicate that forcings such as warm ocean waters, fjord geometry, fjord bathymetry and ice dynamics are potential mechanisms that caused differences in retreat rates between marine and terrestrial-terminating margins of the ice sheet. Additionally, they show that the margins of the GrIS responded sensitively to Holocene climate change.

  19. Assessment of clinical effects and safety of an oral supplement based on marine protein, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract in the improvement of visible signs of skin aging in men

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Adilson; Pegas Pereira, Elisangela Samartin; Assumpção, Elvira Cancio; Calixto dos Santos, Felipe Borba; Ota, Fernanda Sayuri; de Oliveira Pereira, Margareth; Fidelis, Maria Carolina; Fávaro, Raquel; Barros Langen, Stephanie Selma; Favaro de Arruda, Lúcia Helena; Abildgaard, Eva Nydal

    2015-01-01

    Background Skin aging is a natural process that may be aggravated by environmental factors. Topical products are the conventional means to combat aging; however, the use of oral supplements is on the rise to assist in the management of aged skin. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the effects and safety of an oral supplement containing (per tablet) marine protein (105 mg), vitamin C (27 mg), grape seed extract (13.75 mg), zinc (2 mg), and tomato extract (14.38 mg) in the improvement of skin aging in men. Methods This single-center, open-label, quasi-experimental clinical study enrolled 47 male subjects, aged 30–45 years, with phototypes I–IV on the Fitzpatrick scale. Subjects received two tablets of the oral supplement for 180 consecutive days. Each subject served as their own control. Clinical assessments were made by medical personnel and by the subjects, respectively. Objective assessments were carried out through pH measurements, sebumetry, corneometry, ultrasound scanning, skin biopsies, and photographic images. Results Forty-one subjects (87%) completed the study. Clinical improvements on both investigator- and subject-rated outcomes were found for the following parameters: erythema, hydration, radiance, and overall appearance (P<0.05). The objective measurements in the facial skin showed significant improvements from baseline in skin hydration (P<0.05), dermal ultrasound density (P<0.001), and reduction of skin pH (P<0.05). No statistical improvement in relation to sebum was found. The photographic assessment showed an improvement in the overall appearance. The results of the objective measurements were found to be correlated with the subjects’ satisfaction by an increase of collagen and elastic fibers. Conclusion The use of an oral supplement based on a unique biomarine complex, vitamin C, grape seed extract, zinc, and tomato extract produced improvements in the signs of skin aging in men. PMID:26170708

  20. Air Pollution and Acute Respiratory Infections Among Children 0–4 Years of Age: An 18-Year Time-Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W. Dana; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Strickland, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Upper and lower respiratory infections are common in early childhood and may be exacerbated by air pollution. We investigated short-term changes in ambient air pollutant concentrations, including speciated particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), in relation to emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory infections in young children. Daily counts of ED visits for bronchitis and bronchiolitis (n = 80,399), pneumonia (n = 63,359), and upper respiratory infection (URI) (n = 359,246) among children 0–4 years of age were collected from hospitals in the Atlanta, Georgia, area for the period 1993–2010. Daily pollutant measurements were combined across monitoring stations using population weighting. In Poisson generalized linear models, 3-day moving average concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and the organic carbon fraction of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were associated with ED visits for pneumonia and URI. Ozone associations were strongest and were observed at low (cold-season) concentrations; a 1–interquartile range increase predicted a 4% increase (95% confidence interval: 2%, 6%) in visits for URI and an 8% increase (95% confidence interval: 4%, 13%) in visits for pneumonia. Rate ratios tended to be higher in the 1- to 4-year age group compared with infants. Results suggest that primary traffic pollutants, ozone, and the organic carbon fraction of PM2.5 exacerbate upper and lower respiratory infections in early life, and that the carbon fraction of PM2.5 is a particularly harmful component of the ambient particulate matter mixture. PMID:25324558

  1. Air pollution and acute respiratory infections among children 0-4 years of age: an 18-year time-series study.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W Dana; Mulholland, James A; Tolbert, Paige E; Strickland, Matthew J

    2014-11-15

    Upper and lower respiratory infections are common in early childhood and may be exacerbated by air pollution. We investigated short-term changes in ambient air pollutant concentrations, including speciated particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), in relation to emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory infections in young children. Daily counts of ED visits for bronchitis and bronchiolitis (n = 80,399), pneumonia (n = 63,359), and upper respiratory infection (URI) (n = 359,246) among children 0-4 years of age were collected from hospitals in the Atlanta, Georgia, area for the period 1993-2010. Daily pollutant measurements were combined across monitoring stations using population weighting. In Poisson generalized linear models, 3-day moving average concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and the organic carbon fraction of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were associated with ED visits for pneumonia and URI. Ozone associations were strongest and were observed at low (cold-season) concentrations; a 1-interquartile range increase predicted a 4% increase (95% confidence interval: 2%, 6%) in visits for URI and an 8% increase (95% confidence interval: 4%, 13%) in visits for pneumonia. Rate ratios tended to be higher in the 1- to 4-year age group compared with infants. Results suggest that primary traffic pollutants, ozone, and the organic carbon fraction of PM2.5 exacerbate upper and lower respiratory infections in early life, and that the carbon fraction of PM2.5 is a particularly harmful component of the ambient particulate matter mixture. PMID:25324558

  2. Age and characteristics of the Loma del Aire unit (SW Iberia): Implications for the regional correlation of the Ossa-Morena Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-García, T.; Quesada, C.; Bellido, F.; Dunning, G. R.; Pin, Ch.; Moreno-Eiris, E.; Perejón, A.

    2016-06-01

    Finding of ca. 620 Ma old zircons in a volcanic rock of the Loma del Aire unit, one of many structural divisions in the Ossa Morena Zone, some years ago, attracted much attention to this unit, which would contain, if proven, the oldest rocks so far dated not only in Ossa Morena but also in the entire Iberian Massif. In this paper, new field, petrographic, whole-rock geochemical and Sm-Nd isotope data as well as new TIMS U-Pb zircon ages are presented, which collectively allow a much better characterization and dating as Cambrian of the rock sequence in the Loma del Aire unit; the previously found ca. 620 Ma old zircon population is now interpreted as xenocrysts incorporated in the Cambrian magma. Our data together with recently published provenance studies, bear important implications concerning the nature and evolution of the underlying lithospheric basement of the Ossa Morena Zone, which shares many characteristics with the Neoproterozoic peri-West-African craton arc systems currently exposed in the Precambrian inliers of the Moroccan Anti-Atlas, the North Armorican Zone of Brittany, Normandy and the Channel Islands (Cadomian Arc), and the Saxo-Thuringian and Teplá-Barrandian Zones of the Bohemian Massif. A correlation of the Ossa Morena zone with these arc systems in the Neoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic is thus proposed.

  3. Measurements of Marine Vessel Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Middlebrook, A. M.

    2003-12-01

    Nitrogen and sulfur emissions from large marine vessels are a significant source of these species to the atmosphere. One estimate indicates that oxidized nitrogen from this source is at least 14% of all combustion emissions globally (1). More importantly, since approximately 70% of all ship emissions occur within 400 km of land (1) marine vessel emissions are of significance regionally in coastal areas and locally in ports. Marine vessel emissions are calculated from marine fuel usage and various emission factors, where sulfur emission factors depend on the sulfur content of fuel and nitrogen emission factors depend on the vessel engine type: slow-speed diesel, medium-speed diesel, and other (generally steam-turbine). Currently, the best available emission factors come from a Lloyd's Register of Shipping sponsored emissions research program. Measurements were made of emissions from engines during bench tests and from in-service marine vessels directly at the stack. While these results are the best available data, the significance of marine vessel emissions suggests that additional evaluation of emission factors be conducted. During the 2002 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS 2002) the NOAA research vessel Ronald H. Brown was equipped with trace gas and aerosol monitoring instrumentation for the purpose of investigating the factors that affect air quality in coastal New England. As a part of that study, measurements were made of gaseous and particulate emissions from marine vessels, both in port and underway. This talk will present those results and relate them to current inventory estimates of marine vessel emissions. (1) Corbett, J.J., et al., Global nitrogen and sulfur inventories for oceangoing ships, J. Geophy. Res., 104, 3457-3470, 1999.

  4. How Long Do Marine Organisms Live? Investigations in the Marine Environment for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This activity is designed to use a collection of marine bivalve shells. From these shells, students can determine approximate ages of the shells, compare weather conditions to shell ages, and learn problems of this technique. (RH)

  5. Perinatal Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Atopy at 1 Year of Age in a Multi-Center Canadian Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ryan W.; Becker, Allan; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Mandhane, Piush; Scott, James A.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Subbarao, Padmaja; Takaro, Tim K.; Turvey, Stuart E.; Brauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) exposure in the development of allergic sensitization in children is unclear, and few birth cohort studies have incorporated spatiotemporal exposure assessment. Objectives We aimed to examine the association between TRAP and atopy in 1-year-old children from an ongoing national birth cohort study in four Canadian cities. Methods We identified 2,477 children of approximately 1 year of age with assessment of atopy for inhalant (Alternaria, Der p, Der f, cat, dog, cockroach) and food-related (milk, eggs, peanuts, soy) allergens. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was estimated from city-specific land use regression models accounting for residential mobility and temporal variability in ambient concentrations. We used mixed models to examine associations between atopy and exposure during pregnancy and the first year of life, including adjustment for covariates (maternal atopy, socioeconomic status, pets, mold, nutrition). We also conducted analyses stratified by time-location patterns, daycare attendance, and modeled home ventilation. Results Following spatiotemporal adjustment, TRAP exposure after birth increased the risk for development of atopy to any allergens [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) per 10 μg/m3 NO2 = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.41], but not during pregnancy (aOR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.22). This association was stronger among children not attending daycare (aOR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.28, 2.01) compared with daycare attendees (aOR = 1.05; 95% CI: 0.81, 1.28). Trends to increased risk were also found for food (aOR = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.95, 1.47) and inhalant allergens (aOR = 1.28; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.76). Conclusion Using refined exposure estimates that incorporated temporal variability and residential mobility, we found that traffic-related air pollution during the first year of life was associated with atopy. Citation Sbihi H, Allen RW, Becker A, Brook JR, Mandhane P, Scott JA, Sears MR, Subbarao P, Takaro TK, Turvey SE

  6. Mercury in the marine boundary layer and seawater of the South China Sea: Concentrations, sea/air flux, and implication for land outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xuewu; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Gan; Xu, Weihai; Li, Xiangdong; Yao, Hen; Liang, Peng; Li, Jun; Sommar, Jonas; Yin, Runsheng; Liu, Na

    2010-03-01

    Using R/V Shiyan 3 as a sampling platform, measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), surface seawater total mercury (THg), methyl mercury (MeHg), and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) were carried out above and in the South China Sea (SCS). Measurements were collected for 2 weeks (10 to 28 August 2007) during an oceanographic expedition, which circumnavigated the northern SCS from Guangzhou (Canton), Hainan Inland, the Philippines, and back to Guangzhou. GEM concentrations over the northern SCS ranged from 1.04 to 6.75 ng m-3 (mean: 2.62 ng m-3, median: 2.24 ng m-3). The spatial distribution of GEM was characterized by elevated concentrations near the coastal sites adjacent to mainland China and lower concentrations at stations in the open sea. Trajectory analysis revealed that high concentrations of GEM were generally related to air masses from south China and the Indochina peninsula, while lower concentrations of GEM were related to air masses from the open sea area, reflecting great Hg emissions from south China and Indochina peninsula. The mean concentrations of THg, MeHg, and DGM in surface seawater were 1.2 ± 0.3 ng L-1, 0.12 ± 0.05 ng L-1, and 36.5 ± 14.9 pg L-1, respectively. In general, THg and MeHg levels in the northern SCS were higher compared to results reported from most other oceans/seas. Elevated THg levels in the study area were likely attributed to significant Hg delivery from surrounding areas of the SCS primarily via atmospheric deposition and riverine input, whereas other sources like in situ production by various biotic and abiotic processes may be important for MeHg. Average sea/air flux of Hg in the study area was estimated using a gas exchange method (4.5 ± 3.4 ng m-2 h-1). This value was comparable to those from other coastal areas and generally higher than those from open sea environments, which may be attributed to the reemission of Hg previously transported to this area.

  7. Marine Ecomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark W.; Gaylord, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The emerging field of marine ecomechanics provides an explicit physical framework for exploring interactions among marine organisms and between these organisms and their environments. It exhibits particular utility through its construction of predictive, mechanistic models, a number of which address responses to changing climatic conditions. Examples include predictions of (a) the change in relative abundance of corals as a function of colony morphology, ocean acidity, and storm intensity; (b) the rate of disturbance and patch formation in beds of mussels, a competitive dominant on many intertidal shores; (c) the dispersal and recruitment patterns of giant kelps, an important nearshore foundation species; (d) the effects of turbulence on external fertilization, a widespread method of reproduction in the sea; and (e) the long-term incidence of extreme ecological events. These diverse examples emphasize the breadth of marine ecomechanics. Indeed, its principles can be applied to any ecological system.

  8. Gestational Age Assessment in the Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS): Ultrasound Capacity Building, Fetal Biometry Protocol Development, and Ongoing Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Boamah, Ellen A; Asante, KP; Ae-Ngibise, KA; Kinney, Patrick L; Jack, Darby W; Manu, Grace; Azindow, Irene T; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2014-01-01

    Background Four million premature deaths occur yearly as a result of smoke from cooking fires. The Ghana Randomized Air Pollution and Health Study (GRAPHS) is underway in the Kintampo North municipality and South district of rural Ghana to evaluate the impact of improved cook stoves introduced during pregnancy on birth weight and childhood pneumonia. These hypotheses are being tested in a cluster-randomized intervention trial among 1415 maternal-infant pairs within 35 communities assigned to a control arm (traditional cooking) or one of two intervention arms (cooking with an improved biomass stove; cooking with liquefied petroleum gas stoves). Objective The trial is designed to ensure delivery of the stove intervention prior to the period of maximal fetal growth. To answer questions about the impact of household air pollution on pregnancy outcome, accurate gestational age assessment is critical. This manuscript describes in detail the development of the gestational dating protocol, intensive ultrasound training involved, ultrasound capacity building, and ultrasound quality control program. Methods Ultrasound training occurred in several phases over the course of 2 years. Training included a basic obstetric ultrasound course offered to all midwives performing antenatal care at the two study hospitals, followed by a more intense period of hands-on training focused on fetal biometry for a select group of providers demonstrating aptitude in the basic course. A standard operating procedure was developed describing how to obtain all fetal biometric measurements. Consensus was obtained on how biometric images are used in the trial to establish gestational age and estimate the delivery date. An ongoing ultrasound quality control program including the use of an image scorecard was also designed. Results Publication of trial results is anticipated in late 2016. Conclusions Use of ultrasound should be strongly considered in field-based trials involving pregnant women to

  9. The impacts of fireworks burning at Chinese Spring Festival on air quality and human health: insights of tracers, source evolution and aging processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, S.; Li, L.; Li, X.; Yin, Y.; Chen, K.; Liu, D.; Yuan, L.; Zhang, Y.; Shan, Y.; Ji, Y.

    2014-11-01

    To understand the impact of fireworks burning (FW) particles on air quality and human health during winter haze period, thirty-nine elements, ten water-soluble ions and eight fractions of carbonaceous species in atmospheric PM2.5 at Nanjing were investigated during 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF). Serious regional haze pollution persisted throughout the entire sampling period, PM2.5 averaging at 113 ± 69 μg m-3 and visibility at 4.8 ± 3.2 km. The holiday effect led to almost all the chemical species decreasing during the SF, except for Al, K, Ba and Sr which were related to FW. The source contributions of coal combustion, vehicle emission and road dust descreased dramatically, whereas FW contributed to about half of the PM2.5 during SF period. The intensive emission of FW particles at New Year's Eve accounted for 60.1% of the PM2.5. They also significnatly modified the chemical compositions of PM2.5, with 39.3% contributed by increased organic matter, followed by steadly increased loadings of secondary inorganic ions. The aging processes of the FW particles lasted for at least six days reflected by the variation of SO42-, characterized by heterogeneous reactions of SO2 and NOx on crustal materials directly from FW, the replacement of Cl- by NO3- and SO42- coating of NO3- and SO42- on soot, formation of secondary organic aerosols and metal-catalyzed formation of NO3- and SO42- at higher relative humidity. During aging, the main contributors to the extinction coefficient shifted from elemental carbon and organic matter to sulfate ammonium. The particles raised higher cancer risks by heavy metals (especially for Cd and As) as 1.62 ×10-6. This study provided detailed composition data and first comprehensive analysis of the aging processes of FW particles at serious haze pollution period and their potential impact on human health.

  10. The effects of high energy electron beam irradiation in air on accelerated aging and on the structure property relationships of low density polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Kieran A.; Kennedy, James E.; McEvoy, Brian; Vrain, Olivier; Ryan, Damien; Cowman, Richard; Higginbotham, Clement L.

    2013-02-01

    The response of low density polyethylene (LDPE) to high energy electron beam irradiation in air (10 MeV) between 25 and 400 kGy was examined and compared to non-irradiated polyethylene in terms of the mechanical and structural properties. To quantify the degree of crosslinking, swelling studies were performed and from this it was observed that the crosslink density increased as the irradiation dose increased. Furthermore, a reduction was observed in the numerical data for molar mass between adjacent crosslinks and the number of monomeric units between adjacent crosslinks as the irradiation dose was conducted incrementally. Accelerated aging provided evidence that radicals became trapped in the polymer matrix of LDPE and this in turn initiated further reactions to transpire as time elapsed, leading to additional alteration in the structural properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was implemented to provide insight into this. This technique established that the aging process had increased the oxidative degradation products due to oxygen permeation into the polymer and double bonds within the material. Mechanical testing revealed an increase in the tensile strength and a decrease in the elongation at break. Accelerated aging caused additional modifications to occur in the mechanical properties which are further elucidated throughout this study. Dynamic frequency sweeps investigated the effects of irradiation on the structural properties of LDPE. The effect of varying the irradiation dose concentration was apparent as this controlled the level of crosslinking within the material. Maxwell and Kelvin or Voigt models were employed in this analytical technique to define the reaction procedure of the frequency sweep test with regards to non-crosslinked and crosslinked LDPE.

  11. Marine Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, J. W., III

    1975-01-01

    The papers presented in the marine session may be broadly grouped into several classes: microwave region instruments compared to infrared and visible region sensors, satellite techniques compared to aircraft techniques, open ocean applications compared to coastal region applications, and basic research and understanding of ocean phenomena compared to research techniques that offer immediate applications.

  12. Marine Mammals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meith, Nikki

    Marine mammals have not only fascinated and inspired human beings for thousands of years, but they also support a big business by providing flesh for sea-borne factories, sustaining Arctic lifestyles and traditions, and attracting tourists to ocean aquaria. While they are being harpooned, bludgeoned, shot, netted, and trained to jump through…

  13. Marine Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Alan

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in marine trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  14. Marine radiocarbon reservoir age variation in Donax obesulus shells from northern Peru: late Holocene evidence for extended El Niño

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etayo-Cadavid, Miguel F.; Andrus, C. Fred T.; Jones, Kevin B.; Hodgins, Gregory W. L.; Sandweiss, Daniel H.; Uceda-Castillo, Sandiago; Quilter, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    For at least 6 m.y., El Niño events have posed the greatest environmental risk on the Peruvian coast. A better understanding of El Niño is essential for predicting future risk and growth in this tropical desert. To achieve this we analyzed archaeological and modern pre-bomb shells from the surf clam Donax for the radiocarbon reservoir effect (ΔR) to characterize late Holocene coastal upwelling conditions in northern Peru (8°14′S). Mean ΔR values from these shells suggest that modern upwelling conditions in this region were likely established between A.D. 539 and A.D. 1578. Our radiocarbon data suggest that upwelling conditions ca. A.D. 539 were less intense than those in modern times. The observed coastal water enrichment in 14C may be consequence of frequent strong El Niño events or extended El Niño–like conditions. These ΔR-inferred marine conditions are in agreement with proposed extended El Niño activity in proxy and archaeological records of ca. A.D. 475–530. Extended El Niño conditions have been linked to political destabilization, societal transformation, and collapse of the Moche civilization in northern Peru. A return to such conditions would have significant impacts on the dense population of this region today and in the near future.

  15. Formation, reactivity, and aging of ferric oxide particles formed from Fe(II) and Fe(III) sources: Implications for iron bioavailability in the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bligh, Mark W.; Waite, T. David

    2011-12-01

    Freshly formed amorphous ferric oxides (AFO) in the water column are potentially highly reactive, but with reactivity declining rapidly with age, and have the capacity to partake in reactions with dissolved species and to be a significant source of bioavailable iron. However, the controls on reactivity in aggregated oxides are not well understood. Additionally, the mechanism by which early rapid aging occurs is not clear. Aging is typically considered in terms of changes in crystallinity as the structure of an iron oxide becomes more stable and ordered with time thus leading to declining reactivity. However, there has been recognition of the role that aggregation can play in determining reactivity, although it has received limited attention. Here, we have formed AFO in seawater in the laboratory from either an Fe(II) or Fe(III) source to produce either AFO(II) or AFO(III). The changes in reactivity of these two oxides following formation was measured using both ligand-promoted dissolution (LPD) and reductive dissolution (RD). The structure of the two oxides was examined using light scattering and X-ray adsorption techniques. The dissolution rate of AFO(III) was greater than that of AFO(II), as measured by both dissolution techniques, and could be attributed to both the less ordered molecular structure and smaller primary particle size of AFO(III). From EXAFS analysis shortly (90 min) following formation, AFO(II) and AFO(III) were shown to have the same structure as aged lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite respectively. Both oxides displayed a rapid decrease in dissolution rate over the first hours following formation in a pattern that was very similar when normalised. The early establishment and little subsequent change of crystal structure for both oxides undermined the hypothesis that increasing crystallinity was responsible for early rapid aging. Also, an aging model describing this proposed process could only be fitted to the data with kinetic parameters that were

  16. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  18. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  1. Genome-Wide Analysis of DNA Methylation and Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution in Three Study Populations: KORA F3, KORA F4, and the Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Panni, Tommaso; Mehta, Amar J.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Just, Allan C.; Wolf, Kathrin; Wahl, Simone; Cyrys, Josef; Kunze, Sonja; Strauch, Konstantin; Waldenberger, Melanie; Peters, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) concentrations and cancer and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. DNA methylation has been identified as a possible link but so far it has only been analyzed in candidate sites. Objectives: We studied the association between DNA methylation and short- and mid-term air pollution exposure using genome-wide data and identified potential biological pathways for additional investigation. Methods: We collected whole blood samples from three independent studies—KORA F3 (2004–2005) and F4 (2006–2008) in Germany, and the Normative Aging Study (1999–2007) in the United States—and measured genome-wide DNA methylation proportions with the Illumina 450k BeadChip. PM concentration was measured daily at fixed monitoring stations and three different trailing averages were considered and regressed against DNA methylation: 2-day, 7-day and 28-day. Meta-analysis was performed to pool the study-specific results. Results: Random-effect meta-analysis revealed 12 CpG (cytosine-guanine dinucleotide) sites as associated with PM concentration (1 for 2-day average, 1 for 7-day, and 10 for 28-day) at a genome-wide Bonferroni significance level (p ≤ 7.5E-8); 9 out of these 12 sites expressed increased methylation. Through estimation of I2 for homogeneity assessment across the studies, 4 of these sites (annotated in NSMAF, C1orf212, MSGN1, NXN) showed p > 0.05 and I2 < 0.5: the site from the 7-day average results and 3 for the 28-day average. Applying false discovery rate, p-value < 0.05 was observed in 8 and 1,819 additional CpGs at 7- and 28-day average PM2.5 exposure respectively. Conclusion: The PM-related CpG sites found in our study suggest novel plausible systemic pathways linking ambient PM exposure to adverse health effect through variations in DNA methylation. Citation: Panni T, Mehta AJ, Schwartz JD, Baccarelli AA, Just AC, Wolf K, Wahl S, Cyrys J, Kunze S, Strauch K

  2. Hyperextension along the pre-Caledonian margin of the Iapetus? Age and origin of discontinuous gneiss sheets associated with deep-marine sediments, Alpine metaperidotites and detrital serpentinites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakob, Johannes; Alsaif, Manar; Corfu, Fernando; Andersen, Torgeir B.

    2016-04-01

    A mélange zone is positioned structurally below some large Proterozoic crystalline nappe complexes (NC), including the Upper Bergsdalen, Jotun and Lindås NCs in the South Norwegian Caledonides. The mélange is characterized by a lithological association of originally deep marine sediments intercalated with some coarser grained siliciclastic metasediments including meta-sandstone and conglomerates, thin slivers of gneisses, as well as detrital serpentinites and 'Alpine-type' metaperidotites. The formation of the mélange and particularly the origin of the detrital serpentinites are disputed. Several models have been suggested including formation as a) an ophiolitic mélange during ophiolite obduction, b) an unconformable post-obduction transgressive sequence or c) a mélange formed during hyperextension along the pre-Caledonian margin of Baltica. Here we present new ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology of zircon and titanite separated from some of the laterally discontinuous gneiss slivers of variably granitic to gabbroic composition. These gneisses are intercalated with the metasediments as sheets with a maximum strike length of up to 40 km, in the case of the Haukenes gneiss in the Bergen area. Two main groups of gneisses can be distinguished; a) rocks formed at ca. 1495 Ma, 1212 Ma, and 1094 Ma, respectively and b) felsic to mafic meta-intrusives formed in the Early Ordovician between 486 and 474 Ma. In the Samnanger Complex the mélange was truncated by little deformed minor granitoid intrusives at 420 Ma. We propose a Baltican origin for the Mesoproterozoic gneisses. This also implies that the mélange has an affinity with Baltica as is also suggested by its tectonostratigraphic position below the Jotun, Lindås and Upper Bergsdalen Nappe complexes.

  3. The Interdisciplinary Nature of Marine Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Michael W.

    1978-01-01

    This article is an introduction to "Oceanaids." An Oceanaid is a list of ideas for the teacher on how he or she may incorporate interdisciplinary topics from the marine sciences into everyday classes, regardless of the subject matter or pupil age. A typical Oceanaid, Marine Mammals, is included. (Author/BB)

  4. Marine Education: Progress and Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Wildman, Terry M.

    1980-01-01

    Examined are the scope and status of precollege marine education, including history of marine education, present interdisciplinary marine education, informal approaches to marine education, marine awareness studies, and some implications of marine education. (Author/DS)

  5. Marine cloud brightening

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, Hugh; Connolly, Paul; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Phillip; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Rob

    2012-01-01

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could—subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein—have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seed-particle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud–albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100×100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action

  6. Marine Cloud Brightening

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, John; Bower, Keith; Choularton, Tom; Coe, H.; Connolly, P.; Cooper, Gary; Craft, Tim; Foster, Jack; Gadian, Alan; Galbraith, Lee; Iacovides, Hector; Johnston, David; Launder, Brian; Leslie, Brian; Meyer, John; Neukermans, Armand; Ormond, Bob; Parkes, Ben; Rasch, Philip J.; Rush, John; Salter, Stephen; Stevenson, Tom; Wang, Hailong; Wang, Qin; Wood, Robert

    2012-09-07

    The idea behind the marine cloud-brightening (MCB) geoengineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with copious quantities of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre sea water particles might significantly enhance the cloud droplet number concentration, and thereby the cloud albedo and possibly longevity. This would produce a cooling, which general circulation model (GCM) computations suggest could - subject to satisfactory resolution of technical and scientific problems identified herein - have the capacity to balance global warming up to the carbon dioxide-doubling point. We describe herein an account of our recent research on a number of critical issues associated with MCB. This involves (i) GCM studies, which are our primary tools for evaluating globally the effectiveness of MCB, and assessing its climate impacts on rainfall amounts and distribution, and also polar sea-ice cover and thickness; (ii) high-resolution modelling of the effects of seeding on marine stratocumulus, which are required to understand the complex array of interacting processes involved in cloud brightening; (iii) microphysical modelling sensitivity studies, examining the influence of seeding amount, seedparticle salt-mass, air-mass characteristics, updraught speed and other parameters on cloud-albedo change; (iv) sea water spray-production techniques; (v) computational fluid dynamics studies of possible large-scale periodicities in Flettner rotors; and (vi) the planning of a three-stage limited-area field research experiment, with the primary objectives of technology testing and determining to what extent, if any, cloud albedo might be enhanced by seeding marine stratocumulus clouds on a spatial scale of around 100 km. We stress that there would be no justification for deployment of MCB unless it was clearly established that no significant adverse consequences would result. There would also need to be an international agreement firmly in favour of such action.

  7. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation Appears to Attenuate Particulate Air Pollution-induced Cardiac Effects and Lipid Changes in Healthy Middle-aged Adults.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Context: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. A recent epidemiologic study reported that omega-3 fatty acid (fish oil) supplementation blunted the cardiac responses to air pollution exposure. Objective: To evaluate in a randomized contro...

  8. Marine Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The marine turbine pump pictured is the Jacuzzi 12YJ, a jet propulsion system for pleasure or commercial boating. Its development was aided by a NASA computer program made available by the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) at the University of Georgia. The manufacturer, Jacuzzi Brothers, Incorporated, Little Rock, Arkansas, used COSMIC'S Computer Program for Predicting Turbopump Inducer Loading, which enabled substantial savings in development time and money through reduction of repetitive testing.

  9. The impacts of firework burning at the Chinese Spring Festival on air quality: insights of tracers, source evolution and aging processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, S. F.; Li, L.; Li, X. X.; Yin, Y.; Chen, K.; Liu, D. T.; Yuan, L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Shan, Y. P.; Ji, Y. Q.

    2015-02-01

    To understand the impact of firework-burning (FW) particles on air quality and human health during the winter haze period, 39 elements, 10 water-soluble ions and 8 fractions of carbonaceous species in atmospheric PM2.5 in Nanjing were investigated during the 2014 Chinese Spring Festival (SF). Serious regional haze pollution persisted throughout the entire sampling period, with PM2.5 averaging at 113 ± 69 μg m-3 and visibility at 4.8 ± 3.2 km. The holiday effect led to almost all the chemical species decreasing during the SF, except for Al, K, Ba and Sr which were related to FW. The source contributions of coal combustion, vehicle emission and road dust decreased dramatically, whereas FW contributed to about half of the PM2.5 during the SF period. The intensive emission of FW particles on New Year's Eve accounted for 60.1% of the PM2.5. Fireworks also obviously modified the chemical compositions of PM2.5, with 39.3% contributed by increased organic matter, followed by steadily increased loadings of secondary inorganic ions. The aging processes of the FW particles lasted for about 4 days reflected by the variations of Ba, Sr, NH4+, NO3-, SO42- and K+, characterized by heterogeneous reactions of SO2 and NOx on crustal materials directly from FW, the replacement of Cl- by NO3- and SO42-, coating of NO3- and SO42- on soot, formation of secondary organic aerosols and metal-catalyzed formation of NO3- and SO42- at higher relative humidity. During aging, the main contributors to the extinction coefficient shifted from elemental carbon and organic matter to ammonium sulfate. The particles raised higher cancer risk of 1.62 × 10-6 by heavy metals (especially for Cd and As). This study provided detailed composition data and first comprehensive analysis of the aging processes of FW particles during the serious haze pollution period and their potential impact on human health.

  10. The Relationship of Loss, Mean Age of Air and the Distribution of CFCs to Stratospheric Circulation and Implications for Atmospheric Lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Jackman, C. H.; Guptal, M. L.; Newman, P. A.; Nielsen, J. E.; Fleming, E. L.

    2007-01-01

    Man-made molecules called chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs) are broken apart in the stratosphere by high energy light, and the reactive chlorine gases that come from them cause the ozone hole. Since the ozone layer stops high energy light from reaching low altitudes, CFCs must be transported to high altitudes to be broken apart. The number of molecules per volume (the density) is much smaller at high altitudes than near the surface, and CFC molecules have a very small chance of reaching that altitude in any particular year. Many tons of CFCs were put into the atmosphere during the end of the last century, and it will take many years for all of them to be destroyed. Each CFC has an atmospheric lifetime that depends on the amount of energy required to break them apart. Two of the gases that were made the most are CFC13 and CF2C12. It takes more energy to break apart CF2C12 than CFC13, and its lifetime is about 100 years, nearly twice as long as the lifetime for CFC13. It is hard to figure out the lifetimes from surface measurements because we don't know exactly how much was released into the air each year. Atmospheric models are used to predict what will happen to ozone and other gases as the CFCs decrease and other gases like C02 continue to increase during the next century. CFC lifetimes are used to predict future concentrations and all assessment models use the predicted future concentrations. The models have different circulations and the amount of CFC lost according to the model may not match the loss that is expected according to the lifetime. In models the amount destroyed per year depends on how fast the model pushes air into the stratosphere and how much goes to high altitudes each year. This paper looks at the way the model circulation changes the lifetimes, and looks at measurements that tell us which model is more realistic. Some models do a good job reproducing the age-of-air, which tells us that these models are circulating the stratospheric air at the right

  11. Marine loading vapor control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Babet, F.H.

    1996-09-01

    The EPA and State air quality control boards have mandated the collection and destruction or recovery of vapors generated by the loading of some hydrocarbons and chemicals into marine vessels. This is a brief overview of the main US Coast Guard requirements for marine vapor control systems. As with most regulations, they are open to interpretation. In an attempt to more clearly define the intent of the regulations, the US Coast Guard has issued guidelines to assist the certifying entities in ensuring compliance with intended regulations. If a company is contemplating the installation of a marine loading vapor control system, the authors strongly recommend that one engage the services of a certifying entity, either as the designer, or an advisor and ultimately the certifier of the system. This should be done well up front in the design of the system to avoid costly mistakes which can occur as a result of lack of knowledge or misinterpretation of the regulations and guidelines.

  12. Modeling organic aerosols over east China using a volatility basis-set approach with aging mechanism in a regional air quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhiwei; Xie, Zuxin; Wang, Gehui; Zhang, Renjian; Tao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A volatility basis set approach with chemical aging mechanism has been incorporated into a regional air quality model system (RAQMS) and used to investigate the distribution of organic aerosols (OA) over east China in April 2009, with focus on secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in fine particle and relative contributions from a series of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC precursors. The comparison between the VBS approach prediction and observation at four sites in east China demonstrates a significant improvement in SOA and OA concentrations compared with the traditional two-product model, which predicts very low SOA level. The average value of secondary organic carbon (SOC) for all sites predicted by the VBS approach with chemical aging is 2.8 μgC m-3, quite close to the estimated value of 3.3 μgC m-3. The SOC fraction of organic carbon (OC) also increases from just 5% predicted by the two-product model to 33% by the VBS approach with aging, close to the estimated fraction of 32%, suggesting a more realistic and precise representation of SOA formation by the VBS approach. The enhanced SOC prediction further improve OC prediction, reducing the normalized mean bias from -43% to -18%. The VBS approach with aging predicts SOA concentration in PM2.5 of 5-10 μg m-3 over most parts of east China. The predicted ASOA concentrations vary from 5.0 to 7.5 μg m-3 in the Pearl River Delta, the Yangtze River Delta and the wide areas north of the Yangtze River. BSOA is predicted to be 1.0-2.5 μg m-3 across the regions from southeast China to the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River. Prediction with the VBS approach exhibits that ASOA becomes dominant component of SOA, which is more realistic as compared to the BSOA dominance by the two-product model. The domain-average surface POA and SOA concentrations predicted by the VBS approach with aging over east China are 4.86 μg m-3 and 4.45 μg m-3, with the SOA fraction of total OA and the ASOA fraction of SOA

  13. Dimethylsulfoxide and dimethylsulfone in the marine atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, George R.; Lang, Russell F.

    1986-01-01

    New isolation and detection methods were developed to measure dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and dimethylsulfone (DMSO2) in marine rain and marine air masses. Central equatorial Pacific rain contained 1 to 10 µg/ℓ of each of these compounds. Uncontaminated air sampled off Miami contained 2 to 6 ng/m³ of each component. These concentrations suggest that DMSO and DMSO2 may be as significant as dimethylsulfide (DMS) in marine sulfur transport. In fact, DMSO was observed to undergo disproportionation in illuminated seawater or distilled water to DMS and DMSO2. This latter observation implies a partially reversible loop in the sulfur transport cycle and complicates the calculation of the flux of sulfur into the marine boundary layer.

  14. An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs from Southern Greater Buenos Aires (Argentina): age, gender, breed, mixed infections, and seasonal and spatial patterns.

    PubMed

    Fontanarrosa, María F; Vezzani, Darío; Basabe, Julia; Eiras, Diego F

    2006-03-31

    A total of 2193 fecal samples from owned dogs were collected during the 2003-2004 period in Southern Greater Buenos Aires, and were evaluated for the presence of intestinal parasites by a flotation-centrifugation method. The overall prevalence was 52.4%, and the 11 species found were: Ancylostoma caninum (13%), Isospora ohioensis complex (12%), Toxocara canis (11%), Trichuris vulpis (10%), Sarcocystis sp. (10%), Giardia duodenalis (9%), Isospora canis (3%), Hammondia-Neospora complex (3%), Dipilydium caninum (18 cases), Cryptosporidium sp. (5 cases), and Toxascaris leonina (1 case). There was no significant difference in the overall prevalence between genders (female = 50.4%, male = 54.6%), and breeds (pure = 52.3%, mixed = 53%), but prevalence in puppies (<1 year) was higher than in adult dogs (62.7% versus 40.8%, respectively). Only the prevalence of A. caninum differed between genders, with higher values for males. The prevalences of six of the parasite species showed a decreasing trend with increasing host age, and an inverse pattern was found for two other species. The prevalences of three protozoa were significantly higher in pure-breed dogs, and those of two nematodes were significantly higher in mixed-breed dogs. The prevalences of T. canis, A. caninum, and T. vulpis were spatially heterogeneous with a clear Southwest-Northeast gradient. Only prevalences of Sarcocystis sp. and G. duodenalis showed seasonal variation. The frequency distribution of the number of species per fecal sample did not differ from a random distribution. Results obtained throughout the world were discussed. PMID:16364551

  15. Marine Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. H.; Green, D.

    Marine diesel engines are classified by speed, either large (medium speed) or very large (slow speed) with high efficiencies and burning low-quality fuel. Slow-speed engines, up to 200 rpm, are two-stroke with separate combustion chamber and sump connected by a crosshead, with trunk and system oil lubricants for each. Medium-speed diesels, 300-1500 rpm, are of conventional automotive design with one lubricant. Slow-speed engines use heavy fuel oil of much lower quality than conventional diesel with problems of deposit cleanliness, acidity production and oxidation. Lubricants are mainly SAE 30/40/50 monogrades using paraffinic basestocks. The main types of additives are detergents/dispersants, antioxidants, corrosion inhibitors, anti-wear/load-carrying/ep, pour-point depressants and anti-foam compounds. There are no simple systems for classifying marine lubricants, as for automotive, because of the wide range of engine design, ratings and service applications they serve. There are no standard tests; lubricant suppliers use their own tests or the Bolnes 3DNL, with final proof from field tests. Frequent lubricant analyses safeguard engines and require standard sampling procedures before determination of density, viscosity, flash point, insolubles, base number, water and wear metal content.

  16. A Spinoff from Mariner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Among the technologies incorporated into the later Mariner missions was a dry film lubricant which offered exceptional lubrication quality for reduced friction and extended wear-life of mating parts in harsh interplanetary environments. Micro Surface Corporation acquired this technology, and currently market it as WS2 modified tungsten disulfide coating. A pressurized refrigerated air application process impinges a dry metallic WS2 coating without heat, curing, binders or adhesives. The coating binds instantly to metal or resin substrates with a 20 millionths of an inch thickness. Performance has been excellent in a variety of industries, particularly in plastics where in some operations, the coating increases production by reducing drag between tool steel and resin. Other advantages include product quality improvement, extension of equipment service life and maintenance elimination or reduction.

  17. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F. ); McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C. )

    1992-04-01

    The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

  18. Simulating secondary organic aerosol in a regional air quality model using the statistical oxidation model - Part 1: Assessing the influence of constrained multi-generational ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, S. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Wexler, A. S.; Seinfeld, J. H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Multi-generational oxidation of volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation products can significantly alter the mass, chemical composition and properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) compared to calculations that consider only the first few generations of oxidation reactions. However, the most commonly used state-of-the-science schemes in 3-D regional or global models that account for multi-generational oxidation (1) consider only functionalization reactions but do not consider fragmentation reactions, (2) have not been constrained to experimental data and (3) are added on top of existing parameterizations. The incomplete description of multi-generational oxidation in these models has the potential to bias source apportionment and control calculations for SOA. In this work, we used the statistical oxidation model (SOM) of Cappa and Wilson (2012), constrained by experimental laboratory chamber data, to evaluate the regional implications of multi-generational oxidation considering both functionalization and fragmentation reactions. SOM was implemented into the regional University of California at Davis / California Institute of Technology (UCD/CIT) air quality model and applied to air quality episodes in California and the eastern USA. The mass, composition and properties of SOA predicted using SOM were compared to SOA predictions generated by a traditional two-product model to fully investigate the impact of explicit and self-consistent accounting of multi-generational oxidation.Results show that SOA mass concentrations predicted by the UCD/CIT-SOM model are very similar to those predicted by a two-product model when both models use parameters that are derived from the same chamber data. Since the two-product model does not explicitly resolve multi-generational oxidation reactions, this finding suggests that the chamber data used to parameterize the models captures the majority of the SOA mass formation from multi-generational oxidation under the conditions

  19. 29 CFR 1917.155 - Air receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air receivers. 1917.155 Section 1917.155 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.155 Air receivers. (a) Application. This section applies to compressed air receivers and equipment used for operations such as...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.155 - Air receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air receivers. 1917.155 Section 1917.155 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.155 Air receivers. (a) Application. This section applies to compressed air receivers and equipment used for operations such as...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.155 - Air receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air receivers. 1917.155 Section 1917.155 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.155 Air receivers. (a) Application. This section applies to compressed air receivers and equipment used for operations such as...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.155 - Air receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air receivers. 1917.155 Section 1917.155 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.155 Air receivers. (a) Application. This section applies to compressed air receivers and equipment used for operations such as...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.155 - Air receivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air receivers. 1917.155 Section 1917.155 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.155 Air receivers. (a) Application. This section applies to compressed air receivers and equipment used for operations such as...

  4. Marine antivenoms.

    PubMed

    Currie, Bart J

    2003-01-01

    There is an enormous diversity and complexity of venoms and poisons in marine animals. Fatalities have occurred from envenoming by sea snakes, jellyfish, venomous fish such as stonefish, cone snails, and blue-ringed octopus. Deaths have also followed ingestion of toxins in shellfish, puffer fish (Fugu), and ciguatoxin-containing fish. However antivenoms are generally only available for envenoming by certain sea snakes, the major Australian box jellyfish (Chironex fleckeri) and stonefish. There have been difficulties in characterizing the toxins of C. fleckeri venom, and there are conflicting animals studies on the efficacy of C. fleckeri antivenom. The vast majority of C. fleckeri stings are not life-threatening, with painful skin welts the major finding. However fatalities that do occur usually do so within 5 to 20 minutes of the sting. This unprecedented rapid onset of cardiotoxicity in clinical envenoming suggests that antivenom may need to be given very early (within minutes) and possibly in large doses if a life is to be saved. Forty years of anecdotal experience supports the beneficial effect of stonefish antivenom in relieving the excruciating pain after stonefish spine penetration. It remains uncertain whether stonefish antivenom is efficacious in stings from spines of other venomous fish, and the recommendation of giving the antivenom intramuscularly needs reassessment. PMID:12807313

  5. 77 FR 25435 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School Training Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and implementing regulations, notification is hereby given that a LOA has been issued to the U.S. Department of the Air Force, Headquarters 96th Air Base Wing (U.S. Air Force), Eglin Air Force Base (Eglin AFB) to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal School (NEODS) training......

  6. 77 FR 60109 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Harbor Activities Related to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...In accordance with the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) regulations, notification is hereby given that NMFS has issued an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to United Launch Alliance (ULA), to take marine mammals, by Level B harassment, incidental to conducting Delta Mariner activities related to the Delta IV/Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (Delta IV/EELV) at south Vandenberg Air......

  7. Ageing of organic electrical insulating materials due to radiation—II. Physical properties of a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin irradiated in moisture saturated air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spadaro, G.; Calderaro, E.; Rizzo, G.

    Physical properties of a cycloaliphatic epoxy resin irradiated in moisture saturated air have been investigated. In particular dynamic-medical, dielectric and tensile measurements have been performed. The results suggest that at low irradiation doses the degradation, due to moisture absorption, predominates, whereas at high doses the main effect is an increase of the degree of crosslinking due to irradiation.

  8. Effects of Thermal Cycling and Thermal Aging on the Hermeticity and Strength of Silver-Copper Oxide Air-Brazed Seals

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Coyle, Christopher A.; Darsell, Jens T.; Xia, Gordon; Hardy, John S.

    2005-12-01

    Thermal cycle and exposure tests were conducted on ceramic-to-metal joints prepared by a new sealing technique. Known as reactive air brazing, this joining method is currently being considered for use in sealing various high-temperature solid-state electrochemical devices, including planar solid oxide fuel cells (pSOFC). In order to simulate a typical pSOFC application, test specimens were prepared by joining ceramic anode/electrolyte bilayers to washers, of the same composition as the common frame materials employed in pSOFC stacks, using a filler metal composed of 4mol% CuO in silver. The brazed samples were exposure tested at 750°C for 200, 400, and 800hrs in both simulated fuel and air environments and thermally cycled at rapid rate (75°C/min) between room temperature and 750°C for as many as fifty cycles. Subsequent joint strength testing and microstructural analysis indicated that the samples exposure tested in air displayed little degradation with respect to strength, hermeticity, or microstructure out to 800hrs of exposure. Those tested in fuel showed no change in rupture strength or loss in hermeticity after 800hrs of high-temperature exposure, but did undergo microstructural change due to the dissolution of hydrogen into the silver-based braze material. Air brazed specimens subjected to rapid thermal cycling exhibited no loss in joint strength or hermeticity, but displayed initial signs of seal delamination along the braze/electrolyte interface after 50 cycles.

  9. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  10. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, ... a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  11. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  12. Supermarket Marine Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Jennifer A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes a survey used to determine the availability of intact marine vertebrates and live invertebrates in supermarkets. Results shows that local supermarkets frequently provide a variety of intact marine organisms suitable for demonstrations, experiments, or dissections. (ZWH)

  13. Frontiers of marine science

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Thomas J.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.

    2011-01-01

    On 9–13 October 2010 early career scientists from the UK and Australia across marine research fields were given the opportunity to come together in Perth, Australia to discuss the frontiers of marine research and exchange ideas. PMID:21208943

  14. Dangerous marine life.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L J

    1992-09-01

    All physicians must be educated in treating injuries incurred when a diver comes into contact with any dangerous marine life. Stinging invertebrates are the most commonly encountered dangerous marine animals. Venomous vertebrate marine animals are less common than stinging invertebrates and easier to recognize. However, they may be much more deadly. Sharks pose the greatest danger to divers. However, bites from other marine animals can be painful, become infected and require extensive medical treatment. PMID:1358999

  15. Marine vehicle ride quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gornstein, R. J.; Shultz, W. M.; Stair, L. D.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of marine vehicle design on passenger exposure to vibration and discomfort are discussed. The ride quality of advanced marine vehicles is examined. as a basis for marine vehicle selection in modern water transport systems. The physiological effects of rough water on passengers are identified as requiring investigation in order to determine the acceptable limits.

  16. Marine Education Knowledge Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 35-item, multiple-choice Marine Education Knowledge Inventory was developed for use in upper elementary/middle schools to measure a student's knowledge of marine science. Content of test items is drawn from oceanography, ecology, earth science, navigation, and the biological sciences (focusing on marine animals). Steps in the construction of…

  17. Marine Education Materials System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammisch, Sue; Gray, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Described is a marine education materials clearinghouse, the Marine Education Materials System (MEMS). MEMS classifies marine education documents and reproduces them on microfiche for distribution. There are 25 distribution centers, each of which has a collection of documents and provides assistance on a request basis to teachers. (Author/DS)

  18. Marine Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS) Field Development System-1 (FDS-1) assessment: Final report. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Avery, L.W.; Hunt, S.T.; Savage, S.F.; McLaughlin, P.D.; Shepdard, A.P.; Worl, J.C.

    1992-04-01

    The United State Marine Corps (USMC) is continuing the development and fielding of the Marine Corps Tactical Command and Control System (MTACCS), a system which exists in varying states of development, fielding, or modernization. MTACCS is currently composed of the following components: Tactical Combat Operations System (TCO) for ground command and control (C2), Intelligence Analysis System (IAS) with a Genser terminal connected to a TCO workstation for intelligence C2, Marine Integrated Personnel System (MIPS) and a TCO workstation using the Marine Combat Personnel System (MCPERS) software for personnel C2, Marine Integrated Logistics System (MILOGS) which is composed of the Landing Force Asset Distribution System (LFADS), the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) II, and a TCO terminal using the Marine Combat Logistics System (MCLOG) for logistics C2, Marine Corps Fire Support System (MCFSS) for fire support C2, and Advanced Tactical Air Command Central (ATACC) and the Improved Direct Air Support Central for aviation C2.

  19. The Nubian Complex of Dhofar, Oman: An African Middle Stone Age Industry in Southern Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Jeffrey I.; Usik, Vitaly I.; Marks, Anthony E.; Hilbert, Yamandu H.; Galletti, Christopher S.; Parton, Ash; Geiling, Jean Marie; Černý, Viktor; Morley, Mike W.; Roberts, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the numerous studies proposing early human population expansions from Africa into Arabia during the Late Pleistocene, no archaeological sites have yet been discovered in Arabia that resemble a specific African industry, which would indicate demographic exchange across the Red Sea. Here we report the discovery of a buried site and more than 100 new surface scatters in the Dhofar region of Oman belonging to a regionally-specific African lithic industry - the late Nubian Complex - known previously only from the northeast and Horn of Africa during Marine Isotope Stage 5, ∼128,000 to 74,000 years ago. Two optically stimulated luminescence age estimates from the open-air site of Aybut Al Auwal in Oman place the Arabian Nubian Complex at ∼106,000 years ago, providing archaeological evidence for the presence of a distinct northeast African Middle Stone Age technocomplex in southern Arabia sometime in the first half of Marine Isotope Stage 5. PMID:22140561

  20. Protection of Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Michaela; Ciaccia, Ettore; Dekeling, René; Kvadsheim, Petter; Liddell, Kate; Gunnarsson, Stig-Lennart; Ludwig, Stefan; Nissen, Ivor; Lorenzen, Dirk; Kreimeyer, Roman; Pavan, Gianni; Meneghetti, Nello; Nordlund, Nina; Benders, Frank; van der Zwan, Timo; van Zon, Tim; Fraser, Leanne; Johansson, Torbjörn; Garmelius, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Within the European Defense Agency (EDA), the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project, a comprehensive common marine mammal database essential for risk mitigation tools, was established. The database, built on an extensive dataset collection with the focus on areas of operational interest for European navies, consists of annual and seasonal distribution and density maps, random and systematic sightings, an encyclopedia providing knowledge on the characteristics of 126 marine mammal species, data on marine mammal protection areas, and audio information including numerous examples of various vocalizations. Special investigations on marine mammal acoustics were carried out to improve the detection and classification capabilities. PMID:26611003

  1. Marine sewage disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.W.

    1981-03-03

    An activated sludge marine sewage disposal apparatus is described that includes an aeration chamber immediately adjacent to a flooded settling tank, rising above a disinfectant chamber and a holding chamber disposed around the lower part of the tank. Flow from the aeration chamber to the settling tank is through a port in the common wall between the aeration chamber and settling tank, and up inside a pond separated from the rest of the tank by a downwardly flaring baffle of skirt depending from the top of the tank. A single shimmer at the center of the area at the top of the pond picks up floating solids and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber. A vent disposed directly over the shimmer continuously draws off air and gas to the aeration chamber. A sludge return line picks up heavy solids for the bottom of the tank and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber through a riser located in the aeration chamber. Liquid in the settling tank flows out through a submerged perforated pipe into a standpipe in the aeration chamber, with is located centrally in the aeration chamber, and overflows through an inverted U tube, vented to the aeration chamber, the tube connecting to a downcomer sending the liquid back through the common wall to the disinfectant compartment. When sufficient volume of fluid accumulates in the disinfectant compartment, it overflows into a holding tank, from which it emerges via a port.

  2. Comparison of the weight loss and adherence of nine different polyimide films thermally aged at 315 C and 350 C in air. [high temperature lubricants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fusaro, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Thermal exposure experiments at 315 and 350 C were performed in air on nine different types of polyimides applied to thin 304 stainless steel foils. The tests were conducted to determine which polyimide was the most thermally stable and adherent when subjected to long exposure times at elevated temperatures. One polyimide designated PIC-7 was found to be more thermally stable than the others; however, it did not possess the adherent properties of PIC-2 and PIC-5. It was concluded that as far as thermal stability and adherence are concerned, five of the polyimides are more suitable for high temperature applications than the other four.

  3. Correlates of hot day air-conditioning use among middle-aged and older adults with chronic heart and lung diseases: the role of health beliefs and cues to action.

    PubMed

    Richard, Lucie; Kosatsky, Tom; Renouf, Annie

    2011-02-01

    Extreme ambient heat is a serious public health threat, especially for the elderly and persons with pre-existing health conditions. Although much of the excess mortality and morbidity associated with extreme heat is preventable, the adoption of effective preventive strategies is limited. The study reported here tested the predictive power of selected components of the Health Belief Model for air-conditioning (AC) use among 238 non-institutionalized middle-aged and older adults with chronic heart failure and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease living in Montréal, Canada. Respondents were recruited through clinics (response rate 71%) and interviews were conducted in their homes or by telephone. Results showed that 73% of participants reported having a home air conditioner. The average number of hours spent per 24-hour period in air-conditioned spaces during heat waves was 14.5 hours (SD = 9.4). Exploratory structural equation modeling showed that specific beliefs about the benefits of and drawbacks to AC as well as internal cues to action were predictive of its level of use, whereas the perceived severity of the effects of heat on health was not. The findings are discussed in light of the need to adequately support effective response to extreme heat in this vulnerable population. PMID:21068164

  4. Transverse flexural tests as a tool for assessing damage to PMR-15 composites from isothermal aging in air at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    To date, the effect of thermo-oxidative aging on unidirectional composite mechanical properties has been monitored by the measurement of interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and either three or four point longitudinal flexural strength (LFS) of the composites being tested. Both results are affected by the fiber-to-matrix bonding, the former being dependent on the shear resistance of the interface and the latter on the degree of load sharing by the fibers through the fiber/matrix interface. Recently, fiber/matrix interfacial bond strengths have been monitored using a transverse flexural strength (TFS) test method. This test method was used to evaluate the effect of fiber surface treatment on the fiber/matrix bond. The interface bonding was varied in these tests using Hercules A-fibers with three-types of surfaces that produce bonds of poor, better, and good quality. The TFS was found not only to be sensitive to the bonding, but also to the aging time of unidirectional A-fiber/PMR-15 composites. This relationship reflects the mechanism by which the PMR-15 degrades during thermal aging.

  5. Air Abrasion

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  6. Poultry breast meat attributes and marination performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between intrinsic meat attributes (pH, color, weight, and postmortem age) and marination performance (marinade uptake and retention, and final product yield) were investigated in poultry meat using broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) as a model. Results showed that marinade up...

  7. The Source Book of Marine Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beakley, John C.; And Others

    GRADES OR AGES: Not specified. SUBJECT MATTER: Marine sciences. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide has 39 chapters, each set out in a similar pattern but with minor variations: 1) to the teacher, 2) to the student, 3) problem or purpose, 4) materials, 5) procedure, 6) questions for consideration, and 7) references. Major topics…

  8. Chemical Oceanography and the Marine Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerson, Steven; Hedges, John

    The principles of chemical oceanography provide insight into the processes regulating the marine carbon cycle. The text offers a background in chemical oceanography and a description of how chemical elements in seawater and ocean sediments are used as tracers of physical, biological, chemical and geological processes in the ocean. The first seven chapters present basic topics of thermodynamics, isotope systematics and carbonate chemistry, and explain the influence of life on ocean chemistry and how it has evolved in the recent (glacial-interglacial) past. This is followed by topics essential to understanding the carbon cycle, including organic geochemistry, air-sea gas exchange, diffusion and reaction kinetics, the marine and atmosphere carbon cycle and diagenesis in marine sediments. Figures are available to download from www.cambridge.org/9780521833134. Ideal as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduates in oceanography, environmental chemistry, geochemistry and earth science and a valuable reference for researchers in oceanography.

  9. Sustained UK marine observations. Where have we been? Where are we now? Where are we going?

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Nicholas J. P.

    2014-01-01

    This introduction traces the earliest interaction of ancient humans with their marine environment, through marine explorations in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, to the development of early marine science in the Enlightenment. This sets the scene for how marine observations developed in the modern era and explains the status of today's marine observation networks. The paper concludes with an assessment of the future needs and constraints of sustained marine observation networks and suggests the lessons from a long history might be the key to the future. PMID:25157193

  10. Marine Indole Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-01-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  11. Marine Indole Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Netz, Natalie; Opatz, Till

    2015-08-01

    Marine indole alkaloids comprise a large and steadily growing group of secondary metabolites. Their diverse biological activities make many compounds of this class attractive starting points for pharmaceutical development. Several marine-derived indoles were found to possess cytotoxic, antineoplastic, antibacterial and antimicrobial activities, in addition to the action on human enzymes and receptors. The newly isolated indole alkaloids of marine origin since the last comprehensive review in 2003 are reported, and biological aspects will be discussed. PMID:26287214

  12. Characterizing Marine Soundscapes.

    PubMed

    Erbe, Christine; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The study of marine soundscapes is becoming widespread and the amount of data collected is increasing rapidly. Data owners (typically academia, industry, government, and defense) are negotiating data sharing and generating potential for data syntheses, comparative studies, analyses of trends, and large-scale and long-term acoustic ecology research. A problem is the lack of standards and commonly agreed protocols for the recording of marine soundscapes, data analysis, and reporting that make a synthesis and comparison of results difficult. We provide a brief overview of the components in a marine soundscape, the hard- and software tools for recording and analyzing marine soundscapes, and common reporting formats. PMID:26610968

  13. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene.

  14. Osedax borings in fossil marine bird bones.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Steffen; Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Goedert, James L

    2011-01-01

    The bone-eating marine annelid Osedax consumes mainly whale bones on the deep-sea floor, but recent colonization experiments with cow bones and molecular age estimates suggesting a possible Cretaceous origin of Osedax indicate that this worm might be able grow on a wider range of substrates. The suggested Cretaceous origin was thought to imply that Osedax could colonize marine reptile or fish bones, but there is currently no evidence that Osedax consumes bones other than those of mammals. We provide the first evidence that Osedax was, and most likely still is, able to consume non-mammalian bones, namely bird bones. Borings resembling those produced by living Osedax were found in bones of early Oligocene marine flightless diving birds (family Plotopteridae). The species that produced these boreholes had a branching filiform root that grew to a length of at least 3 mm, and lived in densities of up to 40 individuals per square centimeter. The inclusion of bird bones into the diet of Osedax has interesting implications for the recent suggestion of a Cretaceous origin of this worm because marine birds have existed continuously since the Cretaceous. Bird bones could have enabled this worm to survive times in the Earth's history when large marine vertebrates other than fish were rare, specifically after the disappearance of large marine reptiles at the end-Cretaceous mass extinction event and before the rise of whales in the Eocene. PMID:21103978

  15. Transverse flexural tests as a tool for assessing damage to PMR-15 composites from isothermal aging in air at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1993-01-01

    To date, the effect of thermo-oxidative aging on unidirectional composite mechanical properties has been monitored by the measurement of interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and either three or four point longitudinal flexural strength (LFS) of the composites being tested. Both results are affected by the fiber-to-matrix bonding, the former being dependent on the shear resistance of the interface and the latter on the degree of load sharing by the fibers through the fiber/matrix interface. Recently, fiber/matrix interfacial bond strengths have been monitored using a transverse flexural strength (TFS) test method. This test method was used to evaluate the effect of fiber surface treatment on the fiber/matrix.

  16. Aerosol and cloud droplet number concentrations observed in marine stratocumulus

    SciTech Connect

    Vong, R.J.; Covert, D.S.

    1995-12-01

    The relationship between measurements of cloud droplet number concentration and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration, as inferred from aerosol size spectra, was investigated at a {open_quote}clean air{close_quote}, marine site (Cheeka Peak) located near the coast of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington State. Preliminary results demonstrated that cloud droplet number increased and droplet diameter decreased as aerosol number concentration (CCN) increased. These results support predictions of a climate cooling due to any future increases in marine aerosol concentrations.

  17. Ability of a gridless ion source to functionalize polypropylene surfaces by low-energy (60-100 eV) nitrogen ion bombardment. Effects of ageing in air and in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Laurent; Scaglione, Salvatore; Flori, Daniele; Riga, Joseph; Caudano, Roland

    2001-12-01

    Polymer surface treatments are of great importance for various industrial applications that can range from food packaging or car bumper painting to biocompatible implants. For such applications, plasma or corona discharges are well known and used "on-line" in polymer plants to incorporate new chemical functions at polymer surfaces. The aim of this work is to investigate the ability of a simple ion source to functionalize polypropylene surfaces in comparison with these intensively used industrial methods. Estimation of the influence of the nitrogen ion dose (from 1×10 15 to 1×10 16 ions/ cm2) and the ion energy (from 60 to 100 eV) on incorporation is attempted in order to be able to use them in a controlled way. The ageing of these polymer surfaces in air and in water was studied by XPS for several months.

  18. Monitoring Marine Microbial Fouling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques developed for studying marine fouling. Methods originally developed to study fouling of materials used in Space Shuttle solid fuel booster rockets. Methods used to determine both relative fouling rates and efficacy of cleaning methods to remove fouling on various surfaces including paints, metals, and sealants intended for marine use.

  19. MAINE MARINE WORM HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    WORM provides a generalized representation at 1:24,000 scale of commercially harvested marine worm habitat in Maine, based on Maine Department of Marine Resources data from 1970's. Original maps were created by MDMR and published by USF&WS as part of the ""&quo...

  20. Marine biogeochemistry: Methylmercury manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossa, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    The neurotoxin methylmercury can accumulate in marine food webs, contaminating seafood. An analysis of the isotopic composition of fish in the North Pacific suggests that much of the mercury that enters the marine food web originates from low-oxygen subsurface waters.

  1. "Marinating" Our Urban Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Describes marine education programs at the elementary and secondary levels in the New York City area. The city's extensive coastline and numerous learning centers comprise one of the richest educational resources in the country for studying the marine environment. (Author/WB)

  2. Marine Attitude Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hounshell, Paul B.; Hampton, Carolyn

    This 22-item Marine Attitude Survey was developed for use in elementary/middle schools to measure students' attitudes about various aspects of marine science. Students are asked if they agree, are not sure, or disagree with such items as: (1) the seashore is a fun place to visit; (2) if all sharks were killed, the world would be a better place;…

  3. Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Neigel, J.E.; Estes, J.A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R.R.; Largier, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

  4. Marin Tsunami (video)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. The Marin coast could be struck by a tsunami. Whether you live in Marin County, visit the beaches, or rent or own a home near the coast, it is vital to understand the tsunami threat and take preparation seriously. Marin Tsunami tells the story of what several West Marin communities are doing to be prepared. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Marin Office of Emergency Services.

  5. Marine fragrance chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hügel, Helmut M; Drevermann, Britta; Lingham, Anthony R; Marriott, Philip J

    2008-06-01

    The main marine message in perfumery is projected by Calone 1951 (7-methyl-2H-1,5-benzodioxepin-3(4H)-one). Kraft (Givaudan) and Gaudin (Firmenich) further maximized the marine fragrance molecular membership by extending the carbon chain of the 7-Me group. Our research targeted the polar group of the benzodioxepinone parent compound to investigate how this region of molecular makeup resonates with the dominant marine fragrance of the Calone 1951 structure. The olfactory evaluation of analogues prepared by chemical modification or removal of the CO group resulted in the introduction of aldehydic, sweet and floral-fruity notes with a diluted/diminished potency of the marine odor. To further analyze the olfactory properties of benzodioxepinones containing a diverse range of aromatic ring substituents, a novel synthesis route was developed. We found that a 7-alkyl group in Calone 1951 was essential for the maintenance of the significant marine odor characteristic, and our studies support the concept that the odorant structure occupying the hydrophobic binding pocket adjacent to the aromatic ring-binding site of the olfactory receptor is pivotal in the design and discovery of more potent and characteristic marine fragrances. How the structure of benzodioxepinones connects to marine sea-breeze fragrances is our continuing challenging research focus at the chemistry-biology interface. PMID:18618392

  6. Air resources

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This section describes the ambient (surrounding) air quality of the TVA region, discusses TVA emission contributions to ambient air quality, and identifies air quality impacts to human health and welfare. Volume 2 Technical Document 2, Environmental Consequences, describes how changes in TVA emissions could affect regional air quality, human health, environmental resources, and materials. The primary region of the affected environment is broadly defined as the state of Tennessee, as well as southern Kentucky, western Virginia, southern West Virginia, western North Carolina, and northern Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi. This area represents the watershed of the Tennessee River and the 201 counties of the greater TVA service area. Emissions from outside the Tennessee Valley region contribute to air quality in the Valley. Also, TVA emissions are transported outside the Valley and have some impact on air quality beyond the primary study area. Although the study area experiences a number of air quality problems, overall air quality is good.

  7. Green Marine: An environmental program to establish sustainability in marine transportation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tony R

    2016-04-15

    European maritime companies have adopted programs to limit operational impacts on the environment. For maritime companies in North America, the Green Marine Environmental Program (GMEP) offers a framework to establish and reduce environmental footprints. Green Marine (GM) participants demonstrate annual improvements of specific environmental performance indicators (e.g., reductions in air pollution emissions) to maintain certification. Participants complete annual self-evaluations with results determining rankings for performance indicators on a 1-to-5 scale. Self-evaluations are independently verified every two years to ensure rigor and individual results are made publicly available annually to achieve transparency. GM benefits the marine industry across North America by encouraging sustainable development initiatives. GM's credibility is reflected through a diverse network of environmental groups and government agencies that endorse and help shape the program. Merits of this relatively new maritime certification (not previously described in the academic literature), are discussed. PMID:26899158

  8. Age distributions of sea otters found dead in Prince William Sound, Alaska, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Marine mammal study 6-15. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Monson, D.H.; Ballachey, B.

    1995-06-01

    Age distribution of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead on beaches in western Prince William Sound Alaska, from 1976 to 1984, were compared to those of sea otters found dead from 1989 to 1993, following the Exxon Valdez oil spill. The age distribution of sea otters recovered in western Prince William Sound prior to the spill was bimodal and composed of primarily young and old animals. The high proportion of prime-age otters recovered immediately following the spill indicates significant losses occurred within a segment of the population which normally experiences very low mortality. The high proportion of prime-age otters recovered in 1990-1991 may be evidence of a prolonged, spill-related effect on the western Prince William Sound sea otter population.

  9. 77 FR 9627 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XB005 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.../2\\ W. 4th Avenue, Olympia, WA 98501, has applied in due form for a permit to take marine mammals in... subject permit is requested under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as...

  10. 77 FR 2512 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA905 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine...; receipt of application. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that Dorian Houser, Ph.D., National Marine Mammal... under the authority of the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (MMPA; 16 U.S.C. 1361 et...

  11. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilpin, Alan

    A summary of one of our most pressing environmental problems, air pollution, is offered in this book by the Director of Air Pollution Control for the Queensland (Australia) State Government. Discussion of the subject is not restricted to Queensland or Australian problems and policies, however, but includes analysis of air pollution the world over.…

  12. Age-specific reproduction in female sea otters (`enhydra lutris`) from southcentral Alaska: Analysis of reproductive tracts. Marine mammal study 6-4. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bodkin, J.L.; Mulcahy, D.M.; Lensink, C.J.

    1996-06-01

    We estimated age of sexual maturity and age-specific reproductive rates by examining carcasses and reproductive tracts from 177 female sea otters (Enhydra lutris). Carcasses were recovered from southcentral Alaska, primarily western Prince William Sound, following the T/V Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. Our estimates of the reproductive characteristics of female sea otters obtained by examination of reproductive tracts were similar to those in the literature based on in situ observations of marked individuals.

  13. 40 CFR 94.912 - Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Optional certification to land-based standards for auxiliary marine engines. 94.912 Section 94.912 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Exclusion and...

  14. 40 CFR 1042.601 - General compliance provisions for marine engines and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the provisions of this part, the requirements and prohibitions in 40 CFR part 1068, and the provisions of the Clean Air Act. The provisions of 40 CFR part 1068 apply for compression-ignition marine... recreational marine engine in a vessel that is not a recreational vessel is a violation of 40 CFR...

  15. 40 CFR 1042.601 - General compliance provisions for marine engines and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the provisions of this part, the requirements and prohibitions in 40 CFR part 1068, and the provisions of the Clean Air Act. The provisions of 40 CFR part 1068 apply for compression-ignition marine... recreational marine engine in a vessel that is not a recreational vessel is a violation of 40 CFR...

  16. 40 CFR 1045.650 - Do delegated-assembly provisions apply for marine engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... marine engines? The provisions of 40 CFR 1068.261 related to delegated final assembly do not apply for marine spark-ignition engines certified under this part 1045. This means that for engines requiring... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  17. 77 FR 43259 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving for Honolulu Seawater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...NMFS has received a complete and adequate application from Honolulu Seawater Air Conditioning, LLC (HSWAC) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to pile driving offshore Honolulu, Hawaii. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is proposing to issue an IHA to incidentally harass, by Level B harassment, 17 species of......

  18. 40 CFR 1042.601 - General compliance provisions for marine engines and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the provisions of this part, the requirements and prohibitions in 40 CFR part 1068, and the provisions of the Clean Air Act. The provisions of 40 CFR part 1068 apply for compression-ignition marine... recreational marine engine in a vessel that is not a recreational vessel is a violation of 40 CFR...

  19. 40 CFR 1042.601 - General compliance provisions for marine engines and vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the provisions of this part, the requirements and prohibitions in 40 CFR part 1068, and the provisions of the Clean Air Act. The provisions of 40 CFR part 1068 apply for compression-ignition marine... recreational marine engine in a vessel that is not a recreational vessel is a violation of 40 CFR...

  20. Mariner-Venus 1967

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Detailed information on the spacecraft performance, mission operations, and tracking and data acquisition is presented for the Mariner Venus 1967 and Mariner Venus 1967 extension projects. Scientific and engineering results and conclusions are discussed, and include the scientific mission, encounter with Venus, observations near Earth, and cruise phase of the mission. Flight path analysis, spacecraft subsystems, and mission-related hardware and computer program development are covered. The scientific experiments carried by Mariner 5 were ultraviolet photometer, solar plasma probe, helium magnetometer, trapped radiation detector, S-band radio occultation, dual-frequency radio propagation, and celestial mechanics. The engineering experience gained by converting a space Mariner Mars 1964 spacecraft into one flown to Venus is also described.

  1. Marine Natural Products Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Clifford W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Reports the chemistry of saxitoxin, a paralytic shellfish poison, and other toxins, including the structure of aplysiatoxins. Discusses the chemical signals and defense agents used in intra- and inter- species communication; anticancer agents; and organometallics in the marine environment. (MA)

  2. Exopolysaccharides from marine bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Zhenming; Fang, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microbial polysaccharides represent a class of important products of growing interest for many sectors of industry. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in isolating new exopolysaccharides (EPSs)-producing bacteria from marine environments, particularly from various extreme marine environments. Many new marine microbial EPSs with novel chemical compositions, properties and structures have been found to have potential applications in fields such as adhesives, textiles, Pharmaceuticals and medicine for anti-cancer, food additives, oil recovery and metal removal in mining and industrial waste treatments, etc This paper gives a brief summary of the information about the EPSs produced by marine bacteria, including their chemical compositions, properties and structures, together with their potential applications in industry.

  3. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Ottsen, H.; Barker, Th.

    1985-04-23

    An acoustic positioning system for locating a marine cable at an exploration site employs a plurality of acoustic transponders, each having a characteristic frequency, at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures the depth to the transponders as the vessel passes over the cable and measures the slant range from the vessel to each of the acoustic transponders as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable.

  4. Marine biodiversity characteristics.

    PubMed

    Boeuf, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Oceans contain the largest living volume of the "blue" planet, inhabited by approximately 235-250,000 described species, all groups included. They only represent some 13% of the known species on the Earth, but the marine biomasses are really huge. Marine phytoplankton alone represents half the production of organic matter on Earth while marine bacteria represent more than 10%. Life first appeared in the oceans more than 3.8 billion years ago and several determining events took place that changed the course of life, ranging from the development of the cell nucleus to sexual reproduction going through multi-cellular organisms and the capture of organelles. Of the 31 animal phyla currently listed, 12 are exclusively marine phyla and have never left the ocean. An interesting question is to try to understand why there are so few marine species versus land species? This pattern of distribution seems pretty recent in the course of Evolution. From an exclusively marine world, since the beginning until 440 million years ago, land number of species much increased 110 million years ago. Specific diversity and ancestral roles, in addition to organizational models and original behaviors, have made marine organisms excellent reservoirs for identifying and extracting molecules (>15,000 today) with pharmacological potential. They also make particularly relevant models for both fundamental and applied research. Some marine models have been the source of essential discoveries in life sciences. From this diversity, the ocean provides humankind with renewable resources, which are highly threatened today and need more adequate management to preserve ocean habitats, stocks and biodiversity. PMID:21640952

  5. Biogenic amines in submicron marine aerosol (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facchini, M.

    2010-12-01

    Ammonium salts of dimethyl and diethyl amine (DMA+ and DEA+) have been detected in size segregated marine samples collected in the North Atlantic over open ocean and at a coastal site. DMA+ and DEA+ peak in the accumulation mode range while very low concentration, close to detection limit, are observed in the coarse size fractions, as well as in sea spray aerosol artificially generated in the laboratory using sea water. These results indicate a secondary formation pathway. DMA+ and DEA+ represent up to 20% of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in our samples , and to our knowledge they are the most abundant organic species besides MSA ever detected in clean marine aerosol . Maximum concentrations have been observed during spring and summer when the biological activity is high and in clean marine air masses, thus indicating biogenic sources. Total organic nitrogen (ON) concentration also peaks in the accumulation mode range and represents in our samples a fraction from 32 to 54 % of the total SOA. Ammonium salt formation from biogenic amines might be an important source of marine SOA and atmospheric nitrogen at the global scale with a seasonal variation connected to the oceanic biological productivity and an atmospheric cycle parallel to that of the organosulfur species.

  6. Marine intervals in Neogene fluvial deposits of western Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boonstra, Melanie; Troelstra, Simon; Lammertsma, Emmy; Hoorn, Carina

    2014-05-01

    Amazonia is one of the most species rich areas on Earth, but this high diversity is not homogeneous over the entire region. Highest mammal and tree-alpha diversity is found in the fluvio-lacustrine Pebas system, a Neogene wetland associated with rapid radiation of species. The estuarine to marine origin of various modern Amazonian fish, plants, and invertebrates has been associated with past marine ingressions into this freshwater Pebas system. The exact nature and age of these invasions is, however, debated. Here we present new evidence from fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Neogene age in southeast Colombia, that point to periods of widespread marine conditions in western Amazonia. Our evidence is based on an analysis of marine palynomorphs, such as organic linings of foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, present in dark sandy clay sediments that outcrop along the Caqueta and Amazon rivers. Characteristically, the foraminiferal linings can be assigned to three benthic morphotypes only, e.g. Ammonia, Elphidium and Trochammina. This low diversity assemblage is associated with estuarine/marginal marine conditions. No distinct marine elements such as shelf or planktonic species were encountered. The observed foraminiferal linings and dinocyst assemblages are typical for a (eutrophic) shallow marine environment, suggesting that the Pebas freshwater wetland system occasionally changed to (marginal) marine. Although some reworked elements are found, a typical Neogene dinocyst taxon is commonly found supporting in situ deposition. Sedimentological features typical for tidal conditions that are reported for sites in Peru and northeastern Brazil likely relate to these marine ingressions. Sea level changes as well as foreland basin development related to Andes formation may have facilitated the entry of marine water during the Neogene.

  7. Air travel and pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaowen; Cowl, Clayton T; Baqir, Misbah; Ryu, Jay H

    2014-04-01

    The number of medical emergencies onboard aircraft is increasing as commercial air traffic increases and the general population ages, becomes more mobile, and includes individuals with serious medical conditions. Travelers with respiratory diseases are at particular risk for in-flight events because exposure to lower atmospheric pressure in a pressurized cabin at cruising altitude may result in not only hypoxemia but also pneumothorax due to gas expansion within enclosed pulmonary parenchymal spaces based on Boyle's law. Risks of pneumothorax during air travel pertain particularly to those patients with cystic lung diseases, recent pneumothorax or thoracic surgery, and chronic pneumothorax. Currently available guidelines are admittedly based on sparse data and include recommendations to delay air travel for 1 to 3 weeks after thoracic surgery or resolution of the pneumothorax. One of these guidelines declares existing pneumothorax to be an absolute contraindication to air travel although there are reports of uneventful air travel for those with chronic stable pneumothorax. In this article, we review the available data regarding pneumothorax and air travel that consist mostly of case reports and retrospective surveys. There is clearly a need for additional data that will inform decisions regarding air travel for patients at risk for pneumothorax, including those with recent thoracic surgery and transthoracic needle biopsy. PMID:24687705

  8. Marine Jurassic lithostratigraphy of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesook, A.; Grant-Mackie, J. A.

    Marine Jurassic rocks of Thailand are well-exposed in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas and less extensively near Mae Hong Son, Kanchanaburi, Chumphon and Nakhon Si Thammarat, in the north, west, and south respectively. They are generally underlain unconformably by Triassic and overlain by Quaternary strata. Based mainly on five measured sections, fourteen new lithostratigraphic units are established: (in ascending order) Pa Lan, Mai Hung and Kong Mu Formations of the Huai Pong Group in the Mae Hong Son area; Khun Huai, Doi Yot and Pha De Formations of the Hua Fai Group in the Mae Sot area; Klo Tho, Ta Sue Kho, Pu Khloe Khi and Lu Kloc Tu Formations of the Umphang Group in the Umphang area; and the Khao Lak Formation in the Chumphon area. Mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, limestone and marl are the dominant lithologies. Mudstones, siltstones and sandstones are widespread; limestones are confined to the Mae Sot, Umphang, Kanchanaburi and Mae Hong Son areas; marls are found only in Mae Sot. The sequences are approximately 900 m thick in Mae Sot and 450 m thick in Umphang and are rather thinner in the other areas, particularly in the south. Based on ammonites, with additional data from bivalves and foraminifera, the marine Jurassic is largely Toarcian-Aalenian plus some Bajocian. Late Jurassic ages given previously for strata in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas have not been confirmed.

  9. Air Age Education. Aviation Career Awareness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    Described is a program designed to help introduce the broad scope of occupational careers available with general aviation. The program is designed to aid the teacher in presenting the basic principles of flight, essential facts about general aviation as well as its occupational opportunities. It replaces previous elementary student materials, and…

  10. Strategies for estimating the marine geoid from altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argentiero, P.; Kahn, W. D.; Garza-Robles, R.

    1976-01-01

    Altimeter data from a spacecraft borne altimeter was processed to estimate the fine structure of the marine geoid. Simulation studies show that, among several competing parameterizations, the mean free air gravity anomaly model exhibited promising geoid recovery characteristics. Using covariance analysis techniques, quantitative measures of the orthogonality properties are investigated.

  11. Bioprospecting Marine Plankton

    PubMed Central

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-01-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  12. Bioprospecting marine plankton.

    PubMed

    Abida, Heni; Ruchaud, Sandrine; Rios, Laurent; Humeau, Anne; Probert, Ian; De Vargas, Colomban; Bach, Stéphane; Bowler, Chris

    2013-11-01

    The ocean dominates the surface of our planet and plays a major role in regulating the biosphere. For example, the microscopic photosynthetic organisms living within provide 50% of the oxygen we breathe, and much of our food and mineral resources are extracted from the ocean. In a time of ecological crisis and major changes in our society, it is essential to turn our attention towards the sea to find additional solutions for a sustainable future. Remarkably, while we are overexploiting many marine resources, particularly the fisheries, the planktonic compartment composed of zooplankton, phytoplankton, bacteria and viruses, represents 95% of marine biomass and yet the extent of its diversity remains largely unknown and underexploited. Consequently, the potential of plankton as a bioresource for humanity is largely untapped. Due to their diverse evolutionary backgrounds, planktonic organisms offer immense opportunities: new resources for medicine, cosmetics and food, renewable energy, and long-term solutions to mitigate climate change. Research programs aiming to exploit culture collections of marine micro-organisms as well as to prospect the huge resources of marine planktonic biodiversity in the oceans are now underway, and several bioactive extracts and purified compounds have already been identified. This review will survey and assess the current state-of-the-art and will propose methodologies to better exploit the potential of marine plankton for drug discovery and for dermocosmetics. PMID:24240981

  13. 75 FR 38465 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... driving were issued on July 15, 2009 (74 FR 35136), and remain in effect until July 14, 2014. These... (APU) to implement a NMFS-approved scientific monitoring plan. The scientific marine mammal monitoring.... The APU observers conducted scientific monitoring from the Cairn Point Station on Elmendorf Air...

  14. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  15. 78 FR 28411 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Marine Seismic... Marine Seismic Survey in the Chukchi Sea, Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... occur in the seismic survey area include nine cetacean species, beluga whale (Delphinapterus...

  16. Linking social drivers of marine debris with actual marine debris on beaches.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Chris; Grage, Anna; Campbell, Marnie L

    2012-08-01

    The drivers (social) and pressures (physical) of marine debris have typically been examined separately. We redress this by using social and beach surveys at nine Tasmanian beaches, across three coastlines and within three categories of urbanisation, to examine whether people acknowledge that their actions contribute to the issue of marine debris, and whether these social drivers are reflected in the amount of marine debris detected on beaches. A large proportion (75%) of survey participants do not litter at beaches; with age, gender, income and residency influencing littering behaviour. Thus, participants recognise that littering at beaches is a problem. This social trend was reflected in the small amounts of debris that were detected. Furthermore, the amount of debris was not statistically influenced by the degree of beach urbanisation, the coastline sampled, or the proximity to beach access points. By linking social and physical aspects of this issue, management outcomes can be improved. PMID:22704152

  17. TLP marine riser tensioner

    SciTech Connect

    Peppel, G.W.

    1988-03-08

    A riser tensioner for use in maintaining a tension on a marine riser from a tension leg platform, the tension leg platform moving relative to the marine riser and the marine riser having a center line is described comprising: (a) an elastomeric assembly, adjustably deformable in pad shear, for maintaining the riser in tension during vertical movement of the platform relative to the riser, the elastomeric assembly having upper and lower ends; (b) a gimbal assembly for pivotally connecting the upper end of the elastomeric assembly to the tension leg platform to accommodate misalignment between the riser and the tension leg platform; (c) a base ring to which the lower end of the elastomeric assembly is secured; and (d) a collar, securely mounted on the riser, for resting within the base ring to connect the lower end of the elastomeric assembly to the riser.

  18. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    Materials related to air pollution are reviewed for the period January 1987, to October 1988. The topics are pollution monitoring, air pollution, and environmental chemistry. The organization consists of two major analytical divisions: (1) gaseous methods; and (2) aerosol and particulate methods. (MVL)

  19. Air Pollution.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air quality is affected by many types of pollutants that are emitted from various sources, including stationary and mobile. These sources release both criteria and hazardous air pollutants, which cause health effects, ecological harm, and material damage. They are generally categ...

  20. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2014 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 1116 citations (753 for the period January to December 2014) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1378 in 456 papers for 2014), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:26837534

  1. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2014-01-17

    This review covers the literature published in 2012 for marine natural products, with 1035 citations (673 for the period January to December 2012) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1241 for 2012), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:24389707

  2. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2015-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2013 for marine natural products (MNPs), with 982 citations (644 for the period January to December 2013) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1163 for 2013), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Reviews, biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:25620233

  3. Mariner 9 navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neil, W. J.; Jordan, J. F.; Zielenbach, J. W.; Wong, S. K.; Mitchell, R. T.; Webb, W. A.; Koskela, P. E.

    1973-01-01

    A final, comprehensive description of the navigation of Mariner 9-the first U.S. spacecraft to orbit another planet is provided. The Mariner 9 navigation function included not only precision flight path control but also pointing of the spacecraft's scientific instruments mounted on a two degree of freedom scan platform. To the extent appropriate, each section describes the perflight analyses on which the operational strategies and performance predictions were based. Inflight results are then discussed and compared with the preflight predictions. Postflight analyses, which were primarily concerned with developing a thorough understanding of unexpected in-flight results, are also presented.

  4. Marine cable location system

    SciTech Connect

    Zachariadis, R.G.

    1984-05-01

    An acoustic positioning system locates a marine cable at an exploration site, such cable employing a plurality of hydrophones at spaced-apart positions along the cable. A marine vessel measures water depth to the cable as the vessel passes over the cable and interrogates the hydrophones with sonar pulses along a slant range as the vessel travels in a parallel and horizontally offset path to the cable. The location of the hydrophones is determined from the recordings of water depth and slant range.

  5. Marine natural products.

    PubMed

    Blunt, John W; Copp, Brent R; Keyzers, Robert A; Munro, Murray H G; Prinsep, Michèle R

    2013-02-01

    This review covers the literature published in 2011 for marine natural products, with 870 citations (558 for the period January to December 2011) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1152 for 2011), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included. PMID:23263727

  6. Marine Science Building Dedicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Officials cut the ribbon during dedication ceremonies of the George A. Knauer Marine Science Building on Oct. 17 at NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC). The $2.75 million facility, the first building at the test site funded by the state of Mississippi, houses six science labs, classrooms and office space for 40 faculty and staff. Pictured are, from left, Rear Adm. Thomas Donaldson, commander of the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command; SSC Assistant Director David Throckmorton; Dr. George A. Knauer, founder of the Center of Marine Science at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM); Lt. Gov. Amy Tuck; and USM President Dr. Shelby Thames.

  7. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.27 - Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine terminals, motor vehicle loading and distribution facilities, and... Structures § 1242.27 Coal marine terminals, ore marine terminals, TOFC/COFC terminals, other marine...

  12. S. 1178: Marine Protection Act of 1989. Introduced in the Senate of the United States, One Hundred First Congress, First Session, June 14, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    A bill was introduced to improve and expand programs for the protection of marine and coastal waters. The following sections are amended: Sec. 101. National Estuary Program; Sec. 102. Point source discharges to coastal waters; Sec. 103. Nonpoint source pollution control; Sec. 104. Marine sanitation devices; Sec. 105. marine combined sewer overflow; Sec. 106. Marine water quality standards; Sec. 107. Ocean discharge criteria; Sec. 108. Definitions; Sec. 201. Marine sediment criteria and information; Sec. 202. Marine sediment contamination; Sec. 203. State ocean dumping requirements; Sec. 204. Site designation; Sec. 205. Dredge and fill program; Sec. 301. Study of air deposition; Sec. 302. Identification of unregulated contaminants; and Sec. 303. Research of microorganisms.

  13. Marine microbiology: Evolution on acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Sinéad

    2012-05-01

    The prediction of marine microbial responses to ocean acidification is a key challenge for marine biologists. Experimental evolution offers a powerful tool for understanding the forces that will shape tomorrow's microbial communities under global change.

  14. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  15. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  16. 46 CFR 197.310 - Air compressor system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air compressor system. 197.310 Section 197.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.310 Air compressor system. A...

  17. Breaking the Mold on Air Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEA Today, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air quality is a growing problem in aging school buildings. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) offers an Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools kit which is being used at schools nationwide to improve school maintenance. Profiles an aging school in Connecticut in which teachers were becoming ill to illustrate the use of the kit to…

  18. The post-Paleozoic chronology and mechanism of 13C depletion in primary marine organic matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, B. N.; Takigiku, R.; Hayes, J. M.; Louda, J. W.; Baker, E. W.

    1989-01-01

    Carbon-isotopic compositions of geoporphyrins have been measured from marine sediments of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age in order to elucidate the timing and extent of depletion of 13C in marine primary producers. These results indicate that the difference in isotopic composition of coeval marine carbonates and marine primary photosynthate was approximately 5 to 7 permil greater during the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic than at present. In contrast to the isotopic record of marine primary producers, isotopic compositions of terrestrial organic materials have remained approximately constant for this same interval of time. This difference in the isotopic records of marine and terrestrial organic matter is considered in terms of the mechanisms controlling the isotopic fractionation associated with photosynthetic fixation of carbon. We show that the decreased isotopic fractionation between marine carbonates and organic matter from the Early to mid-Cenozoic may record variations in the abundance of atmospheric CO2.

  19. Marine Science Activities, Grade Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for grade 6 students. The unit is divided into the following sections: (1) Pagoo (story of a hermit crab); (2) introduction to marine environments; (3) salt water environment; (4) sea water investigations; (5)…

  20. 75 FR 77616 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). Permit No. 14334, issued on August 17, 2009 (74 FR... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XP18 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  1. 76 FR 72680 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... December 9, 2010, notice was published in the Federal Register (75 FR 76703) that a request for a permit... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA078 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine.... Environmental Research and Services, Fairbanks, AK, to conduct research on marine mammals in Alaska....

  2. 76 FR 76949 - Marine Mammals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ... endangered and threatened species (50 CFR 222-226). Permit No. 14534, issued on July 2, 2010 (75 FR 39665... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XR52 Marine Mammals AGENCY: National Marine... Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1361 et seq.), the regulations governing...

  3. Marine Science Sourcebook, First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimist, Roger J.

    This manual was prepared for a teacher workshop in marine science. It includes information on when, where, and how to collect marine mollusks, and how to prepare a shell collection; a partial key to the classes, subclasses, and orders of the mollusca; notes on the ecology and physiology of marine bivalves and snails, and recipes for solutions…

  4. Marine Science Film Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Frank L.

    Forty-eight motion picture films and filmstrips in the field of marine science are catalogued in this booklet. Following the alphabetical index, one page is devoted to each film indicating its type, producer, recommended grade level, running time, and presence of color and/or sound. A summary of film content, possible uses, and outstanding…

  5. Marine Optical Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dennis K.

    1996-01-01

    The team's major emphasis during this reporting period has been focused on the completion of the operational versions of the Marine Optical Buoys (MOBY's). Other work areas consisted of designing and testing bio-optical instrumentation, evaluating several of the SeaWiFS bio-optical protocols, processing data collected during field experiments, and reprocessing several of the Marine Optical Characteristics Experiment (MOCE) 2 and 3 bio-optical data sets. The team conducted one trip to the operations site in Honolulu, Hawaii, making necessary preparations for future field experiments. Part of the team also traveled to Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, Salinas, CA, and to American Holographic Co. Fitchburg MA, to assist with the fabrication of the next generation Marine Optical Buoys. Technical memoranda are being written to address the remote sensing reflectance, and instrument self-shading protocols. During the Ocean Color 96 meeting discussions with the Spanish on acquiring research vessel support during the MODIS validation period were conducted. A proposal will be generated towards this purpose for an experiment to be conducted off the North African coast during the summer of 1999.

  6. Marine and Estuarine Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reish, Donald J.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the effects of various pollutants on marine and estuarine organisms, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) effects of pesticides, dredging, dumping, sludge, and petroleum hydrocarbons; and (2) diseases and tissue abnormalities. A list of 441 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Marine Electrician--Fundamentals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of electricity, safety, and tools. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work units,…

  8. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  9. Lectins of marine hydrobionts.

    PubMed

    Chernikov, O V; Molchanova, V I; Chikalovets, I V; Kondrashina, A S; Li, W; Lukyanov, P A

    2013-07-01

    Data from the literature and results of our research on lectins isolated from some kinds of marine hydrobionts such as clams, ascidians, sea worms, sponges, and algae are presented in this review. Results of comparative analysis of the basic physicochemical properties and biological activity of lectins isolated from various sources are discussed. PMID:24010839

  10. Mobile Marine Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, R. D.; Schaadt, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    Calfiornia State University (Long Beach) purchased a motor home and converted it into a mobile marine science display unit, outfitting it with built-in display racks inside and an awning to provide shelter displays suited to outdoor use. School activities and programs using the mobile museum are described. (JN)

  11. Mysterious Marine Stratocumulus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuter, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Marine low clouds are important to climate. The difficulties global climate models have in representing the areal extent and temporal variability of these clouds has motivated numerous observational and modeling studies over the last two decades. New observations have challenged accepted explanations for the underlying physical mechanisms that modulate marine stratocumulus. Recent work has revised thinking on the relative importance of feedbacks among aerosols, microphysics, dynamics and radiation. This presentation will showcase some new observational findings of marine stratocumulus that do not fit current theories. For example, data reveal: large multi-day (3-50 days) variability of cloud amount; mesoscale spatial patterns of drizzle cells that are remarkably static for more than 2 hours; individual drizzle cells lifetimes that exceed 2 times the rainout timescale; and shallow clouds < 500 m thick that generate intense rainfall (> 38 dBZ). Further, what potential mechanisms explain why the seasonal variation in the diurnal cycle of regional cloudiness shows the greatest variation in the southeast Atlantic and least in the northeast Pacific? These observations point the way for potential new research that may inspire a more comprehensive physical understanding of marine stratocumulus clouds.

  12. Marine Science Comes Alive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Dorothy

    1996-01-01

    A new state-of-the-art marine science laboratory at Eckerd College (Florida) is a study in the power of research, teamwork, attention to detail, and cost control. A redundant piping system brings sea water directly to the students. Once a week the pipes that previously held sea water are flushed and refilled with fresh water. (MLF)

  13. Worldwide Marine Weather Broadcasts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Navy, Washington, DC.

    This publication is a source of marine weather broadcast information in all areas of the world where such service is provided. This publication was designed for the use of U.S. naval and merchant ships. Sections 1 through 4 contain details of radio telegraph, radio telephone, radio facsimile, and radio teleprinter transmissions, respectively. The…

  14. Law and Marine Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bockrath, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    The University of Delaware Marine Studies has implemented courses in coastal zone law and policy and maritime law. The courses attempt to integrate the scientist's or engineer's work with public policy formation. The program emphasizes historical and current issues and the economic, cultural, and political forces operating in decision-making…

  15. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2011-12-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  16. Influence of marine engine simulator training to marine engineer's competence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Cheng, Xiangxin; Ma, Qiang; Song, Xiufu; Liu, Xinjian; Wang, Lianhai

    2012-01-01

    Marine engine simulator is broadly used in maritime education and training. Maritime education and training institutions usually use this facility to cultivate the hands-on ability and fault-treat ability of marine engineers and students. In this study, the structure and main function of DMS-2005 marine engine simulator is briefly introduced, several teaching methods are discussed. By using Delphi method and AHP method, a comprehensive evaluation system is built and the competence of marine engineers is assessed. After analyzing the calculating data, some conclusions can be drawn: comprehensive evaluation system could be used to assess marine engineer's competence; the training of marine engine simulator is propitious to enhance marine engineers' integrated ability, especially on the aspect of judgment of abnormal situation capacity, emergency treatment ability and safe operation ability.

  17. Marine oil seeps

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons of both biogenic and thermogenic origin are common constituents of the marine water column and sediment of the continental shelves. Approximately 0.25 million metric tons of oil per year, constituting about 8% of the oil input into the sea, is derived from natural seeps, the rest being anthropogenic. Seepage has occurred world-wide for millions of years and must have been many times greater in the past, when enormous oil deposits, such as the Orinoco Oil Belt, were first exposed to erosion. Although the amount varies from site to site with time, seepage is pervasive in polar and temperate seas. Marine-seep oil is intensely weathered and thus can be distinguished chemically from recent biogenic or undegraded crude oil. The degraded oil from seeps appears to have little deleterious effect on many marine organisms, which ingest and discharge the oil mostly unmetabolized. Chemical analyses suggest that a very large oil-rich layer in the Sargasso Sea originated from a large and as yet undetected seep. Oil seeps have long been used as guides for oil exploration onshore but have been underutilized for this purpose offshore because of oil-plume drift from the site of the seep and because natural oil slicks may be masked by spilled oil. At least one marine seep, in the Santa Barbara Channel, California, is producing oil and natural gas into two hollow steel pyramids from which the oil is collected by work boats and the natural gas is transported to shore by pipeline. This facility effectively reduces atmospheric pollution, controls marine oil pollution from the largest seep in the area, provides emission credits, and yields a modest economic benefit, but the seep is not known to have been used directly in oil exploration.

  18. 40 CFR 63.651 - Marine tank vessel loading operation provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marine tank vessel loading operation provisions. 63.651 Section 63.651 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards...

  19. A late Wisconsinan marine incursion into Cape Cod Bay, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oldale, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    Reinterpretation of seismic-reflection data from Cape Cod Bay has produced a revised late Wisconsinan history. Acoustically laminated deposits, originally inferred to be glaciolacustrine, are shown to be glaciomarine by tracing them to glaciomarine mud in Stellwagen Basin, north of Cape Cod Bay. A late Wisconsinan marine deposit of nonglacial origin overlies the glaciomarine deposits in Cape Cod Bay. Both deposits indicate that the crust was isostatically depressed below the late Wisconsinan eustatic sea level and that deglaciation and marine submergence occurred simultaneously. Valleys cut into the marine deposits, both glacial and nonglacial, indicate that a low sea-level stand, the result of isostatic rebound, occurred shortly after the marine incursion. A transgressive uncomformity and marine deposits, both mostly of Holocene age, overlie the late Wisconsinan deposits. The marine incursion, regression, and Holocene transgression represent the northward passage of an isostatically induced peripheral bulge following deglaciation. In turn, the bulge, a response to crustal loading and unloading, indicates thick glacier ice in the terminal zone and lends support to arguments for a maximum Laurentide ice model. Evidence for a late Wisconsinan marine incursion, regression, and the passage of a peripheral bulge should be sought in the other bays and sounds of the New England terminal zone. ?? 1988.

  20. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    PubMed

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat. PMID:24344685

  1. Air Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... tobacco smoke. How is air pollution linked to climate change? While climate change is a global process, it ... ozone levels are also a concern. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A ...

  2. Air Apparent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbster, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the principle upon which a barometer operates. Describes how to construct two barometric devices for use in the classroom that show air's changing pressure. Cites some conditions for predicting weather. (RT)

  3. A comparative analysis of marine mammal tracheas.

    PubMed

    Moore, Colby; Moore, Michael; Trumble, Stephen; Niemeyer, Misty; Lentell, Betty; McLellan, William; Costidis, Alexander; Fahlman, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    In 1940, Scholander suggested that stiffened upper airways remained open and received air from highly compressible alveoli during marine mammal diving. There are few data available on the structural and functional adaptations of the marine mammal respiratory system. The aim of this research was to investigate the anatomical (gross) and structural (compliance) characteristics of excised marine mammal tracheas. Here, we defined different types of tracheal structures, categorizing pinniped tracheas by varying degrees of continuity of cartilage (categories 1-4) and cetacean tracheas by varying compliance values (categories 5A and 5B). Some tracheas fell into more than one category along their length; for example, the harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) demonstrated complete rings cranially, and as the trachea progressed caudally, tracheal rings changed morphology. Dolphins and porpoises had less stiff, more compliant spiraling rings while beaked whales had very stiff, less compliant spiraling rings. The pressure-volume (P-V) relationships of isolated tracheas from different species were measured to assess structural differences between species. These findings lend evidence for pressure-induced collapse and re-inflation of lungs, perhaps influencing variability in dive depth or ventilation rates of the species investigated. PMID:24311807

  4. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  5. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  6. Buried marine-cut terraces and submerged marine-built terraces: The Carchuna-Calahonda coastal area (southeast Iberian Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Martos, Manuel; Galindo-Zaldivar, Jesus; Lobo, Francisco José; Pedrera, Antonio; Ruano, Patricia; Lopez-Chicano, Manuel; Ortega-Sánchez, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The Carchuna-Calahonda coastal area is located between the onshore Betic Cordillera and the Alboran Sea. Its onshore sector is formed by detrital sediments that cover a metamorphic basement mostly composed of marbles, contiguous to an offshore shelf setting. New onshore gravity data allow us to characterize the location of flat marine-cut terraces carved into the metamorphic bedrock, which are covered by detrital sediments. In addition, multibeam bathymetry data, 3.5 kHz and sparker reflection seismic profiles, reveal offshore flat features linked to marine terraces that are related with the onshore buried marine-cut terraces. Gravity data are newly used to detect marine-cut terraces covered by sediments, enhancing the integration of onshore and offshore data. The marine terraces are distinguished based on the relative sea-level trend (regressive versus transgressive) and on the dominant sedimentary regime (erosional versus depositional). These data help constrain the ages of the marine terraces younger than 150 ka, using available Late Quaternary sea-level curves. Although previous geodetic research suggests a rapid sinking of the Carchuna-Calahonda coast, the heights of the marine-cut terraces and depositional terraces are mainly driven by sea-level changes, not tectonics.

  7. Antimicrobial metabolites from marine microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Habbu, Prasanna; Warad, Vijayanand; Shastri, Rajesh; Madagundi, Smita; Kulkarni, Venkatrao H

    2016-02-01

    Marine ecological niches have recently been described as "particularly promising" sources for search of new antimicrobials to combat antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. Marine organisms are excellent sources for many industrial products, but they are partly explored. Over 30 000 compounds have been isolated from marine sources. Bacteria, fungi, and cyanobacteria obtained from various marine sources secret several industrially useful bioactive compounds, possessing antibacterial, antifungal, and antimycobacterial activities. Sustainable cultivation methods for promising marine organisms and biotechnological processes for selected compounds can be developed, along with the establishment of biosensors for monitoring the target compounds. The semisynthetic modifications of marine-based bioactive compounds produce their new derivatives, structural analogs and mimetics that could serve as novel lead compounds against resistant pathogens. The present review focuses on promising antimicrobial compounds isolated from marine microbes from 1991-2013. PMID:26968676

  8. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  9. Understanding marine mussel adhesion.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Heather G; Roberto, Francisco F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  10. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  11. Osmoregulation in marine mammals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortiz, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Osmoregulation in marine mammals has been investigated for over a century; however, a review of recent advances in our understanding of water and electrolyte balance and of renal function in marine mammals is warranted. The following topics are discussed: (i) kidney structure and urine concentrating ability, (ii) sources of water, (iii) the effects of feeding, fasting and diving, (iv) the renal responses to infusions of varying salinity and (v) hormonal regulation. The kidneys of pinnipeds and cetaceans are reniculate in structure, unlike those of terrestrial mammals (except bears), but this difference does not confer any greater concentrating ability. Pinnipeds, cetaceans, manatees and sea otters can concentrate their urine above the concentration of sea water, but only pinnipeds and otters have been shown to produce urine concentrations of Na+ and Cl- that are similar to those in sea water. This could afford them the capacity to drink sea water and not lose fresh water. However, with few exceptions, drinking is not a common behavior in pinnipeds and cetaceans. Water balance is maintained in these animals via metabolic and dietary water, while incidental ingestion and dietary salt may help maintain electrolyte homeostasis. Unlike most other aquatic mammals, sea otters commonly drink sea water and manatees frequently drink fresh water. Among the various taxonomic groups of marine mammals, the sensitivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system appears to be influenced by the availability of Na+. The antidiuretic role of vasopressin remains inconclusive in marine mammals, while the natriuretic function of atrial natriuretic peptide has yet to be examined. Ideas on the direction of future studies are presented.

  12. Marine Oil Biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Hazen, Terry C; Prince, Roger C; Mahmoudi, Nagissa

    2016-03-01

    Crude oil has been part of the marine environment for millions of years, and microbes that use its rich source of energy and carbon are found in seawater, sediments, and shorelines from the tropics to the polar regions. Catastrophic oil spills stimulate these organisms to "bloom" in a reproducible fashion, and although oil does not provide bioavailable nitrogen, phosphorus or iron, there are enough of these nutrients in the sea that when dispersed oil droplets dilute to low concentrations these low levels are adequate for microbial growth. Most of the hydrocarbons in dispersed oil are degraded in aerobic marine waters with a half-life of days to months. In contrast, oil that reaches shorelines is likely to be too concentrated, have lower levels of nutrients, and have a far longer residence time in the environment. Oil that becomes entrained in anaerobic sediments is also likely to have a long residence time, although it too will eventually be biodegraded. Thus, data that encompass everything from the ecosystem to the molecular level are needed for understanding the complicated process of petroleum biodegradation in marine environments. PMID:26698270

  13. Marine botany. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Dawes, C.J.

    1998-12-01

    Marine plants are a diverse group that include unicellular algae, seaweeds, seagrasses, salt marshes, and mangrove forests. They carry out a variety of ecological functions and serve as the primary producers in coastal wetlands and oceanic waters. The theme that connects such a wide variety of plants is their ecology, which was also emphasized in the 1981 edition. The goal of this revision is to present taxonomic, physiological, chemical, and ecological aspects of marine plants, their adaptations, and how abiotic and biotic factors interact in their communities. The data are presented in a concise, comparative manner in order to identify similarities and differences between communities such as salt marsh and mangroves or subtidal seaweeds and seagrasses. To accomplish this, the text is organized into five chapters that introduce the marine habitats, consider abiotic and biotic factors, and anthropogenic influences on the communities followed by seven chapters that deal with microalgae, seaweeds, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses, and coral reefs. Two appendixes are included; one presents simple field techniques and the other is a summary of seaweed uses.

  14. 75 FR 37720 - Safety Zone; New Bern Air Show, Neuse River, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; New Bern Air Show, Neuse River, NC AGENCY... New Bern Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel traffic movement on the Neuse River to protect mariners and property from the hazards associated with air show events. DATES: This rule...

  15. Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Map of Naval Air Station (L.T.A.), Santa Ana, Calif. Showing conditions on June 30, 1949. Drawing no. NA 91/A9-1(1) 1949 - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  16. Status of marine biomedical research.

    PubMed Central

    Bessey, O

    1976-01-01

    A meeting on Marine Biomedical Research, sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), National Institutes of Health and the Smithsonian Institution Museum of Natural History, was attended by approximately 125 scientists, directors and representatives from many of the country's marine biological laboratories, and government agencies whose interests and responsibilites are in the marine biology and health areas. The purpose of the meeting was to explore the undeveloped research opportunities in the area of marine biology for the advancement of our understanding of human health problems and to provide information on the current status of marine biology laboratories. The meeting was devoted to presentations and discussions in four general areas: (1)Marine Species as Models for Human Disease; (2)Environmental Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis; (3)Human Health and the Marine Environment--infectious agents and naturally occurring and foreign toxins; and (4)Drugs from the seas. Representatives from twelve of the country's approximatley 40 marine laboratories discussed their organization, developmental history, scientific programs, facilities, and present status of their support. The presentations served as a background and stimulated very lively analytical and constructive discussions of the undeveloped research and education potential residing in the marine environment and biological laboratories for a better understanding of many human health problems; some scientific areas that should be developed to realize this potential; and the needs and problems of marine laboratories that require attention and support if they are to survive and realize their possibilities. PMID:944630

  17. Air surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  18. Port Operational Marine Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, A.; Stefanov, A.; Slabakova, V.; Marinova, V.

    2009-04-01

    The Port Operational Marine Observing System (POMOS) is a network of distributed sensors and centralized data collecting, processing and distributing unit. The system is designed to allow for the real-time assessment of weather and marine conditions throughout the major Bulgarian ports: Varna, Burgas and Balchik, supporting thereby Maritime administration to secure safety navigation in bays, canals and ports. Real-time information within harbors is obtained using various sensors placed at thirteen strategic locations to monitor the current state of the environment. The most important for navigation weather and sea-state parameters are measured: wind speed and direction, air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, visibility, solar radiation, water temperature and salinity, sea level, currents speed and direction, mean wave's parameters. The system consist of: 11 weather stations (3 with extra solar radiation and 4 with extra visibility measurement), 9 water temperature and salinity sensors, 9 sea-level stations, two sea currents and waves stations and two canal currents stations. All sensors are connected to communication system which provides direct intranet access to the instruments. Every 15 minutes measured data is transmitted in real-time to the central collecting system, where data is collected, processed and stored in database. Database is triple secured to prevent data losses. Data collection system is double secured. Measuring system is secured against short power failure and instability. Special software is designed to collect, store, process and present environmental data and information on different user-friendly screens. Access to data and information is through internet/intranet with the help of browsers. Actual data from all measurements or from separate measuring place can be displayed on the computer screens as well as data for the last 24 hours. Historical data are available using report server for extracting data for selectable

  19. [Environmentally induced (extrinsic) skin aging].

    PubMed

    Krutmann, J; Schikowski, T; Hüls, A; Vierkötter, A; Grether-Beck, S

    2016-02-01

    Chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, particularly as a component of natural sunlight, is a major cause of environmentally induced aging of the skin. In addition, other environmental factors for premature skin aging include longer wavelength radiation in the visible light region and in particular in the shortwave infrared radiation region. Furthermore, particulate and gaseous components of air pollution significantly contribute to the aging process. PMID:26769311

  20. Bioactive Marine Drugs and Marine Biomaterials for Brain Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Clara; Valentão, Patrícia; Ferreres, Federico; Andrade, Paula B.

    2014-01-01

    Marine invertebrates produce a plethora of bioactive compounds, which serve as inspiration for marine biotechnology, particularly in drug discovery programs and biomaterials development. This review aims to summarize the potential of drugs derived from marine invertebrates in the field of neuroscience. Therefore, some examples of neuroprotective drugs and neurotoxins will be discussed. Their role in neuroscience research and development of new therapies targeting the central nervous system will be addressed, with particular focus on neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. In addition, the neuronal growth promoted by marine drugs, as well as the recent advances in neural tissue engineering, will be highlighted. PMID:24798925

  1. THERMAL CONTROL MODEL OF A MARINER JUPITER SATURN SPACECRAFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A thermal control model of a Mariner Jupiter saturn spacecraft was encapsulated in the Kennedy Space Center Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Building 1 (SAEF-1) today. Here the shroud is being moved to a position above the thermal control model. Tests of the ground cooling unit that will be used to air-condition the Mariner Jupiter saturn spacecraft at the launch pad will be conducted in SAEF-1. Following the tests, the thermal control model will be returned to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The first of two Mariner Jupiter Saturn spacecraft will be launched atop a Titan Centaur booster from Complex 41, Cape Canaveral, in August 1977. The second launch is scheduled in September 1977.

  2. Marine permafrost detection using galvanic electrical resistivity methods

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, R.F.

    1983-05-01

    Because of the high electrical resistivity contrast between ice-bonded sediments (permafrost) and the same sediments in an unfrozen state, galvanic (direct-current) electrical resistivity measurements are capable of determining the depth below the sea floor of marine permafrost layers. Unlike the seismic refraction method usually used for offshore permafrost surveying, resistivity measurements can determine the thickness as well as the depth of a permafrost layer. Also, the resistivity method is usable in acoustic anomaly areas where seismic data cannot be obtained and in shallow water where air gun sources are not effective. Marine resistivity measurements may be made through the sea ice in the winter or from a stationary or moving boat in the summer. The results of field trials conducted in the Prudhoe Bay area indicated that marine permafrost depths and thicknesses determined from resistivity measurements agreed well with those obtained from borehole data.

  3. Remnants of marine bacterial communities can be retrieved from deep sediments in lakes of marine origin.

    PubMed

    Langenheder, Silke; Comte, Jérôme; Zha, Yinghua; Samad, Md Sainur; Sinclair, Lucas; Eiler, Alexander; Lindström, Eva S

    2016-08-01

    Some bacteria can be preserved over time in deep sediments where they persist either in dormant or slow-growing vegetative stages. Here, we hypothesized that such cells can be revived when exposed to environmental conditions similar to those before they were buried in the sediments. To test this hypothesis, we collected bacteria from sediment samples of different ages (140-8500 calibrated years before present, cal BP) from three lakes that differed in the timing of their physical isolation from the Baltic Sea following postglacial uplift. After these bacterial communities were grown in sterile water from the Baltic Sea, we determined the proportion of 16S rRNA sequence reads associated with marine habitats by extracting the environment descriptive terms of homologous sequences retrieved from public databases. We found that the proportion of reads associated with marine descriptive term was significantly higher in cultures inoculated with sediment layers formed under Baltic conditions and where salinities were expected to be similar to current levels. Moreover, a similar pattern was found in the original sediment layers. Our study, therefore, suggests that remnants of marine bacterial communities can be preserved in sediments over thousands of years and can be revived from deep sediments in lakes of marine origin. PMID:26929161

  4. Key Questions in Marine Megafauna Movement Ecology.

    PubMed

    Hays, Graeme C; Ferreira, Luciana C; Sequeira, Ana M M; Meekan, Mark G; Duarte, Carlos M; Bailey, Helen; Bailleul, Fred; Bowen, W Don; Caley, M Julian; Costa, Daniel P; Eguíluz, Victor M; Fossette, Sabrina; Friedlaender, Ari S; Gales, Nick; Gleiss, Adrian C; Gunn, John; Harcourt, Rob; Hazen, Elliott L; Heithaus, Michael R; Heupel, Michelle; Holland, Kim; Horning, Markus; Jonsen, Ian; Kooyman, Gerald L; Lowe, Christopher G; Madsen, Peter T; Marsh, Helene; Phillips, Richard A; Righton, David; Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Sato, Katsufumi; Shaffer, Scott A; Simpfendorfer, Colin A; Sims, David W; Skomal, Gregory; Takahashi, Akinori; Trathan, Philip N; Wikelski, Martin; Womble, Jamie N; Thums, Michele

    2016-06-01

    It is a golden age for animal movement studies and so an opportune time to assess priorities for future work. We assembled 40 experts to identify key questions in this field, focussing on marine megafauna, which include a broad range of birds, mammals, reptiles, and fish. Research on these taxa has both underpinned many of the recent technical developments and led to fundamental discoveries in the field. We show that the questions have broad applicability to other taxa, including terrestrial animals, flying insects, and swimming invertebrates, and, as such, this exercise provides a useful roadmap for targeted deployments and data syntheses that should advance the field of movement ecology. PMID:26979550

  5. Air Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorer, Richard S.

    The purpose of this book is to describe the basic mechanisms whereby pollution is transported and diffused in the atmosphere. It is designed to give practitioners an understanding of basic mechanics and physics so they may have a correct basis on which to formulate their decisions related to practical air pollution control problems. Since many…

  6. /Air Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emami, Samar; Sohn, Hong Yong; Kim, Hang Goo

    2014-08-01

    Molten magnesium oxidizes rapidly when exposed to air causing melt loss and handling difficulties. The use of certain additive gases such as SF6, SO2, and CO2 to form a protective MgO layer over a magnesium melt has been proposed. The oxidation behavior of molten magnesium in air containing various concentrations of SF6 was investigated. Measurements of the kinetics of the oxide layer growth at various SF6 concentrations in air and temperatures were made. Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis unit in the temperature range of 943 K to 1043 K (670 °C to 770 °C). Results showed that a thin, coherent, and protective MgF2 layer was formed under SF6/Air mixtures, with a thickness ranging from 300 nm to 3 μm depending on SF6 concentration, temperature, and exposure time. Rate parameters were calculated and a model for the process was developed. The morphology and composition of the surface films were studied using scanning electron microscope and energy-dispersive spectroscope.

  7. Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Marjorie

    1964-01-01

    Dr Marjorie Clifton describes the classification of gaseous and nongaseous constituents of air pollution and then outlines the methods of measuring these. The National Survey embraced 150 towns of all sizes throughout England and Wales and provided data on smoke and sulphur dioxide in relation to climate, topography, industrialization, population density, fuel utilization and urban development. Dr W C Turner discusses the relationship between air pollution and mortality from respiratory conditions, and particularly the incidence of chronic bronchitis. He postulates a theory that such respiratory conditions arise as an allergy to the spores of certain moulds, spore formation being encouraged by the air humidity in Greatv Britain and overcrowded and damp living conditions. He describes the results of a twenty-week study undertaken in 1962-3, showing associations between respiratory disease and levels of air pollution. Dr Stuart Carne undertook a survey in general practice to plot the patterns of respiratory illness in London during the winter of 1962-3. There were two peaks of respiratory illnesses coinciding with the fog at the beginning of December and the freeze-up from the end of December until the beginning of March. PMID:14178955

  8. Air Trafficco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasunic, Kevin

    1970-01-01

    The work of the 14,000 air traffic controllers can be both challenging and nerve-racking. Concentration, steady nerves, and a clear voice are required to remember the routing and identification of the maze of aircraft and to instruct each of them accurately. Controllers must have a high school diploma and three years work experience or a college…

  9. Sulfur diagenesis in marine sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1985-01-01

    Bacterial sulfate reduction occurs in all marine sediments that contain organic matter. Aqueous sulfide (HS-, H2S), one of the initial products of bacterial sulfide reduction, is extremely reactive with iron bearing minerals: sulfur is fixed into sediments as iron sulfide (first FeS and then Fe2S2). A working definition is given of sulfur diagenesis in marine sediments. Controls and consequences of sulfate reduction rates in marine sediments are examined.

  10. Measurements of air pollution emission factors for marine transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alföldy, B.; Balzani Lööv, J.; Lagler, F.; Mellqvist, J.; Berg, N.; Beecken, J.; Weststrate, H.; Duyzer, J.; Bencs, L.; Horemans, B.; Cavalli, F.; Putaud, J.-P.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Pintér Csordás, A.; Van Grieken, R.; Borowiak, A.; Hjorth, J.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of the plumes of seagoing ships was investigated during a two weeks long measurement campaign in the port of Rotterdam, Hoek van Holland, The Netherlands, in September 2009. Altogether, 497 ships were monitored and a statistical evaluation of emission factors (g kg-1 fuel) was provided. The concerned main atmospheric components were SO2, NO2, NOx and the aerosol particle number. In addition, the elemental and water-soluble ionic composition of the emitted particulate matter was determined. Emission factors were expressed as a function of ship type, power and crankshaft rotational speed. The average SO2 emission factor was found to be roughly half of what is allowed in sulphur emission control areas (16 vs. 30 g kg-1 fuel), and exceedances of this limit were rarely registered. A significant linear relationship was observed between the SO2 and particle number emission factor. The intercept of the regression line, 0.5 × 1016 (kg fuel)-1, gives the average number of particles formed during the burning of 1 kg zero sulphur content fuel, while the slope, 2 × 1018, provides the average number of particles formed with 1 kg sulphur burnt with the fuel. Water-soluble ionic composition analysis of the aerosol samples from the plumes showed that ~144 g of particulate sulphate was emitted from 1 kg sulphur burnt with the fuel. The mass median diameter of sulphate particles estimated from the measurements was ~42 nm.

  11. Navy and Marine Corps active duty mortality patterns for 1995 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Almond, Myron D; Carlton, Jan; Bohnker, Bruce K

    2003-01-01

    The authors analyze all Navy and Marine Corps active duty deaths from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1999 (Navy, N=1231; Marine Corps, N=701). Data were obtained from official Navy and Marine Corps sources, including the Report of Casualty (DD form 1300) and the Navy Personnel Casualty Report (Control Symbol NMPC 1770-4) or the Marine Corps Personnel Casualty Report (MC-3040-02), as appropriate. Overall fatality rates were 68.2 per 100,000 active duty Navy personnel and 84.2 for active duty Marine Corps personnel. Rates were generally lower than those noted in previous studies and lower than comparable civilian groups. The officer fatality rates were strongly affected by aircraft mishap-related deaths. The only subgroup displaying higher rates than their civilian counterparts was mishap-related deaths for enlisted Marines age 17 to 24 years old. PMID:12546243

  12. Pollution of the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Malins, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    With 63,000 chemicals in common use, the task of identifying specific pollutants and their effects in relation to marine life is immense. The interdisciplinary approach to this complex issue includes studies in analytical chemistry, biochemistry, vertebrate and invertebrate pathology, electron microscopy, immunology, and behavioral biology. Primary concerns are whether pollutants are available to organisms and whether they are transferred through marine food webs. Studies on marine and estuarine pollution in the New York Bight and Puget Sound, Washington, are summarized. Among other results it is interactive effects between two pollutants in marine organism that account for substantial alterations in certain biochemical systems and in cellular morphology. (JGB)

  13. Anticancer agents from marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jianjun; Zhou, Feng; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponges are currently one of the richest sources of anticancer active compounds found in the marine ecosystems. More than 5300 different known metabolites are from sponges and their associated microorganisms. To survive in the complicated marine environment, most of the sponge species have evolved chemical means to defend against predation. Such chemical adaptation produces many biologically active secondary metabolites including anticancer agents. This review highlights novel secondary metabolites in sponges which inhibited diverse cancer species in the recent 5 years. These natural products of marine sponges are categorized based on various chemical characteristics. PMID:25402340

  14. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2014-09-09

    Marine organic aerosols (MOA) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Model predictions were also in goodmore » agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOA observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOA have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having > 10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly-emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.« less

  15. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-03-17

    Marine-sourced organic aerosols (MOAs) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem (Global Earth Observing System Chemistry) model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Modelmore » predictions were also in good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOAs observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOAs have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having >10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.« less

  16. Mortality among United States Coast Guard marine inspectors

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, A.; Haas, T.; Prosser, R.; Morrissette, M.; Blackman, K.; Grauman, D.; van Dusen, P.; Moran, F.

    1989-05-01

    Work history records and fitness reports were obtained for 1,767 marine inspectors of the U.S. Coast Guard between 1942 and 1970 and for a comparison group of 1,914 officers who had never been marine inspectors. Potential exposure to chemicals was assessed by one of the authors (RP), who is knowledgeable about marine inspection duties. Marine inspectors and noninspectors had a deficit in overall mortality compared to that expected from the general U.S. population (standardized mortality ratios (SMRs = 79 and 63, respectively)). Deficits occurred for most major causes of death, including infectious and parasitic diseases, digestive and urinary systems, and accidents. Marine inspectors had excesses of cirrhosis of the liver (SMR = 136) and motor vehicle accidents (SMR = 107), and cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system (SMR = 157), whereas noninspectors had deficits for these causes of death. Comparison of mortality rates directly adjusted to the age distribution of the inspectors and noninspectors combined also demonstrated that mortality for these causes of death was greater among inspectors than noninspectors (directly adjusted ratio ratios of 190, 145, and 198) for cirrhosis of the liver, motor vehicle accidents, and lymphatic and hematopoietic system cancer, respectively. The SMRs rose with increasing probability of exposure to chemicals for motor vehicle accidents, cirrhosis of the liver, liver cancer, and leukemia, which suggests that contact with chemicals during inspection of merchant vessels may be involved in the development of these diseases among marine inspectors.

  17. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2014-09-01

    Marine organic aerosols (MOA) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Model predictions were also in good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOA observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOA have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having > 10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly-emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.

  18. Implementing marine organic aerosols into the GEOS-Chem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Johnson, M. S.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Meskhidze, N.

    2015-03-01

    Marine-sourced organic aerosols (MOAs) have been shown to play an important role in tropospheric chemistry by impacting surface mass, cloud condensation nuclei, and ice nuclei concentrations over remote marine and coastal regions. In this work, an online marine primary organic aerosol emission parameterization, designed to be used for both global and regional models, was implemented into the GEOS-Chem (Global Earth Observing System Chemistry) model. The implemented emission scheme improved the large underprediction of organic aerosol concentrations in clean marine regions (normalized mean bias decreases from -79% when using the default settings to -12% when marine organic aerosols are added). Model predictions were also in good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.62 and normalized mean bias of -36%) with hourly surface concentrations of MOAs observed during the summertime at an inland site near Paris, France. Our study shows that MOAs have weaker coastal-to-inland concentration gradients than sea-salt aerosols, leading to several inland European cities having >10% of their surface submicron organic aerosol mass concentration with a marine source. The addition of MOA tracers to GEOS-Chem enabled us to identify the regions with large contributions of freshly emitted or aged aerosol having distinct physicochemical properties, potentially indicating optimal locations for future field studies.

  19. Pollution risk from marine casualties

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, G.E.

    1993-04-01

    In the oil tanker, oil shipping industry, there is no single fail-safe design that can ensure spill-free protection under all possible circumstances. Regulatory efforts have focused on design improvements that can be incorporated with out destroying the basic mission. Good examples are the IMO requirements for segregated ballast tanks, crude oil washing, and inert gas systems which have become mandatory over the last 15 years. They have contributed much to reduce pollution and enhance safety of life at sea. In contrast, the double-hull design, which has been mandated for new vessels operating in US waters, adds 15% to 20% more to a vessel's construction cost with no offsetting income. Most ship owners are not enamored with the double hull requirement, which will not necessarily save them from ruinous financial exposure to unlimited liability if involved in a major oil spill in the US, even if all reasonable safety precautions have been followed. There are no physical features in a ship that offset operational shortcomings such as an incompentent crew, poor operating procedures, or a lack of navigational aids. The problem in the industry is not vessel age or deficiencies in design, nor lack of safety rules and regulations. The problem is one of poor enforcement, which accounts for most of the operational inadequacies evidenced in vessels. But above all, safe marine operations depend on people. The human element remains the most important part of the safety equation.

  20. Ships, ports and particulate air pollution - an analysis of recent studies.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Daniel; Uibel, Stefanie; Takemura, Masaya; Klingelhoefer, Doris; Groneberg, David A

    2011-01-01

    The duration of use is usually significantly longer for marine vessels than for roadside vehicles. Therefore, these vessels are often powered by relatively old engines which may propagate air pollution. Also, the quality of fuel used for marine vessels is usually not comparable to the quality of fuels used in the automotive sector and therefore, port areas may exhibit a high degree of air pollution. In contrast to the multitude of studies that addressed outdoor air pollution due to road traffic, only little is known about ship-related air pollution. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address air pollution, i.e. particulate matter exposure, due to marine vessels. It can be stated that the data in this area of research is still largely limited. Especially, knowledge on the different air pollutions in different sea areas is needed. PMID:22141925

  1. Ships, ports and particulate air pollution - an analysis of recent studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The duration of use is usually significantly longer for marine vessels than for roadside vehicles. Therefore, these vessels are often powered by relatively old engines which may propagate air pollution. Also, the quality of fuel used for marine vessels is usually not comparable to the quality of fuels used in the automotive sector and therefore, port areas may exhibit a high degree of air pollution. In contrast to the multitude of studies that addressed outdoor air pollution due to road traffic, only little is known about ship-related air pollution. Therefore the present article aims to summarize recent studies that address air pollution, i.e. particulate matter exposure, due to marine vessels. It can be stated that the data in this area of research is still largely limited. Especially, knowledge on the different air pollutions in different sea areas is needed. PMID:22141925

  2. The marine diversity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Reuman, Daniel C; Gislason, Henrik; Barnes, Carolyn; Mélin, Frédéric; Jennings, Simon

    2014-07-01

    Distributions of species body sizes within a taxonomic group, for example, mammals, are widely studied and important because they help illuminate the evolutionary processes that produced these distributions. Distributions of the sizes of species within an assemblage delineated by geography instead of taxonomy (all the species in a region regardless of clade) are much less studied but are equally important and will illuminate a different set of ecological and evolutionary processes. We develop and test a mechanistic model of how diversity varies with body mass in marine ecosystems. The model predicts the form of the 'diversity spectrum', which quantifies the distribution of species' asymptotic body masses, is a species analogue of the classic size spectrum of individuals, and which we have found to be a new and widely applicable description of diversity patterns. The marine diversity spectrum is predicted to be approximately linear across an asymptotic mass range spanning seven orders of magnitude. Slope -0.5 is predicted for the global marine diversity spectrum for all combined pelagic zones of continental shelf seas, and slopes for large regions are predicted to lie between -0.5 and -0.1. Slopes of -0.5 and -0.1 represent markedly different communities: a slope of -0.5 depicts a 10-fold reduction in diversity for every 100-fold increase in asymptotic mass; a slope of -0.1 depicts a 1.6-fold reduction. Steeper slopes are predicted for larger or colder regions, meaning fewer large species per small species for such regions. Predictions were largely validated by a global empirical analysis. Results explain for the first time a new and widespread phenomenon of biodiversity. Results have implications for estimating numbers of species of small asymptotic mass, where taxonomic inventories are far from complete. Results show that the relationship between diversity and body mass can be explained from the dependence of predation behaviour, dispersal, and life history on

  3. Air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Although the Environmental Protection Agency proposed controls in the early 1970s, marine vessel emissions remain largely unregulated, in part, because industry, the Coast Guard, and the Maritime Administration questioned the safety, cost, and effects on interstate commerce. The Coast Guard and EPA attempted to resolve some of these issues but discontinued their efforts when EPA reduced its overall budget and the Coast Guard perceived no state interest in regulating vessel emissions. Efforts resumed when the Coast Guard became aware of a growing state movement to regulate vessel emissions; it then requested a study by the National Research Council. The study found that additional operating experience, testing, and studies were necessary. The Coast Guard then began developing safety standards in 1987 and EPA proposed a national ozone strategy.

  4. An evaluation of uranium-series dating of fossil echinoids from southern California Pleistocene marine terraces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Kennedy, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Fossil sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus) from Pleistocene marine terraces on the southern California Channel Islands have been dated by the uranium-series method in order to test the suitability of echinoids for dating marine terraces. Results indicate that urchin plates and spines do not behave as closed systems with respect to both uranium and thorium. Calculated ages based on these data do not agree with uranium-series ages (120,000 and 127,000 yrs) obtained previously from corals from the same localities. Thus, fossil sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus) are not considered suitable for uraniumseries dating of Pleistocene marine terrace deposits. ?? 1985.

  5. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    PubMed

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef. PMID:27200180

  6. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  7. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  8. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  9. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  10. 50 CFR 216.25 - Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exempted marine mammals and marine mammal... AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS General Exceptions § 216.25 Exempted marine mammals and marine...

  11. Submerged marine streamer location

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, F. A.

    1985-11-26

    Method and means are provided for determining the position of a submerged marine streamer towed behind an exploration vessel. An array of at least three transponders secured to the ocean floor generate distinguishable acoustic pulses upon a command signal from the ship. These signals are received by hydrophones housed in the streamer and by the ship. The distance to each hydrophone may be triangulated from the data generated including accounting for changes in velocity between the vessel and the seismic streamer and the bottom transponders during the taking of such data.

  12. Mariner 10 mercury encounter.

    PubMed

    Dunne, J A

    1974-07-12

    Mariner 10's closet approach to Mercury on 29 March 1974 occurred on the dark side of the planet at a range of approximately 700 kilometers. The spacecraft trajectory passed through the shadows of both the sun and Earth. Experiments conducted included magnetic fields, plasma and charged particle studies of the solar wind interaction region, television photography, extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of the atmosphere, the detection of infrared thermal radiation from the surface, and a dual-frequency radio occultation in search of an ionosphere. PMID:17810505

  13. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  14. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  15. Ultraviolet observations of venus from mariner 10: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Broadfoot, A L; Kumar, S; Belton, M J; McElroy, M B

    1974-03-29

    An objective grating spectrometer on Mariner 10 has measured air-glow in the wavelength range 200 to 1700 angstroms. The data reveal the presence of significant concentrations of hydrogen, helium, carbon, and oxygen atoms in the upper atmosphere of Venus. A preliminary analysis of the hydrogen data indicates an exospheric temperature of 400 degrees K. There is evidence for intense air-glow emission at wavelengths longward of 1350 angstroms; the nature of this emission is unclear, but the radiation is spatially extensive and detectable on both day and night sides of the planet. PMID:17791374

  16. Communication & Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, William E.

    This extensive bibliography contains more than 1,800 entries about communication and aging. The citations include journal articles, unpublished papers, speeches, dissertations, research studies, and books that relate aging and the aged to a variety of topics, including the following: physiological deterioration, socialization, political…

  17. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  18. Creative Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)

  19. Commercial marine vessel contributions to emission inventories. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-07

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 require the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to conduct a survey of emissions from combustion engines associates with non-road vehicles and stationary sources. Among the emission source categories under scrutiny of the EPA are commercial marine vessels. This group of sources includes revenue vessels operated on US ports and waterways in such diverse pursuits as international and domestic trade, port and ship service, offshore and coastal industry, and passenger transport. For the purposes of the study, EPA is assessing commercial marine vessel operations at selected ports around the country which are characterized by a high level of commercial marine vessel activity. Booz-Allen has been retained by the EPA to assist in developing emission inventories from marine vessels for up to six ports, based on vessel arrival/departure data, are believed to exhibit high levels of marine generated emissions. Booz-Allen developed a listing of the top 20 major ports in terms of total vessel activity (as measured by annual tonnage of cargo and annual vessel calls).

  20. Comparison of uranium-series, radiocarbon, and amino acid data from marine molluscs, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, B.J.; Miller, G.H.; Andrews, J.T.; Stuiver, M.

    1981-10-01

    Uranium-series and /sup 14/C dates and the extent of amino acid racemization are reported for 24 marine shell samples from three areas of Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. When the radiometric dates are plotted against the ratio of D-alloisoleucene:L-isoleucene in the shells, five broad age groups are recognized. The uranium-series data indicate that /sup 231/Pa is incompletely retained in most fossil shells and that /sup 230/Th is lost from some of the samples. Therefore, their apparent ages are minimum. However, a few dated samples in each group have yielded useful age results, and the minimum ages of the five groups of samples are estimated as 7,000 to 11,000, greater than or equal to70,000, greater than or equal to136,000, greater than or equal to190,000 and >300,000 yr. Calculated integrated thermal histories based on the epimerization reaction in the mollusc Hiatella arctica Linne give paleotemperature estimates of around -5/sup o/C, compared to the present mean annual air temperature of about -11/sup o/C.

  1. 75 FR 19670 - Marine Highway Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Marine Highway Projects ACTION: Solicitation of applications for Marine highway projects. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation is soliciting applications for Marine Highway...

  2. Marine Propulsion Technology Program Meets the Demand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Howard G.

    1974-01-01

    The marine technology program cluster at Florida Keys Community College is described. Technicians are trained to maintain and repair engines and selected marine accessories through a marine propulsion technology curriculum (certificate program and associate in science degree). (EA)

  3. 78 FR 3402 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC443 Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... of a forthcoming meeting of the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC). The members will...

  4. 77 FR 46733 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC145 Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... of a forthcoming meeting of the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC). The members will...

  5. 75 FR 44770 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX87 Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... of a forthcoming meeting of the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC). The members will...

  6. 76 FR 14379 - Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA265 Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... of a forthcoming meeting of the Marine Fisheries Advisory Committee (MAFAC). The members will...

  7. FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Data Sets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-07-12

    FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Data Sets First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) I - Marine Stratocumulus was conducted off the southwestern coast of California. ... FIRE Project Guide FIRE I - Marine Stratocumulus Home Page SCAR-B Block:  ...

  8. [Air pollution].

    PubMed

    Bauters, Christophe; Bauters, Gautier

    2016-01-01

    Short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution is associated with an increased cardiovascular mortality. Chronic exposure to PM is also associated with cardiovascular risk. Myocardial infarction and heart failure are the most common cardiovascular events associated with PM pollution. The pathophysiological mechanisms related to PM pollution are inflammation, thrombosis, vasomotion abnormalities, progression of atherosclerosis, increased blood pressure, and cardiac remodeling. A decrease in PM exposure may be particularly beneficial in subjects with a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26547674

  9. A novel marine silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenberger, Katrin; Dicko, Cedric; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a novel silk production system in a marine amphipod provides insights into the wider potential of natural silks. The tube-building corophioid amphipod Crassicorophium bonellii produces from its legs fibrous, adhesive underwater threads that combine barnacle cement biology with aspects of spider silk thread extrusion spinning. We characterised the filamentous silk as a mixture of mucopolysaccharides and protein deriving from glands representing two distinct types. The carbohydrate and protein silk secretion is dominated by complex β-sheet structures and a high content of charged amino acid residues. The filamentous secretion product exits the gland through a pore near the tip of the secretory leg after having moved through a duct, which subdivides into several small ductules all terminating in a spindle-shaped chamber. This chamber communicates with the exterior and may be considered the silk reservoir and processing/mixing space, in which the silk is mechanically and potentially chemically altered and becomes fibrous. We assert that further study of this probably independently evolved, marine arthropod silk processing and secretion system can provide not only important insights into the more complex arachnid and insect silks but also into crustacean adhesion cements.

  10. A novel marine silk.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, Katrin; Dicko, Cedric; Vollrath, Fritz

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a novel silk production system in a marine amphipod provides insights into the wider potential of natural silks. The tube-building corophioid amphipod Crassicorophium bonellii produces from its legs fibrous, adhesive underwater threads that combine barnacle cement biology with aspects of spider silk thread extrusion spinning. We characterised the filamentous silk as a mixture of mucopolysaccharides and protein deriving from glands representing two distinct types. The carbohydrate and protein silk secretion is dominated by complex β-sheet structures and a high content of charged amino acid residues. The filamentous secretion product exits the gland through a pore near the tip of the secretory leg after having moved through a duct, which subdivides into several small ductules all terminating in a spindle-shaped chamber. This chamber communicates with the exterior and may be considered the silk reservoir and processing/mixing space, in which the silk is mechanically and potentially chemically altered and becomes fibrous. We assert that further study of this probably independently evolved, marine arthropod silk processing and secretion system can provide not only important insights into the more complex arachnid and insect silks but also into crustacean adhesion cements. PMID:22057952

  11. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Philip M.; Johnson, Magnus L.

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors’ perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median—US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median—US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors’ non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  12. Artificial reefs and marine protected areas: a study in willingness to pay to access Folkestone Marine Reserve, Barbados, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E; Wheeler, Philip M; Johnson, Magnus L

    2016-01-01

    Artificial reefs in marine protected areas provide additional habitat for biodiversity viewing, and therefore may offer an innovative management solution for managing for coral reef recovery and resilience. Marine park user fees can generate revenue to help manage and maintain natural and artificial reefs. Using a stated preference survey, this study investigates the present consumer surplus associated with visitor use of a marine protected area in Barbados. Two hypothetical markets were presented to differentiate between respondents use values of either: (a) natural reefs within the marine reserve or (b) artificial reef habitat for recreational enhancement. Information was also collected on visitors' perceptions of artificial reefs, reef material preferences and reef conservation awareness. From a sample of 250 visitors on snorkel trips, we estimate a mean willingness to pay of US$18.33 (median-US$15) for natural reef use and a mean value of US$17.58 (median-US$12.50) for artificial reef use. The number of marine species viewed, age of respondent, familiarity with the Folkestone Marine Reserve and level of environmental concern were statistically significant in influencing willingness to pay. Regression analyses indicate visitors are willing to pay a significant amount to view marine life, especially turtles. Our results suggest that user fees could provide a considerable source of income to aid reef conservation in Barbados. In addition, the substantial use value reported for artificial reefs indicates a reef substitution policy may be supported by visitors to the Folkestone Marine Reserve. We discuss our findings and highlight directions for future research that include the need to collect data to establish visitors' non-use values to fund reef management. PMID:27547521

  13. Air filtering device

    SciTech Connect

    Backus, A.L.

    1992-07-28

    This patent describes a room air cleaning device. It comprises: a box housing having an air inlet and an air outlet provided therein; a vertical baffle coupled to the box housing opposite the air outlet and spaced form the box housing such that an air egress outlet is formed between the vertical baffle and the box housing; air cleansing means substantially disposed within the box housing and cleansing air passing into the inlet and out of the air egress outlet; a fan disposed within the box housing, the fan providing air movement through the air inlet and the air egress outlet; wherein air exits the room air cleaning device through the air egress outlet as a vertical plane of moving air; and wherein formation of the vertical plane of moving air contributes to the formation of a low pressure area drawing impure air toward the air inlet.

  14. NORTHERN PUGET SOUND MARINE MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A baseline study of the marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was undertaken from November 1977 to September 1979 emphasizing certain aspects of the biology of the harbor seal, which is the most abundant marine mammal in this area. The local abunda...

  15. Linking marine biology and biotechnology.

    PubMed

    de Nys, Rocky; Steinberg, Peter D

    2002-06-01

    Studies of biological systems in which there is a direct link between the challenges faced by marine organisms and biotechnologies enable us to rationally search for active natural compounds and other novel biotechnologies. This approach is proving successful in developing new methods for the prevention of marine biofouling and for the identification of new lead compounds for the development of ultraviolet sunscreens. PMID:12180100

  16. The Marine Corps University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkey, Carol E.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Marine Corps University (Virginia) Library's collections and reserves. States that the library's resources focus on military doctrine, history, arts, and sciences, and that they include Web- and CD-ROM-based specialized military databases. Describes the library's mission to serve the university community and Marine Corps patrons…

  17. MERCURY IN MARINE LIFE DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the Mercury in Marine Life Project is to organize information on estuarine and marine species so that EPA can better understand both the extent of monitoring for mercury and level of mercury contamination in the biota of coastal environments. This report follows a ...

  18. Job Prospects for Marine Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1986-01-01

    Marine engineering is one of the smaller disciplines that have grown during recent decades. Job prospects in this field, salaries, types of employers (particularly Navy shipbuilding and infrastructure work), and marine/ocean engineers involvement with environmental issues are discussed. (JN)

  19. Marine Biology and Human Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, F. S.

    1976-01-01

    Marine biology has become an important area for study throughout the world. The author of this article discusses some of the important discoveries and fields of research in marine biology that are useful for mankind. Topics include food from the sea, fish farming, pesticides, pollution, and conservation. (MA)

  20. Marine Science Activities, Grade Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolb, James A.

    This unit, one of a series designed to develop and foster an understanding of the marine environment, presents marine science activities for second grade students. The unit, focusing on awareness of living/non-living factors shaping life of the sea, is divided into sections dealing with: physical characteristics of oceans; fish; sea anemone;…

  1. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  2. Drug Discovery from Marine Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Gerwick, William H.; Fenner, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    The marine environment has been a source of more than 20,000 inspirational natural products discovered over the past 50 years. From these efforts, 9 approved drugs and 12 current clinical trial agents have been discovered, either as natural products or molecules inspired from the natural product structure. To a significant degree, these have come from collections of marine invertebrates largely obtained from shallow water tropical ecosystems. However, there is a growing recognition that marine invertebrates are oftentimes populated with enormous quantities of ‘associated’ or symbiotic microorganisms, and that microorganisms are the true metabolic sources of these most valuable of marine natural products. Also, because of the inherently multidisciplinary nature of this field, a high degree of innovation is characteristic of marine natural product drug discovery efforts. PMID:23274881

  3. Marine spatial planning in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Agapiou, Athos; Mettas, Christodoulos; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Evagorou, Evagoras; Cuca, Branka; Papoutsa, Christiana; Nisantzi, Argyro; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Soulis, George; Xagoraris, Zafiris; Lysandrou, Vasiliki; Aliouris, Kyriacos; Ioannou, Nicolas; Pavlogeorgatos, Gerasimos

    2015-06-01

    Marine Spatial Planning (MSP), which is in concept similar to land-use planning, is a public process by which the relevant Member State's authorities analyse and organise human activities in marine areas to achieve ecological, economic and social objectives. MSP aims to promote sustainable growth of maritime economies, sustainable development of marine areas and sustainable use of marine resources. This paper highlights the importance of MSP and provides basic outcomes of the main European marine development. The already successful MSP plans can provide useful feedback and guidelines for other countries that are in the process of implementation of an integrated MSP, such as Cyprus. This paper presents part of the MSP project, of which 80% funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and 20% from national contribution. An overview of the project is presented, including data acquisition, methodology and preliminary results for the implementation of MSP in Cyprus.

  4. Evaluation of the Influence of Marine Vessel Emissions Plumes on Measurements Collected at the Amphitrite Point Coastal Background Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iannone, R.; Jones, K.; Schiller, C. L.; Ainslie, B.; Macdonald, A. M.; Mihele, C.; Vingarzan, R.

    2014-12-01

    A marine boundary layer air quality monitoring site was established on the west coast of Vancouver Island at Amphitrite Point in May 2010. The main objectives for the site were to (1) determine background air pollutant concentrations and trends, (2) support air quality modelling validation and development, (3) complement the high elevation background monitoring site at Whistler and other regional monitoring initiatives, and (4) conduct chemical process studies in the marine boundary layer. During the initial evaluations of the collected data (e.g., O3, PM2.5, NOx, and SO2) and its comparison to other marine background sites, periods were observed that are clearly representative of background air, continental background air, and those clearly influenced by ship and boat traffic in the region.On the basis that the individual pollutants observed are closely related to emissions observed by underway marine vessels, certain observational periods in the collected dataset were associated with ship plumes. Utilizing the data provided by marine vessel movements, CALPUFF emission inputs were generated for dispersion modelling of ship pollutants. CALPUFF model output data were subsequently compared to measured data in order to better characterize impacts from marine vessel traffic.

  5. Halogen chemistry in the marine boundary layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Gomez Martin, J. C.; Kumar, R.; Mahajan, A. S.; Oetjen, H.; Saunders, R. W.

    2009-04-01

    Important atmospheric sources of iodine include the air-sea exchange of biogenic iodocarbons, and the emission of I2 from macro-algae. The major source of bromine is the release of bromide ions from sea-salt aerosol. The subsequent atmospheric chemistry of these halogens (1), changes the oxidizing capacity of the marine boundary layer by destroying ozone and changing the hydroxyl radical concentration; (2), reacts efficiently with dimethyl sulphide and mercury (in the polar regions); and (3), leads to the formation of ultra-fine particles which may contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and hence affect climate. This paper will report observations of IO, BrO, OIO and I2 made by the technique of differential optical absorption spectroscopy, in several contrasting marine environments: the equatorial mid-Atlantic (Cape Verde); mid-latitude clean coastal (Mace Head, Ireland); polluted coastal (Roscoff, France); and the polar marine boundary layer (Hudson Bay, Canada). Both IO and BrO are observed in all these locations at significant concentrations (> 1 pptv), and so have a major impact on (1) and (2) above. To complement the field campaigns we have also carried out wide-ranging laboratory investigation. A new study of OIO photochemistry shows that absorption in the visible bands between 490 and 630 nm leads to I atom production with a quantum yield of unity, which now means that iodine is a particularly powerful ozone-depleting agent. We have also studied the formation and growth kinetics of iodine oxide nano-particles, and their uptake of water, sulphuric acid and di-carboxylic organic acids, in order to model their growth to a size where they can act as CCN. Their ice-nucleating properties will also be reported.

  6. Water gun vs air gun: A comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Detrick, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The water gun is a relatively new marine seismic sound source that produces an acoustic signal by an implosive rather than explosive mechanism. A comparison of the source characteristics of two different-sized water guns with those of conventional air guns shows the the water gun signature is cleaner and much shorter than that of a comparable-sized air gun: about 60-100 milliseconds (ms) for an 80-in3. (1.31-liter (I)) water gun compared with several hundred ms for an 80-in3. (1.31-1) air gun. The source spectra of water guns are richer in high frequencies (>200 Hz) than are those of air guns, but they also have less energy than those of air guns at low frequencies. A comparison between water gun and air gun reflection profiles in both shallow (Long Island Sound)-and deep (western Bermuda Rise)-water settings suggests that the water gun offers a good compromise between very high resolution, limited penetration systems (e.g. 3.5-kHz profilers and sparkers) and the large volume air guns and tuned air gun arrays generally used where significant penetration is required. ?? 1984 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

  7. Marine power - Accomplishments of the 1970s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, W. R.

    Progress made in the 1970s toward power production using marine power systems is discussed, noting that all renewable systems have a low intensity source. Consideration has been given to tidal, ocean current, kelp biomass, wave, salinity gradient, thermal gradient, and wind energy systems. Tidal plants delivering 240 MWe and 400 kWe are operating in France and Russia, respectively, and China is operating 90 small plants generating around 7 MW. Kelp growth rates were found to be lower than necessary for economic methane conversion. Experimentation in compressed air wave energy conversion is being pursued in Japan, and small programs are being conducted to study salinity gradients in the U.S. and Sweden. A 10 kW OTEC plant was operated successfully in Hawaii and the Japanese are testing a 100 kW plant. Offshore windpower is projected as the most likely marine system to succeed, both as a power producer and as a supplemental power system for ships. Near term efforts are expected to be in small facilities to expand the data base, gain experience in construction and operations, and to make evaluations.

  8. Merchant Marine Ship Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Sankovich, M. F.; Mumm, J. F.; North, Jr, D. C.; Rock, H. R.; Gestson, D. K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor for use in a merchant marine ship is described. The reactor is of pressurized, light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements that are confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass. (AEC)

  9. MERCHANT MARINE SHIP REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Mumm, J.F.; North, D.C. Jr.; Rock, H.R.; Geston, D.K.

    1961-05-01

    A nuclear reactor is described for use in a merchant marine ship. The reactor is of pressurized light water cooled and moderated design in which three passes of the water through the core in successive regions of low, intermediate, and high heat generation and downflow in a fuel region are made. The foregoing design makes a compact reactor construction with extended core life. The core has an egg-crate lattice containing the fuel elements confined between a lower flow baffle and upper grid plate, with the latter serving also as part of a turn- around manifold from which the entire coolant is distributed into the outer fuel elements for the second pass through the core. The inner fuel elements are cooled in the third pass.

  10. Marine optical characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Dennis K.; Ge, Yuntao; Hovey, Phil; King, ED; Stengel, Eric; Yuen, Marilyn; Koval, Larisa

    1995-01-01

    During the past three months, the MOCE Team conducted two field experiments in Mill Creek,Chesapeake Bay, from July 24 to August 4, and at the MOBY operations site at Snug Harbor, Honolulu, Hawaii, from August 15-30, prepared two technical memoranda, and continued MOCE-2 and MOCE-3 data reduction. The primary purposes of the experiments were to test the SeaWiFS 'remote sensing reflectance' protocol, obtain turbid water data for ocean color satellite algorithm development, perform calibration for both Near Infrared (NIR) and Visible Rainbow Spectrometer system, continue assembling the operational Marine Optical Buoy, and to test the MOBY cellular phone communications link at the Lanai mooring site.

  11. Why marine phytoplankton calcify.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Fanny M; Bach, Lennart T; Brownlee, Colin; Bown, Paul; Rickaby, Rosalind E M; Poulton, Alex J; Tyrrell, Toby; Beaufort, Luc; Dutkiewicz, Stephanie; Gibbs, Samantha; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Lee, Renee; Riebesell, Ulf; Young, Jeremy; Ridgwell, Andy

    2016-07-01

    Calcifying marine phytoplankton-coccolithophores- are some of the most successful yet enigmatic organisms in the ocean and are at risk from global change. To better understand how they will be affected, we need to know "why" coccolithophores calcify. We review coccolithophorid evolutionary history and cell biology as well as insights from recent experiments to provide a critical assessment of the costs and benefits of calcification. We conclude that calcification has high energy demands and that coccolithophores might have calcified initially to reduce grazing pressure but that additional benefits such as protection from photodamage and viral/bacterial attack further explain their high diversity and broad spectrum ecology. The cost-benefit aspect of these traits is illustrated by novel ecosystem modeling, although conclusive observations remain limited. In the future ocean, the trade-off between changing ecological and physiological costs of calcification and their benefits will ultimately decide how this important group is affected by ocean acidification and global warming. PMID:27453937

  12. Locations of marine animals revealed by carbon isotopes.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Kirsteen M; Palmer, Martin R; Moore, Andy; Ibbotson, Anton T; Beaumont, William R C; Poulter, David J S; Trueman, Clive N

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the distribution of marine animals is central to understanding climatic and other environmental influences on population ecology. This information has proven difficult to gain through capture-based methods biased by capture location. Here we show that marine location can be inferred from animal tissues. As the carbon isotope composition of animal tissues varies with sea surface temperature, marine location can be identified by matching time series of carbon isotopes measured in tissues to sea surface temperature records. Applying this technique to populations of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) produces isotopically-derived maps of oceanic feeding grounds, consistent with the current understanding of salmon migrations, that additionally reveal geographic segregation in feeding grounds between individual philopatric populations and age-classes. Carbon isotope ratios can be used to identify the location of open ocean feeding grounds for any pelagic animals for which tissue archives and matching records of sea surface temperature are available. PMID:22355540

  13. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  14. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  15. Ice age terminations.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R Lawrence; Broecker, Wallace S; Denton, George H; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xianfeng

    2009-10-01

    230Th-dated oxygen isotope records of stalagmites from Sanbao Cave, China, characterize Asian Monsoon (AM) precipitation through the ends of the third- and fourthmost recent ice ages. As a result, AM records for the past four glacial terminations can now be precisely correlated with those from ice cores and marine sediments, establishing the timing and sequence of major events. In all four cases, observations are consistent with a classic Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity trigger for an initial retreat of northern ice sheets. Meltwater and icebergs entering the North Atlantic alter oceanic and atmospheric circulation and associated fluxes of heat and carbon, causing increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperatures that drive the termination in the Southern Hemisphere. Increasing CO2 and summer insolation drive recession of northern ice sheets, with probable positive feedbacks between sea level and CO2. PMID:19815769

  16. Ice Age Terminations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Broecker, Wallace S.; Denton, George H.; Kong, Xinggong; Wang, Yongjin; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Xianfeng

    2009-10-01

    230Th-dated oxygen isotope records of stalagmites from Sanbao Cave, China, characterize Asian Monsoon (AM) precipitation through the ends of the third- and fourthmost recent ice ages. As a result, AM records for the past four glacial terminations can now be precisely correlated with those from ice cores and marine sediments, establishing the timing and sequence of major events. In all four cases, observations are consistent with a classic Northern Hemisphere summer insolation intensity trigger for an initial retreat of northern ice sheets. Meltwater and icebergs entering the North Atlantic alter oceanic and atmospheric circulation and associated fluxes of heat and carbon, causing increases in atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperatures that drive the termination in the Southern Hemisphere. Increasing CO2 and summer insolation drive recession of northern ice sheets, with probable positive feedbacks between sea level and CO2.

  17. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840

  18. Climate change and marine life

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Anthony J.; Brown, Christopher J.; Brander, Keith; Bruno, John F.; Buckley, Lauren; Burrows, Michael T.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Holding, Johnna; Kappel, Carrie V.; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J.; O'Connor, Mary I.; Pandolfi, John M.; Parmesan, Camille; Schoeman, David S.; Schwing, Frank; Sydeman, William J.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.

    2012-01-01

    A Marine Climate Impacts Workshop was held from 29 April to 3 May 2012 at the US National Center of Ecological Analysis and Synthesis in Santa Barbara. This workshop was the culmination of a series of six meetings over the past three years, which had brought together 25 experts in climate change ecology, analysis of large datasets, palaeontology, marine ecology and physical oceanography. Aims of these workshops were to produce a global synthesis of climate impacts on marine biota, to identify sensitive habitats and taxa, to inform the current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) process, and to strengthen research into ecological impacts of climate change. PMID:22791706

  19. The Action of Marine Climate on Some Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelia Butnaru, Mariana

    2007-04-01

    This article presents some studies referring to the structural changes of some polymers due to the action of marine climate. The marine climate refers to seas, oceans and lands under the action of sea weather. So, the marine climate can be extreme cold, tropical or extreme cold and tropical. In the marine climate, dust, radiation, sand and salt fog have important effects of medium on which the produces are exposed when they are stored, used or transported. The wind increases these effects. However, one of the most important effects, is the effect of humidity. For measurements we have selected those materials which are often aging by climatic factors like humidity, could, warm, dust and sand, radiations. We present the measurements and the results for PN50, PN70, PN80 elastomer rubbers used for gaskets resistant at oil environments. First the structure of the elastomers was analysed (IR measurements) with a spectrometer Equinox-55. Then, the samples were exposed on Agigea Station according to a test program. When we study the intermolecular process, an important role has the double link. The configuration of the double link relating to the position in the main chain in the lateraly groups, influence the oxidative process. Due to the marine climate, appear a lot of changes on the structure of polymers.

  20. AIR CLEANING FOR ACCEPTABLE INDOOR AIR QUALITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses air cleaning for acceptable indoor air quality. ir cleaning has performed an important role in heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems for many years. raditionally, general ventilation air-filtration equipment has been used to protect cooling coils ...