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Sample records for aged mice lacking

  1. Early Signs of Pathological Cognitive Aging in Mice Lacking High-Affinity Nicotinic Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Polissidis, Alexia V.; Stamatakis, Antonios; Skaliora, Irini

    2016-01-01

    In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. A deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-), which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioral signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviors, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments in spatial learning. In addition, they document age-related deficits in other areas, such as recognition memory, burrowing and nesting building, thereby extending the validity of this animal model for the study of pathological aging. Finally, our data reveal deficits in spontaneous behavior and habituation processes that precede the onset of cognitive decline and could therefore be useful as a non-invasive behavioral screen for identifying animals at risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioral assessment of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioral changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging. PMID:27199738

  2. Early Signs of Pathological Cognitive Aging in Mice Lacking High-Affinity Nicotinic Receptors.

    PubMed

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Tsakanikas, Panagiotis; Polissidis, Alexia V; Stamatakis, Antonios; Skaliora, Irini

    2016-01-01

    In order to address pathological cognitive decline effectively, it is critical to adopt early preventive measures in individuals considered at risk. It is therefore essential to develop approaches that identify such individuals before the onset of irreversible dementia. A deficient cholinergic system has been consistently implicated as one of the main factors associated with a heightened vulnerability to the aging process. In the present study we used mice lacking high affinity nicotinic receptors (β2-/-), which have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated/premature cognitive aging. Our aim was to identify behavioral signs that could serve as indicators or predictors of impending cognitive decline. We used test batteries in order to assess cognitive functions and additional tasks to investigate spontaneous behaviors, such as species-specific activities and exploration/locomotion in a novel environment. Our data confirm the hypothesis that β2-/- animals exhibit age-related cognitive impairments in spatial learning. In addition, they document age-related deficits in other areas, such as recognition memory, burrowing and nesting building, thereby extending the validity of this animal model for the study of pathological aging. Finally, our data reveal deficits in spontaneous behavior and habituation processes that precede the onset of cognitive decline and could therefore be useful as a non-invasive behavioral screen for identifying animals at risk. To our knowledge, this is the first study to perform an extensive behavioral assessment of an animal model of premature cognitive aging, and our results suggest that β2-nAChR dependent cognitive deterioration progressively evolves from initial subtle behavioral changes to global dementia due to the combined effect of the neuropathology and aging.

  3. Increased Learning and Brain Long-Term Potentiation in Aged Mice Lacking DNA Polymerase μ

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Daniel; Delgado-García, José M.; Escudero, Beatriz; Albo, Carmen; Aza, Ana; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Torres, Yaima; Moreno, Paz; Enríquez, José Antonio; Samper, Enrique; Blanco, Luis; Fairén, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    A definitive consequence of the aging process is the progressive deterioration of higher cognitive functions. Defects in DNA repair mechanisms mostly result in accelerated aging and reduced brain function. DNA polymerase µ is a novel accessory partner for the non-homologous end-joining DNA repair pathway for double-strand breaks, and its deficiency causes reduced DNA repair. Using associative learning and long-term potentiation experiments, we demonstrate that Polµ−/− mice, however, maintain the ability to learn at ages when wild-type mice do not. Expression and biochemical analyses suggest that brain aging is delayed in Polµ−/− mice, being associated with a reduced error-prone DNA oxidative repair activity and a more efficient mitochondrial function. This is the first example in which the genetic ablation of a DNA-repair function results in a substantially better maintenance of learning abilities, together with fewer signs of brain aging, in old mice. PMID:23301049

  4. Mice Lacking the p43 Mitochondrial T3 Receptor Become Glucose Intolerant and Insulin Resistant during Aging

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Christelle; Blanchet, Emilie; Pessemesse, Laurence; Annicotte, Jean Sébastien; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Chabi, Béatrice; Levin, Jonathan; Fajas, Lluis; Cabello, Gérard; Wrutniak-Cabello, Chantal; Casas, François

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (TH) play an important regulatory role in energy expenditure regulation and are key regulators of mitochondrial activity. We have previously identified a mitochondrial triiodothyronine (T3) receptor (p43) which acts as a mitochondrial transcription factor of the organelle genome, which leads in vitro and in vivo, to a stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, we generated mice carrying a specific p43 invalidation. At 2 months of age, we reported that p43 depletion in mice induced a major defect in insulin secretion both in vivo and in isolated pancreatic islets, and a loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The present study was designed to determine whether p43 invalidation influences life expectancy and modulates blood glucose and insulin levels as well as glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity during aging. We report that from 4 months old onwards, mice lacking p43 are leaner than wild-type mice. p43−/− mice also have a moderate reduction of life expectancy compared to wild type. We found no difference in blood glucose levels, excepted at 24 months old where p43−/− mice showed a strong hyperglycemia in fasting conditions compared to controls animals. However, the loss of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion was maintained whatever the age of mice lacking p43. If up to 12 months old, glucose tolerance remained unchanged, beyond this age p43−/− mice became increasingly glucose intolerant. In addition, if up to 12 months old p43 deficient animals were more sensitive to insulin, after this age we observed a loss of this capacity, culminating in 24 months old mice with a decreased sensitivity to the hormone. In conclusion, we demonstrated that during aging the depletion of the mitochondrial T3 receptor p43 in mice progressively induced an increased glycemia in the fasted state, glucose intolerance and an insulin-resistance several features of type-2 diabetes. PMID:24098680

  5. Age-dependent gait abnormalities in mice lacking the Rnf170 gene linked to human autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Seong Hun; Kim, Kook Hwan; Chae, Sujin; Kim, Chanki; Kim, Jeongjin; Shin, Hee-Sup; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kim, Daesoo

    2015-12-20

    Really interesting new gene (RING) finger protein 170 (RNF170) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase known to mediate ubiquitination-dependent degradation of type-I inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (ITPR1). It has recently been demonstrated that a point mutation of RNF170 gene is linked with autosomal-dominant sensory ataxia (ADSA), which is characterized by an age-dependent increase of walking abnormalities, a rare genetic disorder reported in only two families. Although this mutant allele is known to be dominant, the functional identity thereof has not been clearly established. Here, we generated mice lacking Rnf170 (Rnf170(-/-)) to evaluate the effect of its loss of function in vivo. Remarkably, Rnf170(-/-) mice began to develop gait abnormalities in old age (12 months) in the form of asynchronous stepping between diagonal limb pairs with a fixed step sequence during locomotion, while age-matched wild-type mice showed stable gait patterns using several step sequence repertoires. As reported in ADSA patients, they also showed a reduced sensitivity for proprioception and thermal nociception. Protein blot analysis revealed that the amount of Itpr1 protein was significantly elevated in the cerebellum and spinal cord but intact in the cerebral cortex in Rnf170(-/-) mice. These results suggest that the loss of Rnf170 gene function mediates ADSA-associated phenotypes and this gives insights on the cure of patients with ADSA and other age-dependent walking abnormalities.

  6. Senescence, aging, and malignant transformation mediated by p53 in mice lacking the Brca1 full-length isoform.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liu; Li, Wenmei; Kim, Sangsoo; Brodie, Steven G; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2003-01-15

    Senescence may function as a two-edged sword that brings unexpected consequences to organisms. Here we provide evidence to support this theory by showing that the absence of the Brca1 full-length isoform causes senescence in mutant embryos and cultured cells as well as aging and tumorigenesis in adult mice. Haploid loss of p53 overcame embryonic senescence but failed to prevent the adult mutant mice from prematurely aging, which included decreased life span, reduced body fat deposition, osteoporosis, skin atrophy, and decreased wound healing. We further demonstrate that mutant cells that escaped senescence had undergone clonal selection for faster proliferation and extensive genetic/molecular alterations, including overexpression of cyclin D1 and cyclin A and loss of p53. These observations provide the first in vivo evidence that links cell senescence to aging due to impaired function of Brca1 at the expense of tumorigenesis.

  7. Antidepressive and BDNF effects of enriched environment treatment across ages in mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV.

    PubMed

    Jha, S; Dong, B E; Xue, Y; Delotterie, D F; Vail, M G; Sakata, K

    2016-01-01

    Reduced promoter IV-driven expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress and major depression. We previously reported that defective promoter IV (KIV) caused depression-like behavior in young adult mice, which was reversed more effectively by enriched environment treatment (EET) than antidepressants. The effects of promoter IV-BDNF deficiency and EET over the life stages remain unknown. Since early-life development (ED) involves dynamic epigenetic processes, we hypothesized that EET during ED would provide maximum antidepressive effects that would persist later in life due to enhanced, long-lasting BDNF induction. We tested this hypothesis by determining EET effects across three life stages: ED (0-2 months), young adult (2-4 months), and old adult (12-14 months). KIV mice at all life stages showed depression-like behavior in the open-field and tail-suspension tests compared with wild-type mice. Two months of EET reduced depression-like behavior in ED and young adult, but not old adult mice, with the largest effect in ED KIV mice. This effect lasted for 1 month after discontinuance of EET only in ED mice. BDNF protein induction by EET in the hippocampus and frontal cortex was also the largest in ED mice and persisted only in the hippocampus of ED KIV mice after discontinuance of EET. No gender-specific effects were observed. The results suggest that defective promoter IV causes depression-like behavior, regardless of age and gender, and that EET during ED is particularly beneficial to individuals with promoter IV-BDNF deficiency, while additional treatment may be needed for older adults. PMID:27648918

  8. Antidepressive and BDNF effects of enriched environment treatment across ages in mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV.

    PubMed

    Jha, S; Dong, B E; Xue, Y; Delotterie, D F; Vail, M G; Sakata, K

    2016-09-20

    Reduced promoter IV-driven expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress and major depression. We previously reported that defective promoter IV (KIV) caused depression-like behavior in young adult mice, which was reversed more effectively by enriched environment treatment (EET) than antidepressants. The effects of promoter IV-BDNF deficiency and EET over the life stages remain unknown. Since early-life development (ED) involves dynamic epigenetic processes, we hypothesized that EET during ED would provide maximum antidepressive effects that would persist later in life due to enhanced, long-lasting BDNF induction. We tested this hypothesis by determining EET effects across three life stages: ED (0-2 months), young adult (2-4 months), and old adult (12-14 months). KIV mice at all life stages showed depression-like behavior in the open-field and tail-suspension tests compared with wild-type mice. Two months of EET reduced depression-like behavior in ED and young adult, but not old adult mice, with the largest effect in ED KIV mice. This effect lasted for 1 month after discontinuance of EET only in ED mice. BDNF protein induction by EET in the hippocampus and frontal cortex was also the largest in ED mice and persisted only in the hippocampus of ED KIV mice after discontinuance of EET. No gender-specific effects were observed. The results suggest that defective promoter IV causes depression-like behavior, regardless of age and gender, and that EET during ED is particularly beneficial to individuals with promoter IV-BDNF deficiency, while additional treatment may be needed for older adults.

  9. Antidepressive and BDNF effects of enriched environment treatment across ages in mice lacking BDNF expression through promoter IV

    PubMed Central

    Jha, S; Dong, B E; Xue, Y; Delotterie, D F; Vail, M G; Sakata, K

    2016-01-01

    Reduced promoter IV-driven expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is implicated in stress and major depression. We previously reported that defective promoter IV (KIV) caused depression-like behavior in young adult mice, which was reversed more effectively by enriched environment treatment (EET) than antidepressants. The effects of promoter IV-BDNF deficiency and EET over the life stages remain unknown. Since early-life development (ED) involves dynamic epigenetic processes, we hypothesized that EET during ED would provide maximum antidepressive effects that would persist later in life due to enhanced, long-lasting BDNF induction. We tested this hypothesis by determining EET effects across three life stages: ED (0–2 months), young adult (2–4 months), and old adult (12–14 months). KIV mice at all life stages showed depression-like behavior in the open-field and tail-suspension tests compared with wild-type mice. Two months of EET reduced depression-like behavior in ED and young adult, but not old adult mice, with the largest effect in ED KIV mice. This effect lasted for 1 month after discontinuance of EET only in ED mice. BDNF protein induction by EET in the hippocampus and frontal cortex was also the largest in ED mice and persisted only in the hippocampus of ED KIV mice after discontinuance of EET. No gender-specific effects were observed. The results suggest that defective promoter IV causes depression-like behavior, regardless of age and gender, and that EET during ED is particularly beneficial to individuals with promoter IV-BDNF deficiency, while additional treatment may be needed for older adults. PMID:27648918

  10. Lack of age-related clinical progression in PGC-1α-deficient mice - implications for mitochondrial encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Szalardy, Levente; Molnar, Mate; Torok, Rita; Zadori, Denes; Kovacs, Gabor G; Vecsei, Laszlo; Klivenyi, Peter

    2016-10-15

    Impaired peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) function has been demonstrated in several neurodegenerative diseases, and murine whole-body knockouts of PGC-1α have been considered as models for Huntington's disease. Recent neuropathological studies, however, rather propose these animals to be morphological models of mitochondrial encephalopathies, with special reminiscence of Kearns-Sayre syndrome. PGC-1α-deficient animals have already been subjected to behavioral assessments; however, the contradictory findings and the paucity of data assessing long-term progression necessitated further examinations. This study provides a comprehensive neurological phenotypic profiling of full-length-(FL-)PGC-1α-deficient mice in a broad age spectrum, with special focus on previously controversial findings, the issue of long-term phenotypic progression, the histopathological assessment of previously non-characterized tissues of potential clinicopathological relevance, and the gene expression profile of novel brain-specific isoforms of PGC-1α. Our findings demonstrate moderate hypomotility with signs of gait and trunk ataxia in addition to severe impairments in coordination and muscle strength in FL-PGC-1α-deficient mice, phenotypic features consistent of a mitochondrial disease. Intriguingly, however, these early alterations did not progress with age, the understanding of which may unveil mechanisms of potential therapeutic relevance, as discussed. The observed phenotype did not associate with retinal or spinal cord alterations, and was accompanied by mild myopathic changes. Based on these, FL-PGC-1α-deficient mice can be regarded not only as morphological but behavioral models of mitochondrial encephalopathies, with an important temporal limitation that has now been clarified. The mechanisms capable of halting a potentially lethal phenotype are to be unveiled, as they may hold therapeutic value for mitochondrial diseases.

  11. Lack of age-related clinical progression in PGC-1α-deficient mice - implications for mitochondrial encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Szalardy, Levente; Molnar, Mate; Torok, Rita; Zadori, Denes; Kovacs, Gabor G; Vecsei, Laszlo; Klivenyi, Peter

    2016-10-15

    Impaired peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) function has been demonstrated in several neurodegenerative diseases, and murine whole-body knockouts of PGC-1α have been considered as models for Huntington's disease. Recent neuropathological studies, however, rather propose these animals to be morphological models of mitochondrial encephalopathies, with special reminiscence of Kearns-Sayre syndrome. PGC-1α-deficient animals have already been subjected to behavioral assessments; however, the contradictory findings and the paucity of data assessing long-term progression necessitated further examinations. This study provides a comprehensive neurological phenotypic profiling of full-length-(FL-)PGC-1α-deficient mice in a broad age spectrum, with special focus on previously controversial findings, the issue of long-term phenotypic progression, the histopathological assessment of previously non-characterized tissues of potential clinicopathological relevance, and the gene expression profile of novel brain-specific isoforms of PGC-1α. Our findings demonstrate moderate hypomotility with signs of gait and trunk ataxia in addition to severe impairments in coordination and muscle strength in FL-PGC-1α-deficient mice, phenotypic features consistent of a mitochondrial disease. Intriguingly, however, these early alterations did not progress with age, the understanding of which may unveil mechanisms of potential therapeutic relevance, as discussed. The observed phenotype did not associate with retinal or spinal cord alterations, and was accompanied by mild myopathic changes. Based on these, FL-PGC-1α-deficient mice can be regarded not only as morphological but behavioral models of mitochondrial encephalopathies, with an important temporal limitation that has now been clarified. The mechanisms capable of halting a potentially lethal phenotype are to be unveiled, as they may hold therapeutic value for mitochondrial diseases. PMID

  12. Premature Aging Phenotype in Mice Lacking High-Affinity Nicotinic Receptors: Region-Specific Changes in Layer V Pyramidal Cell Morphology.

    PubMed

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Skaliora, Irini

    2015-08-01

    The mechanisms by which aging leads to alterations in brain structure and cognitive deficits are unclear. Α deficient cholinergic system has been implicated as one of the main factors that could confer a heightened vulnerability to the aging process, and mice lacking high-affinity nicotinic receptors (β2(-/-)) have been proposed as an animal model of accelerated cognitive aging. To date, however, age-related changes in neuronal microanatomy have not been studied in these mice. In the present study, we examine the neuronal structure of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP(+)) layer V neurons in 2 cytoarchitectonically distinct cortical regions in wild-type (WT) and β2(-/-) animals. We find that (1) substantial morphological differences exist between YFP(+) cells of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and primary visual cortex (V1), in both genotypes; (2) in WT animals, ACC cells are more susceptible to aging compared with cells in V1; and (3) β2 deletion is associated with a regionally and temporally specific increase in vulnerability to aging. ACC cells exhibit a prematurely aged phenotype already at 4-6 months, whereas V1 cells are spared in adulthood but strongly affected in old animals. Collectively, our data reveal region-specific synergistic effects of aging and genotype and suggest distinct vulnerabilities in V1 and ACC neurons.

  13. Age-Related Hearing Loss and Degeneration of Cochlear Hair Cells in Mice Lacking Thyroid Hormone Receptor β1.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lily; Cordas, Emily; Wu, Xuefeng; Vella, Kristen R; Hollenberg, Anthony N; Forrest, Douglas

    2015-10-01

    A key function of the thyroid hormone receptor β (Thrb) gene is in the development of auditory function. However, the roles of the 2 receptor isoforms, TRβ1 and TRβ2, expressed by the Thrb gene are unclear, and it is unknown whether these isoforms promote the maintenance as well as development of hearing. We investigated the function of TRβ1 in mice with a Thrb(b1) reporter allele that expresses β-galactosidase instead of TRβ1. In the immature cochlea, β-galactosidase was detected in the greater epithelial ridge, sensory hair cells, spiral ligament, and spiral ganglion and in adulthood, at low levels in the hair cells, support cells and root cells of the outer sulcus. Although deletion of all TRβ isoforms causes severe, early-onset deafness, deletion of TRβ1 or TRβ2 individually caused no obvious hearing loss in juvenile mice. However, over subsequent months, TRβ1 deficiency resulted in progressive loss of hearing and loss of hair cells. TRβ1-deficient mice had minimal changes in serum thyroid hormone and thyrotropin levels, indicating that hormonal imbalances were unlikely to cause hearing loss. The results suggest mutually shared roles for TRβ1 and TRβ2 in cochlear development and an unexpected requirement for TRβ1 in the maintenance of hearing in adulthood.

  14. Parturition failure in mice lacking Mamld1.

    PubMed

    Miyado, Mami; Miyado, Kenji; Katsumi, Momori; Saito, Kazuki; Nakamura, Akihiro; Shihara, Daizou; Ogata, Tsutomu; Fukami, Maki

    2015-10-05

    In mice, the onset of parturition is triggered by a rapid decline in circulating progesterone. Progesterone withdrawal occurs as a result of functional luteolysis, which is characterized by an increase in the enzymatic activity of 20α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20α-HSD) in the corpus luteum and is mediated by the prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) signaling. Here, we report that the genetic knockout (KO) of Mamld1, which encodes a putative non-DNA-binding regulator of testicular steroidogenesis, caused defective functional luteolysis and subsequent parturition failure and neonatal deaths. Progesterone receptor inhibition induced the onset of parturition in pregnant KO mice, and MAMLD1 regulated the expression of Akr1c18, the gene encoding 20α-HSD, in cultured cells. Ovaries of KO mice at late gestation were morphologically unremarkable; however, Akr1c18 expression was reduced and expression of its suppressor Stat5b was markedly increased. Several other genes including Prlr, Cyp19a1, Oxtr, and Lgals3 were also dysregulated in the KO ovaries, whereas PGF2α signaling genes remained unaffected. These results highlight the role of MAMLD1 in labour initiation. MAMLD1 likely participates in functional luteolysis by regulating Stat5b and other genes, independent of the PGF2α signaling pathway.

  15. Gender-specific effects on food intake but no inhibition of age-related fat accretion in transgenic mice overexpressing human IGFBP-2 lacking the Cardin-Weintraub sequence motif.

    PubMed

    Wiedmer, Petra; Schwarz, Franziska; Große, Birgit; Schindler, Nancy; Tuchscherer, Armin; Russo, Vincenzo C; Tschöp, Matthias H; Hoeflich, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    IGFBP-2 affects growth and metabolism and is thought to impact on energy homeostasis and the accretion of body fat via its heparin binding domains (HBD). In order to assess the function of the HBD present in the linker domain (HBD1) we have generated transgenic mice overexpressing mutant human IGFBP-2 lacking the PKKLRP sequence and carrying a PNNLAP sequence instead. Transgenic mice expressed high amounts of human IGFBP-2, while endogenous IGFBP-2 or IGF-I serum concentrations were not affected. In both genders we performed a longitudinal analysis of growth and metabolism including at least 4 separate time points between the age of 10 and 52 weeks. Body composition was assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Food intake was recorded by an automated online-monitoring. We describe negative effects of mutant human IGFBP-2 on body weight, longitudinal growth and lean body mass (p < 0.05). Very clearly, negative effects of mutant IGFBP-2 were not observed for fat mass accretion throughout life. Instead, relative fat mass was increased in transgenic mice of both genders (p < 0.05). In male mice transgene expression significantly increased absolute mass of total body fat over all age groups (p < 0.05). Food intake was increased in female but decreased in male transgenic mice at an age of 11 weeks. Thus our study clearly provides gender- and time-specific effects of HBD1-deficient hIGFBP-2 (H1d-BP-2) on fat mass accretion and food intake. While our data are in principal agreement with current knowledge on the role of HB-domains for fat accretion we now may also speculate on a role of HBD1 for the control of eating behavior.

  16. Behavioral characterization of mice lacking Trek channels

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Kelsey; Palmersheim, Jaime; Lesage, Florian; Wickman, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels are thought to underlie background K+ conductance in many cell types. The Trek subfamily of K2P channels consists of three members, Trek1/Kcnk2, Trek2/Kcnk10, and Traak/Kcnk4, all three of which are expressed in the rodent CNS. Constitutive ablation of the Trek1 gene in mice correlates with enhanced sensitivity to ischemia and epilepsy, decreased sensitivity to the effects of inhaled anesthetics, increased sensitivity to thermal and mechanical pain, and resistance to depression. While the distribution of Trek2 mRNA in the CNS is broad, little is known about the relevance of this Trek family member to neurobiology and behavior. Here, we probed the effect of constitutive Trek2 ablation, as well as the simultaneous constitutive ablation of all three Trek family genes, in paradigms that assess motor activity, coordination, anxiety-related behavior, learning and memory, and drug-induced reward-related behavior. No differences were observed between Trek2−/− and Trek1/2/Traak−/− mice in coordination or total distance traveled in an open-field. A gender-dependent impact of Trek ablation on open-field anxiety-related behavior was observed, as female but not male Trek2−/− and Trek1/2/Traak−/− mice spent more time in, and made a greater number of entries into, the center of the open-field than wild-type counterparts. Further evaluation of anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus maze and light/dark box, however, did not reveal a significant influence of genotype on performance for either gender. Furthermore, Trek−/− mice behaved normally in tests of learning and memory, including contextual fear conditioning and novel object recognition, and with respect to opioid-induced motor stimulation and conditioned place preference (CPP). Collectively, these data argue that despite their broad distribution in the CNS, Trek channels exert a minimal influence on a wide-range of behaviors. PMID:22973213

  17. Increased Bone Mass in Mice Lacking the Adipokine Apelin

    PubMed Central

    Wattanachanya, Lalita; Lu, Wei-Dar; Kundu, Ramendra K.; Wang, Liping; Abbott, Marcia J.; O'Carroll, Dylan; Quertermous, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays an important role in skeletal homeostasis, and there is interest in identifying adipokines that influence bone mass. One such adipokine may be apelin, a ligand for the Gi-G protein-coupled receptor APJ, which has been reported to enhance mitogenesis and suppress apoptosis in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary human osteoblasts (OBs). However, it is unclear whether apelin plays a physiological role in regulating skeletal homeostasis in vivo. In this study, we compared the skeletal phenotypes of apelin knockout (APKO) and wild-type mice and investigated the direct effects of apelin on bone cells in vitro. The increased fractional cancellous bone volume at the distal femur was observed in APKO mice of both genders at 12 weeks of age and persisted until the age of 20. Cortical bone perimeter at the femoral midshaft was significantly increased in males and females at both time points. Dynamic histomorphometry revealed that APKO mice had increased rates of bone formation and mineral apposition, with evidences of accelerated OB proliferation and differentiation, without significant alteration in osteoclast activity. An in vitro study showed that apelin increased proliferation of primary mouse OBs as well as suppressed apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner with the maximum effect at 5nM. However, it had no effect on the formation of mineralized nodules. We did not observed significantly altered in osteoclast parameters in vitro. Taken together, the increased bone mass in mice lacking apelin suggested complex direct and paracrine/endocrine effects of apelin on bone, possibly via modulating insulin sensitivity. These results indicate that apelin functions as a physiologically significant antianabolic factor in bone in vivo. PMID:23584856

  18. Acetylcholine receptor and behavioral deficits in mice lacking apolipoprotein E

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jessica A; Benice, Theodore S; Van Meer, Peter; Park, Byung S; Raber, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE) is involved in the risk to develop sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since impaired central acetylcholine (ACh) function is a hallmark of AD, apoE may influence ACh function by modulating muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). To test this hypothesis, mAChR binding was measured in mice lacking apoE and wild type C57BL/6J mice. Mice were also tested on the pre-pulse inhibition, delay eyeblink classical conditioning, and 5-choice serial reaction time tasks, which are all modulated by ACh transmission. Mice were also given scopolamine to challenge central mAChR function. Compared to wild type mice, mice lacking apoE had reduced number of cortical and hippocampal mAChRs. Scopolamine had a small effect on delay eyeblink classical conditioning in wild type mice but a large effect in mice lacking apoE. Mice lacking apoE were also unable to acquire performance on the 5-choice serial reaction time task. These results support a role for apoE in ACh function and suggest that modulation of cortical and hippocampal mAChRs might contribute to genotype differences in scopolamine sensitivity and task acquisition. Impaired apoE functioning may result in cholinergic deficits that contribute to the cognitive impairments seen in AD. PMID:19178986

  19. Increased sensitivity to kindling in mice lacking TSP1.

    PubMed

    Mendus, D; Rankin-Gee, E K; Mustapha, M; Porter, B E

    2015-10-01

    The development of a hyperexcitable neuronal network is thought to be a critical event in epilepsy. Thrombospondins (TSPs) regulate synaptogenesis by binding the neuronal α2δ subunit of the voltage-gated calcium channel. TSPs regulate synapse formation during development and in the mature brain following injury. It is unclear if TSPs are involved in hyperexcitability that contributes to the development of epilepsy. Here we explore the development of epilepsy using a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model in mice lacking TSP1 and TSP2. Unexpectedly, we found increased sensitivity to PTZ kindling in mice lacking TSP1, while mice lacking TSP2 kindled similar to wild-type. We found that the increased seizure susceptibility in the TSP1 knockout (KO) mice was not due to a compensatory increase in TSP2 mRNA as TSP1/2 KO mice were sensitive to PTZ, similar to the TSP1 KO mice. Furthermore, there were similar levels of TGF-B signal activation during kindling in the TSP1 KO mice compared to wild-type. We observed decreased expression of voltage-dependent calcium channel subunit CACNA2D1 mRNA in TSP1, TSP2, and TSP1/2 KO mice. Decreased CACNA2D2 mRNA was only detected in mice that lacked TSP1 and α2δ-1/2 protein levels in the cortex were lower in the TSP 1/2 KO mice. CACNA2D2 knockout mice have spontaneous seizures and increased PTZ seizure susceptibility. Here we report similar findings, TSP1, and TSP1/2 KO mice have low levels of CACNA2D2 mRNA expression and α2δ-1/2 receptor level in the cortex, and are more susceptible to seizures. CACNA2D2 mutations in mice and humans can cause epilepsy. Our data suggest TSP1 in particular may control CACNA2D2 levels and could be a modifier of seizure susceptibility.

  20. Mice lacking chromogranins exhibit increased aggressive and depression-like behaviour.

    PubMed

    Pereda, Daniel; Pardo, Marta R; Morales, Yezer; Dominguez, Natalia; Arnau, Maria Rosa; Borges, Ricardo

    2015-02-01

    Chromogranins are acidic proteins; both chromogranins A and B constitute the main protein component in the vesicular matrix of large dense core vesicles. Chromogranins are a natural source of peptides with different physiological activities that have been associated with vascular and neurological diseases. We have used three different genetic mutant models of mice lacking chromogranin A, chromogranin B and both all on the same C57BL/6J background, to characterize the physiological roles of these proteins using metabolic, cardiovascular and behavioural tests. In mice from 3 to 18 months of age, the lack of any chromogranin promoted age-dependent hypersensitivity to insulin, while the lack of both chromogranins provoked progressive lack of response to stress, as restriction did not promote tachycardia in old mice. Moreover, the lack of chromogranin B produced a depressive-like and aggressive phenotype, while the lack either or both chromogranins increased barbering behaviour. In addition, we observed no effects on light-dark box or RotaRod tests. Mice lacking chromogranin B exhibited lower exploratory activity. Based on this extensive phenotyping with more than 2800 mice, these findings support roles of chromogranins, or the peptides derived from them, in the control of aggressive behaviour along with changes in their metabolic profile beyond their previously described activities in the secretory pathway.

  1. Lack of Dystrophin Affects Bronchial Epithelium in mdx Mice.

    PubMed

    Morici, Giuseppe; Rappa, Francesca; Cappello, Francesco; Pace, Elisabetta; Pace, Andrea; Mudò, Giuseppa; Crescimanno, Grazia; Belluardo, Natale; Bonsignore, Maria R

    2016-10-01

    Mild exercise training may positively affect the course of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Training causes mild bronchial epithelial injury in both humans and mice, but no study assessed the effects of exercise in mdx mice, a well known model of DMD. The airway epithelium was examined in mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmdmdx) mice, and in wild type (WT, C57BL/10ScSc) mice either under sedentary conditions (mdx-SD, WT-SD) or during mild exercise training (mdx-EX, WT-EX). At baseline, and after 30 and 45 days of training (5 d/wk for 6 weeks), epithelial morphology and markers of regeneration, apoptosis, and cellular stress were assessed. The number of goblet cells in bronchial epithelium was much lower in mdx than in WT mice under all conditions. At 30 days, epithelial regeneration (PCNA positive cells) was higher in EX than SD animals in both groups; however, at 45 days, epithelial regeneration decreased in mdx mice irrespective of training, and the percentage of apoptotic (TUNEL positive) cells was higher in mdx-EX than in WT-EX mice. Epithelial expression of HSP60 (marker of stress) progressively decreased, and inversely correlated with epithelial apoptosis (r = -0.66, P = 0.01) only in mdx mice. Lack of dystrophin in mdx mice appears associated with defective epithelial differentiation, and transient epithelial regeneration during mild exercise training. Hence, lack of dystrophin might impair repair in bronchial epithelium, with potential clinical consequences in DMD patients. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2218-2223, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Characterization of mice lacking the gene for cholecystokinin.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chun-Min; Samuelson, Linda C; Chambers, James Brad; King, Alexandra; Heiman, Justin; Jandacek, Ronald J; Sakai, Randall R; Benoit, Stephen C; Raybould, Helen E; Woods, Stephen C; Tso, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    CCK acts peripherally as a satiating peptide released during meals in response to lipid feeding and centrally functions in the modulation of feeding, exploratory, and memory activities. The present study determined metabolic parameters, food intake, anxiety-like behaviors, and cognitive function in mice lacking the CCK gene. We studied intestinal fat absorption, body composition, and food intake of CCK knockout (CCK-KO) mice by using the noninvasive measurement of intestinal fat absorption along with quantitative magnetic resonance (QMR) imaging and the DietMax system, respectively. Additionally, exploratory and memory capacities were assessed by monitoring running wheel activity and conducting elevated plus-maze and Morris water-maze tests with these mice. Compared with wild-type (WT) littermate controls, CCK-KO mice had normal food intake, fat absorption, body weight, and body mass. CCK-KO mice ate more food than control animals during the light period and less food during the dark period. Energy expenditure was unchanged between the genotypes; however, CCK-KO mice displayed greater fatty acid oxidation. CCK-KO mice were as active as WT animals in the running wheel test. CCK-KO mice spent more time in the closed arms of an elevated plus-maze, indicative of increased anxiety. Additionally, CCK-KO mice exhibited attenuated performance in a passive avoidance task and impaired spatial memory in the Morris water maze test. We conclude that CCK is involved in metabolic rate and is important for memory and exploration. CCK is intimately involved in multiple processes related to cognitive function and food intake regulation. PMID:18160529

  3. Unresolved questions from the analysis of mice lacking MCU expression.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Pan, Xin; Nguyen, Tiffany; Liu, Jie; Holmström, Kira M; Finkel, Toren

    2014-07-11

    Entry of mitochondrial calcium is believed to play an essential role in regulating bioenergetics and initiating cell death pathways. We have recently described a mouse model lacking MCU expression. Surprisingly, these mice are viable and the cells and tissues from these animals do not exhibit any marked protection from cell death. Here, we discuss our findings as well as potential explanations for some of the more unexpected results.

  4. Altered sleep latency and arousal regulation in mice lacking norepinephrine.

    PubMed

    Hunsley, Melissa S; Palmiter, Richard D

    2004-08-01

    Latency to sleep and the amount of sensory stimulation required to awaken an animal are measures of arousal threshold, which are ultimately modulated by an arousal regulation system involving many brain areas. Among these brain areas and network connections are wake-promoting nuclei of the brainstem and their corresponding neurotransmitters, including norepinephrine (NE). In this study, we used mice that are unable to produce NE to study its role in regulating sleep latency after a variety of interventions, and to study arousal from sleep after sleep deprivation (SD). Sleep latency was measured after gentle awakening or after injections of saline, caffeine or modafinil. Sleep latency was also measured before and after partial restoration of NE pharmacologically. Arousal threshold was measured by recording the number of decibels of white noise required to wake each mouse from NREM sleep after 0, 3 and 3 + 3 h SD (3 h SD followed by < 2 min sleep, followed by an additional 3 h SD). Results showed that when mice were awakened without being touched, there were no differences in sleep latency between the genotypes. However, after an injection of saline, the control mice increased their sleep latency, whereas the NE-deficient mice did not. There were no group differences in sleep latency after treatment with either stimulant. The sleep latency difference between the genotypes was ameliorated by partial restoration of NE. The arousal threshold experiments revealed that significantly more noise was required to wake the NE-deficient mice after 3 and 3 + 3 h of SD. These findings show that mice lacking NE fall asleep more rapidly only after a mild stressor, such as an intraperitoneal injection. NE-deficient mice are also more difficult to wake up using audio stimulation after SD. The results presented here suggest that NE promotes wakefulness during transitions between sleep and wake under conditions involving mild stress and SD, but not under baseline circumstances.

  5. Mice lacking all conventional MHC class II genes

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Lars; Labrecque, Nathalie; Engberg, Jan; Dierich, Andrée; Svejgaard, Arne; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane; Fugger, Lars

    1999-01-01

    MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules play a central role in the selection of the T cell repertoire, in the establishment and regulation of the adaptive immune response, and in autoimmune deviation. We have generated knockout mice lacking all four of the classical murine MHC-II genes (MHCIIΔ/Δ mice), via a large (80-kilobase) deletion of the entire class II region that was engineered by homologous recombination and Cre recombinase-mediated excision. These mice feature immune system perturbations like those of Aα and Aβ knockout animals, notably a dearth of CD4+ lymphocytes in the thymus and spleen. No new anatomical or physiological abnormalities were observed in MHCIIΔ/Δ mice. Because these animals are devoid of all classical MHC-II chains, even unpaired chains, they make excellent recipients for MHC-II transgenes from other species, avoiding the problem of interspecies cross-pairing of MHC-II chains. Therefore, they should be invaluable for engineering “humanized” mouse models of human MHC-II-associated autoimmune disorders. PMID:10468609

  6. Behavioral abnormalities in mice lacking mesenchyme-specific Pten.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Cissé, Yasmine M; Cantemir-Stone, Carmen Z; Bolon, Brad; Nelson, Randy J; Marsh, Clay B

    2016-05-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and growth. Using a Cre-recombinase approach with Lox sequences flanking the fibroblast-specific protein 1 (Fsp1 aka S100A4; a mesenchymal marker), we probed sites of expression using a β-galactosidase Rosa26(LoxP) reporter allele; the transgene driving deletion of Pten (exons 4-5) was found throughout the brain parenchyma and pituitary, suggesting that deletion of Pten in Fsp1-positive cells may influence behavior. Because CNS-specific deletion of Pten influences social and anxiety-like behaviors and S100A4 is expressed in astrocytes, we predicted that loss of Pten in Fsp1-expressing cells would result in deficits in social interaction and increased anxiety. We further predicted that environmental enrichment would compensate for genetic deficits in these behaviors. We conducted a battery of behavioral assays on Fsp1-Cre;Pten(LoxP/LoxP) male and female homozygous knockouts (Pten(-/-)) and compared their behavior to Pten(LoxP/LoxP) (Pten(+/+)) conspecifics. Despite extensive physical differences (including reduced hippocampal size) and deficits in sensorimotor function, Pten(-/-) mice behaved remarkably similar to control mice on nearly all behavioral tasks. These results suggest that the social and anxiety-like phenotypes observed in CNS-specific Pten(-/-) mice may depend on neuronal Pten, as lack of Pten in Fsp1-expressing cells of the CNS had little effect on these behaviors.

  7. Practical pathology of aging mice.

    PubMed

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  8. Practical pathology of aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  9. Lethal Cardiomyopathy in Mice Lacking Transferrin Receptor in the Heart.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenjing; Barrientos, Tomasa; Mao, Lan; Rockman, Howard A; Sauve, Anthony A; Andrews, Nancy C

    2015-10-20

    Both iron overload and iron deficiency have been associated with cardiomyopathy and heart failure, but cardiac iron utilization is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that the transferrin receptor (Tfr1) might play a role in cardiac iron uptake and used gene targeting to examine the role of Tfr1 in vivo. Surprisingly, we found that decreased iron, due to inactivation of Tfr1, was associated with severe cardiac consequences. Mice lacking Tfr1 in the heart died in the second week of life and had cardiomegaly, poor cardiac function, failure of mitochondrial respiration, and ineffective mitophagy. The phenotype could only be rescued by aggressive iron therapy, but it was ameliorated by administration of nicotinamide riboside, an NAD precursor. Our findings underscore the importance of both Tfr1 and iron in the heart, and may inform therapy for patients with heart failure. PMID:26456827

  10. Premature Aging in Skeletal Muscle Lacking Serum Response Factor

    PubMed Central

    Lahoute, Charlotte; Sotiropoulos, Athanassia; Favier, Marilyne; Guillet-Deniau, Isabelle; Charvet, Claude; Ferry, Arnaud; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Metzger, Daniel; Tuil, David; Daegelen, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive loss of muscle mass, increased adiposity and fibrosis that leads to sarcopenia. At the molecular level, muscle aging is known to alter the expression of a variety of genes but very little is known about the molecular effectors involved. SRF (Serum Response Factor) is a crucial transcription factor for muscle-specific gene expression and for post-natal skeletal muscle growth. To assess its role in adult skeletal muscle physiology, we developed a post-mitotic myofiber-specific and tamoxifen-inducible SRF knockout model. Five months after SRF loss, no obvious muscle phenotype was observed suggesting that SRF is not crucial for myofiber maintenance. However, mutant mice progressively developed IIB myofiber-specific atrophy accompanied by a metabolic switch towards a more oxidative phenotype, muscular lipid accumulation, sarcomere disorganization and fibrosis. After injury, mutant muscles exhibited an altered regeneration process, showing smaller regenerated fibers and persistent fibrosis. All of these features are strongly reminiscent of abnormalities encountered in aging skeletal muscle. Interestingly, we also observed an important age associated decrease in SRF expression in mice and human muscles. Altogether, these results suggest that a naturally occurring SRF down-regulation precedes and contributes to the muscle aging process. Indeed, triggering SRF loss in the muscles of mutant mice results in an accelerated aging process. PMID:19079548

  11. Lack of the Lysosomal Membrane Protein, GLMP, in Mice Results in Metabolic Dysregulation in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiang Yi; Kase, Eili Tranheim; Herskedal, Anette; Schjalm, Camilla; Damme, Markus; Nesset, Cecilie Kasi; Thoresen, G. Hege; Rustan, Arild C.; Eskild, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    Ablation of glycosylated lysosomal membrane protein (GLMP, formerly known as NCU-G1) has been shown to cause chronic liver injury which progresses into liver fibrosis in mice. Both lysosomal dysfunction and chronic liver injury can cause metabolic dysregulation. Glmpgt/gt mice (formerly known as Ncu-g1gt/gtmice) were studied between 3 weeks and 9 months of age. Body weight gain and feed efficiency of Glmpgt/gt mice were comparable to wild type siblings, only at the age of 9 months the Glmpgt/gt siblings had significantly reduced body weight. Reduced size of epididymal fat pads was accompanied by hepatosplenomegaly in Glmpgt/gt mice. Blood analysis revealed reduced levels of blood glucose, circulating triacylglycerol and non-esterified fatty acids in Glmpgt/gt mice. Increased flux of glucose, increased de novo lipogenesis and lipid accumulation were detected in Glmpgt/gt primary hepatocytes, as well as elevated triacylglycerol levels in Glmpgt/gt liver homogenates, compared to hepatocytes and liver from wild type mice. Gene expression analysis showed an increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid uptake and lipogenesis in Glmpgt/gt liver compared to wild type. Our findings are in agreement with the metabolic alterations observed in other mouse models lacking lysosomal proteins, and with alterations characteristic for advanced chronic liver injury. PMID:26047317

  12. Murine Norovirus Infection Variably Alters Atherosclerosis in Mice Lacking Apolipoprotein E

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Charlie C; Paik, Jisun; Brabb, Thea L; O'Brien, Kevin D; Kim, Jinkyu; Sullivan, Brittany G; Hudkins, Kelly L; Seamons, Audrey; Finley, Jennifer C; Meeker, Stacey M; Maggio-Price, Lillian

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages play a key role in the development of atherosclerosis. Murine noroviruses (MNV) are highly prevalent in research mouse colonies and infect macrophages and dendritic cells. Our laboratory found that MNV4 infection in mice lacking the LDL receptor alters the development of atherosclerosis, potentially confounding research outcomes. Therefore, we investigated whether MNV4 likewise altered atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice. In the presence of oxidized LDL, MNV4 infection of ApoE−/− bone marrow-derived macrophages increased the gene expression of the inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and IL6. In addition, proteins involved in cholesterol transport were altered in MNV4-infected ApoE−/− bone marrow-derived macrophages and consisted of increased CD36 and decreased ATP-binding cassette transporter A1. MNV4 infection of ApoE−/− mice at 12 wk of age (during the development of atherosclerosis) had a variable effect on atherosclerotic lesion size. In one study, MNV4 significantly increased atherosclerotic plaque area whereas in a second study, no effect was observed. Compared with controls, MNV4-infected mice had higher circulating Ly6C-positive monocytes, and viral RNA was detected in the aortas of some mice, suggesting potential mechanisms by which MNV4 alters disease progression. Plaque size did not differ when ApoE−/− mice were infected at 4 wk of age (early during disease development) or in ApoE−/− mice maintained on a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet. Therefore, these data show that MNV4 has the potential to exert a variable and unpredictable effect on atherosclerosis in ApoE−/− mice. We therefore propose that performing experiments in MNV-free mouse colonies is warranted. PMID:26473341

  13. Late-Onset Inner Retinal Dysfunction in Mice Lacking Sigma Receptor 1 (σR1)

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Yonju; Saul, Alan; Tawfik, Amany; Williams, Cory; Bollinger, Kathryn; Smith, Robert; Tachikawa, Masanori; Zorrilla, Eric; Ganapathy, Vadivel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Sigma receptor 1 (σR1) is expressed abundantly in the eye, and several reports suggest that this putative molecular chaperone plays a role in lens cell survival, control of intraocular pressure (IOP), and retinal neuroprotection. The present study examined the consequence of the absence of σR1 on ocular development, structure, and function. Methods. Wild-type (σR1+/+), heterozygous (σR1+/−), and homozygous (σR1−/−, knockout) mice aged 5 to 59 weeks were subjected to comprehensive electrophysiological testing and IOP measurement. The eyes were examined by light and electron microscopy and subjected to morphometric examination and detection of apoptosis. Results. Cornea and lens of σR1−/− mice were similar to wild-type mice in morphologic appearance at all ages examined, and IOP was within normal limits. Comprehensive ERG and morphometric analyses initially yielded normal findings in the σR1−/− mice compared with those in the wild-type. By 12 months, however, significantly decreased ERG b-wave amplitudes and diminished negative scotopic threshold responses, consistent with inner retinal dysfunction, were detected in σR1−/− mice. Concomitant with these late-onset changes were increased TUNEL- and active caspase 3-positive cells in the inner retina and significant loss of cells in the ganglion cell layer, particularly in the central retina. Before these functional and structural abnormalities, there was ultrastructural evidence of axonal disruption in the optic nerve head of σR1−/− mice as early as 6 months of age, although there were no alterations observed in retinal vascularization in σR1−/− mice. Conclusions. These data suggest that lack of σR1 leads to development of late-onset retinal dysfunction with similarities to optic neuropathy. PMID:21862648

  14. Lack of Acid Sphingomyelinase Induces Age-Related Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bill X.; Fan, Jie; Boyer, Nicholas P.; Jenkins, Russell W.; Koutalos, Yiannis; Hannun, Yusuf A.; Crosson, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mutations of acid sphingomyelinase (ASMase) cause Niemann–Pick diseases type A and B, which are fatal inherited lipid lysosomal storage diseases, characterized with visceral organ abnormalities and neurodegeneration. However, the effects of suppressing retinal ASMase expression are not understood. The goal of this study was to determine if the disruption of ASMase expression impacts the retinal structure and function in the mouse, and begin to investigate the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities. Methods Acid sphingomyelinase knockout (ASMase KO) mice were utilized to study the roles of this sphingolipid metabolizing enzyme in the retina. Electroretinogram and morphometric analysis were used to assess the retinal function and structure at various ages. Sphingolipid profile was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Western blots evaluated the level of the autophagy marker LC3-II. Results When compared to control animals, ASMase KO mice exhibited significant age-dependent reduction in ERG a- and b-wave amplitudes. Associated with these functional deficits, morphometric analysis revealed progressive thinning of retinal layers; however, the most prominent degeneration was observed in the photoreceptor and outer nuclear layer. Additional analyses of ASMase KO mice revealed early reduction in ERG c-wave amplitudes and increased lipofuscin accumulation in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Sphingolipid analyses showed abnormal accumulation of sphingomyelin and sphingosine in ASMase KO retinas. Western blot analyses showed a higher level of the autophagosome marker LC3-II. Conclusions These studies demonstrate that ASMase is necessary for the maintenance of normal retinal structure and function. The early outer retinal dysfunction, outer segment degeneration, accumulation of lipofuscin and autophagosome markers provide evidence that disruption of lysosomal function contributes to the age-dependent retinal degeneration exhibited by

  15. No obvious phenotypic abnormalities in mice lacking the Pate4 gene.

    PubMed

    Heckt, Timo; Keller, Johannes; Reusch, Roswitha; Hartmann, Kristin; Krasemann, Susanne; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Amling, Michael; Schinke, Thorsten

    2016-01-22

    We have previously reported that the hormone calcitonin (CT) negatively regulates bone formation by inhibiting the release of sphingosine-1-phosphate from bone-resorbing osteoclasts. In the context of this study we additionally observed that CT repressed the expression of Pate4, encoding the secreted protein caltrin/Svs7, in osteoclasts from wildtype mice. To assess a possible function of Pate4 in bone remodeling, we utilized commercially available embryonic stem cells with a targeted Pate4 allele to generate Pate4-deficient mice. These were born at the expected Mendelian ratio and did not display obvious abnormalities until the age of 6 months. A bone-specific histomorphometric analysis further revealed that bone remodeling is unaffected in male and female Pate4-deficient mice. Since a subsequently performed multi-tissue expression analysis confirmed that Pate4 is primarily expressed in prostate and seminal vesicles, we additionally analyzed the respective tissues of Pate4-deficient mice, but failed to detect histological abnormalities. Most importantly, as assessed by mating with female wildtype mice, we did not observe reduced fertility associated with Pate4-deficiency. Taken together, our study was the first to generate and analyze a mouse model lacking Pate4, a gene with strong expression in prostate and seminal vesicles, yet without major function for fertility.

  16. Urinary Retention, Incontinence, and Dysregulation of Muscarinic Receptors in Male Mice Lacking Mras

    PubMed Central

    Ehrhardt, Annette; Wang, Bin; Yung, Andrew C.; Wang, Yanni; Kozlowski, Piotr; van Breemen, Cornelis; Schrader, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Here we show that male, but not female mice lacking expression of the GTPase M-Ras developed urinary retention with distention of the bladder that exacerbated with age but occurred in the absence of obvious anatomical outlet obstruction. There were changes in detrusor morphology in Mras-/- males: Smooth muscle tissue, which exhibited a compact organization in WT mice, appeared disorganized and became increasingly ‘layered’ with age in Mras-/- males, but was not fibrotic. Bladder tissue near the apex of bladders of Mras-/- males exhibited hypercontractility in response to the cholinergic agonist carbachol in in vitro, while responses in Mras-/- females were normal. In addition, spontaneous phasic contractions of detrusors from Mras-/- males were increased, and Mras-/- males exhibited urinary incontinence. We found that expression of the muscarinic M2 and M3 receptors that mediate the cholinergic contractile stimuli of the detrusor muscle was dysregulated in both Mras-/- males and females, although only males exhibited a urinary phenotype. Elevated expression of M2R in young males lacking M-Ras and failure to upregulate M3R with age resulted in significantly lower ratios of M3R/M2R expression that correlated with the bladder abnormalities. Our data suggests that M-Ras and M3R are functionally linked and that M-Ras is an important regulator of male bladder control in mice. Our observations also support the notion that bladder control is sexually dimorphic and is regulated through mechanisms that are largely independent of acetylcholine signaling in female mice. PMID:26516777

  17. Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Mice Lacking the Tas1r3 Taste Receptor Gene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled sweet taste receptor dimer T1R2/T1R3 is expressed in taste bud cells in the oral cavity. In recent years, its involvement in membrane glucose sensing was discovered in endocrine cells regulating glucose homeostasis. We investigated importance of extraorally expressed T1R3 taste receptor protein in age-dependent control of blood glucose homeostasis in vivo, using nonfasted mice with a targeted mutation of the Tas1r3 gene that encodes the T1R3 protein. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests, as well as behavioral tests measuring taste responses to sucrose solutions, were performed with C57BL/6ByJ (Tas1r3+/+) inbred mice bearing the wild-type allele and C57BL/6J-Tas1r3tm1Rfm mice lacking the entire Tas1r3 coding region and devoid of the T1R3 protein (Tas1r3-/-). Compared with Tas1r3+/+ mice, Tas1r3-/- mice lacked attraction to sucrose in brief-access licking tests, had diminished taste preferences for sucrose solutions in the two-bottle tests, and had reduced insulin sensitivity and tolerance to glucose administered intraperitoneally or intragastrically, which suggests that these effects are due to absence of T1R3. Impairment of glucose clearance in Tas1r3-/- mice was exacerbated with age after intraperitoneal but not intragastric administration of glucose, pointing to a compensatory role of extraoral T1R3-dependent mechanisms in offsetting age-dependent decline in regulation of glucose homeostasis. Incretin effects were similar in Tas1r3+/+ and Tas1r3-/- mice, which suggests that control of blood glucose clearance is associated with effects of extraoral T1R3 in tissues other than the gastrointestinal tract. Collectively, the obtained data demonstrate that the T1R3 receptor protein plays an important role in control of glucose homeostasis not only by regulating sugar intake but also via its extraoral function, probably in the pancreas and brain. PMID:26107521

  18. Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Mice Lacking the Tas1r3 Taste Receptor Gene.

    PubMed

    Murovets, Vladimir O; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Zolotarev, Vasiliy A

    2015-01-01

    The G-protein-coupled sweet taste receptor dimer T1R2/T1R3 is expressed in taste bud cells in the oral cavity. In recent years, its involvement in membrane glucose sensing was discovered in endocrine cells regulating glucose homeostasis. We investigated importance of extraorally expressed T1R3 taste receptor protein in age-dependent control of blood glucose homeostasis in vivo, using nonfasted mice with a targeted mutation of the Tas1r3 gene that encodes the T1R3 protein. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests, as well as behavioral tests measuring taste responses to sucrose solutions, were performed with C57BL/6ByJ (Tas1r3+/+) inbred mice bearing the wild-type allele and C57BL/6J-Tas1r3tm1Rfm mice lacking the entire Tas1r3 coding region and devoid of the T1R3 protein (Tas1r3-/-). Compared with Tas1r3+/+ mice, Tas1r3-/- mice lacked attraction to sucrose in brief-access licking tests, had diminished taste preferences for sucrose solutions in the two-bottle tests, and had reduced insulin sensitivity and tolerance to glucose administered intraperitoneally or intragastrically, which suggests that these effects are due to absence of T1R3. Impairment of glucose clearance in Tas1r3-/- mice was exacerbated with age after intraperitoneal but not intragastric administration of glucose, pointing to a compensatory role of extraoral T1R3-dependent mechanisms in offsetting age-dependent decline in regulation of glucose homeostasis. Incretin effects were similar in Tas1r3+/+ and Tas1r3-/- mice, which suggests that control of blood glucose clearance is associated with effects of extraoral T1R3 in tissues other than the gastrointestinal tract. Collectively, the obtained data demonstrate that the T1R3 receptor protein plays an important role in control of glucose homeostasis not only by regulating sugar intake but also via its extraoral function, probably in the pancreas and brain.

  19. Aberrant Development of Thymocytes in Mice Lacking Laminin-2

    PubMed Central

    Magner, William J.; Chang, Andrew C.; Owens, Jennie; Hong, M-J. P.; Brooks, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    In previous in vitro studies, we proposed a role for the extracellular matrix component, laminin- 2, and its integrin receptor, VLA-6, in thymocyte development. The characterization of two dystrophic mouse strains with different defects in laminin-2 allowed us to examine this proposal in vivo. Mice deficient in laminin-2, dy/dy, show a significant reduction in thymus size and number of thymocytes compared to normal littermates. These mice also exhibited apparent alterations of thymic architecture. Examination of the CD4/CD8 populations in dy/dy thymi showed large relative increases in the DN (CD4-CD8-) and SP (CD4+CD8-, CD4-CD8+) populations and a significant decrease in the DP (CD4+CD8+) population. Further examination of the DN population for CD44 and CD25 expression showed a remarkable decrease in the more mature pre-T cell populations. Analysis of apoptosis in situ, and by flow cytometry, in dy/dy thymi revealed a significant increase in apoptotic DN thymocytes in the capsule and subcapsular regions. Interestingly, thymocyte development appeared to proceed normally in dystrophic mice expressing a mutant form of laminin-2, dy2J, as well as, in fetal and neonatal dy/dy mice. We propose that laminin-2 plays an active role in thymocyte development by delivering cell survival and differentiation signals at specific stages of development in young adult mice. PMID:11097211

  20. Anxiety-like behaviors in mice lacking GIT2

    PubMed Central

    Schmalzigaug, Robert; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Phillips, Lindsey E.; Davidson, Collin E.; Wetsel, William C.; Premont, Richard T.

    2008-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 2 (GIT2) is a signaling scaffold protein that also functions as GTPase-activating protein (GAPs) for ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) small GTP-binding proteins. GIT2 has been implicated in the regulation of G protein-coupled receptor trafficking and cell adhesion and migration. To evaluate possible neurobehavioral functions of GIT2 in vivo, we evaluated GIT2-knockout (KO) mice for abnormalities in emotionality and mood. Male and female GIT2-KO mice presented with anxiety-like behaviors in the zero-maze and light-dark emergence tests. Immobility times in tail suspension were reduced in GIT2-KO males, but were normal in GIT2-KO females. Hence, GIT2-KO mice display anxiety-like behavior in an absence of depressive-like responses. PMID:19114090

  1. Anxiety-like behaviors in mice lacking GIT2.

    PubMed

    Schmalzigaug, Robert; Rodriguiz, Ramona M; Phillips, Lindsey E; Davidson, Collin E; Wetsel, William C; Premont, Richard T

    2009-02-20

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 2 (GIT2) is a signaling scaffold protein that also functions as GTPase-activating protein (GAPs) for ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf) small GTP-binding proteins. GIT2 has been implicated in the regulation of G protein-coupled receptor trafficking and cell adhesion and migration. To evaluate possible neurobehavioral functions of GIT2 in vivo, we evaluated GIT2-knockout (KO) mice for abnormalities in emotionality and mood. Male and female GIT2-KO mice presented with anxiety-like behaviors in the zero-maze and light-dark emergence tests. Immobility times in tail suspension were reduced in GIT2-KO males, but were normal in GIT2-KO females. Hence, GIT2-KO mice display anxiety-like behavior in an absence of depressive-like responses. PMID:19114090

  2. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in mice lacking a functional Kiss1 gene.

    PubMed

    d'Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; Fagg, Lisa A; Dixon, John P C; Day, Kate; Leitch, Harry G; Hendrick, Alan G; Zahn, Dirk; Franceschini, Isabelle; Caraty, Alain; Carlton, Mark B L; Aparicio, Samuel A J R; Colledge, William H

    2007-06-19

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (AXOR12, OT7T175) is central to acquisition of reproductive competency in mammals. Peptide ligands (kisspeptins) for this receptor are encoded by the Kiss1 gene, and administration of exogenous kisspeptins stimulates hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release in several species, including humans. To establish that kisspeptins are the authentic agonists of GPR54 in vivo and to determine whether these ligands have additional physiological functions we have generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Kiss1 gene. Kiss1-null mice are viable and healthy with no apparent abnormalities but fail to undergo sexual maturation. Mutant female mice do not progress through the estrous cycle, have thread-like uteri and small ovaries, and do not produce mature Graffian follicles. Mutant males have small testes, and spermatogenesis arrests mainly at the early haploid spermatid stage. Both sexes have low circulating gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) and sex steroid (beta-estradiol or testosterone) hormone levels. Migration of GnRH neurons into the hypothalamus appears normal with appropriate axonal connections to the median eminence and total GnRH content. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis is functional in these mice as shown by robust luteinizing hormone secretion after peripheral administration of kisspeptin. The virtually identical phenotype of Gpr54- and Kiss1-null mice provides direct proof that kisspeptins are the true physiological ligand for the GPR54 receptor in vivo. Kiss1 also does not seem to play a vital role in any other physiological processes other than activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, and loss of Kiss1 cannot be overcome by compensatory mechanisms.

  3. Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in mice lacking a functional Kiss1 gene

    PubMed Central

    d'Anglemont de Tassigny, Xavier; Fagg, Lisa A.; Dixon, John P. C.; Day, Kate; Leitch, Harry G.; Hendrick, Alan G.; Zahn, Dirk; Franceschini, Isabelle; Caraty, Alain; Carlton, Mark B. L.; Aparicio, Samuel A. J. R.; Colledge, William H.

    2007-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (AXOR12, OT7T175) is central to acquisition of reproductive competency in mammals. Peptide ligands (kisspeptins) for this receptor are encoded by the Kiss1 gene, and administration of exogenous kisspeptins stimulates hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release in several species, including humans. To establish that kisspeptins are the authentic agonists of GPR54 in vivo and to determine whether these ligands have additional physiological functions we have generated mice with a targeted disruption of the Kiss1 gene. Kiss1-null mice are viable and healthy with no apparent abnormalities but fail to undergo sexual maturation. Mutant female mice do not progress through the estrous cycle, have thread-like uteri and small ovaries, and do not produce mature Graffian follicles. Mutant males have small testes, and spermatogenesis arrests mainly at the early haploid spermatid stage. Both sexes have low circulating gonadotropin (luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) and sex steroid (β-estradiol or testosterone) hormone levels. Migration of GnRH neurons into the hypothalamus appears normal with appropriate axonal connections to the median eminence and total GnRH content. The hypothalamic–pituitary axis is functional in these mice as shown by robust luteinizing hormone secretion after peripheral administration of kisspeptin. The virtually identical phenotype of Gpr54- and Kiss1-null mice provides direct proof that kisspeptins are the true physiological ligand for the GPR54 receptor in vivo. Kiss1 also does not seem to play a vital role in any other physiological processes other than activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, and loss of Kiss1 cannot be overcome by compensatory mechanisms. PMID:17563351

  4. Motor coordination deficits in mice lacking RGS9.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Jacqueline; Hoang, Chau V; Potts, Bryan; Gold, Stephen J; Powell, Craig M

    2008-01-23

    RGS9-2 is a striatum-enriched protein that negatively modulates dopamine and opioid receptor signaling. We examined the role of RGS9-2 in modulating complex behavior. Genetic deletion of RGS9-2 does not lead to global impairments, but results in selective abnormalities in certain behavioral domains. RGS9 knockout (KO) mice have decreased motor coordination on the accelerating rotarod and deficits in working memory as measured in the delayed-match-to-place version of the water maze. In contrast, RGS9 KO mice exhibit normal locomotor activity, anxiety-like behavior, cue and contextual fear conditioning, startle threshold, and pre-pulse inhibition. These studies are the first to describe a role for RGS9-2 in motor coordination and working memory and implicate RGS9-2 as a potential therapeutic target for motor and cognitive dysfunction.

  5. Mice Lacking Endoglin in Macrophages Show an Impaired Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda-Fernández, Luisa; Recio-Poveda, Lucía; Aristorena, Mikel; Lastres, Pedro; Blanco, Francisco J.; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Gallardo-Vara, Eunate; de las Casas-Engel, Mateo; Corbí, Ángel; Arthur, Helen M.; Bernabeu, Carmelo; Botella, Luisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Endoglin is an auxiliary receptor for members of the TGF-β superfamily and plays an important role in the homeostasis of the vessel wall. Mutations in endoglin gene (ENG) or in the closely related TGF-β receptor type I ACVRL1/ALK1 are responsible for a rare dominant vascular dysplasia, the Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT), or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome. Endoglin is also expressed in human macrophages, but its role in macrophage function remains unknown. In this work, we show that endoglin expression is triggered during the monocyte-macrophage differentiation process, both in vitro and during the in vivo differentiation of blood monocytes recruited to foci of inflammation in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. To analyze the role of endoglin in macrophages in vivo, an endoglin myeloid lineage specific knock-out mouse line (Engfl/flLysMCre) was generated. These mice show a predisposition to develop spontaneous infections by opportunistic bacteria. Engfl/flLysMCre mice also display increased survival following LPS-induced peritonitis, suggesting a delayed immune response. Phagocytic activity is impaired in peritoneal macrophages, altering one of the main functions of macrophages which contributes to the initiation of the immune response. We also observed altered expression of TGF-β1 target genes in endoglin deficient peritoneal macrophages. Overall, the altered immune activity of endoglin deficient macrophages could help to explain the higher rate of infectious diseases seen in HHT1 patients. PMID:27010826

  6. Lack of teratogenicity of aluminum hydroxide in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Domingo, J.S.; Mercedes Gomez, M.A.B.; Corbella, J.

    1989-01-01

    The embryotoxic and teratogenic potential of aluminum hydroxide, a therapeutic drug used as an antacid and phosphate binder, was investigated in Swiss mice. Mated female mice were given by gavage daily doses of 0, 66.5, 133 or 266 mg/kg of A1(OH)/sub 3/ on gestation days 6 through 15 and killed on gestation day 18. Females were evaluated for body weight gain, food consumption appearance and behavior, survival rates, and reproduction data. No significant effects attributable to A1(OH)/sub 3/ were noted in comparisons of maternal body weight and food consumption values, appearance and behavior. No treatment-related changes were recorded in the number of total implants, resorptions, the number of live and dead fetuses, fetal size parameters or fetal sex distribution data. Gross external, soft tissue and skeletal examination of the A1-treated fetuses did not reveal differences at any dose in comparison with the controls. Thus, no evidence of maternal toxicity, embryo/fetal toxicity or teratogenicity was observed with A1(OH)/sub 3/ in mice.

  7. Lack of p47(phox) in Akita Diabetic Mice Is Associated with Interstitial Pneumonia, Fibrosis, and Oral Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Zamakhchari, Mai F; Sima, Corneliu; Sama, Kishore; Fine, Noah; Glogauer, Michael; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Gyurko, Robert

    2016-03-01

    Excess reactive oxygen species production is central to the development of diabetic complications. The contribution of leukocyte reactive oxygen species produced by the NADPH oxidase to altered inflammatory responses associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia is poorly understood. To get insight into the role of phagocytic superoxide in the onset of diabetic complications, we used a model of periodontitis in mice with chronic hyperglycemia and lack of leukocyte p47(phox) (Akita/Ncf1) bred from C57BL/6-Ins2(Akita)/J (Akita) and neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 knockout (Ncf1) mice. Akita/Nfc1 mice showed progressive cachexia starting at early age and increased mortality by six months. Their lungs developed infiltrative interstitial lesions that obliterated air spaces as early as 12 weeks when fungal colonization of lungs also was observed. Neutrophils of Akita/Ncf1 mice had normal degranulation and phagocytic efficiency when compared with wild-type mice. Although Akita/Ncf1 mice had increased prevalence of oral infections and more severe periodontitis compared with wild-type mice, bone loss was only marginally higher compared with Akita and Ncf1 null mice. Altogether these results indicate that lack of leukocyte superoxide production in mice with chronic hyperglycemia results in interstitial pneumonia and increased susceptibility to infections. PMID:26747235

  8. Phosphorylated guanidinoacetate partly compensates for the lack of phosphocreatine in skeletal muscle of mice lacking guanidinoacetate methyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hermien E; Jan Renema, W Klaas; Isbrandt, Dirk; Heerschap, Arend

    2004-01-01

    The effects of creatine (Cr) absence in skeletal muscle caused by a deletion of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) were studied in a knockout mouse model by in vivo 31P magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy. 31P MR spectra of hindleg muscle of GAMT-deficient (GAMT–/–) mice showed no phosphocreatine (PCr) signal and instead showed the signal for phosphorylated guanidinoacetate (PGua), the immediate precursor of Cr, which is not normally present. Tissue pH did not differ between wild-type (WT) and GAMT–/– mice, while relative inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels were increased in the latter. During ischaemia, PGua was metabolically active in GAMT–/– mice and decreased at a rate comparable to the decrease of PCr in WT mice. However, the recovery rate of PGua in GAMT–/– mice after ischaemia was reduced compared to PCr in WT mice. Saturation transfer measurements revealed no detectable flux from PGua to γ-ATP, indicating severely reduced enzyme kinetics. Supplementation of Cr resulted in a rapid increase in PCr signal intensity until only this resonance was visible, along with a reduction in relative Pi values. However, the PGua recovery rate after ischaemia did not change. Our results show that despite the absence of Cr, GAMT–/– mice can cope with mild ischaemic stress by using PGua for high energy phosphoryl transfer. The reduced affinity of creatine kinase (CK) for (P)Gua only becomes apparent during recovery from ischaemia. It is argued that absence of Cr causes the higher relative Pi concentration also observed in animals lacking muscle CK, indicating an important role of the CK system in Pi homeostasis. PMID:15284341

  9. Immune System Dysfunction and Autoimmune Disease in Mice Lacking Emk (Par-1) Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hurov, Jonathan B.; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S.; Zmasek, Christian M.; White, Lynn S.; Ranganath, Sheila H.; Russell, John H.; Chan, Andrew C.; Murphy, Kenneth M.; Piwnica-Worms, Helen

    2001-01-01

    Emk is a serine/threonine protein kinase implicated in regulating polarity, cell cycle progression, and microtubule dynamics. To delineate the role of Emk in development and adult tissues, mice lacking Emk were generated by targeted gene disruption. Emk−/− mice displayed growth retardation and immune cell dysfunction. Although B- and T-cell development were normal, CD4+T cells lacking Emk exhibited a marked upregulation of the memory marker CD44/pgp-1 and produced more gamma interferon and interleukin-4 on stimulation through the T-cell receptor in vitro. In addition, B-cell responses to T-cell-dependent and -independent antigen challenge were altered in vivo. As Emk−/− animals aged, they developed splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and lymphocytic infiltrates in the lungs, parotid glands and kidneys. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the Emk protein kinase is essential for maintaining immune system homeostasis and that loss of Emk may contribute to autoimmune disease in mammals. PMID:11287624

  10. Motor learning of mice lacking cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Porras-García, M Elena; Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva M; Armengol, José Á

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellum plays a key role in the acquisition and execution of motor tasks whose physiological foundations were postulated on Purkinje cells' long-term depression (LTD). Numerous research efforts have been focused on understanding the cerebellum as a site of learning and/or memory storage. However, the controversy on which part of the cerebellum participates in motor learning, and how the process takes place, remains unsolved. In fact, it has been suggested that cerebellar cortex, deep cerebellar nuclei, and/or their combination with some brain structures other than the cerebellum are responsible for motor learning. Different experimental approaches have been used to tackle this question (cerebellar lesions, pharmacological agonist and/or antagonist of cerebellar neurotransmitters, virus tract tracings, etc.). One of these approaches is the study of spontaneous mutations affecting the cerebellar cortex and depriving it of its main input-output organizer (i.e., the Purkinje cell). In this review, we discuss the results obtained in our laboratory in motor learning of both Lurcher (Lc/+) and tambaleante (tbl/tbl) mice as models of Purkinje-cell-devoid cerebellum. PMID:23630472

  11. Motor learning of mice lacking cerebellar Purkinje cells

    PubMed Central

    Porras-García, M. Elena; Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva M.; Armengol, José Á.

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellum plays a key role in the acquisition and execution of motor tasks whose physiological foundations were postulated on Purkinje cells' long-term depression (LTD). Numerous research efforts have been focused on understanding the cerebellum as a site of learning and/or memory storage. However, the controversy on which part of the cerebellum participates in motor learning, and how the process takes place, remains unsolved. In fact, it has been suggested that cerebellar cortex, deep cerebellar nuclei, and/or their combination with some brain structures other than the cerebellum are responsible for motor learning. Different experimental approaches have been used to tackle this question (cerebellar lesions, pharmacological agonist and/or antagonist of cerebellar neurotransmitters, virus tract tracings, etc.). One of these approaches is the study of spontaneous mutations affecting the cerebellar cortex and depriving it of its main input–output organizer (i.e., the Purkinje cell). In this review, we discuss the results obtained in our laboratory in motor learning of both Lurcher (Lc/+) and tambaleante (tbl/tbl) mice as models of Purkinje-cell-devoid cerebellum. PMID:23630472

  12. Motor learning of mice lacking cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Porras-García, M Elena; Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva M; Armengol, José Á

    2013-01-01

    The cerebellum plays a key role in the acquisition and execution of motor tasks whose physiological foundations were postulated on Purkinje cells' long-term depression (LTD). Numerous research efforts have been focused on understanding the cerebellum as a site of learning and/or memory storage. However, the controversy on which part of the cerebellum participates in motor learning, and how the process takes place, remains unsolved. In fact, it has been suggested that cerebellar cortex, deep cerebellar nuclei, and/or their combination with some brain structures other than the cerebellum are responsible for motor learning. Different experimental approaches have been used to tackle this question (cerebellar lesions, pharmacological agonist and/or antagonist of cerebellar neurotransmitters, virus tract tracings, etc.). One of these approaches is the study of spontaneous mutations affecting the cerebellar cortex and depriving it of its main input-output organizer (i.e., the Purkinje cell). In this review, we discuss the results obtained in our laboratory in motor learning of both Lurcher (Lc/+) and tambaleante (tbl/tbl) mice as models of Purkinje-cell-devoid cerebellum.

  13. Absence of venous valves in mice lacking Connexin37.

    PubMed

    Munger, Stephanie J; Kanady, John D; Simon, Alexander M

    2013-01-15

    Venous valves play a crucial role in blood circulation, promoting the one-way movement of blood from superficial and deep veins towards the heart. By preventing retrograde flow, venous valves spare capillaries and venules from being subjected to damaging elevations in pressure, especially during skeletal muscle contraction. Pathologically, valvular incompetence or absence of valves are common features of venous disorders such as chronic venous insufficiency and varicose veins. The underlying causes of these conditions are not well understood, but congenital venous valve aplasia or agenesis may play a role in some cases. Despite progress in the study of cardiac and lymphatic valve morphogenesis, the molecular mechanisms controlling the development and maintenance of venous valves remain poorly understood. Here, we show that in valved veins of the mouse, three gap junction proteins (Connexins, Cxs), Cx37, Cx43, and Cx47, are expressed exclusively in the valves in a highly polarized fashion, with Cx43 on the upstream side of the valve leaflet and Cx37 on the downstream side. Surprisingly, Cx43 expression is strongly induced in the non-valve venous endothelium in superficial veins following wounding of the overlying skin. Moreover, we show that in Cx37-deficient mice, venous valves are entirely absent. Thus, Cx37, a protein involved in cell-cell communication, is one of only a few proteins identified so far as critical for the development or maintenance of venous valves. Because Cxs are necessary for the development of valves in lymphatic vessels as well, our results support the notion of common molecular pathways controlling valve development in veins and lymphatic vessels.

  14. Neuromuscular synaptic function in mice lacking major subsets of gangliosides.

    PubMed

    Zitman, F M P; Todorov, B; Jacobs, B C; Verschuuren, J J; Furukawa, K; Furukawa, K; Willison, H J; Plomp, J J

    2008-10-28

    Gangliosides are a family of sialylated glycosphingolipids enriched in the outer leaflet of neuronal membranes, in particular at synapses. Therefore, they have been hypothesized to play a functional role in synaptic transmission. We have measured in detail the electrophysiological parameters of synaptic transmission at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) ex vivo of a GD3-synthase knockout mouse, expressing only the O- and a-series gangliosides, as well as of a GM2/GD2-synthase*GD3-synthase double-knockout (dKO) mouse, lacking all gangliosides except GM3. No major synaptic deficits were found in either null-mutant. However, some extra degree of rundown of acetylcholine release at high intensity use was present at the dKO NMJ and a temperature-specific increase in acetylcholine release at 35 degrees C was observed in GD3-synthase knockout NMJs, compared with wild-type. These results indicate that synaptic transmission at the NMJ is not crucially dependent on the particular presence of most ganglioside family members and remains largely intact in the sole presence of GM3 ganglioside. Rather, presynaptic gangliosides appear to play a modulating role in temperature- and use-dependent fine-tuning of transmitter output. PMID:18801416

  15. Osteomyelosclerosis, anemia and extramedullary hematopoiesis in mice lacking the transcription factor NFATc2

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Wolfgang; Rauner, Martina; Haase, Michael; Kujawski, Satu; Arabanian, Laleh S.; Habermann, Ivonne; Hofbauer, Lorenz C.; Ehninger, Gerhard; Kiani, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background Nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) are transcription factors that are central to cytokine production in activated T cells and regulate the development and differentiation of various tissues. NFATc2 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and regulated during myeloid commitment in a lineage-specific manner. The biological role of NFATc2 in hematopoiesis is, however, unclear. Design and Methods In the present study, we analyzed steady-state hematopoiesis in young (<3 months) and old (>12 months) mice lacking NFATc2. Complete blood counts were performed in the peripheral blood, bone marrow and spleen. Using cytological and histological analyses, the blood cell differential was determined. Colony-formation assays were used to determine the differentiation potential of hematopoietic cells. Bone cell cultures were derived from the bone marrow, and bone remodeling markers were determined in the serum. Results NFATc2−/− mice older than 12 months were anemic and thrombocytopenic. The bone marrows of these mice showed a markedly reduced number of hematopoietic cells, of which megakaryocytic and erythroid lineages were most affected. While the number of hematopoietic progenitor cells in NFATc2-deficent bone marrow was reduced, the myeloid differentiation potential of these cells remained intact. Aged NFATc2−/− mice showed ossification of their bone marrow space and developed extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen. Ex vivo differentiation assays revealed an intrinsic defect of NFATc2-deficient stromal cells, in which NFATc2−/− osteoblasts differentiated more efficiently than wild-type cells, whereas osteoclast differentiation was impaired. Conclusions Our data suggest that NFATc2 may play a role in the maintenance of steady-state hematopoiesis and bone remodeling in adult organisms. PMID:21750088

  16. Hhip haploinsufficiency sensitizes mice to age-related emphysema.

    PubMed

    Lao, Taotao; Jiang, Zhiqiang; Yun, Jeong; Qiu, Weiliang; Guo, Feng; Huang, Chunfang; Mancini, John Dominic; Gupta, Kushagra; Laucho-Contreras, Maria E; Naing, Zun Zar Chi; Zhang, Li; Perrella, Mark A; Owen, Caroline A; Silverman, Edwin K; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-08-01

    Genetic variants in Hedgehog interacting protein (HHIP) have consistently been associated with the susceptibility to develop chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary function levels, including the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), in general population samples by genome-wide association studies. However, in vivo evidence connecting Hhip to age-related FEV1 decline and emphysema development is lacking. Herein, using Hhip heterozygous mice (Hhip(+/-)), we observed increased lung compliance and spontaneous emphysema in Hhip(+/-) mice starting at 10 mo of age. This increase was preceded by increases in oxidative stress levels in the lungs of Hhip(+/-) vs. Hhip(+/+) mice. To our knowledge, these results provide the first line of evidence that HHIP is involved in maintaining normal lung function and alveolar structures. Interestingly, antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine treatment in mice starting at age of 5 mo improved lung function and prevented emphysema development in Hhip(+/-) mice, suggesting that N-acetyl cysteine treatment limits the progression of age-related emphysema in Hhip(+/-) mice. Therefore, reduced lung function and age-related spontaneous emphysema development in Hhip(+/-) mice may be caused by increased oxidative stress levels in murine lungs as a result of haploinsufficiency of Hhip. PMID:27444019

  17. Lack of serotonin1B receptor expression leads to age-related motor dysfunction, early onset of brain molecular aging and reduced longevity

    PubMed Central

    Sibille, E; Su, J; Leman, S; Le Guisquet, AM; Ibarguen-Vargas, Y; Joeyen-Waldorf, J; Glorioso, C; Tseng, GC; Pezzone, M; Hen, R; Belzung, C

    2008-01-01

    Normal aging of the brain differs from pathological conditions and is associated with increased risk for psychiatric and neurological disorders. In addition to its role in the etiology and treatment of mood disorders, altered serotonin (5-HT) signaling is considered a contributing factor to aging; however, no causative role has been identified in aging. We hypothesized that a deregulation of the 5-HT system would reveal its contribution to age-related processes and investigated behavioral and molecular changes throughout adult life in mice lacking the regulatory presynaptic 5-HT1B receptor (5-HT1BR), a candidate gene for 5-HT-mediated age-related functions. We show that the lack of 5-HT1BR (Htr1bKO mice) induced an early age-related motor decline and resulted in decreased longevity. Analysis of life-long transcriptome changes revealed an early and global shift of the gene expression signature of aging in the brain of Htr1bKO mice. Moreover, molecular changes reached an apparent maximum effect at 18-months in Htr1bKO mice, corresponding to the onset of early death in that group. A comparative analysis with our previous characterization of aging in the human brain revealed a phylogenetic conservation of age-effect from mice to humans, and confirmed the early onset of molecular aging in Htr1bKO mice. Potential mechanisms appear independent of known central mechanisms (Bdnf, inflammation), but may include interactions with previously identified age-related systems (IGF-1, sirtuins). In summary, our findings suggest that the onset of age-related events can be influenced by altered 5-HT function, thus identifying 5-HT as a modulator of brain aging, and suggesting age-related consequences to chronic manipulation of 5-HT. PMID:17420766

  18. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  19. The physiological role of mitochondrial calcium revealed by mice lacking the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xin; Liu, Jie; Nguyen, Tiffany; Liu, Chengyu; Sun, Junhui; Teng, Yanjie; Fergusson, Maria M; Rovira, Ilsa I; Allen, Michele; Springer, Danielle A; Aponte, Angel M; Gucek, Marjan; Balaban, Robert S; Murphy, Elizabeth; Finkel, Toren

    2013-12-01

    Mitochondrial calcium has been postulated to regulate a wide range of processes from bioenergetics to cell death. Here, we characterize a mouse model that lacks expression of the recently discovered mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Mitochondria derived from MCU(-/-) mice have no apparent capacity to rapidly uptake calcium. Whereas basal metabolism seems unaffected, the skeletal muscle of MCU(-/-) mice exhibited alterations in the phosphorylation and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, MCU(-/-) mice exhibited marked impairment in their ability to perform strenuous work. We further show that mitochondria from MCU(-/-) mice lacked evidence for calcium-induced permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The lack of PTP opening does not seem to protect MCU(-/-) cells and tissues from cell death, although MCU(-/-) hearts fail to respond to the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A. Taken together, these results clarify how acute alterations in mitochondrial matrix calcium can regulate mammalian physiology.

  20. Premature aging in vitamin D receptor mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Keisala, Tiina; Minasyan, Anna; Lou, Yan-Ru; Zou, Jing; Kalueff, Allan V; Pyykkö, Ilmari; Tuohimaa, Pentti

    2009-07-01

    Hypervitaminosis vitamin D(3) has been recently implicated in premature aging through the regulation of 1alpha hydroxylase expression by klotho and fibroblast growth factor-23 (Fgf-23). Here we examined whether the lack of hormonal function of vitamin D(3) in mice is linked to aging phenomena. For this, we used vitamin D(3) receptor (VDR) "Tokyo" knockout (KO) mice (fed with a special rescue diet) and analyzed their growth, skin and cerebellar morphology, as well as overall motor performance. We also studied the expression of aging-related genes, such as Fgf-23, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), p53, insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and IGF1 receptor (IGF1R), in liver, as well as klotho in liver, kidney and prostate tissues. Overall, VDR KO mice showed several aging related phenotypes, including poorer survival, early alopecia, thickened skin, enlarged sebaceous glands and development of epidermal cysts. There was no difference either in the structure of cerebellum or in the number of Purkinje cells. Unlike the wildtype controls, VDR KO mice lose their ability to swim after 6 months of age. Expression of all the genes was lower in old VDR KO mice, but only NF-kappaB, Fgf-23, p53 and IGF1R were significantly lower. Since the phenotype of aged VDR knockout mice is similar to mouse models with hypervitaminosis D(3), our study suggests that VDR genetic ablation promotes premature aging in mice, and that vitamin D(3) homeostasis regulates physiological aging.

  1. Cerebellar transcriptional alterations with Purkinje cell dysfunction and loss in mice lacking PGC-1α

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Elizabeth K.; Reid, Courtney S.; McMeekin, Laura J.; Dougherty, Sarah E.; Floyd, Candace L.; Cowell, Rita M.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the expression and activity of the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (ppargc1a or PGC-1α) have been reported in multiple movement disorders, yet it is unclear how a lack of PGC-1α impacts transcription and function of the cerebellum, a region with high PGC-1α expression. We show here that mice lacking PGC-1α exhibit ataxia in addition to the previously described deficits in motor coordination. Using q-RT-PCR in cerebellar homogenates from PGC-1α−/− mice, we measured expression of 37 microarray-identified transcripts upregulated by PGC-1α in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with neuroanatomical overlap with PGC-1α or parvalbumin (PV), a calcium buffer highly expressed by Purkinje cells. We found significant reductions in transcripts with synaptic (complexin1, Cplx1; Pacsin2), structural (neurofilament heavy chain, Nefh), and metabolic (isocitrate dehydrogenase 3a, Idh3a; neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1, Nceh1; pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha 1, Pdha1; phytanoyl-CoA hydroxylase, Phyh; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron-sulfur polypeptide 1, Uqcrfs1) functions. Using conditional deletion of PGC-1α in PV-positive neurons, we determined that 50% of PGC-1α expression and a reduction in a subset of these transcripts could be explained by its concentration in PV-positive neuronal populations in the cerbellum. To determine whether there were functional consequences associated with these changes, we conducted stereological counts and spike rate analysis in Purkinje cells, a cell type rich in PV, from PGC-1α−/− mice. We observed a significant loss of Purkinje cells by 6 weeks of age, and the remaining Purkinje cells exhibited a 50% reduction in spike rate. Together, these data highlight the complexity of PGC-1α's actions in the central nervous system and suggest that dysfunction in multiple cell types contribute to motor deficits in the context of PGC-1α deficiency. PMID

  2. Severe hepatocellular disease in mice lacking one or both CaaX prenyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shao H; Chang, Sandy Y; Tu, Yiping; Lawson, Gregory W; Bergo, Martin O; Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G

    2012-01-01

    Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) and protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I (GGTase-I) add 15- or 20-carbon lipids, respectively, to proteins that terminate with a CaaX motif. These posttranslational modifications of proteins with lipids promote protein interactions with membrane surfaces in cells, but the in vivo importance of the CaaX prenyltransferases and the protein lipidation reactions they catalyze remain incompletely defined. One study concluded that a deficiency of FTase was inconsequential in adult mice and led to little or no tissue pathology. To assess the physiologic importance of the CaaX prenyltransferases, we used conditional knockout alleles and an albumin-Cre transgene to produce mice lacking FTase, GGTase-I, or both enzymes in hepatocytes. The hepatocyte-specific FTase knockout mice survived but exhibited hepatocellular disease and elevated transaminases. Mice lacking GGTase-I not only had elevated transaminases but also had dilated bile cannaliculi, hyperbilirubinemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and reduced survival. Of note, GGTase-I-deficient hepatocytes had a rounded shape and markedly reduced numbers of actin stress fibers. Hepatocyte-specific FTase/GGTase-I double-knockout mice closely resembled mice lacking GGTase-I alone, but the disease was slightly more severe. Our studies refute the notion that FTase is dispensable and demonstrate that GGTase-I is crucial for the vitality of hepatocytes.

  3. Severe hepatocellular disease in mice lacking one or both CaaX prenyltransferases[S

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shao H.; Chang, Sandy Y.; Tu, Yiping; Lawson, Gregory W.; Bergo, Martin O.; Fong, Loren G.; Young, Stephen G.

    2012-01-01

    Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) and protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I (GGTase-I) add 15- or 20-carbon lipids, respectively, to proteins that terminate with a CaaX motif. These posttranslational modifications of proteins with lipids promote protein interactions with membrane surfaces in cells, but the in vivo importance of the CaaX prenyltransferases and the protein lipidation reactions they catalyze remain incompletely defined. One study concluded that a deficiency of FTase was inconsequential in adult mice and led to little or no tissue pathology. To assess the physiologic importance of the CaaX prenyltransferases, we used conditional knockout alleles and an albumin–Cre transgene to produce mice lacking FTase, GGTase-I, or both enzymes in hepatocytes. The hepatocyte-specific FTase knockout mice survived but exhibited hepatocellular disease and elevated transaminases. Mice lacking GGTase-I not only had elevated transaminases but also had dilated bile cannaliculi, hyperbilirubinemia, hepatosplenomegaly, and reduced survival. Of note, GGTase-I–deficient hepatocytes had a rounded shape and markedly reduced numbers of actin stress fibers. Hepatocyte-specific FTase/GGTase-I double-knockout mice closely resembled mice lacking GGTase-I alone, but the disease was slightly more severe. Our studies refute the notion that FTase is dispensable and demonstrate that GGTase-I is crucial for the vitality of hepatocytes. PMID:22039581

  4. Lack of collagen VI promotes neurodegeneration by impairing autophagy and inducing apoptosis during aging

    PubMed Central

    Castagnaro, Silvia; Gregorio, Ilaria; Bonaldo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Collagen VI is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein with a broad distribution in different tissues and mostly deposited at the close periphery of the cell surface. Previous studies revealed that collagen VI protects neurons from the toxicity of amyloid-βpeptides and from UV-induced damage. However, the physiological role of this protein in the central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. Here, we established primary neural cultures from murine cortex and hippocampus, and carried out in vitro and in vivo studies in wild-type and collagen VI null (Col6a1−/−) mice. Col6a1−/− neural cultures displayed an increased incidence of spontaneous apoptosis and higher vulnerability to oxidative stress, accompanied by altered regulation of autophagy with increased p62 protein levels and decreased LC3 lipidation. Analysis of brain sections confirmed increased apoptosis and abnormal regulation of autophagy in the CNS of collagen VI-deficient animals. To investigate the in vivo physiological consequences of these CNS defects, we carried out functional studies and found that motor and memory task performances were impaired in aged Col6a1−/− mice. These findings indicate that lack of collagen VI leads to spontaneous apoptosis and defective autophagy in neural cells, and point at a protective role for this ECM protein in the CNS during physiological aging. PMID:27060109

  5. Ulcerative dermatitis in C57BL/6 mice lacking stearoyl CoA desaturase 1.

    PubMed

    Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Brown, Richard; Rassette, Matthew; Behr, Melissa; Okwumabua, Ogi; Cook, Mark; Bell, Cynthia; Flowers, Matthew T; Ntambi, James; Gendron, Annette

    2012-08-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is a common cause of morbidity and euthanasia in mice with a C57BL/6 (B6) background. The purposes of the current study were to determine whether UD lesions could be reliably produced in B6 mice lacking stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1(-/-) mice), to ascertain whether the UD lesions in SCD1(-/-) mice were similar to those found in other B6 mice, and to characterize the cell invasion phenotype of Staphlococcus xylosus cultured from the lesions. S. xylosus isolates from the environment and human skin were used as controls. SCD1(-/-) (n = 8 per group) and nontransgenic B6 control mice (n = 22 mice pooled from 3 groups that received different concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid) were fed standard rodent chow or a semipurified diet (NIH AIN76A) for 4 wk. Samples from other B6 mice with UD (field cases; n = 7) also were submitted for histology and culture. All of the SCD1(-/-) mice developed UD lesions by 4 wk on NIH AIN76A. None of SCD1(-/-) fed standard rodent chow and none of the wildtype B6 mice fed NIH AIN76A developed UD. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid did not affect ulcerogenesis. UD lesions in SCD1(-/-) mice and field cases were grossly and histologically similar. S. xylosus was isolated from SCD1(-/-) mice with UD (71%) and field cases of UD (43%). These isolates were the most cell-invasive, followed by the environmental isolate, and finally the human skin isolate. Our results provide a basis for further pathologic and clinical study of UD.

  6. Ulcerative Dermatitis in C57BL/6 Mice Lacking Stearoyl CoA Desaturase 1

    PubMed Central

    Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Brown, Richard; Rassette, Matthew; Behr, Melissa; Okwumabua, Ogi; Cook, Mark; Bell, Cynthia; Flowers, Matthew T; Ntambi, James; Gendron, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Ulcerative dermatitis (UD) is a common cause of morbidity and euthanasia in mice with a C57BL/6 (B6) background. The purposes of the current study were to determine whether UD lesions could be reliably produced in B6 mice lacking stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1–/– mice), to ascertain whether the UD lesions in SCD1–/– mice were similar to those found in other B6 mice, and to characterize the cell invasion phenotype of Staphlococcus xylosus cultured from the lesions. S. xylosus isolates from the environment and human skin were used as controls. SCD1–/– (n = 8 per group) and nontransgenic B6 control mice (n = 22 mice pooled from 3 groups that received different concentrations of conjugated linoleic acid) were fed standard rodent chow or a semipurified diet (NIH AIN76A) for 4 wk. Samples from other B6 mice with UD (field cases; n = 7) also were submitted for histology and culture. All of the SCD1–/– mice developed UD lesions by 4 wk on NIH AIN76A. None of SCD1–/– fed standard rodent chow and none of the wildtype B6 mice fed NIH AIN76A developed UD. Supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid did not affect ulcerogenesis. UD lesions in SCD1–/– mice and field cases were grossly and histologically similar. S. xylosus was isolated from SCD1–/– mice with UD (71%) and field cases of UD (43%). These isolates were the most cell-invasive, followed by the environmental isolate, and finally the human skin isolate. Our results provide a basis for further pathologic and clinical study of UD. PMID:23043777

  7. Cerebral lipid deposition in aged apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, L. C.; Parker, C. A.; Lipinski, W. J.; Callahan, M. J.; Carroll, R. T.; Gandy, S. E.; Smith, J. D.; Jucker, M.; Bisgaier, C. L.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the influence of age and diet on cerebral pathology in mice lacking apolipoprotein E (apoE), four male apoE knockout mice (epsilon -/-), and five male wild-type (epsilon +/+) littermate controls were placed on a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet for 7 weeks beginning at 17 months of age. All four aged knockout mice developed xanthomatous lesions in the brain consisting mostly of crystalline cholesterol clefts, lipid globules, and foam cells. Smaller xanthomas were confined mainly to the choroid plexus and ventral fornix in the roof of the third ventricle, occasionally extending subpially along the choroidal fissure and into the adjacent parenchyma. More advanced xanthomas disrupted adjoining neural tissue in the fornix, hippocampus, and dorsal diencephalon; in one case, over 60% of one telencephalic hemisphere, including nearly the entire neocortex, was obliterated by the lesion. No xanthomas were observed in aged wild-type controls fed the high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. Brains from 42 additional animals, fed only conventional chow, were examined; 3 of 15 aged (15- to 23-month-old) apoE knockout mice developed small choroidal xanthomas. In contrast, no lesions were observed in five young (2- to 4-month-old) apoE knockout mice or in any wild-type controls between the ages of 2 and 23 months. Our findings indicate that disorders of lipid metabolism can induce significant pathological changes in the central nervous system of aged apoE knockout mice, particularly those on a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet. It may be fruitful to seek potential interactions between genetic factors and diet in modulating the risk of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders in aged humans. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9358763

  8. Lack of Chronic Histologic Lesions Supportive of Sublethal Spontaneous Seizures in FVB/N Mice.

    PubMed

    Kohnken, Rebecca A; Schwahn, Denise J

    2016-04-01

    FVB/N mice with 'space cadet' syndrome are prone to audiogenic seizures and are considered excitotoxic 'sensitive' mice due to the neuronal damage that accompanies seizures. FVB/N mice found dead demonstrate acute neuronal cell death--attributed to a massive seizure episode--within the hippocampus and cerebrocortical laminae. However, the behavioral features of FVB/N mice and numerous studies using excitotoxins to induce seizure activity indicate that this strain experiences multiple sublethal seizures. To assess whether FVB/N mice develop histologically detectable lesions, we evaluated the brains of 86 aged (154-847 d) FVB/N mice without a history of seizures. The hippocampus and cerebrocortical laminae were evaluated histologically for neuronal atrophy and gliosis. Neuronal atrophy was quantified by counting neurons in the hippocampus (CA3 and dentate gyrus) and cerebral cortex. Gliosis was quantified by using immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein and glial counting in the cerebral cortex. In addition, ventricular area was calculated. Our study revealed no changes in brain weight with age, no neuronal loss or gliosis, no correlation between neuronal or glial cell profile densities and brain weight or age, and no differences in ventricular size between FVB/N and control mice. Neuronal densities in the cerebral cortex and granule cells of the dentate gyrus were lower in FVB/N mice than in control Swiss Webster mice. We conclude that although acute lesions of seizure activity are a previous feature of the FVB/N strain, chronic seizure activity in these mice either is negligible or does not cause morphologic or phenotypic changes.

  9. Lack of Chronic Histologic Lesions Supportive of Sublethal Spontaneous Seizures in FVB/N Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kohnken, Rebecca A; Schwahn, Denise J

    2016-01-01

    FVB/N mice with ‘space cadet’ syndrome are prone to audiogenic seizures and are considered excitotoxic ‘sensitive’ mice due to the neuronal damage that accompanies seizures. FVB/N mice found dead demonstrate acute neuronal cell death—attributed to a massive seizure episode—within the hippocampus and cerebrocortical laminae. However, the behavioral features of FVB/N mice and numerous studies using excitotoxins to induce seizure activity indicate that this strain experiences multiple sublethal seizures. To assess whether FVB/N mice develop histologically detectable lesions, we evaluated the brains of 86 aged (154-847 d) FVB/N mice without a history of seizures. The hippocampus and cerebrocortical laminae were evaluated histologically for neuronal atrophy and gliosis. Neuronal atrophy was quantified by counting neurons in the hippocampus (CA3 and dentate gyrus) and cerebral cortex. Gliosis was quantified by using immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein and glial counting in the cerebral cortex. In addition, ventricular area was calculated. Our study revealed no changes in brain weight with age, no neuronal loss or gliosis, no correlation between neuronal or glial cell profile densities and brain weight or age, and no differences in ventricular size between FVB/N and control mice. Neuronal densities in the cerebral cortex and granule cells of the dentate gyrus were lower in FVB/N mice than in control Swiss Webster mice. We conclude that although acute lesions of seizure activity are a previous feature of the FVB/N strain, chronic seizure activity in these mice either is negligible or does not cause morphologic or phenotypic changes. PMID:27053564

  10. Loss of Cartilage Structure, Stiffness, and Frictional Properties in Mice Lacking PRG4

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Jeffrey M; Zhang, Ling; Blum, Jason J; Warman, Matthew L; Jay, Gregory D; Guilak, Farshid; Zauscher, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the role of the glycoprotein PRG4 in joint lubrication and chondroprotection by measuring friction, stiffness, surface topography, and subsurface histology of the hip joints of Prg4−/− and wild-type (WT) mice. Methods Friction and elastic modulus were measured in cartilage from the femoral heads of Prg4−/− and WT mice ages 2, 4, 10, and 16 weeks using atomic force microscopy, and the surface microstructure was imaged. Histologic sections of each femoral head were stained and graded. Results Histologic analysis of the joints of Prg4−/− mice showed an enlarged, fragmented surface layer of variable thickness with Safranin O–positive formations sometimes present, a roughened underlying articular cartilage surface, and a progressive loss of pericellular proteoglycans. Friction was significantly higher on cartilage of Prg4−/− mice at age 16 weeks, but statistically significant differences in friction were not detected at younger ages. The elastic modulus of the cartilage was similar between cartilage surfaces of Prg4−/− and WT mice at young ages, but cartilage of WT mice showed increasing stiffness with age, with significantly higher moduli than cartilage of Prg4−/− mice at older ages. Conclusion Deletion of the gene Prg4 results in significant structural and biomechanical changes in the articular cartilage with age, some of which are consistent with osteoarthritic degeneration. These findings suggest that PRG4 plays a significant role in preserving normal joint structure and function. PMID:20191580

  11. Increased callus mass and enhanced strength during fracture healing in mice lacking the sclerostin gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaoyang; Ominsky, Michael S; Tan, Hong-Lin; Barrero, Mauricio; Niu, Qing-Tian; Asuncion, Franklin J; Lee, Edward; Liu, Min; Simonet, William S; Paszty, Chris; Ke, Hua Zhu

    2011-12-01

    Humans with inherited sclerostin deficiency have high bone mass. Targeted deletion of the sclerostin gene in mice (SOST-KO) causes increases in bone formation, bone mass and bone strength. Inhibition of sclerostin by a monoclonal antibody increases bone formation and enhances fracture healing in rodent and primate models. In this study, we describe the temporal progression of femoral fracture healing in SOST-KO mice compared with wild type (WT) control mice to further characterize the role of sclerostin in fracture healing. Sixty-seven male 9-10 week-old SOST-KO (N=37) and WT (N=30) mice underwent a closed femoral fracture. Weekly radiography was used to monitor the progress of healing. Histologic sections were used to characterize callus composition, evaluate callus bridging, and quantify lamellar bone formation on days 14 and 28. Densitometry and biomechanical testing were utilized to characterize bone mass and strength at the fractured and contralateral femurs on day 45. A significant improvement in time to radiographic healing (no discernible fracture line) was observed in SOST-KO mice, which corresponded to an increase in histologic bony bridging at 14 days (38% versus 0% in WT). Both genotypes appeared to be nearly fully bridged at 28 days post-fracture. The increased bridging at 14 days was associated with 97% greater bone area and 40% lower cartilage area in the callus of SOST-KO mice as compared to WT mice. Bone formation-related endpoints were higher in SOST-KO mice at both 14 and 28 days. At 45 days post-fracture, peak load and bone mass were significantly greater in the fractured femurs of SOST-KO mice as compared to WT mice. In conclusion, fractures in mice lacking sclerostin showed accelerated bridging, greater callus maturation, and increased bone formation and strength in the callus.

  12. Neuromuscular synaptic transmission in aged ganglioside-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zitman, Femke M P; Todorov, Boyan; Verschuuren, Jan J; Jacobs, Bart C; Furukawa, Keiko; Furukawa, Koichi; Willison, Hugh J; Plomp, Jaap J

    2011-01-01

    Gangliosides are sialylated glycosphingolipids that are present in high density on neuronal membranes, especially at synapses, where they are assumed to play functional or modulating roles. Mice lacking GM2/GD2-synthase express only the simple gangliosides GD3 and GM3 and develop progressive motor behaviour deficits upon ageing, apparently due to failing complex ganglioside-dependent maintenance and/or repair processes or, alternatively, toxic GM3/GD3 accumulation. We investigated the function of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of aged (>9 month-old) GM2/GD2-synthase null-mutant mice, because synaptic dysfunction might develop with age and could potentially contribute to the late-onset motor phenotype. In addition, we studied NMJs of old mice lacking GD3-synthase (expressing only O- and a-series gangliosides), which do not show an overt neurological phenotype but may develop subclinical synaptic deficits. Detailed electrophysiological analyses showed subtle changes in presynaptic neurotransmitter release. Acetylcholine release at 40 Hz nerve stimulation at aged GM2/GD2-synthase null-mutant NMJs ran down slightly more pronounced than at wild-type NMJs, and spontaneous acetylcholine release rate at GD3-synthase null-mutant NMJs was somewhat higher than at wild-type, selectively at 25 °C bath temperature. Interestingly, we observed faster kinetics of postsynaptic electrophysiological responses at aged GD3-synthase null-mutant NMJs, not previously seen by us at NMJs of young GD3-synthase null-mutants or other types of (aged or young) ganglioside-deficient mice. These kinetic changes might reflect a change in postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor behaviour. Our data indicate that it is highly unlikely that transmission failure at NMJs contributes to the progressive motor defects of aged GM2/GD2-synthase null-mutants and that, despite some kinetic changes of synaptic signals, neuromuscular transmission remains successful in aged GD3-synthase null-mutant mice. Apparently

  13. Assessment of cardiac function in mice lacking the mitochondrial calcium uniporter.

    PubMed

    Holmström, Kira M; Pan, Xin; Liu, Julia C; Menazza, Sara; Liu, Jie; Nguyen, Tiffany T; Pan, Haihui; Parks, Randi J; Anderson, Stasia; Noguchi, Audrey; Springer, Danielle; Murphy, Elizabeth; Finkel, Toren

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial calcium is thought to play an important role in the regulation of cardiac bioenergetics and function. The entry of calcium into the mitochondrial matrix requires that the divalent cation pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane via a specialized pore known as the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Here, we use mice deficient of MCU expression to rigorously assess the role of mitochondrial calcium in cardiac function. Mitochondria isolated from MCU(-/-) mice have reduced matrix calcium levels, impaired calcium uptake and a defect in calcium-stimulated respiration. Nonetheless, we find that the absence of MCU expression does not affect basal cardiac function at either 12 or 20months of age. Moreover, the physiological response of MCU(-/-) mice to isoproterenol challenge or transverse aortic constriction appears similar to control mice. Thus, while mitochondria derived from MCU(-/-) mice have markedly impaired mitochondrial calcium handling, the hearts of these animals surprisingly appear to function relatively normally under basal conditions and during stress.

  14. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor.

    PubMed

    Bulwa, Zachary B; Sharlin, Jordan A; Clark, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Kilby, Chessa N; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S

    2011-11-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or overrepresentation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that overrepresentation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards.

  15. Increased consumption of ethanol and sugar water in mice lacking the dopamine D2 long receptor.

    PubMed

    Bulwa, Zachary B; Sharlin, Jordan A; Clark, Peter J; Bhattacharya, Tushar K; Kilby, Chessa N; Wang, Yanyan; Rhodes, Justin S

    2011-11-01

    Individual differences in dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) expression in the brain are thought to influence motivation and reinforcement for ethanol and other rewards. D2R exists in two isoforms, D2 long (D2LR) and D2 short (D2SR), produced by alternative splicing of the same gene. The relative contributions of D2LR versus D2SR to ethanol and sugar water drinking are not known. Genetic engineering was used to produce a line of knockout (KO) mice that lack D2LR and consequently have increased expression of D2SR. KO and wild-type (WT) mice of both sexes were tested for intake of 20% ethanol, 10% sugar water and plain tap water using established drinking-in-the-dark procedures. Mice were also tested for effects of the D2 antagonist eticlopride on intake of ethanol to determine whether KO responses were caused by lack of D2LR or overrepresentation of D2SR. Locomotor activity on running wheels and in cages without wheels was also measured for comparison. D2L KO mice drank significantly more ethanol than WT in both sexes. KO mice drank more sugar water than WT in females but not in males. Eticlopride dose dependently decreased ethanol intake in all groups except male KO. KO mice were less physically active than WT in cages with or without running wheels. Results suggest that overrepresentation of D2SR contributes to increased intake of ethanol in the KO mice. Decreasing wheel running and general levels of physical activity in the KO mice rules out the possibility that higher intake results from higher motor activity. Results extend the literature implicating altered expression of D2R in risk for addiction by delineating the contribution of individual D2R isoforms. These findings suggest that D2LR and D2SR play differential roles in consumption of alcohol and sugar rewards. PMID:21803530

  16. Locomotion and self-administration induced by cocaine in 129/OlaHsd mice lacking galanin

    PubMed Central

    Brabant, Christian; Kuschpel, Anna S; Picciotto, Marina R

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the galanin system modulates responses to drugs of abuse such as morphine. The current study examined whether genetic deletion of galanin could affect the locomotor and reinforcing effects of cocaine in mice. We examined spontaneous motor activity and cocaine-induced hyperactivity in wild-type (GAL-WT) and knockout mice lacking galanin (GAL-KO) maintained on the 129/OlaHsd background. Our results indicate that cocaine enhanced locomotion (defined as moving more than 5 cm) dose-dependently in GAL-WT and GAL-KO mice. However, general activity (total beam breaks) was increased by cocaine only in GAL-WT mice. An additional experiment indicated that galnon, a non-selective galanin receptor agonist, did not affect cocaine-induced hyperactivity. In a second set of experiments, mice of both genotypes were trained to self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio schedule and tested with various doses of cocaine under different schedules of reinforcement. This set of experiments showed that cocaine self-administration did not differ markedly between genotypes. However, while GAL-WT mice acquired cocaine self-administration, a median split analysis showed that mice could be divided into large and small drug takers, whereas all GAL-KO mice were small drug takers. Our results indicate that wild-type and galanin knockout mice on a congenic 129/OlaHsd background are responsive to the locomotor effects of cocaine and can acquire i.v. cocaine self-administration. However, the phenotype observed in GAL-KO mice does not support a major role for galanin in cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and self-administration. PMID:21038934

  17. Dilated cardiomyopathy and impaired cardiac hypertrophic response to angiotensin II in mice lacking FGF-2

    PubMed Central

    Pellieux, Corinne; Foletti, Alessandro; Peduto, Giovanni; Aubert, Jean-François; Nussberger, Jürg; Beermann, Friedrich; Brunner, Hans-R.; Pedrazzini, Thierry

    2001-01-01

    FGF-2 has been implicated in the cardiac response to hypertrophic stimuli. Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to maintain elevated blood pressure in hypertensive individuals and exerts direct trophic effects on cardiac cells. However, the role of FGF-2 in Ang II–induced cardiac hypertrophy has not been established. Therefore, mice deficient in FGF-2 expression were studied using a model of Ang II–dependent hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. Echocardiographic measurements show the presence of dilated cardiomyopathy in normotensive mice lacking FGF-2. Moreover, hypertensive mice without FGF-2 developed no compensatory cardiac hypertrophy. In wild-type mice, hypertrophy was associated with a stimulation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase, the extracellular signal regulated kinase, and the p38 kinase pathways. In contrast, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was markedly attenuated in FGF-2–deficient mice. In vitro, FGF-2 of fibroblast origin was demonstrated to be essential in the paracrine stimulation of MAPK activation in cardiomyocytes. Indeed, fibroblasts lacking FGF-2 expression have a defective capacity for releasing growth factors to induce hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes. Therefore, these results identify the cardiac fibroblast population as a primary integrator of hypertrophic stimuli in the heart, and suggest that FGF-2 is a crucial mediator of cardiac hypertrophy via autocrine/paracrine actions on cardiac cells. PMID:11748268

  18. p53 Haploinsufficiency Profoundly Accelerates the Onset of Tongue Tumors in Mice Lacking the Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ide, Fumio; Kitada, Munenori; Sakashita, Hideaki; Kusama, Kaoru; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Ishikawa, Takatoshi

    2003-01-01

    Mice lacking the xeroderma pigmentosum group A gene (XPA−/− mice), which have a complete deficiency in nucleotide excision repair (NER), are highly predisposed to tongue squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) when exposed to 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). To explore the effects of the interaction of the NER machinery with p53 in oral tumorigenesis, we generated an XPA−/− mouse strain carrying mutant alleles for p53. This mouse model of 4NQO carcinogenesis demonstrated that despite the same tumor frequency, XPA−/−p53+/− mice reached 100% SCC incidence at 25 weeks compared with 50 weeks for XPA−/−p53+/+ littermates. XPA−/−p53−/− mice succumbed to spontaneous thymic lymphomas before the development of tongue tumors (before 13 weeks of age). SCC originated in XPA−/−p53+/− mice maintained the p53+/− genotype and the retained wild-type p53 allele appeared to be structurally intact. Only one of 20 XPA−/−p53+/+ SCC showed a missense mutation of p53. Collectively, the accelerated tongue tumor growth may be a consequence of haploinsufficiency but not of mutation of p53 in the context of NER deficiency. PMID:14578172

  19. Parturition and recruitment of macrophages in cervix of mice lacking the prostaglandin F receptor.

    PubMed

    Yellon, Steven M; Ebner, Charlotte A; Sugimoto, Yukihiko

    2008-03-01

    Parturition does not occur in transgenic mice lacking the prostaglandin F receptor (Ptgfr(-/-)) because luteolysis is forestalled and progesterone production persists. Ovariectomy of pregnant Ptgfr(-/-) mice leads to a decline in circulating progesterone and delivery of live pups. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that immigration of macrophages and increased innervation of the cervix of Ptgfr(-/-) mice was associated with ripening and parturition. The cervix of pregnant Ptgfr(-/-) mice was studied on Days 15-21 after breeding; additional groups were ovariectomized on Day 19 of pregnancy, and the cervix obtained on Day 20 of pregnancy before birth or the next day at about 24 h after birth. On Days 18-19 of pregnancy, macrophage numbers and nerve fiber density increased more than 3-fold compared with findings in nonpregnant or Day 15 or 21 pregnant Ptgfr(-/-) mice. The magnitude and time course of these changes were comparable to those found in wild-type controls that delivered on Day 19 after breeding. Thus, the mechanism regulating macrophage immigration, innervation, and cervical remodeling in Ptgfr(-/-) mice with delayed parturition is similar to wild-type controls that deliver at term. By contrast, ovariectomy forestalled the decrease in cervical macrophages in Ptgfr(-/-) mice. By Day 21 after breeding, macrophage numbers more than double those after ovariectomy, relative to those found in pregnant Ptgfr(-/-) mice, whereas nerve fiber density was the same regardless of birth. Density of collagen structure in these mice directly matched macrophage traffic in the cervix. The findings indicate that the prostaglandin F(2alpha) receptor and progesterone withdrawal are a necessary part of the final common pathway for ripening of the cervix and the process of parturition.

  20. Remodeling of the cervix and parturition in mice lacking the progesterone receptor B isoform.

    PubMed

    Yellon, Steven M; Oshiro, Bryan T; Chhaya, Tejas Y; Lechuga, Thomas J; Dias, Rejane M; Burns, Alexandra E; Force, Lindsey; Apostolakis, Ede M

    2011-09-01

    Withdrawal of progestational support for pregnancy is part of the final common pathways for parturition, but the role of nuclear progesterone receptor (PGR) isoforms in this process is not known. To determine if the PGR-B isoform participates in cervical remodeling at term, cervices were obtained from mice lacking PGR-B (PGR-BKO) and from wild-type (WT) controls before or after birth. PGR-BKO mice gave birth to viable pups at the same time as WT controls during the early morning of Day 19 postbreeding. Morphological analyses indicated that by the day before birth, cervices from PGR-BKO and WT mice had increased in size, with fewer cell nuclei/area as well as diminished collagen content and structure, as evidenced by optical density of picrosirius red-stained sections, compared to cervices from nonpregnant mice. Moreover, increased numbers of resident macrophages, but not neutrophils, were found in the prepartum cervix of PGR-BKO compared to nonpregnant mice, parallel to findings in WT mice. These results suggest that PGR-B does not contribute to the growth or degradation of the extracellular matrix or proinflammatory processes associated with recruitment of macrophages in the cervix leading up to birth. Rather, other receptors may contribute to the progesterone-dependent mechanism that promotes remodeling of the cervix during pregnancy and in the proinflammatory process associated with ripening before parturition.

  1. Mice Lacking Serotonin 2C Receptors Have increased Affective Responses to Aversive Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Bonasera, Stephen J.; Schenk, A. Katrin; Luxenberg, Evan J.; Wang, Xidao; Basbaum, Allan; Tecott, Laurence H.

    2015-01-01

    Although central serotonergic systems are known to influence responses to noxious stimuli, mechanisms underlying serotonergic modulation of pain responses are unclear. We proposed that serotonin 2C receptors (5-HT2CRs), which are expressed within brain regions implicated in sensory and affective responses to pain, contribute to the serotonergic modulation of pain responses. In mice constitutively lacking 5-HT2CRs (2CKO mice) we found normal baseline sensory responses to noxious thermal, mechanical and chemical stimuli. In contrast, 2CKO mice exhibited a selective enhancement of affect-related ultrasonic afterdischarge vocalizations in response to footshock. Enhanced affect-related responses to noxious stimuli were also exhibited by 2CKO mice in a fear-sensitized startle assay. The extent to which a brief series of unconditioned footshocks produced enhancement of acoustic startle responses was markedly increased in 2CKO mice. As mesolimbic dopamine pathways influence affective responses to noxious stimuli, and these pathways are disinhibited in 2CKO mice, we examined the sensitivity of footshock-induced enhancement of startle to dopamine receptor blockade. Systemic administration of the dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist raclopride selectively reduced footshock-induced enhancement of startle without influencing baseline acoustic startle responses. We propose that 5-HT2CRs regulate affective behavioral responses to unconditioned aversive stimuli through mechanisms involving the disinhibition of ascending dopaminergic pathways. PMID:26630489

  2. The Pentapeptide RM-131 Promotes Food Intake and Adiposity in Wildtype Mice but Not in Mice Lacking the Ghrelin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Katrin; Finan, Brian; Clemmensen, Christoffer; van der Ploeg, Lex H. T.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Müller, Timo D.

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal peptide hormone ghrelin is the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (a.k.a. ghrelin receptor, GHR). Currently, ghrelin is the only circulating peripheral hormone with the ability to promote a positive energy balance by stimulating food intake while decreasing energy expenditure and body fat utilization, as defined in rodents. Based on these and additional, beneficial effects on metabolism, the endogenous ghrelin system is considered an attractive target to treat diverse pathological conditions including those associated with eating/wasting disorders and cachexia. As the pharmacological potential of ghrelin is hampered by its relatively short half-life, ghrelin analogs with enhanced pharmacokinetics offer the potential to sustainably improve metabolism. One of these ghrelin analogs is the pentapeptide RM-131, which promotes food intake and adiposity with higher potency as compared to native ghrelin in rodents. Whereas, the effect of RM-131 on energy metabolism is solidly confirmed in rodents, it remains elusive whether RM-131 exerts its effect solely via the ghrelin receptor. Accordingly, we assessed the receptor specificity of RM-131 to promote food intake and adiposity in mice lacking the GHR. Our data show that in wildtype mice RM-131 potently promotes weight gain and adiposity through stimulation of food intake. However, RM-131 fails to affect food intake and body weight in mice lacking the GHR, underlining that the anabolic effects of RM-131 are mediated via the ghrelin receptor in mice. PMID:25988130

  3. Acid Sphingomyelinase Gene Knockout Ameliorates Hyperhomocysteinemic Glomerular Injury in Mice Lacking Cystathionine-β-Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Boini, Krishna M.; Xia, Min; Abais, Justine M.; Xu, Ming; Li, Cai-xia; Li, Pin-Lan

    2012-01-01

    Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) has been implicated in the development of hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys)-induced glomerular oxidative stress and injury. However, it remains unknown whether genetically engineering of ASM gene produces beneficial or detrimental action on hHcys-induced glomerular injury. The present study generated and characterized the mice lacking cystathionine β-synthase (Cbs) and Asm mouse gene by cross breeding Cbs+/− and Asm+/− mice. Given that the homozygotes of Cbs−/−/Asm−/− mice could not survive for 3 weeks. Cbs+/−/Asm+/+, Cbs+/−/Asm+/− and Cbs+/−/Asm−/− as well as their Cbs wild type littermates were used to study the role of Asm−/− under a background of Cbs+/− with hHcys. HPLC analysis revealed that plasma Hcys level was significantly elevated in Cbs heterozygous (Cbs+/−) mice with different copies of Asm gene compared to Cbs+/+ mice with different Asm gene copies. Cbs+/−/Asm+/+ mice had significantly increased renal Asm activity, ceramide production and O2.− level compared to Cbs+/+/Asm+/+, while Cbs+/−/Asm−/− mice showed significantly reduced renal Asm activity, ceramide production and O2.− level due to increased plasma Hcys levels. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that colocalization of podocin with ceramide was much lower in Cbs+/−/Asm−/− mice compared to Cbs+/−/Asm+/+ mice, which was accompanied by a reduced glomerular damage index, albuminuria and proteinuria in Cbs+/−/Asm−/− mice. Immunofluorescent analyses of the podocin, nephrin and desmin expression also illustrated less podocyte damages in the glomeruli from Cbs+/−/Asm−/− mice compared to Cbs+/−/Asm+/+ mice. In in vitro studies of podocytes, hHcys-enhanced O2.− production, desmin expression, and ceramide production as well as decreases in VEGF level and podocin expression in podocytes were substantially attenuated by prior treatment with amitriptyline, an Asm inhibitor. In conclusion, Asm gene knockout or

  4. Mice lacking G0S2 are lean and cold-tolerant.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tian; Lopez-Aguiar, Alexandra G N; Li, Aihua; Lu, Yun; Sekula, David; Nattie, Eugene E; Freemantle, Sarah; Dmitrovsky, Ethan

    2014-05-01

    G 0/G 1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) is a protein that was first identified in a search for lymphocyte G 0/G 1 switch genes. A direct role for G0S2 in cell cycle regulation has proven elusive. Yet, there is prior evidence for G0S2 functioning in tumor suppression, immune regulation and lipolysis. To explore definitively G0S2 functions, mice lacking G0S2 were generated and characterized. G0S2(-/-) mice were born at a Mendelian ratio and were phenotypically normal, with the exception of a possible lactation defect. G0S2(-/-) female mice carried viable pups to term, but could not typically sustain them beyond 48 h. G0S2 is shown here to be most highly expressed in adipose tissue. It is also expressed in liver, skeletal muscle, lung, ventricles of the heart, and components of the kidney. G0S2 loss significantly decreased relative body weight gain as compared with wild-type (WT) (G0S2(+/+)) mice, with a significant decrease in gonadal fat pad weight and a significant increase in serum glycerol levels. This decreased relative body weight gain is not associated with a significant decrease in food intake or increase in activity of G0S2(-/-) mice. In fact, G0S2(-/-) mice were significantly less active at night than G0S2(+/+) mice. When fed with a high fat diet (45% fat diet), G0S2 loss did not prevent diet-induced obesity in mice. Intriguingly, G0S2 loss improved acute cold tolerance, augmenting expression of genes involved in thermogenesis. In summary, in vivo roles for G0S2 were found in lactation, energy balance, and thermogenesis. This study provides a basis for tumor suppressive effects of G0S2 by regulating lipolysis.

  5. Characterization of spontaneous air space enlargement in mice lacking microfibrillar-associated protein 4.

    PubMed

    Holm, Anne Trommelholt; Wulf-Johansson, Helle; Hvidsten, Svend; Jorgensen, Patricia Troest; Schlosser, Anders; Pilecki, Bartosz; Ormhøj, Maria; Moeller, Jesper Bonnet; Johannsen, Claus; Baun, Christina; Andersen, Thomas; Schneider, Jan Philipp; Hegermann, Jan; Ochs, Matthias; Götz, Alexander A; Schulz, Holger; de Angelis, Martin Hrabě; Vestbo, Jørgen; Holmskov, Uffe; Sorensen, Grith Lykke

    2015-06-01

    Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 (MFAP4) is localized to elastic fibers in blood vessels and the interalveolar septa of the lungs and is further present in bronchoalveolar lavage. Mfap4 has been previously suggested to be involved in elastogenesis in the lung. We tested this prediction and aimed to characterize the pulmonary function changes and emphysematous changes that occur in Mfap4-deficient (Mfap4(-/-)) mice. Significant changes included increases in total lung capacity and compliance, which were evident in Mfap4(-/-) mice at 6 and 8 mo but not at 3 mo of age. Using in vivo breath-hold gated microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) in 8-mo-old Mfap4(-/-) mice, we found that the mean density of the lung parenchyma was decreased, and the low-attenuation area (LAA) was significantly increased by 14% compared with Mfap4(+/+) mice. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) did not reveal differences in the organization of elastic fibers, and there was no difference in elastin content, but a borderline significant increase in elastin mRNA expression in 3-mo-old mice. Stereological analysis showed that alveolar surface density in relation to the lung parenchyma and total alveolar surface area inside of the lung were both significantly decreased in Mfap4(-/-) mice by 25 and 15%, respectively. The data did not support an essential role of MFAP4 in pulmonary elastic fiber organization or content but indicated increased turnover in young Mfap4(-/-) mice. However, Mfap4(-/-) mice developed a spontaneous loss of lung function, which was evident at 6 mo of age, and moderate air space enlargement, with emphysema-like changes.

  6. Mice lacking NCF1 exhibit reduced growth of implanted melanoma and carcinoma tumors.

    PubMed

    Kelkka, Tiina; Pizzolla, Angela; Laurila, Juha Petteri; Friman, Tomas; Gustafsson, Renata; Källberg, Eva; Olsson, Olof; Leanderson, Tomas; Rubin, Kristofer; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2013-01-01

    The NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex is a professional producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is mainly expressed in phagocytes. While the activity of the NOX2 complex is essential for immunity against pathogens and protection against autoimmunity, its role in the development of malignant tumors remains unclear. We compared wild type and Ncf1 (m1J) mutated mice, which lack functional NOX2 complex, in four different tumor models. Ncf1 (m1J) mutated mice developed significantly smaller tumors in two melanoma models in which B16 melanoma cells expressing a hematopoietic growth factor FLT3L or luciferase reporter were used. Ncf1 (m1J) mutated mice developed significantly fewer Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) tumors, but the tumors that did develop, grew at a pace that was similar to the wild type mice. In the spontaneously arising prostate carcinoma model (TRAMP), tumor growth was not affected. The lack of ROS-mediated protection against tumor growth was associated with increased production of immunity-associated cytokines. A significant increase in Th2 associated cytokines was observed in the LLC model. Our present data show that ROS regulate rejection of the antigenic B16-luc and LLC tumors, whereas the data do not support a role for ROS in growth of intrinsically generated tumors. PMID:24358335

  7. Mice Lacking Pten in Osteoblasts Have Improved Intramembranous and Late Endochondral Fracture Healing

    PubMed Central

    Burgers, Travis A.; Hoffmann, Martin F.; Collins, Caitlyn J.; Zahatnansky, Juraj; Alvarado, Martin A.; Morris, Michael R.; Sietsema, Debra L.; Mason, James J.; Jones, Clifford B.; Ploeg, Heidi L.; Williams, Bart O.

    2013-01-01

    The failure of an osseous fracture to heal (development of a non-union) is a common and debilitating clinical problem. Mice lacking the tumor suppressor Pten in osteoblasts have dramatic and progressive increases in bone volume and density throughout life. Since fracture healing is a recapitulation of bone development, we investigated the process of fracture healing in mice lacking Pten in osteoblasts (Ocn-cretg/+;Ptenflox/flox). Mid-diaphyseal femoral fractures induced in wild-type and Ocn-cretg/+;Ptenflox/flox mice were studied via micro-computed tomography (µCT) scans, biomechanical testing, histological and histomorphometric analysis, and protein expression analysis. Ocn-cretg/+;Ptenflox/flox mice had significantly stiffer and stronger intact bones relative to controls in all cohorts. They also had significantly stiffer healing bones at day 28 post-fracture (PF) and significantly stronger healing bones at days 14, 21, and 28 PF. At day 7 PF, the proximal and distal ends of the Pten mutant calluses were more ossified. By day 28 PF, Pten mutants had larger and more mineralized calluses. Pten mutants had improved intramembranous bone formation during healing originating from the periosteum. They also had improved endochondral bone formation later in the healing process, after mature osteoblasts are present in the callus. Our results indicate that the inhibition of Pten can improve fracture healing and that the local or short-term use of commercially available Pten-inhibiting agents may have clinical application for enhancing fracture healing. PMID:23675511

  8. Mice lacking selenoprotein P and selenocysteine lyase exhibit severe neurological dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and audiogenic seizures.

    PubMed

    Byrns, China N; Pitts, Matthew W; Gilman, Christy A; Hashimoto, Ann C; Berry, Marla J

    2014-04-01

    Selenoproteins are a unique family of proteins, characterized by the co-translational incorporation of selenium as selenocysteine, which play key roles in antioxidant defense. Among selenoproteins, selenoprotein P (Sepp1) is particularly distinctive due to the fact that it contains multiple selenocysteine residues and has been postulated to act in selenium transport. Within the brain, Sepp1 delivers selenium to neurons by binding to the ApoER2 receptor. Upon feeding a selenium-deficient diet, mice lacking ApoER2 or Sepp1 develop severe neurological dysfunction and exhibit widespread brainstem neurodegeneration, indicating an important role for ApoER2-mediated Sepp1 uptake in normal brain function. Selenocysteine lyase (Scly) is an enzyme that plays an important role in selenium homeostasis, in that it catalyzes the decomposition of selenocysteine and allows selenium to be recycled for additional selenoprotein synthesis. We previously reported that constitutive deletion of Scly results in neurological deficits only when mice are challenged with a low selenium diet. To gain insight into the relationship between Sepp1 and Scly in selenium metabolism, we created novel transgenic mice constitutively lacking both genes (Scly(-/-)Sepp1(-/-)) and characterized the neurobehavioral phenotype. We report that deletion of Scly in conjunction with Sepp1 further aggravates the phenotype of Sepp1(-/-) mice, as these mice needed supraphysiological selenium supplementation to survive, and surviving mice exhibited impaired motor coordination, audiogenic seizures, and brainstem neurodegeneration. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence that Scly and Sepp1 work cooperatively to maintain selenoprotein function in the mammalian brain.

  9. Rescue of NGF-deficient mice I: transgenic expression of NGF in skin rescues mice lacking endogenous NGF.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Susan M W; Davis, Brian M; Nishimura, Merry; Albers, Kathryn M; Jones, Marc E; Phillips, Heidi S

    2004-03-30

    Mice lacking a functional NGF gene (ngf-/- mice) have less than one third of the normal complement of sensory neurons, few sympathetic postganglionic neurons and die shortly after birth. We report here that transgenic expression of NGF under control of the K14 keratin promoter can rescue some elements of the peripheral nervous system and restore normal growth and viability to ngf-/- mice. While hybrid transgenic-ngf-/- mice (ngfTKOs) displayed marginal rescue of trigeminal ganglion neurons, the percentage of CGRP-positive neurons was restored to normal. Restoration of CGRP-positive terminals in skin and spinal cord was also found and accompanied by recovery of behavioral responses to noxious stimuli. ngfTKO mice displayed a normal number of superior cervical ganglion neurons and recovery of sympathetic innervation of skin. These results demonstrate that substitution of a functional NGF locus by a transgene directing expression largely to skin can result in normal growth and viability. Thus, the most vital functions of NGF are not dependent on faithful recapitulation of the normal spatiotemporal pattern of gene expression. PMID:15010204

  10. Retinal functional alterations in mice lacking intermediate filament proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein and vimentin.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Kirsten A; Tanimoto, Naoyuki; Grosche, Antje; Zrenner, Eberhart; Pekny, Milos; Reichenbach, Andreas; Seeliger, Mathias W; Pannicke, Thomas; Perez, Maria-Thereza

    2015-12-01

    Vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are important components of the intermediate filament (IF) (or nanofilament) system of astroglial cells. We conducted full-field electroretinogram (ERG) recordings and found that whereas photoreceptor responses (a-wave) were normal in uninjured GFAP(-/-)Vim(-/-) mice, b-wave amplitudes were increased. Moreover, we found that Kir (inward rectifier K(+)) channel protein expression was reduced in the retinas of GFAP(-/-)Vim(-/-) mice and that Kir-mediated current amplitudes were lower in Müller glial cells isolated from these mice. Studies have shown that the IF system, in addition, is involved in the retinal response to injury and that attenuated Müller cell reactivity and reduced photoreceptor cell loss are observed in IF-deficient mice after experimental retinal detachment. We investigated whether the lack of IF proteins would affect cell survival in a retinal ischemia-reperfusion model. We found that although cell loss was induced in both genotypes, the number of surviving cells in the inner retina was lower in IF-deficient mice. Our findings thus show that the inability to produce GFAP and Vim affects normal retinal physiology and that the effect of IF deficiency on retinal cell survival differs, depending on the underlying pathologic condition.

  11. Preserved recovery of cardiac function following ischemia-reperfusion in mice lacking SIRT3.

    PubMed

    Koentges, Christoph; Pfeil, Katharina; Meyer-Steenbuck, Maximilian; Lother, Achim; Hoffmann, Michael M; Odening, Katja E; Hein, Lutz; Bode, Christoph; Bugger, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Lack of the mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) impairs mitochondrial function and increases the susceptibility to induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Because these alterations contribute to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, we hypothesized that SIRT3 deficiency may increase cardiac injury following myocardial IR. Hearts of 10-week-old mice were perfused in the isolated working mode and subjected to 17.5 min of global no-flow ischemia, followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Measurements before ischemia revealed a decrease in cardiac power (-20%) and rate pressure product (-15%) in SIRT3(-/-) mice. Mitochondrial state 3 respiration (-15%), ATP synthesis (-39%), and ATP/O ratios (-29%) were decreased in hearts of SIRT3(-/-) mice. However, percent recovery of cardiac power (WT 94% ± 9%; SIRT3(-/-) 89% ± 9%) and rate pressure product (WT 89% ± 16%; SIRT3(-/-) 96% ± 3%) following IR was similar in both groups. Myocardial infarct size was not increased in SIRT3(-/-) mice following permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Left ventricular pressure and dP/dtmax, and mitochondrial respiration and ATP synthesis were not different between groups following LAD ligation. Thus, despite pre-existing defects in cardiac function and mitochondrial respiratory capacity in SIRT3(-/-) mice, SIRT3 deficiency does not additionally impair cardiac function following IR or following myocardial infarction.

  12. Loss of Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neurons in Mice Lacking STAM1

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Mitsuhiro; Takeshita, Toshikazu; Miura, Shigeto; Murata, Kazuko; Kimura, Yutaka; Ishii, Naoto; Nose, Masato; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Hisatake; Tashiro, Fumi; Miyazaki, Jun-Ichi; Sasaki, Hidetada; Sugamura, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    STAM1, a member of the STAM (signal transducing adapter molecule) family, has a unique structure containing a Src homology 3 domain and ITAM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif). STAM1 was previously shown to be associated with the Jak2 and Jak3 tyrosine kinases and to be involved in the regulation of intracellular signal transduction mediated by interleukin-2 (IL-2) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in vitro. Here we generated mice lacking STAM1 by using homologous recombination with embryonic stem cells. STAM1−/− mice were morphologically indistinguishable from their littermates at birth. However, growth retardation in the third week after birth was observed for the STAM1−/− mice. Unexpectedly, despite the absence of STAM1, hematopoietic cells, including T- and B-lymphocyte and other hematopoietic cell populations, developed normally and responded well to several cytokines, including IL-2 and GM-CSF. However, histological analyses revealed the disappearance of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons in STAM1−/− mice. Furthermore, we observed that primary hippocampal neurons derived from STAM1−/− mice are vulnerable to cell death induced by excitotoxic amino acids or an NO donor. These data suggest that STAM1 is dispensable for cytokine-mediated signaling in lymphocytes but may be involved in the survival of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. PMID:11340172

  13. Amphetamine reward in food restricted mice lacking the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1.

    PubMed

    Geuzaine, Annabelle; Tyhon, Amélie; Grisar, Thierry; Brabant, Christian; Lakaye, Bernard; Tirelli, Ezio

    2014-04-01

    Chronic food restriction (FR) and maintenance of low body weight have long been known to increase the rewarding and motor-activating effects of addictive drugs. However, the neurobiological mechanisms through which FR potentiates drug reward remain largely unknown. Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) signaling could be one of these mechanisms since this peptide is involved in energy homeostasis and modulates mesolimbic dopaminergic transmission. The purpose of the present study was to test this hypothesis by investigating the impact of FR on amphetamine reward in wild-type (WT) and knockout mice lacking the melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1 (MCHR1-KO). The rewarding effects of amphetamine (0.75-2.25 mg/kg, i.p.) were measured with the conditioned place preference (CPP) technique. The food of the mice was restricted to maintain their body weight at 80-85% of their free-feeding (FF) weight throughout the entire CPP experiment. Locomotor activity of the animals was recorded during the conditioning sessions. Our results show that locomotion of all the food-restricted mice treated with saline or amphetamine increased over the sessions whatever the genotype. On the place preference test, the amplitude of CPP induced by 0.75 mg/kg amphetamine was higher in food restricted WT mice than in free-fed WT mice and food restricted MCHR1-KO mice. However, FR did not affect amphetamine reward in MCHR1-KO mice. The present results indicate that MCH signaling could be involved in the ability of FR to increase amphetamine-induced CPP.

  14. Alteration in plasma testosterone levels in male mice lacking soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Luria, Ayala; Morisseau, Christophe; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Yang, Jun; Inceoglu, Bora; De Taeye, Bart; Watkins, Steven M; Wiest, Michelle M; German, J Bruce; Hammock, Bruce D

    2009-08-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme with COOH-terminal hydrolase and NH(2)-terminal phosphatase activities. sEH converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), and the phosphatase activity is suggested to be involved in cholesterol metabolism. EETs participate in a wide range of biological functions, including regulation of vascular tone, renal tubular transport, cardiac contractility, and inflammation. Inhibition of sEH is a potential approach for enhancing the biological activity of EETs. Therefore, disruption of sEH activity is becoming an attractive therapeutic target for both cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. To define the physiological role of sEH, we characterized a knockout mouse colony lacking expression of the Ephx2 gene. Lack of sEH enzyme is characterized by elevation of EET to DHET ratios in both the linoleate and arachidonate series in plasma and tissues of both female and male mice. In male mice, this lack of expression was also associated with decreased plasma testosterone levels, sperm count, and testicular size. However, this genotype was still able to sire litters. Plasma cholesterol levels also declined in this genotype. Behavior tests such as anxiety-like behavior and hedonic response were also examined in Ephx2-null and WT mice, as all can be related to hormonal changes. Null mice showed a level of anxiety with a decreased hedonic response. In conclusion, this study provides a broad biochemical, physiological, and behavioral characterization of the Ephx2-null mouse colony and suggests a mechanism by which sEH and its substrates may regulate circulating levels of testosterone through cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism. PMID:19458064

  15. Alteration in plasma testosterone levels in male mice lacking soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Luria, Ayala; Morisseau, Christophe; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Yang, Jun; Inceoglu, Bora; De Taeye, Bart; Watkins, Steven M.; Wiest, Michelle M.; German, J. Bruce; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme with COOH-terminal hydrolase and NH2-terminal phosphatase activities. sEH converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), and the phosphatase activity is suggested to be involved in cholesterol metabolism. EETs participate in a wide range of biological functions, including regulation of vascular tone, renal tubular transport, cardiac contractility, and inflammation. Inhibition of sEH is a potential approach for enhancing the biological activity of EETs. Therefore, disruption of sEH activity is becoming an attractive therapeutic target for both cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. To define the physiological role of sEH, we characterized a knockout mouse colony lacking expression of the Ephx2 gene. Lack of sEH enzyme is characterized by elevation of EET to DHET ratios in both the linoleate and arachidonate series in plasma and tissues of both female and male mice. In male mice, this lack of expression was also associated with decreased plasma testosterone levels, sperm count, and testicular size. However, this genotype was still able to sire litters. Plasma cholesterol levels also declined in this genotype. Behavior tests such as anxiety-like behavior and hedonic response were also examined in Ephx2-null and WT mice, as all can be related to hormonal changes. Null mice showed a level of anxiety with a decreased hedonic response. In conclusion, this study provides a broad biochemical, physiological, and behavioral characterization of the Ephx2-null mouse colony and suggests a mechanism by which sEH and its substrates may regulate circulating levels of testosterone through cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism. PMID:19458064

  16. Lethal Skeletal Dysplasia in Mice and Humans Lacking the Golgin GMAP-210

    PubMed Central

    Smits, Patrick; Bolton, Andrew D.; Funari, Vincent; Hong, Minh; Boyden, Eric D.; Lu, Lei; Manning, Danielle K.; Dwyer, Noelle D.; Moran, Jennifer L.; Prysak, Mary; Merriman, Barry; Nelson, Stanley F.; Bonafé, Luisa; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Ikegawa, Shiro; Krakow, Deborah; Cohn, Daniel H.; Kirchhausen, Tom; Warman, Matthew L.; Beier, David R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Establishing the genetic basis of phenotypes such as skeletal dysplasia in model organisms can provide insights into biologic processes and their role in human disease. METHODS We screened mutagenized mice and observed a neonatal lethal skeletal dysplasia with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. Through genetic mapping and positional cloning, we identified the causative mutation. RESULTS Affected mice had a nonsense mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor interactor 11 gene (Trip11), which encodes the Golgi microtubule-associated protein 210 (GMAP-210); the affected mice lacked this protein. Golgi architecture was disturbed in multiple tissues, including cartilage. Skeletal development was severely impaired, with chondrocytes showing swelling and stress in the endoplasmic reticulum, abnormal cellular differentiation, and increased cell death. Golgi-mediated glycosylation events were altered in fibroblasts and chondrocytes lacking GMAP-210, and these chondrocytes had intracellular accumulation of perlecan, an extracellular matrix protein, but not of type II collagen or aggrecan, two other extracellular matrix proteins. The similarities between the skeletal and cellular phenotypes in these mice and those in patients with achondrogenesis type 1A, a neonatal lethal form of skeletal dysplasia in humans, suggested that achondrogenesis type 1A may be caused by GMAP-210 deficiency. Sequence analysis revealed loss-of-function mutations in the 10 unrelated patients with achondrogenesis type 1A whom we studied. CONCLUSIONS GMAP-210 is required for the efficient glycosylation and cellular transport of multiple proteins. The identification of a mutation affecting GMAP-210 in mice, and then in humans, as the cause of a lethal skeletal dysplasia underscores the value of screening for abnormal phenotypes in model organisms and identifying the causative mutations. PMID:20089971

  17. Sensitive and critical periods in the development of handling induced seizures in mice lacking synapsins: differences between synapsin I and synapsin II knockouts.

    PubMed

    Etholm, Lars; Bahonjic, Elma; Heggelund, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Mice lacking either synapsin I or synapsin II develop handling induced seizures from around two months of age. In mice lacking synapsin I (synapsin 1 knock-out mice, Syn1KO mice) such seizures can either consist of mild myoclonic jerks or of fully developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and the two seizure types are quite evenly distributed. In mice lacking synapsin II (synapsin 2 knock-out mice, Syn2KO mice) all seizures are in the form of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Through the use of specialized animal rearing procedures whereby human-animal interaction was minimized (minimal handling procedures), this study investigated effects of handling also prior to the emergence of actual seizures. The effect of minimal handling procedures was significant in both genotypes, but most pronounced in Syn1KO mice. In this genotype, minimal handling reduced the frequency of mild seizures, and completely eliminated generalized tonic-clonic seizures when the animals were tested with regular handling at 4 1/2 months of age. Neither seizure frequency nor generalized tonic-clonic seizures could be re-established through regular handling from 4 1/2 to 8 months. This suggests that the period up to 4 1/2 months constitute a sensitive period for seizures in general, and a critical period for generalized tonic-clonic seizures in this genotype. In Syn2KO mice minimal handling did not remove generalized tonic-clonic seizures, as such seizures were present when handling was introduced at 4 1/2 months. We found an initial reduction of seizure frequency, but the seizure frequency eventually reached levels seen in mice kept under regular handling regimes. Thus, it is unlikely that the period up to 4 1/2 months is a sensitive period in the Syn2KO genotype.

  18. Sensitive and critical periods in the development of handling induced seizures in mice lacking synapsins: differences between synapsin I and synapsin II knockouts.

    PubMed

    Etholm, Lars; Bahonjic, Elma; Heggelund, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Mice lacking either synapsin I or synapsin II develop handling induced seizures from around two months of age. In mice lacking synapsin I (synapsin 1 knock-out mice, Syn1KO mice) such seizures can either consist of mild myoclonic jerks or of fully developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and the two seizure types are quite evenly distributed. In mice lacking synapsin II (synapsin 2 knock-out mice, Syn2KO mice) all seizures are in the form of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Through the use of specialized animal rearing procedures whereby human-animal interaction was minimized (minimal handling procedures), this study investigated effects of handling also prior to the emergence of actual seizures. The effect of minimal handling procedures was significant in both genotypes, but most pronounced in Syn1KO mice. In this genotype, minimal handling reduced the frequency of mild seizures, and completely eliminated generalized tonic-clonic seizures when the animals were tested with regular handling at 4 1/2 months of age. Neither seizure frequency nor generalized tonic-clonic seizures could be re-established through regular handling from 4 1/2 to 8 months. This suggests that the period up to 4 1/2 months constitute a sensitive period for seizures in general, and a critical period for generalized tonic-clonic seizures in this genotype. In Syn2KO mice minimal handling did not remove generalized tonic-clonic seizures, as such seizures were present when handling was introduced at 4 1/2 months. We found an initial reduction of seizure frequency, but the seizure frequency eventually reached levels seen in mice kept under regular handling regimes. Thus, it is unlikely that the period up to 4 1/2 months is a sensitive period in the Syn2KO genotype. PMID:23570901

  19. Nicotine anxiogenic and rewarding effects are decreased in mice lacking beta-endorphin.

    PubMed

    Trigo, José M; Zimmer, Andreas; Maldonado, Rafael

    2009-06-01

    The endogenous opioid system plays an important role in the behavioral effects of nicotine. Thus, micro-opioid receptor and the endogenous opioids derived from proenkephalin are involved in the central effects of nicotine. However, the role played by the different endogenous opioid peptides in the acute and chronic effects of nicotine remains to be fully established. Mice lacking beta-endorphin were acutely injected with nicotine at different doses to evaluate locomotor, anxiogenic and antinociceptive responses. The rewarding properties of nicotine were evaluated by using the conditioned place-preference paradigm. Mice chronically treated with nicotine were acutely injected with mecamylamine to study the behavioral expression of nicotine withdrawal. Mice lacking beta-endorphin exhibited a spontaneous hypoalgesia and hyperlocomotion and a reduction on the anxiogenic and rewarding effects induced by nicotine. Nicotine induced similar antinociception and hypolocomotion in both genotypes and no differences were found in the development of physical dependence. The dissociation between nicotine rewarding properties and physical dependence suggests a differential implication of beta-endorphin in these addictive related responses.

  20. Nicotine anxiogenic and rewarding effects are decreased in mice lacking β-endorphin

    PubMed Central

    Trigo, José M.; Zimmer, Andreas; Maldonado, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system plays an important role in the behavioral effects of nicotine. Thus, μ-opioid receptor and the endogenous opioids derived from proenkephalin are involved in the central effects of nicotine. However, the role played by the different endogenous opioid peptides in the acute and chronic effects of nicotine remains to be fully established. Mice lacking β-endorphin were acutely injected with nicotine at different doses to evaluate locomotor, anxiogenic and antinociceptive responses. The rewarding properties of nicotine were evaluated by using the conditioned place-preference paradigm. Mice chronically treated with nicotine were acutely injected with mecamylamine to study the behavioral expression of nicotine withdrawal. Mice lacking β-endorphin exhibited a spontaneous hypoalgesia and hyperlocomotion and a reduction on the anxiogenic and rewarding effects induced by nicotine. Nicotine induced similar antinociception and hypolocomotion in both genotypes and no differences were found in the development of physical dependence. The dissociation between nicotine rewarding properties and physical dependence suggests a differential implication of β-endorphin in these addictive related responses. PMID:19376143

  1. Entrainment and phase-shifting by centrifugation abolished in mice lacking functional vestibular input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, Charles; Ringgold, Kristyn

    The circadian pacemaker can be phase shifted and entrained by appropriately timed locomotor activity, however the mechanism(s) involved remain poorly understood. Recent work in our lab has suggested the involvement of the vestibular otolith organs in activity-induced changes within the circadian timing system (CTS). For example, we have shown that changes in circa-dian period and phase in response to locomotion (wheel running) require functional macular gravity receptors. We believe the neurovestibular system is responsible for the transduction of gravitoinertial input associated with the types of locomotor activity that are known to af-fect the pacemaker. This study investigated the hypothesis that daily, timed gravitoinertial stimuli, as applied by centrifugation. would induce entrainment of circadian rhythms in only those animals with functional afferent vestibular input. To test this hypothesis, , chemically labyrinthectomized (Labx) mice, mice lacking macular vestibular input (head tilt or hets) and wildtype (WT) littermates were implanted i.p. with biotelemetry and individually housed in a 4-meter diameter centrifuge in constant darkness (DD). After 2 weeks in DD, the mice were exposed daily to 2G via centrifugation from 1000-1200 for 9 weeks. Only WT mice showed entrainment to the daily 2G pulse. The 2G pulse was then re-set to occur at 1200-1400 for 4 weeks. Only WT mice demonstrated a phase shift in response to the re-setting of the 2G pulse and subsequent re-entrainment to the new centrifugation schedule. These results provide further evidence that gravitoinertial stimuli require a functional vestibular system to both en-train and phase shift the CTS. Entrainment among only WT mice supports the role of macular gravity receptive cells in modulation of the CTS while also providing a functional mechanism by which gravitoinertial stimuli, including locomotor activity, may affect the pacemaker.

  2. A behavioral defect of temporal association memory in mice that partly lack dopamine reuptake transporter

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Shining; Zhang, Lingli; Zhu, Tailin; Liu, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Hailong; Shen, Yiping; Li, Wei-Guang; Li, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Temporal association memory, like working memory, is a type of episodic memory in which temporally discontinuous elements are associated. However, the mechanisms that govern this association remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify a crucial role of dopaminergic action in temporal association memory. We used hemizygote hyperdopaminergic mutant mice with reduced dopamine transporter (DAT) expression, referred to as DAT+/− mice. We found that mice with this modest dopamine imbalance exhibited significantly impaired trace fear conditioning, which necessitates the association of temporally discontinuous elements, and intact delay auditory fear conditioning, which does not. Moreover, the DAT+/− mice displayed substantial impairments in non-matching-to-place spatial working-memory tasks. Interestingly, these temporal association and working memory deficits could be mimicked by a low dose of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol. The shared phenotypes resulting from either the genetic reduction of DAT or the pharmacological inhibition of the D2 receptor collectively indicate that temporal association memory necessitates precise regulation of dopaminergic signaling. The particular defect in temporal association memory due to partial lack of DAT provides mechanistic insights on the understanding of cognitive impairments in multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26658842

  3. A behavioral defect of temporal association memory in mice that partly lack dopamine reuptake transporter.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shining; Zhang, Lingli; Zhu, Tailin; Liu, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Hailong; Shen, Yiping; Li, Wei-Guang; Li, Fei

    2015-12-10

    Temporal association memory, like working memory, is a type of episodic memory in which temporally discontinuous elements are associated. However, the mechanisms that govern this association remain incompletely understood. Here, we identify a crucial role of dopaminergic action in temporal association memory. We used hemizygote hyperdopaminergic mutant mice with reduced dopamine transporter (DAT) expression, referred to as DAT(+/-) mice. We found that mice with this modest dopamine imbalance exhibited significantly impaired trace fear conditioning, which necessitates the association of temporally discontinuous elements, and intact delay auditory fear conditioning, which does not. Moreover, the DAT(+/-) mice displayed substantial impairments in non-matching-to-place spatial working-memory tasks. Interestingly, these temporal association and working memory deficits could be mimicked by a low dose of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol. The shared phenotypes resulting from either the genetic reduction of DAT or the pharmacological inhibition of the D2 receptor collectively indicate that temporal association memory necessitates precise regulation of dopaminergic signaling. The particular defect in temporal association memory due to partial lack of DAT provides mechanistic insights on the understanding of cognitive impairments in multiple neurodevelopmental disorders.

  4. Cocaine supersensitivity and enhanced motivation for reward in mice lacking dopamine D2 autoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Estefanía P; Mateo, Yolanda; Gelman, Diego M; Noaín, Daniela; Shin, Jung H; Low, Malcolm J; Alvarez, Verónica A; Lovinger, David M; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) D2 receptors expressed in DA neurons (D2 autoreceptors) exert a negative feedback regulation that reduces DA neuron firing, DA synthesis and DA release. As D2 receptors are mostly expressed in postsynaptic neurons, pharmacological and genetic approaches have been unable to definitively address the in vivo contribution of D2 autoreceptors to DA-mediated behaviors. We found that midbrain DA neurons from mice deficient in D2 autoreceptors (Drd2loxP/loxP; Dat+/IRES-cre, referred to as autoDrd2KO mice) lacked DA-mediated somatodendritic synaptic responses and inhibition of DA release. AutoDrd2KO mice displayed elevated DA synthesis and release, hyperlocomotion and supersensitivity to the psychomotor effects of cocaine. The mice also exhibited increased place preference for cocaine and enhanced motivation for food reward. Our results highlight the importance of D2 autoreceptors in the regulation of DA neurotransmission and demonstrate that D2 autoreceptors are important for normal motor function, food-seeking behavior, and sensitivity to the locomotor and rewarding properties of cocaine. PMID:21743470

  5. Impaired hair growth and wound healing in mice lacking thyroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Contreras-Jurado, Constanza; García-Serrano, Laura; Martínez-Fernández, Mónica; Ruiz-Llorente, Lidia; Paramio, Jesus M; Aranda, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Both clinical and experimental observations show that the skin is affected by the thyroidal status. In hypothyroid patients the epidermis is thin and alopecia is common, indicating that thyroidal status might influence not only skin proliferation but also hair growth. We demonstrate here that the thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) mediate these effects of the thyroid hormones on the skin. Mice lacking TRα1 and TRβ (the main thyroid hormone binding isoforms) display impaired hair cycling associated to a decrease in follicular hair cell proliferation. This was also observed in hypothyroid mice, indicating the important role of the hormone-bound receptors in hair growth. In contrast, the individual deletion of either TRα1 or TRβ did not impair hair cycling, revealing an overlapping or compensatory role of the receptors in follicular cell proliferation. In support of the role of the receptors in hair growth, TRα1/TRβ-deficient mice developed alopecia after serial depilation. These mice also presented a wound-healing defect, with retarded re-epithelialization and wound gaping, associated to impaired keratinocyte proliferation. These results reinforce the idea that the thyroid hormone nuclear receptors play an important role on skin homeostasis and suggest that they could be targets for the treatment of cutaneous pathologies.

  6. High susceptibility to ultraviolet-induced carcinogenesis in mice lacking XPC.

    PubMed

    Sands, A T; Abuin, A; Sanchez, A; Conti, C J; Bradley, A

    1995-09-14

    Compromise of genetic information by mutation may result in the dysregulation of cellular growth control and subsequent tumour formation. Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal disease characterized by hypersensitivity of the skin to sunlight and > 1,000-fold increased risk of skin cancers in sun-exposed parts of the body. Cell fusion studies have revealed eight complementation groups in XP (A-G, and an XP-variant form); group C is one of the most common forms of the disease. We have isolated a mouse homologue of the human gene for XP group C and generated XPC-deficient mice by using embryonic stem cell technology. Mice homozygous for the XPC mutant allele (xpcm1/xpcm1) are viable and do not exhibit an increased susceptibility to spontaneous tumour generation at one year of age. However, xpcm1/xpcm1 mice were found to be highly susceptible to ultraviolet-induced carcinogenesis compared with mice heterozygous for the mutant allele (xpcm1/+) and wild-type controls. Homozygous xpcm1 mutant mice also display a spectrum of ultraviolet-exposure-related pathological skin and eye changes consistent with the human disease xeroderma pigmentosum group C. PMID:7675084

  7. A defect in nurturing in mice lacking the immediate early gene fosB.

    PubMed

    Brown, J R; Ye, H; Bronson, R T; Dikkes, P; Greenberg, M E

    1996-07-26

    Although expression of the Fos family of transcription factors is induced by environmental stimuli that trigger adaptive neuronal response, evidence that Fos family members mediate these responses is lacking. To address this issue, mice were generated with an inactivating mutation in the fosB gene. fosB mutant mice are profoundly deficient in their ability to nurture young animals but are normal with respect to other cognitive and sensory functions. The nurturing defect is likely due to the absence of FosB in the preoptic area, a region of the hypothalamus that is critical for nurturing. These observations suggest that a transcription factor controls a complex behavior by regulating a specific neuronal circuit and indicate that nurturing in mammals has a genetic component.

  8. Taste responses in mice lacking taste receptor subunit T1R1

    PubMed Central

    Kusuhara, Yoko; Yoshida, Ryusuke; Ohkuri, Tadahiro; Yasumatsu, Keiko; Voigt, Anja; Hübner, Sandra; Maeda, Katsumasa; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Ninomiya, Yuzo

    2013-01-01

    The T1R1 receptor subunit acts as an umami taste receptor in combination with its partner, T1R3. In addition, metabotropic glutamate receptors (brain and taste variants of mGluR1 and mGluR4) are thought to function as umami taste receptors. To elucidate the function of T1R1 and the contribution of mGluRs to umami taste detection in vivo, we used newly developed knock-out (T1R1−/−) mice, which lack the entire coding region of the Tas1r1 gene and express mCherry in T1R1-expressing cells. Gustatory nerve recordings demonstrated that T1R1−/− mice exhibited a serious deficit in inosine monophosphate-elicited synergy but substantial residual responses to glutamate alone in both chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves. Interestingly, chorda tympani nerve responses to sweeteners were smaller in T1R1−/− mice. Taste cell recordings demonstrated that many mCherry-expressing taste cells in T1R1+/− mice responded to sweet and umami compounds, whereas those in T1R1−/− mice responded to sweet stimuli. The proportion of sweet-responsive cells was smaller in T1R1−/− than in T1R1+/− mice. Single-cell RT-PCR demonstrated that some single mCherry-expressing cells expressed all three T1R subunits. Chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerve responses to glutamate were significantly inhibited by addition of mGluR antagonists in both T1R1−/− and T1R1+/− mice. Conditioned taste aversion tests demonstrated that both T1R1−/− and T1R1+/− mice were equally capable of discriminating glutamate from other basic taste stimuli. Avoidance conditioned to glutamate was significantly reduced by addition of mGluR antagonists. These results suggest that T1R1-expressing cells mainly contribute to umami taste synergism and partly to sweet sensitivity and that mGluRs are involved in the detection of umami compounds. PMID:23339178

  9. Gastrointestinal Mucins of Fut2-Null Mice Lack Terminal Fucosylation without Affecting Colonization by Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Hurd, Elizabeth A.; Holmén, Jessica M.; Hansson, Gunnar C.; Domino, Steven E.

    2006-01-01

    Post-translational modification of apomucins by the sequential action of glycosyltransferases is required to produce mature mucins. The “Secretor” gene (FUT2) encodes an α(1,2)fucosyltransferase (E.C. 2.4.1.69) that catalyzes addition of terminal α(1,2)fucose residues on mucins and other molecules in mucosal epithelium. Mutant mice containing targeted replacement of Fut2 with the bacterial reporter gene lacZ were studied to determine the affect of the loss of Fut2 on glycosylation of mucins in the gastrointestinal tract. By whole organ X-gal staining, lacZ activity is prominently expressed in the foveolar pit and chief cells of the glandular stomach, Brunner's glands of the duodenum, and goblet cells in the large intestine of Fut2-LacZ null mice. Staining with Aleuria aurantia agglutinin demonstrates loss of l-fucosylated epithelial glycans throughout the gastrointestinal tract of Fut2-LacZ null mice, however, histologic appearance of the tissues appears normal. Analysis of oligosaccharides released from insoluble colonic mucins, largely Muc2, by mass spectrometry shows complete lack of terminal fucosylation of O-linked oligosaccharides in Fut2-LacZ null mice. Precursor glycans accumulate with no evidence of compensation by other fucosyltransferases or sialyltransferases on mucin glycosylation. Since Candida albicans has been reported to adhere to intestinal mucins creating a potential reservoir associated with vaginitis, Fut2-LacZ null and wild type mice were inoculated by gastric lavage with C. albicans. We observe no difference in colonization between genotypes suggesting mucin terminal fucosylation does not significantly influence C. albicans-host interaction in the intestine, highlighting that infections caused by the same organism at different mucosal surfaces are not equal. PMID:15958416

  10. Improved repair of dermal wounds in mice lacking microRNA-155

    PubMed Central

    van Solingen, Coen; Araldi, Elisa; Chamorro-Jorganes, Aranzazu; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos; Suárez, Yajaira

    2014-01-01

    Wound healing is a well-regulated but complex process that involves haemostasis, inflammation, proliferation and maturation. Recent reports suggest that microRNAs (miRs) play important roles in dermal wound healing. In fact, miR deregulation has been linked with impaired wound repair. miR-155 has been shown to be induced by inflammatory mediators and plays a central regulatory role in immune responses. We have investigated the potential role of miR-155 in wound healing. By creating punch wounds in the skin of mice, we found an increased expression of miR-155 in wound tissue when compared with healthy skin. Interestingly, analysis of wounds of mice lacking the expression of miR-155 (miR-155−/−) revealed an increased wound closure when compared with wild-type animals. Also, the accelerated wound closing correlated with elevated numbers of macrophages in wounded tissue. Gene expression analysis of wounds tissue and macrophages isolated from miR-155−/− mice that were treated with interleukin-4 demonstrated an increased expression of miR-155 targets (BCL6, RhoA and SHIP1) as well as, the finding in inflammatory zone-1 (FIZZ1) gene, when compared with WT mice. Moreover, the up-regulated levels of FIZZ1 in the wound tissue of miR-155−/− mice correlated with an increased deposition of type-1 collagens, a phenomenon known to be beneficial in wound closure. Our data indicate that the absence of miR-155 has beneficial effects in the wound healing process. PMID:24636235

  11. Social Behavioral Deficits Coincide with the Onset of Seizure Susceptibility in Mice Lacking Serotonin Receptor 2c.

    PubMed

    Séjourné, Julien; Llaneza, Danielle; Kuti, Orsolya J; Page, Damon T

    2015-01-01

    The development of social behavior is strongly influenced by the serotonin system. Serotonin 2c receptor (5-HT2cR) is particularly interesting in this context considering that pharmacological modulation of 5-HT2cR activity alters social interaction in adult rodents. However, the role of 5-HT2cR in the development of social behavior is unexplored. Here we address this using Htr2c knockout mice, which lack 5-HT2cR. We found that these animals exhibit social behavior deficits as adults but not as juveniles. Moreover, we found that the age of onset of these deficits displays similar timing as the onset of susceptibility to spontaneous death and audiogenic-seizures, consistent with the hypothesis that imbalanced excitation and inhibition (E/I) may contribute to social behavioral deficits. Given that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) features social behavioral deficits and is often co-morbid with epilepsy, and given that 5-HT2cR physically interacts with Pten, we tested whether a second site mutation in the ASD risk gene Pten can modify these phenotypes. The age of spontaneous death is accelerated in mice double mutant for Pten and Htr2c relative to single mutants. We hypothesized that pharmacological antagonism of 5-HT2cR activity in adult animals, which does not cause seizures, might modify social behavioral deficits in Pten haploinsufficient mice. SB 242084, a 5-HT2cR selective antagonist, can reverse the social behavior deficits observed in Pten haploinsufficient mice. Together, these results elucidate a role of 5-HT2cR in the modulation of social behavior and seizure susceptibility in the context of normal development and Pten haploinsufficiency. PMID:26308619

  12. Proteinuria and perinatal lethality in mice lacking NEPH1, a novel protein with homology to NEPHRIN.

    PubMed

    Donoviel, D B; Freed, D D; Vogel, H; Potter, D G; Hawkins, E; Barrish, J P; Mathur, B N; Turner, C A; Geske, R; Montgomery, C A; Starbuck, M; Brandt, M; Gupta, A; Ramirez-Solis, R; Zambrowicz, B P; Powell, D R

    2001-07-01

    A high-throughput, retrovirus-mediated mutagenesis method based on gene trapping in embryonic stem cells was used to identify a novel mouse gene. The human ortholog encodes a transmembrane protein containing five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains that is structurally related to human NEPHRIN, a protein associated with congenital nephrotic syndrome. Northern analysis revealed wide expression in humans and mice, with highest expression in kidney. Based on similarity to NEPHRIN and abundant expression in kidney, this protein was designated NEPH1 and embryonic stem cells containing the retroviral insertion in the Neph1 locus were used to generate mutant mice. Analysis of kidney RNA from Neph1(-/-) mice showed that the retroviral insertion disrupted expression of Neph1 transcripts. Neph1(-/-) pups were represented at the expected normal Mendelian ratios at 1 to 3 days of age but at only 10% of the expected frequency at 10 to 12 days after birth, suggesting an early postnatal lethality. The Neph1(-/-) animals that survived beyond the first week of life were sickly and small but without edema, and all died between 3 and 8 weeks of age. Proteinuria ranging from 300 to 2,000 mg/dl was present in all Neph1(-/-) mice. Electron microscopy demonstrated NEPH1 expression in glomerular podocytes and revealed effacement of podocyte foot processes in Neph1(-/-) mice. These findings suggest that NEPH1, like NEPHRIN, may play an important role in maintaining the structure of the filtration barrier that prevents proteins from freely entering the glomerular urinary space. PMID:11416156

  13. Proteinuria and Perinatal Lethality in Mice Lacking NEPH1, a Novel Protein with Homology to NEPHRIN

    PubMed Central

    Donoviel, Dorit B.; Freed, Deon D.; Vogel, Hannes; Potter, David G.; Hawkins, Edith; Barrish, James P.; Mathur, Brian N.; Turner, C. Alexander; Geske, Robert; Montgomery, Charles A.; Starbuck, Michael; Brandt, Mary; Gupta, Anupma; Ramirez-Solis, Ramiro; Zambrowicz, Brian P.; Powell, David R.

    2001-01-01

    A high-throughput, retrovirus-mediated mutagenesis method based on gene trapping in embryonic stem cells was used to identify a novel mouse gene. The human ortholog encodes a transmembrane protein containing five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains that is structurally related to human NEPHRIN, a protein associated with congenital nephrotic syndrome. Northern analysis revealed wide expression in humans and mice, with highest expression in kidney. Based on similarity to NEPHRIN and abundant expression in kidney, this protein was designated NEPH1 and embryonic stem cells containing the retroviral insertion in the Neph1 locus were used to generate mutant mice. Analysis of kidney RNA from Neph1−/− mice showed that the retroviral insertion disrupted expression of Neph1 transcripts. Neph1−/− pups were represented at the expected normal Mendelian ratios at 1 to 3 days of age but at only 10% of the expected frequency at 10 to 12 days after birth, suggesting an early postnatal lethality. The Neph1−/− animals that survived beyond the first week of life were sickly and small but without edema, and all died between 3 and 8 weeks of age. Proteinuria ranging from 300 to 2,000 mg/dl was present in all Neph1−/− mice. Electron microscopy demonstrated NEPH1 expression in glomerular podocytes and revealed effacement of podocyte foot processes in Neph1−/− mice. These findings suggest that NEPH1, like NEPHRIN, may play an important role in maintaining the structure of the filtration barrier that prevents proteins from freely entering the glomerular urinary space. PMID:11416156

  14. Protective role of p53 in skin cancer: Carcinogenesis studies in mice lacking epidermal p53.

    PubMed

    Page, Angustias; Navarro, Manuel; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P; Casanova, M Llanos; Paramio, Jesús M; Bravo, Ana; Ramirez, Angel

    2016-04-12

    p53 is a protein that causes cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence, being crucial in the process of tumor suppression in several cell types. Different in vitro and animal models have been designed for the study of p53 role in skin cancer. These models have revealed opposing results, as in some experimental settings it appears that p53 protects against skin cancer, but in others, the opposite conclusion emerges. We have generated cohorts of mice with efficient p53 deletion restricted to stratified epithelia and control littermates expressing wild type p53 and studied their sensitivity to both chemically-induced and spontaneous tumoral transformation, as well as the tumor types originated in each experimental group. Our results indicate that the absence of p53 in stratified epithelia leads to the appearance, in two-stage skin carcinogenesis experiments, of a higher number of tumors that grow faster and become malignant more frequently than tumors arisen in mice with wild type p53 genotype. In addition, the histological diversity of the tumor type is greater in mice with epidermal p53 loss, indicating the tumor suppressive role of p53 in different epidermal cell types. Aging mice with p53 inactivation in stratified epithelia developed spontaneous carcinomas in skin and other epithelia. Overall, these results highlight the truly protective nature of p53 functions in the development of cancer in skin and in other stratified epithelia. PMID:26959115

  15. Protective role of p53 in skin cancer: Carcinogenesis studies in mice lacking epidermal p53

    PubMed Central

    Page, Angustias; Navarro, Manuel; Suarez-Cabrera, Cristian; Alameda, Josefa P.; Casanova, M. Llanos; Paramio, Jesús M.; Bravo, Ana; Ramirez, Angel

    2016-01-01

    p53 is a protein that causes cell cycle arrest, apoptosis or senescence, being crucial in the process of tumor suppression in several cell types. Different in vitro and animal models have been designed for the study of p53 role in skin cancer. These models have revealed opposing results, as in some experimental settings it appears that p53 protects against skin cancer, but in others, the opposite conclusion emerges. We have generated cohorts of mice with efficient p53 deletion restricted to stratified epithelia and control littermates expressing wild type p53 and studied their sensitivity to both chemically-induced and spontaneous tumoral transformation, as well as the tumor types originated in each experimental group. Our results indicate that the absence of p53 in stratified epithelia leads to the appearance, in two-stage skin carcinogenesis experiments, of a higher number of tumors that grow faster and become malignant more frequently than tumors arisen in mice with wild type p53 genotype. In addition, the histological diversity of the tumor type is greater in mice with epidermal p53 loss, indicating the tumor suppressive role of p53 in different epidermal cell types. Aging mice with p53 inactivation in stratified epithelia developed spontaneous carcinomas in skin and other epithelia. Overall, these results highlight the truly protective nature of p53 functions in the development of cancer in skin and in other stratified epithelia. PMID:26959115

  16. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is also a retinyl ester hydrolase: evidence from mice lacking HSL.

    PubMed

    Ström, Kristoffer; Gundersen, Thomas E; Hansson, Ola; Lucas, Stéphanie; Fernandez, Céline; Blomhoff, Rune; Holm, Cecilia

    2009-07-01

    Here, we investigated the importance of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) as a retinyl ester hydrolase (REH). REH activity was measured in vitro using recombinant HSL and retinyl palmitate. The expression of retinoic acid (RA)-regulated genes and retinoid metabolites were measured in high-fat diet fed HSL-null mice using real-time quantitative PCR and triple-stage liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Age- and gender-matched wild-type littermates were used as controls. The REH activity of rat HSL was found to be higher than that against the hitherto best known HSL substrate, i.e., diacylglycerols. REH activity in white adipose tissue (WAT) of HSL-null mice was completely blunted and accompanied by increased levels of retinyl esters and decreased levels of retinol, retinaldehyde and all-trans RA. Accordingly, genes known to be positively regulated by RA were down-regulated in HSL-null mice, including pRb and RIP140, key factors promoting differentiation into the white over the brown adipocyte lineage. Dietary RA supplementation partly restored WAT mass and the expression of RA-regulated genes in WAT of HSL-null mice. These findings demonstrate the importance of HSL as an REH of adipose tissue and suggest that HSL via this action provides RA and other retinoids for signaling events that are crucial for adipocyte differentiation and lineage commitment.

  17. Dopamine pathway imbalance in mice lacking Magel2, a Prader-Willi syndrome candidate gene.

    PubMed

    Luck, Chloe; Vitaterna, Martha H; Wevrick, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    The etiology of abnormal eating behaviors, including binge-eating disorder, is poorly understood. The neural circuits modulating the activities of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin are proposed to be dysfunctional in individuals suffering from eating disorders. Prader-Willi syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that causes extreme food seeking and binge-eating behaviors together with reduced satiety. One of the genes implicated in Prader-Willi syndrome, Magel2, is highly expressed in the regions of the brain that control appetite. Our objective was to examine behaviors relevant to feeding and the neural circuits controlling feeding in a mouse model of Prader-Willi syndrome that lacks expression of the Magel2 gene. We performed behavioral tests related to dopaminergic function, measuring cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion, binge eating, and saccharin-induced anhedonia in Magel2-deficient mice. Next, we analyzed dopaminergic neurons in various brain regions and compared these findings between genotypes. Finally, we examined biochemical markers in the brain under standard diet, high-fat diet, and withdrawal from a high-fat diet conditions. We identified abnormal behaviors and biomarkers reflecting dopaminergic dysfunction in mice lacking Magel2. Our results provide a biological framework for clinical studies of dopaminergic function in children with Prader-Willi syndrome, and may also provide insight into binge-eating disorders that occur in the general population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27254754

  18. Golgi Disruption and Early Embryonic Lethality in Mice Lacking USO1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Susie; Hill, Adele; Warman, Matthew L.; Smits, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Golgins are a family of long rod-like proteins characterized by the presence of central coiled-coil domains. Members of the golgin family have important roles in membrane trafficking, where they function as tethering factors that capture transport vesicles and facilitate membrane fusion. Golgin family members also have essential roles in maintaining the organization of the Golgi apparatus. Knockdown of individual golgins in cultured cells resulted in the disruption of the Golgi structure and the dispersal of Golgi marker proteins throughout the cytoplasm. However, these cellular phenotypes have not always been recapitulated in vivo. For example, embryonic development proceeds much further than expected and Golgi disruption was observed in only a subset of cell types in mice lacking the ubiquitously expressed golgin GMAP-210. Cell-type specific functional compensation among golgins may explain the absence of global cell lethality when a ubiquitously expressed golgin is missing. In this study we show that functional compensation does not occur for the golgin USO1. Mice lacking this ubiquitously expressed protein exhibit disruption of Golgi structure and early embryonic lethality, indicating that USO1 is indispensable for early embryonic development. PMID:23185636

  19. Insufficient glucose supply is linked to hypothermia upon cold exposure in high-fat diet-fed mice lacking PEMT.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xia; van der Veen, Jelske N; Fernandez-Patron, Carlos; Vance, Jean E; Vance, Dennis E; Jacobs, René L

    2015-09-01

    Mice that lack phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (Pemt(-/-) mice) are protected from high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity. HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice show higher oxygen consumption and heat production, indicating that more energy might be utilized for thermogenesis and might account for the resistance to diet-induced weight gain. To test this hypothesis, HF-fed Pemt(-/-) and Pemt(+/+) mice were challenged with acute cold exposure at 4°C. Unexpectedly, HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice developed hypothermia within 3 h of cold exposure. In contrast, chow-fed Pemt(-/-) mice, possessing similar body mass, maintained body temperature. Lack of PEMT did not impair the capacity for thermogenesis in skeletal muscle or brown adipose tissue. Plasma catecholamines were not altered by Pemt genotype, and stimulation of lipolysis was intact in brown and white adipose tissue of Pemt(-/-) mice. HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice also developed higher systolic blood pressure, accompanied by reduced cardiac output. Choline supplementation reversed the cold-induced hypothermia in HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice with no effect on blood pressure. Plasma glucose levels were ∼50% lower in HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice compared with Pemt(+/+) mice. Choline supplementation normalized plasma hypoglycemia and the expression of proteins involved in gluconeogenesis. We propose that cold-induced hypothermia in HF-fed Pemt(-/-) mice is linked to plasma hypoglycemia due to compromised hepatic glucose production.

  20. Persistence of diet-induced obesity despite access to voluntary activity in mice lacking sarcolipin

    PubMed Central

    Gamu, Daniel; Trinh, Anton; Bombardier, Eric; Tupling, A Russell

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent models of obesity have been shown to develop excessive adiposity only when voluntary cage ambulation is restricted. We have previously shown that mice lacking the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase pump regulatory protein sarcolipin (Sln–/–), an uncoupler of Ca2+ uptake, develop excessive diet-induced obesity under standard housing conditions. However, it is unclear whether this phenotype is due, in part, to the sedentary housing environment in which these animals are kept. To address this, we allowed wild-type and Sln–/– animals ad libitum access to voluntary wheel running while consuming a standard chow or high-fat diet for 8 weeks. During this period, wheel revolutions were monitored along with weekly mass gain. Postdiet glucose tolerance and visceral adiposity were also taken. The volume of wheel running completed was similar between genotype, regardless of diet. Although voluntary activity reduced mass gain relative to sedentary controls within each diet (P < 0.05), visceral adiposity was surprisingly unaltered with activity. However, Sln–/– mice developed excessive obesity (P < 0.05) and glucose intolerance (P < 0.05) with high-fat feeding relative to wild-type controls. These findings indicate that the excessive diet-induced obese phenotype previously observed in Sln–/– mice is not the result of severely restricted daily ambulation, but in fact the inability to recruit uncoupling of the Ca2+-ATPase pump. PMID:26400985

  1. Female mice lacking Xist RNA show partial dosage compensation and survive to term.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Kirby, James E; Sunwoo, Hongjae; Lee, Jeannie T

    2016-08-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) compensates for differences in X-chromosome number between male and female mammals. XCI is orchestrated by Xist RNA, whose expression in early development leads to transcriptional silencing of one X chromosome in the female. Knockout studies have established a requirement for Xist with inviability of female embryos that inherit an Xist deletion from the father. Here, we report that female mice lacking Xist RNA can, surprisingly, develop and survive to term. Xist-null females are born at lower frequency and are smaller at birth, but organogenesis is mostly normal. Transcriptomic analysis indicates significant overexpression of hundreds of X-linked genes across multiple tissues. Therefore, Xist-null mice can develop to term in spite of a deficiency of dosage compensation. However, the degree of X-autosomal dosage imbalance was less than anticipated (1.14-fold to 1.36-fold). Thus, partial dosage compensation can be achieved without Xist, supporting the idea of inherent genome balance. Nevertheless, to date, none of the mutant mice has survived beyond weaning stage. Sudden death is associated with failure of postnatal organ maturation. Our data suggest Xist-independent mechanisms of dosage compensation and demonstrate that small deviations from X-autosomal balance can have profound effects on overall fitness. PMID:27542829

  2. Altered map of visual space in the superior colliculus of mice lacking early retinal waves.

    PubMed

    Mrsic-Flogel, Thomas D; Hofer, Sonja B; Creutzfeldt, Claire; Cloëz-Tayarani, Isabelle; Changeux, Jean-Pierre; Bonhoeffer, Tobias; Hübener, Mark

    2005-07-20

    During the development of the mammalian retinocollicular projection, a coarse retinotopic map is set up by the graded distribution of axon guidance molecules. Subsequent refinement of the initially diffuse projection has been shown to depend on the spatially correlated firing of retinal ganglion cells. In this scheme, the abolition of patterned retinal activity is not expected to influence overall retinotopic organization, but this has not been investigated. We used optical imaging of intrinsic signals to visualize the complete retinotopic map in the superior colliculus (SC) of mice lacking early retinal waves, caused by the deletion of the beta2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. As expected from previous anatomical studies in the SC of beta2(-/-) mice, regions activated by individual visual stimuli were much larger and had less sharp borders than those in wild-type mice. Importantly, however, we also found systematic distortions of the entire retinotopic map: the map of visual space was expanded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly. Thus, patterned neuronal activity in the early retina has a substantial influence on the coarse retinotopic organization of the SC. PMID:16033902

  3. Mice lacking glutamate carboxypeptidase II develop normally, but are less susceptible to traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yang; Xu, Siyi; Cui, Zhenwen; Zhang, Mingkun; Lin, Yingying; Cai, Lei; Wang, Zhugang; Luo, Xingguang; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Yong; Luo, Qizhong; Jiang, Jiyao; Neale, Joseph H; Zhong, Chunlong

    2015-07-01

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is a transmembrane zinc metallopeptidase found mainly in the nervous system, prostate and small intestine. In the nervous system, glia-bound GCPII mediates the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) into glutamate and N-acetylaspartate. Inhibition of GCPII has been shown to attenuate excitotoxicity associated with enhanced glutamate transmission under pathological conditions. However, different strains of mice lacking the GCPII gene are reported to exhibit striking phenotypic differences. In this study, a GCPII gene knockout (KO) strategy involved removing exons 3-5 of GCPII. This generated a new GCPII KO mice line with no overt differences in standard neurological behavior compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. However, GCPII KO mice were significantly less susceptible to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). GCPII gene KO significantly lessened neuronal degeneration and astrocyte damage in the CA2 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus 24 h after moderate TBI. In addition, GCPII gene KO reduced TBI-induced deficits in long-term spatial learning/memory tested in the Morris water maze and motor balance tested via beam walking. Knockout of the GCPII gene is not embryonic lethal and affords histopathological protection with improved long-term behavioral outcomes after TBI, a result that further validates GCPII as a target for drug development consistent with results from studies using GCPII peptidase inhibitors. PMID:25872793

  4. Folate Deficiency Induces Neurodegeneration and Brain Dysfunction in Mice Lacking Uracil DNA Glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberg, Golo; Harms, Christoph; Sobol, Robert W.; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Linhart, Heinz; Winter, Benjamin; Balkaya, Mustafa; Gertz, Karen; Gay, Shanna B.; Cox, David; Eckart, Sarah; Ahmadi, Michael; Juckel, Georg; Kempermann, Gerd; Hellweg, Rainer; Sohr, Reinhard; Hörtnagl, Heide; Wilson, Samuel H.; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Folate deficiency and resultant increased homocysteine levels have been linked experimentally and epidemiologically with neurodegenerative conditions like stroke and dementia. Moreover, folate deficiency has been implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders, most notably depression. We hypothesized that the pathogenic mechanisms include uracil misincorporation and, therefore, analyzed the effects of folate deficiency in mice lacking uracil DNA glycosylase (Ung−/−) versus wild-type controls. Folate depletion increased nuclear mutation rates in Ung−/− embryonic fibroblasts, and conferred death of cultured Ung−/− hippocampal neurons. Feeding animals a folate-deficient diet (FD) for 3 months induced degeneration of CA3 pyramidal neurons in Ung−/− but not Ung+/+ mice along with decreased hippocampal expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein and decreased brain levels of antioxidant glutathione. Furthermore, FD induced cognitive deficits and mood alterations such as anxious and despair-like behaviors that were aggravated in Ung−/− mice. Independent of Ung genotype, FD increased plasma homocysteine levels, altered brain monoamine metabolism, and inhibited adult hippocampal neurogenesis. These results indicate that impaired uracil repair is involved in neurodegeneration and neuropsychiatric dysfunction induced by experimental folate deficiency. PMID:18614692

  5. Mice lacking Gad2 show altered behavioral effects of ethanol, flurazepam and gabaxadol

    PubMed Central

    Blednov, Yuri A.; Walker, Danielle L.; Iyer, Sangeetha V.; Homanics, Gregg; Harris, Adron R.

    2011-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is synthesized in brain by two isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad), Gad1 and Gad2. Gad1 provides most of the GABA in brain, but Gad2 can be rapidly activated in times of high GABA demand. Mice lacking Gad2 are viable whereas deletion of Gad1 is lethal. We produced null mutant mice for Gad2 on three different genetic backgrounds: predominantly C57BL/6J and one or two generations of backcrossing to 129S1/SvimJ (129N1, 129N2).We used these mice to determine if actions of alcohol are regulated by synthesis of GABA from this isoform. We also studied behavioral responses to a benzodiazepine (flurazepam) and a GABAA receptor agonist (gabaxadol). Deletion of Gad2 increased ethanol palatability and intake and slightly reduced the severity of ethanol-induced withdrawal, but these effects depended strongly on genetic background. Mutant mice on the 129N2 background showed the above three ethanol behavioral phenotypes, but the C57BL/6J inbred background did not show any of these phenotypes. Effects on ethanol consumption also depended on the test as the mutation did not alter consumption in limited access models. Deletion of Gad2 reduced the effect of flurazepam on motor incoordination and increased the effect of extrasynaptic GABAA receptor agonist gabaxadol without changing the duration of loss of righting reflex produced by these drugs. These results are consistent with earlier proposals that deletion of Gad2 (on 129N2 background) reduces synaptic GABA but also suggest changes in extrasynaptic receptor function. PMID:20002022

  6. Mice lacking the PACAP type I receptor have impaired photic entrainment and negative masking.

    PubMed

    Hannibal, Jens; Brabet, Philippe; Fahrenkrug, Jan

    2008-12-01

    The retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) is a retinofugal neuronal pathway which, in mammals, mediates nonimage-forming vision to various areas in the brain involved in circadian timing, masking behavior, and regulation of the pupillary light reflex. The RHT costores the two neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide (PACAP), which in a rather complex interplay are mediators of photic adjustment of the circadian system. To further characterize the role of PACAP/PACAP receptor type 1 (PAC1) receptor signaling in light entrainment of the clock and in negative masking behavior, we extended previous studies in mice lacking the PAC1 receptor (PAC1 KO) by examining their phase response to single light pulses using Aschoff type II regime, their ability to entrain to non-24-h light-dark (LD) cycles and large phase shifts of the LD cycle (jet lag), as well as their negative masking response during different light intensities. A prominent finding in PAC1 KO mice was a significantly decreased phase delay of the endogenous rhythm at early night. In accordance, PAC1 KO mice had a reduced ability to entrain to T cycles longer than 26 h and needed more time to reentrain to large phase delays, which was prominent at low light intensities. The data obtained at late night indicated that PACAP/PAC1 receptor signaling is less important during the phase-advancing part of the phase-response curve. Finally, the PAC1 KO mice showed impaired negative masking behavior at low light intensities. Our findings substantiate a role for PACAP/PAC1 receptor signaling in nonimage-forming vision and indicate that the system is particularly important at lower light intensities.

  7. Selective reward deficit in mice lacking beta-endorphin and enkephalin.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Michael D; Pintar, John E; Low, Malcolm J

    2002-09-15

    It has been impossible to unequivocally identify which endogenous opioids modulate the incentive value of rewarding stimuli because these peptides are not highly selective for any single opioid receptor subtype. Here, we present evidence based on the measurement of instrumental behavior of beta-endorphin and enkephalin knock-out mice that both opioid peptides play a positive role. A progressive ratio schedule was used to measure how hard an animal would work for food reinforcers. The loss of either opioid reduced responding under this schedule, regardless of the palatability of the three different formulas of reinforcers used. The phenotype of mice lacking both endogenous opioids was nearly identical to the phenotype of mice mutant for either individual opioid. Responses were tested in nondeprived and deprived feeding states but were reduced in beta-endorphin- and enkephalin-deficient mice only when they were maintained under nondeprived conditions. Other operant manipulations ruled out variables that might contribute nonspecifically to this result such as differences in acquisition, early satiation, motor performance deficit, and reduced resistance to extinction. In contrast to the effects on instrumental performance, the loss of either or both endogenous opioids did not influence preference for water flavored with sucrose or saccharin in a two-bottle free-choice drinking paradigm. We conclude that both beta-endorphin and enkephalin positively contribute to the incentive-motivation to acquire food reinforcers. Because the attenuation of operant responding was observed only during a nondeprived motivational state, the hedonics of feeding are likely altered rather than energy homeostasis.

  8. Severe muscle wasting and denervation in mice lacking the RNA-binding protein ZFP106.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Douglas M; Cannavino, Jessica; Li, Hui; Anderson, Kelly M; Nelson, Benjamin R; McAnally, John; Bezprozvannaya, Svetlana; Liu, Yun; Lin, Weichun; Liu, Ning; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2016-08-01

    Innervation of skeletal muscle by motor neurons occurs through the neuromuscular junction, a cholinergic synapse essential for normal muscle growth and function. Defects in nerve-muscle signaling cause a variety of neuromuscular disorders with features of ataxia, paralysis, skeletal muscle wasting, and degeneration. Here we show that the nuclear zinc finger protein ZFP106 is highly enriched in skeletal muscle and is required for postnatal maintenance of myofiber innervation by motor neurons. Genetic disruption of Zfp106 in mice results in progressive ataxia and hindlimb paralysis associated with motor neuron degeneration, severe muscle wasting, and premature death by 6 mo of age. We show that ZFP106 is an RNA-binding protein that associates with the core splicing factor RNA binding motif protein 39 (RBM39) and localizes to nuclear speckles adjacent to spliceosomes. Upon inhibition of pre-mRNA synthesis, ZFP106 translocates with other splicing factors to the nucleolus. Muscle and spinal cord of Zfp106 knockout mice displayed a gene expression signature of neuromuscular degeneration. Strikingly, altered splicing of the Nogo (Rtn4) gene locus in skeletal muscle of Zfp106 knockout mice resulted in ectopic expression of NOGO-A, the neurite outgrowth factor that inhibits nerve regeneration and destabilizes neuromuscular junctions. These findings reveal a central role for Zfp106 in the maintenance of nerve-muscle signaling, and highlight the involvement of aberrant RNA processing in neuromuscular disease pathogenesis. PMID:27418600

  9. A pro-nociceptive phenotype unmasked in mice lacking fatty-acid amide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Lawrence M; Slivicki, Richard A; Leishman, Emma; Cornett, Ben; Mackie, Ken; Bradshaw, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is the major enzyme responsible for degradation of anandamide, an endocannabinoid. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of FAAH (FAAH KO) produces antinociception in preclinical pain models that is largely attributed to anandamide-induced activation of cannabinoid receptors. However, FAAH metabolizes a wide range of structurally related, biologically active lipid signaling molecules whose functions remain largely unknown. Some of these endogenous lipids, including anandamide itself, may exert pro-nociceptive effects under certain conditions. In our study, FAAH KO mice exhibited a characteristic analgesic phenotype in the tail flick test and in both formalin and carrageenan models of inflammatory nociception. Nonetheless, intradermal injection of the transient receptor potential channel V1 (TRPV1) agonist capsaicin increased nocifensive behavior as well as mechanical and heat hypersensitivity in FAAH KO relative to wild-type mice. This pro-nociceptive phenotype was accompanied by increases in capsaicin-evoked Fos-like immunoreactive (FLI) cells in spinal dorsal horn regions implicated in nociceptive processing and was attenuated by CB1 (AM251) and TRPV1 (AMG9810) antagonists. When central sensitization was established, FAAH KO mice displayed elevated levels of anandamide, other fatty-acid amides, and endogenous TRPV1 agonists in both paw skin and lumbar spinal cord relative to wild-type mice. Capsaicin decreased spinal cord 2-AG levels and increased arachidonic acid and prostaglandin E2 levels in both spinal cord and paw skin irrespective of genotype. Our studies identify a previously unrecognized pro-nociceptive phenotype in FAAH KO mice that was unmasked by capsaicin challenge. The heightened nociceptive response was mediated by CB1 and TRPV1 receptors and accompanied by enhanced spinal neuronal activation. Moreover, genetic deletion of FAAH has a profound impact on the peripheral and central lipidome. Thus, genetic

  10. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M; Mahmoud, Amr A A

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  11. Rapid Inflammation in Mice Lacking Both SOCS1 and SOCS3 in Hematopoietic Cells.

    PubMed

    Ushiki, Takashi; Huntington, Nicholas D; Glaser, Stefan P; Kiu, Hiu; Georgiou, Angela; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Metcalf, Donald; Nicola, Nicos A; Roberts, Andrew W; Alexander, Warren S

    2016-01-01

    The Suppressors of Cytokine Signalling (SOCS) proteins are negative regulators of cytokine signalling required to prevent excess cellular responses. SOCS1 and SOCS3 are essential to prevent inflammatory disease, SOCS1 by attenuating responses to IFNγ and gamma-common (γc) cytokines, and SOCS3 via regulation of G-CSF and IL-6 signalling. SOCS1 and SOCS3 show significant sequence homology and are the only SOCS proteins to possess a KIR domain. The possibility of overlapping or redundant functions was investigated in inflammatory disease via generation of mice lacking both SOCS1 and SOCS3 in hematopoietic cells. Loss of SOCS3 significantly accelerated the pathology and inflammatory disease characteristic of SOCS1 deficiency. We propose a model in which SOCS1 and SOCS3 operate independently to control specific cytokine responses and together modulate the proliferation and activation of lymphoid and myeloid cells to prevent rapid inflammatory disease. PMID:27583437

  12. Rapid Inflammation in Mice Lacking Both SOCS1 and SOCS3 in Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ushiki, Takashi; Huntington, Nicholas D.; Glaser, Stefan P.; Kiu, Hiu; Georgiou, Angela; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Nicola, Nicos A.; Roberts, Andrew W.; Alexander, Warren S.

    2016-01-01

    The Suppressors of Cytokine Signalling (SOCS) proteins are negative regulators of cytokine signalling required to prevent excess cellular responses. SOCS1 and SOCS3 are essential to prevent inflammatory disease, SOCS1 by attenuating responses to IFNγ and gamma-common (γc) cytokines, and SOCS3 via regulation of G-CSF and IL-6 signalling. SOCS1 and SOCS3 show significant sequence homology and are the only SOCS proteins to possess a KIR domain. The possibility of overlapping or redundant functions was investigated in inflammatory disease via generation of mice lacking both SOCS1 and SOCS3 in hematopoietic cells. Loss of SOCS3 significantly accelerated the pathology and inflammatory disease characteristic of SOCS1 deficiency. We propose a model in which SOCS1 and SOCS3 operate independently to control specific cytokine responses and together modulate the proliferation and activation of lymphoid and myeloid cells to prevent rapid inflammatory disease. PMID:27583437

  13. Spirulina platensis Lacks Antitumor Effect against Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Waleed; Elshazly, Shimaa M.; Mahmoud, Amr A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement. It has been shown to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties. This study was designed to evaluate the antitumor effect of spirulina (200 and 800 mg/kg) against a murine model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma compared to a standard chemotherapeutic drug, 5-fluorouracil (20 mg/kg). Untreated mice developed a palpable solid tumor after 13 days. Unlike fluorouracil, spirulina at the investigated two dose levels failed to exert any protective effect. In addition, spirulina did not potentiate the antitumor effect of fluorouracil when they were administered concurrently. Interestingly, their combined administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in mortality. The present study demonstrates that spirulina lacks antitumor effect against this model of solid Ehrlich carcinoma and increased mortality when combined with fluorouracil. However, the implicated mechanism is still elusive. PMID:26366170

  14. Mesocortical Dopamine Phenotypes in Mice Lacking the Sonic Hedgehog Receptor Cdon.

    PubMed

    Verwey, Michael; Grant, Alanna; Meti, Nicholas; Adye-White, Lauren; Torres-Berrío, Angelica; Rioux, Veronique; Lévesque, Martin; Charron, Frederic; Flores, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Motivated behaviors and many psychopathologies typically involve changes in dopamine release from the projections of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). The morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) specifies fates of midbrain dopamine neurons, but VTA-specific effects of Shh signaling are also being uncovered. In this study, we assessed the role of the Shh receptor Cdon in the development of VTA and SNc dopamine neurons. We find that Cdon is expressed in the proliferating progenitor zone of the embryonic ventral midbrain and that the number of proliferating cells in this region is increased in mouse Cdon(-/-) embryos. Consistent with a role of Shh in the regulation of neuronal proliferation in this region, we find that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons is increased in the VTA of Cdon(-/-) mice at birth and that this effect endures into adulthood. In contrast, the number of TH-positive neurons in the SNc is not altered in Cdon(-/-) mice at either age. Moreover, adult Cdon(-/-) mice have a greater number of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine presynaptic sites, and increased baseline concentrations of dopamine and dopamine metabolites selectively in this region. Finally, consistent with increased dopamine function in the mPFC, we find that adult Cdon(-/-) mice fail to exhibit behavioral plasticity upon repeated amphetamine treatment. Based on these data, we suggest that Cdon plays an important role encoding the diversity of dopamine neurons in the midbrain, influencing both the development of the mesocortical dopamine pathway and behavioral outputs that involve this neural circuitry. PMID:27419218

  15. Mesocortical Dopamine Phenotypes in Mice Lacking the Sonic Hedgehog Receptor Cdon

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Alanna; Meti, Nicholas; Adye-White, Lauren; Rioux, Veronique

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Motivated behaviors and many psychopathologies typically involve changes in dopamine release from the projections of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and/or the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc). The morphogen Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) specifies fates of midbrain dopamine neurons, but VTA-specific effects of Shh signaling are also being uncovered. In this study, we assessed the role of the Shh receptor Cdon in the development of VTA and SNc dopamine neurons. We find that Cdon is expressed in the proliferating progenitor zone of the embryonic ventral midbrain and that the number of proliferating cells in this region is increased in mouse Cdon−/− embryos. Consistent with a role of Shh in the regulation of neuronal proliferation in this region, we find that the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons is increased in the VTA of Cdon−/− mice at birth and that this effect endures into adulthood. In contrast, the number of TH-positive neurons in the SNc is not altered in Cdon−/− mice at either age. Moreover, adult Cdon−/− mice have a greater number of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) dopamine presynaptic sites, and increased baseline concentrations of dopamine and dopamine metabolites selectively in this region. Finally, consistent with increased dopamine function in the mPFC, we find that adult Cdon−/− mice fail to exhibit behavioral plasticity upon repeated amphetamine treatment. Based on these data, we suggest that Cdon plays an important role encoding the diversity of dopamine neurons in the midbrain, influencing both the development of the mesocortical dopamine pathway and behavioral outputs that involve this neural circuitry. PMID:27419218

  16. Lack of soluble fiber drives diet-induced adiposity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chassaing, Benoit; Miles-Brown, Jennifer; Pellizzon, Michael; Ulman, Edward; Ricci, Matthew; Zhang, Limin; Patterson, Andrew D.; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2015-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity is often modeled by comparing mice fed high-fat diet (HFD), which is made from purified ingredients, vs. normal chow diet (NCD), which is a low-fat assemblage of relatively unrefined plant and animal products. The mechanism by which HFD promotes adiposity is complex but thought to involve low-grade inflammation and altered gut microbiota. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which HFD-induced adiposity is driven by fat content vs. other factors that differentiate HFD vs. NCD. Mice were fed NCD, HFD, or other compositionally defined diets (CDD), designed to mimic NCD and/or explore the role of HFD components. A range of metabolic parameters reflecting low-grade inflammation and adiposity were assayed. Relative to NCD, HFD, and to a lesser, but, nonetheless, significant extent, CDD induced increased adiposity, indicating both lipid content and other aspects of HFD are obesogenic. Moreover, HFD and CDD induced a rapid and marked loss of cecal and colonic mass. Such CDD-induced effects were not affected by adjusting dietary protein levels/types but could be largely eliminated by exchanging insoluble fiber (cellulose) for soluble fiber (inulin). Replacing cellulose with inulin in HFD also protected mice against decreased intestinal mass, hyperphagia, and increased adiposity. Such beneficial effects of inulin were microbiota dependent, correlated with elevated fecal short-chain fatty acid levels analyzed via 1H-NMR-based metabolomics and were partially recapitulated by administration of short-chain fatty acid. HFD-induced obesity is strongly promoted by its lack of soluble fiber, which supports microbiota-mediated intestinal tissue homeostasis that prevents inflammation driving obesity and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26185332

  17. ASTROGLIOSIS AND BEHAVIORAL CHANGES IN MICE LACKING THE NEUTRAL CYSTEINE PROTEASE BLEOMYCIN HYDROLASE

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, S.E.; Thiels, E.; Card, J.P.; Lazo, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Bleomycin hydrolase is a multifaceted neutral cysteine protease with a suggested role in antigen presentation, homocysteine-thiolactone metabolism, and Alzheimer’s disease pathogenesis. Deletion of the protease in mice results in increased neonatal mortality and dermatopathology. Immunohistochemical and behavioral studies of BLMH knockout mice were undertaken to further evaluate the role of the protease in the brain. No gross abnormalities in the central nervous system were observed upon preliminary histological examination of B6.129Blmhtm1Geh/J null animals. However, glial fibrillary acid protein immunohistochemistry revealed a global reactive astrogliosis in the aged null animals, indicative of undefined brain pathology. The role of BLMH in the brain was further explored by characterizing the behavioral phenotype of hybrid [129S6-Blmhtm1Geh/J X B6.129 Blmhtm1Geh/J]F1 null and littermate controls using multiple behavioral paradigms. In the water maze, deletion of BLMH resulted in poorer performance during water maze probe trials without detectable effect of the mutation on sensorimotor function. In addition, no age-dependent decline in discriminative performance on probe trials was observed in null animals. These data suggest a physiological non-redundant function for BLMH in the central nervous system. PMID:17391860

  18. Contractile function is unaltered in diaphragm from mice lacking calcium release channel isoform 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, J. S.; Takeshima, H.; Hamilton, S. L.; Reid, M. B.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal muscle expresses at least two isoforms of the calcium release channel in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (RyR1 and RyR3). Whereas the function of RyR1 is well defined, the physiological significance of RyR3 is unclear. Some authors have suggested that RyR3 participates in excitation-contraction coupling and that RyR3 may specifically confer resistance to fatigue. To test this hypothesis, we measured contractile function of diaphragm strips from adult RyR3-deficient mice (exon 2-targeted mutation) and their heterozygous and wild-type littermates. In unfatigued diaphragm, there were no differences in isometric contractile properties (twitch characteristics, force-frequency relationships, maximal force) among the three groups. Our fatigue protocol (30 Hz, 0.25 duty cycle, 37 degrees C) depressed force to 25% of the initial force; however, lack of RyR3 did not accelerate the decline in force production. The force-frequency relationship was shifted to higher frequencies and was depressed in fatigued diaphragm; lack of RyR3 did not exaggerate these changes. We therefore provide evidence that RyR3 deficiency does not alter contractile function of adult muscle before, during, or after fatigue.

  19. Sendai viral pneumonia in aged BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Jacoby, R O; Bhatt, P N; Barthold, S W; Brownstein, D G

    1994-01-01

    Sendai virus (SV) infection in aged BALB/c mice was evaluated as a natural model for age-associated susceptibility to viral pneumonia. Young (2 month-old) and aged (22-24 month-old) BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with 100 median pneumonia doses (PD50) of SV and examined at 6, 10, and 20 days by virus titration, immunohistochemistry, histopathology, and serology. The aged mice had significantly higher virus titers in lung, prolonged infection, delayed development, and resolution of pneumonia and significantly lower serum antibody titers. In a second experiment, the responses of young mice were compared to intermediate-aged mice (11-13 and 17-18 months old). The intermediate-aged mice had some characteristics of young mice and others of aged mice. The results indicate that SV infection can be used to study aging-associated susceptibility to a pneumotropic virus in a natural host, and that susceptibility of mice to viral pneumonia increases gradually during aging.

  20. Delayed reepithelialization and basement membrane regeneration after wounding in mice lacking CXCR3

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Cecelia C.; Whaley, Diana; Hooda, Shveta; Hebda, Patricia A.; Bodnar, Richard J.; Wells, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex, orchestrated series of biological events that is controlled by extracellular components that communicate between cell types to re-establish lost tissue. We have found that signaling by ELR-negative CXC chemokines through their common CXCR3 receptor is critical for dermal maturation during the resolving phase. In addition there needs to be complete maturation of the epidermis and regeneration of a delineating basement membrane for proper functioning. The role of this ligand–receptor system appears confounding as one ligand, CXCL4/(PF4), is present during the initial dissolution and two others, CXCL10/(IP-10) and CXCL11/(IP-9/I-TAC), are expressed by keratinocytes in the later regenerative and resolving phases during which the basement membrane is re-established. We examined CXCR3 signaling role in healing using a mouse lacking this receptor, as all three ligands act solely via the common receptor. Reepithelialization was delayed in CXCR3-deficient mice in both full and partial-thickness excisional wounds. Even at 90 days postwounding, the epidermis of these mice appeared less mature with lower levels of E-cadherin and cytokeratin 18. The underlying basement membrane, a product of both dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes, was not fully established with persistent diffuse expression of the matrix components laminin 5, collagen IV, and collagen VII throughout the wound bed. These results suggest that CXCR3 and its ligands play an important role in the re-establishment of the basement membrane and epidermis. These studies further establish the emerging signaling network that involves the CXCR3 chemokine receptor and its ligands as a key regulator of wound repair. PMID:19152649

  1. Functional recovery in aging mice after experimental stroke.

    PubMed

    Manwani, Bharti; Liu, Fudong; Xu, Yan; Persky, Rebecca; Li, Jun; McCullough, Louise D

    2011-11-01

    Aging is a non-modifiable risk factor for stroke. Since not all strokes can be prevented, a major emerging area of research is the development of effective strategies to enhance functional recovery after stroke. However, in the vast majority of pre-clinical stroke studies, the behavioral tests used to assess functional recovery have only been validated for use in young animals, or are designed for rats. Mice are increasingly utilized in stroke models but well validated behavioral tests designed for rats are not necessarily reproducible in mice. We examined a battery of behavioral tests to evaluate functional recovery in an aging murine model of stroke. We found that the vertical pole, hanging wire and open field can accurately assess acute behavioral impairments after stroke in both young and aging male mice, but animals recover rapidly on these tasks. The corner test can accurately and repeatedly differentiate stroke from sham animals up to 30 days post stroke and can be performed reliably in aging mice. Aging male mice had significantly worse behavioral impairment compared to young male mice in the first two weeks after stroke but eventually recovered to the same degree as young mice. In contrast, chronic infarct size, as measured by ipsilateral cerebral atrophy, was significantly lower in aging male mice compared to young male mice. Reactive gliosis, formation of glial scar, and an enhanced innate immune response was seen in the aging brain and may contribute to the delayed behavioral recovery seen in the aging animals.

  2. Mice Lacking GD3 Synthase Display Morphological Abnormalities in the Sciatic Nerve and Neuronal Disturbances during Peripheral Nerve Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Resende, Victor Túlio; Gomes, Tiago Araújo; de Lima, Silmara; Nascimento-Lima, Maiara; Bargas-Rega, Michele; Santiago, Marcelo Felipe; Reis, Ricardo Augusto de Melo; de Mello, Fernando Garcia

    2014-01-01

    The ganglioside 9-O-acetyl GD3 is overexpressed in peripheral nerves after lesioning, and its expression is correlated with axonal degeneration and regeneration in adult rodents. However, the biological roles of this ganglioside during the regenerative process are unclear. We used mice lacking GD3 synthase (Siat3a KO), an enzyme that converts GM3 to GD3, which can be further converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3. Morphological analyses of longitudinal and transverse sections of the sciatic nerve revealed significant differences in the transverse area and nerve thickness. The number of axons and the levels of myelin basic protein were significantly reduced in adult KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) mice. The G-ratio was increased in KO mice compared to WT mice based on quantification of thin transverse sections stained with toluidine blue. We found that neurite outgrowth was significantly reduced in the absence of GD3. However, addition of exogenous GD3 led to neurite growth after 3 days, similar to that in WT mice. To evaluate fiber regeneration after nerve lesioning, we compared the regenerated distance from the lesion site and found that this distance was one-fourth the length in KO mice compared to WT mice. KO mice in which GD3 was administered showed markedly improved regeneration compared to the control KO mice. In summary, we suggest that 9-O-acetyl GD3 plays biological roles in neuron-glia interactions, facilitating axonal growth and myelination induced by Schwann cells. Moreover, exogenous GD3 can be converted to 9-O-acetyl GD3 in mice lacking GD3 synthase, improving regeneration. PMID:25330147

  3. Ultrastructural organization of dentin in mice lacking dentin sialo-phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ping-An; Verdelis, Kostas; Yang, Xu; Lukashova, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Beniash, Elia

    2014-08-01

    Dentin Sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) is the major non-collagenous protein of dentin and plays a significant role in dentin mineralization. Recently, animal models lacking DSPP have been developed and the DSPP KO phenotype has been characterized at the histological level. Little is known, however, about the DSPP KO dentin at nano- and meso-scale. Dentin is a hierarchical material spanning from nano- to macroscale, hence information on the effects of DSPP deficiency at the submicron scale is essential for understanding of its role in dentin biomineralization. To bridge this gap, we have conducted ultrastructural studies of dentin from DSPP KO animals. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of DSPP KO dentin revealed that although the overall ultrastructural organization was similar to the WT, the mineral particles were less organized. Scanning electron microscopy in the back-scattered mode (BS-SEM) of the DSPP KO dentin revealed that circumpulpal dentin comprises large areas of non-mineralized matrix, with numerous spherulitic mineralized inclusions, while the mantle dentin appeared largely unaffected. Analysis of the mineral distribution in the circumpulpal dentin of the DSPP KO mice suggests a reduction in the number of mineral nucleation sites and an increase in the nucleation barrier in DSPP KO dentin. These preliminary results indicate that in addition to the reduction of mineralized and total dentin volume in DSPP KO animals significant changes in the ultrastructural organization exist. These changes are likely related to the role of DSPP in the regulation of mineral formation and organization in dentin.

  4. Failure of megakaryopoiesis and arrested erythropoiesis in mice lacking the GATA-1 transcriptional cofactor FOG

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Alice P.; Fujiwara, Yuko; Hom, Dennis B.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    1998-01-01

    GATA transcription factors are required for the differentiation of diverse cell types in several species. Recent evidence suggests that their biologic activities may be modulated through interaction with multitype zinc finger proteins, such as Friend of GATA-1 (FOG) and U-shaped (Ush). In cell culture, FOG cooperates with the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1 to promote erythroid and megakaryocytic differentiation. We show here that mice lacking FOG die during mid-embryonic development with severe anemia. FOG−/− erythroid cells display a marked, but partial, blockage of maturation, reminiscent of GATA-1− erythroid precursors. In contrast to GATA-1 deficiency, however, megakaryocytes fail to develop in the absence of FOG. Although the FOG−/− erythroid phenotype supports the proposed role of FOG as a GATA-1 cofactor in vivo, the latter finding points to a pivotal, GATA-1-independent requirement for FOG in megakaryocyte development from the bipotential erythroid/megakaryocytic progenitor. We speculate that FOG and other FOG-like proteins serve as complex cofactors that act through both GATA-dependent and GATA-independent mechanisms. PMID:9553047

  5. Onset coding is degraded in auditory nerve fibers from mutant mice lacking synaptic ribbons

    PubMed Central

    Buran, B.N.; Strenzke, N.; Neef, A.; Gundelfinger, E.D.; Moser, T.; Liberman, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Synaptic ribbons, found at the pre-synaptic membrane of sensory cells in both ear and eye, have been implicated in the vesicle-pool dynamics of synaptic transmission. To elucidate ribbon function, we characterized the response properties of single auditory nerve fibers in mice lacking Bassoon, a scaffolding protein involved in anchoring ribbons to the membrane. In Bassoon mutants, immunohistochemistry showed fewer than 3% of the hair cells’ afferent synapses retained anchored ribbons. Auditory nerve fibers from mutants had normal threshold, dynamic range and post-onset adaptation in response to tone bursts, and they were able to phase-lock with normal precision to amplitude-modulated tones. However, spontaneous and sound-evoked discharge rates were reduced, and the reliability of spikes, particularly at stimulus onset, was significantly degraded as shown by an increased variance of first-spike latencies. Modeling based on in vitro studies of normal and mutant hair cells links these findings to reduced release rates at the synapse. The degradation of response reliability in these mutants suggests that the ribbon and/or bassoon normally facilitate high rates of exocytosis and that its absence significantly compromises the temporal resolving power of the auditory system. PMID:20519533

  6. Onset coding is degraded in auditory nerve fibers from mutant mice lacking synaptic ribbons.

    PubMed

    Buran, Bradley N; Strenzke, Nicola; Neef, Andreas; Gundelfinger, Eckart D; Moser, Tobias; Liberman, M Charles

    2010-06-01

    Synaptic ribbons, found at the presynaptic membrane of sensory cells in both ear and eye, have been implicated in the vesicle-pool dynamics of synaptic transmission. To elucidate ribbon function, we characterized the response properties of single auditory nerve fibers in mice lacking Bassoon, a scaffolding protein involved in anchoring ribbons to the membrane. In bassoon mutants, immunohistochemistry showed that fewer than 3% of the hair cells' afferent synapses retained anchored ribbons. Auditory nerve fibers from mutants had normal threshold, dynamic range, and postonset adaptation in response to tone bursts, and they were able to phase lock with normal precision to amplitude-modulated tones. However, spontaneous and sound-evoked discharge rates were reduced, and the reliability of spikes, particularly at stimulus onset, was significantly degraded as shown by an increased variance of first-spike latencies. Modeling based on in vitro studies of normal and mutant hair cells links these findings to reduced release rates at the synapse. The degradation of response reliability in these mutants suggests that the ribbon and/or Bassoon normally facilitate high rates of exocytosis and that its absence significantly compromises the temporal resolving power of the auditory system.

  7. Mice lacking alpha 1 (IX) collagen develop noninflammatory degenerative joint disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fässler, R; Schnegelsberg, P N; Dausman, J; Shinya, T; Muragaki, Y; McCarthy, M T; Olsen, B R; Jaenisch, R

    1994-01-01

    Type IX collagen is a nonfibrillar collagen composed of three gene products, alpha 1(IX), alpha 2(IX), and alpha 3(IX). Type IX molecules are localized on the surface of type II-containing fibrils and consist of two arms, a long arm that is crosslinked to type II collagen and a short arm that projects into the perifibrillar space. In hyaline cartilage, the alpha 1(IX) collagen transcript encodes a polypeptide with a large N-terminal globular domain (NC4), whereas in many other tissues an alternative transcript encodes an alpha 1(IX) chain with a truncated NC4 domain. It has been proposed that type IX molecules are involved in the interaction of fibrils with each other or with other components of the extracellular matrix. To test this hypothesis, we have generated a mouse strain lacking both isoforms of the alpha 1(IX) chain. Homozygous mutant mice are viable and show no detectable abnormalities at birth but develop a severe degenerative joint disease resembling human osteoarthritis. Images PMID:8197187

  8. A metabolic signature predicts biological age in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tomás-Loba, Antonia; de Jesus, Bruno Bernardes; Mato, Jose M.; Blasco, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the sera metabolite profile of 117 wild-type mice of different genetic backgrounds ranging from 8-129 weeks of age. This has allowed us to define a robust metabolomic signature and a derived metabolomic score that reliably/accurately predicts the age of wild-type mice. In the case of telomerase-deficient mice, which have a shortened lifespan, their metabolomic score predicts older ages than expected. Conversely, in the case of mice that over-express telomerase, their metabolic score corresponded to younger ages than expected. Importantly, telomerase reactivation late in life by using a TERT based gene therapy recently described by us, significantly reverted the metabolic profile of old mice to that of younger mice, further confirming an anti-aging role for telomerase. Thus, the metabolomic signature associated to natural mouse aging accurately predicts aging produced by telomere shortening, suggesting that natural mouse aging is in part produced by presence of short telomeres. These results indicate that the metabolomic signature is associated to the biological age rather than to the chronological age. This constitutes one of the first aging-associated metabolomic signatures in a mammalian organism. PMID:23107558

  9. Prodynorphin knockout mice demonstrate diminished age-associated impairment in spatial water maze performance.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Xuan V; Masse, James; Kumar, Ashok; Vijitruth, Rattanavijit; Kulik, Cynthia; Liu, Mei; Choi, Dong-Young; Foster, Thomas C; Usynin, Ivan; Bakalkin, Georgy; Bing, Guoying

    2005-06-20

    Dynorphins, endogenous kappa-opioid agonists widely expressed in the central nervous system, have been reported to increase following diverse pathophysiological processes, including excitotoxicity, chronic inflammation, and traumatic injury. These peptides have been implicated in cognitive impairment, especially that associated with aging. To determine whether absence of dynorphin confers any beneficial effect on spatial learning and memory, knockout mice lacking the coding exons of the gene encoding its precursor prodynorphin (Pdyn) were tested in a water maze task. Learning and memory assessment using a 3-day water maze protocol demonstrated that aged Pdyn knockout mice (13-17 months) perform comparatively better than similarly aged wild-type (WT) mice, based on acquisition and retention probe trial indices. There was no genotype effect on performance in the cued version of the swim task nor on average swim speed, suggesting the observed genotype effects are likely attributable to differences in cognitive rather than motor function. Young (3-6 months) mice performed significantly better than aged mice, but in young mice, no genotype difference was observed. To investigate the relationship between aging and brain dynorphin expression in mice, we examined dynorphin peptide levels at varying ages in hippocampus and frontal cortex of WT 129SvEv mice. Quantitative radioimmunoassay demonstrated that dynorphin A levels in frontal cortex, but not hippocampus, of 12- and 24-month mice were significantly elevated compared to 3-month mice. Although the underlying mechanisms have yet to be elucidated, the results suggest that chronic increases in endogenous dynorphin expression with age, especially in frontal cortex, may adversely affect learning and memory.

  10. Normal Light Response, Photoreceptor Integrity, and Rhodopsin Dephosphorylation in Mice Lacking Both Protein Phosphatases with EF Hands (PPEF-1 and PPEF-2)

    PubMed Central

    Ramulu, Pradeep; Kennedy, Matthew; Xiong, Wei-Hong; Williams, John; Cowan, Mitra; Blesh, Diane; Yau, King-Wai; Hurley, James B.; Nathans, Jeremy

    2001-01-01

    Rhodopsin dephosphorylation in Drosophila is a calcium-dependent process that appears to be catalyzed by the protein product of the rdgC gene. Two vertebrate rdgC homologs, PPEF-1 and PPEF-2, have been identified. PPEF-1 transcripts are present at low levels in the retina, while PPEF-2 transcripts and PPEF-2 protein are abundant in photoreceptors. To determine if PPEF-2 alone or in combination with PPEF-1 plays a role in rhodopsin dephosphorylation and to determine if retinal degeneration accompanies mutation of PPEF-1 and/or PPEF-2, we have produced mice carrying targeted disruptions in the PPEF-1 and PPEF-2 genes. Loss of either or both PPEFs has little or no effect on rod function, as mice lacking both PPEF-1 and PPEF-2 show little or no changes in the electroretinogram and PPEF-2−/− mice show normal single-cell responses to light in suction pipette recordings. Light-dependent rhodopsin phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are also normal or nearly normal as determined by (i) immunostaining of PPEF-2−/− retinas with the phosphorhodopsin-specific antibody RT-97 and (ii) mass spectrometry of C-terminal rhodopsin peptides from mice lacking both PPEF-1 and PPEF-2. Finally, PPEF-2−/− retinas show normal histology at 1 year of age, and retinas from mice lacking both PPEF-1 and PPEF-2 show normal histology at 3 months of age, the latest time examined. These data indicate that, in contrast to loss of rdgC function in Drosophila, elimination of PPEF function does not cause retinal degeneration in vertebrates. PMID:11713293

  11. Differential effects of relaxin deficiency on vascular aging in arteries of male mice.

    PubMed

    Jelinic, Maria; Tare, Marianne; Conrad, Kirk P; Parry, Laura J

    2015-08-01

    Exogenous treatment with the naturally occurring peptide relaxin increases arterial compliance and reduces vascular stiffness. In contrast, relaxin deficiency reduces the passive compliance of small renal arteries through geometric and compositional vascular remodeling. The role of endogenous relaxin on passive mechanical wall properties in other vascular beds is unknown. Importantly, no studies have investigated the effects of aging in arteries of relaxin-deficient mice. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that mesenteric and femoral arteries stiffen with aging, and this is exacerbated with relaxin deficiency. Male wild-type (Rln (+/+)) and relaxin knockout (Rln (-/-)) mice were aged to 3, 6, 12, 18, and 23 months. Passive mechanical wall properties were assessed by pressure myography. In both genotypes, there was a significant increase in circumferential stiffening in mesenteric arteries with aging, whereas in the femoral artery, aging reduced volume compliance. This was associated with a reduced ability of the artery to lengthen with aging. The predominant phenotype observed in Rln (-/-) mice was reduced volume compliance in young mice in both mesenteric and femoral arteries. In summary, aging induces circumferential stiffening in mesenteric arteries and axial stiffening in femoral arteries. Passive mechanical wall properties of Rln (-/-) mouse arteries predominantly differ at younger ages compared with Rln (+/+) mice, suggesting that a lack of endogenous relaxin only has a minor effect on vascular aging.

  12. Lifelong challenge of calcium homeostasis in male mice lacking TRPV5 leads to changes in bone and calcium metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Roschger, Paul; Zillikens, M. Carola; Waarsing, Jan H.; van der Kemp, Annemiete; Schreuders-Koedam, Marijke; Fratzl-Zelman, Nadja; Leenen, Pieter J.M.; Hoenderop, Joost G.J.; Klaushofer, Klaus; Bindels, René J.M.; van Leeuwen, Johannes P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Trpv5 plays an important role in calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, among others by mediating renal calcium reabsorption. Accordingly, Trpv5 deficiency strongly stresses Ca2+ homeostasis in order to maintain stable serum Ca2+. We addressed the impact of lifelong challenge of calcium homeostasis on the bone phenotype of these mice. Aging significantly increased serum 1,25(OH)2D3 and PTH levels in both genotypes but they were more elevated in Trpv5−/− mice, whereas serum Ca2+ was not affected by age or genotype. Age-related changes in trabecular and cortical bone mass were accelerated in Trpv5−/− mice, including reduced trabecular and cortical bone thickness as well as reduced bone mineralization. No effect of Trpv5 deficiency on bone strength was observed. In 78-week-old mice no differences were observed between the genotypes regarding urinary deoxypyridinoline, osteoclast number, differentiation and activity as well as osteoclast precursor numbers, as assessed by flow cytometry. In conclusion, life-long challenge of Ca2+ homeostasis present in Trpv5−/− mice causes accelerated bone aging and a low cortical and trabecular bone mass phenotype. The phenotype of the Trpv5−/− mice suggests that maintenance of adequate circulatory Ca2+ levels in patients with disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis should be a priority in order to prevent bone loss at older age. PMID:27102152

  13. Neutrophil depletion delays wound repair in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Naomi; Okawa, Yayoi; Sakurai, Hidetoshi

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important clinical problems in caring for elderly patients is treatment of pressure ulcers. One component of normal wound healing is the generation of an inflammatory reaction, which is characterized by the sequential infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes. Neutrophils migrate early in the wound healing process. In aged C57BL/6 mice, wound healing is relatively inefficient. We examined the effects of neutrophil numbers on wound healing in both young and aged mice. We found that the depletion of neutrophils by anti-Gr-1 antibody dramatically delayed wound healing in aged mice. The depletion of neutrophils in young mice had less effect on the kinetics of wound healing. Intravenous G-CSF injection increased the migration of neutrophils to the wound site. While the rate of wound repair did not change significantly in young mice following G-CSF injection, it increased significantly in old mice. PMID:19424869

  14. Exercise Enhances Learning and Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Praag, Henriette van; Shubert, Tiffany; Zhao, Chunmei; Gage, Fred H.

    2005-01-01

    Aging causes changes in the hippocampus that may lead to cognitive decline in older adults. In young animals, exercise increases hippocampal neurogenesis and improves learning. We investigated whether voluntary wheel running would benefit mice that were sedentary until 19 months of age. Specifically, young and aged mice were housed with or without a running wheel and injected with bromodeoxyuridine or retrovirus to label newborn cells. After 1 month, learning was tested in the Morris water maze. Aged runners showed faster acquisition and better retention of the maze than age-matched controls. The decline in neurogenesis in aged mice was reversed to 50% of young control levels by running. Moreover, fine morphology of new neurons did not differ between young and aged runners, indicating that the initial maturation of newborn neurons was not affected by aging. Thus, voluntary exercise ameliorates some of the deleterious morphological and behavioral consequences of aging. PMID:16177036

  15. Age-Dependent Impairment of Eyeblink Conditioning in Prion Protein-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Yasushi; Hirono, Moritoshi; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Yoshioka, Tohru; Katamine, Shigeru; Kirino, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    Mice lacking the prion protein (PrPC) gene (Prnp), Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice, show late-onset cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC) degeneration because of ectopic overexpression of PrPC-like protein (PrPLP/Dpl). Because PrPC is highly expressed in cerebellar neurons (including PCs and granule cells), it may be involved in cerebellar synaptic function and cerebellar cognitive function. However, no studies have been conducted to investigate the possible involvement of PrPC and/or PrPLP/Dpl in cerebellum-dependent discrete motor learning. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study was designed to examine cerebellum-dependent delay eyeblink conditioning in Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice in adulthood (16, 40, and 60 weeks of age). The aims of the present study were two-fold: (1) to examine the role of PrPC and/or PrPLP/Dpl in cerebellum-dependent motor learning and (2) to confirm the age-related deterioration of eyeblink conditioning in Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice as an animal model of progressive cerebellar degeneration. Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice aged 16 weeks exhibited intact acquisition of conditioned eyeblink responses (CRs), although the CR timing was altered. The same result was observed in another line of PrPc-deficient mice, ZrchI PrnP0/0 mice. However, at 40 weeks of age, CR incidence impairment was observed in Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice. Furthermore, Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice aged 60 weeks showed more significantly impaired CR acquisition than Ngsk Prnp0/0 mice aged 40 weeks, indicating the temporal correlation between cerebellar PC degeneration and motor learning deficits. Our findings indicate the importance of the cerebellar cortex in delay eyeblink conditioning and suggest an important physiological role of prion protein in cerebellar motor learning. PMID:23593266

  16. Antiviral defense in mice lacking both alpha/beta and gamma interferon receptors.

    PubMed Central

    van den Broek, M F; Müller, U; Huang, S; Aguet, M; Zinkernagel, R M

    1995-01-01

    Alpha/beta interferon (IFN) and gamma IFN exert widely overlapping biological effects. Still, mice with individually inactivated alpha/beta or gamma receptors exhibit variably severely reduced resistance to infection and altered immune responses. To investigate to what extent the two IFN systems are functionally redundant, we generated mice with a combined receptor defect (AG129 mice). Like mice with individual mutations, AG129 mice had no apparent anomalies, confirming that in the mouse the IFN system is not essential for normal development. These mice showed an additive phenotype with respect to antiviral defense and exhibited an increased susceptibility to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and notably vaccinia virus infection. Because of unlimited replication and subsequent rapid exhaustion of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) precursors, these mice were unable to mount a CTL response to LCMV. CD8(+)-mediated immunopathology was absent in LCMV-infected mice, and virus persisted. Vaccinia virus replicated much faster in AG129 mice, and a 10(4)-fold lower dose of vaccinia virus was sufficient to prime these mice. With the normal priming dose of 10(6) PFU, cytopathic effects and overwhelming infection possibly causing partial exhaustion of CTL interfered with the anti-vaccinia virus response. Even though global antiviral immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were within normal ranges, the IgG subclass distribution was heavily biased toward IgG1. PMID:7609046

  17. Behavioral and sleep/wake characteristics of mice lacking norepinephrine and hypocretin.

    PubMed

    Hunsley, M S; Curtis, W R; Palmiter, R D

    2006-08-01

    We investigated the interaction between norepinephrine (NE) and orexin/hypocretin (Hcrt) in the control of sleep behavior and narcoleptic symptoms by creating mice that were deficient in both neurotransmitters. Mice with a targeted disruption of the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (Dbh) gene (deficient in NE and epinephrine) or the Hcrt gene were bred to generate double knockouts (DKOs), each single KO (Dbh-KO and Hcrt-KO), and control mice. The duration of wake, non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and REM sleep were monitored by electroencephalogram (EEG)/electromyogram (EMG) recording over a 24-h period, and the occurrence of behavioral arrests was monitored by video/EEG recording for 4 h. Overall, there was very little interaction between the two genes; for most parameters that were measured, the DKO mice resembled either Dbh-KO or Hcrt-KO mice. REM sleep was increased in both DKO and Hcrt-KO mice at night relative to the other groups, but DKO mice had significantly more REM sleep during the day than the other three groups. Sleep latency in response to saline or amphetamine injections was reduced in Dbh-KO and DKO mice relative to other groups. Behavioral arrests, that are frequent in Hcrt-KO mice, were not exacerbated in DKO mice.

  18. A lack of functional NK1 receptors explains most, but not all, abnormal behaviours of NK1R-/- mice1

    PubMed Central

    Porter, A J; Pillidge, K; Tsai, Y C; Dudley, J A; Hunt, S P; Peirson, S N; Brown, L A; Stanford, S C

    2015-01-01

    Mice lacking functional neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R-/-) display abnormal behaviours seen in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattentiveness). These abnormalities were evident when comparing the behaviour of separate (inbred: ‘Hom’) wildtype and NK1R-/- mouse strains. Here, we investigated whether the inbreeding protocol could influence their phenotype by comparing the behaviour of these mice with that of wildtype (NK1R+/+) and NK1R-/- progeny of heterozygous parents (‘Het’, derived from the same inbred strains). First, we recorded the spontaneous motor activity of the two colonies/genotypes, over 7 days. This continuous monitoring also enabled us to investigate whether the diurnal rhythm in motor activity differs in the two colonies/genotypes. NK1R-/- mice from both colonies were hyperactive compared with their wildtypes and their diurnal rhythm was also disrupted. Next, we evaluated the performance of the four groups of mice in the 5-Choice Serial Reaction-Time Task (5-CSRTT). During training, NK1R-/- mice from both colonies expressed more impulsive and perseverative behaviour than their wildtypes. During testing, only NK1R-/- mice from the Hom colony were more impulsive than their wildtypes, but NK1R-/- mice from both colonies were more perseverative. There were no colony differences in inattentiveness. Moreover, a genotype difference in this measure depended on time of day. We conclude that the hyperactivity, perseveration and, possibly, inattentiveness of NK1R-/- mice is a direct consequence of a lack of functional NK1R. However, the greater impulsivity of NK1R-/- mice depended on an interaction between a functional deficit of NK1R and other (possibly environmental and/or epigenetic) factors. PMID:25558794

  19. The naturally occurring luteinizing hormone surge is diminished in mice lacking estrogen receptor Beta in the ovary.

    PubMed

    Jayes, Friederike L; Burns, Katherine A; Rodriguez, Karina F; Kissling, Grace E; Korach, Kenneth S

    2014-02-01

    Female ESR2-null mice (betaERKO) display defects in ovarian function and are subfertile. Follicular maturation is impaired and explains smaller litters, but betaERKO also produce fewer litters, which may be partially due to inadequate ovulatory signals. To test this, the amplitude and timing of the naturally occurring luteinizing hormone (LH) surge was measured in individual intact betaERKO and wild-type (WT) mice. Vaginal cytology was evaluated daily, and blood samples were taken from mice in proestrus. The amplitude of the LH surge was severely blunted in betaERKO mice compared to WT, but pituitary LH levels revealed no differences. The betaERKO mice did not produce a preovulatory estradiol surge. To determine if the smaller LH surges and the reduced number of litters in betaERKO were due to the lack of ESR2 in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis or due to the absence of ESR2 in the ovary, ovaries were transplanted from WT into betaERKO mice and vice versa. The size of the LH surge was reduced only in mice lacking ESR2 within the ovary, and these mice had fewer litters. Fertility and size of the LH surge were rescued in betaERKO mice receiving a WT ovary. These data provide the first experimental evidence that the LH surge is impaired in betaERKO females and may contribute to their reduced fertility. ESR2 is not necessary within the pituitary and hypothalamus for the generation of a normal LH surge and for normal fertility, but ESR2 is essential within the ovary to provide proper signals.

  20. Abnormal anxiety- and depression-like behaviors in mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yun-Fang; Song, Ning-Ning; Mao, Rong-Rong; Li, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Ying; Zhang, Lei; Han, Hui-Li; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of central serotonin (5-HT) system has been proposed to be one of the underlying mechanisms for anxiety and depression, and the association of diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders has been noticed by the high prevalence of anxiety/depression in patients with diabetes mellitus. This promoted us to examine these behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice and those also suffering with diabetes mellitus. Mice lacking either 5-HT or central serotonergic neurons were generated by conditional deletion of Tph2 or Lmx1b respectively. Simultaneous depletion of both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet cells was achieved by administration of diphtheria toxin (DT) in Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DT receptor (DTR) mice. The central 5-HT-deficient mice showed reduced anxiety-like behaviors as they spent more time in and entered more often into the light box in the light/dark box test compared with controls; similar results were observed in the elevated plus maze test. However, they displayed no differences in the immobility time of the forced swimming and tail suspension tests suggesting normal depression-like behaviors in central 5-HT-deficient mice. As expected, DT-treated Pet1-Cre;Rosa26-DTR mice lacking both central serotonergic neurons and pancreatic islet endocrine cells exhibited several classic diabetic symptoms. Interestingly, they displayed increased anxiety-like behaviors but reduced immobility time in the forced swimming and tail suspension tests. Furthermore, the hippocampal neurogenesis was dramatically enhanced in these mice. These results suggest that the deficiency of central 5-HT may not be sufficient to induce anxiety/depression-like behaviors in mice, and the enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to the altered depression-like behaviors in the 5-HT-deficient mice with diabetes. Our current investigation provides understanding the relationship between diabetes mellitus and psychiatric disorders.

  1. Expansion of the lateral ventricles and ependymal deficits underlie the hydrocephalus evident in mice lacking the transcription factor NFIX.

    PubMed

    Vidovic, Diana; Harris, Lachlan; Harvey, Tracey J; Evelyn Heng, Yee Hsieh; Smith, Aaron G; Osinski, Jason; Hughes, James; Thomas, Paul; Gronostajski, Richard M; Bailey, Timothy L; Piper, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Nuclear factor one X (NFIX) has been shown to play a pivotal role during the development of many regions of the brain, including the neocortex, the hippocampus and the cerebellum. Mechanistically, NFIX has been shown to promote neural stem cell differentiation through the activation of astrocyte-specific genes and via the repression of genes central to progenitor cell self-renewal. Interestingly, mice lacking Nfix also exhibit other phenotypes with respect to development of the central nervous system, and whose underlying causes have yet to be determined. Here we examine one of the phenotypes displayed by Nfix(-/-) mice, namely hydrocephalus. Through the examination of embryonic and postnatal Nfix(-/-) mice we reveal that hydrocephalus is first seen at around postnatal day (P) 10 in mice lacking Nfix, and is fully penetrant by P20. Furthermore, we examined the subcommissural organ (SCO), the Sylvian aqueduct and the ependymal layer of the lateral ventricles, regions that when malformed and functionally perturbed have previously been implicated in the development of hydrocephalus. SOX3 is a factor known to regulate SCO development. Although we revealed that NFIX could repress Sox3-promoter-driven transcriptional activity in vitro, SOX3 expression within the SCO was normal within Nfix(-/-) mice, and Nfix mutant mice showed no abnormalities in the structure or function of the SCO. Moreover, these mutant mice exhibited no overt blockage of the Sylvian aqueduct. However, the ependymal layer of the lateral ventricles was frequently absent in Nfix(-/-) mice, suggesting that this phenotype may underlie the development of hydrocephalus within these knockout mice.

  2. TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF)

    EPA Science Inventory

    TITLE:
    TERATOGENIC RESPONSES ARE MODULATED IN MICE LACKING EXPRESSION OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR (EGF) AND TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR-ALPHA (TGF). AUTHORS (ALL): Abbott, Barbara D.1; Best, Deborah S.1; Narotsky, Michael G.1. SPONSOR NAME: None INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Repro Tox ...

  3. Lack of triglyceride-lowering properties of fish oil in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Asset, G; Baugé, E; Fruchart, J C; Dallongeville, J

    2001-03-01

    Fish oil is a potent triglyceride (TG)-lowering agent in humans. The goal of the present study was to assess the contribution of decreased triglyceride synthesis and of apoE in mediation of the triglyceride-lowering effect of fish oil. To this end, apoE-deficient mice and wild-type control mice were supplemented with either coconut oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil (20% wt/wt) for 2 weeks. Compared with coconut oil and sunflower oil, fish oil reduced the concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides in the wild-type mice, whereas it had no effect on cholesterol concentration and it had a triglyceride-raising effect in apoE-deficient mice. The latter was due to increased triglyceride concentrations in the d<1.019 g/mL plasma density fraction. In apoE-deficient mice, but not in wild-type mice, the postprandial triglyceride area under the curve was higher after an intragastric load of fish oil than after a sunflower oil load. These data indicate an impairment of triglyceride metabolism in the fish oil-fed apoE-deficient mice. Compared with coconut oil and sunflower oil, fish oil lowered triglyceride production rates measured with the Triton method in both wild-type (P<0.0001) and apoE-deficient mice (P<0.0001). Similarly, in vitro lipoprotein lipase-mediated lipolysis of VLDL was lowered in the fish oil-fed wild-type and apoE-deficient mice, suggesting an alteration in VLDL lipolysis independent of the mice genotype. In conclusion, fish oil does not decrease triglyceride concentrations in apoE-deficient mice despite reducing triglyceride production rates, suggesting that decreased triglyceride synthesis is not sufficient to lower triglyceride concentrations in mice. ApoE appears to be necessary for fish oil to lower plasma triglyceride concentrations, indicating a critical role of apoE in this process.

  4. Human enterovirus 71 subgenotype B3 lacks coxsackievirus A16-like neurovirulence in mice infection

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Yoke-Fun; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2005-01-01

    Background At least three different EV-71 subgenotypes were identified from an outbreak in Malaysia in 1998. The subgenotypes C2 and B4 were associated with the severe and fatal infections, whereas the B3 virus was associated with mild to subclinical infections. The B3 virus genome sequences had ≥85% similarity at the 3' end to CV-A16. This offers opportunities to examine if there are characteristic similarities and differences in virulence between CV-A16, EV-71 B3 and EV-71 B4 and to determine if the presence of the CV-A16-liked genes in EV-71 B3 would also confer the virus with a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection. Results Analysis of human enterovirus 71 (EV-71) subgenotype B3 genome sequences revealed that the 3D RNA polymerase and domain Z of the 3'-untranslating region RNA secondary structure had high similarity to CV-A16. Intracerebral inoculation of one-day old mice with the virus resulted in 16% of the mice showing swollen hind limbs and significantly lower weight gain in comparison to EV-71 B4-infected mice. None of the mice presented with hind leg paralysis typical in all the CV-A16 infected mice. CV-A16 genome sequences were amplified from the CV-A16-infected mice brain but no amplification was obtained from all the EV-71-inoculated mice suggesting that no replication had taken place in the suckling mice brain. Conclusion The findings presented here suggest that EV-71 B3 viruses had CV-A16-liked non-structural gene features at the 3'-end of the genome. Their presence could have affected virulence by affecting the mice general health but was insufficient to confer the EV-71 B3 virus a CV-A16-liked neurovirulence in mice model infection. PMID:16122396

  5. Absence of opioid stress-induced analgesia in mice lacking beta-endorphin by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, M; Mogil, J S; Japón, M; Chan, E C; Allen, R G; Low, M J

    1996-01-01

    A physiological role for beta-endorphin in endogenous pain inhibition was investigated by targeted mutagenesis of the proopiomelanocortin gene in mouse embryonic stem cells. The tyrosine codon at position 179 of the proopiomelanocortin gene was converted to a premature translational stop codon. The resulting transgenic mice display no overt developmental or behavioral alterations and have a normally functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Homozygous transgenic mice with a selective deficiency of beta-endorphin exhibit normal analgesia in response to morphine, indicating the presence of functional mu-opiate receptors. However, these mice lack the opioid (naloxone reversible) analgesia induced by mild swim stress. Mutant mice also display significantly greater nonopioid analgesia in response to cold water swim stress compared with controls and display paradoxical naloxone-induced analgesia. These changes may reflect compensatory upregulation of alternative pain inhibitory mechanisms. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8633004

  6. Lack of LCAT reduces the LPS-neutralizing capacity of HDL and enhances LPS-induced inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Petropoulou, Peristera-Ioanna; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Theodoropoulos, Vassilios; Hatziri, Aikaterini; Stamou, Panagiota; Karavia, Eleni A; Spyridonidis, Alexandros; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Kypreos, Kyriakos E

    2015-10-01

    HDL has important immunomodulatory properties, including the attenuation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response. As lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a critical enzyme in the maturation of HDL we investigated whether LCAT-deficient (Lcat(-/-)) mice present an increased LPS-induced inflammatory response. LPS (100μg/kg body weight)-induced cytokine response in Lcat(-/-) mice was markedly enhanced and prolonged compared to wild-type mice. Importantly, reintroducing LCAT expression using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer reverted their phenotype to that of wild-type mice. Ex vivo stimulation of whole blood with LPS (1-100ng/mL) showed a similar enhanced pro-inflammatory phenotype. Further characterization in RAW 264.7 macrophages in vitro showed that serum and HDL, but not chylomicrons, VLDL or the lipid-free protein fraction of Lcat(-/-) mice, had a reduced capacity to attenuate the LPS-induced TNFα response. Analysis of apolipoprotein composition revealed that LCAT-deficient HDL lacks significant amounts of ApoA-I and ApoA-II and is primarily composed of ApoE, while HDL from Apoa1(-/-) mice is highly enriched in ApoE and ApoA-II. ApoA-I-deficiency did not affect the capacity of HDL to neutralize LPS, though Apoa1(-/-) mice showed a pronounced LPS-induced cytokine response. Additional immunophenotyping showed that Lcat(-/-) , but not Apoa1(-/-) mice, have markedly increased circulating monocyte numbers as a result of increased Cd11b(+)Ly6C(med) monocytes, whereas 'pro-inflammatory' Cd11b(+)Ly6C(hi) monocytes were reduced. In line with this observation, peritoneal macrophages of Lcat(-/-) mice showed a markedly dampened LPS-induced TNFα response. We conclude that LCAT-deficiency increases LPS-induced inflammation in mice due to reduced LPS-neutralizing capacity of immature discoidal HDL and increased monocyte number. PMID:26170061

  7. Altered responses to bacterial infection and endotoxic shock in mice lacking inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    MacMicking, J D; Nathan, C; Hom, G; Chartrain, N; Fletcher, D S; Trumbauer, M; Stevens, K; Xie, Q W; Sokol, K; Hutchinson, N

    1995-05-19

    Mice deficient in inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were generated to test the idea that iNOS defends the host against infectious agents and tumor cells at the risk of contributing to tissue damage and shock. iNOS-/-mice failed to restrain the replication of Listeria monocytogenes in vivo or lymphoma cells in vitro. Bacterial endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) caused shock and death in anesthetized wild-type mice, but in iNOS-/-mice, the fall in central arterial blood pressure was markedly attenuated and early death averted. However, unanesthetized iNOS-/-mice suffered as much LPS-induced liver damage as wild type, and when primed with Propionobacterium acnes and challenged with LPS, they succumbed at the same rate as wild type. Thus, there exist both iNOS-dependent and iNOS-independent routes to LPS-induced hypotension and death.

  8. Mice that lack the C-terminal region of Reelin exhibit behavioral abnormalities related to neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kaori; Shoji, Hirotaka; Kohno, Takao; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The highly basic C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is necessary for efficient activation of its downstream signaling, and the brain structure of knock-in mice that lack the CTR (ΔC-KI mice) is impaired. Here, we performed a comprehensive behavioral test battery on ΔC-KI mice, in order to evaluate the effects of partial loss-of-function of Reelin on brain functions. The ΔC-KI mice were hyperactive and exhibited reduced anxiety-like and social behaviors. The working memory in ΔC-KI mice was impaired in a T-maze test. There was little difference in spatial reference memory, depression-like behavior, prepulse inhibition, or fear memory between ΔC-KI and wild-type mice. These results suggest that CTR-dependent Reelin functions are required for some specific normal brain functions and that ΔC-KI mice recapitulate some aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. PMID:27346785

  9. Monocyte/macrophage lineage commitment and distribution are affected by the lack of regulatory T cells in scurfy mice.

    PubMed

    Skuljec, Jelena; Cabanski, Maciej; Surdziel, Ewa; Lachmann, Nico; Brennig, Sebastian; Pul, Refik; Jirmo, Adan C; Habener, Anika; Visic, Julia; Dalüge, Kathleen; Hennig, Christian; Moritz, Thomas; Happle, Christine; Hansen, Gesine

    2016-07-01

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play a pivotal role in maintaining immunological tolerance. Loss-of-function mutations in the Foxp3 gene result in multiorgan inflammation known as immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome in humans and scurfy (Sf) disease in mice. While the impact of missing Treg cells on adaptive immune cells is well documented, their role in regulation of myeloid cells remains unclear. Here we report that Sf mice exhibit an altered composition of stem and progenitor cells, characterized by increased numbers of myeloid precursors and higher efficiency of macrophage generation ex vivo. The proportion of monocytes/macrophages in the bone marrow, blood, and spleen was significantly elevated in Sf mice, which was accompanied with tissue-specific monocyte expression of homing receptor and phagocytic activity. Sf mice displayed high levels of M-CSF and other inflammatory cytokines, including monocyte-recruiting chemokines. Adoptive transfer of WT CD4(+) cells and in vivo neutralization of M-CSF normalized frequencies of monocyte subsets and their progenitors and reduced high levels of monocyte-related cytokines in Sf mice, while Treg cell transfer to RAG2(-/-) mice had no effect on myelopoiesis and monocyte/macrophage counts. Our findings illustrate that deregulated myelopoiesis in Sf mice is mainly caused by the inflammatory reaction resulting from the lack of Treg cells.

  10. Mice that lack the C-terminal region of Reelin exhibit behavioral abnormalities related to neuropsychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Kaori; Shoji, Hirotaka; Kohno, Takao; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Hattori, Mitsuharu

    2016-01-01

    The secreted glycoprotein Reelin is believed to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of several neuropsychiatric disorders. The highly basic C-terminal region (CTR) of Reelin is necessary for efficient activation of its downstream signaling, and the brain structure of knock-in mice that lack the CTR (ΔC-KI mice) is impaired. Here, we performed a comprehensive behavioral test battery on ΔC-KI mice, in order to evaluate the effects of partial loss-of-function of Reelin on brain functions. The ΔC-KI mice were hyperactive and exhibited reduced anxiety-like and social behaviors. The working memory in ΔC-KI mice was impaired in a T-maze test. There was little difference in spatial reference memory, depression-like behavior, prepulse inhibition, or fear memory between ΔC-KI and wild-type mice. These results suggest that CTR-dependent Reelin functions are required for some specific normal brain functions and that ΔC-KI mice recapitulate some aspects of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. PMID:27346785

  11. Reduction of benzene metabolism and toxicity in mice that lack CYP2E1 expression.

    PubMed

    Valentine, J L; Lee, S S; Seaton, M J; Asgharian, B; Farris, G; Corton, J C; Gonzalez, F J; Medinsky, M A

    1996-11-01

    Transgenic CYP2E1 knockout mice (cyp2e1-/-) were used to investigate the involvement of CYP2E1 in the in vivo metabolism of benzene and in the development of benzene-induced toxicity. After benzene exposure, absence of CYP2E1 protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis of mouse liver samples. For the metabolism studies, male cyp2e1-/- and wild-type control mice were exposed to 200 ppm benzene, along with a radiolabeled tracer dose of [14C]benzene (1.0 Ci/mol) by nose-only inhalation for 6 hr. Total urinary radioactivity and all radiolabeled individual metabolites were reduced in urine of cyp2e1-/- mice compared to wild-type controls during the 48-hr period after benzene exposure. In addition, a significantly greater percentage of total urinary radioactivity could be accounted for as phenylsulfate conjugates in cyp2e1-/- mice compared to wild-type mice, indicating the importance of CYP2E1 in oxidation of phenol following benzene exposure in normal mice. For the toxicity studies, male cyp2e1-/-, wild-type, and B6C3F1 mice were exposed by whole-body inhalation to 0 ppm (control) or 200 ppm benzene, 6 hr/day for 5 days. On Day 5, blood, bone marrow, thymus, and spleen were removed for evaluation of micronuclei frequencies and tissue cellularities. No benzene-induced cytotoxicity or genotoxicity was observed in cyp2e1-/- mice. In contrast, benzene exposure resulted in severe genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in both wild-type and B6C3F1 mice. These studies conclusively demonstrate that CYP2E1 is the major determinant of in vivo benzene metabolism and benzene-induced myelotoxicity in mice.

  12. Lack of self-administration of cocaine in dopamine D1 receptor knock-out mice.

    PubMed

    Caine, S Barak; Thomsen, Morgane; Gabriel, Kara I; Berkowitz, Jill S; Gold, Lisa H; Koob, George F; Tonegawa, Susumu; Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Ming

    2007-11-28

    Evidence suggests a critical role for dopamine in the reinforcing effects of cocaine in rats and primates. However, self-administration has been less often studied in the mouse species, and, to date, "knock-out" of individual dopamine-related genes in mice has not been reported to reduce the reinforcing effects of cocaine. We studied the dopamine D1 receptor and cocaine self-administration in mice using a combination of gene-targeted mutation and pharmacological tools. Two cohorts with varied breeding and experimental histories were tested, and, in both cohorts, there was a significant decrease in the number of D1 receptor knock-out mice that met criteria for acquisition of cocaine self-administration (2 of 23) relative to wild-type mice (27 of 32). After extinction of responding with saline self-administration, dose-response studies showed that cocaine reliably and dose dependently maintained responding greater than saline in all wild-type mice but in none of the D1 receptor knock-out mice. The D1-like agonist SKF 82958 (2,3,4,5,-tetrahydro-6-chloro-7,8-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine hydrobromide) and the D2-like agonist quinelorane both functioned as positive reinforcers in wild-type mice but not in D1 receptor mutant mice, whereas food and intravenous injections of the opioid agonist remifentanil functioned as positive reinforcers in both genotypes. Finally, pretreatment with the D1-like antagonist SCH 23390 [R-(+)-8-chloro-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-1H-3-benzazepine-7-01] produced surmountable antagonism of the reinforcing effects of cocaine in the commonly used strain C57BL/6J. We conclude that D1 receptor knock-out mice do not reliably self-administer cocaine and that the D1 receptor is critical for the reinforcing effects of cocaine and other dopamine agonists, but not food or opioids, in mice.

  13. Lack of CD24 expression in mice reduces the number of leukocytes in the colon.

    PubMed

    Bretz, Niko P; Salnikov, Alexei V; Doberstein, Kai; Garbi, Natalio; Kloess, Volker; Joumaa, Safwan; Naumov, Inna; Boon, Louis; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Arber, Nadir; Altevogt, Peter

    2014-09-01

    CD24 is an extensively glycosylated membrane protein that is linked to the membrane via a glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor. In mice, CD24 is expressed by hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD24-/- mice do not have gross immunological defects, but detailed analysis revealed strongly reduced responses in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model and a massive proliferation of T cells under lymphopenic conditions. It was also demonstrated that preB cells from CD24-/- mice are impaired in α4-integrin-mediated cell binding. Here we report that CD24-/- mice have strongly reduced numbers of leukocytes in the colon compared to wildtype mice. The reduction comprized all subpopulations. Leukocyte counts in spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes or small intestine were not significantly different. We find that beside leukocytes, CD24 is widely expressed in EpCAM+ epithelial and CD31+ endothelial cells of colon and small intestine. However, in CD24-/- mice the number of CD31+ endothelial cells in colons was strongly reduced and the number of epithelial cells was augmented. Leukocyte transfer experiments provided evidence that the CD24 status of recipient mice, rather than of the transferred cells, is crucial for leukocyte recruitment to the colon. We hypothesize that CD24 on colonic epithelial and endothelial cells is required for the retention and positioning of leukocytes most likely by affecting integrin function.

  14. Coxsackievirus B 1-induced polymyositis. Lack of disease expression in nu/nu mice.

    PubMed Central

    Ytterberg, S R; Mahowald, M L; Messner, R P

    1987-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory myositis similar to human polymyositis occurs in mice after infection with a strain of Coxsackievirus B 1 (CVB 1). To investigate the role of T cells in the pathogenesis of this disorder, we compared disease expression in T cell-deficient athymic nude (nu/nu) mice and heterozygotes (nu/+) with normal T cell function. Acute infectious myositis occurred in nu/nu and nu/+ mice. Chronic (greater than 21 d postinfection) weakness and myositis, however, developed only in nu/+. Resistance to disease in nu/nu mice was not explained by insusceptibility to infection; the amount of virus lethal for 50% of mice and virus replication were comparable in both groups. Additionally, anti-CVB 1 antibody production was similar in both groups. Reconstitution of infected nu/nu mice with spleen cells from normal mice resulted in disease. These results demonstrate that chronic weakness after infection with this virus is not simply a sequela of acute myonecrosis and suggest that T cells play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of chronic myositis. Images PMID:3038960

  15. Female Mice Lacking Estrogen Receptor-α in Hypothalamic Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Neurons Display Enhanced Estrogenic Response on Cortical Bone Mass

    PubMed Central

    Farman, H. H.; Windahl, S. H.; Westberg, L.; Isaksson, H.; Egecioglu, E.; Schele, E.; Ryberg, H.; Jansson, J. O.; Tuukkanen, J.; Koskela, A.; Xie, S. K.; Hahner, L.; Zehr, J.; Clegg, D. J.; Lagerquist, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogens are important regulators of bone mass and their effects are mainly mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)α. Central ERα exerts an inhibitory role on bone mass. ERα is highly expressed in the arcuate (ARC) and the ventromedial (VMN) nuclei in the hypothalamus. To test whether ERα in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, located in ARC, is involved in the regulation of bone mass, we used mice lacking ERα expression specifically in POMC neurons (POMC-ERα−/−). Female POMC-ERα−/− and control mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with vehicle or estradiol (0.5 μg/d) for 6 weeks. As expected, estradiol treatment increased the cortical bone thickness in femur, the cortical bone mechanical strength in tibia and the trabecular bone volume fraction in both femur and vertebrae in OVX control mice. Importantly, the estrogenic responses were substantially increased in OVX POMC-ERα−/− mice compared with the estrogenic responses in OVX control mice for cortical bone thickness (+126 ± 34%, P < .01) and mechanical strength (+193 ± 38%, P < .01). To test whether ERα in VMN is involved in the regulation of bone mass, ERα was silenced using an adeno-associated viral vector. Silencing of ERα in hypothalamic VMN resulted in unchanged bone mass. In conclusion, mice lacking ERα in POMC neurons display enhanced estrogenic response on cortical bone mass and mechanical strength. We propose that the balance between inhibitory effects of central ERα activity in hypothalamic POMC neurons in ARC and stimulatory peripheral ERα-mediated effects in bone determines cortical bone mass in female mice. PMID:27254004

  16. Female Mice Lacking Estrogen Receptor-α in Hypothalamic Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) Neurons Display Enhanced Estrogenic Response on Cortical Bone Mass.

    PubMed

    Farman, H H; Windahl, S H; Westberg, L; Isaksson, H; Egecioglu, E; Schele, E; Ryberg, H; Jansson, J O; Tuukkanen, J; Koskela, A; Xie, S K; Hahner, L; Zehr, J; Clegg, D J; Lagerquist, M K; Ohlsson, C

    2016-08-01

    Estrogens are important regulators of bone mass and their effects are mainly mediated via estrogen receptor (ER)α. Central ERα exerts an inhibitory role on bone mass. ERα is highly expressed in the arcuate (ARC) and the ventromedial (VMN) nuclei in the hypothalamus. To test whether ERα in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, located in ARC, is involved in the regulation of bone mass, we used mice lacking ERα expression specifically in POMC neurons (POMC-ERα(-/-)). Female POMC-ERα(-/-) and control mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with vehicle or estradiol (0.5 μg/d) for 6 weeks. As expected, estradiol treatment increased the cortical bone thickness in femur, the cortical bone mechanical strength in tibia and the trabecular bone volume fraction in both femur and vertebrae in OVX control mice. Importantly, the estrogenic responses were substantially increased in OVX POMC-ERα(-/-) mice compared with the estrogenic responses in OVX control mice for cortical bone thickness (+126 ± 34%, P < .01) and mechanical strength (+193 ± 38%, P < .01). To test whether ERα in VMN is involved in the regulation of bone mass, ERα was silenced using an adeno-associated viral vector. Silencing of ERα in hypothalamic VMN resulted in unchanged bone mass. In conclusion, mice lacking ERα in POMC neurons display enhanced estrogenic response on cortical bone mass and mechanical strength. We propose that the balance between inhibitory effects of central ERα activity in hypothalamic POMC neurons in ARC and stimulatory peripheral ERα-mediated effects in bone determines cortical bone mass in female mice.

  17. Noncholinergic penile erection in mice lacking the gene for endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Arthur L; Chang, Alex G; Crone, Julie K; Huang, Paul L; Sezen, Sena E

    2002-01-01

    With the current understanding that nitric oxide (NO) mediates penile erection, the endothelial isoform of NO synthase (eNOS) has been implicated in this function. We undertook this study applying transgenic mice with targeted deletion of the eNOS gene (eNOS-/- mice) as an experimental approach to evaluate the importance of eNOS in cholinergically stimulated erectile function in vivo. Combined pharmacostimulation with intracavernosal carbachol (3 ng) administration and submaximal cavernous nerve (CN) electrical stimulation (16 Hz, 5 millisecond, 1 V) simultaneous with intracavernosal pressure (ICP) monitoring, and both biochemical assay of NO synthase activity and Western blot analysis of eNOS protein content in penile tissue, were performed on eNOS-/- mice and wild-type controls. Combined intracavernosal carbachol administration and submaximal CN electrical stimulation raised the recorded ICP, elicited by CN electrical stimulation alone in wild-type mice (from 35.7 +/- 2.7 to 48.1 +/- 5.5 mm Hg, P < .05) but not in eNOS-/ - mice (from 54.9 +/- 6.3 to 51.0 +/- 9.5 mm Hg, not significant [NS]). Pretreatment with the nonselective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mg intracavernosally) blocked electrically stimulated ICP responses in eNOS-/- mice to baseline levels (37.8 +/- 4.4 vs 12.7 +/- 4.0 mm Hg, P < .05). In penes of eNOS-/- mice, approximately 60% NO synthase activity of wild-type penis levels was retained (NS), and eNOS protein was absent. We concluded that eNOS-/- mice preserve erectile function on the basis of a noncholinergic but NO-dependent mechanism and that eNOS physiologically mediates penile erection under cholinergic stimulation. PMID:11780929

  18. Lack of Transcription Factor p53 Exacerbates Elastase-Induced Emphysema in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chrusciel, Sandra; Zysman, Maéva; Caramelle, Philippe; Tiendrebeogo, Arnaud; Baskara, Indoumady; Le Gouvello, Sabine; Chabot, François; Giraudier, Stéphane; Boczkowski, Jorge; Boyer, Laurent

    2016-02-01

    The transcription factor p53 is overexpressed in the lung of patients with emphysema, but it remains unclear if it has a deleterious or protective effect in disease progression. We investigated the role of p53 in the elastase-induced emphysema model and the molecular underlining mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) and p53(-/-) mice were instilled with pancreatic porcine elastase. We quantified emphysema (morphometric analysis), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), and TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) (ELISA), oxidative stress markers [heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1), and quantitative RT-PCR], matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) expression, and macrophage apoptosis (cleaved caspase-3, immunofluorescence). p53 gene expression was up-regulated in the lung of elastase-instilled mice. p53 deletion aggravated elastase-induced emphysema severity, pulmonary inflammation (macrophage and neutrophil numbers and CCL2 and TNF-α levels in BAL), and lung oxidative stress. These findings, except for the increase in CCL2, were reproduced in WT mice transplanted with p53(-/-) bone marrow cells. The increased number of macrophages in p53(-/-) mice was not a consequence of reduced apoptosis or an excess of chemotaxis toward CCL2. Macrophage expression of MMP12 was higher in p53(-/-) mice compared with WT mice after elastase instillation. These findings provide evidence that p53(-/-) mice and WT mice grafted with p53(-/-) bone marrow cells are more prone to developing elastase-induced emphysema, supporting a protective role of p53, and more precisely p53 expressed in macrophages, against emphysema development. The pivotal role played by macrophages in this phenomenon may involve the MMP12-TNF-α pathway.

  19. Lack of fear response in mice (Mus musculus) exposed to human urine odor.

    PubMed

    Rivard, Germain F; Moser, Emily G; D'Ambrose, Steven P; Lin, David M

    2014-03-01

    A goal of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals is to improve animal welfare by minimizing sources of fear, anxiety, and stress. As a result, it includes recommendations on overcrowding, frequency of cage changes, enrichment, and group housing. However, human odorants are a potential but unexplored source of fear, anxiety, and stress. Although mice have been maintained for decades for animal research, whether mice perceive humans as predators is unknown. If so, this would necessitate changes in animal care and use procedures to minimize this source of chronic fear, anxiety, and stress. Odorants from predator urine are well known to elicit strong fear responses in mice, leading to modification of animal behavior and elevated levels of stress. To begin asking whether human odors influence mouse behavior, we tested the effect of human urine odor on fear response in mice. We assessed mouse behavior by using a modified shuttle cage to record various parameters of mouse exposure to odorants. We found that mice displayed fear responses to 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a synthetic analog of red fox feces, but no fear response to DMSO, the diluent for 2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline. In contrast, mice exposed to human urine samples showed no significant fear response. PMID:24602539

  20. Infection susceptibility and immune senescence with advancing age replicated in accelerated aging Lmna(Dhe) mice.

    PubMed

    Xin, Lijun; Jiang, Tony T; Kinder, Jeremy M; Ertelt, James M; Way, Sing Sing

    2015-12-01

    Aging confers increased susceptibility to common pathogens including influenza A virus. Despite shared vulnerability to infection with advancing age in humans and rodents, the relatively long time required for immune senescence to take hold practically restricts the use of naturally aged mice to investigate aging-induced immunological shifts. Here, we show accelerated aging Lmna(Dhe) mice with spontaneous mutation in the nuclear scaffolding protein, lamin A, replicate infection susceptibility, and substantial immune cell shifts that occur with advancing age. Naturally aged (≥ 20 month) and 2- to 3-month-old Lmna(Dhe) mice share near identically increased influenza A susceptibility compared with age-matched Lmna(WT) control mice. Increased mortality and higher viral burden after influenza infection in Lmna(Dhe) mice parallel reduced accumulation of lung alveolar macrophage cells, systemic expansion of immune suppressive Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells, and skewed immune dominance among viral-specific CD8⁺T cells similar to the immunological phenotype of naturally aged mice. Thus, aging-induced infection susceptibility and immune senescence are replicated in accelerated aging Lmna(Dhe) mice. PMID:26248606

  1. Peripheral Surgical Wounding and Age-Dependent Neuroinflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Culley, Deborah J.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Crosby, Gregory; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Zhang, Yiying; Xie, Zhongcong

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation), CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients. PMID:24796537

  2. Lack of tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 inhibits liver fibrosis induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Kaori; Yamada, Yasuhiro; Moriwaki, Hisataka; Saito, Kuniaki; Seishima, Mitsuru

    2005-03-01

    Chronic liver injury causes liver regeneration, resulting in fibrosis. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is involved in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic liver diseases. TNF has pleiotropic functions, but its role in liver fibrosis has not been clarified. Chronic repeated injection of CCl4 induces liver fibrosis in mice. We examined whether signaling through TNF receptors was critical for this process, using mice lacking either TNF receptor (TNFR) type 1 or TNFR type 2 to define the pathophysiologic role of TNFR signals in liver fibrosis. Liver fibrosis caused by chronic CCl4 exposure was TNF-dependent; histological fibrosis was seen in wild-type (WT) and TNFR-2 knockout (KO) mice, but not in TNFR-1 KO mice. Furthermore, a marked reduction in procollagen and TGF-beta synthesis was observed in TNFR-1 KO mice, which also had little detectable NF-kappa B, STAT3, and AP1 binding, and reduced levels of liver interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA compared to WT and TNFR-2 KO mice. In conclusion, our results indicate the possibility that NF-kappa B, STAT3, and AP1 binding by signals transduced through TNFR-1 plays an important role in liver fibrosis formation.

  3. Respiratory and sniffing behaviors throughout adulthood and aging in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wesson, Daniel W.; Varga-Wesson, Adrienn G.; Borkowski, Anne H.; Wilson, Donald A.

    2011-01-01

    Orienting responses are physiological and active behavioral reactions evoked by novel stimulus perception and are critical for survival. We explored whether odor orienting responses are impacted throughout both adulthood and normal and pathological aging in mice. Novel odor investigation (including duration and bout numbers) and its subsequent habituation as assayed in the odor habituation task were preserved in adult C57BL/6J mice up to 12mo of age with <6% variability between age groups in investigation time. Separately, using whole-body plethysmography we found that both spontaneous respiration and odor-evoked sniffing behaviors were strikingly preserved in wildtype (WT) mice up to 26mo of age. In contrast, mice accumulating amyloid-β protein in the brain by means of overexpressing mutations in the human amyloid precursor protein gene (APP) showed preserved spontaneous respiration up to 12mo, but starting at 14mo showed significant differences from WT. Similar to WTs, odor-evoked sniffing was not impacted in APP mice up to 26mo. These results show that odor-orienting responses are minimally impacted throughout aging in mice, and suggest that the olfactomotor network is mostly spared of insults due to aging. PMID:21524667

  4. Post-Exposure Vaccination with MP-12 Lacking NSs Protects Mice Against Lethal Rift Valley Fever Virus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Gowen, Brian B.; Bailey, Kevin W.; Scharton, Dionna; Vest, Zachery; Westover, Jonna B.; Skirpstunas, Ramona; Ikegami, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes severe disease in humans and livestock. There are currently no approved antivirals or vaccines for the treatment or prevention of RVF disease in humans. A major virulence factor of RVFV is the NSs protein, which inhibits host transcription including the interferon (IFN)-β gene and promotes the degradation of dsRNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. We analyzed the efficacy of the live-attenuated MP-12 vaccine strain and MP-12 variants that lack the NSs protein as post-exposure vaccinations. Although parental MP-12 failed to elicit a protective effect in mice challenged with wild-type (wt) RVFV by the intranasal route, significant protection was demonstrated by vaccination with MP-12 strains lacking NSs when they were administered at 20 to 30 min post-exposure. Viremia and virus replication in liver, spleen and brain were also inhibited by post-exposure vaccination with MP-12 lacking NSs. The protective effect was mostly lost when vaccination was delayed 6 or 24 h after intranasal RVFV challenge. When mice were challenged subcutaneously, efficacy of MP-12 lacking NSs was diminished, most likely due to more rapid dissemination of wt RVFV. Our findings suggest that post-exposure vaccination with MP-12 lacking NSs may be developed as a novel post-exposure treatment to prevent RVF. PMID:23523764

  5. Lack of TRPM2 Impaired Insulin Secretion and Glucose Metabolisms in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Kunitoshi; Dezaki, Katsuya; Damdindorj, Boldbaatar; Inada, Hitoshi; Shiuchi, Tetsuya; Mori, Yasuo; Yada, Toshihiko; Minokoshi, Yasuhiko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE TRPM2 is a Ca2+-permeable nonselective cation channel activated by adenosine dinucleotides. We previously demonstrated that TRPM2 is activated by coapplication of heat and intracellular cyclic adenosine 5′-diphosphoribose, which has been suggested to be involved in intracellular Ca2+ increase in immunocytes and pancreatic β-cells. To clarify the involvement of TRPM2 in insulin secretion, we analyzed TRPM2 knockout (TRPM2-KO) mice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Oral and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests (OGTT and IPGTT) were performed in TRPM2-KO and wild-type mice. We also measured cytosolic free Ca2+ in single pancreatic cells using fura-2 microfluorometry and insulin secretion from pancreatic islets. RESULTS Basal blood glucose levels were higher in TRPM2-KO mice than in wild-type mice without any difference in plasma insulin levels. The OGTT and IPGTT demonstrated that blood glucose levels in TRPM2-KO mice were higher than those in wild-type mice, which was associated with an impairment in insulin secretion. In isolated β-cells, smaller intracellular Ca2+ increase was observed in response to high concentrations of glucose and incretin hormone in TRPM2-KO cells than in wild-type cells. Moreover, insulin secretion from the islets of TRPM2-KO mice in response to glucose and incretin hormone treatment was impaired, whereas the response to tolbutamide, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor, was not different between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS These results indicate that TRPM2 is involved in insulin secretion stimulated by glucose and that further potentiated by incretins. Thus, TRPM2 may be a new target for diabetes therapy. PMID:20921208

  6. Environmental Enrichment Ameliorates Behavioral Impairments Modeling Schizophrenia in Mice Lacking Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Emma L; McOmish, Caitlin E; Buret, Laetitia S; Van den Buuse, Maarten; Hannan, Anthony J

    2015-07-01

    Schizophrenia arises from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Abnormalities in glutamatergic signaling have been proposed to underlie the emergence of symptoms, in light of various lines of evidence, including the psychotomimetic effects of NMDA receptor antagonists. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) has also been implicated in the disorder, and has been shown to physically interact with NMDA receptors. To clarify the role of mGlu5-dependent behavioral expression by environmental factors, we assessed mGlu5 knockout (KO) mice after exposure to environmental enrichment (EE) or reared under standard conditions. The mGlu5 KO mice showed reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI), long-term memory deficits, and spontaneous locomotor hyperactivity, which were all attenuated by EE. Examining the cellular impact of genetic and environmental manipulation, we show that EE significantly increased pyramidal cell dendritic branching and BDNF protein levels in the hippocampus of wild-type mice; however, mGlu5 KO mice were resistant to these alterations, suggesting that mGlu5 is critical to these responses. A selective effect of EE on the behavioral response to the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 in mGlu5 KO mice was seen. MK-801-induced hyperlocomotion was further potentiated in enriched mGlu5 KO mice and treatment with MK-801 reinstated PPI disruption in EE mGlu5 KO mice only, a response that is absent under standard housing conditions. Together, these results demonstrate an important role for mGlu5 in environmental modulation of schizophrenia-related behavioral impairments. Furthermore, this role of the mGlu5 receptor is mediated by interaction with NMDA receptor function, which may inform development of novel therapeutics.

  7. Enhanced insulin sensitivity of gene-targeted mice lacking functional KCNQ1

    PubMed Central

    Boini, Krishna M.; Graf, Dirk; Hennige, Anita M.; Koka, Saisudha; Kempe, Daniela S.; Wang, Kan; Ackermann, Teresa F.; Föller, Michael; Vallon, Volker; Pfeifer, Karl; Schleicher, Erwin; Ullrich, Susanne; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Häussinger, Dieter; Lang, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The pore-forming K+-channel α-subunit KCNQ1 is expressed in a wide variety of tissues including heart, skeletal muscle, liver, and epithelia. Most recent evidence revealed an association of the KCNQ1 gene with the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. KCNQ1 participates in the regulation of cell volume, which is, in turn, critically important for the regulation of metabolism by insulin. The present study explored the influence of KCNQ1 on insulin-induced cellular K+ uptake and glucose metabolism. Insulin (100 nM)-induced K+ uptake was determined in isolated perfused livers from KCNQ1-deficient mice (kcnq1−/−) and their wild-type littermates (kcnq1+/+). Moreover, plasma glucose and insulin levels, intraperitoneal glucose (3 g/kg) tolerance, insulin (0.15 U/kg)-induced hypoglycemia, and peripheral uptake of radiolabeled 3H-deoxy-glucose were determined in both genotypes. Insulin-stimulated hepatocellular K+ uptake was significantly more sustained in isolated perfused livers from kcnq1−/− mice than from kcnq1+/+mice. The decline of plasma glucose concentration following an intraperitoneal injection of insulin was again significantly more sustained in kcnq1−/− than in kcnq1+/+ mice. Both fasted and nonfasted plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly lower in kcnq1−/− than in kcnq1+/+mice. Following an intraperitoneal glucose injection, the peak plasma glucose concentration was significantly lower in kcnq1−/− than in kcnq1+/+mice. Uptake of 3H-deoxy-glucose into skeletal muscle, liver, kidney and lung tissue was significantly higher in kcnq1−/− than in kcnq1+/+mice. In conclusion, KCNQ1 counteracts the stimulation of cellular K+ uptake by insulin and thereby influences K+-dependent insulin signaling on glucose metabolism. The observations indicate that KCNQ1 is a novel molecule affecting insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism. PMID:19369585

  8. Essential Role of STAT3 in Postnatal Survival and Growth Revealed by Mice Lacking STAT3 Serine 727 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yuhong; Schlessinger, Karni; Zhu, Xuejun; Meffre, Eric; Quimby, Fred; Levy, David E.; Darnell, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    A large number of extracellular polypeptides bound to their cognate receptors activate the transcription factor STAT3 by phosphorylation of tyrosine 705. Supplemental activation occurs when serine 727 is also phosphorylated. STAT3 deletion in mice leads to embryonic lethality. We have produced mice with alanine substituted for serine 727 in STAT3 (the SA allele) to examine the function of serine 727 phosphorylation in vivo. Embryonic fibroblasts from SA/SA mice had ∼50% of the transcriptional response of wild-type cells. However, SA/SA mice were viable and grossly normal. STAT3 wild-type/null (+/−) animals were also normal and were interbred with SA/SA mice to study SA/− mice. The SA/− mice progressed through gestation, showing 10 to 15% reduced birth weight, three-fourths died soon after birth, and the SA/− survivors reached only 50 to 60% of normal size at 1 week of age. The lethality and decreased growth were accompanied by altered insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in serum, establishing a role for the STAT3 serine phosphorylation acting through IGF-1 in embryonic and perinatal growth. The SA/− survivors have decreased thymocyte number associated with increased apoptosis, but unexpectedly normal STAT3-dependent liver acute phase response. These animals offer the opportunity to study defined reductions in the transcriptional capacity of a widely used signaling pathway. PMID:14673173

  9. Increased susceptibility to ultraviolet-B and carcinogens of mice lacking the DNA excision repair gene XPA.

    PubMed

    de Vries, A; van Oostrom, C T; Hofhuis, F M; Dortant, P M; Berg, R J; de Gruijl, F R; Wester, P W; van Kreijl, C F; Capel, P J; van Steeg, H; Verbeek, S J

    1995-09-14

    Xeroderma pigmentosum patients with a defect in the nucleotide-excision repair gene XPA are characterized by, for example, a > 1,000-fold higher risk of developing sunlight-induced skin cancer. Nucleotide-excision repair (NER) is involved in the removal of a wide spectrum of DNA lesions. The XPA protein functions in a pre-incision step, the recognition of DNA damage. To permit the functional analysis of the XPA gene in vivo, we have generated XPA-deficient mice by gene targeting in embryonic stem cells. The XPA-/-mice appear normal, at least until the age of 13 months. XPA-/-mice are highly susceptible to ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced skin and eye tumours and to 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced skin tumours. We conclude that the XPA-deficient mice strongly mimic the phenotype of humans with xeroderma pigmentosum. PMID:7675086

  10. Age dependent course of EAE in Aire-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Aharoni, Rina; Aricha, Revital; Eilam, Raya; From, Ido; Mizrahi, Keren; Arnon, Ruth; Souroujon, Miriam C; Fuchs, Sara

    2013-09-15

    This study explores the consequences of deficiency in the autoimmune regulator (Aire) on the susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Increased susceptibility to EAE was found in Aire knockout (KO) compared to wild type (WT) in 6month old mice. In contrast, 2month old Aire KO mice were less susceptible to EAE than WT mice, and this age-related resistance correlated with elevated proportions of T regulatory (Treg) cells in their spleen and brain. Combined with our previous findings in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis, we suggest an age-related association between Aire and Treg cells in the susceptibility to autoimmunity.

  11. Lack of Endogenous IL-10 Enhances Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines and Leads to Brucella abortus Clearance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Corsetti, Patrícia P.; de Almeida, Leonardo A.; Carvalho, Natália B.; Azevedo, Vasco; Silva, Teane M. A.; Teixeira, Henrique C.; Faria, Ana C.; Oliveira, Sergio C.

    2013-01-01

    IL-10 is a cytokine that regulates the balance between pathogen clearance and immunopathology. Brucella abortus is an intracellular bacterium that causes chronic disease in humans and domestic animals. Here we evaluated the contribution of IL-10 in host immune response and pathology during B. abortus infection. To assess the role of IL-10 in vivo, IL-10 knockout (KO) or 129 Sv/Ev (wild-type) mice were infected with B. abortus and the number of viable bacteria from the spleen was determined at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 14-weeks postinfection. IL-10 KO mice showed reduced bacterial loads in the spleen when compared to wild-type mice during all time points studied. Additionally, at 14-weeks postinfection IL-10 KO mice had totally cleared the infection. This clearance was preceded by an enhanced IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-17 responses in both the serum and the spleen of IL-10 KO mice. Additionally, dendritic cells from infected IL-10 KO mice produced elevated levels of IL-12 and TNF-α compared to wild-type animals. Histopathology analysis was performed and both KO and wild-type mice developed multifocal granulomas and necrosis in the liver. However, at six-weeks postinfection reduced numbers of granulomas was detected in IL-10 KO mice compared to wild-type animals. This reduced liver pathology at later stage of infection was accompanied by increased numbers of CD4+CD25+foxp3+ T cells and expression of TGF-β in IL-10 KO splenocytes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that IL-10 modulates the proinflammatory immune response to B. abortus infection and the lack of IL-10 increases resistance to Brucella infection. PMID:24069337

  12. Mice Lacking Platelet-Derived Growth Factor D Display a Mild Vascular Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gladh, Hanna; Folestad, Erika Bergsten; Muhl, Lars; Ehnman, Monika; Tannenberg, Philip; Lawrence, Anna-Lisa; Betsholtz, Christer; Eriksson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor D (PDGF-D) is the most recently discovered member of the PDGF family. PDGF-D signals through PDGF receptor β, but its biological role remains largely unknown. In contrast to other members of the PDGF family of growth factors, which have been extensively investigated using different knockout approaches in mice, PDGF-D has until now not been characterized by gene inactivation in mice. Here, we present the phenotype of a constitutive Pdgfd knockout mouse model (Pdgfd-/-), carrying a LacZ reporter used to visualize Pdgfd promoter activity. Inactivation of the Pdgfd gene resulted in a mild phenotype in C57BL/6 mice, and the offspring was viable, fertile and generally in good health. We show that Pdgfd reporter gene activity was consistently localized to vascular structures in both postnatal and adult tissues. The expression was predominantly arterial, often localizing to vascular bifurcations. Endothelial cells appeared to be the dominating source for Pdgfd, but reporter gene activity was occasionally also found in subpopulations of mural cells. Tissue-specific analyses of vascular structures revealed that NG2-expressing pericytes of the cardiac vasculature were disorganized in Pdgfd-/- mice. Furthermore, Pdgfd-/- mice also had a slightly elevated blood pressure. In summary, the vascular expression pattern together with morphological changes in NG2-expressing cells, and the increase in blood pressure, support a function for PDGF-D in regulating systemic arterial blood pressure, and suggests a role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. PMID:27032083

  13. Lack of Evidence for Neonatal Misoprostol Neurodevelopmental Toxicity in C57BL6/J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Claire M.; Walker, Cheryl K.; Qi, Lihong; Pessah, Isaac N.; Berman, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Misoprostol is a synthetic analogue of prostaglandin E1 that is administered to women at high doses to induce uterine contractions for early pregnancy termination and at low doses to aid in cervical priming during labor. Because of the known teratogenic effects of misoprostol when given during gestation and its effects on axonal growth in vitro, we examined misoprostol for its potential as a neurodevelopmental toxicant when administered to neonatal C57BL6/J mice. Mice were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 0.4, 4 or 40 µg/kg misoprostol on postnatal day 7, the approximate developmental stage in mice of human birth, after which neonatal somatic growth, and sensory and motor system development were assessed. These doses were selected to span the range of human exposure used to induce labor. In addition, adult mice underwent a battery of behavioral tests relevant to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism including tests for anxiety, stereotyped behaviors, social communication and interactions, and learning and memory. No significant effects of exposure were found for any measure of development or behavioral endpoints. In conclusion, the results of the present study in C57BL/6J mice do not provide support for neurodevelopmental toxicity after misoprostol administration approximating human doses and timed to coincide with the developmental stage of human birth. PMID:22719983

  14. Profound obesity secondary to hyperphagia in mice lacking kinase suppressor of ras 2.

    PubMed

    Revelli, Jean-Pierre; Smith, Deon; Allen, Jason; Jeter-Jones, Sabrina; Shadoan, Melanie K; Desai, Urvi; Schneider, Matthias; van Sligtenhorst, Isaac; Kirkpatrick, Laura; Platt, Kenneth A; Suwanichkul, Adisak; Savelieva, Katerina; Gerhardt, Brenda; Mitchell, Jay; Syrewicz, James; Zambrowicz, Brian; Hamman, Brian D; Vogel, Peter; Powell, David R

    2011-05-01

    The kinase suppressor of ras 2 (KSR2) gene resides at human chromosome 12q24, a region linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). While knocking out and phenotypically screening mouse orthologs of thousands of druggable human genes, we found KSR2 knockout (KSR2(-/-)) mice to be more obese and glucose intolerant than melanocortin 4 receptor(-/-) (MC4R(-/-)) mice. The obesity and T2D of KSR2(-/-) mice resulted from hyperphagia which was unresponsive to leptin and did not originate downstream of MC4R. The kinases AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are each linked to food intake regulation, but only mTOR had increased activity in KSR2(-/-) mouse brain, and the ability of rapamycin to inhibit food intake in KSR2(-/-) mice further implicated mTOR in this process. The metabolic phenotype of KSR2 heterozygous (KSR2(+/minus;)) and KSR2(-/-) mice suggests that human KSR2 variants may contribute to a similar phenotype linked to human chromosome 12q24.

  15. Attenuation of Cystitis and Pain Sensation in Mice Lacking Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zun-Yi; Wang, Peiqing; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Bjorling, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    Endocannabinoids, such as N-arachidonylethanolamine (AEA, also called anandamide), exert potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is primarily responsible for degradation of AEA, and deletion of FAAH increases AEA content in various tissues. Since FAAH has been shown to be present in the bladder of various species, we compared bladder function, severity of experimental cystitis, and cystitis-associated referred hyperalgesia in male wild type (WT) and FAAH knock-out (KO) mice. Basal concentrations of AEA were greater, and the severity of cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis was reduced in bladders from FAAH KO compared to WT mice. Cystitis-associated increased peripheral sensitivity to mechanical stimuli and enhanced bladder activity (as reflected by increased voiding frequency) were attenuated in FAAH KO compared to WT mice. Further, abundances of mRNA for several pro-inflammatory compounds were increased in bladder mucosa after CYP treatment of WT mice, and this increase was inhibited in FAAH KO mice. These data indicate that endogenous substrates of FAAH, including the cannabinoid AEA, play an inhibitory role in bladder inflammation and subsequent changes in pain perception. Therefore, FAAH could be a therapeutic target to treat clinical symptoms of painful inflammatory bladder diseases. PMID:25374388

  16. Mice lacking ANGPTL8 (Betatrophin) manifest disrupted triglyceride metabolism without impaired glucose homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Quagliarini, Fabiana; Gusarova, Viktoria; Gromada, Jesper; Valenzuela, David M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.; Hobbs, Helen H.

    2013-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL)8 (alternatively called TD26, RIFL, Lipasin, and Betatrophin) is a newly recognized ANGPTL family member that has been implicated in both triglyceride (TG) and glucose metabolism. Hepatic overexpression of ANGPTL8 causes hypertriglyceridemia and increased insulin secretion. Here we examined the effects of inactivating Angptl8 on TG and glucose metabolism in mice. Angptl8 knockout (Angptl8−/−) mice gained weight more slowly than wild-type littermates due to a selective reduction in adipose tissue accretion. Plasma levels of TGs of the Angptl8−/− mice were similar to wild-type animals in the fasted state but paradoxically decreased after refeeding. The lower TG levels were associated with both a reduction in very low density lipoprotein secretion and an increase in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity. Despite the increase in LPL activity, the uptake of very low density lipoprotein-TG is markedly reduced in adipose tissue but preserved in hearts of fed Angptl8−/− mice. Taken together, these data indicate that ANGPTL8 plays a key role in the metabolic transition between fasting and refeeding; it is required to direct fatty acids to adipose tissue for storage in the fed state. Finally, glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed no alterations in glucose homeostasis in mice fed either a chow or high fat diet. Thus, although absence of ANGPTL8 profoundly disrupts TG metabolism, we found no evidence that it is required for maintenance of glucose homeostasis. PMID:24043787

  17. Diversity of TCRs on natural Foxp3+ T cells in mice lacking Aire expression.

    PubMed

    Daniely, Danielle; Kern, Joanna; Cebula, Anna; Ignatowicz, Leszek

    2010-06-15

    Medullary thymic epithelial cells expressing the Aire gene play a critical role in the induction of tolerance to tissue-specific Ags (TSAs). It was postulated that recognition of Aire-controlled TSAs by immature thymocytes results in the selection of natural CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and enriches this repertoire in self-reactive receptors, contributing to its vast diversity. In this study, we compared the TCRs on individual Tregs in Aire+ and Aire- mice expressing a miniature TCR repertoire (TCRmini) along with GFP driven by the Foxp3 promoter (Foxp3GFP). The Treg TCR repertoires in Aire+ and Aire- TCRminiFoxp3GFP mice were similar and more diverse than their repertoires on CD4+ Foxp3- thymocytes. Further, TCRs found on potentially self-reactive T cells, with an activated phenotype (CD4+Foxp3-CD62Llow) in Aire- TCRminiFoxp3GFP mice, appear distinct from TCRs found on Tregs in Aire+ TCRminiFoxp3GFP mice. Lastly, we found no evidence that TSAs presented by medullary thymic epithelial cells in Aire+TCRmini mice are often recognized as agonists by Treg-derived TCR hybridomas or CD4+CD25+ thymocytes, containing both natural Tregs and precursors. Thus, positive selection and self-reactivity of the global Treg repertoire are not controlled by Aire-dependent TSAs.

  18. Mice Lacking Platelet-Derived Growth Factor D Display a Mild Vascular Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Muhl, Lars; Ehnman, Monika; Tannenberg, Philip; Lawrence, Anna-Lisa; Betsholtz, Christer; Eriksson, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor D (PDGF-D) is the most recently discovered member of the PDGF family. PDGF-D signals through PDGF receptor β, but its biological role remains largely unknown. In contrast to other members of the PDGF family of growth factors, which have been extensively investigated using different knockout approaches in mice, PDGF-D has until now not been characterized by gene inactivation in mice. Here, we present the phenotype of a constitutive Pdgfd knockout mouse model (Pdgfd-/-), carrying a LacZ reporter used to visualize Pdgfd promoter activity. Inactivation of the Pdgfd gene resulted in a mild phenotype in C57BL/6 mice, and the offspring was viable, fertile and generally in good health. We show that Pdgfd reporter gene activity was consistently localized to vascular structures in both postnatal and adult tissues. The expression was predominantly arterial, often localizing to vascular bifurcations. Endothelial cells appeared to be the dominating source for Pdgfd, but reporter gene activity was occasionally also found in subpopulations of mural cells. Tissue-specific analyses of vascular structures revealed that NG2-expressing pericytes of the cardiac vasculature were disorganized in Pdgfd-/- mice. Furthermore, Pdgfd-/- mice also had a slightly elevated blood pressure. In summary, the vascular expression pattern together with morphological changes in NG2-expressing cells, and the increase in blood pressure, support a function for PDGF-D in regulating systemic arterial blood pressure, and suggests a role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. PMID:27032083

  19. Mice lacking the synaptic adhesion molecule Neph2/Kirrel3 display moderate hyperactivity and defective novel object preference

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Su-Yeon; Han, Kihoon; Cutforth, Tyler; Chung, Woosuk; Park, Haram; Lee, Dongsoo; Kim, Ryunhee; Kim, Myeong-Heui; Choi, Yeeun; Shen, Kang; Kim, Eunjoon

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic adhesion molecules regulate diverse aspects of neuronal synapse development, including synapse specificity, formation, and maturation. Neph2, also known as Kirrel3, is an immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule implicated in intellectual disability, neurocognitive delay associated with Jacobsen syndrome, and autism spectrum disorders. We here report mice lacking Neph2 (Neph2-/- mice) display moderate hyperactivity in a familiar, but not novel, environment and defective novel object recognition with normal performances in Morris water maze spatial learning and memory, contextual fear conditioning and extinction, and pattern separation tests. These mice also show normal levels of anxiety-like behaviors, social interaction, and repetitive behaviors. At the synapse level, Neph2-/- dentate gyrus granule cells exhibit unaltered dendritic spine density and spontaneous excitatory synaptic transmission. These results suggest that Neph2 is important for normal locomotor activity and object recognition memory. PMID:26283919

  20. Decreased brain infarct following focal ischemia in mice lacking the transcription factor E2F1.

    PubMed

    MacManus, J P; Koch, C J; Jian, M; Walker, T; Zurakowski, B

    1999-09-01

    E2F1+/- mice subjected to 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion developed an infarct of 77.0 +/- 3.2 mm3 (mean +/- s.e.m., n = 15) in the ischemic hemisphere after 24 h reperfusion. A significantly smaller infarct of 58.8 +/- 4.8 mm3 (n = 15; p < 0.01) was found in E2F1-/- animals. Both deficient and normal mice had similar cerebral angioarchitecture and intra-ischemic decreases in regional blood flow. Similar areas of hypoxia in both groups of ischemic animals were demonstrated directly by immunohistochemical detection of nitroimidazole adducts. It was concluded that all animals received the same ischemic insult, yet the subsequent damage was different in the mutant mice. This is the first indication that the E2F1 gene plays a role in ischemic death of post-mitotic neurons. PMID:10511428

  1. Atypical scrapie prions from sheep and lack of disease in transgenic mice overexpressing human prion protein.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Spiropoulos, John; Simmons, Marion M; Griffiths, Peter C; Groschup, Martin H; Hope, James; Brandner, Sebastian; Asante, Emmanuel A; Collinge, John

    2013-11-01

    Public and animal health controls to limit human exposure to animal prions are focused on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), but other prion strains in ruminants may also have zoonotic potential. One example is atypical/Nor98 scrapie, which evaded statutory diagnostic methods worldwide until the early 2000s. To investigate whether sheep infected with scrapie prions could be another source of infection, we inoculated transgenic mice that overexpressed human prion protein with brain tissue from sheep with natural field cases of classical and atypical scrapie, sheep with experimental BSE, and cattle with BSE. We found that these mice were susceptible to BSE prions, but disease did not develop after prolonged postinoculation periods when mice were inoculated with classical or atypical scrapie prions. These data are consistent with the conclusion that prion disease is less likely to develop in humans after exposure to naturally occurring prions of sheep than after exposure to epizootic BSE prions of ruminants.

  2. Attenuated traumatic axonal injury and improved functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in mice lacking Sarm1.

    PubMed

    Henninger, Nils; Bouley, James; Sikoglu, Elif M; An, Jiyan; Moore, Constance M; King, Jean A; Bowser, Robert; Freeman, Marc R; Brown, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Axonal degeneration is a critical, early event in many acute and chronic neurological disorders. It has been consistently observed after traumatic brain injury, but whether axon degeneration is a driver of traumatic brain injury remains unclear. Molecular pathways underlying the pathology of traumatic brain injury have not been defined, and there is no efficacious treatment for traumatic brain injury. Here we show that mice lacking the mouse Toll receptor adaptor Sarm1 (sterile α/Armadillo/Toll-Interleukin receptor homology domain protein) gene, a key mediator of Wallerian degeneration, demonstrate multiple improved traumatic brain injury-associated phenotypes after injury in a closed-head mild traumatic brain injury model. Sarm1(-/-) mice developed fewer β-amyloid precursor protein aggregates in axons of the corpus callosum after traumatic brain injury as compared to Sarm1(+/+) mice. Furthermore, mice lacking Sarm1 had reduced plasma concentrations of the phophorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H, indicating that axonal integrity is maintained after traumatic brain injury. Strikingly, whereas wild-type mice exibited a number of behavioural deficits after traumatic brain injury, we observed a strong, early preservation of neurological function in Sarm1(-/-) animals. Finally, using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy we found tissue signatures consistent with substantially preserved neuronal energy metabolism in Sarm1(-/-) mice compared to controls immediately following traumatic brain injury. Our results indicate that the SARM1-mediated prodegenerative pathway promotes pathogenesis in traumatic brain injury and suggest that anti-SARM1 therapeutics are a viable approach for preserving neurological function after traumatic brain injury. PMID:26912636

  3. Attenuated traumatic axonal injury and improved functional outcome after traumatic brain injury in mice lacking Sarm1.

    PubMed

    Henninger, Nils; Bouley, James; Sikoglu, Elif M; An, Jiyan; Moore, Constance M; King, Jean A; Bowser, Robert; Freeman, Marc R; Brown, Robert H

    2016-04-01

    Axonal degeneration is a critical, early event in many acute and chronic neurological disorders. It has been consistently observed after traumatic brain injury, but whether axon degeneration is a driver of traumatic brain injury remains unclear. Molecular pathways underlying the pathology of traumatic brain injury have not been defined, and there is no efficacious treatment for traumatic brain injury. Here we show that mice lacking the mouse Toll receptor adaptor Sarm1 (sterile α/Armadillo/Toll-Interleukin receptor homology domain protein) gene, a key mediator of Wallerian degeneration, demonstrate multiple improved traumatic brain injury-associated phenotypes after injury in a closed-head mild traumatic brain injury model. Sarm1(-/-) mice developed fewer β-amyloid precursor protein aggregates in axons of the corpus callosum after traumatic brain injury as compared to Sarm1(+/+) mice. Furthermore, mice lacking Sarm1 had reduced plasma concentrations of the phophorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H, indicating that axonal integrity is maintained after traumatic brain injury. Strikingly, whereas wild-type mice exibited a number of behavioural deficits after traumatic brain injury, we observed a strong, early preservation of neurological function in Sarm1(-/-) animals. Finally, using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy we found tissue signatures consistent with substantially preserved neuronal energy metabolism in Sarm1(-/-) mice compared to controls immediately following traumatic brain injury. Our results indicate that the SARM1-mediated prodegenerative pathway promotes pathogenesis in traumatic brain injury and suggest that anti-SARM1 therapeutics are a viable approach for preserving neurological function after traumatic brain injury.

  4. Increased Ethanol Consumption and Preference in Mice Lacking Neurotensin Receptor Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Moonnoh R.; Hinton, David J.; Unal, Sencan S.; Richelson, Elliott; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2010-01-01

    Background Neurotensin receptors (NTS) regulate a variety of the biological functions of neurotensin (NT) in the central nervous system. Although NT and NT receptor type 1 (NTS1) are implicated in some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, the functional roles of NT receptor type 2 (NTS2) in ethanol intoxication and consumption remain unknown. Here we investigated behavioral effects mediated by NTS2 in response to ethanol, which are implicated in ethanol consumption and preference, using NTS2 null mice. Method First, we examined ethanol-induced locomotion, ataxia, hypnosis, and hypothermia in NTS2 null mice. Next, we measured ethanol consumption and preference in NTS2 null mice by giving them free choice between ethanol- and tap water-containing bottles. Then using a brain-permeable neurotensin analog, NT69L, we examined the role of NTS2 in locomotor activity and ataxia. Finally, we examined the effect of NT69L on ethanol consumption and preference in NTS2 null mice. Results We found that NTS2 null mice appear less sensitive to the acute hypnotic effects of ethanol and consumed more ethanol compared to wild-type littermates in a two-bottle choice experiment, even though ethanol-induced locomotion, ataxia, and hypothermia were similar between genotypes. Interestingly, the administration of NT69L for 4 consecutive days significantly reduced alcohol consumption and preference in wild-type littermates as well as in NTS2 null mice. Conclusions Our findings suggest that NTS2 regulates ethanol-induced hypnosis and ethanol consumption. PMID:21039631

  5. Altered hepatic transport of immunoglobulin A in mice lacking the J chain

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    We have created J chain knockout mice to define the physiologic role of the J chain in immunoglobulin synthesis and transport. The J chain is covalently associated with pentameric immunoglobulin (Ig) M and dimeric IgA and is also expressed in most IgG-secreting cells. J chain- deficient mice have normal serum IgM and IgG levels but markedly elevated serum IgA. Although polymeric IgA was present in the mutant mice, a larger proportion of their serum IgA was monomeric than was found in wild-type mouse serum. Bile and fecal IgA levels were decreased in J chain-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice, suggesting inefficient transport of J chain-deficient IgA by hepatic polymeric immunoglobulin receptors (pIgR). The pIgR-mediated transport of serum-derived IgA from wild-type and mutant mice was assessed in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with the pIgR. These studies revealed selective transport by pIgR-expressing MDCK cells of wild-type IgA but not J chain-deficient IgA. We conclude that although the J chain is not required for IgA dimerization, it does affect the efficiency of polymerization or have a role in maintaining IgA dimer stability. Furthermore, the J chain is essential for efficient hepatic pIgR transport of IgA. PMID:7500036

  6. 5'-Ectonucleotidase-knockout mice lack non-REM sleep responses to sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Mark R; Taishi, Ping; Clinton, James M; Krueger, James M

    2012-06-01

    Adenosine and extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) have multiple physiological central nervous system actions including regulation of cerebral blood flow, inflammation and sleep. However, their exact sleep regulatory mechanisms remain unknown. Extracellular ATP and adenosine diphosphate are converted to adenosine monophosphate (AMP) by the enzyme ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1, also known as CD39, and extracellular AMP is in turn converted to adenosine by the 5'-ectonuleotidase enzyme CD73. We investigated the role of CD73 in sleep regulation. Duration of spontaneous non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) was greater in CD73-knockout (KO) mice than in C57BL/6 controls whether determined in our laboratory or by others. After sleep deprivation (SD), NREMS was enhanced in controls but not CD73-KO mice. Interleukin-1 beta (IL1β) enhanced NREMS in both strains, indicating that the CD73-KO mice were capable of sleep responses. Electroencephalographic power spectra during NREMS in the 1.0-2.5 Hz frequency range was significantly enhanced after SD in both CD73-KO and WT mice; the increases were significantly greater in the WT mice than in the CD73-KO mice. Rapid eye movement sleep did not differ between strains in any of the experimental conditions. With the exception of CD73 mRNA, the effects of SD on various adenosine-related mRNAs were small and similar in the two strains. These data suggest that sleep is regulated, in part, by extracellular adenosine derived from the actions of CD73.

  7. Phospho-NSAIDs have enhanced efficacy in mice lacking plasma carboxylesterase: Implications for their clinical pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chi C.; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Papayannis, Ioannis; Mattheolabakis, George; Huang, Liqun; Xie, Gang; Ouyang, Nengtai; Rigas, Basil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate the metabolism, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of phospho-NSAIDs in Ces1c-knockout mice. Methods Hydrolysis of phospho-NSAIDs by Ces1c was investigated using Ces1c-overexpressing cells. The rate of phospho-NSAID hydrolysis was compared between wild-type, Ces1c+/− and Ces1c−/− mouse plasma in vitro, and the effect of plasma Ces1c on the cytotoxicity of phospho-NSAIDs was evaluated. Pharmacokinetics of phospho-sulindac was examined in wild-type and Ces1c−/− mice. The impact of Ces1c on the efficacy of phospho-sulindac was investigated using lung and pancreatic cancer models in vivo. Results Phospho-NSAIDs were extensively hydrolyzed in Ces1c-overexpressing cells. Phospho-NSAID hydrolysis in wild-type mouse plasma was 6- to 530-fold higher than that in the plasma of Ces1c−/− mice. Ces1c-expressing wild-type mouse serum attenuated the in vitro cytotoxicity of phospho-NSAIDs towards cancer cells. Pharmacokinetic studies of phospho-sulindac using wild-type and Ces1c−/− mice demonstrated 2-fold less inactivation of phospho-sulindac in the latter. Phospho-sulindac was 2-fold more efficacious in inhibiting the growth of lung and pancreatic carcinoma in Ces1c −/− mice, as compared to wild-type mice. Conclusions Our results indicate that intact phospho-NSAIDs are the pharmacologically active entities and phospho-NSAIDs are expected to be more efficacious in humans than in rodents due to their differential expression of carboxylesterases. PMID:25392229

  8. Impaired chronotropic response to exercise in mice lacking catecholamines in adrenergic cells.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xuping; Liu, Fujun; Gu, Yusu; Lu, Chuanyi M; Ziegler, Michael G

    2008-12-01

    To define the in vivo role of adrenergic catecholamines (CAs), we generated a mouse model whereby tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was knocked out (KO) in phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase-expressing cells. These adrenergic specific TH-KO mice were viable and grossly normal. Their resting heart rate and blood pressure, as monitored by telemetry, were unchanged. However, when challenged with treadmill exercise, their chronotropic responses were significantly reduced by 14% compared to wild-type mice. Thus, our data suggest that adrenergic CA is required for normal chronotropic responses to stress, but not required for prenatal and postnatal development or normal cardiovascular function at rest.

  9. Caspase-2 Deficiency Enhances Aging-Related Traits in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingpei; Padalecki, Susan S; Chaudhuri, Asish R; Waal, Eric De; Goins, Beth A; Grubbs, Barry; Ikeno, Yuji; Richardson, Arlan; Mundy, Gregory R; Herman, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Alteration of apoptotic activity has been observed in a number of tissues in aging mammals, but it remains unclear whether and/or how apoptosis may affect aging. Caspase-2 is a member of the cysteine protease family that plays a critical role in apoptosis. To understand the impact of compromised apoptosis function on mammalian aging, we conducted a comparative study on caspase-2 deficient mice and their wild-type littermates with a specific focus on the aging-related traits at advanced ages. We found that caspase-2 deficiency enhanced a number of traits commonly seen in premature aging animals. Loss of caspase-2 was associated with shortened maximum lifespan, impaired hair growth, increased bone loss, and reduced body fat content. In addition, we found that the livers of caspase-2 deficient mice had higher levels of oxidized proteins than those of age-matched wild-type mice, suggesting that caspase-2 deficiency compromised the animal's ability to clear oxidatively damaged cells. Collectively, these results suggest that caspase-2 deficiency affects aging in the mice. This study thus demonstrates for the first time that disruption of a key apoptotic gene has a significant impact on aging. PMID:17188333

  10. Lack of genotoxic potential of pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil in mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ankita; Kesari, V P

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil are widely used both in residential and agricultural environments because of its broad spectrum insecticidal activity and effectiveness. The present study was undertaken to estimate genotoxicity of formulations of some pesticides in mice. Three pesticides of diverse group studied were spinosad (45% w/v), imidacloprid (17.8%, w/v) and neem oil. Animals were exposed 37, 4.5 and 50 mg kg⁻¹ b.wt. for spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil, respectively, through oral gavage for 5 consecutive days. A vehicle control group and one positive control (cyclophosphamide; 20 mg kg⁻¹ b. wt.) were also selected. The results showed that cyclophosphamide produced 1.12% micronuclei in mice, as against 0.18 in vehicle control, 0.30 in spinosad, 0.28 in imidacloprid and 0.22% in neem oil, respectively. The gross percentage of chromosomal aberration in mice were 28.5% in cyclophosphamide against 6.5% in vehicle control, 8.0% in spinosad, 9.5% in imidacloprid and 7.0% in neem oil, respectively. The overall findings of the present study revealed that all the three pesticide formulations, imidacloprid, spinosad and neem oil at tested dose did not show any genotoxic effect in mice.

  11. Impaired Discrimination Learning in Mice Lacking the NMDA Receptor NR2A Subunit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigman, Jonathan L.; Feyder, Michael; Saksida, Lisa M.; Bussey, Timothy J.; Mishina, Masayoshi; Holmes, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate certain forms of synaptic plasticity and learning. We used a touchscreen system to assess NR2A subunit knockout mice (KO) for (1) pairwise visual discrimination and reversal learning and (2) acquisition and extinction of an instrumental response requiring no pairwise discrimination. NR2A KO mice…

  12. Accelerated tumor progression in mice lacking the ATP receptor P2X7.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Elena; Capece, Marina; Franceschini, Alessia; Falzoni, Simonetta; Giuliani, Anna L; Rotondo, Alessandra; Sarti, Alba C; Bonora, Massimo; Syberg, Susanne; Corigliano, Domenica; Pinton, Paolo; Jorgensen, Niklas R; Abelli, Luigi; Emionite, Laura; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Pistoia, Vito; Di Virgilio, Francesco

    2015-02-15

    The ATP receptor P2X7 (P2X7R or P2RX7) has a key role in inflammation and immunity, but its possible roles in cancer are not firmly established. In the present study, we investigated the effect of host genetic deletion of P2X7R in the mouse on the growth of B16 melanoma or CT26 colon carcinoma cells. Tumor size and metastatic dissemination were assessed by in vivo calliper and luciferase luminescence emission measurements along with postmortem examination. In P2X7R-deficient mice, tumor growth and metastatic spreading were accelerated strongly, compared with wild-type (wt) mice. Intratumoral IL-1β and VEGF release were drastically reduced, and inflammatory cell infiltration was abrogated nearly completely. Similarly, tumor growth was also greatly accelerated in wt chimeric mice implanted with P2X7R-deficient bone marrow cells, defining hematopoietic cells as a sufficient site of P2X7R action. Finally, dendritic cells from P2X7R-deficient mice were unresponsive to stimulation with tumor cells, and chemotaxis of P2X7R-less cells was impaired. Overall, our results showed that host P2X7R expression was critical to support an antitumor immune response, and to restrict tumor growth and metastatic diffusion. PMID:25542861

  13. Alcohol-induced bone loss is blocked in p47phox -/- mice lacking functional nadph oxidases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) consumption produces bone loss. Previous data suggest a role for NADPH oxidase enzymes (Nox) since the pan-Nox inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) blocks EtOH-induced bone loss in rats. The current study utilized mice in which Nox enzymes 1,2,3 and 5 are inactivated as a resu...

  14. Abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism in mice lacking the monocarboxylate transporter 8.

    PubMed

    Trajkovic, Marija; Visser, Theo J; Mittag, Jens; Horn, Sigrun; Lukas, Jan; Darras, Veerle M; Raivich, Genadij; Bauer, Karl; Heuer, Heike

    2007-03-01

    In humans, inactivating mutations in the gene of the thyroid hormone transporter monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8; SLC16A2) lead to severe forms of psychomotor retardation combined with imbalanced thyroid hormone serum levels. The MCT8-null mice described here, however, developed without overt deficits but also exhibited distorted 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) serum levels, resulting in increased hepatic activity of type 1 deiodinase (D1). In the mutants' brains, entry of T4 was not affected, but uptake of T3 was diminished. Moreover, the T4 and T3 content in the brain of MCT8-null mice was decreased, the activity of D2 was increased, and D3 activity was decreased, indicating the hypothyroid state of this tissue. In the CNS, analysis of T3 target genes revealed that in the mutants, the neuronal T3 uptake was impaired in an area-specific manner, with strongly elevated thyrotropin-releasing hormone transcript levels in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and slightly decreased RC3 mRNA expression in striatal neurons; however, cerebellar Purkinje cells appeared unaffected, since they did not exhibit dendritic outgrowth defects and responded normally to T3 treatment in vitro. In conclusion, the circulating thyroid hormone levels of MCT8-null mice closely resemble those of humans with MCT8 mutations, yet in the mice, CNS development is only partially affected. PMID:17318265

  15. Lack of genotoxic potential of pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil in mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ankita; Kesari, V P

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides, spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil are widely used both in residential and agricultural environments because of its broad spectrum insecticidal activity and effectiveness. The present study was undertaken to estimate genotoxicity of formulations of some pesticides in mice. Three pesticides of diverse group studied were spinosad (45% w/v), imidacloprid (17.8%, w/v) and neem oil. Animals were exposed 37, 4.5 and 50 mg kg⁻¹ b.wt. for spinosad, imidacloprid and neem oil, respectively, through oral gavage for 5 consecutive days. A vehicle control group and one positive control (cyclophosphamide; 20 mg kg⁻¹ b. wt.) were also selected. The results showed that cyclophosphamide produced 1.12% micronuclei in mice, as against 0.18 in vehicle control, 0.30 in spinosad, 0.28 in imidacloprid and 0.22% in neem oil, respectively. The gross percentage of chromosomal aberration in mice were 28.5% in cyclophosphamide against 6.5% in vehicle control, 8.0% in spinosad, 9.5% in imidacloprid and 7.0% in neem oil, respectively. The overall findings of the present study revealed that all the three pesticide formulations, imidacloprid, spinosad and neem oil at tested dose did not show any genotoxic effect in mice. PMID:27097450

  16. Mechano-electrical transduction in mice lacking the alpha-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel.

    PubMed

    Rüsch, A; Hummler, E

    1999-05-01

    Sensory hair cells of the vertebrate inner ear use mechanically gated transducer channels (MET) to perceive mechanical stimuli. The molecular nature of the MET channel is not known but several findings suggested that the amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel, ENaC, might be a candidate gene for this function. In order to test this hypothesis, we examined knockout mice deficient in the alpha-subunit of ENaC, and therefore in ENaC function. First, neonatal alphaENaC(-/-) mice exhibited vestibular reflexes not different from wildtype littermates thus indicating normal vestibular function. We used organotypic cultures of cochlear outer hair cells from newborns to rescue the hair cells from the perinatal death of alphaENaC(-/-) mice. When hair bundles of cochlear outer hair cells of alphaENaC(-/-) mice were mechanically stimulated by a fluid jet in whole cell voltage clamp experiments, transducer currents were elicited that were not significantly different from those of alphaENaC(+/-) or (+/+) cochlear outer hair cells. These results suggest that the vertebrate mechano-electrical transducer apparatus does not include the alpha-subunit of the epithelial Na+ channel. PMID:10355613

  17. Mice lacking synapsin III show abnormalities in explicit memory and conditioned fear

    PubMed Central

    Porton, Barbara; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Phillips, Lindsey E.; Gilbert, John W.; Feng, Jian; Greengard, Paul; Kao, Hung-Teh; Wetsel, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Synapsin III is a neuron-specific phosphoprotein that plays an important role in synaptic transmission and neural development. While synapsin III is abundant in embryonic brain, expression of the protein in adults is reduced and limited primarily to the hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and cerebral cortex. Given the specificity of synapsin III to these brain areas and because it plays a role in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, we investigated whether it may affect learning and memory processes in mice. To address this point, synapsin III knockout mice were examined in a general behavioral screen, several tests to assess learning and memory function, and conditioned fear. Mutant animals displayed no anomalies in sensory and motor function or in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Although mutants showed minor alterations in the Morris water maze, they were deficient in object recognition 24 hr and 10 days after training and in social transmission of food preference at 20 min and 24 hr. Additionally, mutants displayed abnormal responses in contextual and cued fear conditioning when tested 1 or 24 hr after conditioning. The synapsin III knockout mice also showed aberrant responses in fear-potentiated startle. Since synapsin III protein is decreased in schizophrenic brain and because the mutant mice do not harbor obvious anatomical deficits or neurological disorders, these mutants may represent a unique neurodevelopmental model for dissecting the molecular pathways that are related to certain aspects of schizophrenia and related disorders. PMID:20050925

  18. Adult but Not Aged C57BL/6 Male Mice Are Capable of Using Geometry for Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachner, Melitta; Morellini, Fabio; Fellini, Laetitia

    2006-01-01

    Geometry, e.g., the shape of the environment, can be used by numerous animal species to orientate, but data concerning the mouse are lacking. We addressed the question of whether mice are capable of using geometry for navigating. To test whether aging could affect searching strategies, we compared adult (3- to 5-mo old) and aged (20- to 21-mo old)…

  19. Abnormal Motor Phenotype at Adult Stages in Mice Lacking Type 2 Deiodinase

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Andrés, David; Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irene; Montero-Pedrazuela, Ana; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Guadaño-Ferraz, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid hormones have a key role in both the developing and adult central nervous system and skeletal muscle. The thyroid gland produces mainly thyroxine (T4) but the intracellular concentrations of 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3; the transcriptionally active hormone) in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle are modulated by the activity of type 2 deiodinase (D2). To date no neurological syndrome has been associated with mutations in the DIO2 gene and previous studies in young and juvenile D2-knockout mice (D2KO) did not find gross neurological alterations, possibly due to compensatory mechanisms. Aim This study aims to analyze the motor phenotype of 3-and-6-month-old D2KO mice to evaluate the role of D2 on the motor system at adult stages in which compensatory mechanisms could have failed. Results Motor abilities were explored by validated tests. In the footprint test, D2KO showed an altered global gait pattern (mice walked slower, with shorter strides and with a hindlimb wider base of support than wild-type mice). No differences were detected in the balance beam test. However, a reduced latency to fall was found in the rotarod, coat-hanger and four limb hanging wire tests indicating impairment on coordination and prehensile reflex and a reduction of muscle strength. In histological analyses of cerebellum and skeletal muscle, D2KO mice did not present gross structural abnormalities. Thyroid hormones levels and deiodinases activities were also determined. In D2KO mice, despite euthyroid T3 and high T4 plasma levels, T3 levels were significantly reduced in cerebral cortex (48% reduction) and skeletal muscle (33% reduction), but not in the cerebellum where other deiodinase (type 1) is expressed. Conclusions The motor alterations observed in D2KO mice indicate an important role for D2 in T3 availability to maintain motor function and muscle strength. Our results suggest a possible implication of D2 in motor disorders. PMID:25083788

  20. Aberrant Development of the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Circadian Rhythms in Mice Lacking the Homeodomain Protein Six6

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Daniel D.; Gorman, Michael R.; Hatori, Megumi; Meadows, Jason D.; Panda, Satchidananda; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2013-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the mammalian hypothalamus is the central pacemaker for peripheral and organismal circadian rhythms. The development of this hypothalamic structure depends on genetic programs throughout embryogenesis. We have investigated the role of the homeodomain transcription factor Six6 in the development of the SCN. We first showed that Six6 mRNA has circadian regulation in the mouse SCN. We then characterized the behavioral activity patterns of Six6-null mice under various photoperiod manipulations and stained their hypothalami using SCN-specific markers. Six6-null mice display abnormal patterns of circadian behavior indicative of SCN abnormalities. The ability of light exposure to reset rhythms correlates with the presence or absence of optic nerves, but all Six6-null mice show irregular rhythms. In contrast, wild-type mice with crushed optic nerves maintain regular rhythms regardless of light exposure. Using immunohistochemistry for arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), and β-galactosidase, we demonstrated the lack of these SCN markers in all Six6- null mice regardless of the presence of optic nerve or partial circadian rhythms. Therefore, Six6 is required for the normal development of the SCN, and the Six6-null mouse can mount independent, although irregular, circadian rhythms despite the apparent absence of a histochemically defined SCN. PMID:23382588

  1. Functional characteristics of urinary tract smooth muscles in mice lacking cGMP protein kinase type I.

    PubMed

    Persson, K; Pandita, R K; Aszòdi, A; Ahmad, M; Pfeifer, A; Fässler, R; Andersson, K E

    2000-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO)-mediated smooth muscle relaxation is mediated by cGMP through activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I (cGKI). We studied the importance of cGKI for lower urinary tract function in mice lacking the gene for cGKI (cGKI-/-) and in litter-matched wild-type mice (cGKI+/+) in vitro and in vivo. cGKI deficiency did not result in any changes in bladder gross morphology or weight. Urethral strips from cGKI-/- mice showed an impaired relaxant response to nerve-derived NO. The cGMP analog 8-bromo-cGMP (8-BrcGMP) and the NO-donor SIN-1 relaxed the wild-type urethra (50-60%) but had only marginal effects in the cGKI-deficient urethra. Bladder strips from cGKI-/- mice responded normally to electrical field stimulation and to carbachol but not to 8-BrcGMP. In vivo, the cGKI-deficient mice showed bladder hyperactivity characterized by decreased intercontraction intervals and nonvoiding bladder contractions. Loss of cGKI abolishes NO-cGMP-dependent relaxations of urethral smooth muscle and results in hyperactive voiding. These data suggest that certain voiding disturbances may be associated with impaired NO-cGKI signaling. PMID:10956273

  2. Altered emotionality and neuronal excitability in mice lacking KCTD12, an auxiliary subunit of GABAB receptors associated with mood disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cathomas, F; Stegen, M; Sigrist, H; Schmid, L; Seifritz, E; Gassmann, M; Bettler, B; Pryce, C R

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, is fundamental to brain function and implicated in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. GABA activates G-protein-coupled GABAB receptors comprising principal GABAB1 and GABAB2 subunits as well as auxiliary KCTD8, 12, 12b and 16 subunits. The KCTD12 gene has been associated with bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Here we compare Kctd12 null mutant (Kctd12−/−) and heterozygous (Kctd12+/−) with wild-type (WT) littermate mice to determine whether lack of or reduced KCTD12 expression leads to phenotypes that, extrapolating to human, could constitute endophenotypes for neuropsychiatric disorders with which KCTD12 is associated. Kctd12−/− mice exhibited increased fear learning but not increased memory of a discrete auditory-conditioned stimulus. Kctd12+/− mice showed increased activity during the inactive (light) phase of the circadian cycle relative to WT and Kctd12−/− mice. Electrophysiological recordings from hippocampal slices, a region of high Kctd12 expression, revealed an increased intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons in Kctd12−/− and Kctd12+/− mice. This is the first direct evidence for involvement of KCTD12 in determining phenotypes of emotionality, behavioral activity and neuronal excitability. This study provides empirical support for the polymorphism and expression evidence that KCTD12 confers risk for and is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25689571

  3. High Bone Mass in Mice Lacking Cx37 Because of Defective Osteoclast Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Costa, Rafael; Hassan, Iraj; Reginato, Rejane D.; Davis, Hannah M.; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Allen, Matthew R.; Plotkin, Lilian I.

    2014-01-01

    Connexin (Cx) proteins are essential for cell differentiation, function, and survival in all tissues with Cx43 being the most studied in bone. We now report that Cx37, another member of the connexin family of proteins, is expressed in osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. Mice with global deletion of Cx37 (Cx37−/−) exhibit higher bone mineral density, cancellous bone volume, and mechanical strength compared with wild type littermates. Osteoclast number and surface are significantly lower in bone of Cx37−/− mice. In contrast, osteoblast number and surface and bone formation rate in bones from Cx37−/− mice are unchanged. Moreover, markers of osteoblast activity ex vivo and in vivo are similar to those of Cx37+/+ littermates. sRANKL/M-CSF treatment of nonadherent Cx37−/− bone marrow cells rendered a 5-fold lower level of osteoclast differentiation compared with Cx37+/+ cell cultures. Further, Cx37−/− osteoclasts are smaller and have fewer nuclei per cell. Expression of RANK, TRAP, cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor, matrix metalloproteinase 9, NFATc1, DC-STAMP, ATP6v0d1, and CD44, markers of osteoclast number, fusion, or activity, is lower in Cx37−/− osteoclasts compared with controls. In addition, nonadherent bone marrow cells from Cx37−/− mice exhibit higher levels of markers for osteoclast precursors, suggesting altered osteoclast differentiation. The reduction of osteoclast differentiation is associated with activation of Notch signaling. We conclude that Cx37 is required for osteoclast differentiation and fusion, and its absence leads to arrested osteoclast maturation and high bone mass in mice. These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized role of Cx37 in bone homeostasis that is not compensated for by Cx43 in vivo. PMID:24509854

  4. Impaired circadian photosensitivity in mice lacking glutamate transmission from retinal melanopsin cells

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Patrick M.; Hattar, Samer; Saper, Clifford B.; Lu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) contain the photopigment melanopsin and convey retinal light inputs to the circadian system via the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT) projection to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The principal neurotransmitter of this projection is glutamate, and ipRGCs use the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) to package glutamate into synaptic vesicles. However, these neurons contain other potential neurotransmitters, such as PACAP. To test the role of glutamate in mediating ipRGC light inputs into the SCN, we crossed mice in which Cre-recombinase expression is driven by the melanopsin promotor (Opn4Cre/+) with mice in which the second exon of VGLUT2 is flanked by loxP sites (VGLUT2fl/fl), producing ipRGCs that are unable to package glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Such mice had free-running circadian rhythms that did not entrain to a 12:12 light-dark (12:12 LD) cycle, nor did they show a phase delay after a 45 minute light pulse administered at circadian time (CT) 14. A small subset of the mice did appear to entrain to the 12:12 LD cycle with a positive phase angle to lights-off; a similar entrainment pattern could be achieved in free-running mice if they were exposed to a 12:12 LD cycle with light of a greater intensity. Glutamate transmission from the ipRGCs is necessary for normal light entrainment of the SCN at moderate (0.35 W/m2) light levels, but residual transmission (possibly by PACAP in ipRGCs or by other RGCs) can weakly entrain animals, particularly at very high (6.53 W/m2) light levels, although it may be less effective at suppressing locomotor activity (light masking). PMID:25512304

  5. Motor Performance is Impaired Following Vestibular Stimulation in Ageing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Victoria W. K.; Burton, Thomas J.; Quail, Stephanie L.; Mathews, Miranda A.; Camp, Aaron J.

    2016-01-01

    Balance and maintaining postural equilibrium are important during stationary and dynamic movements to prevent falls, particularly in older adults. While our sense of balance is influenced by vestibular, proprioceptive, and visual information, this study focuses primarily on the vestibular component and its age-related effects on balance. C57Bl/6J mice of ages 1, 5–6, 8–9 and 27–28 months were tested using a combination of standard (such as grip strength and rotarod) and newly-developed behavioral tests (including balance beam and walking trajectory tests with a vestibular stimulus). In the current study, we confirm a decline in fore-limb grip strength and gross motor coordination as age increases. We also show that a vestibular stimulus of low frequency (2–3 Hz) and duration can lead to age-dependent changes in balance beam performance, which was evident by increases in latency to begin walking on the beam as well as the number of times hind-feet slip (FS) from the beam. Furthermore, aged mice (27–28 months) that received continuous access to a running wheel for 4 weeks did not improve when retested. Mice of ages 1, 10, 13 and 27–28 months were also tested for changes in walking trajectory as a result of the vestibular stimulus. While no linear relationship was observed between the changes in trajectory and age, 1-month-old mice were considerably less affected than mice of ages 10, 13 and 27–28 months. Conclusion: this study confirms there are age-related declines in grip strength and gross motor coordination. We also demonstrate age-dependent changes to finer motor abilities as a result of a low frequency and duration vestibular stimulus. These changes showed that while the ability to perform the balance beam task remained intact across all ages tested, behavioral changes in task performance were observed. PMID:26869921

  6. Astaxanthin affects oxidative stress and hyposalivation in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuraji, Manatsu; Matsuno, Tomonori; Satoh, Tazuko

    2016-01-01

    Oral dryness, a serious problem for the aging Japanese society, is induced by aging-related hyposalivation and causes dysphagia, dysgeusia, inadaptation of dentures, and growth of oral Candida albicans. Oxidative stress clearly plays a role in decreasing saliva secretion and treatment with antioxidants such astaxanthin supplements may be beneficial. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of astaxanthin on the oral saliva secretory function of aging mice. The saliva flow increased in astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after administration while that of the control decreased by half. The plasma d-ROMs values of the control but not astaxanthin-treated group measured before and 72 weeks after treatment increased. The diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) value of astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after treatment was significantly lower than that of the control group was. The plasma biological antioxidative potential (BAP) values of the control but not astaxanthin-treated mice before and 72 weeks after treatment decreased. Moreover, the BAP value of the astaxanthin-treated group 72 weeks after treatment was significantly higher than that of the control was. Furthermore, the submandibular glands of astaxanthin-treated mice had fewer inflammatory cells than the control did. Specifically, immunofluorescence revealed a significantly large aquaporin-5 positive cells in astaxanthin-treated mice. Our results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may prevent age-related decreased saliva secretion. PMID:27698533

  7. Absence of cytoglobin promotes multiple organ abnormalities in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Le Thi Thanh; Van Thuy, Tuong Thi; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Hai, Hoang; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Yoshizato, Katsutoshi; Kawada, Norifumi

    2016-01-01

    Cytoglobin (Cygb) was identified in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and pericytes of all organs; however, the effects of Cygb on cellular functions remain unclear. Here, we report spontaneous and age-dependent malformations in multiple organs of Cygb−/− mice. Twenty-six percent of young Cygb−/− mice (<1 year old) showed heart hypertrophy, cystic disease in the kidney or ovary, loss of balance, liver fibrosis and lymphoma. Furthermore, 71.3% (82/115) of aged Cygb−/− mice (1–2 years old) exhibited abnormalities, such as heart hypertrophy and cancer development in multiple organs; by contrast, 5.8% (4/68) of aged wild-type (WT) mice had abnormalities (p < 0.0001). Interestingly, serum and urine analysis demonstrated that the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites increased significantly in Cygb−/− mice, resulting in an imbalance in the oxidative stress and antioxidant defence system that was reversed by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine treatment. A senescent phenotype and evidence of DNA damage were found in primary HSCs and the liver of aged Cygb−/− mice. Moreover, compared with HSC+/+, HSC−/− showed high expression of Il-6 and chemokine mRNA when cocultured with mouse Hepa 1–6 cells. Thus, the absence of Cygb in pericytes provokes organ abnormalities, possibly via derangement of the nitric oxide and antioxidant defence system and through accelerated cellular senescence. PMID:27146058

  8. Astaxanthin affects oxidative stress and hyposalivation in aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Kuraji, Manatsu; Matsuno, Tomonori; Satoh, Tazuko

    2016-01-01

    Oral dryness, a serious problem for the aging Japanese society, is induced by aging-related hyposalivation and causes dysphagia, dysgeusia, inadaptation of dentures, and growth of oral Candida albicans. Oxidative stress clearly plays a role in decreasing saliva secretion and treatment with antioxidants such astaxanthin supplements may be beneficial. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of astaxanthin on the oral saliva secretory function of aging mice. The saliva flow increased in astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after administration while that of the control decreased by half. The plasma d-ROMs values of the control but not astaxanthin-treated group measured before and 72 weeks after treatment increased. The diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) value of astaxanthin-treated mice 72 weeks after treatment was significantly lower than that of the control group was. The plasma biological antioxidative potential (BAP) values of the control but not astaxanthin-treated mice before and 72 weeks after treatment decreased. Moreover, the BAP value of the astaxanthin-treated group 72 weeks after treatment was significantly higher than that of the control was. Furthermore, the submandibular glands of astaxanthin-treated mice had fewer inflammatory cells than the control did. Specifically, immunofluorescence revealed a significantly large aquaporin-5 positive cells in astaxanthin-treated mice. Our results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may prevent age-related decreased saliva secretion.

  9. Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers

    PubMed Central

    Bozzella, Michael J.; Seluanov, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

  10. Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, Vera; Bozzella, Michael J; Seluanov, Andrei

    2008-09-01

    After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

  11. Choroidal neovascularization is inhibited via an intraocular decrease of inflammatory cells in mice lacking complement component C3

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Xue; Fujiu, Katsuhito; Manabe, Ichiro; Nishida, Junko; Yamagishi, Reiko; Nagai, Ryozo; Yanagi, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    In early age-related macular degeneration (AMD), complement component C3 can be observed in drusen, which is the accumulation of material beneath the retinal pigment epithelium. The complement pathways, via the activation of C3, can upregulate the expression of cytokines and their receptors and the recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes, both of which play an important role in the development of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in exudative AMD. Laser-induced CNV lesions were found to be significantly smaller in C3−/− mice than in wild-type mice. By using flow cytometry, we demonstrated that the proportions of intraocular granulocytes, CD11b+F4/80+Ly6Chi and CD11b+F4/80+Ly6Clo cells, were lower in C3−/− mice than in wild-type mice as early as day 1 after laser injury, and the proportions of granulocytes and three macrophage/monocyte subsets were significantly lower on day 3. In contrast, C3−/− mice had more granulocytes and CD11b+F4/80+Ly6Chi cells in peripheral blood than wild-type mice after injury. Further, the expression levels of Vegfa164 were upregulated in intraocular Ly6Chi macrophages/monocytes of C3−/− mice, but not as much as in wild-type mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that despite a more pronounced induction of systemic inflammation, inhibition of complement factor C3 suppresses CNV by decreasing the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the lesion. PMID:26507897

  12. Lack of carcinogenicity of tragacanth gum in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, A; Boonyaphiphat, P; Kawabe, M; Naito, H; Shirai, T; Ito, N

    1992-08-01

    Tragacanth gum was administered at dietary levels of 0 (control), 1.25 and 5.0% to groups of 50 male and 50 female B6C3F1 mice for 96 wk after which all animals were maintained on a basal diet without tragacanth gum for a further 10 wk. Mean body weights of females in the 5.0% and 1.25% groups were lower than those of the controls after 11 and 16 wk, respectively. However, there were no treatment-related clinical signs or adverse effects on survival rate, urinalysis, haematology, blood biochemistry and organ weight. While detailed histopathology revealed the development of squamous cell hyperplasias, papillomas and one carcinoma in the forestomach, there was no significant treatment-related increase in the incidence of any preneoplastic or neoplastic lesion. Thus, under the experimental conditions used, tragacanth gum was not carcinogenic in B6C3F1 mice of either sex.

  13. Impaired 17,20-Lyase Activity in Male Mice Lacking Cytochrome b5 in Leydig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sondhi, Varun; Owen, Bryn M.; Liu, Jiayan; Chomic, Robert; Kliewer, Steven A.; Hughes, Beverly A.; Arlt, Wiebke; Mangelsdorf, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Androgen and estrogen biosynthesis in mammals requires the 17,20-lyase activity of cytochrome P450 17A1 (steroid 17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase). Maximal 17,20-lyase activity in vitro requires the presence of cytochrome b5 (b5), and rare cases of b5 deficiency in human beings causes isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency. To study the consequences of conditional b5 removal from testicular Leydig cells in an animal model, we generated Cyb5flox/flox:Sf1-Cre (LeyKO) mice. The LeyKO male mice had normal body weights, testis and sex organ weights, and fertility compared with littermates. Basal serum and urine steroid profiles of LeyKO males were not significantly different than littermates. In contrast, marked 17-hydroxyprogesterone accumulation (100-fold basal) and reduced testosterone synthesis (27% of littermates) were observed after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in LeyKO animals. Testis homogenates from LeyKO mice showed reduced 17,20-lyase activity and a 3-fold increased 17-hydroxylase to 17,20-lyase activity ratio, which were restored to normal upon addition of recombinant b5. We conclude that Leydig cell b5 is required for maximal androgen synthesis and to prevent 17-hydroxyprogesterone accumulation in the mouse testis; however, the b5-independent 17,20-lyase activity of mouse steroid 17-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase is sufficient for normal male genital development and fertility. LeyKO male mice are a good model for the biochemistry but not the physiology of isolated 17,20-lyase deficiency in human beings. PMID:26974035

  14. Disruption of muscle architecture and myocardial degeneration in mice lacking desmin

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Desmin, the muscle specific intermediate filament (IF) protein encoded by a single gene, is expressed in all muscle tissues. In mature striated muscle, desmin IFs surround the Z-discs, interlink them together and integrate the contractile apparatus with the sarcolemma and the nucleus. To investigate the function of desmin in all three muscle types in vivo, we generated desmin null mice through homologous recombination. Surprisingly, desmin null mice are viable and fertile. However, these mice demonstrated a multisystem disorder involving cardiac, skeletal, and smooth muscle. Histological and electron microscopic analysis in both heart and skeletal muscle tissues revealed severe disruption of muscle architecture and degeneration. Structural abnormalities included loss of lateral alignment of myofibrils and abnormal mitochondrial organization. The consequences of these abnormalities were most severe in the heart, which exhibited progressive degeneration and necrosis of the myocardium accompanied by extensive calcification. Abnormalities of smooth muscle included hypoplasia and degeneration. The present data demonstrate the essential role of desmin in the maintenance of myofibril, myofiber, and whole muscle tissue structural and functional integrity, and show that the absence of desmin leads to muscle degeneration. PMID:8794866

  15. Heightened Avidity for Trisodium Pyrophosphate in Mice Lacking Tas1r3

    PubMed Central

    Aleman, Tiffany R.; McCaughey, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory rats and mice prefer some concentrations of tri- and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na3HP2O7 and Na4P2O7) to water, but how they detect pyrophosphates is unknown. Here, we assessed whether T1R3 is involved. We found that relative to wild-type littermate controls, Tas1r3 knockout mice had stronger preferences for 5.6–56mM Na3HP2O7 in 2-bottle choice tests, and they licked more 17.8–56mM Na3HP2O7 in brief-access tests. We hypothesize that pyrophosphate taste in the intact mouse involves 2 receptors: T1R3 to produce a hedonically negative signal and an unknown G protein-coupled receptor to produce a hedonically positive signal; in Tas1r3 knockout mice, the hedonically negative signal produced by T1R3 is absent, leading to a heightened avidity for pyrophosphate. PMID:25452580

  16. Heightened avidity for trisodium pyrophosphate in mice lacking Tas1r3.

    PubMed

    Tordoff, Michael G; Aleman, Tiffany R; McCaughey, Stuart A

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory rats and mice prefer some concentrations of tri- and tetrasodium pyrophosphate (Na3HP2O7 and Na4P2O7) to water, but how they detect pyrophosphates is unknown. Here, we assessed whether T1R3 is involved. We found that relative to wild-type littermate controls, Tas1r3 knockout mice had stronger preferences for 5.6-56mM Na3HP2O7 in 2-bottle choice tests, and they licked more 17.8-56mM Na3HP2O7 in brief-access tests. We hypothesize that pyrophosphate taste in the intact mouse involves 2 receptors: T1R3 to produce a hedonically negative signal and an unknown G protein-coupled receptor to produce a hedonically positive signal; in Tas1r3 knockout mice, the hedonically negative signal produced by T1R3 is absent, leading to a heightened avidity for pyrophosphate.

  17. Insulinotropic treatments exacerbate metabolic syndrome in mice lacking MeCP2 function

    PubMed Central

    Pitcher, Meagan R.; Ward, Christopher S.; Arvide, E. Melissa; Chapleau, Christopher A.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Hoeflich, Andreas; Sivaramakrishnan, Manaswini; Saenger, Stefanie; Metzger, Friedrich; Neul, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked postnatal disorder, results from mutations in Methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Survival and breathing in Mecp2NULL/Y animals are improved by an N-terminal tripeptide of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) treatment. We determined that Mecp2NULL/Y animals also have a metabolic syndrome and investigated whether IGF-I treatment might improve this phenotype. Mecp2NULL/Y mice were treated with a full-length IGF-I modified with the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG-IGF-I), which improves pharmacological properties. Low-dose PEG-IGF-I treatment slightly improved lifespan and heart rate in Mecp2NULL/Y mice; however, high-dose PEG-IGF-I decreased lifespan. To determine whether insulinotropic off-target effects of PEG-IGF-I caused the detrimental effect, we treated Mecp2NULL/Y mice with insulin, which also decreased lifespan. Thus, the clinical benefit of IGF-I treatment in RTT may critically depend on the dose used, and caution should be taken when initiating clinical trials with these compounds because the beneficial therapeutic window is narrow. PMID:23462290

  18. Insulinotropic treatments exacerbate metabolic syndrome in mice lacking MeCP2 function.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, Meagan R; Ward, Christopher S; Arvide, E Melissa; Chapleau, Christopher A; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Hoeflich, Andreas; Sivaramakrishnan, Manaswini; Saenger, Stefanie; Metzger, Friedrich; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2013-07-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT), an X-linked postnatal disorder, results from mutations in Methyl CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Survival and breathing in Mecp2(NULL/Y) animals are improved by an N-terminal tripeptide of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) treatment. We determined that Mecp2(NULL/Y) animals also have a metabolic syndrome and investigated whether IGF-I treatment might improve this phenotype. Mecp2(NULL/Y) mice were treated with a full-length IGF-I modified with the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG-IGF-I), which improves pharmacological properties. Low-dose PEG-IGF-I treatment slightly improved lifespan and heart rate in Mecp2(NULL/Y) mice; however, high-dose PEG-IGF-I decreased lifespan. To determine whether insulinotropic off-target effects of PEG-IGF-I caused the detrimental effect, we treated Mecp2(NULL/Y) mice with insulin, which also decreased lifespan. Thus, the clinical benefit of IGF-I treatment in RTT may critically depend on the dose used, and caution should be taken when initiating clinical trials with these compounds because the beneficial therapeutic window is narrow.

  19. Mice Lacking Pannexin 1 Release ATP and Respond Normally to All Taste Qualities.

    PubMed

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Anderson, Catherine B; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is required for the transmission of all taste qualities from taste cells to afferent nerve fibers. ATP is released from Type II taste cells by a nonvesicular mechanism and activates purinergic receptors containing P2X2 and P2X3 on nerve fibers. Several ATP release channels are expressed in taste cells including CALHM1, Pannexin 1, Connexin 30, and Connexin 43, but whether all are involved in ATP release is not clear. We have used a global Pannexin 1 knock out (Panx1 KO) mouse in a series of in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results confirm that Panx1 channels are absent in taste buds of the knockout mice and that other known ATP release channels are not upregulated. Using a luciferin/luciferase assay, we show that circumvallate taste buds from Panx1 KO mice normally release ATP upon taste stimulation compared with wild type (WT) mice. Gustatory nerve recordings in response to various tastants applied to the tongue and brief-access behavioral testing with SC45647 also show no difference between Panx1 KO and WT. These results confirm that Panx1 is not required for the taste evoked release of ATP or for neural and behavioral responses to taste stimuli.

  20. A lupus-like syndrome develops in mice lacking the Ro 60-kDa protein, a major lupus autoantigen.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dahai; Shi, Hong; Smith, James D; Chen, Xinguo; Noe, Dennis A; Cedervall, Tommy; Yang, Derek D; Eynon, Elizabeth; Brash, Douglas E; Kashgarian, Michael; Flavell, Richard A; Wolin, Sandra L

    2003-06-24

    Antibodies against a conserved RNA-binding protein, the Ro 60-kDa autoantigen, occur in 24-60% of all patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Anti-Ro antibodies are correlated with photosensitivity and cutaneous lesions in these patients and with neonatal lupus, a syndrome in which mothers with anti-Ro antibodies give birth to children with complete congenital heart block and photosensitive skin lesions. In higher eukaryotes, the Ro protein binds small RNAs of unknown function known as Y RNAs. Because the Ro protein also binds misfolded 5S rRNA precursors, it is proposed to function in a quality-control pathway for ribosome biogenesis. Consistent with a role in the recognition or repair of intracellular damage, an orthologue of Ro in the radiation-resistant eubacterium Deinococcus radiodurans contributes to survival of this bacterium after UV irradiation. Here, we show that mice lacking the Ro protein develop an autoimmune syndrome characterized by anti-ribosome antibodies, anti-chromatin antibodies, and glomerulonephritis. Moreover, in one strain background, Ro-/- mice display increased sensitivity to irradiation with UV light. Thus, one function of this major human autoantigen may be to protect against autoantibody development, possibly by sequestering defective ribonucleoproteins from immune surveillance. Furthermore, the finding that mice lacking the Ro protein are photosensitive suggests that loss of Ro function could contribute to the photosensitivity associated with anti-Ro antibodies in humans.

  1. Alterations in Gene Expression in Mutant Amyloid Precursor Protein Transgenic Mice Lacking Niemann-Pick Type C1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Maulik, Mahua; Thinakaran, Gopal; Kar, Satyabrata

    2013-01-01

    Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) disease, a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused mostly by mutation in NPC1 gene, is pathologically characterized by the accumulation of free cholesterol in brain and other tissues. This is accompanied by gliosis and loss of neurons in selected brain regions, including the cerebellum. Recent studies have shown that NPC disease exhibits intriguing parallels with Alzheimer’s disease, including the presence of neurofibrillary tangles and increased levels of amyloid precursor protein (APP)-derived β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in vulnerable brain neurons. To evaluate the role of Aβ in NPC disease, we determined the gene expression profile in selected brain regions of our recently developed bigenic ANPC mice, generated by crossing APP transgenic (Tg) mice with heterozygous Npc1-deficient mice. The ANPC mice exhibited exacerbated neuronal and glial pathology compared to other genotypes [i.e., APP-Tg, double heterozygous (Dhet), Npc1-null and wild-type mice]. Analysis of expression profiles of 86 selected genes using real-time RT-PCR arrays showed a wide-spectrum of alterations in the four genotypes compared to wild-type controls. The changes observed in APP-Tg and Dhet mice are limited to only few genes involved mostly in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism, whereas Npc1-null and ANPC mice showed alterations in the expression profiles of a number of genes regulating cholesterol homeostasis, APP metabolism, vesicular trafficking and cell death mechanism in both hippocampus and cerebellum compared to wild-type mice. Intriguingly, ANPC and Npc1-null mice, with some exceptions, exhibited similar changes, although more genes were differentially expressed in the affected cerebellum than the relatively spared hippocampus. The altered gene profiles were found to match with the corresponding protein levels. These results suggest that lack of Npc1 protein can alter the expression profile of selected transcripts as well as proteins, and APP

  2. Normal cardiac contraction in mice lacking the proline-alanine rich region and C1 domain of cardiac myosin binding protein C.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Sabine J; Witt, Christian C; Harris, Samantha P

    2015-11-01

    Cardiac myosin binding protein C (cMyBP-C) is an essential regulator of cross bridge cycling. Through mechanisms that are incompletely understood the N-terminal domains (NTDs) of cMyBP-C can activate contraction even in the absence of calcium and can also inhibit cross bridge kinetics in the presence of calcium. In vitro studies indicated that the proline-alanine rich (p/a) region and C1 domain are involved in these processes, although effects were greater using human proteins compared to murine proteins (Shaffer et al. J Biomed Biotechnol 2010, 2010: 789798). We hypothesized that the p/a and C1 region are critical for the timing of contraction. In this study we tested this hypothesis using a mouse model lacking the p/a and C1 region (p/a-C1(-/-) mice) to investigate the in vivo relevance of these regions on cardiac performance. Surprisingly, hearts of adult p/a-C1(-/-) mice functioned normally both on a cellular and whole organ level. Force measurements in permeabilized cardiomyocytes from adult p/a-C1(-/-) mice and wild type (Wt) littermate controls demonstrated similar rates of force redevelopment both at submaximal and maximal activation. Maximal and passive force and calcium sensitivity of force were comparable between groups as well. Echocardiograms showed normal isovolumetric contraction times, fractional shortening and ejection fraction, indicating proper systolic function in p/a-C1(-/-) mouse hearts. p/a-C1(-/-) mice showed a slight but significant reduction in isovolumetric relaxation time compared to Wt littermates, yet this difference disappeared in older mice (7-8months of age). Moreover, stroke volume was preserved in p/a-C1(-/-) mice, corroborating sufficient time for normal filling of the heart. Overall, the hearts of p/a-C1(-/-) mice showed no signs of dysfunction even after chronic stress with an adrenergic agonist. Together, these results indicate that the p/a region and the C1 domain of cMyBP-C are not critical for normal cardiac contraction in

  3. Differential body weight and feeding responses to high-fat diets in rats and mice lacking cholecystokinin 1 receptors.

    PubMed

    Bi, Sheng; Chen, Jie; Behles, R Ryan; Hyun, Jayson; Kopin, Alan S; Moran, Timothy H

    2007-07-01

    Prior data demonstrated differential roles for cholecystokinin (CCK)1 receptors in maintaining energy balance in rats and mice. CCK1 receptor deficiency results in hyperphagia and obesity of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats but not in mice. To ascertain the role of CCK1 receptors in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity, we compared alterations in food intake, body weight, fat mass, plasma glucose, and leptin levels, and patterns of hypothalamic gene expression in OLETF rats and mice lacking CCK1 receptors in response to a 10-wk exposure to HFD. Compared with Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) control rats, OLETF rats on HFD had sustained overconsumption over the 10-wk period. High fat feeding resulted in greater increases in body weight and plasma leptin levels in OLETF than in LETO rats. In situ hybridization determinations revealed that, while HFD reduced neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression in both the arcuate nucleus (Arc) and the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) of LETO rats, HFD resulted in decreased NPY expression in the Arc but not in the DMH of OLETF rats. In contrast to these results in OLETF rats, HFD increased food intake and induced obesity to an equal degree in both wild-type and CCK1 receptor(-/-) mice. NPY gene expression was decreased in the Arc in response to HFD, but was not detectable in the DMH in both wild-type and CCK1 receptor(-/-) mice. Together, these data provide further evidence for differential roles of CCK1 receptors in the controls of food intake and body weight in rats and mice.

  4. Increased cyclooxygenase activity impairs apoptosis of inflammatory neutrophils in mice lacking gelatinase B/matrix metalloproteinase-9

    PubMed Central

    Kolaczkowska, Elzbieta; Plytycz, Barbara; Arnold, Bernd; Piccard, Helene; Opdenakker, Ghislain

    2009-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9)/gelatinase B plays an important role in neutrophil infiltration during inflammation and cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2) and their products are important regulators of inflammation. Recently, we reported that a genetic lack of MMP-9 impairs neutrophil infiltration during early zymosan-induced peritonitis but at later stages (> 24 hr) neutrophils persist in the peritoneal cavity. Here we show that this is the result of impaired apoptosis of MMP-9−/−-derived leucocytes. As enhanced COX-1 expression was reported in MMP-9−/− mice, we evaluated the hypothesis that altered COX expression induced the above phenomenon as COX-dependent prostaglandins can act either anti-apoptotically (PGE2) or pro-apoptotically (PGD2). The current data demonstrate that messenger RNA and protein expression of both COX isoforms and their activities are increased in MMP-9−/− mice during late peritonitis. Application of selective COX inhibitors revealed enhanced COX-1-dependent PGE2 production and impaired COX-2-dependent PGD2 synthesis in MMP-9−/− mice. Most importantly, inhibition of COX-1 abolished prolonged neutrophil accumulation in the peritoneal cavity of MMP-9−/− mice and increased apoptosis of inflammatory leucocytes. Similarly, weaker apoptosis of MMP-9−/− bone marrow neutrophils treated in vitro with zymosan was reversed by COX-1 inhibition. In conclusion, enhanced COX-1 expression is responsible for persistent neutrophil presence in the peritoneum of MMP-9−/− mice because of increased synthesis of anti-apoptotic PGE2. In non-transgenic mice, however, inflammatory leucocytes die apoptotically in the late stages of peritonitis as a result of COX-2-dependent PGD2 activity. Overall, we show a dependence of COX expression on the presence of MMP-9. PMID:19175797

  5. Increased Age-Related Cardiac Dysfunction in Bradykinin B2 Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Wenjing; Xu, Xizhen; Zhao, Gang; Zhao, Junjie; Dong, Ruolan; Ma, Ben; Zhang, Yanjun; Long, Guangwen; Wang, Dao Wen; Tu, Ling

    2016-02-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the kinin peptide binds to bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) to trigger various beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of B2R in cardiac aging remain unknown. A significant age-dependent decrease in B2R expression in the myocardium was observed in C57BL/6J mice. Echocardiographic measurements showed that aging caused a significant cardiac dysfunction in C57BL/6J mice, and importantly B2R deficiency augmented this dysfunction in aging mice. The deficiency of B2R expression in the aging heart repressed p53-pGC-1α-induced mitochondria renewal, increased reactive oxygen species production, and destroyed mitochondrial ultrastructure. Age-related decrease or lack of B2R increased oxidative stress, macrophage infiltration, and inflammatory cytokine expression and compromised antioxidant enzyme expression. Moreover, the inflammatory signals were mainly mediated by the activation of p38 MAPK, JNK, and subsequent translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B to the nucleus. In summary, our data provide evidence that B2R deficiency contributes to the aging-induced cardiac dysfunction, which is likely mediated by increased mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This study indicates that preventing the loss of cardioprotective B2R expression may be a novel approach for the prevention and treatment of age-related cardiac dysfunction.

  6. Mitochondrial and performance adaptations to exercise training in mice lacking skeletal muscle LKB1.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Colby B; Madsen, Steven R; Hallowell, David M; Goring, Darren M J; Moore, Timothy M; Hardman, Shalene E; Heninger, Megan R; Atwood, Daniel R; Thomson, David M

    2013-10-15

    LKB1 and its downstream targets of the AMP-activated protein kinase family are important regulators of many aspects of skeletal muscle cell function, including control of mitochondrial content and capillarity. LKB1 deficiency in skeletal and cardiac muscle (mLKB1-KO) greatly impairs exercise capacity. However, cardiac dysfunction in that genetic model prevents a clear assessment of the role of skeletal muscle LKB1 in the observed effects. Our purposes here were to determine whether skeletal muscle-specific knockout of LKB1 (skmLKB1-KO) decreases exercise capacity and mitochondrial protein content, impairs accretion of mitochondrial proteins after exercise training, and attenuates improvement in running performance after exercise training. We found that treadmill and voluntary wheel running capacity was reduced in skmLKB1-KO vs. control (CON) mice. Citrate synthase activity, succinate dehydrogenase activity, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase content were lower in KO vs. CON muscles. Three weeks of treadmill training resulted in significantly increased treadmill running performance in both CON and skmLKB1-KO mice. Citrate synthase activity increased significantly with training in both genotypes, but protein content and activity for components of the mitochondrial electron transport chain increased only in CON mice. Capillarity and VEGF protein was lower in skmLKB1-KO vs. CON muscles, but VEGF increased with training only in skmLKB1-KO. Three hours after an acute bout of muscle contractions, PGC-1α, cytochrome c, and VEGF gene expression all increased in CON but not skmLKB1-KO muscles. Our findings indicate that skeletal muscle LKB1 is required for accretion of some mitochondrial proteins but not for early exercise capacity improvements with exercise training.

  7. Lack of effect of ceftriaxone, a GLT-1 transporter activator, on spatial memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Ipek; Kizilay-Ozfidan, Gulnur; Karadag, C Hakan; Ulugol, Ahmet

    2013-07-01

    In the central nervous system, glutamate appears to be the principal excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter. Recent findings show that beta-lactam antibiotics, by stimulating glutamate transporter (GLT-1) expression, offer neuroprotection. The purpose of our study is to observe the effect of ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, on spatial memory in mice. Male Balb-c mice, weighing 20-25 g, were trained in Morris water maze (n=12 for each group) task. Animals were given 4 trials per day for 7 consecutive days to locate a hidden platform (acquisition phase). On the eighth day, the platform is removed and the animals were swum for one session of 60 s (retention phase). Learning and memory functions of the animals were evaluated based on their performances in these tests. Ceftriaxone was given for 9 days at different doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, i.p.); additionally, its acute effect was evaluated in one group (200 mg/kg, i.p.). Our immunohistochemistry findings indicate that ceftriaxone increases GLT-1 expression in CA1, CA3 and DG regions of hippocampus, especially with the dose of 200 mg/kg. Evaluation of the acquisition parameters, such as time to reach platform, distance moved, and mean distance to platform indicates that chronic ceftriaxone has no effect on learning curves of the animals. When retention phase parameters (e.g. time to reach target quadrant, swim duration in target quadrant, and mean distance to platform area) are evaluated, it was found that both chronic and acute ceftriaxone did not affect memory at any dose used. In contrast to the contribution of GLT-1 expression to various central nervous system diseases, such as chronic pain, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and seizures, our findings suggest that ceftriaxone has no effect on spatial memory function in mice.

  8. Hypothalamic dysregulation and infertility in mice lacking the homeodomain protein Six6.

    PubMed

    Larder, Rachel; Clark, Daniel D; Miller, Nichol L G; Mellon, Pamela L

    2011-01-12

    The hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads coordinate to direct the development and regulation of reproductive function in mammals. Control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is dependent on correct migration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons from the nasal placode to the hypothalamus, followed by proper synthesis and pulsatile secretion of GnRH, functions absent in patients with hypogonadal hypogonadism. In this study, we identify sine oculis-related homeobox 6 (Six6) as a novel factor necessary for proper targeting of GnRH expression to the limited population of GnRH neurons within the adult mouse hypothalamus and demonstrate that it is required for proper reproductive function in both male and female mice. Female Six6-null mice exhibit a striking decrease in fertility, failing to progress through the estrous cycle normally, show any signs of successful ovulation, or produce litters. Although basal gonadotropin production in these mice is relatively normal, analysis of GnRH expression reveals a dramatic decrease in total GnRH neuron numbers. We show that expression of Six6 is dramatically increased during GnRH neuronal maturation and that overexpression of Six6 induces GnRH transcription in neuronal cells. Finally, we demonstrate that this induction in GnRH expression is mediated via binding of Six6 to evolutionarily conserved ATTA sites located within the GnRH proximal promoter. Together, these data indicate that Six6 plays an important role in the regulation of GnRH expression and hypothalamic control of fertility.

  9. Characterisation of light responses in the retina of mice lacking principle components of rod, cone and melanopsin phototransduction signalling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Steven; Rodgers, Jessica; Hickey, Doron; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Hankins, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    Gnat−/−, Cnga3−/−, Opn4−/− triple knockout (TKO) mice lack essential components of phototransduction signalling pathways present in rods, cones and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs), and are therefore expected to lack all sensitivity to light. However, a number of studies have shown that light responses persist in these mice. In this study we use multielectrode array (MEA) recordings and light-induced c-fos expression to further characterise the light responses of the TKO retina. Small, but robust electroretinogram type responses are routinely detected during MEA recordings, with properties consistent with rod driven responses. Furthermore, a distinctive pattern of light-induced c-fos expression is evident in the TKO retina, with c-fos expression largely restricted to a small subset of amacrine cells that express disabled-1 (Dab1) but lack expression of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1). Collectively these data are consistent with the persistence of a novel light sensing pathway in the TKO retina that originates in rod photoreceptors, potentially a rare subset of rods with distinct functional properties, and which is propagated to an atypical subtype of AII amacrine cells. Furthermore, the minimal responses observed following UV light stimulation suggest only a limited role for the non-visual opsin OPN5 in driving excitatory light responses within the mouse retina. PMID:27301998

  10. Characterisation of light responses in the retina of mice lacking principle components of rod, cone and melanopsin phototransduction signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Steven; Rodgers, Jessica; Hickey, Doron; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Hankins, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    Gnat(-/-), Cnga3(-/-), Opn4(-/-) triple knockout (TKO) mice lack essential components of phototransduction signalling pathways present in rods, cones and photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (pRGCs), and are therefore expected to lack all sensitivity to light. However, a number of studies have shown that light responses persist in these mice. In this study we use multielectrode array (MEA) recordings and light-induced c-fos expression to further characterise the light responses of the TKO retina. Small, but robust electroretinogram type responses are routinely detected during MEA recordings, with properties consistent with rod driven responses. Furthermore, a distinctive pattern of light-induced c-fos expression is evident in the TKO retina, with c-fos expression largely restricted to a small subset of amacrine cells that express disabled-1 (Dab1) but lack expression of glycine transporter-1 (GlyT-1). Collectively these data are consistent with the persistence of a novel light sensing pathway in the TKO retina that originates in rod photoreceptors, potentially a rare subset of rods with distinct functional properties, and which is propagated to an atypical subtype of AII amacrine cells. Furthermore, the minimal responses observed following UV light stimulation suggest only a limited role for the non-visual opsin OPN5 in driving excitatory light responses within the mouse retina. PMID:27301998

  11. Generation of mice lacking DUF1220 protein domains: effects on fecundity and hyperactivity

    PubMed Central

    Keeney, JG; O’Bleness, MS; Anderson, N; Davis, JM; Arevalo, N; Busquet, N; Chick, W; Rozman, J; Hölter, SM; Garrett, L; Horsch, M; Beckers, J; Wurst, W; Klingenspor, M; Restrepo, D

    2014-01-01

    Sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains show the most extreme human lineage-specific copy number increase of any coding region in the genome and have been linked to human brain evolution. In addition, DUF1220 copy number (dosage) has been implicated in influencing brain size within the human species, both in normal populations and in individuals associated with brain size pathologies (1q21-associated microcephaly and macrocephaly). More recently, increasing dosage of a subtype of DUF1220 has been linked with increasing severity of the primary symptoms of autism. Despite these intriguing associations, a function for these domains has not been described. As a first step in addressing this question we have developed the first transgenic model of DUF1220 function by removing the single DUF1220 domain (the ancestral form) encoded in the mouse genome. In a hypothesis generating exercise, these mice were evaluated by 197 different phenotype measurements. While resulting DUF1220-minus (KO) mice show no obvious anatomical peculiarities, they exhibit a significantly reduced fecundity (χ2= 19.1, df = 2, p = 7.0 × 10−5). Further extensive phenotypic analyses suggest hyperactivity (p < 0.05) of DUF1220 mice and changes in gene expression levels of brain associated with distinct neurological functions and disease. Other changes that met statistical significance include an increase in plasma glucose concentration (as measured by Area Under the Curve, AUC 0-30 and AUC 30-120) in male mutants, fasting glucose levels, reduce sodium levels in male mutants, increased levels of the liver functional indicator ALAT/GPT in males, levels of alkaline phosphatase (also an indicator of liver function), mean R and SR amplitude by electrocardiography, elevated IgG3 levels, a reduced ratio of CD4:CD8 cells, and a reduced frequency of T cells; though it should be noted that many of these differences are quite small and require further examination. The linking of DUF1220 loss to a

  12. Lack of effect of levallorphan on analgesia induced by intraventricular application of porcine calcitonin in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Kumagai, F; Tachikawa, S; Maeno, H

    1979-04-15

    Intraventricular administration to mice porcine calcitonin (10 U/kg) as well as of morphine (3 microgram/kg) elevated the threshold pressure of stimuli applied to the base of the tail as assessed by squeaking, struggling or biting, all of which were regarded as manifestations of pain sensation in the animals. Pretreatment with an opiate antagonist, levallorphan (30 mg/kg i.p.) showed no influence upon the analgesic effect of calcitonin, though it completely antagonized the effect of morphine. The results suggested that a peptide hormone, calcitonin, exerted its analgesic action in a manner distinct from the narcotic analgesic. PMID:456419

  13. Generation of mice lacking DUF1220 protein domains: effects on fecundity and hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Keeney, J G; O'Bleness, M S; Anderson, N; Davis, J M; Arevalo, N; Busquet, N; Chick, W; Rozman, J; Hölter, S M; Garrett, L; Horsch, M; Beckers, J; Wurst, W; Klingenspor, M; Restrepo, D; de Angelis, M Hrabě; Sikela, J M

    2015-02-01

    Sequences encoding DUF1220 protein domains show the most extreme human lineage-specific copy number increase of any coding region in the genome and have been linked to human brain evolution. In addition, DUF1220 copy number (dosage) has been implicated in influencing brain size within the human species, both in normal populations and in individuals associated with brain size pathologies (1q21-associated microcephaly and macrocephaly). More recently, increasing dosage of a subtype of DUF1220 has been linked with increasing severity of the primary symptoms of autism. Despite these intriguing associations, a function for these domains has not been described. As a first step in addressing this question, we have developed the first transgenic model of DUF1220 function by removing the single DUF1220 domain (the ancestral form) encoded in the mouse genome. In a hypothesis generating exercise, these mice were evaluated by 197 different phenotype measurements. While resulting DUF1220-minus (KO) mice show no obvious anatomical peculiarities, they exhibit a significantly reduced fecundity (χ(2) = 19.1, df = 2, p = 7.0 × 10(-5)). Further extensive phenotypic analyses suggest hyperactivity (p < 0.05) of DUF1220 mice and changes in gene expression levels of brain associated with distinct neurological functions and disease. Other changes that met statistical significance include an increase in plasma glucose concentration (as measured by area under the curve, AUC 0-30 and AUC 30-120) in male mutants, fasting glucose levels, reduce sodium levels in male mutants, increased levels of the liver functional indicator ALAT/GPT in males, levels of alkaline phosphatase (also an indicator of liver function), mean R and SR amplitude by electrocardiography, elevated IgG3 levels, a reduced ratio of CD4:CD8 cells, and a reduced frequency of T cells; though it should be noted that many of these differences are quite small and require further examination. The linking of DUF1220 loss to a

  14. Growth Retardation, DNA Repair Defects, and Lack of Spermatogenesis in BRCA1-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cressman, Victoria L.; Backlund, Dana C.; Avrutskaya, Anna V.; Leadon, Steven A.; Godfrey, Virginia; Koller, Beverly H.

    1999-01-01

    BRCA1 is a nuclear phosphoprotein expressed in a broad spectrum of tissues during cell division. The inheritance of a mutant BRCA1 allele dramatically increases a woman’s lifetime risk for developing both breast and ovarian cancers. A number of mouse lines carrying mutations in the Brca1 gene have been generated, and mice homozygous for these mutations generally die before day 10 of embryonic development. We report here the survival of a small number of mice homozygous for mutations in both the p53 and Brca1 genes. The survival of these mice is likely due to additional unknown mutations or epigenetic effects. Analysis of the Brca1−/− p53−/− animals indicates that BRCA1 is not required for the development of most organ systems. However, these mice are growth retarded, males are infertile due to meiotic failure, and the mammary gland of the female mouse is underdeveloped. Growth deficiency due to loss of BRCA1 was more thoroughly examined in an analysis of primary fibroblast lines obtained from these animals. Like p53−/− fibroblasts, Brca1−/− p53−/− cells proliferate more rapidly than wild-type cells; however, a high level of cellular death in these cultures results in reduced overall growth rates in comparison to p53−/− fibroblasts. Brca1−/− p53−/− fibroblasts are also defective in transcription-coupled repair and display increased sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. We show, however, that after continued culture, and perhaps accelerated by the loss of BRCA1 repair functions, populations of Brca1−/− p53−/− fibroblasts with increased growth rates can be isolated. The increased survival of BRCA1-deficient fibroblasts in the absence of p53, and with the subsequent accumulation of additional growth-promoting changes, may mimic the events that occur during malignant transformation of BRCA1-deficient epithelia. PMID:10490643

  15. Shank3-mutant mice lacking exon 9 show altered excitation/inhibition balance, enhanced rearing, and spatial memory deficit.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiseok; Chung, Changuk; Ha, Seungmin; Lee, Dongmin; Kim, Do-Young; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Eunjoon

    2015-01-01

    Shank3 is a postsynaptic scaffolding protein implicated in synapse development and autism spectrum disorders. The Shank3 gene is known to produce diverse splice variants whose functions have not been fully explored. In the present study, we generated mice lacking Shank3 exon 9 (Shank3 (Δ9) mice), and thus missing five out of 10 known Shank3 splice variants containing the N-terminal ankyrin repeat region, including the longest splice variant, Shank3a. Our X-gal staining results revealed that Shank3 proteins encoded by exon 9-containing splice variants are abundant in upper cortical layers, striatum, hippocampus, and thalamus, but not in the olfactory bulb or cerebellum, despite the significant Shank3 mRNA levels in these regions. The hippocampal CA1 region of Shank3 (Δ9) mice exhibited reduced excitatory transmission at Schaffer collateral synapses and increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory synaptic events in pyramidal neurons. In contrast, prelimbic layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex displayed decreased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory synaptic events, indicating alterations in the ratio of excitation/inhibition (E/I ratio) in the Shank3 (Δ9) brain. These mice displayed a mild increase in rearing in a novel environment and mildly impaired spatial memory, but showed normal social interaction and repetitive behavior. These results suggest that ankyrin repeat-containing Shank3 splice variants are important for E/I balance, rearing behavior, and spatial memory.

  16. Impaired humoral immunity and tolerance in K14-VEGFR-3-Ig mice that lack dermal lymphatic drainage

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Susan N.; Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Pasquier, Miriella; Kuan, Emma L.; Alitalo, Kari; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Swartz, Melody A.

    2012-01-01

    Lymphatic vessels transport interstitial fluid, soluble antigen, and immune cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes (LNs), yet the contribution of peripheral lymphatic drainage to adaptive immunity remains poorly understood. We examined immune responses to dermal vaccination and contact hypersensitivity (CHS) challenge in K14-VEGFR-3-Ig mice, which lack dermal lymphatic capillaries and experience markedly depressed transport of solutes and dendritic cells from the skin to draining LNs. In response to dermal immunization, K14-VEGFR-3-Ig mice produced lower antibody titers. In contrast, although delayed, T cell responses were robust after 21 days, including high levels of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and production of IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10 upon restimulation. T cell-mediated CHS responses were strong in K14-VEGFR-3-Ig mice, but importantly, their ability to induce CHS tolerance in the skin was impaired. Additionally, one-year-old mice displayed multiple signs of autoimmunity. These data suggest that lymphatic drainage plays more important roles in regulating humoral immunity and peripheral tolerance than in effector T cell immunity. PMID:22844119

  17. Cellular actions of opioids on periaqueductal grey neurons from C57B16/J mice and mutant mice lacking MOR-1.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Christopher W; Bagley, Elena E; Drew, Geoffrey M; Schuller, Alwin; Pintar, John E; Hack, Stephen P; Christie, MacDonald J

    2003-05-01

    1 Patch clamp recordings were made from periaqueductal grey (PAG) neurons in vitro to investigate the cellular actions of opioids in wild-type C57B16/J mice and mutant mice lacking the first exon of the micro -opioid (MOP) receptor. 2 In wild-type mice, the kappa-(KOP) agonist U-69593 (300 nM) and the mixed micro /delta-opioid agonist met-enkephalin (10 micro M), but not the delta-(DOP) agonist deltorphin (300 nM), reduced the amplitude of evoked GABA(A)-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs). Met-enkephalin and U-69593 also reduced the rate of spontaneous miniature IPSCs, but had no effect on their amplitude and kinetics. In micro -receptor-deleted mice, only U-69593 (300 nM) reduced the amplitude of evoked IPSCs. 3 In wild-type mice, the MOP agonist DAMGO (3 micro M) produced an outward current in 76% of the neurons. Deltorphin and U-69593 produced outward currents in 24 and 32% of the neurons, respectively. In micro -receptor-deleted mice, deltorphin and U-69593 produced similar outward currents in 32 and 27% of the neurons, respectively, while DAMGO was without effect. All neurons in both the wild-type and micro -receptor-deleted mice responded with similar outward currents to either the GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (10 micro M), or the opioid-like receptor ORL1 (NOP) agonist nociceptin (300 nM). 4 The DAMGO-, deltorphin-, U-69593-, baclofen- and nociceptin-induced currents displayed inward rectification and reversed polarity at -109 to -116 mV. 5 These findings indicate that micro -, delta- and kappa-opioid receptor activation has complex pre- and postsynaptic actions within the mouse PAG. This differs to the rat PAG where only micro -opioid receptor actions have been observed.

  18. Changes in lymphoid populations of ageing CBA and NZB mice

    PubMed Central

    Zatz, Marion M.; Mellors, R. C.; Lance, E. M.

    1971-01-01

    Changes in subpopulations of lymphoid cells of normal (CBA) and autoimmune (NZB) mice were studied as a function of age, by observing migration patterns of 51Cr labelled lymph node, spleen and thymus cells from donors aged 8 days to 12 months. The method permits analysis of the proportions and numbers of recirculating and non-recirculating lymphocytes in lymphoid compartments. Changes in the lymphoid populations of CBA mice were found, which could be attributed to the normal processes of maturation and senescence. In NZB mice relative and absolute decreases in the recirculating cell content of lymph node and spleen were observed which coincided with the time of development of autoimmunity. The significance of these results, in relation to altered immunocompetence with age, is discussed. PMID:5576663

  19. Transmitochondrial mito-miceΔ and mtDNA mutator mice, but not aged mice, share the same spectrum of musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Mito, Takayuki; Ishizaki, Hikari; Suzuki, Michiko; Morishima, Hitomi; Ota, Azusa; Ishikawa, Kaori; Nakada, Kazuto; Maeno, Akiteru; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Hayashi, Jun-Ichi

    2015-01-24

    The spectra of phenotypes associated with aging and mitochondrial diseases sometimes appear to overlap with each other. We used aged mice and a mouse model of mitochondrial diseases (transmitochondrial mito-miceΔ with deleted mtDNA) to study whether premature aging phenotypes observed in mtDNA mutator mice are associated with aging or mitochondrial diseases. Here, we provide convincing evidence that all the mice examined had musculoskeletal disorders of osteoporosis and muscle atrophy, which correspond to phenotypes prevalently observed in the elderly. However, precise investigation of musculoskeletal disorders revealed that the spectra of osteoporosis and muscle atrophy phenotypes in mtDNA mutator mice were very close to those in mito-miceΔ, but different from those of aged mice. Therefore, mtDNA mutator mice and mito-miceΔ, but not aged mice, share the spectra of musculoskeletal disorders.

  20. Hyperammonemia in gene-targeted mice lacking functional hepatic glutamine synthetase

    PubMed Central

    Qvartskhava, Natalia; Lang, Philipp A.; Görg, Boris; Pozdeev, Vitaly I.; Ortiz, Marina Pascual; Lang, Karl S.; Bidmon, Hans J.; Lang, Elisabeth; Leibrock, Christina B.; Herebian, Diran; Bode, Johannes G.; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Urea cycle defects and acute or chronic liver failure are linked to systemic hyperammonemia and often result in cerebral dysfunction and encephalopathy. Although an important role of the liver in ammonia metabolism is widely accepted, the role of ammonia metabolizing pathways in the liver for maintenance of whole-body ammonia homeostasis in vivo remains ill-defined. Here, we show by generation of liver-specific Gln synthetase (GS)-deficient mice that GS in the liver is critically involved in systemic ammonia homeostasis in vivo. Hepatic deletion of GS triggered systemic hyperammonemia, which was associated with cerebral oxidative stress as indicated by increased levels of oxidized RNA and enhanced protein Tyr nitration. Liver-specific GS-deficient mice showed increased locomotion, impaired fear memory, and a slightly reduced life span. In conclusion, the present observations highlight the importance of hepatic GS for maintenance of ammonia homeostasis and establish the liver-specific GS KO mouse as a model with which to study effects of chronic hyperammonemia. PMID:25870278

  1. Unexpected Phenotype of Mice Lacking Shcbp1, a Protein Induced during T Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Monica W.; Arandjelovic, Sanja; Trampont, Paul C.; Kim, Taeg S.; Braciale, Thomas J.; Ravichandran, Kodi S.

    2014-01-01

    T cell development and activation are highly regulated processes, and their proper execution is important for a competent immune system. Shc SH2-domain binding protein-1 (Shcbp1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein that binds to the adaptor protein ShcA. Studies in Drosophila and in cell lines have strongly linked Shcbp1 to cell proliferation, embryonic development, growth factor signaling, and tumorigenesis. Here we show that Shcbp1 expression is strikingly upregulated during the β-selection checkpoint in thymocytes, and that its expression tightly correlates with proliferative stages of T cell development. To evaluate the role for Shcbp1 during thymic selection and T cell function in vivo, we generated mice with global and conditional deletion of Shcbp1. Surprisingly, the loss of Shcbp1 expression did not have an obvious effect during T cell development. However, in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which depends on CD4+ T cell function and mimics multiple features of the human disease multiple sclerosis, Shcbp1 deficient mice had reduced disease severity and improved survival, and this effect was T cell intrinsic. These data suggest that despite the striking upregulation of Shcbp1 during T cell proliferation, loss of Shcbp1 does not directly affect T cell development, but regulates CD4+ T cell effector function in vivo. PMID:25153088

  2. Neuroleptic-induced hypothermia in mice: lack of evidence for a central mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Boschi, G.; Launay, N.; Rips, R.

    1987-01-01

    The present study investigated the ability of neuroleptic drugs to induce hypothermia in mice when they were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) or intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Twelve neuroleptics belonging to five chemical classes including phenothiazines, butyrophenones, benzamides, thioxanthenes and diphenylbutylpiperidines were injected i.p. All of them, except benzamides, induced a dose-dependent decrease in rectal temperature. Neuroleptics were administered i.c.v. via cannulae previously implanted in mice to determine whether this response might have a central origin. None of the drugs tested induced hypothermia at doses which did not produce toxic effects. These negative results suggest that neuroleptics act to elicit hypothermia via a peripheral, rather than a central mechanism. Since some neuroleptics possess alpha-adrenolytic properties which could induce hypothermia by promoting vasodilatation, we attempted to antagonize the hypothermia produced by peripheral administration of two neuroleptics with phenylephrine, an alpha-adrenoceptor agonist that does not cross the blood-brain barrier. The hypothermia induced by both chlorpromazine and haloperidol was attenuated by phenylephrine, supporting the view that peripheral alpha-adrenoceptors may mediate neuroleptic-induced hypothermia. PMID:2884008

  3. Severe myopathy in mice lacking the MEF2/SRF-dependent gene leiomodin-3

    PubMed Central

    Cenik, Bercin K.; Garg, Ankit; McAnally, John R.; Shelton, John M.; Richardson, James A.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.; Liu, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of skeletal muscle structure and function requires a precise stoichiometry of sarcomeric proteins for proper assembly of the contractile apparatus. Absence of components of the sarcomeric thin filaments causes nemaline myopathy, a lethal congenital muscle disorder associated with aberrant myofiber structure and contractility. Previously, we reported that deficiency of the kelch-like family member 40 (KLHL40) in mice results in nemaline myopathy and destabilization of leiomodin-3 (LMOD3). LMOD3 belongs to a family of tropomodulin-related proteins that promote actin nucleation. Here, we show that deficiency of LMOD3 in mice causes nemaline myopathy. In skeletal muscle, transcription of Lmod3 was controlled by the transcription factors SRF and MEF2. Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs), which function as SRF coactivators, serve as sensors of actin polymerization and are sequestered in the cytoplasm by actin monomers. Conversely, conditions that favor actin polymerization de-repress MRTFs and activate SRF-dependent genes. We demonstrated that the actin nucleator LMOD3, together with its stabilizing partner KLHL40, enhances MRTF-SRF activity. In turn, SRF cooperated with MEF2 to sustain the expression of LMOD3 and other components of the contractile apparatus, thereby establishing a regulatory circuit to maintain skeletal muscle function. These findings provide insight into the molecular basis of the sarcomere assembly and muscle dysfunction associated with nemaline myopathy. PMID:25774500

  4. Aberrant Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Increased Adult Neurogenesis in Mice Lacking Chromatin Protein HMGB2

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Avanish S.; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Aguirre, Adan; Tsirka, Stella E.

    2013-01-01

    Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) are distinct groups of cells found in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). Previously we determined that members of the High Mobility Group (HMG) B family of chromatin structural proteins modulate NSC proliferation and self-renewal. Among them HMGB2 was found to be dynamically expressed in proliferating and differentiating NSCs, suggesting that it may regulate NSC maintenance. We report now that Hmgb2−/− mice exhibit SVZ hyperproliferation, increased numbers of SVZ NSCs, and a trend towards aberrant increases in newly born neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB) granule cell layer. Increases in the levels of the transcription factor p21 and the Neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), along with down-regulation of the transcription/pluripotency factor Oct4 in the Hmgb2−/− SVZ point to a possible pathway for this increased proliferation/differentiation. Our findings suggest that HMGB2 functions as a modulator of neurogenesis in young adult mice through regulation of NSC proliferation, and identify a potential target via which CNS repair could be amplified following trauma or disease-based neuronal degeneration. PMID:24391977

  5. Severe myopathy in mice lacking the MEF2/SRF-dependent gene leiomodin-3.

    PubMed

    Cenik, Bercin K; Garg, Ankit; McAnally, John R; Shelton, John M; Richardson, James A; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N; Liu, Ning

    2015-04-01

    Maintenance of skeletal muscle structure and function requires a precise stoichiometry of sarcomeric proteins for proper assembly of the contractile apparatus. Absence of components of the sarcomeric thin filaments causes nemaline myopathy, a lethal congenital muscle disorder associated with aberrant myofiber structure and contractility. Previously, we reported that deficiency of the kelch-like family member 40 (KLHL40) in mice results in nemaline myopathy and destabilization of leiomodin-3 (LMOD3). LMOD3 belongs to a family of tropomodulin-related proteins that promote actin nucleation. Here, we show that deficiency of LMOD3 in mice causes nemaline myopathy. In skeletal muscle, transcription of Lmod3 was controlled by the transcription factors SRF and MEF2. Myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs), which function as SRF coactivators, serve as sensors of actin polymerization and are sequestered in the cytoplasm by actin monomers. Conversely, conditions that favor actin polymerization de-repress MRTFs and activate SRF-dependent genes. We demonstrated that the actin nucleator LMOD3, together with its stabilizing partner KLHL40, enhances MRTF-SRF activity. In turn, SRF cooperated with MEF2 to sustain the expression of LMOD3 and other components of the contractile apparatus, thereby establishing a regulatory circuit to maintain skeletal muscle function. These findings provide insight into the molecular basis of the sarcomere assembly and muscle dysfunction associated with nemaline myopathy. PMID:25774500

  6. Abdominal Distension and Escherichia coli Peritonitis in Mice Lacking Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Linda K; Widi, Antin Yn; Rowarth, Serrin; Baxter, Alan G

    2015-04-01

    Here we describe the gross and microscopic findings of naturally occurring, β-hemolytic Escherichia coli peritonitis in B6.129-Myd88(tm1Aki) male and female mice. Over approximately 5 mo, 10 homozygous mutant mice deficient in myeloid differentiation factor 88 (C57BL/6 strain; male and female) that had not been used in research protocols developed rapid-onset abdominal swelling associated with copious viscous ascites. Each mouse developed an anterior peritonitis, primarily involving the parietal peritoneum and the visceral surface of the spleen, liver, diaphragm, and stomach. Inflammation was confined to the organ surfaces, with no indication of septicemia or grossly apparent gastrointestinal perforation or other tissue compromise that would initiate peritonitis. Peritonitis was likely attributable to compromised antibacterial innate immunity; cohoused, similarly immunodeficient littermates did not develop similar clinical signs. An unusual finding in all cases was mesothelial cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Although the underlying innate immune deficiency accounts for much of the observed pathology, the remarkable mesothelial cell morphology and the episodic nature of the peritonitis in some littermates and not others remain unexplained.

  7. Lack of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 in mice results in gait abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Suidan, Georgette L; Duerschmied, Daniel; Dillon, Gregory M; Vanderhorst, Veronique; Hampton, Thomas G; Wong, Siu Ling; Voorhees, Jaymie R; Wagner, Denisa D

    2013-01-01

    The role of peripheral serotonin in nervous system development is poorly understood. Tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH1) is expressed by non-neuronal cells including enterochromaffin cells of the gut, mast cells and the pineal gland and is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of peripheral serotonin. Serotonin released into circulation is taken up by platelets via the serotonin transporter and stored in dense granules. It has been previously reported that mouse embryos removed from Tph1-deficient mothers present abnormal nervous system morphology. The goal of this study was to assess whether Tph1-deficiency results in behavioral abnormalities. We did not find any differences between Tph1-deficient and wild-type mice in general motor behavior as tested by rotarod, grip-strength test, open field and beam walk. However, here we report that Tph1 (-/-) mice display altered gait dynamics and deficits in rearing behavior compared to wild-type (WT) suggesting that tryptophan hydroxylase-1 expression has an impact on the nervous system. PMID:23516593

  8. Mice lacking JunB are osteopenic due to cell-autonomous osteoblast and osteoclast defects

    PubMed Central

    Kenner, Lukas; Hoebertz, Astrid; Beil, Timo; Keon, Niamh; Karreth, Florian; Eferl, Robert; Scheuch, Harald; Szremska, Agnieszka; Amling, Michael; Schorpp-Kistner, Marina; Angel, Peter; Wagner, Erwin F.

    2004-01-01

    Because JunB is an essential gene for placentation, it was conditionally deleted in the embryo proper. JunBΔ/Δ mice are born viable, but develop severe low turnover osteopenia caused by apparent cell-autonomous osteoblast and osteoclast defects before a chronic myeloid leukemia-like disease. Although JunB was reported to be a negative regulator of cell proliferation, junBΔ/Δ osteoclast precursors and osteoblasts show reduced proliferation along with a differentiation defect in vivo and in vitro. Mutant osteoblasts express elevated p16INK4a levels, but exhibit decreased cyclin D1 and cyclin A expression. Runx2 is transiently increased during osteoblast differentiation in vitro, whereas mature osteoblast markers such as osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein are strongly reduced. To support a cell-autonomous function of JunB in osteoclasts, junB was inactivated specifically in the macrophage–osteoclast lineage. Mutant mice develop an osteopetrosis-like phenotype with increased bone mass and reduced numbers of osteoclasts. Thus, these data reveal a novel function of JunB as a positive regulator controlling primarily osteoblast as well as osteoclast activity. PMID:14769860

  9. Transcriptional profiling reveals progeroid Ercc1-/Δ mice as a model system for glomerular aging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging-related kidney diseases are a major health concern. Currently, models to study renal aging are lacking. Due to a reduced life-span progeroid models hold the promise to facilitate aging studies and allow examination of tissue-specific changes. Defects in genome maintenance in the Ercc1-/Δ progeroid mouse model result in premature aging and typical age-related pathologies. Here, we compared the glomerular transcriptome of young and aged Ercc1-deficient mice to young and aged WT mice in order to establish a novel model for research of aging-related kidney disease. Results In a principal component analysis, age and genotype emerged as first and second principal components. Hierarchical clustering of all 521 genes differentially regulated between young and old WT and young and old Ercc1-/Δ mice showed cluster formation between young WT and Ercc1-/Δ as well as old WT and Ercc1-/Δ samples. An unexpectedly high number of 77 genes were differentially regulated in both WT and Ercc1-/Δ mice (p < 0.0001). GO term enrichment analysis revealed these genes to be involved in immune and inflammatory response, cell death, and chemotaxis. In a network analysis, these genes were part of insulin signaling, chemokine and cytokine signaling and extracellular matrix pathways. Conclusion Beyond insulin signaling, we find chemokine and cytokine signaling as well as modifiers of extracellular matrix composition to be subject to major changes in the aging glomerulus. At the level of the transcriptome, the pattern of gene activities is similar in the progeroid Ercc1-/Δ mouse model constituting a valuable tool for future studies of aging-associated glomerular pathologies. PMID:23947592

  10. Defective Dendrite Elongation but Normal Fertility in Mice Lacking the Rho-Like GTPase Activator Dbl

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Emilio; Pozzato, Michela; Vercelli, Alessandro; Barberis, Laura; Azzolino, Ornella; Russo, Chiara; Vanni, Cristina; Silengo, Lorenzo; Eva, Alessandra; Altruda, Fiorella

    2002-01-01

    Dbl is the prototype of a large family of GDP-GTP exchange factors for small GTPases of the Rho family. In vitro, Dbl is known to activate Rho and Cdc42 and to induce a transformed phenotype. Dbl is specifically expressed in brain and gonads, but its in vivo functions are largely unknown. To assess its role in neurogenesis and gametogenesis, targeted deletion of the murine Dbl gene was accomplished in embryonic stem cells. Dbl-null mice are viable and did not show either decreased reproductive performances or obvious neurological defects. Histological analysis of mutant testis showed normal morphology and unaltered proliferation and survival of spermatogonia. Dbl-null brains indicated a correct disposition of the major neural structures. Analysis of cortical stratification indicated that Dbl is not crucial for neuronal migration. However, in distinct populations of Dbl-null cortical pyramidal neurons, the length of dendrites was significantly reduced, suggesting a role for Dbl in dendrite elongation. PMID:11940671

  11. Lack of the architectural factor HMGA1 causes insulin resistance and diabetes in humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Foti, Daniela; Chiefari, Eusebio; Fedele, Monica; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Brunetti, Leonardo; Paonessa, Francesco; Manfioletti, Guidalberto; Barbetti, Fabrizio; Brunetti, Arturo; Croce, Carlo M; Fusco, Alfredo; Brunetti, Antonio

    2005-07-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease, affecting millions of people globally. Although genetics and environmental factors seem to have a role, the cause of this metabolic disorder is largely unknown. Here we report a genetic flaw that markedly reduced the intracellular expression of the high mobility group A1 (HMGA1) protein, and adversely affected insulin receptor expression in cells and tissues from four subjects with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Restoration of HMGA1 protein expression in subjects' cells enhanced INSR gene transcription, and restored cell-surface insulin receptor protein expression and insulin-binding capacity. Loss of Hmga1 expression, induced in mice by disrupting the Hmga1 gene, considerably decreased insulin receptor expression in the major targets of insulin action, largely impaired insulin signaling and severely reduced insulin secretion, causing a phenotype characteristic of human type 2 diabetes. PMID:15924147

  12. Mice lacking the transcription factor SHOX2 display impaired cerebellar development and deficits in motor coordination.

    PubMed

    Rosin, Jessica M; McAllister, Brendan B; Dyck, Richard H; Percival, Christopher J; Kurrasch, Deborah M; Cobb, John

    2015-03-01

    Purkinje cells of the developing cerebellum secrete the morphogen sonic hedgehog (SHH), which is required to maintain the proliferative state of granule cell precursors (GCPs) prior to their differentiation and migration to form the internal granule layer (IGL). Despite a wealth of knowledge regarding the function of SHH during cerebellar development, the upstream regulators of Shh expression during this process remain largely unknown. Here we report that the murine short stature homeobox 2 (Shox2) gene is required for normal Shh expression in dorsal-residing Purkinje cells. Using two different Cre drivers, we show that elimination of Shox2 in the brain results in developmental defects in the inferior colliculus and cerebellum. Specifically, loss of Shox2 in the cerebellum results in precocious differentiation and migration of GCPs from the external granule layer (EGL) to the IGL. This correlates with premature bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) expression in granule cells of the dorsal cerebellum. The size of the neonatal cerebellum is reduced in Shox2-mutant animals, which is consistent with a reduction in the number of GCPs present in the EGL, and could account for the smaller vermis and thinner IGL present in adult Shox2mutants. Shox2-mutant mice also display reduced exploratory activity, altered gait and impaired motor coordination. Our findings are the first to show a role for Shox2 in brain development. We provide evidence that Shox2 plays an important role during cerebellar development, perhaps to maintain the proper balance of Shh and Bmp expression levels in the dorsal vermis, and demonstrate that in the absence of Shox2, mice display both cerebellar impairments and deficits in motor coordination, ultimately highlighting the importance of Shox2 in the cerebellum.

  13. Decreased APOE-containing HDL subfractions and cholesterol efflux capacity of serum in mice lacking Pcsk9

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies in animals showed that PCSK9 is involved in HDL metabolism. We investigated the molecular mechanism by which PCSK9 regulates HDL cholesterol concentration and also whether Pcsk9 inactivation might affect cholesterol efflux capacity of serum and atherosclerotic fatty streak volume. Methods Mass spectrometry and western blot were used to analyze the level of apolipoprotein E (APOE) and A1 (APOA1). A mouse model overexpressing human LDLR was used to test the effect of high levels of liver LDLR on the concentration of HDL cholesterol and APOE-containing HDL subfractions. Pcsk9 knockout males lacking LDLR and APOE were used to test whether LDLR and APOE are necessary for PCSK9-mediated HDL cholesterol regulation. We also investigated the effects of Pcsk9 inactivation on cholesterol efflux capacity of serum using THP-1 and J774.A1 macrophage foam cells and atherosclerotic fatty streak volume in the aortic sinus of Pcsk9 knockout males fed an atherogenic diet. Results APOE and APOA1 were reduced in the same HDL subfractions of Pcsk9 knockout and human LDLR transgenic male mice. In Pcsk9/Ldlr double-knockout mice, HDL cholesterol concentration was lower than in Ldlr knockout mice and higher than in wild-type controls. In Pcsk9/Apoe double-knockout mice, HDL cholesterol concentration was similar to that of Apoe knockout males. In Pcsk9 knockout males, THP-1 macrophage cholesterol efflux capacity of serum was reduced and the fatty streak lesion volume was similar to wild-type controls. Conclusions In mice, LDLR and APOE are important factors for PCSK9-mediated HDL regulation. Our data suggest that, although LDLR plays a major role in PCSK9-mediated regulation of HDL cholesterol concentration, it is not the only mechanism and that, regardless of mechanism, APOE is essential. Pcsk9 inactivation decreases the HDL cholesterol concentration and cholesterol efflux capacity in serum, but does not increase atherosclerotic fatty streak volume. PMID:23883163

  14. Normal sleep homeostasis and lack of epilepsy phenotype in GABA A receptor alpha3 subunit-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Winsky-Sommerer, R; Knapman, A; Fedele, D E; Schofield, C M; Vyazovskiy, V V; Rudolph, U; Huguenard, J R; Fritschy, J-M; Tobler, I

    2008-06-23

    Thalamo-cortical networks generate specific patterns of oscillations during distinct vigilance states and epilepsy, well characterized by electroencephalography (EEG). Oscillations depend on recurrent synaptic loops, which are controlled by GABAergic transmission. In particular, GABA A receptors containing the alpha3 subunit are expressed predominantly in cortical layer VI and thalamic reticular nucleus (nRT) and regulate the activity and firing pattern of neurons in relay nuclei. Therefore, ablation of these receptors by gene targeting might profoundly affect thalamo-cortical oscillations. Here, we investigated the role of alpha3-GABA A receptors in regulating vigilance states and seizure activity by analyzing chronic EEG recordings in alpha3 subunit-knockout (alpha3-KO) mice. The presence of postsynaptic alpha3-GABA A receptors/gephyrin clusters in the nRT and GABA A-mediated synaptic currents in acute thalamic slices was also examined. EEG spectral analysis showed no difference between genotypes during non rapid-eye movement (NREM) sleep or at waking-NREM sleep transitions. EEG power in the spindle frequency range (10-15 Hz) was significantly lower at NREM-REM sleep transitions in mutant compared with wild-type mice. Enhancement of sleep pressure by 6 h sleep deprivation did not reveal any differences in the regulation of EEG activities between genotypes. Finally, the waking EEG showed a slightly larger power in the 11-13-Hz band in alpha3-KO mice. However, neither behavior nor the waking EEG showed alterations suggestive of absence seizures. Furthermore, alpha3-KO mice did not differ in seizure susceptibility in a model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Strikingly, despite the disruption of postsynaptic gephyrin clusters, whole-cell patch clamp recordings revealed intact inhibitory synaptic transmission in the nRT of alpha3-KO mice. These findings show that the lack of alpha3-GABA(A) receptors is extensively compensated for to preserve the integrity of thalamo

  15. Survey on spontaneous systemic amyloidosis in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Majeed, S K

    1993-02-01

    The incidence of systemic amyloidosis in CD-1 mice (Charles River, caesarian derived) obtained from long term studies over more than a 15-year period is reported. The survey included samples of visceral organs, peripheral and central nervous tissues, bone and bone marrow. The total incidence in all mice of this survey did not show any clear evidence of a difference between males and females. Amyloidosis deposits were mainly seen in the stomach (glandular), heart, small intestines, kidney, liver, spleen, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenals, salivary glands and ovaries, but not in the brain, spinal cord, bone or bone marrow. The survey showed that amyloidosis in CD-1 mice was spontaneous, systemic and it is age-related. Amyloid deposition was extracellular and it stained positively with Congo Red and also stained positively with Oil Red O and Alcian blue. In general, amyloidosis in CD-1 mice, was higher in comparison with B6C3F (cross between C57BL/C6 NCRLB and C3H/HEN NCRLB, (bred by Charles River), CFLP strain (hysterectomy derived strain of Swiss origin) and MAGF: TIF (SPF). This survey also showed that spontaneous systemic amyloidosis in CD-1 mice, was one of the major factors contributory to death in aging CD-1 mice. PMID:8457241

  16. Mycobacterium tuberculosis lacking all mycolic acid cyclopropanation is viable but highly attenuated and hyperinflammatory in mice.

    PubMed

    Barkan, Daniel; Hedhli, Dorsaf; Yan, Han-Guang; Huygen, Kris; Glickman, Michael S

    2012-06-01

    Mycolic acids, the major lipid of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall, are modified by cyclopropane rings, methyl branches, and oxygenation through the action of eight S-adenosylmethionine (SAM)-dependent mycolic acid methyltransferases (MAMTs), encoded at four genetic loci. Mycolic acid modification has been shown to be important for M. tuberculosis pathogenesis, in part through effects on the inflammatory activity of trehalose dimycolate (cord factor). Studies using the MAMT inhibitor dioctylamine have suggested that the MAMT enzyme class is essential for M. tuberculosis viability. However, it is unknown whether a cyclopropane-deficient strain of M. tuberculosis would be viable and what the effect of cyclopropane deficiency on virulence would be. We addressed these questions by creating and characterizing M. tuberculosis strains lacking all functional MAMTs. Our results show that M. tuberculosis is viable either without cyclopropanation or without cyclopropanation and any oxygenated mycolates. Characterization of these strains revealed that MAMTs are required for acid fastness and resistance to detergent stress. Complete lack of cyclopropanation confers severe attenuation during the first week after aerosol infection of the mouse, whereas complete loss of MAMTs confers attenuation in the second week of infection. Characterization of immune responses to the cyclopropane- and MAMT-deficient strains indicated that the net effect of mycolate cyclopropanation is to dampen host immunity. Taken together, our findings establish the immunomodulatory function of the mycolic acid modification pathway in pathogenesis and buttress this enzyme class as an attractive target for antimycobacterial drug development.

  17. Lack of angiotensin II conversion to angiotensin III increases water but not alcohol consumption in aminopeptidase A-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Faber, Franziska; Gembardt, Florian; Sun, Xiaoou; Mizutani, Shigehiko; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard; Walther, Thomas

    2006-09-11

    Elevated central concentrations of the vasopressor octapeptide angiotensin (Ang) II increase the water intake in mammals. Recently, we showed that central AngII is also crucial in alcohol-consuming behavior. Since the heptapeptide AngIII, an AngII metabolite, is discussed to mediate AngII-related effects, we investigated water and alcohol consumption in mice, genetically deficient in aminopeptidase A (APA), a peptidase responsible for AngII conversion to AngIII. Sixteen male APA-deficient mice and their age matched wild-type controls were monitored on their water intake under basal conditions and total fluid and alcohol intake before and after social stress in a two-bottle free-choice paradigm. Alterations were connected to the regulation in activity of Ang-related peptidases (APA, ACE; ACE2) in brain regions involved in alcohol intake and peripheral organs. In comparison to their wild-type controls, APA-deficient mice drank significantly more water but not more alcohol at all investigated time points. A reduction in water intake, as observed in wild-type animals after social stress, did not occur in knockout mice. However, the reduction in alcohol consumption after social stress was significantly reduced in both strains. Alcohol consumption upregulated all three peptidases in the kidney, but not in lung. Notable, renal ACE2 activity was significantly higher in APA-deficient mice under basal condition. While the inhibition of AngII metabolism to AngIII does not influence the alcohol intake, water consumption in mice deficient for APA was significantly elevated. These differences induced by an altered AngII/AngIII ratio oppose the hypothesis that central AngII and AngIII act in a congruent pattern.

  18. Neuronal chloride accumulation in olfactory epithelium of mice lacking NKCC1

    PubMed Central

    Nickell, William T.; Kleene, Nancy K.; Gesteland, Robert C.; Kleene, Steven J.

    2005-01-01

    When stimulated with odorants, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) produce a depolarizing receptor current. In isolated ORNs, much of this current is due to an efflux of Cl−. This implies that the neurons have one or more mechanisms for accumulating cytoplasmic Cl− at rest. Whether odors activate an efflux of Cl− in intact olfactory epithelium, where the ionic environment is poorly characterized, has not been previously determined. In mouse olfactory epithelium, we find that >80% of the summated electrical response to odors is blocked by niflumic acid or flufenamic acid, each of which inhibits Ca2+-activated Cl− channels in ORNs. This indicates that ORNs accumulate Cl− in situ. Recent evidence has shown that NKCC1, a Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter, contributes to Cl− accumulation in mammalian ORNs. However, we find that the epithelial response to odors is only reduced by 39% in mice carrying a null mutation in Nkcc1. As in the wild type, most of the response is blocked by niflumic acid or flufenamic acid, indicating that the underlying current is carried by Cl−. We conclude that ORNs effectively accumulate Cl− in situ even in the absence of NKCC1. The Cl−-transport mechanism underlying this accumulation has not yet been identified. PMID:16319203

  19. Neuronal chloride accumulation in olfactory epithelium of mice lacking NKCC1.

    PubMed

    Nickell, William T; Kleene, Nancy K; Gesteland, Robert C; Kleene, Steven J

    2006-03-01

    When stimulated with odorants, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) produce a depolarizing receptor current. In isolated ORNs, much of this current is caused by an efflux of Cl-. This implies that the neurons have one or more mechanisms for accumulating cytoplasmic Cl- at rest. Whether odors activate an efflux of Cl- in intact olfactory epithelium, where the ionic environment is poorly characterized, has not been previously determined. In mouse olfactory epithelium, we found that >80% of the summated electrical response to odors is blocked by niflumic acid or flufenamic acid, each of which inhibits Ca2+-activated Cl- channels in ORNs. This indicates that ORNs accumulate Cl- in situ. Recent evidence has shown that NKCC1, a Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, contributes to Cl- accumulation in mammalian ORNs. However, we find that the epithelial response to odors is only reduced by 39% in mice carrying a null mutation in Nkcc1. As in the wild-type, most of the response is blocked by niflumic acid or flufenamic acid, indicating that the underlying current is carried by Cl-. We conclude that ORNs effectively accumulate Cl- in situ even in the absence of NKCC1. The Cl- -transport mechanism underlying this accumulation has not yet been identified.

  20. Meiotic failure in male mice lacking an X-linked factor

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fang; Gell, Katarina; van der Heijden, Godfried W.; Eckardt, Sigrid; Leu, N. Adrian; Page, David C.; Benavente, Ricardo; Her, Chengtao; Höög, Christer; McLaughlin, K. John; Wang, Peijing Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Meiotic silencing of sex chromosomes may cause their depletion of meiosis-specific genes during evolution. Here, we challenge this hypothesis by reporting the identification of TEX11 as the first X-encoded meiosis-specific factor in mice. TEX11 forms discrete foci on synapsed regions of meiotic chromosomes and appears to be a novel constituent of meiotic nodules involved in recombination. Loss of TEX11 function causes chromosomal asynapsis and reduced crossover formation, leading to elimination of spermatocytes, respectively, at the pachytene and anaphase I stages. Specifically, TEX11-deficient spermatocytes with asynapsed autosomes undergo apoptosis at the pachytene stage, while those with only asynapsed sex chromosomes progress. However, cells that survive the pachytene stage display chromosome nondisjunction at the first meiotic division, resulting in cell death and male infertility. TEX11 interacts with SYCP2, which is an integral component of the synaptonemal complex lateral elements. Thus, TEX11 promotes initiation and/or maintenance of synapsis and formation of crossovers, and may provide a physical link between these two meiotic processes. PMID:18316482

  1. Meiotic failure in male mice lacking an X-linked factor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fang; Gell, Katarina; van der Heijden, Godfried W; Eckardt, Sigrid; Leu, N Adrian; Page, David C; Benavente, Ricardo; Her, Chengtao; Höög, Christer; McLaughlin, K John; Wang, Peijing Jeremy

    2008-03-01

    Meiotic silencing of sex chromosomes may cause their depletion of meiosis-specific genes during evolution. Here, we challenge this hypothesis by reporting the identification of TEX11 as the first X-encoded meiosis-specific factor in mice. TEX11 forms discrete foci on synapsed regions of meiotic chromosomes and appears to be a novel constituent of meiotic nodules involved in recombination. Loss of TEX11 function causes chromosomal asynapsis and reduced crossover formation, leading to elimination of spermatocytes, respectively, at the pachytene and anaphase I stages. Specifically, TEX11-deficient spermatocytes with asynapsed autosomes undergo apoptosis at the pachytene stage, while those with only asynapsed sex chromosomes progress. However, cells that survive the pachytene stage display chromosome nondisjunction at the first meiotic division, resulting in cell death and male infertility. TEX11 interacts with SYCP2, which is an integral component of the synaptonemal complex lateral elements. Thus, TEX11 promotes initiation and/or maintenance of synapsis and formation of crossovers, and may provide a physical link between these two meiotic processes.

  2. Neuronal chloride accumulation in olfactory epithelium of mice lacking NKCC1.

    PubMed

    Nickell, William T; Kleene, Nancy K; Gesteland, Robert C; Kleene, Steven J

    2006-03-01

    When stimulated with odorants, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) produce a depolarizing receptor current. In isolated ORNs, much of this current is caused by an efflux of Cl-. This implies that the neurons have one or more mechanisms for accumulating cytoplasmic Cl- at rest. Whether odors activate an efflux of Cl- in intact olfactory epithelium, where the ionic environment is poorly characterized, has not been previously determined. In mouse olfactory epithelium, we found that >80% of the summated electrical response to odors is blocked by niflumic acid or flufenamic acid, each of which inhibits Ca2+-activated Cl- channels in ORNs. This indicates that ORNs accumulate Cl- in situ. Recent evidence has shown that NKCC1, a Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter, contributes to Cl- accumulation in mammalian ORNs. However, we find that the epithelial response to odors is only reduced by 39% in mice carrying a null mutation in Nkcc1. As in the wild-type, most of the response is blocked by niflumic acid or flufenamic acid, indicating that the underlying current is carried by Cl-. We conclude that ORNs effectively accumulate Cl- in situ even in the absence of NKCC1. The Cl- -transport mechanism underlying this accumulation has not yet been identified. PMID:16319203

  3. Age-Related Deterioration of Rod Vision in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kolesnikov, Alexander V.; Fan, Jie; Crouch, Rosalie K.; Kefalov, Vladimir J.

    2010-01-01

    Even in healthy individuals, aging leads to deterioration in visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, visual field, and dark adaptation. Little is known about the neural mechanisms that drive the age-related changes of the retina and more specifically of photoreceptors. According to one hypothesis, the age-related deterioration in rod function is due to the limited availability of 11-cis-retinal for rod pigment formation. To determine how aging affects rod photoreceptors and to test the retinoid deficiency hypothesis, we compared the morphological and functional properties of rods of adult and aged B6D2F1/J mice. We found that the number of rods and the length of their outer segments were significantly reduced in 2.5 year-old mice compared to 4 month-old animals. Aging also resulted in a 2-fold reduction in the total level of opsin in the retina. Behavioral tests revealed that scotopic visual acuity and contrast sensitivity were decreased by 2-fold in aged mice, and rod ERG recordings demonstrated reduced amplitudes of both a- and b-waves. Sensitivity of aged rods determined from single-cell recordings was also decreased by 1.5-fold, corresponding to not more than 1% free opsin in these photoreceptors, and kinetic parameters of dim flash response were not altered. Notably, the rate of rod dark adaptation was unaffected by age. Thus, our results argue against age-related deficiency of 11-cis-retinal in the B6D2F1/J mouse rod visual cycle. Surprisingly, the level of cellular dark noise was increased in aged rods providing an alternative mechanism for their desensitization. PMID:20720130

  4. Mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α exhibit alterations in inhibitory synaptic transmission in the motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, S E; Bartley, A F; Lucas, E K; Hablitz, J J; Dobrunz, L E; Cowell, R M

    2014-06-20

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is a transcriptional coactivator known to regulate gene programs in a cell-specific manner in energy-demanding tissues, and its dysfunction has been implicated in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Previous work from the Cowell laboratory indicates that PGC-1α is concentrated in inhibitory interneurons and is required for the expression of the calcium buffer parvalbumin (PV) in the cortex; however, the impact of PGC-1α deficiency on inhibitory neurotransmission in the motor cortex is not known. Here, we show that mice lacking PGC-1α exhibit increased amplitudes and decreased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in layer V pyramidal neurons. Upon repetitive train stimulation at the gamma frequency, decreased GABA release is observed. Furthermore, PV-positive interneurons in PGC-1α -/- mice display reductions in intrinsic excitability and excitatory input without changes in gross interneuron morphology. Taken together, these data show that PGC-1α is required for normal inhibitory neurotransmission and cortical PV-positive interneuron function. Given the pronounced motor dysfunction in PGC-1α -/- mice and the essential role of PV-positive interneurons in maintenance of cortical excitatory:inhibitory balance, it is possible that deficiencies in PGC-1α expression could contribute to cortical hyperexcitability and motor abnormalities in multiple neurological disorders.

  5. Lack of promoting effect of titanium dioxide particles on chemically-induced skin carcinogenesis in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Sagawa, Yoko; Futakuchi, Mitsuru; Xu, Jiegou; Fukamachi, Katsumi; Sakai, Yuto; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Nishimura, Tetsuji; Suzui, Masumi; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Morita, Akimichi

    2012-01-01

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide particles (TiO(2)) are widely used in cosmetics, sunscreens and food additives. We previously reported that topical application of non-coated rutile type TiO(2) did not exhibit a promoting effect on ultraviolet B-initiated skin carcinogenesis in rats, and that this was likely due to lack of penetration of TiO(2) into the epidermis. In the present study, we examined the promoting effect of silicone coated TiO(2 )(sTiO(2)) suspended in silicone oil and non-coated TiO(2 )(ncTiO(2)) suspended in Pentalan 408 on a two-stage skin chemical carcinogenesis model: sTiO(2) suspended in silicon oil forms smaller particles than ncTiO(2) suspended in Pentalan because of the smaller sizes of aggregates formed. The model used skin carcinogenesis-sensitive human c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene transgenic mice (rasH2) and rats (Hras128) and their wild-type counterparts and CD-1 mice to test the effects of topical application of TiO(2). Animals were initially treated with a single dose of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and then with 0, 10, or 20 mg sTiO(2) (mice) or 0, 50, or 100 mg ncTiO(2) (rats). The incidence and multiplicity of skin tumors (squamous cell papilloma and carcinoma) did not increase over DMBA alone controls in skin carcinogenesis-sensitive mice or rats or wild-type animals. Analysis of rat skin indicated that sTiO(2) and ncTiO(2) did not penetrate though either healthy or damaged skin. Furthermore sTiO(2) did not penetrate an in vitro human epidermis model. Our results indicate that treatment with sTiO(2) or ncTiO(2) did not promote skin carcinogenesis in mice or rats, probably due to lack of penetration through the epidermis.

  6. Pulmonary effects of inhaled diesel exhaust in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel, Kinal J.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Turpin, Barbara J.; Ridgely, Sherritta; Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Veleeparambil, Manoj; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary morbidity and mortality resulting from exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) increases with age. The present studies analyzed potential mechanisms underlying increased susceptibility of the elderly to PM using diesel exhaust (DE) as a model. Mice (2 m and 18 m) were exposed to DE (0, 300, and 1000 μg/m3) for 3 h once (single) or 3 h/day for 3 days (repeated). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), serum and lung tissue were collected 0 and 24 h later. Exposure to DE resulted in structural alterations in the lungs of older but not younger mice, including patchy thickening of the alveolar septa and inflammatory cell localization in alveolar spaces. These effects were most pronounced 24 h after a single exposure to the higher dose of DE. Significant increases in BAL nitrogen oxides were also noted in older mice, as well as expression of lipocalin 24p3, an oxidative stress marker in the lung with no effects in younger mice. Following DE inhalation, expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) was upregulated in lungs of both younger and older mice; however, this was attenuated in older animals. Whereas exposure to DE resulted in increases in lung Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in both older and younger mice, IL-8 increased only in older animals. In younger mice, constitutive expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) decreased after DE exposure, while in older mice, constitutive MnSOD was not detectable and DE had no effect on expression of this antioxidant. Taken together, these results suggest that altered generation of inflammatory mediators and MnSOD may contribute to increased susceptibility of older mice to inhaled DE. PMID:19729031

  7. Pulmonary effects of inhaled diesel exhaust in aged mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel, Kinal J.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Turpin, Barbara J.; Ridgely, Sherritta; Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Veleeparambil, Manoj; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2009-12-15

    Pulmonary morbidity and mortality resulting from exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) increases with age. The present studies analyzed potential mechanisms underlying increased susceptibility of the elderly to PM using diesel exhaust (DE) as a model. Mice (2 m and 18 m) were exposed to DE (0, 300, and 1000 mug/m{sup 3}) for 3 h once (single) or 3 h/day for 3 days (repeated). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), serum and lung tissue were collected 0 and 24 h later. Exposure to DE resulted in structural alterations in the lungs of older but not younger mice, including patchy thickening of the alveolar septa and inflammatory cell localization in alveolar spaces. These effects were most pronounced 24 h after a single exposure to the higher dose of DE. Significant increases in BAL nitrogen oxides were also noted in older mice, as well as expression of lipocalin 24p3, an oxidative stress marker in the lung with no effects in younger mice. Following DE inhalation, expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha) was upregulated in lungs of both younger and older mice; however, this was attenuated in older animals. Whereas exposure to DE resulted in increases in lung Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in both older and younger mice, IL-8 increased only in older animals. In younger mice, constitutive expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) decreased after DE exposure, while in older mice, constitutive MnSOD was not detectable and DE had no effect on expression of this antioxidant. Taken together, these results suggest that altered generation of inflammatory mediators and MnSOD may contribute to increased susceptibility of older mice to inhaled DE.

  8. Important role of mucosal serotonin in colonic propulsion and peristaltic reflexes: in vitro analyses in mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1.

    PubMed

    Heredia, Dante J; Gershon, Michael D; Koh, Sang Don; Corrigan, Robert D; Okamoto, Takanubu; Smith, Terence K

    2013-12-01

    Although there is general agreement that mucosal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) can initiate peristaltic reflexes in the colon, recent studies have differed as to whether or not the role of mucosal 5-HT is critical. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the secretion of 5-HT from mucosal enterochromaffin (EC) cells is essential for the manifestation of murine colonic peristaltic reflexes. To do so, we analysed the mechanisms underlying faecal pellet propulsion in isolated colons of mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1(-/-) mice), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of mucosal but not neuronal 5-HT. We used video analysis of faecal pellet propulsion, tension transducers to record colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) and intracellular microelectrodes to record circular muscle activity occurring spontaneously or following intraluminal distension. When compared with control (Tph1(+/+)) mice, Tph1(-/-) animals exhibited: (1) an elongated colon; (2) larger faecal pellets; (3) orthograde propulsion followed by retropulsion (not observed in Tph1(+/+) colon); (4) slower in vitro propulsion of larger faecal pellets (28% of Tph1(+/+)); (5) CMMCs that infrequently propagated in an oral to anal direction because of impaired descending inhibition; (6) reduced CMMCs and inhibitory responses to intraluminal balloon distension; (7) an absence of reflex activity in response to mucosal stimulation. In addition, (8) thin pellets that propagated along the control colon failed to do so in Tph1(-/-) colon; and (9) the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron, which reduced CMMCs and blocked their propagation in Tph1(+/+) mice, failed to alter CMMCs in Tph1(-/-) animals. Our observations suggest that mucosal 5-HT is essential for reflexes driven by mucosal stimulation and is also important for normal propagation of CMMCs and propulsion of pellets in the isolated colon.

  9. Important role of mucosal serotonin in colonic propulsion and peristaltic reflexes: in vitro analyses in mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Dante J; Gershon, Michael D; Koh, Sang Don; Corrigan, Robert D; Okamoto, Takanubu; Smith, Terence K

    2013-01-01

    Although there is general agreement that mucosal 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) can initiate peristaltic reflexes in the colon, recent studies have differed as to whether or not the role of mucosal 5-HT is critical. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the secretion of 5-HT from mucosal enterochromaffin (EC) cells is essential for the manifestation of murine colonic peristaltic reflexes. To do so, we analysed the mechanisms underlying faecal pellet propulsion in isolated colons of mice lacking tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (Tph1−/− mice), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of mucosal but not neuronal 5-HT. We used video analysis of faecal pellet propulsion, tension transducers to record colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) and intracellular microelectrodes to record circular muscle activity occurring spontaneously or following intraluminal distension. When compared with control (Tph1+/+) mice, Tph1−/− animals exhibited: (1) an elongated colon; (2) larger faecal pellets; (3) orthograde propulsion followed by retropulsion (not observed in Tph1+/+ colon); (4) slower in vitro propulsion of larger faecal pellets (28% of Tph1+/+); (5) CMMCs that infrequently propagated in an oral to anal direction because of impaired descending inhibition; (6) reduced CMMCs and inhibitory responses to intraluminal balloon distension; (7) an absence of reflex activity in response to mucosal stimulation. In addition, (8) thin pellets that propagated along the control colon failed to do so in Tph1−/− colon; and (9) the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron, which reduced CMMCs and blocked their propagation in Tph1+/+ mice, failed to alter CMMCs in Tph1−/− animals. Our observations suggest that mucosal 5-HT is essential for reflexes driven by mucosal stimulation and is also important for normal propagation of CMMCs and propulsion of pellets in the isolated colon. PMID:24127620

  10. Alterations in Brain Inflammation, Synaptic Proteins, and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis during Epileptogenesis in Mice Lacking Synapsin2.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Deepti; Ali, Idrish; Bakochi, Anahita; Bahonjic, Elma; Etholm, Lars; Ekdahl, Christine T

    2015-01-01

    Synapsins are pre-synaptic vesicle-associated proteins linked to the pathogenesis of epilepsy through genetic association studies in humans. Deletion of synapsins causes an excitatory/inhibitory imbalance, exemplified by the epileptic phenotype of synapsin knockout mice. These mice develop handling-induced tonic-clonic seizures starting at the age of about 3 months. Hence, they provide an opportunity to study epileptogenic alterations in a temporally controlled manner. Here, we evaluated brain inflammation, synaptic protein expression, and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the epileptogenic (1 and 2 months of age) and tonic-clonic (3.5-4 months) phase of synapsin 2 knockout mice using immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. In the epileptogenic phase, region-specific microglial activation was evident, accompanied by an increase in the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and a decrease in chemokine keratinocyte chemoattractant/ growth-related oncogene. Both post-synaptic density-95 and gephyrin, scaffolding proteins at excitatory and inhibitory synapses, respectively, showed a significant up-regulation primarily in the cortex. Furthermore, we observed an increase in the inhibitory adhesion molecules neuroligin-2 and neurofascin and potassium chloride co-transporter KCC2. Decreased expression of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor-δ subunit and cholecystokinin was also evident. Surprisingly, hippocampal neurogenesis was reduced in the epileptogenic phase. Taken together, we report molecular alterations in brain inflammation and excitatory/inhibitory balance that could serve as potential targets for therapeutics and diagnostic biomarkers. In addition, the regional differences in brain inflammation and synaptic protein expression indicate an epileptogenic zone from where the generalized seizures in synapsin 2 knockout mice may be initiated or spread. PMID:26177381

  11. Evidence of adrenal failure in aging Dax1-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Scheys, Joshua O; Heaton, Joanne H; Hammer, Gary D

    2011-09-01

    Dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) critical region on the X chromosome, gene 1 (Dax1) is an orphan nuclear receptor essential for development and function of the mammalian adrenal cortex and gonads. DAX1 was cloned as the gene responsible for X-linked AHC, which is characterized by adrenocortical failure necessitating glucocorticoid replacement. Contrary to these human data, young mice with genetic Dax1 knockout (Dax1(-/Y)) exhibit adrenocortical hyperfunction, consistent with the historic description of Dax1 as a transcriptional repressor that inhibits steroidogenic factor 1-dependent steroidogenesis. This paradox of molecular function and two apparently opposite phenotypes associated with Dax1 deficiency in mice and humans is compounded by the recent observations that under certain circumstances, Dax1 can serve as a transcriptional activator of steroidogenic factor 1. The recently revealed role of Dax1 in embryonic stem cell pluripotency, together with the observation that its expression in the adult adrenal is restricted to the subcapsular cortex, where presumptive undifferentiated progenitor cells reside, has led us to reexamine the phenotype of Dax1(-/Y) mice in order to reconcile the conflicting mouse and human data. In this report, we demonstrate that although young Dax1(-/Y) mice have enhanced steroidogenesis and subcapsular adrenocortical proliferation, as these mice age, they exhibit declining adrenal growth, decreasing adrenal steroidogenic capacity, and a reversal of their initial enhanced hormonal sensitivity. Together with a marked adrenal dysplasia in aging mice, these data reveal that both Dax1(-/Y) mice and patients with X-linked AHC exhibit adrenal failure that is consistent with adrenocortical subcapsular progenitor cell depletion and argue for a significant role of Dax1 in maintenance of these cells.

  12. DNA damage in normally and prematurely aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Maslov, Alexander Y.; Ganapathi, Shireen; Westerhof, Maaike; Quispe, Wilber; White, Ryan R.; Van Houten, Bennett; Reiling, Erwin; Dollé, Martijn E.T.; van Steeg, Harry; Hasty, Paul; Hoeijmakers, Jan H.J.; Vijg, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Summary Steady-state levels of spontaneous DNA damage, the by-product of normal metabolism and environmental exposure, are controlled by DNA repair pathways. Incomplete repair or an age-related increase in damage production and/or decline in repair could lead to an accumulation of DNA damage, increasing mutation rate, affecting transcription and/or activating programmed cell death or senescence. These consequences of DNA damage metabolism are highly conserved and the accumulation of lesions in the DNA of the genome could, therefore, provide a universal cause of aging. An important corollary of this hypothesis is that defects in DNA repair cause both premature aging and accelerated DNA damage accumulation. While the former has been well-documented, the reliable quantification of the various lesions thought to accumulate in DNA during aging has been a challenge. Here, we quantified inhibition of long distance PCR as a measure of DNA damage in liver and brain of both normal and prematurely aging, DNA repair defective mice. The results indicate a marginal, but statistically significant, increase of spontaneous DNA damage with age in normal mouse liver but not in brain. Increased levels of DNA damage were not observed in the DNA repair defective mice. We also show that oxidative lesions do not increase with age. These results indicate that neither normal nor premature aging is accompanied by a dramatic increase in DNA damage. This suggests that factors other than DNA damage per se, e.g., cellular responses to DNA damage, are responsible for the aging phenotype in mice. PMID:23496256

  13. Low bone mass and changes in the osteocyte network in mice lacking autophagy in the osteoblast lineage

    PubMed Central

    Piemontese, Marilina; Onal, Melda; Xiong, Jinhu; Han, Li; Thostenson, Jeff D.; Almeida, Maria; O’Brien, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy maintains cell function and homeostasis by recycling intracellular components. This process is also required for morphological changes associated with maturation of some cell types. Osteoblasts are bone forming cells some of which become embedded in bone and differentiate into osteocytes. This transformation includes development of long cellular projections and a reduction in endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. We examined the role of autophagy in osteoblasts by deleting Atg7 using an Osterix1-Cre transgene, which causes recombination in osteoblast progenitors and their descendants. Mice lacking Atg7 in the entire osteoblast lineage had low bone mass and fractures associated with reduced numbers of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Suppression of autophagy also reduced the amount of osteocyte cellular projections and led to retention of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria in osteocytes. These results demonstrate that autophagy in osteoblasts contributes to skeletal homeostasis and to the morphological changes associated with osteocyte formation. PMID:27064143

  14. Mice lacking functional CD95-ligand display reduced proliferation of the intestinal epithelium without gross homeostatic alterations.

    PubMed

    Trumpi, Kari; Steller, Ernst J A; de Leng, Wendy W; Raats, Daniëlle A; Nijman, Isaäc J; Morsink, Folkert H M; Borel Rinkes, Inne H M; Kranenburg, Onno

    2016-06-01

    Homeostasis of the continuously self-renewing intestinal tract involves cell proliferation, migration, differentiation along the crypt-villus-axis and shedding of cells into the gut lumen. CD95-ligand (FAS-ligand, CD95L) is a cytokine that is known for its capacity to induce apoptosis by binding its cognate receptor, CD95 (Fas). More recently, it was discovered that CD95L can also induce other cellular responses, such as proliferation, differentiation and cell migration. CD95L is highly expressed in Paneth cells of the small intestine which are in close contact with intestinal stem cells. This suggests a potential role for CD95L in controlling stem cell function and, possibly, intestinal homeostasis. We analyzed the intestines of mice deficient for functional CD95L (gld) for potential alterations in the diversity of stem-cell-lineages and parameters of intestinal homeostasis. Stem cell diversity was assessed by analyzing methylation patterns of the non-transcribed mMYOD gene. Proliferation was analyzed by BrdU labeling and differentiation was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Of all parameters analyzed, only epithelial cell proliferation was significantly reduced in the small intestines of gld-mice, but not in their colons which lack CD95L expression. We conclude that CD95L has a proliferation-stimulating role during normal turnover of the small intestine, but has a marginal effect on overall intestinal homeostasis.

  15. Modulation of Dhh signaling and altered Sertoli cell function in mice lacking the GPR37-prosaposin receptor.

    PubMed

    La Sala, Gina; Marazziti, Daniela; Di Pietro, Chiara; Golini, Elisabetta; Matteoni, Rafaele; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P

    2015-05-01

    The mammalian G-protein-coupled receptor 37 (GPR37) is expressed in brain, in adult testis, and during the early phase of gonad differentiation. Somatic Sertoli cells (SCs) are located within the seminiferous tubules where they support the germinal epithelium. An adequate number of SCs is required for the complete prepubertal differentiation of germ cells and adult fertility. This study shows that Gpr37 and its ligand prosaposin are both postnatally expressed by SCs, whose proliferation and maturation are affected in Gpr37-null mutant mice during postnatal testicular development. Mutant pups show a delayed timing in sperm cell development, with a partial arrest of spermatocytes at the meiotic pachytene (e.g., 1.5-fold increase in Gpr37(-/-) P21 pups) and their increased apoptosis (e.g., 1.8-fold and 3.5-fold increase in Gpr37(-/-) P21 and adult mice, respectively). Mutant adults have reduced testis weight (wild type, 299 ± 5 mg; knockout, 258 ± 16 mg; P < 0.05) and epididymal sperm count and motility (e.g., 1.5-fold and 1.45-fold decrease in Gpr37(-/-) mice, respectively). Lack of Gpr37 results in the reduction in androgen receptor levels during prepubertal testis development, alongside the altered expression of SC maturation markers. It also affects the prepubertal testis expression of desert hedgehog (Dhh) mitogenic cascade components (Dhh, 1.3-fold increase in Gpr37(-/-) P10 and P21 pups; Gli2, 1.4-fold and 1.6-fold increase in Gpr37(-/-) P10 and P21 pups, respectively) including patched homolog 1 (1.3-fold increase in Gpr37(-/-) P10 and P21 pups), which is found localized in prepubertal SCs and is associated with Gpr37 in cultured primary SC samples. These results indicate that Gpr37 is a specific modulator of murine testis Dhh mitogenic signaling and SC proliferation and maturation. PMID:25609427

  16. Lack of dystrophin in mdx mice modulates the expression of genes involved in neuron survival and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Licursi, Valerio; Caiello, Ivan; Lombardi, Loredana; De Stefano, Maria Egle; Negri, Rodolfo; Paggi, Paola

    2012-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is an X-linked disease characterized by progressive and lethal muscular wasting. Dystrophic patients, however, are also afflicted by several neurological disorders, the importance of which is generally underestimated. As promising therapies for muscles are currently in clinical trial stages, with the potential to provide an increase in the lifespan of young patients, determination of the genetic and molecular aspects characterizing this complex disease is crucial in order to allow the development of therapeutic approaches specifically designed for the nervous system. In this study, differences in gene expression in the superior cervical ganglion of postnatal day (P)5, P10 and 6-7-week-old wild-type and genetically dystrophic mdx mice were evaluated by DNA microarray analysis. The main aim was to verify whether the lack of dystrophin affected the transcript levels of genes related to different aspects of neuron development and differentiation. Ontological analysis of more than 500 modulated genes showed significant differences in genetic class enrichment at each postnatal date. Upregulated genes mainly fell in the categories of vesicular trafficking, and cytoskeletal and synaptic organization, whereas downregulated genes were associated with axon development, growth factors, intracellular signal transduction, metabolic processes, gene expression regulation, synapse morphogenesis, and nicotinic receptor clustering. These data strongly suggest that the structural and functional alterations previously described in both the autonomic and central nervous systems of mdx mice with respect to wild-type mice and related to crucial aspects of neuron life (i.e. postnatal development, differentiation, and plasticity) result not only from protein post-translational modifications, but also from direct and/or indirect modulation of gene expression.

  17. Lipidomic analyses of female mice lacking hepatic lipase and endothelial lipase indicate selective modulation of plasma lipid species.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanbo; Kuwano, Takashi; Lagor, William R; Albert, Carolyn J; Brenton, Siobhan; Rader, Daniel J; Ford, David A; Brown, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL) share overlapping and complementary roles in lipoprotein metabolism. The deletion of HL and EL alleles in mice raises plasma total cholesterol and phospholipid concentrations. However, the influence of HL and EL in vivo on individual molecular species from each class of lipid is not known. We hypothesized that the loss of HL, EL, or both in vivo may affect select molecular species from each class of lipids. To test this hypothesis, we performed lipidomic analyses on plasma and livers from fasted female wild-type, HL-knockout, EL-knockout, and HL/EL-double knockout mice. Overall, the loss of HL, EL, or both resulted in minimal changes to hepatic lipids; however, select species of CE were surprisingly reduced in the livers of mice only lacking EL. The loss of HL, EL, or both reduced the plasma concentrations for select molecular species of triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol, and free fatty acid. On the other hand, the loss of HL, EL, or both raised the plasma concentrations for select molecular species of phosphatidylcholine, cholesteryl ester, diacylglycerol, sphingomyelin, ceramide, plasmanylcholine, and plasmenylcholine. The increased plasma concentration of select ether phospholipids was evident in the absence of EL, thus suggesting that EL might exhibit a phospholipase A2 activity. Using recombinant EL, we showed that it could hydrolyse the artificial phospholipase A2 substrate 4-nitro-3-(octanoyloxy)benzoic acid. In summary, our study shows for the first time the influence of HL and EL on individual molecular species of several classes of lipids in vivo using lipidomic methods. PMID:24777581

  18. Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Aging on Long-Term and Remote Memory in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Park, Alan J.; Khatib, Nora; Abel, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) following hippocampus-dependent learning in young mice impairs memory when tested the following day. Here, we examined the effects of SD on remote memory in both young and aged mice. In young mice, we found that memory is still impaired 1 mo after training. SD also impaired memory in aged mice 1 d after training, but, by a…

  19. Accelerated aging phenotype in mice with conditional deficiency for mitochondrial superoxide dismutase in the connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Treiber, Nicolai; Maity, Pallab; Singh, Karmveer; Kohn, Matthias; Keist, Alexander F; Ferchiu, Florentina; Sante, Lea; Frese, Sebastian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Kreppel, Florian; Kochanek, Stefan; Sindrilaru, Anca; Iben, Sebastian; Högel, Josef; Ohnmacht, Michael; Claes, Lutz E; Ignatius, Anita; Chung, Jin H; Lee, Min J; Kamenisch, York; Berneburg, Mark; Nikolaus, Thorsten; Braunstein, Kerstin; Sperfeld, Anne-Dorte; Ludolph, Albert C; Briviba, Karlis; Wlaschek, Meinhard; Florin, Lore; Angel, Peter; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2011-04-01

    The free radical theory of aging postulates that the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species is the major determinant of aging and lifespan. Its role in aging of the connective tissue has not yet been established, even though the incidence of aging-related disorders in connective tissue-rich organs is high, causing major disability in the elderly. We have now addressed this question experimentally by creating mice with conditional deficiency of the mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase in fibroblasts and other mesenchyme-derived cells of connective tissues in all organs. Here, we have shown for the first time that the connective tissue-specific lack of superoxide anion detoxification in the mitochondria results in reduced lifespan and premature onset of aging-related phenotypes such as weight loss, skin atrophy, kyphosis (curvature of the spine), osteoporosis and muscle degeneration in mutant mice. Increase in p16(INK4a) , a robust in vivo marker for fibroblast aging, may contribute to the observed phenotype. This novel model is particularly suited to decipher the underlying mechanisms and to develop hopefully novel connective tissue-specific anti-aging strategies.

  20. Ca2+ dynamics in oocytes from naturally-aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Haverfield, Jenna; Nakagawa, Shoma; Love, Daniel; Tsichlaki, Elina; Nomikos, Michail; Lai, F. Anthony; Swann, Karl; FitzHarris, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The ability of human metaphase-II arrested eggs to activate following fertilisation declines with advancing maternal age. Egg activation is triggered by repetitive increases in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the ooplasm as a result of sperm-egg fusion. We therefore hypothesised that eggs from older females feature a reduced ability to mount appropriate Ca2+ responses at fertilisation. To test this hypothesis we performed the first examination of Ca2+ dynamics in eggs from young and naturally-aged mice. Strikingly, we find that Ca2+ stores and resting [Ca2+]i are unchanged with age. Although eggs from aged mice feature a reduced ability to replenish intracellular Ca2+ stores following depletion, this difference had no effect on the duration, number, or amplitude of Ca2+ oscillations following intracytoplasmic sperm injection or expression of phospholipase C zeta. In contrast, we describe a substantial reduction in the frequency and duration of oscillations in aged eggs upon parthenogenetic activation with SrCl2. We conclude that the ability to mount and respond to an appropriate Ca2+ signal at fertilisation is largely unchanged by advancing maternal age, but subtle changes in Ca2+ handling occur that may have more substantial impacts upon commonly used means of parthenogenetic activation. PMID:26785810

  1. Conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in response to methylphenidate, amphetamine and cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Thanos, P.K.; Bermeo, C.; Rubinstein, M.; Suchland, K.L.; Wang, G.-J.; Grandy, D.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-05-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) and amphetamine (AMPH) are the most frequently prescribed medications for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both drugs are believed to derive their therapeutic benefit by virtue of their dopamine (DA)-enhancing effects, yet an explanation for the observation that some patients with ADHD respond well to one medication but not to the other remains elusive. The dopaminergic effects of MP and AMPH are also thought to underlie their reinforcing properties and ultimately their abuse. Polymorphisms in the human gene that codes for the DA D4 receptor (D4R) have been repeatedly associated with ADHD and may correlate with the therapeutic as well as the reinforcing effects of responses to these psychostimulant medications. Conditioned place preference (CPP) for MP, AMPH and cocaine were evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice and their genetically engineered littermates, congenic on the C57Bl/6J background, that completely lack D4Rs (knockout or KO). In addition, the locomotor activity in these mice during the conditioning phase of CPP was tested in the CPP chambers. D4 receptor KO and WT mice showed CPP and increased locomotor activity in response to each of the three psychostimulants tested. D4R differentially modulates the CPP responses to MP, AMPH and cocaine. While the D4R genotype affected CPP responses to MP (high dose only) and AMPH (low dose only) it had no effects on cocaine. Inasmuch as CPP is considered an indicator of sensitivity to reinforcing responses to drugs these data suggest a significant but limited role of D4Rs in modulating conditioning responses to MP and AMPH. In the locomotor test, D4 receptor KO mice displayed attenuated increases in AMPH-induced locomotor activity whereas responses to cocaine and MP did not differ. These results suggest distinct mechanisms for D4 receptor modulation of the reinforcing (perhaps via attenuating dopaminergic signalling) and locomotor properties of these stimulant drugs

  2. Sympathetic activity induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal is blocked in genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1 receptor

    SciTech Connect

    García-Carmona, Juan-Antonio; Martínez-Laorden, Elena; Milanés, María-Victoria; Laorden, María-Luisa

    2015-02-15

    There is large body evidence indicating that stress can lead to cardiovascular disease. However, the exact brain areas and the mechanisms involved remain to be revealed. Here, we performed a series of experiments to characterize the role of CRF1 receptor (CRF1R) in the stress response induced by naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal. The experiments were performed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) ventrolateral medulla (VLM), brain regions involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, and in the right ventricle by using genetically engineered mice lacking functional CRF1R levels (KO). Mice were treated with increasing doses of morphine and withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone administration. Noradrenaline (NA) turnover, c-Fos, expression, PKA and TH phosphorylated at serine 40, was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting. Morphine withdrawal induced an enhancement of NA turnover in PVN in parallel with an increase in TH neurons expressing c-Fos in VLM in wild-type mice. In addition we have demonstrated an increase in NA turnover, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA levels in heart. The main finding of the present study was that NA turnover, TH positive neurons that express c-Fos, TH phosphorylated at serine 40 and PKA expression observed during morphine withdrawal were significantly inhibited in CRF1R KO mice. Our results demonstrate that CRF/CRF1R activation may contribute to the adaptive changes induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in the heart and in the brain areas which modulate the cardiac sympathetic function and suggest that CRF/CRF1R pathways could be contributing to cardiovascular disease associated to opioid addiction. - Highlights: • Naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal increases sympathetic activity in the PVN and heart. • Co-localization of TH phosphorylated at serine 40/c-Fos in the VLM after morphine withdrawal • Naloxone

  3. Epithelial Cell Stretching and Luminal Acidification Lead to a Retarded Development of Stria Vascularis and Deafness in Mice Lacking Pendrin

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoung-Mi; Wangemann, Philine

    2011-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of SLC26A4/pendrin are among the most prevalent causes of deafness. Deafness and vestibular dysfunction in the corresponding mouse model, Slc26a4−/−, are associated with an enlargement and acidification of the membranous labyrinth. Here we relate the onset of expression of the HCO3− transporter pendrin to the luminal pH and to enlargement-associated epithelial cell stretching. We determined expression with immunocytochemistry, cell stretching by digital morphometry and pH with double-barreled ion-selective electrodes. Pendrin was first expressed in the endolymphatic sac at embryonic day (E) 11.5, in the cochlear hook-region at E13.5, in the utricle and saccule at E14.5, in ampullae at E16.5, and in the upper turn of the cochlea at E17.5. Epithelial cell stretching in Slc26a4−/− mice began at E14.5. pH changes occurred first in the cochlea at E15.5 and in the endolymphatic sac at E17.5. At postnatal day 2, stria vascularis, outer sulcus and Reissner's membrane epithelial cells, and utricular and saccular transitional cells were stretched, whereas sensory cells in the cochlea, utricle and saccule did not differ between Slc26a4+/− and Slc26a4−/− mice. Structural development of stria vascularis, including vascularization, was retarded in Slc26a4−/− mice. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that the enlargement and stretching of non-sensory epithelial cells precedes luminal acidification in the cochlea and the endolymphatic sac. Stretching and luminal acidification may alter cell-to-cell communication and lead to the observed retarded development of stria vascularis, which may be an important step on the path to deafness in Slc26a4−/− mice, and possibly in humans, lacking functional pendrin expression. PMID:21423764

  4. Surprising Lack of Sex Differences in Normal Cognitive Aging in Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Deborah; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Berg, Stig; Pedersen, Nancy L.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in the etiology of normal cognitive functioning in aging remain largely unexplored. We conducted an investigation of genetic and environmental contributions to sex differences in level of cognitive performance and rate of decline in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging (SATSA) (Finkel & Pedersen, 2004) data set. Behavioral…

  5. LACK OF EFFECT OF AGE AND ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION ON RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPS) IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    2003 AAR PM Meeting
    Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences,
    Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health

    LACK OF EFFECT OF AGE AND ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION ON RESPIRATORY RESPONSES TO CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPs) IN RATS. JA Dye, LC Walsh, C...

  6. Evidence that hematopoietic stem cell function is preserved during aging in long-lived S6K1 mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Selman, Colin; Sinclair, Amy; Pedroni, Silvia M.A.; Irvine, Elaine E.; Michie, Alison M.; Withers, Dominic J.

    2016-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway plays a highly conserved role in aging; mice lacking ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1−/−) have extended lifespan and healthspan relative to wild type (WT) controls. Exactly how reduced mTOR signalling induces such effects is unclear, although preservation of stem cell function may be important. We show, using gene expression analyses, that there was a reduction in expression of cell cycle genes in young (12 week) and aged (80 week) S6K1−/− BM-derived c-Kit+ cells when compared to age-matched WT mice, suggesting that these cells are more quiescent in S6K1−/− mice. In addition, we investigated hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) frequency and function in young and aged S6K1−/− and WT mice. Young, but not aged, S6K1−/− mice had more LSK (lineage−, c-Kit+, Sca-1+) cells (% of bone marrow (BM)), including the most primitive long-term repopulating HSCs (LT-HSC) relative to WT controls. Donor-derived engraftment of LT-HSCs in recipient mice was unaffected by genotype in young mice, but was enhanced in transplants using LT-HSCs derived from aged S6K1−/− mice. Our results are the first to provide evidence that age-associated HSC functional decline is ameliorated in a long-lived mTOR mutant mouse. PMID:27083004

  7. IgG Suppresses Antibody Responses in Mice Lacking C1q, C3, Complement Receptors 1 and 2, or IgG Fc-Receptors.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Joakim J E; Heyman, Birgitta

    2015-01-01

    Antigen-specific IgG antibodies, passively administered to mice or humans together with large particulate antigens like erythrocytes, can completely suppress the antibody response against the antigen. This is used clinically in Rhesus prophylaxis, where administration of IgG anti-RhD prevents RhD-negative women from becoming immunized against RhD-positive fetal erythrocytes aquired transplacentally. The mechanisms by which IgG suppresses antibody responses are poorly understood. We have here addressed whether complement or Fc-receptors for IgG (FcγRs) are required for IgG-mediated suppression. IgG, specific for sheep red blood cells (SRBC), was administered to mice together with SRBC and the antibody responses analyzed. IgG was able to suppress early IgM- as well as longterm IgG-responses in wildtype mice equally well as in mice lacking FcγRIIB (FcγRIIB knockout mice) or FcγRI, III, and IV (FcRγ knockout mice). Moreover, IgG was able to suppress early IgM responses equally well in mice lacking C1q (C1qA knockout mice), C3 (C3 knockout mice), or complement receptors 1 and 2 (Cr2 knockout mice) as in wildtype mice. Owing to the previously described severely impaired IgG responses in the complement deficient mice, it was difficult to assess whether passively administered IgG further decreased their IgG response. In conclusion, Fc-receptor binding or complement-activation by IgG does not seem to be required for its ability to suppress antibody responses to xenogeneic erythrocytes. PMID:26619292

  8. Hyperexcitability and reduced low threshold potassium currents in auditory neurons of mice lacking the channel subunit Kv1.1

    PubMed Central

    Brew, Helen M; Hallows, Janice L; Tempel, Bruce L

    2003-01-01

    A low voltage-activated potassium current, IKL, is found in auditory neuron types that have low excitability and precisely preserve the temporal pattern of activity present in their presynaptic inputs. The gene Kcnal codes for Kv1.1 potassium channel subunits, which combine in expression systems to produce channel tetramers with properties similar to those of IKL, including sensitivity to dendrotoxin (DTX). Kv1.1 is strongly expressed in neurons with IKL, including auditory neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB). We therefore decided to investigate how the absence of Kv1.1 affected channel properties and function in MNTB neurons from mice lacking Kcnal. We used the whole cell version of the patch clamp technique to record from MNTB neurons in brainstem slices from Kcnal-null (−/−) mice and their wild-type (+/+) and heterozygous (+/−) littermates. There was an IKL in voltage-clamped −/− MNTB neurons, but it was about half the amplitude of the IKL in +/+ neurons, with otherwise similar properties. Consistent with this, −/− MNTB neurons were more excitable than their +/+ counterparts; they fired more than twice as many action potentials (APs) during current steps, and the threshold current amplitude required to generate an AP was roughly halved. +/− MNTB neurons had excitability and IKL amplitudes identical to the +/+ neurons. The IKL remaining in −/− neurons was blocked by DTX, suggesting the underlying channels contained subunits Kv1.2 and/or Kv1.6 (also DTX-sensitive). DTX increased excitability further in the already hyperexcitable −/− MNTB neurons, suggesting that −/−IKL limited excitability despite its reduced amplitude in the absence of Kv1.1 subunits. PMID:12611922

  9. Lack of Health Insurance Among Adults Aged 18 to 64 Years: Findings From the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guixiang; Dhingra, Satvinder S.; Xu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of lack of health insurance among adults aged 18 to 64 years for each state and the United States and to describe populations without insurance. Methods We used 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to categorize states into 3 groups on the basis of the prevalence of lack of health insurance in each state compared with the national average (21.5%; 95% confidence interval, 21.1%–21.8%): high-insured states (states with an estimated prevalence of lack of health insurance below the national average), average-insured states (states with an estimated prevalence of lack of health insurance equivalent to the national average), and low-insured states (states with an estimated prevalence of lack of health insurance higher than the national average). We used bivariate analyses to compare the sociodemographic characteristics of these 3 groups after age adjustment to the 2000 US standard population. We examined the distribution of Medicaid expansion among the 3 groups. Results Compared with the national age-adjusted prevalence of lack of health insurance, 24 states had lower rates of uninsured residents, 12 states had equivalent rates of uninsured, and 15 states had higher rates of uninsured. Compared with adults in the high-insured and average-insured state groups, adults in the low-insured state group were more likely to be non-Hispanic black or Hispanic, to have less than a high school education, to be previously married (divorced, widowed, or separated), and to have an annual household income at or below $35,000. Seventy-one percent of high-insured states were expanding Medicaid eligibility compared with 67% of average-insured states and 40% of low-insured states. Conclusion Large variations exist among states in the estimated prevalence of health insurance. Many uninsured Americans reside in states that have opted out of Medicaid expansion. PMID:26719901

  10. Spatial receptive fields in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of mice lacking rods and cones.

    PubMed

    Procyk, Christopher A; Eleftheriou, Cyril G; Storchi, Riccardo; Allen, Annette E; Milosavljevic, Nina; Brown, Timothy M; Lucas, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    In advanced retinal degeneration loss of rods and cones leaves melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) as the only source of visual information. ipRGCs drive non-image-forming responses (e.g., circadian photoentrainment) under such conditions but, despite projecting to the primary visual thalamus [dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN)], do not support form vision. We wished to determine what precludes ipRGCs supporting spatial discrimination after photoreceptor loss, using a mouse model (rd/rd cl) lacking rods and cones. Using multielectrode arrays, we found that both RGCs and neurons in the dLGN of this animal have clearly delineated spatial receptive fields. In the retina, they are typically symmetrical, lack inhibitory surrounds, and have diameters in the range of 10-30° of visual space. Receptive fields in the dLGN were larger (diameters typically 30-70°) but matched the retinotopic map of the mouse dLGN. Injections of a neuroanatomical tracer (cholera toxin β-subunit) into the dLGN confirmed that retinotopic order of ganglion cell projections to the dLGN and thalamic projections to the cortex is at least superficially intact in rd/rd cl mice. However, as previously reported for deafferented ipRGCs, onset and offset of light responses have long latencies in the rd/rd cl retina and dLGN. Accordingly, dLGN neurons failed to track dynamic changes in light intensity in this animal. Our data reveal that ipRGCs can convey spatial information in advanced retinal degeneration and identify their poor temporal fidelity as the major limitation in their ability to provide information about spatial patterns under natural viewing conditions. PMID:26084909

  11. Spatial receptive fields in the retina and dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of mice lacking rods and cones

    PubMed Central

    Procyk, Christopher A.; Eleftheriou, Cyril G.; Storchi, Riccardo; Allen, Annette E.; Milosavljevic, Nina; Brown, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    In advanced retinal degeneration loss of rods and cones leaves melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) as the only source of visual information. ipRGCs drive non-image-forming responses (e.g., circadian photoentrainment) under such conditions but, despite projecting to the primary visual thalamus [dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN)], do not support form vision. We wished to determine what precludes ipRGCs supporting spatial discrimination after photoreceptor loss, using a mouse model (rd/rd cl) lacking rods and cones. Using multielectrode arrays, we found that both RGCs and neurons in the dLGN of this animal have clearly delineated spatial receptive fields. In the retina, they are typically symmetrical, lack inhibitory surrounds, and have diameters in the range of 10–30° of visual space. Receptive fields in the dLGN were larger (diameters typically 30–70°) but matched the retinotopic map of the mouse dLGN. Injections of a neuroanatomical tracer (cholera toxin β-subunit) into the dLGN confirmed that retinotopic order of ganglion cell projections to the dLGN and thalamic projections to the cortex is at least superficially intact in rd/rd cl mice. However, as previously reported for deafferented ipRGCs, onset and offset of light responses have long latencies in the rd/rd cl retina and dLGN. Accordingly, dLGN neurons failed to track dynamic changes in light intensity in this animal. Our data reveal that ipRGCs can convey spatial information in advanced retinal degeneration and identify their poor temporal fidelity as the major limitation in their ability to provide information about spatial patterns under natural viewing conditions. PMID:26084909

  12. Effects of sleep deprivation and aging on long-term and remote memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Vecsey, Christopher G.; Park, Alan J.; Khatib, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) following hippocampus-dependent learning in young mice impairs memory when tested the following day. Here, we examined the effects of SD on remote memory in both young and aged mice. In young mice, we found that memory is still impaired 1 mo after training. SD also impaired memory in aged mice 1 d after training, but, by a month after training, sleep-deprived and control aged animals performed similarly, primarily due to remote memory decay in the control aged animals. Gene expression analysis supported the finding that SD has similar effects on the hippocampus in young and aged mice. PMID:25776037

  13. Age sensitivity of behavioral tests and brain substrates of normal aging in mice.

    PubMed

    Kennard, John A; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of age sensitivity, the capacity of a behavioral test to reliably detect age-related changes, has utility in the design of experiments to elucidate processes of normal aging. We review the application of these tests in studies of normal aging and compare and contrast the age sensitivity of the Barnes maze, eyeblink classical conditioning, fear conditioning, Morris water maze, and rotorod. These tests have all been implemented to assess normal age-related changes in learning and memory in rodents, which generalize in many cases to age-related changes in learning and memory in all mammals, including humans. Behavioral assessments are a valuable means to measure functional outcomes of neuroscientific studies of aging. Highlighted in this review are the attributes and limitations of these measures in mice in the context of age sensitivity and processes of brain aging. Attributes of these tests include reliability and validity as assessments of learning and memory, well-defined neural substrates, and sensitivity to neural and pharmacological manipulations and disruptions. These tests engage the hippocampus and/or the cerebellum, two structures centrally involved in learning and memory that undergo functional and anatomical changes in normal aging. A test that is less well represented in studies of normal aging, the context pre-exposure facilitation effect (CPFE) in fear conditioning, is described as a method to increase sensitivity of contextual fear conditioning to changes in the hippocampus. Recommendations for increasing the age sensitivity of all measures of normal aging in mice are included, as well as a discussion of the potential of the under-studied CPFE to advance understanding of subtle hippocampus-mediated phenomena.

  14. Lack of new antiinfective agents: Passing into the pre-antibiotic age?

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, Klaus; Schürholz, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    The lack of newly developed antibiotics, together with the increase in multi-resistance of relevant pathogenic bacteria in the last decades, represents an alarming signal for human health care worldwide. The number of severely infected persons increases not only in developing but also in highly industrialized countries. This relates in first line to the most severe form of a bacterial infection, sepsis and the septic shock syndrome, with high mortality on critical care units. No particular anti-sepsis drug is available, and the therapy with conventional antibiotics more and more fails to provide a survival benefit. Due to the fact that the pharmaceutical industry has withdrawn to a high degree from the development of anti-infectious agents, a huge challenge for health care is approaching in the 21st century. In this article, these problems are outlined and possible alternatives are presented which may be helpful to solve the problem. PMID:26322166

  15. Visualizing the beta interferon response in mice during infection with influenza A viruses expressing or lacking nonstructural protein 1.

    PubMed

    Kallfass, Carsten; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Staeheli, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The innate host defense against influenza virus is largely dependent on the type I interferon (IFN) system. However, surprisingly little is known about the cellular source of IFN in the infected lung. To clarify this question, we employed a reporter mouse that contains the firefly luciferase gene in place of the IFN-β-coding region. IFN-β-producing cells were identified either by simultaneous immunostaining of lungs for luciferase and cellular markers or by generating conditional reporter mice that express luciferase exclusively in defined cell types. Two different strains of influenza A virus were employed that either do or do not code for nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), which strongly suppresses innate immune responses of infected cells. We found that epithelial cells and lung macrophages, which represent the prime host cells for influenza viruses, showed vigorous IFN-β responses which, however, were severely reduced and delayed if the infecting virus was able to produce NS1. Interestingly, CD11c(+) cell populations that were either expressing or lacking macrophage markers produced the bulk of IFN-β at 48 h after infection with wild-type influenza A virus. Our results demonstrate that the virus-encoded IFN-antagonistic factor NS1 disarms specifically epithelial cells and lung macrophages, which otherwise would serve as main mediators of the early response against infection by influenza virus.

  16. Primary hepatocytes from mice lacking cysteine dioxygenase show increased cysteine concentrations and higher rates of metabolism of cysteine to hydrogen sulfide and thiosulfate.

    PubMed

    Jurkowska, Halina; Roman, Heather B; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Sasakura, Kiyoshi; Nagano, Tetsuo; Hanaoka, Kenjiro; Krijt, Jakub; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2014-05-01

    The oxidation of cysteine in mammalian cells occurs by two routes: a highly regulated direct oxidation pathway in which the first step is catalyzed by cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and by desulfhydration-oxidation pathways in which the sulfur is released in a reduced oxidation state. To assess the effect of a lack of CDO on production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and thiosulfate (an intermediate in the oxidation of H2S to sulfate) and to explore the roles of both cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) in cysteine desulfhydration by liver, we investigated the metabolism of cysteine in hepatocytes isolated from Cdo1-null and wild-type mice. Hepatocytes from Cdo1-null mice produced more H2S and thiosulfate than did hepatocytes from wild-type mice. The greater flux of cysteine through the cysteine desulfhydration reactions catalyzed by CTH and CBS in hepatocytes from Cdo1-null mice appeared to be the consequence of their higher cysteine levels, which were due to the lack of CDO and hence lack of catabolism of cysteine by the cysteinesulfinate-dependent pathways. Both CBS and CTH appeared to contribute substantially to cysteine desulfhydration, with estimates of 56 % by CBS and 44 % by CTH in hepatocytes from wild-type mice, and 63 % by CBS and 37 % by CTH in hepatocytes from Cdo1-null mice.

  17. In vivo HMRS and lipidomic profiling reveals comprehensive changes of hippocampal metabolism during aging in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lejun; Cao, Bofeng; Xu, Zhiying; Sui, Yanbin; Chen, Jiao; Luan, Qiang; Yang, Ruifang; Li, Shanchun; Li, Ke Feng

    2016-01-29

    Aging is characterized by various cellular changes in the brain. Hippocampus is important for systemic aging and lifespan control. There is still a lack of comprehensive overview of metabolic changes in hippocampus during aging. In this study, we first created an accelerated brain aging mice model through the chronic administration of d-galactose. We then performed a multiplatform metabolomic profiling of mice hippocampus using the combination of in vivo 9.4 T HMRS and in vitro LC-MS/MS based lipidomics. We found N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA), gama-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate/glutamine, taurine, choline, sphingolipids (SMs), phosphatidylethanolamines (PEs), phosphatidylinositols (PIs), phosphatidylglycerols (PGs) and phosphatidylserines (PSs), all of them decreasing with the aging process in mice hippocampus. The changes of sphingolipids and phospholipids were not limited to one single class or molecular species. In contrast, we found the significant accumulation of lactate, myoinositol and phosphatidylcholines (PCs) along with aging in hippocampus. SM (d18:1/20:2), PE (36:2), PG (34:1), PI (36:4), PS (18:0/20:4) and PC (36:0) have the most significant changes along with aging. Network analysis revealed the striking loss of biochemical connectivity and interactions between hippocampal metabolites with aging. The correlation pattern between metabolites in hippocampus could function as biomarkers for aging or diagnosis of aging-related diseases.

  18. Mice Lacking Mannose 6-Phosphate Uncovering Enzyme Activity Have a Milder Phenotype than Mice Deficient for N-Acetylglucosamine-1-Phosphotransferase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Boonen, Marielle; Vogel, Peter; Platt, Kenneth A.; Dahms, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P) lysosomal targeting signal on acid hydrolases is synthesized by the sequential action of uridine 5′-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine: lysosomal enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase (GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase) and GlcNAc-1-phosphodiester α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (“uncovering enzyme” or UCE). Mutations in the two genes that encode GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase give rise to lysosomal storage diseases (mucolipidosis type II and III), whereas no pathological conditions have been associated with the loss of UCE activity. To analyze the consequences of UCE deficiency, the UCE gene was inactivated via insertional mutagenesis in mice. The UCE −/− mice were viable, grew normally and lacked detectable histologic abnormalities. However, the plasma levels of six acid hydrolases were elevated 1.6- to 5.4-fold over wild-type levels. These values underestimate the degree of hydrolase hypersecretion as these enzymes were rapidly cleared from the plasma by the mannose receptor. The secreted hydrolases contained GlcNAc-P-Man diesters, exhibited a decreased affinity for the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor and failed to bind to the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. These data demonstrate that UCE accounts for all the uncovering activity in the Golgi. We propose that in the absence of UCE, the weak binding of the acid hydrolases to the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor allows sufficient sorting to lysosomes to prevent the tissue abnormalities seen with GlcNAc-1-phosphotranferase deficiency. PMID:19710420

  19. Memory Deficits Are Associated with Impaired Ability to Modulate Neuronal Excitability in Middle-Aged Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaczorowski, Catherine C.; Disterhoft, John F.

    2009-01-01

    Normal aging disrupts hippocampal neuroplasticity and learning and memory. Aging deficits were exposed in a subset (30%) of middle-aged mice that performed below criterion on a hippocampal-dependent contextual fear conditioning task. Basal neuronal excitability was comparable in middle-aged and young mice, but learning-related modulation of the…

  20. Visceral adipose tissue inflammation is associated with age-related brain changes and ischemic brain damage in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin A; Jeong, Sae Im; Kim, Minsuk; Yoon, Joo Chun; Kim, Hee-Sun; Park, Eun-Mi

    2015-11-01

    Visceral adipose tissue is accumulated with aging. An increase in visceral fat accompanied by low-grade inflammation is associated with several adult-onset diseases. However, the effects of visceral adipose tissue inflammation on the normal and ischemic brains of aged are not clearly defined. To examine the role of visceral adipose tissue inflammation, we evaluated inflammatory cytokines in the serum, visceral adipose tissue, and brain as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in aged male mice (20 months) underwent sham or visceral fat removal surgery compared with the young mice (2.5 months). Additionally, ischemic brain injury was compared in young and aged mice with sham and visceral fat removal surgery. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in examined organs were increased in aged mice compared with the young mice, and these levels were reduced in the mice with visceral fat removal. Increased BBB permeability with reduced expression of tight junction proteins in aged sham mice were also decreased in mice with visceral fat removal. After focal ischemic injury, aged mice with visceral fat removal showed a reduction in infarct volumes, BBB permeability, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the ischemic brain compared with sham mice, although the neurological outcomes were not significantly improved. In addition, further upregulated visceral adipose tissue inflammation in response to ischemic brain injury was attenuated in mice with visceral fat removal. These results suggest that visceral adipose tissue inflammation is associated with age-related changes in the brain and contributes to the ischemic brain damage in the aged mice. We suggest that visceral adiposity should be considered as a factor affecting brain health and ischemic brain damage in the aged population.

  1. Lack of association of CFD polymorphisms with advanced age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jiexi; Chen, Yuhong; Tong, Zongzhong; Zhou, Xinrong; Zhao, Chao; Wang, Kevin; Hughes, Guy; Kasuga, Daniel; Bedell, Matthew; Lee, Clara; Ferreyra, Henry; Kozak, Igor; Haw, Weldon; Guan, Jean; Shaw, Robert; Stevenson, William; Weishaar, Paul D.; Nelson, Mark H.; Tang, Luosheng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of irreversible central vision loss worldwide. Research has linked AMD susceptibility with dysregulation of the complement cascade. Typically, complement factor H (CFH), complement factor B (CFB), complement component 2 (C2), and complement component 3 (C3) are associated with AMD. In this paper, we investigated the association between complement factor D (CFD), another factor of the complement system, and advanced AMD in a Caucasian population. Methods Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs1683564, rs35186399, rs1683563, rs3826945, rs34337649, and rs1651896, across the region covering CFD, were chosen for this study. One hundred and seventy-eight patients with advanced AMD and 161 age-matched normal controls were genotyped. Potential positive signals were further tested in another independent 445 advanced AMD patients and 190 controls. χ2 tests were performed to compare the allele frequencies between case and control groups. Results None of the six SNPs of CFD was found to be significantly associated with advanced AMD in our study. Conclusions Our findings suggest that CFD may not play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to AMD because no association was found between the six SNPs analyzed in the CFD region and advanced AMD. PMID:21139680

  2. Dynamics of chromosomal aberrations in male mice of various strains during aging.

    PubMed

    Rozenfel'd, S V; Togo, E F; Mikheev, V S; Popovich, I G; Zabezhinskii, M A; Anisimov, V N

    2001-05-01

    We studied the incidence of chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells and primary spermatocytes in various mouse strains. Experiments were performed on SAMP mice (accelerated aging), control SAMR mice, and long-living CBA and SHR mice. Experiments revealed a positive correlation between the age and the incidence of mutations in their somatic cells and gametes. PMID:11550060

  3. Qing'E formula alleviates the aging process in D-galactose-induced aging mice

    PubMed Central

    ZHONG, LIN; HUANG, FEI; SHI, HAILIAN; WU, HUI; ZHANG, BEIBEI; WU, XIAOJUN; WEI, XIAOHUI; WANG, ZHENGTAO

    2016-01-01

    Qing'E formula (QEF) is a clinically used prescription with four ingredients, Eucommiae Cortex, Psoraleae Fructus, Juglandis Semen and Garlic Rhizoma, from the Song dynasty (10th century CE). The present study aimed to investigate the anti-aging effect and mechanisms of QEF on D-galactose-induced aging mice. A mouse subacute aging model was established by subcutaneous injection of D-galactose at the neck consecutively for 8 weeks. Motor activity and memory impairment of the mice were evaluated by the rotarod test and passive avoidance test, respectively. Serum and liver parameters were analyzed with biochemical kits. Hippocampal mRNA and protein expression levels were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. QEF administration significantly ameliorated the impaired motor and memory of aging mice. In the serum, QEF reduced blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, nitric oxide (NO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and inhibited alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. In the liver, QEF increased the glutathione level, enhanced total antioxidant capacity and catalase activity, deceased NO and MDA production, and reduced NO synthase activity. In the hippocampus, QEF elevated gene expression levels of Klotho, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), forkhead box transcription factor O3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), insulin-like growth factor-1 and peroxiredoxin-3. QEF increased protein expression levels of Klotho and SIRT1, and decreased that of PGC-1α in the hippocampus. In conclusion, QEF attenuated the aging process in D-galactose-treated mice, which may be mediated through enhancing the antioxidants in the body, protecting renal and hepatic health, and balancing hippocampal expression levels of the longevity-related genes. PMID:27347412

  4. IL-1 receptor-antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout mice show anxiety-like behavior by aging.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Chisato; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Odaka, Haruki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Kiyama, Yuji; Manabe, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2015-07-10

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays a critical role in stress responses, and its mRNA is induced in the brain by restraint stress. Previously, we reported that IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout (KO) mice, which lacked IL-1Ra molecules that antagonize the IL-1 receptor, showed anti-depression-like behavior via adrenergic modulation at the age of 8 weeks. Here, we report that IL-1Ra KO mice display an anxiety-like phenotype that is induced spontaneously by aging in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. This anxiety-like phenotype was improved by the administration of diazepam. The expression of the anxiety-related molecule glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was significantly reduced in 20-week-old but not in 11-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. The expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was not altered between IL-1Ra KO mice and WT littermates at either 11 or 20 weeks old. Analysis of monoamine concentration in the hippocampus revealed that tryptophan, the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly increased in 20-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to littermate WT mice. These findings strongly suggest that the anxiety-like behavior observed in older mice was caused by the complicated alteration of monoamine metabolism and/or GR expression in the hippocampus.

  5. Accelerated apoptotic death and in vivo turnover of erythrocytes in mice lacking functional mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2.

    PubMed

    Lang, Elisabeth; Bissinger, Rosi; Fajol, Abul; Salker, Madhuri S; Singh, Yogesh; Zelenak, Christine; Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Gu, Shuchen; Jilani, Kashif; Lupescu, Adrian; Reyskens, Kathleen M S E; Ackermann, Teresa F; Föller, Michael; Schleicher, Erwin; Sheffield, William P; Arthur, J Simon C; Lang, Florian; Qadri, Syed M

    2015-11-27

    The mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2 plays a decisive role in apoptosis. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, suicidal erythrocyte death called eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Here, we explored whether MSK1/2 participates in the regulation of eryptosis. To this end, erythrocytes were isolated from mice lacking functional MSK1/2 (msk(-/-)) and corresponding wild-type mice (msk(+/+)). Blood count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and mean erythrocyte volume were similar in both msk(-/-) and msk(+/+) mice, but reticulocyte count was significantly increased in msk(-/-) mice. Cell membrane PS exposure was similar in untreated msk(-/-) and msk(+/+) erythrocytes, but was enhanced by pathophysiological cell stressors ex vivo such as hyperosmotic shock or energy depletion to significantly higher levels in msk(-/-) erythrocytes than in msk(+/+) erythrocytes. Cell shrinkage following hyperosmotic shock and energy depletion, as well as hemolysis following decrease of extracellular osmolarity was more pronounced in msk(-/-) erythrocytes. The in vivo clearance of autologously-infused CFSE-labeled erythrocytes from circulating blood was faster in msk(-/-) mice. The spleens from msk(-/-) mice contained a significantly greater number of PS-exposing erythrocytes than spleens from msk(+/+) mice. The present observations point to accelerated eryptosis and subsequent clearance of erythrocytes leading to enhanced erythrocyte turnover in MSK1/2-deficient mice.

  6. Accelerated apoptotic death and in vivo turnover of erythrocytes in mice lacking functional mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Elisabeth; Bissinger, Rosi; Fajol, Abul; Salker, Madhuri S.; Singh, Yogesh; Zelenak, Christine; Ghashghaeinia, Mehrdad; Gu, Shuchen; Jilani, Kashif; Lupescu, Adrian; Reyskens, Kathleen M. S. E.; Ackermann, Teresa F.; Föller, Michael; Schleicher, Erwin; Sheffield, William P.; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Lang, Florian; Qadri, Syed M.

    2015-01-01

    The mitogen- and stress-activated kinase MSK1/2 plays a decisive role in apoptosis. In analogy to apoptosis of nucleated cells, suicidal erythrocyte death called eryptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Here, we explored whether MSK1/2 participates in the regulation of eryptosis. To this end, erythrocytes were isolated from mice lacking functional MSK1/2 (msk−/−) and corresponding wild-type mice (msk+/+). Blood count, hematocrit, hemoglobin concentration and mean erythrocyte volume were similar in both msk−/− and msk+/+ mice, but reticulocyte count was significantly increased in msk−/− mice. Cell membrane PS exposure was similar in untreated msk−/− and msk+/+ erythrocytes, but was enhanced by pathophysiological cell stressors ex vivo such as hyperosmotic shock or energy depletion to significantly higher levels in msk−/− erythrocytes than in msk+/+ erythrocytes. Cell shrinkage following hyperosmotic shock and energy depletion, as well as hemolysis following decrease of extracellular osmolarity was more pronounced in msk−/− erythrocytes. The in vivo clearance of autologously-infused CFSE-labeled erythrocytes from circulating blood was faster in msk−/− mice. The spleens from msk−/− mice contained a significantly greater number of PS-exposing erythrocytes than spleens from msk+/+ mice. The present observations point to accelerated eryptosis and subsequent clearance of erythrocytes leading to enhanced erythrocyte turnover in MSK1/2-deficient mice. PMID:26611568

  7. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Kim, Jane J; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Jeste, Dilip V; Achim, Cristian L; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions.

  8. Spatial Cognition in Adult and Aged Mice Exposed to High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Kesby, James P; Kim, Jane J; Scadeng, Miriam; Woods, Gina; Kado, Deborah M; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Jeste, Dilip V; Achim, Cristian L; Semenova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in multiple aspects of cognitive function, with spatial cognition being particularly sensitive to age-related decline. Environmental stressors, such as high-fat diet (HFD) exposure, that produce a diabetic phenotype and metabolic dysfunction may indirectly lead to exacerbated brain aging and promote the development of cognitive deficits. The present work investigated whether exposure to HFD exacerbates age-related cognitive deficits in adult versus aged mice. Adult (5 months old) and aged (15 months old) mice were exposed to control diet or HFD for three months prior to, and throughout, behavioral testing. Anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark box test, discrimination learning and memory in the novel object/place recognition tests, and spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze test were assessed. HFD resulted in significant gains in body weight and fat mass content with adult mice gaining significantly more weight and adipose tissue due to HFD than aged mice. Weight gain was attributed to food calories sourced from fat, but not total calorie intake. HFD increased fasting insulin levels in all mice, but adult mice showed a greater increase relative to aged mice. Behaviorally, HFD increased anxiety-like behavior in adult but not aged mice without significantly affecting spatial cognition. In contrast, aged mice fed either control or HFD diet displayed deficits in novel place discrimination and spatial learning. Our results suggest that adult mice are more susceptible to the physiological and anxiety-like effects of HFD consumption than aged mice, while aged mice displayed deficits in spatial cognition regardless of dietary influence. We conclude that although HFD induces systemic metabolic dysfunction in both adult and aged mice, overall cognitive function was not adversely affected under the current experimental conditions. PMID:26448649

  9. α-Synuclein-Independent Histopathological and Motor Deficits in Mice Lacking the Endolysosomal Parkinsonism Protein Atp13a2

    PubMed Central

    Kett, Lauren R.; Stiller, Barbara; Bernath, Megan M.; Tasset, Inmaculada; Blesa, Javier; Jackson-Lewis, Vernice; Chan, Robin B.; Zhou, Bowen; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Przedborski, Serge; Cuervo, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence from genetic and biochemical studies implicates dysfunction of the autophagic-lysosomal pathway as a key feature in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Most studies have focused on accumulation of neurotoxic α-synuclein secondary to defects in autophagy as the cause of neurodegeneration, but abnormalities of the autophagic-lysosomal system likely mediate toxicity through multiple mechanisms. To further explore how endolysosomal dysfunction causes PD-related neurodegeneration, we generated a murine model of Kufor–Rakeb syndrome (KRS), characterized by early-onset Parkinsonism with additional neurological features. KRS is caused by recessive loss-of-function mutations in the ATP13A2 gene encoding the endolysosomal ATPase ATP13A2. We show that loss of ATP13A2 causes a specific protein trafficking defect, and that Atp13a2 null mice develop age-related motor dysfunction that is preceded by neuropathological changes, including gliosis, accumulation of ubiquitinated protein aggregates, lipofuscinosis, and endolysosomal abnormalities. Contrary to predictions from in vitro data, in vivo mouse genetic studies demonstrate that these phenotypes are α-synuclein independent. Our findings indicate that endolysosomal dysfunction and abnormalities of α-synuclein homeostasis are not synonymous, even in the context of an endolysosomal genetic defect linked to Parkinsonism, and highlight the presence of α-synuclein-independent neurotoxicity consequent to endolysosomal dysfunction. PMID:25855184

  10. Complement C3-Deficient Mice Fail to Display Age-Related Hippocampal Decline.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiaoqiao; Colodner, Kenneth J; Matousek, Sarah B; Merry, Katherine; Hong, Soyon; Kenison, Jessica E; Frost, Jeffrey L; Le, Kevin X; Li, Shaomin; Dodart, Jean-Cosme; Caldarone, Barbara J; Stevens, Beth; Lemere, Cynthia A

    2015-09-23

    The complement system is part of the innate immune response responsible for removing pathogens and cellular debris, in addition to helping to refine CNS neuronal connections via microglia-mediated pruning of inappropriate synapses during brain development. However, less is known about the role of complement during normal aging. Here, we studied the role of the central complement component, C3, in synaptic health and aging. We examined behavior as well as electrophysiological, synaptic, and neuronal changes in the brains of C3-deficient male mice (C3 KO) compared with age-, strain-, and gender-matched C57BL/6J (wild-type, WT) control mice at postnatal day 30, 4 months, and 16 months of age. We found the following: (1) region-specific and age-dependent synapse loss in aged WT mice that was not observed in C3 KO mice; (2) age-dependent neuron loss in hippocampal CA3 (but not in CA1) that followed synapse loss in aged WT mice, neither of which were observed in aged C3 KO mice; and (3) significantly enhanced LTP and cognition and less anxiety in aged C3 KO mice compared with aged WT mice. Importantly, CA3 synaptic puncta were similar between WT and C3 KO mice at P30. Together, our results suggest a novel and prominent role for complement protein C3 in mediating aged-related and region-specific changes in synaptic function and plasticity in the aging brain. Significance statement: The complement cascade, part of the innate immune response to remove pathogens, also plays a role in synaptic refinement during brain development by the removal of weak synapses. We investigated whether complement C3, a central component, affects synapse loss during aging. Wild-type (WT) and C3 knock-out (C3 KO) mice were examined at different ages. The mice were similar at 1 month of age. However, with aging, WT mice lost synapses in specific brain regions, especially in hippocampus, an area important for memory, whereas C3 KO mice were protected. Aged C3 KO mice also performed better on

  11. Macronutrient balance, reproductive function, and lifespan in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Walters, Kirsty A; Simanainen, Ulla K; McMahon, Aisling C; Ruohonen, Kari; Ballard, John William O; Raubenheimer, David; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-17

    In invertebrates, reproductive output and lifespan are profoundly impacted by dietary macronutrient balance, with these traits achieving their maxima on different diet compositions, giving the appearance of a resource-based tradeoff between reproduction and longevity. For the first time in a mammal, to our knowledge, we evaluate the effects of dietary protein (P), carbohydrate (C), fat (F), and energy (E) on lifespan and reproductive function in aging male and female mice. We show that, as in invertebrates, the balance of macronutrients has marked and largely opposing effects on reproductive and longevity outcomes. Mice were provided ad libitum access to one of 25 diets differing in P, C, F, and E content, with reproductive outcomes assessed at 15 months. An optimal balance of macronutrients exists for reproductive function, which, for most measures, differs from the diets that optimize lifespan, and this response differs with sex. Maximal longevity was achieved on diets containing a P:C ratio of 1:13 in males and 1:11 for females. Diets that optimized testes mass and epididymal sperm counts (indicators of gamete production) contained a higher P:C ratio (1:1) than those that maximized lifespan. In females, uterine mass (an indicator of estrogenic activity) was also greatest on high P:C diets (1:1) whereas ovarian follicle number was greatest on P:C 3:1 associated with high-F intakes. By contrast, estrous cycling was more likely in mice on lower P:C (1:8), and the number of corpora lutea, indicative of recent ovulations, was greatest on P:C similar to those supporting greatest longevity (1:11). PMID:25733862

  12. Macronutrient balance, reproductive function, and lifespan in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Walters, Kirsty A; Simanainen, Ulla K; McMahon, Aisling C; Ruohonen, Kari; Ballard, John William O; Raubenheimer, David; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-17

    In invertebrates, reproductive output and lifespan are profoundly impacted by dietary macronutrient balance, with these traits achieving their maxima on different diet compositions, giving the appearance of a resource-based tradeoff between reproduction and longevity. For the first time in a mammal, to our knowledge, we evaluate the effects of dietary protein (P), carbohydrate (C), fat (F), and energy (E) on lifespan and reproductive function in aging male and female mice. We show that, as in invertebrates, the balance of macronutrients has marked and largely opposing effects on reproductive and longevity outcomes. Mice were provided ad libitum access to one of 25 diets differing in P, C, F, and E content, with reproductive outcomes assessed at 15 months. An optimal balance of macronutrients exists for reproductive function, which, for most measures, differs from the diets that optimize lifespan, and this response differs with sex. Maximal longevity was achieved on diets containing a P:C ratio of 1:13 in males and 1:11 for females. Diets that optimized testes mass and epididymal sperm counts (indicators of gamete production) contained a higher P:C ratio (1:1) than those that maximized lifespan. In females, uterine mass (an indicator of estrogenic activity) was also greatest on high P:C diets (1:1) whereas ovarian follicle number was greatest on P:C 3:1 associated with high-F intakes. By contrast, estrous cycling was more likely in mice on lower P:C (1:8), and the number of corpora lutea, indicative of recent ovulations, was greatest on P:C similar to those supporting greatest longevity (1:11).

  13. Enhanced human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 expression and neuropathogenesis in knockout mice lacking Type I interferon responses.

    PubMed

    He, Hongxia; Sharer, Leroy R; Chao, Wei; Gu, Chao-Jiang; Borjabad, Alejandra; Hadas, Eran; Kelschenbach, Jennifer; Ichiyama, Koji; Do, Meilan; Potash, Mary Jane; Volsky, David J

    2014-01-01

    The roles of Type I interferon (IFN) in human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) neuropathogenesis are poorly understood; both protective and deleterious effects of IFN signaling have been described. We used genetically modified mice deficient in the Type I IFN receptor (IFNRKO) to analyze the progress of HIV-1 brain infection and neuropathogenesis in the absence of IFN signaling. IFNRKO and wild-type (WT) mice on the 129xSv/Ev or C57BL/6 strain backgrounds were infected systemically with EcoHIV, a chimeric HIV-1 that productively infects mice. IFNRKO mice showed higher HIV-1 expression in spleen and peritoneal macrophages and greater virus infiltration into the brain compared to WT mice. Neuropathogenesis was studied by histopathological, immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, and polymerase chain reaction analyses of brain tissues after the virus was inoculated into the brain by stereotaxic intracerebral injection. Both IFNRKO and WT mice showed readily detectable HIV-1 and brain lesions, including microglial activation, astrocytosis, and increased expression of genes coding for inflammatory cytokines and chemokines typical of human HIV-1 brain disease. Parameters of HIV-1 neuropathogenesis, including HIV-1 expression in microglia/macrophages, were significantly greater in IFNRKO than in WT mice. Our results show unequivocally that Type I IFN signaling and responses limit HIV-1 infection and pathogenesis in the brains of mice.

  14. Th1-mediated immunity against Helicobacter pylori can compensate for lack of Th17 cells and can protect mice in the absence of immunization.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hua; Nedrud, John G; Blanchard, Thomas G; Zagorski, Brandon M; Li, Guanghui; Shiu, Jessica; Xu, Jinghua; Czinn, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection can be significantly reduced by immunization in mice. Th17 cells play an essential role in the protective immune response. Th1 immunity has also been demonstrated to play a role in the protective immune response and can compensate in the absence of IL-17. To further address the potential of Th1 immunity, we investigated the efficacy of immunization in mice deficient in IL-23p19, a cytokine that promotes Th17 cell development. We also examined the course of Helicobacter infection in unimmunized mice treated with Th1 promoting cytokine IL-12. C57BL/6, IL-12 p35 KO, and IL-23 p19 KO mice were immunized and challenged with H. pylori. Protective immunity was evaluated by CFU determination and QPCR on gastric biopsies. Gastric and splenic IL-17 and IFNγ levels were determined by PCR or by ELISA. Balb/c mice were infected with H. felis and treated with IL-12 therapy and the resulting gastric bacterial load and inflammatory response were assessed by histologic evaluation. Vaccine induced reductions in bacterial load that were comparable to wild type mice were observed in both IL-12 p35 and IL-23 p19 KO mice. In the absence of IL-23 p19, IL-17 levels remained low but IFNγ levels increased significantly in both immunized challenged and unimmunized/challenged mice. Additionally, treatment of H. felis-infected Balb/c mice with IL-12 resulted in increased gastric inflammation and the eradication of bacteria in most mice. These data suggest that Th1 immunity can compensate for the lack of IL-23 mediated Th17 responses, and that protective Th1 immunity can be induced in the absence of immunization through cytokine therapy of the infected host.

  15. Phylogenomic dating--a method of constraining the age of microbial taxa that lack a conventional fossil record.

    PubMed

    Blank, Carrine E

    2009-03-01

    A phylogenomic dating approach was used to identify potential age constraints for multiple archaeal groups, many of which have no fossil, isotopic, or biomarker record. First, well-resolved phylogenetic trees were inferred with the use of multiple gene sequences obtained from whole genome sequences. Next, the ability to use oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor was coded into characters, and ancestral state reconstruction was used to identify clades with taxa that metabolize oxygen and likely had an aerobic ancestor. Next, the habitat of the ancestor was inferred. If the local presence of Cyanobacteria could be excluded from the putative ancestral habitat, then these clades would have originated after the rise in atmospheric oxygen 2.32 Ga. With this method, an upper age of 2.32 Ga (an "oxygen age constraint") is proposed for four major archaeal clades: the Sulfolobales, Thermoplasmatales, Thermoproteus neutrophilus/Pyrobaculum spp., and the Thermoproteales. It was also shown that the halophilic archaea likely had an aerobic common ancestor, yet the possibility of local oxygen oases before oxygenation of the atmosphere could not be formally rejected. Thus, an oxygen age constraint was not assessed for this group. This work suggests that many archaeal groups are not as ancient as many in the research community have previously assumed, and it provides a new method for establishing upper age constraints for major microbial groups that lack a conventional fossil record.

  16. Phylogenomic Dating-A Method of Constraining the Age of Microbial Taxa That Lack a Conventional Fossil Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Carrine E.

    2009-03-01

    A phylogenomic dating approach was used to identify potential age constraints for multiple archaeal groups, many of which have no fossil, isotopic, or biomarker record. First, well-resolved phylogenetic trees were inferred with the use of multiple gene sequences obtained from whole genome sequences. Next, the ability to use oxygen as a terminal electron acceptor was coded into characters, and ancestral state reconstruction was used to identify clades with taxa that metabolize oxygen and likely had an aerobic ancestor. Next, the habitat of the ancestor was inferred. If the local presence of Cyanobacteria could be excluded from the putative ancestral habitat, then these clades would have originated after the rise in atmospheric oxygen 2.32 Ga. With this method, an upper age of 2.32 Ga (an "oxygen age constraint") is proposed for four major archaeal clades: the Sulfolobales, Thermoplasmatales, Thermoproteus neutrophilus/Pyrobaculum spp., and the Thermoproteales. It was also shown that the halophilic archaea likely had an aerobic common ancestor, yet the possibility of local oxygen oases before oxygenation of the atmosphere could not be formally rejected. Thus, an oxygen age constraint was not assessed for this group. This work suggests that many archaeal groups are not as ancient as many in the research community have previously assumed, and it provides a new method for establishing upper age constraints for major microbial groups that lack a conventional fossil record.

  17. Mice lacking collapsin response mediator protein 1 manifest hyperactivity, impaired learning and memory, and impaired prepulse inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Naoya; Takahashi, Aoi; Takao, Keizo; Yamamoto, Toshifumi; Kolattukudy, Pappachan; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Goshima, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP1) is one of the CRMP family members that are involved in various aspects of neuronal development such as axonal guidance and neuronal migration. Here we provide evidence that crmp1 (-/-) mice exhibited behavioral abnormalities related to schizophrenia. The crmp1 (-/-) mice exhibited hyperactivity and/or impaired emotional behavioral phenotype. These mice also exhibited impaired context-dependent memory and long-term memory retention. Furthermore, crmp1 (-/-) mice exhibited decreased prepulse inhibition, and this phenotype was rescued by administration of chlorpromazine, a typical antipsychotic drug. In addition, in vivo microdialysis revealed that the methamphetamine-induced release of dopamine in prefrontal cortex was exaggerated in crmp1 (-/-) mice, suggesting that enhanced mesocortical dopaminergic transmission contributes to their hyperactivity phenotype. These observations suggest that impairment of CRMP1 function may be involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We propose that crmp1 (-/-) mouse may model endophenotypes present in this neuropsychiatric disorder. PMID:24409129

  18. Lack of carcinogenicity in mice of 4,4-'diaminobenzanilide and 4,4'-diaminoazobenzene, two intermediates used in the manufacture of azo dyes.

    PubMed

    Della Porta, G; Dragani, T A

    1981-12-01

    4,4'-Diaminobenzanilide and 4,4'-diaminoazobenzene were administered in the diet to BALB/c mice at 100, 300 and 600 ppm dose levels for 60 weeks. The animals were kept under observation until 140 weeks of age when the experiment was terminated. Control and treated groups developed the pattern of tumours usually observed in BALB/c mice. No tumour type at any site was related to treatment.

  19. Sleep-wake behavior and responses to sleep deprivation of mice lacking both interleukin-1 beta receptor 1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Baracchi, Francesca; Opp, Mark R

    2008-08-01

    Data indicate that interleukin (IL)-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) are involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Previous studies demonstrate that mice lacking the IL-1 beta type 1 receptor spend less time in NREMS during the light period, whereas mice lacking the p55 (type 1) receptor for TNFalpha spend less time in NREMS during the dark period. To further investigate roles for IL-1 beta and TNFalpha in sleep regulation we phenotyped sleep and responses to sleep deprivation of mice lacking both the IL-1 beta receptor 1 and TNFalpha receptor 1 (IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO). Male adult mice (IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO, n=14; B6129SF2/J, n=14) were surgically instrumented with EEG electrodes and with a thermistor to measure brain temperature. After recovery and adaptation to the recording apparatus, 48 h of undisturbed baseline recordings were obtained. Mice were then subjected to 6h sleep deprivation at light onset by gentle handling. IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO mice spent less time in NREMS during the last 6h of the dark period and less time in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) during the light period. There were no differences between strains in the diurnal timing of delta power during NREMS. However, there were strain differences in the relative power spectra of the NREMS EEG during both the light period and the dark period. In addition, during the light period relative power in the theta frequency band of the REMS EEG differed between strains. After sleep deprivation, control mice exhibited prolonged increases in NREMS and REMS, whereas the duration of the NREMS increase was shorter and there was no increase in REMS of IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO mice. Delta power during NREMS increased in both strains after sleep deprivation, but the increase in delta power during NREMS of IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO mice was of greater magnitude and of longer duration than that observed in control mice. These results provide additional evidence that the IL-1 beta and TNFalpha cytokine systems

  20. Sleep-wake behavior and responses to sleep deprivation of mice lacking both interleukin-1 beta receptor 1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Baracchi, Francesca; Opp, Mark R

    2008-08-01

    Data indicate that interleukin (IL)-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) are involved in the regulation of non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Previous studies demonstrate that mice lacking the IL-1 beta type 1 receptor spend less time in NREMS during the light period, whereas mice lacking the p55 (type 1) receptor for TNFalpha spend less time in NREMS during the dark period. To further investigate roles for IL-1 beta and TNFalpha in sleep regulation we phenotyped sleep and responses to sleep deprivation of mice lacking both the IL-1 beta receptor 1 and TNFalpha receptor 1 (IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO). Male adult mice (IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO, n=14; B6129SF2/J, n=14) were surgically instrumented with EEG electrodes and with a thermistor to measure brain temperature. After recovery and adaptation to the recording apparatus, 48 h of undisturbed baseline recordings were obtained. Mice were then subjected to 6h sleep deprivation at light onset by gentle handling. IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO mice spent less time in NREMS during the last 6h of the dark period and less time in rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) during the light period. There were no differences between strains in the diurnal timing of delta power during NREMS. However, there were strain differences in the relative power spectra of the NREMS EEG during both the light period and the dark period. In addition, during the light period relative power in the theta frequency band of the REMS EEG differed between strains. After sleep deprivation, control mice exhibited prolonged increases in NREMS and REMS, whereas the duration of the NREMS increase was shorter and there was no increase in REMS of IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO mice. Delta power during NREMS increased in both strains after sleep deprivation, but the increase in delta power during NREMS of IL-1R1/TNFR1 KO mice was of greater magnitude and of longer duration than that observed in control mice. These results provide additional evidence that the IL-1 beta and TNFalpha cytokine systems

  1. Tadalafil enhances working memory, and reduces hippocampal oxidative stress in both young and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Hasan, S M Nageeb; Alam, Tanzir; Hasan, Ahmed Tasdid; Hossain, Imran; Didar, Rohini Rowshan; Alam, Md Ashraful; Rahman, Md Mahbubur

    2014-12-15

    Tadalafil, a type-5 phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibitor with long half-life used to treat erectile dysfunction. Recently it has been reported that tadalafil improves cognitive function. Here, we aimed to investigate the age dependent effects of tadalafil on memory, locomotor, behavior, and oxidative stress in the hippocampus. Tadalafil was orally administered everyday (5 mg/kg) to young (2 months) and old (16 months) healthy mice for 4 weeks. Control mice from each group received equal volume of 0.9% normal saline for the same duration. Memory and locomotor activity were tested using radial arm maze and open field test respectively. The level of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and advanced protein oxidation product (APOP) was analyzed and catalase activity was determined from the isolated hippocampus. Treatment with tadalafil in aged mice improves working memory than the corresponding tadalafil treated young mice in radial arm maze test. Tadalafil treated mice traveled less distance in the center and the mean speed of tadalafil treated aged mice was significantly lower than the tadalafil treated young mice in open field test. Tadalafil treatment elicited a decrease of MDA level in the hippocampus of aged mice than that of young mice. APOP level was decreased only in aged mice treated with tadalafil. Treatment with tadalafil decreased NO and increased catalase activity in both young and aged mice. On the basis of previous and our findings, we conclude that tadalafil treatment reduces oxidative stress while increased cGMP level in the hippocampus might be responsible for memory enhancement.

  2. Lack of effect of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on bromocriptine-induced locomotor sensitization in mice.

    PubMed

    Kayir, Hakan; Ceyhan, Mert; Yavuz, Oğuzhan; Uzbay, I Tayfun

    2007-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitory agent, on bromocriptine-induced locomotor sensitization in mice. Adult male Swiss-Webster mice (26-32 g) were the subjects. Saline or L-NAME (15-60 mg/kg) was injected to mice intraperitoneally 30 min before bromocriptine (5 mg/kg), and locomotor activity was recorded for 240 min in an open field activity monitoring system. This procedure lasted for 2 weeks, once in 2 days from Monday to Friday, six sessions in total. After a 2-day drug-free period, a challenge injection of bromocriptine (5 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered by all groups of mice. Other groups of mice treated with bromocriptine according to the aforementioned procedure except L-NAME pretreatments were challenged with saline or L-NAME (15-60 mg/kg) plus bromocriptine (5 mg/kg) after a 2-day drug-free period. Bromocriptine produced a significant locomotor sensitization. L-NAME (15-60 mg/kg) did not have any significant effect on the development and expression of bromocriptine-induced locomotor sensitization in mice. Meanwhile, the data also imply that NO-related mechanisms may not be responsible for bromocriptine-induced locomotor sensitization in mice.

  3. Central diabetes insipidus associated with impaired renal aquaporin-1 expression in mice lacking liver X receptor β.

    PubMed

    Gabbi, Chiara; Kong, Xiaomu; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Gao, Min; Jia, Xiao; Ohnishi, Hideo; Ueta, Yoichi; Warner, Margaret; Guan, Youfei; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2012-02-21

    The present study demonstrates a key role for the oxysterol receptor liver X receptor β (LXRβ) in the etiology of diabetes insipidus (DI). Given free access to water, LXRβ(-/-) but not LXRα(-/-) mice exhibited polyuria (abnormal daily excretion of highly diluted urine) and polydipsia (increased water intake), both features of diabetes insipidus. LXRβ(-/-) mice responded to 24-h dehydration with a decreased urine volume and increased urine osmolality. To determine whether the DI was of central or nephrogenic origin, we examined the responsiveness of the kidney to arginine vasopressin (AVP). An i.p. injection of AVP to LXRβ(-/-) mice revealed a partial kidney response: There was no effect on urine volume, but there was a significant increase of urine osmolality, suggesting that DI may be caused by a defect in central production of AVP. In the brain of WT mice LXRβ was expressed in the nuclei of magnocellular neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus. In LXRβ(-/-) mice the expression of AVP was markedly decreased in the magnocellular neurons as well as in urine collected over a 24-h period. The persistent high urine volume after AVP administration was traced to a reduction in aquaporin-1 expression in the kidney of LXRβ(-/-) mice. The LXR agonist (GW3965) in WT mice elicited an increase in urine osmolality, suggesting that LXRβ is a key receptor in controlling water balance with targets in both the brain and kidney, and it could be a therapeutic target in disorders of water balance.

  4. [The effect of mithochondria targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on aging, life span and spontaneous carcinogenesis in three mice strains].

    PubMed

    Iurova, M H; Zabezhinskiĭ, M A; Piskunova, T S; Tyndyk, M L; Popovich, I G; anisimov, V N

    2010-01-01

    Female outbred SHR mice, inbred 129/Sv mice and transgenic HER-2/neu mice were given mitochondria targeted antioxidant SkQ1 with drinking water in the various doses (0,5-2500 nmol/kg day) since the age of 2 months, whereas control animals received tap water. Age-related dynamics of the body weight and temperature, the amount of drinking water and consumed food, estrous function, as well as parameters of the life span and spontaneous carcinogenesis were estimated. As compared with controls, no difference in the parameters of body weight and temperature or amount of consumed food and water in the treated mice of all studied mice strains was revealed. In SkQ1-treated SHR mice, the tendencies of inhibition of the age-dependent disturbances of estrous function and aging appearance were observed. No effect of SkQ1 on estrous function and external view in inbred and transgenic mice was shown. SkQ1 treatment significantly decreased locomotor activity (in 12-15 months old SHR and 129/Sv mice) and exercise tolerance in old (20 months) SHR mice. The treatment with SkQ1 (0,5-50 nmol/kg day) increased parameters of the life span in SHR mice (mean life span, mean life span of the last 10% of survival, median and maximum life span) without significant effect on the life span in 129/Sv and HER-2/neu mice. There was no reliable difference in tumor development in all SkQ1-treated mice strains as compared with the control. The drug considerably inhibited the incidence of age-associated non-tumor pathology in SHR mice. Our data suggest geroprotective activity of SkQ1, and a lack of toxic or carcinogenic activities during long term use. PMID:21137217

  5. Effects of chronic estrogen treatment on modulating age-related bone loss in female mice.

    PubMed

    Syed, Farhan A; Mödder, Ulrike Il; Roforth, Matthew; Hensen, Ira; Fraser, Daniel G; Peterson, James M; Oursler, Merry Jo; Khosla, Sundeep

    2010-11-01

    While female mice do not have the equivalent of a menopause, they do undergo reproductive senescence. Thus, to dissociate the effects of aging versus estrogen deficiency on age-related bone loss, we sham-operated, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and estrogen-replaced female C57/BL6 mice at 6 months of age and followed them to age 18 to 22 months. Lumbar spines and femurs were excised for analysis, and bone marrow hematopoietic lineage negative (lin-) cells (enriched for osteoprogenitor cells) were isolated for gene expression studies. Six-month-old intact control mice were euthanized to define baseline parameters. Compared with young mice, aged/sham-operated mice had a 42% reduction in lumbar spine bone volume/total volume (BV/TV), and maintaining constant estrogen levels over life in ovariectomized/estrogen-treated mice did not prevent age-related trabecular bone loss at this site. By contrast, lifelong estrogen treatment of ovariectomized mice completely prevented the age-related reduction in cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and thickness at the tibial diaphysis present in the aged/sham-operated mice. As compared with cells from young mice, lin- cells from aged/sham-operated mice expressed significantly higher mRNA levels for osteoblast differentiation and proliferation marker genes. These data thus demonstrate that, in mice, age-related loss of cortical bone in the appendicular skeleton, but not loss of trabecular bone in the spine, can be prevented by maintaining constant estrogen levels over life. The observed increase in osteoblastic differentiation and proliferation marker gene expression in progenitor bone marrow cells from aged versus young mice may represent a compensatory mechanism in response to ongoing bone loss. PMID:20499336

  6. Some fine-structural findings on the thyroid gland in Apc1638T/1638T mice that express a C-terminus lacking truncated Apc.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Atsushi; Nomura, Ryuji; Kurosumi, Masafumi; Shimomura, Atsushi; Onouchi, Takanori; Iizuka-Kogo, Akiko; Smits, Ron; Fodde, Riccardo; Itoh, Mditsuyasu; Senda, Takao

    2012-06-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) is a multifunctional protein as well as a tumor suppressor. To determine the functions of the C-terminal domain of Apc, we examined Apc(1638T/1638T) mice that express a truncated Apc lacking the C-terminal domain. The Apc(1638T/1638T) mice were tumor free and exhibited growth retardation. We recently reported abnormalities in thyroid morphology and functions of Apc(1638T/1638T) mice, although the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not known. In the present study, we further compared thyroid gland morphology in Apc(1638T/1638T) and Apc(+/+) mice. The diameters of thyroid follicles in the left and right lobes of the same thyroid gland of Apc(1638T/1638T) mice were significantly different whereas the Apc(+/+) mice showed no significant differences in thyroid follicle diameter between these lobes. To assess the secretory activities of thyroid follicular cells, we performed double-immunostaining of thyroglobulin, a major secretory protein of these cells, and the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER) marker calreticulin. In the Apc(1638T/1638T) follicular epithelial cells, thyroglobulin was mostly colocalized with calreticulin whereas in the Apc(+/+) follicular epithelial cells, a significant amount of the cytoplasmic thyroglobulin did not colocalize with calreticulin. In addition, in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-treated Apc(1638T/1638T) mice, electron microscopic analysis indicated less frequent pseudopod formation at the apical surface of the thyroid follicular cells than in Apc(+/+) mice, indicating that reuptake of colloid droplets containing iodized thyroglobulin is less active. These results imply defects in intracellular thyroglobulin transport and in pseudopod formation in the follicular epithelial cells of Apc(1638T/1638T) mice and suggest suppressed secretory activities of these cells.

  7. Impaired Reality Testing in Mice Lacking Phospholipase Cβ1: Observed by Persistent Representation-Mediated Taste Aversion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hea-jin; Koh, Hae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Hallucinations and delusions are the most prominent symptoms of schizophrenia and characterized by impaired reality testing. Representation-mediated taste aversion (RMTA) has been proposed as a potential behavioral assessment of reality testing and has been applied to a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia. However, the theory underlying this approach has not been generalized yet with any demonstration of impaired reality testing in other animal models of schizophrenia, such as genetically-modified mice. We devised a RMTA procedure for mice that combines a Pavlovian association protocol pairing odor conditioned stimulus (CS) with sugar reward unconditioned stimulus (US), and a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) method. In this RMTA paradigm, we compared performances of wild-type (PLCβ1+/+) mice and phospholipase C β1 knock-out (PLCβ1-/-) mice which are known as one of the genetic models for schizophrenia. With a minimal amount of initial odor-sugar associative training, both PLCβ1+/+ and PLCβ1-/- mice were able to form an aversion to the sugar reward when the odor CS predicting sugar was paired with nausea. With an extended initial training, however, only PLCβ1-/- mice could form a RMTA. This persistent RMTA displayed by PLCβ1-/- mice shows their inability to distinguish real sugar from the CS-evoked representation of sugar at a stage in associative learning where wild-type mice normally could differentiate the two. These results demonstrate an impaired reality testing first observed in a genetic mouse model of schizophrenia, and suggest that RMTA paradigm may, with general applicability, allow diverse biological approaches to impaired reality testing. PMID:26731530

  8. Impaired Reality Testing in Mice Lacking Phospholipase Cβ1: Observed by Persistent Representation-Mediated Taste Aversion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hea-Jin; Koh, Hae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Hallucinations and delusions are the most prominent symptoms of schizophrenia and characterized by impaired reality testing. Representation-mediated taste aversion (RMTA) has been proposed as a potential behavioral assessment of reality testing and has been applied to a neurodevelopmental rat model of schizophrenia. However, the theory underlying this approach has not been generalized yet with any demonstration of impaired reality testing in other animal models of schizophrenia, such as genetically-modified mice. We devised a RMTA procedure for mice that combines a Pavlovian association protocol pairing odor conditioned stimulus (CS) with sugar reward unconditioned stimulus (US), and a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) method. In this RMTA paradigm, we compared performances of wild-type (PLCβ1+/+) mice and phospholipase C β1 knock-out (PLCβ1-/-) mice which are known as one of the genetic models for schizophrenia. With a minimal amount of initial odor-sugar associative training, both PLCβ1+/+ and PLCβ1-/- mice were able to form an aversion to the sugar reward when the odor CS predicting sugar was paired with nausea. With an extended initial training, however, only PLCβ1-/- mice could form a RMTA. This persistent RMTA displayed by PLCβ1-/- mice shows their inability to distinguish real sugar from the CS-evoked representation of sugar at a stage in associative learning where wild-type mice normally could differentiate the two. These results demonstrate an impaired reality testing first observed in a genetic mouse model of schizophrenia, and suggest that RMTA paradigm may, with general applicability, allow diverse biological approaches to impaired reality testing.

  9. Chronic treatment with anesthetic propofol attenuates β-amyloid protein levels in brain tissues of aged mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. At the present time, however, AD still lacks effective treatments. Our recent studies showed that chronic treatment with anesthetic propofol attenuated brain caspase-3 activation and improved cognitive function in aged mice. Accumulation of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) is a major component of the neuropathogenesis of AD dementia and cognitive impairment. We therefore set out to determine the effects of chronic treatment with propofol on Aβ levels in brain tissues of aged mice. Propofol (50 mg/kg) was administrated to aged (18 month-old) wild-type mice once a week for 8 weeks. The brain tissues of mice were harvested one day after the final propofol treatment. The harvested brain tissues were then subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. Here we report that the propofol treatment reduced Aβ (Aβ40 and Aβ42) levels in the brain tissues of the aged mice. Moreover, the propofol treatment decreased the levels of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (the enzyme for Aβ generation), and increased the levels of neprilysin (the enzyme for Aβ degradation) in the brain tissues of the aged mice. These results suggested that the chronic treatment with propofol might reduce brain Aβ levels potentially via decreasing brain levels of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme, thus decreasing Aβ generation; and via increasing brain neprilysin levels, thus increasing Aβ degradation. These preliminary findings from our pilot studies have established a system and postulated a new hypothesis for future research. PMID:24725331

  10. cAMP- but not Ca(2+)-regulated Cl- conductance is lacking in cystic fibrosis mice epididymides and seminal vesicles.

    PubMed

    Leung, A Y; Wong, P Y; Yankaskas, J R; Boucher, R C

    1996-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) reflects the loss of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-regulated Cl- secretion consequent to mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. In humans, but not mice, with CF, the disease is associated with male infertility. The present study investigated the relative magnitudes of the cAMP pathways and an alternative Ca(2+)-regulated Cl- secretory pathway in primary cultures of the epididymides and the seminal vesicles of normal and CF mice. The basal equivalent short-circuit currents (Ieq) of cultures derived from the epididymides and the seminal vesicles from the CF mice were lower (6.0 +/- 0.6 and 4.0 +/- 1.0 muA/cm2, respectively) than those from normal mice (11.1 +/- 1.0 and 6.6 +/- 0.6 muA/cm2, respectively). Forskolin induced significant Ieq responses in both the epididymis (8.0 +/- 0.7 muA/cm2) and seminal vesicles (4.0 +/- 0.5 muA/cm2) from normal mice, whereas forskolin-induced changes in Ieq in CF mouse epididymis and seminal vesicles were absent, consistent with defective cAMP-CFTR-mediated Cl- secretion in CF mice. Ieq responses to agonists (ionomycin, ATP) that raise intracellular Ca2+ (Ca2+i) were larger than forskolin responses in normal animals (6.6 +/- 0.9 and 13.4 +/- 1.8 muA/cm2, respectively) and were preserved in CF (6.5 +/- 0.9 and 17.1 +/- 1.0 muA/cm2, respectively). We speculate that the fertility of male CF mice is maintained by persistent expression of the predominant alternative Ca(2+)-mediated Cl- transport system in the epididymides and seminal vesicles. PMID:8760045

  11. The behavioural response of mice lacking NK1 receptors to guanfacine resembles its clinical profile in treatment of ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Pillidge, Katharine; Porter, Ashley J; Dudley, Julia A; Tsai, Yuan-Chen; Heal, David J; Stanford, S Clare

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Mice with functional ablation of substance P-preferring neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1R−/− mice) display behavioural abnormalities resembling those in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Here, we investigated whether the ADHD treatment, guanfacine, alleviated the hyperactivity and impulsivity/inattention displayed by NK1R−/− mice in the light/dark exploration box (LDEB) and 5-choice serial reaction–time task (5-CSRTT), respectively. Following reports of co-morbid anxiety in ADHD, we also investigated effects of guanfacine on anxiety-like behaviour displayed by NK1R−/− and wild-type (WT) mice in the elevated plus maze (EPM). Experimental Approach Mice were treated with guanfacine (0.1, 0.3 or 1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.), vehicle or no injection and tested in the 5-CSRTT or the LDEB. Only the lowest dose of guanfacine was used in the EPM assays. Key Results In the 5-CSRTT, a low dose of guanfacine (0.1 mg·kg−1) increased attention in NK1R−/− mice, but not in WT mice. This dose did not affect the total number of trials completed, latencies to respond or locomotor activity in the LDEB. Impulsivity was decreased by the high dose (1.0 mg·kg−1) of guanfacine, but this was evident in both genotypes and is likely to be secondary to a generalized blunting of behaviour. Although the NK1R−/− mice displayed marked anxiety-like behaviour, guanfacine did not affect the behaviour of either genotype in the EPM. Conclusions and Implications This evidence that guanfacine improves attention at a dose that did not affect arousal or emotionality supports our proposal that NK1R−/− mice express an attention deficit resembling that of ADHD patients. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Animal Models in Psychiatry Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-20 PMID:25074741

  12. Enhanced skin carcinogenesis and lack of thymus hyperplasia in transgenic mice expressing human cyclin D1b (CCND1b)

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Paola; Benavides, Fernando; Blando, Jorge; Perez, Carlos; Cardenas, Kim; Richie, Ellen; Knudsen, Erik S.; Johnson, David G.; Senderowicz, Adrian M.; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L.; Conti, Claudio J.

    2009-01-01

    Cyclin D1b is an alternative transcript of the cyclin D1 gene (CCND1) expressed in human tumors. Its abundance is regulated by a single base pair polymorphism at the exon 4/intron 4 boundary (nucleotide 870). Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between the presence of the G870A allele (that favors the splicing for cyclin D1b) with increased risk and less favorable outcome in several forms of cancer. More recently, it has been shown that, unlike cyclin D1a, the alternative transcript D1b by itself has the capacity to transform fibroblasts in vitro. In order to study the oncogenic potential of cyclin D1b, we developed transgenic mice expressing human cyclin D1b under the control of the bovine K5 promoter (K5D1b mice). Seven founders were obtained and none of them presented any significant phenotype or developed spontaneous tumors. Interestingly, K5D1b mice do not develop the fatal thymic hyperplasia, which is characteristic of the cyclin D1a transgenic mice (K5D1a). Susceptibility to skin carcinogenesis was tested in K5D1b mice using two-stage carcinogenesis protocols. In two independent experiments, K5D1b mice developed higher papilloma multiplicity as compared with wild-type littermates. However, when K5D1b mice were crossed with cyclin D1KO mice, the expression of cyclin D1b was unable to rescue the carcinogenesis-resistant phenotype of the cyclin D1 KO mice. To further explore the role of cyclin D1b in mouse models of carcinogenesis we carried out in silico analysis and in vitro experiments to evaluate the existence of a mouse homologous of the human cyclin D1b transcript. We were unable to find any evidence of an alternatively spliced transcript in mouse Ccnd1. These results show that human cyclin D1b has different biological functions than cyclin D1a and confirm its oncogenic properties. PMID:18942117

  13. Altered thalamocortical rhythmicity and connectivity in mice lacking CaV3.1 T-type Ca2+ channels in unconsciousness.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Lee, Seongwon; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2015-06-23

    In unconscious status (e.g., deep sleep and anesthetic unconsciousness) where cognitive functions are not generated there is still a significant level of brain activity present. Indeed, the electrophysiology of the unconscious brain is characterized by well-defined thalamocortical rhythmicity. Here we address the ionic basis for such thalamocortical rhythms during unconsciousness. In particular, we address the role of CaV3.1 T-type Ca(2+) channels, which are richly expressed in thalamic neurons. Toward this aim, we examined the electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes of mice lacking CaV3.1 channels (CaV3.1 knockout) during unconsciousness induced by ketamine or ethanol administration. Our findings indicate that CaV3.1 KO mice displayed attenuated low-frequency oscillations in thalamocortical loops, especially in the 1- to 4-Hz delta band, compared with control mice (CaV3.1 WT). Intriguingly, we also found that CaV3.1 KO mice exhibited augmented high-frequency oscillations during unconsciousness. In a behavioral measure of unconsciousness dynamics, CaV3.1 KO mice took longer to fall into the unconscious state than controls. In addition, such unconscious events had a shorter duration than those of control mice. The thalamocortical interaction level between mediodorsal thalamus and frontal cortex in CaV3.1 KO mice was significantly lower, especially for delta band oscillations, compared with that of CaV3.1 WT mice, during unconsciousness. These results suggest that the CaV3.1 channel is required for the generation of a given set of thalamocortical rhythms during unconsciousness. Further, that thalamocortical resonant neuronal activity supported by this channel is important for the control of vigilance states.

  14. Abnormal response to stress and impaired NPS-induced hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effect and corticosterone increase in mice lacking NPSR1

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hongyan; Mingler, Melissa K.; McBride, Melissa L.; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Yancopoulos, George D.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2010-01-01

    Summary NPSR1 is a G protein coupled receptor expressed in multiple brain regions involved in modulation of stress. Central administration of NPS, the putative endogenous ligand of NPSR1, can induce hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effects and activation of the HPA axis. The role of NPSR1 in the brain remains unsettled. Here we used NPSR1 gene-targeted mice to define the functional role of NPSR1 under basal conditions on locomotion, anxiety- and/or depression-like behavior, corticosterone levels, acoustic startle with prepulse inhibition, learning and memory, and under NPS-induced locomotor activation, anxiolysis, and corticosterone release. Male, but not female, NPSR1-deficient mice exhibited enhanced depression-like behavior in a forced swim test, reduced acoustic startle response, and minor changes in the Morris water maze. Neither male nor female NPSR1-deficient mice showed alterations of baseline locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, or corticosterone release after exposure to a forced swim test or methamphetamine challenge in an open-field. After intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NPS, NPSR1-deficient mice failed to show normal NPS-induced increases in locomotion, anxiolysis, or corticosterone release compared with WT NPS-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that NPSR1 is essential in mediating NPS effects on behavior. PMID:20171785

  15. Abnormal response to stress and impaired NPS-induced hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effect and corticosterone increase in mice lacking NPSR1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hongyan; Mingler, Melissa K; McBride, Melissa L; Murphy, Andrew J; Valenzuela, David M; Yancopoulos, George D; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V; Rothenberg, Marc E

    2010-09-01

    NPSR1 is a G protein coupled receptor expressed in multiple brain regions involved in modulation of stress. Central administration of NPS, the putative endogenous ligand of NPSR1, can induce hyperlocomotion, anxiolytic effects and activation of the HPA axis. The role of NPSR1 in the brain remains unsettled. Here we used NPSR1 gene-targeted mice to define the functional role of NPSR1 under basal conditions on locomotion, anxiety- and/or depression-like behavior, corticosterone levels, acoustic startle with prepulse inhibition, learning and memory, and under NPS-induced locomotor activation, anxiolysis, and corticosterone release. Male, but not female, NPSR1-deficient mice exhibited enhanced depression-like behavior in a forced swim test, reduced acoustic startle response, and minor changes in the Morris water maze. Neither male nor female NPSR1-deficient mice showed alterations of baseline locomotion, anxiety-like behavior, or corticosterone release after exposure to a forced swim test or methamphetamine challenge in an open-field. After intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of NPS, NPSR1-deficient mice failed to show normal NPS-induced increases in locomotion, anxiolysis, or corticosterone release compared with WT NPS-treated mice. These findings demonstrate that NPSR1 is essential in mediating NPS effects on behavior.

  16. Anhedonic-like traits and lack of affective deficits in 18-month-old C57BL/6 mice: Implications for modeling elderly depression.

    PubMed

    Malatynska, Ewa; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Redkozubova, Olga; Bolkunov, Alexei; Kubatiev, Aslan; Yeritsyan, Naira B; Vignisse, Julie; Bachurin, Sergei; Strekalova, Tatyana

    2012-08-01

    The prevalence of depression increases with aging. We hypothesized that like humans, old animals exhibit anhedonic-like behavior, along with signs of behavioral despair. In rodents, anhedonia, a reduced sensitivity to reward, which is listed as a core feature of major depression in the DSM-IVR, can be measured by a decrease in intake of and preference for sweet solutions. Here, sucrose intake, forced swimming, immobility in the modified tail suspension test, novelty exploration, grooming, anxiety and locomotor activity were compared in naïve 3- and 18-month-old male C57BL/6 mice. The absolute amounts and the ratio of consumed 1% sucrose solution to water intake was significantly smaller in 18-month-old mice than in 3-month-old mice. The consumption of 5%-sucrose solution requiring high levels of drinking effort, novelty exploration in two setups and grooming behavior in the splash test were reduced in older animals. Analysis of other behaviors suggested that the above-mentioned signs of anhedonic-like traits were unlikely to be attributable to the potential effect of aging on metabolic needs for water, taste perception, motor capabilities or the induction of essential anxiety and neophobia. A 4-week treatment with the antidepressant imipramine (7mg/kg/day) or dimebon, a compound with suggested neuroprotective proneurogenic properties (1mg/kg/day) restored sucrose intake and preference in 18-month-old mice. Meanwhile, young and old mice showed no differences in the parameters of behavioral despair evaluated in the forced swim and modified tail suspension tests. Thus, the behavioral profile of aged mice parallels that of humans with elderly depression, in whom the symptoms of hedonic deficits typically outweigh affective disturbances. The assessment of anhedonic-like traits with the sucrose preference test in 18-month-old mice will be useful in preclinical studies of elderly depression.

  17. Depressed levels of prostaglandin F2α in mice lacking Akr1b7 increase basal adiposity and predispose to diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Volat, Fanny E; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Pastel, Emilie; Morio, Béatrice; Sion, Benoit; Hamard, Ghislaine; Guichardant, Michel; Colas, Romain; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie; Martinez, Antoine

    2012-11-01

    Negative regulators of white adipose tissue (WAT) expansion are poorly documented in vivo. Prostaglandin F(2α) (PGF(2α)) is a potent antiadipogenic factor in cultured preadipocytes, but evidence for its involvement in physiological context is lacking. We previously reported that Akr1b7, an aldo-keto reductase enriched in adipose stromal vascular fraction but absent from mature adipocytes, has antiadipogenic properties possibly supported by PGF(2α) synthase activity. To test whether lack of Akr1b7 could influence WAT homeostasis in vivo, we generated Akr1b7(-/-) mice in 129/Sv background. Akr1b7(-/-) mice displayed excessive basal adiposity resulting from adipocyte hyperplasia/hypertrophy and exhibited greater sensitivity to diet-induced obesity. Following adipose enlargement and irrespective of the diet, they developed liver steatosis and progressive insulin resistance. Akr1b7 loss was associated with decreased PGF(2α) WAT contents. Cloprostenol (PGF(2α) agonist) administration to Akr1b7(-/-) mice normalized WAT expansion by affecting both de novo adipocyte differentiation and size. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes and Akr1b7(-/-) mice with cloprostenol suggested that decreased adipocyte size resulted from inhibition of lipogenic gene expression. Hence, Akr1b7 is a major regulator of WAT development through at least two PGF(2α)-dependent mechanisms: inhibition of adipogenesis and lipogenesis. These findings provide molecular rationale to explore the status of aldo-keto reductases in dysregulations of adipose tissue homeostasis.

  18. Normal hematopoiesis and lack of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts of patients and mice harboring Lrp5 gain-of-function mutations☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Galán-Díez, Marta; Isa, Adiba; Ponzetti, Marco; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Kassem, Moustapha; Kousteni, Stavroula

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts are emerging regulators of myeloid malignancies since genetic alterations in them, such as constitutive activation of β-catenin, instigate their appearance. The LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), initially proposed to be a co-receptor for Wnt proteins, in fact favors bone formation by suppressing gut-serotonin synthesis. This function of Lrp5 occurring in the gut is independent of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts. However, it is unknown whether Lrp5 can act directly in osteoblast to influence other functions that require β-catenin signaling, particularly, the deregulation of hematopoiesis and leukemogenic properties of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts, that lead to development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using mice with gain-of-function (GOF) Lrp5 alleles (Lrp5A214V) that recapitulate the human high bone mass (HBM) phenotype, as well as patients with the T253I HBM Lrp5 mutation, we show here that Lrp5 GOF mutations in both humans and mice do not activate β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts. Consistent with a lack of β-catenin activation in their osteoblasts, Lrp5A214V mice have normal trilinear hematopoiesis. In contrast to leukemic mice with constitutive activation of β-catenin in osteoblasts (Ctnnb1CAosb), accumulation of early myeloid progenitors, a characteristic of AML, myeloid-blasts in blood, and segmented neutrophils or dysplastic megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, are not observed in Lrp5A214V mice. Likewise, peripheral blood count analysis in HBM patients showed normal hematopoiesis, normal percentage of myeloid cells, and lack of anemia. We conclude that Lrp5 GOF mutations do not activate β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts. As a result, myeloid lineage differentiation is normal in HBM patients and mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival, Metastasis, Inflammation, and Immune Surveillance edited by Peter Ruvolo and Gregg L. Semenza. PMID:26681532

  19. Mice lacking the β2 adrenergic receptor have a unique genetic profile before and after focal brain ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    White, Robin E; Palm, Curtis; Xu, Lijun; Ling, Evelyn; Ginsburg, Mitchell; Daigle, Bernie J; Han, Ruquan; Patterson, Andrew; Altman, Russ B; Giffard, Rona G

    2012-01-01

    The role of the β2AR (β2 adrenergic receptor) after stroke is unclear as pharmacological manipulations of the β2AR have produced contradictory results. We previously showed that mice deficient in the β2AR (β2KO) had smaller infarcts compared with WT (wild-type) mice (FVB) after MCAO (middle cerebral artery occlusion), a model of stroke. To elucidate mechanisms of this neuroprotection, we evaluated changes in gene expression using microarrays comparing differences before and after MCAO, and differences between genotypes. Genes associated with inflammation and cell deaths were enriched after MCAO in both genotypes, and we identified several genes not previously shown to increase following ischaemia (Ccl9, Gem and Prg4). In addition to networks that were similar between genotypes, one network with a central core of GPCR (G-protein-coupled receptor) and including biological functions such as carbohydrate metabolism, small molecule biochemistry and inflammation was identified in FVB mice but not in β2KO mice. Analysis of differences between genotypes revealed 11 genes differentially expressed by genotype both before and after ischaemia. We demonstrate greater Glo1 protein levels and lower Pmaip/Noxa mRNA levels in β2KO mice in both sham and MCAO conditions. As both genes are implicated in NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) signalling, we measured p65 activity and TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) levels 24 h after MCAO. MCAO-induced p65 activation and post-ischaemic TNFα production were both greater in FVB compared with β2KO mice. These results suggest that loss of β2AR signalling results in a neuroprotective phenotype in part due to decreased NF-κB signalling, decreased inflammation and decreased apoptotic signalling in the brain. PMID:22867428

  20. Impaired exercise capacity, but unaltered mitochondrial respiration in skeletal or cardiac muscle of mice lacking cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Nico, Patrícia Barreto Costa; Lobão-Soares, Bruno; Landemberger, Michele Christine; Marques, Wilson; Tasca, Carla I; de Mello, Carlos Fernando; Walz, Roger; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Brentani, Ricardo R; Sakamoto, Américo C; Bianchin, Marino Muxfeldt

    2005-11-01

    The studies of physiological roles for cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) have focused on possible functions of this protein in the CNS, where it is largely expressed. However, the observation that PrP(c) is expressed also in muscle tissue suggests that the physiological role of PrP(c) might not be limited to the central nervous system. In the present study, we investigated possible functions of PrP(c) in muscle using PrP(c) gene (Prnp) null mice (Prnp(0/0)). For this purpose, we submitted Prnp(0/0) animals to different protocols of exercise, and compared their performance to that of their respective wild-type controls. Prnp(0/0) mice showed an exercise-dependent impairment of locomotor activity. In searching for possible mechanisms associated with the impairment observed, we evaluated mitochondrial respiration (MR) in skeletal or cardiac muscle from these mice during resting or after different intensities of exercise. Baseline MR (states 3 and 4), respiratory control ratio (RCR) and mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi) were evaluated and were not different in skeletal or cardiac muscle tissue of Prnp(0/0) mice when compared with wild-type animals. We concluded that Prnp(0/0) mice show impairment of swimming capacity, perhaps reflecting impairment of muscular activity under more extreme exercise conditions. In spite of the mitochondrial abnormalities reported in Prnp(0/0) mice, our observation seems not to be related to MR. Our results indicate that further investigations should be conducted in order to improve our knowledge about the function of PrP(c) in muscle physiology and its possible role in several different neuromuscular pathologies.

  1. Impaired sinoatrial node function and increased susceptibility to atrial fibrillation in mice lacking natriuretic peptide receptor C

    PubMed Central

    Egom, Emmanuel E; Vella, Kimberly; Hua, Rui; Jansen, Hailey J; Moghtadaei, Motahareh; Polina, Iuliia; Bogachev, Oleg; Hurnik, Rhea; Mackasey, Martin; Rafferty, Sara; Ray, Gibanananda; Rose, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides (NPs) are critical regulators of the cardiovascular system that are currently viewed as possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of heart disease. Recent work demonstrates potent NP effects on cardiac electrophysiology, including in the sinoatrial node (SAN) and atria. NPs elicit their effects via three NP receptors (NPR-A, NPR-B and NPR-C). Among these receptors, NPR-C is poorly understood. Accordingly, the goal of this study was to determine the effects of NPR-C ablation on cardiac structure and arrhythmogenesis. Cardiac structure and function were assessed in wild-type (NPR-C+/+) and NPR-C knockout (NPR-C−/−) mice using echocardiography, intracardiac programmed stimulation, patch clamping, high-resolution optical mapping, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and histology. These studies demonstrate that NPR-C−/− mice display SAN dysfunction, as indicated by a prolongation (30%) of corrected SAN recovery time, as well as an increased susceptibility to atrial fibrillation (6% in NPR-C+/+ vs. 47% in NPR-C−/−). There were no differences in SAN or atrial action potential morphology in NPR-C−/− mice; however, increased atrial arrhythmogenesis in NPR-C−/− mice was associated with reductions in SAN (20%) and atrial (15%) conduction velocity, as well as increases in expression and deposition of collagen in the atrial myocardium. No differences were seen in ventricular arrhythmogenesis or fibrosis in NPR-C−/− mice. This study demonstrates that loss of NPR-C results in SAN dysfunction and increased susceptibility to atrial arrhythmias in association with structural remodelling and fibrosis in the atrial myocardium. These findings indicate a critical protective role for NPR-C in the heart. Key points Natriuretic peptides (NPs) elicit their effects via multiple NP receptors (including NPR-A, NPR-B and NPR-C, with NPR-C being relatively poorly understood). We have studied the effects of NPR-C ablation on cardiac structure

  2. Adiposity induces lethal cytokine storm after systemic administration of stimulatory immunotherapy regimens in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Mirsoian, Annie; Bouchlaka, Myriam N.; Sckisel, Gail D.; Chen, Mingyi; Pai, Chien-Chun Steven; Maverakis, Emanuel; Spencer, Richard G.; Fishbein, Kenneth W.; Siddiqui, Sana; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart; Hesdorffer, Charles; Ferrucci, Luigi; Longo, Dan L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Wiltrout, Robert H.; Taub, Dennis D.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a contributing factor in cancer occurrence. We recently demonstrated that systemic immunotherapy (IT) administration in aged, but not young, mice resulted in induction of rapid and lethal cytokine storm. We found that aging was accompanied by increases in visceral fat similar to that seen in young obese (ob/ob or diet-induced obese [DIO]) mice. Yet, the effects of aging and obesity on inflammatory responses to immunotherapeutics are not well defined. We determine the effects of adiposity on systemic IT tolerance in aged compared with young obese mice. Both young ob/ob- and DIO-generated proinflammatory cytokine levels and organ pathologies are comparable to those in aged ad libitum mice after IT, culminating in lethality. Young obese mice exhibited greater ratios of M1/M2 macrophages within the peritoneal and visceral adipose tissues and higher percentages of TNF+ macrophages in response to αCD40/IL-2 as compared with young lean mice. Macrophage depletion or TNF blockade in conjunction with αCD40/IL-2 prevented cytokine storms in young obese mice and protected from lethality. Calorie-restricted aged mice contain less visceral fat and displayed reduced cytokine levels, protection from organ pathology, and protection from lethality upon αCD40/IL-2 administration. Our data demonstrate that adiposity is a critical factor in the age-associated pathological responses to systemic anti-cancer IT. PMID:25366964

  3. Mice age - Does the age of the mother predict offspring behaviour?

    PubMed

    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Increasing paternal age is known to be associated with a great variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Hence the factor "age" may be taken as strategic tool to analyse specific scientific hypotheses. Additionally, this finding also needs to be addressed in rather pragmatically performed breeding protocols of model organisms, since otherwise artefacts may challenge the validity of the results. Our study was performed to investigate influences of advanced age of mouse dams (30 vs. 16weeks) on maternal- and offspring behaviour. Adult offspring of both sexes was analysed in a test battery comprising paradigms for exploration, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Final blood sampling was conducted for stressphysiological analysis. Interestingly, advanced age of the mothers was associated with increased nest-building quality while maternal activity was unaffected. Moreover "maternal (mice) age" (MA) affected emotionality in the offspring, which became apparent in the dark-light box and the social recognition paradigm. These findings not only emphasize MA to model a potent risk factor with regard to emotional stability, but also underscore the vast necessity to include information about breeding protocols into the methods section of any animal study. PMID:25914174

  4. Mice age - Does the age of the mother predict offspring behaviour?

    PubMed

    Lerch, Sandra; Brandwein, Christiane; Dormann, Christof; Gass, Peter; Chourbaji, Sabine

    2015-08-01

    Increasing paternal age is known to be associated with a great variety of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia or autism. Hence the factor "age" may be taken as strategic tool to analyse specific scientific hypotheses. Additionally, this finding also needs to be addressed in rather pragmatically performed breeding protocols of model organisms, since otherwise artefacts may challenge the validity of the results. Our study was performed to investigate influences of advanced age of mouse dams (30 vs. 16weeks) on maternal- and offspring behaviour. Adult offspring of both sexes was analysed in a test battery comprising paradigms for exploration, anxiety and depressive-like behaviours. Final blood sampling was conducted for stressphysiological analysis. Interestingly, advanced age of the mothers was associated with increased nest-building quality while maternal activity was unaffected. Moreover "maternal (mice) age" (MA) affected emotionality in the offspring, which became apparent in the dark-light box and the social recognition paradigm. These findings not only emphasize MA to model a potent risk factor with regard to emotional stability, but also underscore the vast necessity to include information about breeding protocols into the methods section of any animal study.

  5. Differential effects of stimulatory factors on natural killer cell activities of young and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Nogusa, Shoko; Murasko, Donna M; Gardner, Elizabeth M

    2012-09-01

    Age-associated influences on natural killer (NK) cell functions following cytokine stimulation were examined in splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice. NK cells of both young and aged mice exhibited significantly increased: interferon-γ production after interleukin (IL)-12 or IL-15 alone or any combination of IL-12, IL-18, and IL-2; cytotoxicity after IL-2 or IL-15; and granzyme B expression after IL-15. The only significant age-associated differences were observed in interferon-γ production after IL-15 or IL-12 + 18 + 2 and in granzyme B expression following IL-2 or IL-15. Perforin expression did not increase following stimulation; however, NK cells from aged mice expressed significantly higher levels than young mice. These results underscore the complexity of the cytokine-induced functional activities of NK cells and illustrate the differential response of NK cells from young and aged mice to cytokine stimulation.

  6. Presynaptic facilitation of glycinergic mIPSC is reduced in mice lacking α3 glycine receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Kono, Y; Hülsmann, S

    2016-04-21

    Glycinergic neurons provide an important mechanism to control excitation of motoneurons in the brainstem and a reduction or loss of glycinergic inhibition can be deleterious by leading to hyperexcitation such as in hyperekplexia or neurodegeneration and neuronal death as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Second messenger systems that change cyclic AMP and lead to phosphorylation of the α3 subunit of the glycine receptor (GlyR α3) have been shown to be potent modulators of synaptic inhibition in the spinal cord and brain stem. In this study we analyzed the role of GlyR α3 in synaptic inhibition to the hypoglossal nucleus using Glra3 (the gene encoding the glycine receptor α3 subunit) knockout mice. We observed that baseline glycinergic synaptic transmission to nucleus of hypoglossal motoneurons is rather normal in Glra3 knockout mice. Interestingly, we found that the modulation of synaptic transmission by cAMP-mediated pathways appeared to be reduced in Glra3 knockout mice. In the second postnatal week the forskolin-induced increase of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic potential (mIPSC) frequency was significantly larger in control as compared to Glra3 knockout mice suggesting that presynaptic glycine release in the hypoglossal nucleus is partially depending on GlyR α3. PMID:26851771

  7. Fenfluramine-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity in mice: lack of neuroprotection by inhibition/ablation of nNOS.

    PubMed

    Itzhak, Yossef; Ali, Syed F; Anderson, Karen L

    2003-10-01

    Previous studies have implicated a role for nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite in methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether NO is involved in serotonergic neurotoxicity caused by fenfluramine. In the first experiment, the effect of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI; 25 mg/kg x 4) on fenfluramine (25 mg/kg x 4)-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity in Swiss Webster mice was investigated. In the second experiment, the effect of fenfluramine (25 mg/kg x 4) on nNOS (-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice was investigated. Fenfluramine induced hypothermia in all three mouse strains, and 7-NI had no thermoregulatory effect. Selective depletion of 5-HT and 5-HT transporter binding sites in the striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus in all three mouse strains was observed, with no evidence of dopaminergic neurotoxicity. In the first experiment, 7-NI did not attenuate serotonergic neurotoxicity in Swiss Webster mice. In the second experiment, nNOS(-/-) and WT mice were equally sensitive to serotonergic neurotoxicity. These findings suggest that NO and peroxynitrite do not mediate fenfluramine-induced serotonergic neurotoxicity, and that NO is a selective mediator of amphetamines-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

  8. Delayed and Deficient Dermal Maturation in Mice Lacking the CXCR3 ELR-Negative CXC Chemokine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Cecelia C.; Whaley, Diana; Kulasekeran, Priya; Hancock, Wayne W.; Lu, Bao; Bodnar, Richard; Newsome, Joseph; Hebda, Patricia A.; Wells, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Replacement of wounded skin requires the initially florid cellular response to abate and even regress as the dermal layer returns to a relatively paucicellular state. The signals that direct this “stop and return” process have yet to be deciphered. CXCR3 chemokine receptor and its ligand CXCL11/IP-9/I-TAC are expressed by basal keratinocytes and CXCL10/IP-10 by keratinocytes and endothelial cells during wound healing in mice and humans. In vitro, these ligands limit motility in dermal fibroblasts and endothelial cells. To examine whether this signaling pathway contributes to wound healing in vivo, full-thickness excisional wounds were created on CXCR3 wild-type (+/+) or knockout (−/−) mice. Even at 90 days, long after wound closure, wounds in the CXCR3−/− mice remained hypercellular and presented immature matrix components. The CXCR3−/− mice also presented poor remodeling and reorganization of collagen, which resulted in a weakened healed dermis. This in vivo model substantiates our in vitro findings that CXCR3 signaling is necessary for inhibition of fibroblast and endothelial cell migration and subsequent redifferentiation of the fibroblasts to a contractile state. These studies establish a pathophysiologic role for CXCR3 and its ligand during wound repair. PMID:17600132

  9. Impaired Epidermal Permeability Barrier in Mice Lacking Elovl1, the Gene Responsible for Very-Long-Chain Fatty Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Sassa, Takayuki; Ohno, Yusuke; Suzuki, Shotaro; Nomura, Toshifumi; Nishioka, Chieko; Kashiwagi, Toshiki; Hirayama, Taisuke; Akiyama, Masashi; Taguchi, Ryo; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Itohara, Shigeyoshi

    2013-01-01

    The sphingolipid backbone ceramide (Cer) is a major component of lipid lamellae in the stratum corneum of epidermis and has a pivotal role in epidermal barrier formation. Unlike Cers in other tissues, Cers in epidermis contain extremely long fatty acids (FAs). Decreases in epidermal Cer levels, as well as changes in their FA chain lengths, cause several cutaneous disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms that produce such extremely long Cers and determine their chain lengths are poorly understood. We generated mice deficient in the Elovl1 gene, which encodes the FA elongase responsible for producing C20 to C28 FAs. Elovl1 knockout mice died shortly after birth due to epidermal barrier defects. The lipid lamellae in the stratum corneum were largely diminished in these mice. In the epidermis of the Elovl1-null mice, the levels of Cers with ≥C26 FAs were decreased, while those of Cers with ≤C24 FAs were increased. In contrast, the levels of C24 sphingomyelin were reduced, accompanied by an increase in C20 sphingomyelin levels. Two ceramide synthases, CerS2 and CerS3, expressed in an epidermal layer-specific manner, regulate Elovl1 to produce acyl coenzyme As with different chain lengths. Elovl1 is a key determinant of epidermal Cer chain length and is essential for permeability barrier formation. PMID:23689133

  10. Developmental Abnormalities of Neuronal Structure and Function in Prenatal Mice Lacking the Prader-Willi Syndrome Gene Necdin

    PubMed Central

    Pagliardini, Silvia; Ren, Jun; Wevrick, Rachel; Greer, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Necdin (Ndn) is one of a cluster of genes deleted in the neurodevelopmental disorder Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Ndntm2Stw mutant mice die shortly after birth because of abnormal respiratory rhythmogenesis generated by a key medullary nucleus, the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC). Here, we address two fundamental issues relevant to its pathogenesis. First, we performed a detailed anatomical study of the developing medulla to determine whether there were defects within the preBötC or synaptic inputs that regulate respiratory rhythmogenesis. Second, in vitro studies determined if the unstable respiratory rhythm in Ndntm2Stw mice could be normalized by neuromodulators. Anatomical defects in Ndntm2Stw mice included defasciculation and irregular projections of axonal tracts, aberrant neuronal migration, and a major defect in the cytoarchitecture of the cuneate/gracile nuclei, including dystrophic axons. Exogenous application of neuromodulators alleviated the long periods of slow respiratory rhythms and apnea, but some instability of rhythmogenesis persisted. We conclude that deficiencies in the neuromodulatory drive necessary for preBötC function contribute to respiratory dysfunction of Ndntm2Stw mice. These abnormalities are part of a more widespread deficit in neuronal migration and the extension, arborization, and fasciculation of axons during early stages of central nervous system development that may account for respiratory, sensory, motor, and behavioral problems associated with PWS. PMID:15972963

  11. Initial hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants is unaffected but endocytosis is delayed in mice lacking the low density lipoprotein receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Herz, J; Qiu, S Q; Oesterle, A; DeSilva, H V; Shafi, S; Havel, R J

    1995-01-01

    Two endocytic receptors, the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) and the LDLR-related protein (LRP), are thought to act in concert in the hepatic uptake of partially metabolized dietary lipoproteins, the chylomicron remnants. We have evaluated the role of these two receptors in the hepatic metabolism of chylomicron remnants in normal mice and in LDLR-deficient [LDLR (-/-)] mice. The rate of chylomicron remnant removal by the liver was normal up to 30 min after intravenous injection of chylomicrons into LDLR (-/-) mice and was unaffected by receptor-associated protein (RAP), a potent inhibitor of ligand binding to LRP. In contrast, endocytosis of the remnants by the hepatocytes, measured by their accumulation in the endosomal fraction and by the rate of hydrolysis of component cholesteryl esters, was dramatically reduced in the absence of the LDLR. Coadministration of RAP prevented the continuing hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants in LDL (-/-) mice after 30 min, consistent with blockade of the slow endocytosis by a RAP-sensitive process. Taken together with previous studies, our results are consistent with a model in which the initial hepatic removal of chylomicron remnants is primarily mediated by mechanisms that do not include LDLR or LRP, possibly involving glycosaminoglycan-bound hepatic lipase and apolipoprotein E. After the remnants bind to these alternative sites on the hepatocyte surface, endocytosis is predominantly mediated by the LDLR and also by a slower and less efficient backup process that is RAP sensitive and therefore most likely involves LRP. PMID:7753850

  12. Mice Lacking beta2-Integrin Function Remain Glucose Tolerant in Spite of Insulin Resistance, Neutrophil Infiltration and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Meakin, Paul J; Morrison, Vicky L; Sneddon, Claire C; Savinko, Terhi; Uotila, Liisa; Jalicy, Susan M; Gabriel, Jennie L; Kang, Li; Ashford, Michael L J; Fagerholm, Susanna C

    2015-01-01

    Beta2-integrins are important in leukocyte trafficking and function, and are regulated through the binding of cytoplasmic proteins, such as kindlin-3, to their intracellular domain. Here, we investigate the involvement of beta2-integrins in the regulation of metabolic disease using mice where the kindlin-3 binding site in the beta2-integrin cytoplasmic tail has been mutated (TTT/AAA-beta2-integrin knock-in (KI) mice), leading to expressed but dysfunctional beta2-integrins and significant neutrophilia in vivo. Beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed normal weight gain, and normal accumulation of macrophages and lymphocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) and liver, but increased neutrophil numbers especially in WAT. In addition, beta2-integrin KI mice fed on a high fat diet showed significantly increased peripheral insulin resistance in response to high-fat feeding. However, this was associated with improved glucose disposal following glucose load. Interestingly, beta2-integrin KI neutrophils produced more elastase in vitro, in response to stimulation. Beta2-integrin KI mice displayed variability of tissue inflammatory status, with liver and WAT exhibiting little or no difference in inflammation compared to high fat fed controls, whereas skeletal muscle demonstrated a raised inflammatory profile in association with higher elastase levels and diminished signalling through the IRS1-PKB pathway. In conclusion, although expression of dysfunctional beta2-integrins increased neutrophil production and infiltration into tissue, skeletal muscle was the most affected tissue exhibiting evidence of higher neutrophil activity and insulin resistance. Thus, beta2-integrins modulate glucose homeostasis during high fat feeding predominantly through actions on skeletal muscle to affect metabolic phenotype in vivo. PMID:26405763

  13. Mice Lacking the Serotonin Htr2B Receptor Gene Present an Antipsychotic-Sensitive Schizophrenic-Like Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Pitychoutis, Pothitos M; Belmer, Arnauld; Moutkine, Imane; Adrien, Joëlle; Maroteaux, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity and hyperactivity share common ground with numerous mental disorders, including schizophrenia. Recently, a population-specific serotonin 2B (5-HT2B) receptor stop codon (ie, HTR2B Q20*) was reported to segregate with severely impulsive individuals, whereas 5-HT2B mutant (Htr2B−/−) mice also showed high impulsivity. Interestingly, in the same cohort, early-onset schizophrenia was more prevalent in HTR2B Q*20 carriers. However, the putative role of 5-HT2B receptor in the neurobiology of schizophrenia has never been investigated. We assessed the effects of the genetic and the pharmacological ablation of 5-HT2B receptors in mice subjected to a comprehensive series of behavioral test screenings for schizophrenic-like symptoms and investigated relevant dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurochemical alterations in the cortex and the striatum. Domains related to the positive, negative, and cognitive symptom clusters of schizophrenia were affected in Htr2B−/− mice, as shown by deficits in sensorimotor gating, in selective attention, in social interactions, and in learning and memory processes. In addition, Htr2B−/− mice presented with enhanced locomotor response to the psychostimulants dizocilpine and amphetamine, and with robust alterations in sleep architecture. Moreover, ablation of 5-HT2B receptors induced a region-selective decrease of dopamine and glutamate concentrations in the dorsal striatum. Importantly, selected schizophrenic-like phenotypes and endophenotypes were rescued by chronic haloperidol treatment. We report herein that 5-HT2B receptor deficiency confers a wide spectrum of antipsychotic-sensitive schizophrenic-like behavioral and psychopharmacological phenotypes in mice and provide first evidence for a role of 5-HT2B receptors in the neurobiology of psychotic disorders. PMID:25936642

  14. Ocular Surface Disease and Dacryoadenitis in Aging C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    McClellan, Andrew J.; Volpe, Eugene A.; Zhang, Xiaobo; Darlington, Gretchen J.; Li, De-Quan; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.; de Paiva, Cintia S.

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye in humans displays increased prevalence in the aged and in women. Here, we investigated the ocular surfaces and lacrimal glands of aged mice of both sexes. We surveyed three different ages [young, middle-aged (6 to 9 months), and elderly] by investigating severity markers of dry eye disease (DED). We observed an age-dependent dry eye phenotype as early as 6 to 9 months: increased corneal surface irregularity, increased corneal barrier disruption, conjunctival CD4+ T-cell infiltration, and loss of mucin-filled goblet cells. Expression of interferon-γ, IL-17 mRNA transcripts was increased in the conjunctiva and IL-17A, matrix metallopeptidase 9, and chemokine ligand 20 in the corneas of elderly mice. Elderly male mice develop more of a skewed response of type 1 T helper cell, whereas female mice have a bias toward type 17 T helper cell in the conjunctiva. In the lacrimal gland, an increase in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and B cells and a decrease in activated dendritic cells were observed. Adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells isolated from elderly mice transferred DED into young immunodeficient recipients, which was more pronounced from male donors. Our findings show the development of DED in aging mice. Pathogenic CD4+ T cells that develop with aging are capable of transferring DED from older mice to naive immunodeficient recipients. Taken together, our results indicate that age-related autoimmunity contributes to development of DED with aging. PMID:24389165

  15. Mucosal and systemic immunity to intestinal reovirus infection in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Jonathan R; Cuff, Christopher F

    2004-09-01

    Systemic immunity is progressively impaired in aging, predisposing to morbidity and mortality from neoplasia and infectious disease. However, the effect of aging on mucosal immunity is controversial. To assess intestinal immunity in aging, young and aged mice were orally exposed to reovirus or cholera toxin (CT) and specific antibody and reovirus-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses were assessed. As previously reported, aged mice immunized orally with CT mounted diminished intestinal IgA responses to CT compared to young mice. In contrast, aged mice yielded two to three-fold more reovirus-specific IgA-producing cells in the Peyers's patches (PP) compared to young mice, and higher titers of reovirus-specific IgA in fragment culture supernatants. Cytotoxicity and CTL frequencies from aged mice were not different from those of young mice. Together, these results suggest a diminished potential for systemic and intestinal immunity to orally applied protein antigens in aging, but an intact ability to respond to intestinal virus infection. Infection with a replicating virus may induce inflammatory mediators and innate immune factors that potentiate the priming of mucosal immunity; overcoming aging related deficits otherwise observed following oral immunization with non-replicating antigens, and suggests the importance of antigen replication to antigen-specific immunotherapy strategies in the elderly. PMID:15489051

  16. Rejuvenation of the inflammatory system stimulates fracture repair in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Zhiqing; Lu, Chuanyong; Hu, Diane; Miclau, Theodore; Marcucio, Ralph S.

    2010-01-01

    Age significantly reduces the regenerative capacity of the skeleton, but the underlying causes are unknown. Here, we tested whether the functional status of inflammatory cells contributes to delayed healing in aged animals. We created chimeric mice by bone marrow transplantation after lethal irradiation. In this model chondrocytes and osteoblasts in the regenerate are derived exclusively from host cells while inflammatory cells are derived from the donor. Using this model, the inflammatory system of middle-aged mice (12-month-old) was replaced by transplanted bone marrow from juvenile mice (4-week-old), or age-matched controls. We found that the middle-aged mice receiving juvenile bone marrow had larger calluses and more bone formation during early stages and faster callus remodeling at late stages of fracture healing, indicating that inflammatory cells derived from the juvenile bone marrow accelerated bone repair in the middle-aged animals. In contrast, transplanting bone marrow from middle-age mice to juvenile mice did not alter the process of fracture healing in juvenile mice. Thus, the roles of inflammatory cells in fracture healing may be age-related, suggesting the possibility of enhancing fracture healing in aged animals by manipulating the inflammatory system. PMID:20108320

  17. Exogenous Testosterone, Aging, and Changes in Behavioral Response of Gonadally Intact Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J.; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y.; Omololu, Tope A.; Oludimu, Adedunke T.; Segun-Busari, Toluwalase; Omoleke, Taofeeq

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that aging significantly affects the influence of exogenous testosterone on neurobehavior in gonadally intact male mice. Groups of prepubertal and aged male mice received daily vehicle or testosterone propionate (TP; 2.5 or 5.0 mg/kg intraperitoneal [i.p.]) for 21 days. Behaviors were assessed on days 1 and 21. Weight gain was significant in prepubertal mice. Locomotion and rearing increased in prepubertal mice after first dose and decreased after last dose of TP. Rearing was suppressed in aged mice throughout. Suppression of grooming occurred in both age groups at day 21. Significant increase in working memory in both age groups was seen in the radial-arm maze (at specific doses) and in prepubertal mice in the Y-maze. Elevated plus maze test showed mixed anxiolytic/anxiogenic effects. Aged mice had higher serum testosterone. In conclusion, age is an important determinant for the influence of exogenous testosterone on behavior in gonadally intact male mice. PMID:27158222

  18. Manipulation of Ovarian Function Significantly Influenced Sarcopenia in Postreproductive-Age Mice

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Rhett L.

    2016-01-01

    Previously, transplantation of ovaries from young cycling mice into old postreproductive-age mice increased life span. We anticipated that the same factors that increased life span could also influence health span. Female CBA/J mice received new (60 d) ovaries at 12 and 17 months of age and were evaluated at 16 and 25 months of age, respectively. There were no significant differences in body weight among any age or treatment group. The percentage of fat mass was significantly increased at 13 and 16 months of age but was reduced by ovarian transplantation in 16-month-old mice. The percentages of lean body mass and total body water were significantly reduced in 13-month-old control mice but were restored in 16- and 25-month-old recipient mice by ovarian transplantation to the levels found in six-month-old control mice. In summary, we have shown that skeletal muscle mass, which is negatively influenced by aging, can be positively influenced or restored by reestablishment of active ovarian function in aged female mice. These findings provide strong incentive for further investigation of the positive influence of young ovaries on restoration of health in postreproductive females. PMID:27747096

  19. Age- and sex-associated plasma proteomic changes in growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted mice.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juan; Berryman, Darlene E; Jara, Adam; Kopchick, John J

    2012-08-01

    Growth hormone receptor gene-disrupted (GHR-/-) mice are dwarf, insulin sensitive, and long lived despite being obese. In order to identify characteristics associated with their increased longevity, we studied age-related plasma proteomic changes in these mice. Male and female GHR-/- mice and their littermate controls were followed longitudinally at 8, 16, and 24 months of ages for plasma proteomic analysis. Relative to control littermates, GHR-/- mice had increased levels of apolipoprotein A-4 and retinol-binding protein-4 and decreased levels of apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, and mannose-binding protein-C. Female GHR-/- mice showed decreased inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Additionally, sex differences were found in specific isoforms of apolipoprotein E, RBP-4, haptoglobin, albumin, and hemoglobin subunit beta. In conclusion, we find plasma proteomic changes in GHR-/- mice that favor a longer life span as well as sex differences indicative of an improved health span in female mice. PMID:22156438

  20. Lack of acute phase response in the livers of mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles or carbon black by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Anne T; Halappanavar, Sabina; Folkmann, Janne K; Bornholdt, Jette; Boisen, Anne Mette Z; Møller, Peter; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole; Vogel, Ulla; Loft, Steffen; Wallin, Håkan

    2009-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic and animal studies have shown that particulate air pollution is associated with increased risk of lung and cardiovascular diseases. Although the exact mechanisms by which particles induce cardiovascular diseases are not known, studies suggest involvement of systemic acute phase responses, including C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) in humans. In this study we test the hypothesis that diesel exhaust particles (DEP) – or carbon black (CB)-induced lung inflammation initiates an acute phase response in the liver. Results Mice were exposed to filtered air, 20 mg/m3 DEP or CB by inhalation for 90 minutes/day for four consecutive days; we have previously shown that these mice exhibit pulmonary inflammation (Saber AT, Bornholdt J, Dybdahl M, Sharma AK, Loft S, Vogel U, Wallin H. Tumor necrosis factor is not required for particle-induced genotoxicity and pulmonary inflammation., Arch. Toxicol. 79 (2005) 177–182). As a positive control for the induction of an acute phase response, mice were exposed to 12.5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intraperitoneally. Quantitative real time RT-PCR was used to examine the hepatic mRNA expression of acute phase proteins, serum amyloid P (Sap) (the murine homologue of Crp) and Saa1 and Saa3. While significant increases in the hepatic expression of Sap, Saa1 and Saa3 were observed in response to LPS, their levels did not change in response to DEP or CB. In a comprehensive search for markers of an acute phase response, we analyzed liver tissue from these mice using high density DNA microarrays. Globally, 28 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in response to DEP or CB. The mRNA expression of three of the genes (serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade A, member 3C, apolipoprotein E and transmembrane emp24 domain containing 3) responded to both exposures. However, these changes were very subtle and were not confirmed by real time RT-PCR. Conclusion Our findings

  1. Acute heat-evoked temperature sensation is impaired but not abolished in mice lacking TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels.

    PubMed

    Marics, Irène; Malapert, Pascale; Reynders, Ana; Gaillard, Stéphane; Moqrich, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of heat-sensitive Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid ion channels (ThermoTRPVs) greatly advanced our molecular understanding of acute and injury-evoked heat temperature sensation. ThermoTRPV channels are activated by partially overlapping temperatures ranging from warm to supra-threshold noxious heat. TRPV1 is activated by noxious heat temperature whereas TRPV3 can be activated by warm as well as noxious heat temperatures. Loss-of-function studies in single TRPV1 and TRPV3 knock-out mice have shown that heat temperature sensation is not completely abolished suggesting functional redundancies among these two channels and highlighting the need of a detailed analysis of TRPV1::TRPV3 double knock-out mice (V1V3dKO) which is hampered by the close proximity of the loci expressing the two channels. Here we describe the generation of a novel mouse model in which trpv1 and trpv3 genes have been inactivated using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells. In these mice, using classical thermosensory tests such hot plate, tail flick and the thermotaxis gradient paradigms, we confirm that TRPV1 is the master channel for sensing noxious heat temperatures and identify a cooperative role of TRPV1 and TRPV3 for sensing a well-defined window of acute moderate heat temperature. Using the dynamic hot plate assay, we unravel an intriguing and unexpected pronounced escape behavior in TRPV1 knock-out mice that was attenuated in the V1V3dKO. Together, and in agreement with the temperature activation overlap between TRPV1 and TRPV3 channels, our data provide in vivo evidence of a cooperative role between skin-derived TRPV3 and primary sensory neurons-enriched TRPV1 in modulation of moderate and noxious heat temperature sensation and suggest that other mechanisms are required for heat temperature sensation.

  2. Establishment of a model of acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in different weekly-aged ICR mice.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, K; Tokuno, M; Yamasaki, K; Kadowaki, D; Seo, H; Otagiri, M

    2015-10-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP), a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug, has the potential to cause lethal hepatotoxicity. Mice are widely used for developing murine models of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, and many researchers have used these models for APAP-related studies including the fields of biology, pharmacology and toxicology. Although drug-induced hepatotoxicity is dependent on a number of factors (species, gender and age), very few studies have investigated the effect of aging on APAP hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated the effect of age on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in different weekly-aged mice to establish a model of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity that is an accurate reflection of general experimental conditions. Male ICR mice 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks old were given APAP intraperitoneally, and mortality, hepatic damage and the plasma concentration of APAP metabolites were evaluated. It was found that younger male ICR mice were relatively resistant to hepatotoxicity induced by intraperitoneal APAP administration. In addition, the APAP-glucuronide concentration in plasma remained essentially the same among the differently-aged mice, while APAP-sulfate levels were dramatically decreased in an age-dependent manner. Thus, it is recommended that mice of the same ages be used in studies related to APAP-induced hepatotoxixity. These results provide evidence in support of not only the age-related changes in susceptibility to APAP-derived hepatotoxicity in mice but also in developing mouse models for APAP-related studies.

  3. Deficiency of circadian protein CLOCK reduces lifespan and increases age-related cataract development in mice.

    PubMed

    Dubrovsky, Yulia V; Samsa, William E; Kondratov, Roman V

    2010-12-01

    Circadian clock is implicated in the regulation of aging. The transcription factor CLOCK, a core component of the circadian system, operates in complex with another circadian clock protein BMAL1. Recently it was demonstrated that BMAL1 deficiency results in premature aging in mice. Here we investigate the aging of mice deficient for CLOCK protein. Deficiency of the CLOCK protein significantly affects longevity: the average lifespan of Clock-/- mice is reduced by 15% compared with wild type mice, while maximum lifespan is reduced by more than 20%. CLOCK deficiency also results in the development of two age-specific pathologies in these mice, cataracts and dermatitis, at a much higher rate than in wild type mice. In contrast to BMAL1 deficient animals, Clock-/- mice do not develop a premature aging phenotype and do not develop the multiple age-associated pathologies characteristic of BMAL1 deficiency. Thus, although CLOCK and BMAL1 form a transcriptional complex, the physiological result of their deficiency is different. Our results suggest that CLOCK plays an important role in aging, specifically; CLOCK activity is critical for the regulation of normal physiology and aging of the lens and skin.

  4. Endogenous opioids contribute to insensitivity to pain in humans and mice lacking sodium channel Nav1.7

    PubMed Central

    Minett, Michael S.; Pereira, Vanessa; Sikandar, Shafaq; Matsuyama, Ayako; Lolignier, Stéphane; Kanellopoulos, Alexandros H.; Mancini, Flavia; Iannetti, Gian D.; Bogdanov, Yury D.; Santana-Varela, Sonia; Millet, Queensta; Baskozos, Giorgios; MacAllister, Raymond; Cox, James J.; Zhao, Jing; Wood, John N.

    2015-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the SCN9A gene encoding voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 cause congenital insensitivity to pain in humans and mice. Surprisingly, many potent selective antagonists of Nav1.7 are weak analgesics. We investigated whether Nav1.7, as well as contributing to electrical signalling, may have additional functions. Here we report that Nav1.7 deletion has profound effects on gene expression, leading to an upregulation of enkephalin precursor Penk mRNA and met-enkephalin protein in sensory neurons. In contrast, Nav1.8-null mutant sensory neurons show no upregulated Penk mRNA expression. Application of the opioid antagonist naloxone potentiates noxious peripheral input into the spinal cord and dramatically reduces analgesia in both female and male Nav1.7-null mutant mice, as well as in a human Nav1.7-null mutant. These data suggest that Nav1.7 channel blockers alone may not replicate the analgesic phenotype of null mutant humans and mice, but may be potentiated with exogenous opioids. PMID:26634308

  5. Regulated expression of human CD4 rescues helper T cell development in mice lacking expression of endogenous CD4.

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, N; Sawada, S; Littman, D R

    1993-01-01

    During T cell development, precursor thymocytes that co-express the CD4 and CD8 glycoproteins give rise to mature progeny expressing one of these molecules to the exclusion of the other. Continued expression of only CD4 is the hallmark of mature helper T cells, whereas cytotoxic T cells express CD8 and extinguish CD4. The differentiation program that generates the two T cell subsets is likely to be intimately tied to regulation of expression of these cell surface molecules. We now describe the use of a murine CD4 enhancer in the generation of transgenic mice expressing physiologic levels of human CD4. The transgene is appropriately regulated during T cell development and includes the necessary cis-acting sequences for extinguishing expression in the CD8 lineage. Furthermore, in mice whose endogenous CD4 gene is inactivated, the transgenic human CD4 mediates rescue of the CD4 lineage and restoration of normal helper cell functions. The generation of these mice exemplifies a general approach for developing reliable animal models for the human immune system. Images PMID:8467804

  6. Mice Lacking the Circadian Modulators SHARP1 and SHARP2 Display Altered Sleep and Mixed State Endophenotypes of Psychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Shahmoradi, Ali; Reinecke, Lisa; Kroos, Christina; Wichert, Sven P.; Oster, Henrik; Wehr, Michael C.; Taneja, Reshma; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Rossner, Moritz J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that clock genes may be implicated in a spectrum of psychiatric diseases, including sleep and mood related disorders as well as schizophrenia. The bHLH transcription factors SHARP1/DEC2/BHLHE41 and SHARP2/DEC1/BHLHE40 are modulators of the circadian system and SHARP1/DEC2/BHLHE40 has been shown to regulate homeostatic sleep drive in humans. In this study, we characterized Sharp1 and Sharp2 double mutant mice (S1/2-/-) using online EEG recordings in living animals, behavioral assays and global gene expression profiling. EEG recordings revealed attenuated sleep/wake amplitudes and alterations of theta oscillations. Increased sleep in the dark phase is paralleled by reduced voluntary activity and cortical gene expression signatures reveal associations with psychiatric diseases. S1/2-/- mice display alterations in novelty induced activity, anxiety and curiosity. Moreover, mutant mice exhibit impaired working memory and deficits in prepulse inhibition resembling symptoms of psychiatric diseases. Network modeling indicates a connection between neural plasticity and clock genes, particularly for SHARP1 and PER1. Our findings support the hypothesis that abnormal sleep and certain (endo)phenotypes of psychiatric diseases may be caused by common mechanisms involving components of the molecular clock including SHARP1 and SHARP2. PMID:25340473

  7. Chronic senolytic treatment alleviates established vasomotor dysfunction in aged or atherosclerotic mice.

    PubMed

    Roos, Carolyn M; Zhang, Bin; Palmer, Allyson K; Ogrodnik, Mikolaj B; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Thalji, Nassir M; Hagler, Michael; Jurk, Diana; Smith, Leslie A; Casaclang-Verzosa, Grace; Zhu, Yi; Schafer, Marissa J; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L; Miller, Jordan D

    2016-10-01

    While reports suggest a single dose of senolytics may improve vasomotor function, the structural and functional impact of long-term senolytic treatment is unknown. To determine whether long-term senolytic treatment improves vasomotor function, vascular stiffness, and intimal plaque size and composition in aged or hypercholesterolemic mice with established disease. Senolytic treatment (intermittent treatment with Dasatinib + Quercetin via oral gavage) resulted in significant reductions in senescent cell markers (TAF(+) cells) in the medial layer of aorta from aged and hypercholesterolemic mice, but not in intimal atherosclerotic plaques. While senolytic treatment significantly improved vasomotor function (isolated organ chamber baths) in both groups of mice, this was due to increases in nitric oxide bioavailability in aged mice and increases in sensitivity to NO donors in hypercholesterolemic mice. Genetic clearance of senescent cells in aged normocholesterolemic INK-ATTAC mice phenocopied changes elicited by D+Q. Senolytics tended to reduce aortic calcification (alizarin red) and osteogenic signaling (qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry) in aged mice, but both were significantly reduced by senolytic treatment in hypercholesterolemic mice. Intimal plaque fibrosis (picrosirius red) was not changed appreciably by chronic senolytic treatment. This is the first study to demonstrate that chronic clearance of senescent cells improves established vascular phenotypes associated with aging and chronic hypercholesterolemia, and may be a viable therapeutic intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Age-Dependent Susceptibility to Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dupont, Aline; Sommer, Felix; Zhang, Kaiyi; Repnik, Urska; Basic, Marijana; Bleich, André; Kühnel, Mark; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Litvak, Yael; Fulde, Marcus; Rosenshine, Ilan; Hornef, Mathias W.

    2016-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) represents a major causative agent of infant diarrhea associated with significant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although studied extensively in vitro, the investigation of the host-pathogen interaction in vivo has been hampered by the lack of a suitable small animal model. Using RT-PCR and global transcriptome analysis, high throughput 16S rDNA sequencing as well as immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we characterize the EPEC-host interaction following oral challenge of newborn mice. Spontaneous colonization of the small intestine and colon of neonate mice that lasted until weaning was observed. Intimate attachment to the epithelial plasma membrane and microcolony formation were visualized only in the presence of a functional bundle forming pili (BFP) and type III secretion system (T3SS). Similarly, a T3SS-dependent EPEC-induced innate immune response, mediated via MyD88, TLR5 and TLR9 led to the induction of a distinct set of genes in infected intestinal epithelial cells. Infection-induced alterations of the microbiota composition remained restricted to the postnatal period. Although EPEC colonized the adult intestine in the absence of a competing microbiota, no microcolonies were observed at the small intestinal epithelium. Here, we introduce the first suitable mouse infection model and describe an age-dependent, virulence factor-dependent attachment of EPEC to enterocytes in vivo. PMID:27159323

  9. Altered Hippocampal Transcript Profile Accompanies an Age-Related Spatial Memory Deficit in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbitsky, Miguel; Yonan, Amanda L.; Malleret, Gael; Kandel, Eric R.; Gilliam, T. Conrad; Pavlidis, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We have carried out a global survey of age-related changes in mRNA levels in the 57BL/6NIA mouse hippocampus and found a difference in the hippocampal gene expression profile between 2-month-old young mice and 15-month-old middle-aged mice correlated with an age-related cognitive deficit in hippocampal-based explicit memory formation. Middle-aged…

  10. Memory-Enhancing Effects of the Crude Extract of Polygala tenuifolia on Aged Mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zongyang; Liu, Yamin; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Xinmin; Chang, Qi; Guo, Zhi; Liao, Yonghong; Pan, Ruile; Fan, Tai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Learning and memory disorders arise from distinct age-associated processes, and aging animals are often used as a model of memory impairment. The root of Polygala tenuifolia has been commonly used in some Asian countries as memory enhancer and its memory improvement has been reported in various animal models. However, there is less research to verify its effect on memory functions in aged animals. Herein, the memory-enhancing effects of the crude extract of Polygala tenuifolia (EPT) on normal aged mice were assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and step-down passive avoidance tests. In MWM tests, the impaired spatial memory of the aged mice was partly reversed by EPT (100 and 200 mg/kg; P < 0.05) as compared with the aged control mice. In step-down tests, the nonspatial memory of the aged mice was improved by EPT (100 and 200 mg/kg; P < 0.05). Additionally, EPT could increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) and acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activities, and decrease the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the brain tissue of the aged mice. The results showed that EPT improved memory functions of the aged mice probably via its antioxidant properties and via decreasing the activities of MAO and AChE.

  11. Age-related proteostasis and metabolic alterations in Caspase-2-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C H; Shalini, S; Filipovska, A; Richman, T R; Davies, S; Martin, S D; McGee, S L; Puccini, J; Nikolic, A; Dorstyn, L; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Ageing is a complex biological process for which underlying biochemical changes are still largely unknown. We performed comparative profiling of the cellular proteome and metabolome to understand the molecular basis of ageing in Caspase-2-deficient (Casp2−/−) mice that are a model of premature ageing in the absence of overt disease. Age-related changes were determined in the liver and serum of young (6–9 week) and aged (18–24 month) wild-type and Casp2−/− mice. We identified perturbed metabolic pathways, decreased levels of ribosomal and respiratory complex proteins and altered mitochondrial function that contribute to premature ageing in the Casp2−/− mice. We show that the metabolic profile changes in the young Casp2−/− mice resemble those found in aged wild-type mice. Intriguingly, aged Casp2−/− mice were found to have reduced blood glucose and improved glucose tolerance. These results demonstrate an important role for caspase-2 in regulating proteome and metabolome remodelling during ageing. PMID:25611376

  12. A novel radial water tread maze tracks age-related cognitive decline in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Touch, Dylan V.; Wiley, Jesse C.; Hopkins, Heather C.; Rabinovitch, Peter S.; Ladiges, Warren C.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently no treatment and cure for age-related dementia and cognitive impairment in humans. Mice suffer from age-related cognitive decline just as people do, but assessment is challenging because of cumbersome and at times stressful performance tasks. We developed a novel radial water tread (RWT) maze and tested male C57BL/6 (B6) and C57BL/6 x Balb/c F1 (CB6F1) mice at ages 4, 12, 20, and 28 months. B6 mice showed a consistent learning experience and memory retention that gradually decreased with age. CB6F1 mice showed a moderate learning experience in the 4 and 12 month groups, which was not evident in the 20 and 28 month groups. In conclusion, CB6F1 mice showed more severe age-related cognitive impairment compared to B6 mice and might be a suitable model for intervention studies. In addition, the RWT maze has a number of operational advantages compared to currently accepted tasks and can be used to assess age-related cognition impairment in B6 and CB6F1 mice as early as 12 months of age. PMID:24106580

  13. IMMMUNOPHENOTYPE OF SPONTANEOUS HEMATOLYMPHOID TUMORS OCCURRING IN YOUNG AND AGING FEMALE CD-1 MICE

    PubMed Central

    Rehg, Jerold E.; Rahija, Richard; Bush, Dorothy; Bradley, Alys; Ward, Jerrold M.

    2015-01-01

    A few reports indicated the incidence of hematolymphoid neoplasms in old CD-1 mice, but the cellular lineage of CD-1 mouse neoplasms has not be published. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to characterize the cellular lineage of spontaneous hematolymphoid neoplasms arising in young female CD-1 mice used as health monitoring sentinels and aging female CD-1 mice used as controls in 80 wk carcinogenesis studies. Lymphoblastic lymphomas of T-cell and B-cell lineage were common in mice 12 mo or less of age, whereas a wide range of non-lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic T-cell lymphomas were common in mice > 12 mo old. Renal hyaline droplets positive for lysozyme were observed in aged mice with a histiocytic-associated large B-cell lymphoma (HA-BCL) and a myeloid leukemia. Endogenous ecotropic MuLV genes have been recovered from CD-1 mice, but MuLV protein expression has not been previously demonstrated. We reported for the first time the expression of MuLV protein by IHC in lymphomas and some normal tissues of both young and aging CD-1 mice. This report should help to differentiate spontaneous lymphomas and leukemias in CD-1 mice from those induced by chemicals and other methods. PMID:26224701

  14. Immunophenotype of Spontaneous Hematolymphoid Tumors Occurring in Young and Aging Female CD-1 Mice. [Corrected].

    PubMed

    Rehg, Jerold E; Rahija, Richard; Bush, Dorothy; Bradley, Alys; Ward, Jerrold M

    2015-10-01

    A few reports indicated the incidence of hematolymphoid neoplasms in old CD-1 mice, but the cellular lineage of CD-1 mouse neoplasms has not been published. In this study, immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to characterize the cellular lineage of spontaneous hematolymphoid neoplasms arising in 24 young female CD-1 mice used as health-monitoring sentinels and 32 aging female CD-1 mice used as controls in 80-week carcinogenesis studies. Lymphoblastic lymphomas of T-cell and B-cell lineage were common in mice aged 12 months or less, whereas a wide range of non-lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas and lymphoblastic B-cell lymphomas were common in mice >12-mo-old. Renal hyaline droplets positive for lysozyme were observed in aged mice with a histiocytic-associated large B-cell lymphoma (HA-BCL) and a myeloid leukemia. Endogenous ecotropic mouse leukemia virus (MuLV) genes have been recovered from CD-1 mice, but MuLV protein expression has not been previously demonstrated. We reported for the first time the expression of a MuLV protein p30 by IHC in lymphomas and some normal tissues of both young and aging CD-1 mice. This report should help to differentiate spontaneous lymphomas and leukemias in CD-1 mice from those induced by chemicals and other methods.

  15. Lack of transmission of murine norovirus to mice via in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and ovary transplantation.

    PubMed

    Raspa, Marcello; Mahabir, Esther; Fray, Martin; Volland, Ruth; Scavizzi, Ferdinando

    2016-07-15

    Since its discovery in 2003, murine norovirus (MNV) is still endemic in many rodent animal facilities. Our aim was to determine the risk of transmission of MNV (91% homology to MNV3) to embryo recipients and pups via assisted reproductive technologies, especially those which compromise the integrity of the zona pellucida. In vitro fertilization (IVF), assisted in vitro fertilization (AIVF) with reduced glutathione, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and ovary transplantation were performed. Murine norovirus was detected by qualitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After natural infection of immunocompetent C57BL/6NTacCnrm and immunodeficient athymic nude mice with MNV, the mesenteric lymph nodes, small intestine, spleen, liver, lung, brain, ovary, and testis were infected at specific intervals for more than a 1-year period. At Week 12, the number of viral genomes per milligram of gonad from both strains was 20 to 50. Murine norovirus strictly adhered to spermatozoa collected from infected mice because three washes did not remove MNV from the sperm. After using MNV-positive sperm for IVF, AIVF, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, 27 to 30 genomes were detected in IVF (n = 100) and AIVF (n = 100) embryos from both mouse strains. Approximately 87% of MNV detected in these embryos was found in the zona pellucida. However, all embryo transfer recipients, pups, and ovary recipients were MNV-negative. The results indicate that manipulation of the germplasm through assisted reproductive technologies did not lead to transmission of MNV to mice. This may be because of the absence of an infectious dose or failure of the MNV strain to replicate effectively in developing embryos and the reproductive tract. PMID:26972226

  16. Complex Neurological Phenotype in Mutant Mice Lacking Tsc2 in Excitatory Neurons of the Developing Forebrain123

    PubMed Central

    Crowell, Beth; Hwa Lee, Gum; Nikolaeva, Ina; Dal Pozzo, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes cause tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), a genetic disease often associated with epilepsy, intellectual disability, and autism, and characterized by the presence of anatomical malformations in the brain as well as tumors in other organs. The TSC1 and TSC2 proteins form a complex that inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling. Previous animal studies demonstrated that Tsc1 or Tsc2 loss of function in the developing brain affects the intrinsic development of neural progenitor cells, neurons, or glia. However, the interplay between different cellular elements during brain development was not previously investigated. In this study, we generated a novel mutant mouse line (NEX-Tsc2) in which the Tsc2 gene is deleted specifically in postmitotic excitatory neurons of the developing forebrain. Homozygous mutant mice failed to thrive and died prematurely, whereas heterozygous mice appeared normal. Mutant mice exhibited distinct neuroanatomical abnormalities, including malpositioning of selected neuronal populations, neuronal hypertrophy, and cortical astrogliosis. Intrinsic neuronal defects correlated with increased mTORC1 signaling, whereas astrogliosis did not result from altered intrinsic signaling, since these cells were not directly affected by the gene knockout strategy. All neuronal and non-neuronal abnormalities were suppressed by continuous postnatal treatment with the mTORC1 inhibitor RAD001. The data suggest that the loss of Tsc2 and mTORC1 signaling activation in excitatory neurons not only disrupts their intrinsic development, but also disrupts the development of cortical astrocytes, likely through the mTORC1-dependent expression of abnormal signaling proteins. This work thus provides new insights into cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous functions of Tsc2 in brain development. PMID:26693177

  17. Lack of transmission of murine norovirus to mice via in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and ovary transplantation.

    PubMed

    Raspa, Marcello; Mahabir, Esther; Fray, Martin; Volland, Ruth; Scavizzi, Ferdinando

    2016-07-15

    Since its discovery in 2003, murine norovirus (MNV) is still endemic in many rodent animal facilities. Our aim was to determine the risk of transmission of MNV (91% homology to MNV3) to embryo recipients and pups via assisted reproductive technologies, especially those which compromise the integrity of the zona pellucida. In vitro fertilization (IVF), assisted in vitro fertilization (AIVF) with reduced glutathione, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and ovary transplantation were performed. Murine norovirus was detected by qualitative and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. After natural infection of immunocompetent C57BL/6NTacCnrm and immunodeficient athymic nude mice with MNV, the mesenteric lymph nodes, small intestine, spleen, liver, lung, brain, ovary, and testis were infected at specific intervals for more than a 1-year period. At Week 12, the number of viral genomes per milligram of gonad from both strains was 20 to 50. Murine norovirus strictly adhered to spermatozoa collected from infected mice because three washes did not remove MNV from the sperm. After using MNV-positive sperm for IVF, AIVF, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, 27 to 30 genomes were detected in IVF (n = 100) and AIVF (n = 100) embryos from both mouse strains. Approximately 87% of MNV detected in these embryos was found in the zona pellucida. However, all embryo transfer recipients, pups, and ovary recipients were MNV-negative. The results indicate that manipulation of the germplasm through assisted reproductive technologies did not lead to transmission of MNV to mice. This may be because of the absence of an infectious dose or failure of the MNV strain to replicate effectively in developing embryos and the reproductive tract.

  18. Altered cerebellum development and impaired motor coordination in mice lacking the Btg1 gene: Involvement of cyclin D1.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Manuela; Micheli, Laura; D'Andrea, Giorgio; De Bardi, Marco; Scheijen, Blanca; Ciotti, MariaTeresa; Leonardi, Luca; Luvisetto, Siro; Tirone, Felice

    2015-12-01

    Cerebellar granule neurons develop postnatally from cerebellar granule precursors (GCPs), which are located in the external granule layer (EGL) where they massively proliferate. Thereafter, GCPs become postmitotic, migrate inward to form the internal granule layer (IGL), further differentiate and form synapses with Purkinje cell dendrites. We previously showed that the Btg family gene, Tis21/Btg2, is required for normal GCP migration. Here we investigated the role in cerebellar development of the related gene, Btg1, which regulates stem cell quiescence in adult neurogenic niches, and is expressed in the cerebellum. Knockout of Btg1 in mice caused a major increase of the proliferation of the GCPs in the EGL, whose thickness increased, remaining hyperplastic even after postnatal day 14, when the EGL is normally reduced to a few GCP layers. This was accompanied by a slight decrease of differentiation and migration of the GCPs and increase of apoptosis. The GCPs of double Btg1/Tis21-null mice presented combined major defects of proliferation and migration outside the EGL, indicating that each gene plays unique and crucial roles in cerebellar development. Remarkably, these developmental defects lead to a permanent increase of the adult cerebellar volume in Btg1-null and double mutant mice, and to impairment in all mutants, including Tis21-null, of the cerebellum-dependent motor coordination. Gain- and loss-of-function strategies in a GCP cell line revealed that Btg1 regulates the proliferation of GCPs selectively through cyclin D1. Thus, Btg1 plays a critical role for cerebellar maturation and function.

  19. The Lack of Cytotoxic Effect and Radioadaptive Response in Splenocytes of Mice Exposed to Low Level Internal β-Particle Irradiation through Tritiated Drinking Water in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Flegal, Matthew; Blimkie, Melinda; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Gregoire, Eric; Klokov, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO) at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation. PMID:24317437

  20. Lack of glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) deregulates B-cell survival and results in B-cell lymphocytosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bruscoli, Stefano; Biagioli, Michele; Sorcini, Daniele; Frammartino, Tiziana; Cimino, Monica; Sportoletti, Paolo; Mazzon, Emanuela; Bereshchenko, Oxana

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids (GC) are widely used as antiinflammatory/immunosuppressive drugs and antitumor agents in several types of lymphoma and leukemia. Therapeutic doses of GC induce growth-suppressive and cytotoxic effects on various leukocytes including B cells. Molecular mechanisms of GC action include induction of GC target genes. Glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) is a rapidly, potently, and invariably GC-induced gene. It mediates a number of GC effects, such as control of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here we show that deletion of GILZ in mice leads to an accumulation of B lymphocytes in the bone marrow, blood, and lymphoid tissues. Gilz knockout (KO) mice develop a progressive nonlethal B lymphocytosis, with expansion of B220+ cells in the bone marrow and in the periphery, dependent on increased B-cell survival. Decreased B-cell apoptosis in mice lacking GILZ correlates with increased NF-κB transcriptional activity and Bcl-2 expression. B cell–specific gilz KO mice confirmed that the effect of GILZ deletion is B-cell self-intrinsic. These results establish GILZ as an important regulator of B-cell survival and suggest that the deregulation of GILZ expression could be implicated in the pathogenesis of B-cell disorders. PMID:26276664

  1. The lack of cytotoxic effect and radioadaptive response in splenocytes of mice exposed to low level internal β-particle irradiation through tritiated drinking water in vivo.

    PubMed

    Flegal, Matthew; Blimkie, Melinda; Roch-Lefevre, Sandrine; Gregoire, Eric; Klokov, Dmitry

    2013-12-05

    Health effects of tritium, a β-emitter and a by-product of the nuclear industry, is a subject of significant controversy. This mouse in vivo study was undertaken to monitor biological effects of low level tritium exposure. Mice were exposed to tritiated drinking water (HTO) at 10 KBq/L, 1 MBq/L and 20 MBq/L concentrations for one month. The treatment did not result in a significant increase of apoptosis in splenocytes. To examine if this low level tritium exposure alters radiosensitivity, the extracted splenocytes were challenged in vitro with 2 Gy γ-radiation, and apoptotic responses at 1 and 24 h were measured. No alterations in the radiosensitivity were detected in cells from mice exposed to tritium compared to sham-treated mice. In contrast, low dose γ-irradiation at 20 or 100 mGy, resulted in a significant increase in resistance to apoptotic cell death after 2 Gy irradiation; an indication of the radioadaptive response. Overall, our data suggest that low concentrations of tritium given to mice as HTO in drinking water do not exert cytotoxic effect in splenocytes, nor do they change cellular sensitivity to additional high dose γ-radiation. The latter may be considered as the lack of a radioadaptive response, typically observed after low dose γ-irradiation.

  2. Mice lacking the adenosine A1 receptor have normal spatial learning and plasticity in the CA1 region of the hippocampus, but they habituate more slowly.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Masino, Susan A; Diao, Lihong; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Tobeña, Adolf; Halldner, Linda; Fredholm, Bertil B

    2005-07-01

    Using mice with a targeted disruption of the adenosine A1 receptor (A1R), we examined the role of A1Rs in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), long-term depression (LTD), and memory formation. Recordings from the Shaffer collateral-CA1 pathway of hippocampal slices from adult mice showed no differences between theta burst and tetanic stimulation-induced LTP in adenosine A1 receptor knockout (A1R-/-), heterozygote (A1R+/-), and wildtype (A1R+/+) mice. However, paired pulse facilitation was impaired significantly in A1R-/- slices as compared to A1R+/+ slices. LTD in the CA1 region was unaffected by the genetic manipulation. The three genotypes showed similar memory acquisition patterns when assessed for spatial reference and working memory in the Morris water maze tasks at 9 months of age. However, 10 months later A1R-/- mice showed some deficits in the 6-arm radial tunnel maze test. The latter appeared, however, not due to memory deficits but to decreased habituation to the test environment. Taken together, we observe normal spatial learning and memory and hippocampal CA1 synaptic plasticity in adult adenosine A1R knockout mice, but find modifications in arousal-related processes, including habituation, in this knockout model. PMID:15858837

  3. Anxiety- and depression-like behavior in mice lacking the CD157/BST1 gene, a risk factor for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lopatina, Olga; Yoshihara, Toru; Nishimura, Tomoko; Zhong, Jing; Akther, Shirin; Fakhrul, Azam A. K. M.; Liang, Mingkun; Higashida, Chiharu; Sumi, Kohei; Furuhara, Kazumi; Inahata, Yuki; Huang, Jian-Jung; Koizumi, Keita; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Tsuji, Takahiro; Petugina, Yulia; Sumarokov, Andrei; Salmina, Alla B.; Hashida, Koji; Kitao, Yasuko; Hori, Osamu; Asano, Masahide; Kitamura, Yoji; Kozaka, Takashi; Shiba, Kazuhiro; Zhong, Fangfang; Xie, Min-Jue; Sato, Makoto; Ishihara, Katsuhiko; Higashida, Haruhiro

    2014-01-01

    CD157, known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ADP-ribosyl cyclase that supports the survival and function of B-lymphocytes and hematopoietic or intestinal stem cells. Although CD157/Bst1 is a risk locus in Parkinson's disease (PD), little is known about the function of CD157 in the nervous system and contribution to PD progression. Here, we show that no apparent motor dysfunction was observed in young knockout (CD157−/−) male mice under less aging-related effects on behaviors. CD157−/− mice exhibited anxiety-related and depression-like behaviors compared with wild-type mice. These behaviors were rescued through treatment with anti-psychiatric drugs and oxytocin. CD157 was weakly expressed in the amygdala and c-Fos immunoreactivity in the amygdala was less evident in CD157−/− mice than in wild-type mice. These results demonstrate for the first time that CD157 plays a role as a neuro-regulator and suggest a potential role in pre-motor symptoms in PD. PMID:24795584

  4. Effects of Aging and Oxidative Stress on Spermatozoa of Superoxide-Dismutase 1- and Catalase-Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Selvaratnam, Johanna S; Robaire, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Advanced paternal age is linked to complications in pregnancy and genetic diseases in offspring. Aging results in excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in spermatozoa; this damage can be transmitted to progeny with detrimental consequences. Although there is a loss of antioxidants with aging, the impact on aging male germ cells of the complete absence of either catalase (CAT) or superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) has not been investigated. We used CAT-null (Cat(-/-)) and SOD1-null (Sod(-/-)) mice to determine whether loss of these antioxidants increases germ cell susceptibility to redox dysfunction with aging. Aging reduced fertility and the numbers of Sertoli and germ cells in all mice. Aged Sod(-/-) mice displayed an increased loss of fertility compared to aged wild-type mice. Treatment with the pro-oxidant SIN-10 increased ROS in spermatocytes of aged wild-type and Sod(-/-) mice, while aged Cat(-/-) mice were able to neutralize this ROS. The antioxidant peroxiredoxin 1 (PRDX1) increased with age in wild-type and Cat(-/-) mice but was consistently low in young and aged Sod(-/-) mice. DNA damage and repair markers (γ-H2AX and 53BP1) were reduced with aging and lower in young Sod(-/-) and Cat(-/-) mice. Colocalization of γ-H2AX and 53BP1 suggested active repair in young wild-type mice but reduced in young Cat(-/-) and in Sod(-/-) mice and with age. Oxidative DNA damage (8-oxodG) increased in young Sod(-/-) mice and with age in all mice. These studies show that aged Sod(-/-) mice display severe redox dysfunction, while wild-type and Cat(-/-) mice have compensatory mechanisms to partially alleviate oxidative stress and reduce age-related DNA damage in spermatozoa. Thus, SOD1 but not CAT is critical to the maintenance of germ cell quality with aging. PMID:27465136

  5. Genetic enhancement of behavioral itch responses in mice lacking phosphoinositide 3-kinase-γ (PI3Kγ)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are important for synaptic plasticity and various brain functions. The only class IB isoform of PI3K, PI3Kγ, has received the most attention due to its unique roles in synaptic plasticity and cognition. However, the potential role of PI3Kγ in sensory transmission, such as pain and itch has not been examined. In this study, we present the evidence for the first time, that genetic deletion of PI3Kγ enhanced scratching behaviours in histamine-dependent and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2)-dependent itch. In contrast, PI3Kγ-deficient mice did not exhibit enhanced scratching in chloroquine-induced itch, suggesting that PI3Kγ selectively contributes to certain types of behavioal itch response. Furthermore, PI3Kγ-deficient mice exhibited normal acute nociceptive responses to thermal and mechanical noxious stimuli. Behavioral licking responses to intraplantar injections of formalin and mechanical allodynia in a chronic inflammatory pain model (CFA) were also not affected by PI3Kγ gene deletion. Our findings indicate that PI3Kγ selectively contributes to behavioral itching induced by histamine and PAR-2 agonist, but not chloroquine agonist. PMID:22168443

  6. Lack of Impact of High Dietary Vitamin A on T Helper 2-Dependent Contact Hypersensitivity to Fluorescein Isothiocyanate in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Chie; Kurohane, Kohta; Imai, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Overuse of vitamin A as a dietary supplement is a concern in industrialized countries. High-level dietary vitamin A is thought to shift immunity to a T helper 2 (Th2)-dominant one, resulting in the promotion of allergies. We have been studying a fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-induced contact hypersensitivity (CHS) mouse model that involves Th2-type immunity. We fed a diet with a high retinyl palmitate content (250 international units (IU)/g diet) or a control diet (4 IU/g diet) to BALB/c mice for three weeks. No augmentation of FITC-induced CHS was found in mice fed the diet with a high vitamin A content, although accumulation of the vitamin was confirmed in the livers of these animals. The results indicated that relatively short-term feeding of the high-level vitamin A diet did not influence the Th2-driven response at a stage with significant retinol accumulation in the liver. The results were in contrast to the high-dose pyridoxine diets that produced a reduced response in FITC-induced CHS. PMID:26299258

  7. Mice lacking circadian clock components display different mood-related behaviors and do not respond uniformly to chronic lithium treatment.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Anna; Sandrelli, Federica; Ranc, Vaclav; Ripperger, Jürgen A; Brai, Emanuele; Alberi, Lavinia; Rainer, Gregor; Albrecht, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Genomic studies suggest an association of circadian clock genes with bipolar disorder (BD) and lithium response in humans. Therefore, we tested mice mutant in various clock genes before and after lithium treatment in the forced swim test (FST), a rodent behavioral test used for evaluation of depressive-like states. We find that expression of circadian clock components, including Per2, Cry1 and Rev-erbα, is affected by lithium treatment, and thus, these clock components may contribute to the beneficial effects of lithium therapy. In particular, we observed that Cry1 is important at specific times of the day to transmit lithium-mediated effects. Interestingly, the pathways involving Per2 and Cry1, which regulate the behavior in the FST and the response to lithium, are distinct as evidenced by the phosphorylation of GSK3β after lithium treatment and the modulation of dopamine levels in the striatum. Furthermore, we observed the co-existence of depressive and mania-like symptoms in Cry1 knock-out mice, which resembles the so-called mixed state seen in BD patients. Taken together our results strengthen the concept that a defective circadian timing system may impact directly or indirectly on mood-related behaviors.

  8. In vivo levels of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide increase with age in mtDNA mutator mice.

    PubMed

    Logan, Angela; Shabalina, Irina G; Prime, Tracy A; Rogatti, Sebastian; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Hartley, Richard C; Budd, Ralph C; Cannon, Barbara; Murphy, Michael P

    2014-08-01

    In mtDNA mutator mice, mtDNA mutations accumulate leading to a rapidly aging phenotype. However, there is little evidence of oxidative damage to tissues, and when analyzed ex vivo, no change in production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide and hydrogen peroxide by mitochondria has been reported, undermining the mitochondrial oxidative damage theory of aging. Paradoxically, interventions that decrease mitochondrial ROS levels in vivo delay onset of aging. To reconcile these findings, we used the mitochondria-targeted mass spectrometry probe MitoB to measure hydrogen peroxide within mitochondria of living mice. Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide was the same in young mutator and control mice, but as the mutator mice aged, hydrogen peroxide increased. This suggests that the prolonged presence of mtDNA mutations in vivo increases hydrogen peroxide that contributes to an accelerated aging phenotype, perhaps through the activation of pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory redox signaling pathways.

  9. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan-Sik; Park, Sok; Chun, Yoonseok; Song, Wook; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-01-01

    In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control). Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks). The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress. PMID:26404251

  10. Relationship between host age and persistence of Theiler's virus in the central nervous system of mice.

    PubMed

    Steiner, C M; Rozhon, E J; Lipton, H L

    1984-01-01

    This study has demonstrated that the ability of BeAn 8386 virus to persist in the central nervous system of mice declines with the increasing age of the host at the time of inoculation. Although persistent infection was established in 1-, 3-, 9-, and 40-week-old mice, there was a significant reduction in both the frequency of virus isolations and the mean virus titers in mice inoculated after 3 weeks of age. The incidence of clinical demyelinating disease (late disease) also decreased in animals infected after 3 weeks of age in parallel with the decline in virus persistence.

  11. Blunted IgE-mediated activation of mast cells in mice lacking the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK3.

    PubMed

    Zemtsova, Irina M; Heise, Nicole; Fröhlich, Henning; Qadri, Syed M; Kucherenko, Yuliya; Boini, Krishna M; Pearce, David; Shumilina, Ekaterina; Lang, Florian

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of the phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase disrupts the activation of mast cells. Through phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1, PI3 kinase activates the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 (SGK3). The present study explored the role of SGK3 in mast cell function. Mast cells were isolated and cultured from bone marrow (BMMCs) of gene-targeted mice lacking SGK3 (sgk3(-/-)) and their wild-type littermates (sgk3(+/+)). BMMC numbers in the ear conch were similar in both genotypes. Stimulation with IgE and cognate antigen triggered the release of intracellular Ca(2+) and entry of extracellular Ca(2+). Influx of extracellular Ca(2+) but not Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores was significantly blunted in sgk3(-/-) BMMCs compared with sgk3(+/+) BMMCs. Antigen stimulation further led to a rapid increase of a K(+)-selective conductance in sgk3(+/+) BMMCs, an effect again blunted in sgk3(-/-) BMMCs. In contrast, the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin activated K(+) currents to a similar extent in sgk3(-/-) and in sgk3(+/+) BMMCs. β-Hexosaminidase release, triggered by antigen stimulation, was also significantly decreased in sgk3(-/-) BMMCs. IgE-dependent anaphylaxis measured as a sharp decrease in body temperature upon injection of DNP-HSA antigen was again significantly blunted in sgk3(-/-) compared with sgk3(+/+) mice. Serum histamine levels measured 30 min after induction of an anaphylactic reaction were significantly lower in sgk3(-/-) than in sgk3(+/+) mice. In conclusion, both in vitro and in vivo function of BMMCs are impaired in gene targeted mice lacking SGK3. Thus SGK3 is critical for proper mast cell function.

  12. Blunted IgE-mediated activation of mast cells in mice lacking the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase SGK3.

    PubMed

    Zemtsova, Irina M; Heise, Nicole; Fröhlich, Henning; Qadri, Syed M; Kucherenko, Yuliya; Boini, Krishna M; Pearce, David; Shumilina, Ekaterina; Lang, Florian

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have shown that pharmacological inhibition of the phosphoinositol-3 (PI3) kinase disrupts the activation of mast cells. Through phosphoinositide-dependent kinase PDK1, PI3 kinase activates the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 3 (SGK3). The present study explored the role of SGK3 in mast cell function. Mast cells were isolated and cultured from bone marrow (BMMCs) of gene-targeted mice lacking SGK3 (sgk3(-/-)) and their wild-type littermates (sgk3(+/+)). BMMC numbers in the ear conch were similar in both genotypes. Stimulation with IgE and cognate antigen triggered the release of intracellular Ca(2+) and entry of extracellular Ca(2+). Influx of extracellular Ca(2+) but not Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores was significantly blunted in sgk3(-/-) BMMCs compared with sgk3(+/+) BMMCs. Antigen stimulation further led to a rapid increase of a K(+)-selective conductance in sgk3(+/+) BMMCs, an effect again blunted in sgk3(-/-) BMMCs. In contrast, the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin activated K(+) currents to a similar extent in sgk3(-/-) and in sgk3(+/+) BMMCs. β-Hexosaminidase release, triggered by antigen stimulation, was also significantly decreased in sgk3(-/-) BMMCs. IgE-dependent anaphylaxis measured as a sharp decrease in body temperature upon injection of DNP-HSA antigen was again significantly blunted in sgk3(-/-) compared with sgk3(+/+) mice. Serum histamine levels measured 30 min after induction of an anaphylactic reaction were significantly lower in sgk3(-/-) than in sgk3(+/+) mice. In conclusion, both in vitro and in vivo function of BMMCs are impaired in gene targeted mice lacking SGK3. Thus SGK3 is critical for proper mast cell function. PMID:20686074

  13. Decreased Anxiety-Like Behavior and Gαq/11-Dependent Responses in the Amygdala of Mice Lacking TRPC4 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Riccio, Antonio; Li, Yan; Tsvetkov, Evgeny; Gapon, Svetlana; Yao, Gui Lan; Smith, Kiersten S.; Engin, Elif; Rudolph, Uwe; Bolshakov, Vadim Y.

    2014-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are abundant in the brain where they regulate transmission of sensory signals. The expression patterns of different TRPC subunits (TRPC1, 4, and 5) are consistent with their potential role in fear-related behaviors. Accordingly, we found recently that mutant mice lacking a specific TRP channel subunit, TRPC5, exhibited decreased innate fear responses. Both TRPC5 and another member of the same subfamily, TRPC4, form heteromeric complexes with the TRPC1 subunit (TRPC1/5 and TRPC1/4, respectively). As TRP channels with specific subunit compositions may have different functional properties, we hypothesized that fear-related behaviors could be differentially controlled by TRPCs with distinct subunit arrangements. In this study, we focused on the analysis of mutant mice lacking the TRPC4 subunit, which, as we confirmed in experiments on control mice, is expressed in brain areas implicated in the control of fear and anxiety. In behavioral experiments, we found that constitutive ablation of TRPC4 was associated with diminished anxiety levels (innate fear). Furthermore, knockdown of TRPC4 protein in the lateral amygdala via lentiviral-mediated gene delivery of RNAi mimicked the behavioral phenotype of constitutive TRPC4-null (TRPC4−/−) mouse. Recordings in brain slices demonstrated that these behavioral modifications could stem from the lack of TRPC4 potentiation in neurons in the lateral nucleus of the amygdala through two Gαq/11 protein-coupled signaling pathways, activated via Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors and cholecystokinin 2 receptors, respectively. Thus, TRPC4 and the structurally and functionally related subunit, TRPC5, may both contribute to the mechanisms underlying regulation of innate fear responses. PMID:24599464

  14. Telomerase gene therapy in adult and old mice delays aging and increases longevity without increasing cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bernardes de Jesus, Bruno; Vera, Elsa; Schneeberger, Kerstin; Tejera, Agueda M; Ayuso, Eduard; Bosch, Fatima; Blasco, Maria A

    2012-01-01

    A major goal in aging research is to improve health during aging. In the case of mice, genetic manipulations that shorten or lengthen telomeres result, respectively, in decreased or increased longevity. Based on this, we have tested the effects of a telomerase gene therapy in adult (1 year of age) and old (2 years of age) mice. Treatment of 1- and 2-year old mice with an adeno associated virus (AAV) of wide tropism expressing mouse TERT had remarkable beneficial effects on health and fitness, including insulin sensitivity, osteoporosis, neuromuscular coordination and several molecular biomarkers of aging. Importantly, telomerase-treated mice did not develop more cancer than their control littermates, suggesting that the known tumorigenic activity of telomerase is severely decreased when expressed in adult or old organisms using AAV vectors. Finally, telomerase-treated mice, both at 1-year and at 2-year of age, had an increase in median lifespan of 24 and 13%, respectively. These beneficial effects were not observed with a catalytically inactive TERT, demonstrating that they require telomerase activity. Together, these results constitute a proof-of-principle of a role of TERT in delaying physiological aging and extending longevity in normal mice through a telomerase-based treatment, and demonstrate the feasibility of anti-aging gene therapy. PMID:22585399

  15. Mutant HSPB1 overexpression in neurons is sufficient to cause age-related motor neuronopathy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Amit K.; Renusch, Samantha R.; Naiman, Nicole E.; Gu, Shuping; Sneh, Amita; Arnold, W. David; Sahenk, Zarife; Kolb, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    The small heat shock protein HSPB1 is a multifunctional, α-crystallin-based protein that has been shown to be neuroprotective in animal models of motor neuron disease and peripheral nerve injury. Missense mutations in HSPB1 result in axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease with minimal sensory involvement (CMT2F) and distal hereditary motor neuropathy type 2 (dHMN-II). These disorders are characterized by a selective loss of motor axons in peripheral nerve resulting in distal muscle weakness and often severe disability. To investigate the pathogenic mechanisms of HSPB1 mutations in motor neurons in vivo, we have developed and characterized transgenic PrP-HSPB1 and PrP-HSPB1(R136W) mice. These mice express the human HSPB1 protein throughout the nervous system including in axons of peripheral nerve. Although both mouse strains lacked obvious motor deficits, the PrP-HSPB1(R136W) mice developed an age-dependent motor axonopathy. Mutant mice showed axonal pathology in spinal cord and peripheral nerve with evidence of impaired neurofilament cytoskeleton, associated with organelle accumulation. Accompanying these findings, increases in the number of Schmidt-Lanterman incisures, as evidence of impaired axon-Schwann cell interactions, were present. These observations suggest that overexpression of HSPB1(R136W) in neurons is sufficient to cause pathological and electrophysiological changes in mice that are seen in patients with hereditary motor neuropathy. PMID:22521462

  16. Age-associated changes in hippocampal-dependent cognition in Diversity Outbred mice.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ming Teng; Spiegel, Amy M; Gallagher, Michela

    2014-11-01

    Episodic memory impairment due to aging has been linked to hippocampal dysfunction. Evidence exists for alterations in specific circuits within the hippocampal system that are closely coupled to individual differences in the presence and severity of such memory loss. Here, we used the newly developed Diversity Outbred (DO) mouse that was designed to model the genetic diversity in human populations. Young and aged DO mice were tested in a hippocampal-dependent water maze task. Young mice showed higher proficiency and more robust memory compared to the overall performance of aged mice. A substantial number of the older mice, however, performed on par with the normative performance of the younger mice. Stereological quantification of somatostatin-immunoreactive neurons in the dentate hilus showed that high-performing young and unimpaired aged mice had similar numbers of somatostatin-positive interneurons, while aged mice that were impaired in the spatial task had significantly fewer such neurons. These data in the DO model tie loss of hilar inhibitory network integrity to age-related memory impairment, paralleling data in other rodent models.

  17. Impaired burrowing is the most prominent behavioral deficit of aging htau mice.

    PubMed

    Geiszler, Philippine Camilla; Barron, Matthew Richard; Pardon, Marie-Christine

    2016-08-01

    htau mice are deficient of murine tau but express all six human tau isoforms, leading to gradual tau misprocessing and aggregation in brain areas relevant to Alzheimer's disease. While histopathological changes in htau mice have been researched in the past, we focused here on functional consequences of human tau accumulation. htau mice and their background controls - murine tau knock-out (mtau(-/-)) and C57Bl/6J mice - underwent a comprehensive trial battery to investigate species-specific behavior, locomotor activity, emotional responses, exploratory traits, spatial and recognition memory as well as acquisition, retention and extinction of contextual fear at two, four, six, nine and twelve months of age. In htau mice, tau pathology was already present at two months of age, whereas deficits in food burrowing and spatial working memory were first noted at four months of age. At later stages the presence of human tau on a mtau(-/-) background appeared to guard cognitive performance; as mtau(-/-) but not htau mice differed from C57Bl/6J mice in the food burrowing, spontaneous alternation and object discrimination tasks. Aging mtau(-/-) mice also exhibited increased body mass and locomotor activity. These data highlight that reduced food-burrowing performance was the most robust aspect of the htau phenotype with aging. htau and mtau(-/-) deficits in food burrowing pointed at the necessity of intact tau systems for daily life activities. While some htau and mtau(-/-) deficits overlap, age differences between the two genotypes may reflect distinct functional effects and compared to C57Bl/6J mice, the htau phenotype appeared stronger than the mtau(-/-) phenotype at young ages but milder with aging. PMID:27167086

  18. The Transition from Proliferation to Differentiation Is Delayed in Satellite Cells from Mice Lacking MyoD

    PubMed Central

    Yablonka-Reuveni, Zipora; Rudnicki, Michael A.; Rivera, Anthony J.; Primig, Michael; Anderson, Judy E.; Natanson, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Satellite cells from adult rat muscle coexpress proliferating cell nuclear antigen and MyoD upon entry into the cell cycle, suggesting that MyoD plays a role during the recruitment of satellite cells. Moreover, the finding that muscle regeneration is compromised in MyoD−/− mice, has provided evidence for the role of MyoD during myogenesis in adult muscle. In order to gain further insight into the role of MyoD during myogenesis in the adult, we compared satellite cells from MyoD−/− and wildtype mice as they progress through myogenesis in single-myofiber cultures and in tissue-dissociated cell cultures (primary cultures). Satellite cells undergoing proliferation and differentiation were traced immunohistochemically using antibodies against various regulatory proteins. In addition, an antibody against the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1 and ERK2 was used to localize the cytoplasm of the fiber-associated satellite cells regardless of their ability to express specific myogenic regulatory factor proteins. We show that during the initial days in culture the myofibers isolated from both the MyoD−/− and the wildtype mice contain the same number of proliferating, ERK+ satellite cells. However, the MyoD−/− satellite cells continue to proliferate and only a very small number of cells transit into the myogenin+ state, whereas the wildtype cells exit the proliferative compartment and enter the myogenin+ stage. Analyzing tissue-dissociated cultures of MyoD−/− satellite cells, we identified numerous cells whose nuclei were positive for the Myf5 protein. In contrast, quantification of Myf5+ cells in the wildtype cultures was difficult due to the low level of Myf5 protein present. The Myf5+ cells in the MyoD−/− cultures were often positive for desmin, similar to the MyoD+ cells in the wildtype cultures. Myogenin+ cells were identified in the MyoD−/− primary cultures, but their appearance was delayed compared to the wildtype cells. These

  19. Plasma biomarkers of liver injury and inflammation demonstrate a lack of apoptosis during obstructive cholestasis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Park, B. Kevin; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-12-15

    Cholestasis is a pathological common component of numerous liver diseases that results in hepatotoxicity, inflammation, and cirrhosis when untreated. While the predominant hypothesis in cholestatic liver injury remains hepatocyte apoptosis due to direct toxicity of hydrophobic bile acid exposure, recent work suggests that the injury occurs through inflammatory necrosis. In order to resolve this controversy, we used novel plasma biomarkers to assess the mechanisms of cell death during early cholestatic liver injury. C57Bl/6 mice underwent bile duct ligation (BDL) for 6–72 h, or sham operation. Another group of mice were given D-galactosamine and endotoxin as a positive control for apoptosis and inflammatory necrosis. Plasma levels of full length cytokeratin-18 (FL-K18), microRNA-122 (miR-122) and high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) increased progressively after BDL with peak levels observed after 48 h. These results indicate extensive cell necrosis after BDL, which is supported by the time course of plasma alanine aminotransferase activities and histology. In contrast, plasma caspase-3 activity, cleaved caspase-3 protein and caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 fragments (cK18) were not elevated at any time during BDL suggesting the absence of apoptosis. In contrast, all plasma biomarkers of necrosis and apoptosis were elevated 6 h after Gal/End treatment. In addition, acetylated HMGB1, a marker for macrophage and monocyte activation, was increased as early as 12 h but mainly at 48–72 h. However, progressive neutrophil accumulation in the area of necrosis started at 6 h after BDL. In conclusion, these data indicate that early cholestatic liver injury in mice is an inflammatory event, and occurs through necrosis with little evidence for apoptosis. - Highlights: • The mechanism of cell death during cholestasis remains a controversial topic. • Plasma biomarkers offer new insight into cell death after bile duct ligation. • Cytokeratin-18, microRNA-122 and HMGB

  20. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and progesterone on spatial learning and memory in young and aged mice.

    PubMed

    Bodensteiner, Karin J; Stone, Ivan J; Ghiraldi, Loraina L

    2008-07-01

    Young (2-4 months) and aged (14-16 months) male Swiss-Webster albino mice (n = 7 per group) were subcutaneously injected with 20 mg/kg/day dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), progesterone (P), DHEAS + P, or vehicle control and trained over a 5-day period in a Morris water maze. The subjects were tested 48 hr after training for memory recall as measured by latencies to locate the hidden platform, and trunk blood was collected immediately thereafter. As expected, latency to platform decreased for all groups over the 6 testing days, with aged mice taking longer to reach platform than did young mice. However, results did not support the hypotheses that DHEAS-treated mice would exhibit shorter latencies and that P-treated mice would show longer latencies to platform in comparison with age-matched controls. These results raise doubts about the effectiveness of commercially available supplements claiming to promote enhanced memory in humans.

  1. Beneficial interaction between clobenpropit and pyridoxine in prevention of electroshock-induced seizures in mice: lack of histaminergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Uma Devi, P; Manocha, A; Khanam, R; Vohora, D

    2011-01-01

    Clobenpropit, an H( 3) receptor antagonist, has been reported to modulate both the release of neurotransmitters and also the activity of histidine decarboxylase (HDC). Therefore, a decarboxylase-positive modulator, namely pyridoxine, was taken for interaction studies with clobenpropit in the electroshock (ES) model of seizures in mice and subsequent changes in brain histamine levels were estimated. A significant inhibition of ES-induced seizures was seen after the simultaneous use of clobenpropit and pyridoxine. No significant effects were evident on the brain histamine levels following this combination. The combination of clobenpropit with pyridoxine appears to exhibit beneficial pharmacodynamic interaction for the prevention of ES-induced seizures, which might not be mediated by the histaminergic mechanisms.

  2. PROXIMAL GUT MUCOSAL EPITHELIAL HOMEOSTASIS IN AGED IL-1 TYPE I RECEPTOR KNOCKOUT MICE AFTER STARVATION

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juquan; Wolf, Steven E.; Wu, Xiao-Wu; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Jeschke, Marc G.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that starvation induces small bowel atrophy, and that atrophy diminishes with aging. In this experiment, we assessed whether starvation-induced atrophy of proximal gut mucosa is associated with the Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) signaling pathway in aged mice. Materials and Methods Thirty 26-month-old IL-1R knockout mice and age-matched wild-type C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: ad libitum fed and fasted. Mice were euthanized 12 or 48 hours after starvation. The proximal small bowel was harvested for morphologic analysis. Gut epithelial cell proliferation was detected using immunohistochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and apoptosis was identified using terminal deoxyuridine nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Results Aged IL-1R knockout mice were larger than aged-matched wild-type mice (p<0.05). Proximal gut mucosal height and mucosal cell number were not different between aged IL-1R knockout and wild-type groups. The apoptosis index in gut epithelial cells was higher in fed IL-1R knockout versus wild-type mice (p<0.05), while no significant difference in cell proliferation between both groups. Mucosal atrophy was induced in both aged IL-1R knockout and wild-type groups by starvation (p<0.05), however, aged IL-1R knockout mice experienced greater losses in proximal gut weight, mucosal length, and corresponding cell number than did wild-type mice at the 12-hour time point (p<0.05). The apoptosis index in gut epithelial cells significantly increased in both groups after starvation (p<0.05). Starvation decreased cell proliferation in IL-1R knockout mice (p<0.05), but not in wild-type mice. Conclusions The response in aged IL-1R knockout mice differs from wild-type mice in that starvation increases atrophy and is associated with decreased cell proliferation rather than increased apoptosis. PMID:20605606

  3. Lack of IL-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase-4 Leads to Defective Th1 Cell Responses and Renders Mice Susceptible to Mycobacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Fábio V; Fahel, Júlia S; Scanga, Charles A; Gomes, Marco Tulio R; Guimarães, Gabriela; Carvalho, Gabrielle R M; Morales, Stefanny V; Báfica, André; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2016-09-01

    The Toll-like and IL-1 family receptors play critical roles in innate and adaptive immunity against intracellular pathogens. Although previous data demonstrated the importance of TLRs and IL-1R signaling events for the establishment of an effective immune response to mycobacteria, the possible function of the adaptor molecule IL-1R-associated kinase (IRAK)-4 against this pathogen has not been addressed. In this study, we determined the role of IRAK-4 in signaling pathways responsible for controlling mycobacterial infections. This kinase is important for the production of IL-12 and TNF-α by macrophages and dendritic cells exposed to mycobacteria. Moreover, Mycobacterium bovis-infected IRAK-4-knockout macrophages displayed impaired MAPK and NF-κB activation. IL-1β secretion and caspase-1 activation were also dependent on IRAK-4 signaling. Mice lacking IRAK-4 showed increased M. bovis burden in spleen, liver, and lungs and smaller liver granulomas during 60 d of infection compared with wild-type mice. Furthermore, 80% of IRAK-4(-/-) mice succumbed to virulent M. tuberculosis within 100 d following low-dose infection. This increased susceptibility to mycobacteria correlated with reduced IFN-γ/TNF-α recall responses by splenocytes, as well as fewer IL-12p70-producing APCs. Additionally, we observed that IRAK-4 is also important for the production of IFN-γ by CD4(+) T cells from infected mice. Finally, THP-1 cells treated with an IRAK-4 inhibitor and exposed to M. bovis showed reduced TNF-α and IL-12, suggesting that the results found in mice can be extended to humans. In summary, these data demonstrate that IRAK-4 is essential for innate and adaptive immunity and necessary for efficient control of mycobacterial infections.

  4. Phenotypic abnormalities observed in aged cloned mice from embryonic stem cells after long-term maintenance.

    PubMed

    Shimozawa, Nobuhiro; Sotomaru, Yusuke; Eguchi, Natsuko; Suzuki, Shuzo; Hioki, Kyoji; Usui, Toshimi; Kono, Tomohiro; Ito, Mamoru

    2006-09-01

    Somatic/embryonic stem cell cloning has made it possible to produce an individual genomically identical to another individual. However, the cloned animals have a variety of abnormalities caused by the aberrant gene modification, with insufficient reprogramming in cloning. We previously reported abnormalities in cloned mice at birth. In this study, we examined what abnormalities could be seen in cloned mice after long-term maintenance. The aged cloned mice showed multiple abnormalities: increase of body weight, some phenotypic abnormalities in the kidneys, testes and thymus, and lower urea nitrogen in their serum biochemical values. The kidneys of all cloned mice were hypertrophied, with a metamorphic or whitish appearance. The multiple lesions, including the enlarged renal pelvis and distension of the renal veins in histology, might be the result of urine accumulation by urinary tract obstruction. The testes of the cloned mice were atrophied, and showed no sperm formation in histology. In contrast, the thymus was rather hypertrophied, and a comparably increased number of lymphocytes were observed in the medulla, consisting mainly of T cells. By conducting a progeny test between the cloned mice, it was confirmed that these abnormalities in the aged cloned mice were not transmitted to their offspring, indicating that the incomplete reprogramming in clones might be in part responsible for the abnormalities detected in aged clones. These results indicate that the postnatal abnormalities observed in aged cloned mice are varied and can be restored through the germ line. PMID:16940284

  5. Running rescues a fear-based contextual discrimination deficit in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Melody V.; Luna, Victor M.; Hen, René

    2015-01-01

    Normal aging and exercise exert extensive, often opposing, effects on the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus altering volume, synaptic function, and behaviors. The DG is especially important for behaviors requiring pattern separation—a cognitive process that enables animals to differentiate between highly similar contextual experiences. To determine how age and exercise modulate pattern separation in an aversive setting, young, aged, and aged mice provided with a running wheel were assayed on a fear-based contextual discrimination task. Aged mice showed a profound impairment in contextual discrimination compared to young animals. Voluntary exercise rescued this deficit to such an extent that behavioral pattern separation of aged-run mice was now similar to young animals. Running also resulted in a significant increase in the number of immature neurons with tertiary dendrites in aged mice. Despite this, neurogenesis levels in aged-run mice were still considerably lower than in young animals. Thus, mechanisms other than DG neurogenesis likely play significant roles in improving behavioral pattern separation elicited by exercise in aged animals. PMID:26321926

  6. A Mitochondrion-Targeted Antioxidant Ameliorates Isoflurane-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Aging Mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Li, Huihui; Sun, Xiaoru; Zhang, Hui; Hao, Shuangying; Ji, Muhuo; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Kuanyu

    2015-01-01

    Isoflurane possesses neurotoxicity and can induce cognitive deficits, particularly in aging mammals. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mtROS) have been linked to the early pathogenesis of this disorder. However, the role of mtROS remains to be evaluated due to a lack of targeted method to treat mtROS. Here, we determined in aging mice the effects of the mitochondrion-targeted antioxidant SS-31, on cognitive deficits induced by isoflurane, a general inhalation anesthetic. We further investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the effects of SS-31 on hippocampal neuro-inflammation and apoptosis. The results showed that isoflurane induced hippocampus-dependent memory deficit, which was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction including reduced ATP contents, increased ROS levels, and mitochondrial swelling. Treatment with SS-31 significantly ameliorated isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits through the improvement of mitochondrial integrity and function. Mechanistically, SS-31 treatment suppressed pro-inflammatory responses by decreasing the levels of NF-κB, NLRP3, caspase 1, IL-1β, and TNF-α; and inhibited the apoptotic pathway by decreasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, reducing the release of cytochrome C, and blocking the cleavage of caspase 3. Our results indicate that isoflurane-induced cognitive deficits may be attenuated by mitochondrion-targeted antioxidants, such as SS-31. Therefore, SS-31 may have therapeutic potentials in preventing injuries from oxidative stresses that contribute to anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity.

  7. Ageing Fxr deficient mice develop increased energy expenditure, improved glucose control and liver damage resembling NASH.

    PubMed

    Bjursell, Mikael; Wedin, Marianne; Admyre, Therése; Hermansson, Majlis; Böttcher, Gerhard; Göransson, Melker; Lindén, Daniel; Bamberg, Krister; Oscarsson, Jan; Bohlooly-Y, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear receptor subfamily 1, group H, member 4 (Nr1h4, FXR) is a bile acid activated nuclear receptor mainly expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney and adrenal glands. Upon activation, the primary function is to suppress cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the classic or neutral bile acid synthesis pathway. In the present study, a novel Fxr deficient mouse line was created and studied with respect to metabolism and liver function in ageing mice fed chow diet. The Fxr deficient mice were similar to wild type mice in terms of body weight, body composition, energy intake and expenditure as well as behaviours at a young age. However, from 15 weeks of age and onwards, the Fxr deficient mice had almost no body weight increase up to 39 weeks of age mainly because of lower body fat mass. The lower body weight gain was associated with increased energy expenditure that was not compensated by increased food intake. Fasting levels of glucose and insulin were lower and glucose tolerance was improved in old and lean Fxr deficient mice. However, the Fxr deficient mice displayed significantly increased liver weight, steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning degeneration and lobular inflammation together with elevated plasma levels of ALT, bilirubin and bile acids, findings compatible with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cholestasis. In conclusion, ageing Fxr deficient mice display late onset leanness associated with elevated energy expenditure and improved glucose control but develop severe NASH-like liver pathology.

  8. Hormone-sensitive lipase-knockout mice maintain high bone density during aging.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Jun; Liu, Li-Fen; Patel, Shailja; Kraemer, Fredric B

    2011-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the actions of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) affect the microenvironment of the bone marrow and that removal of HSL function by gene deletion maintains high bone mass in aging mice. We compared littermate control wild-type (WT) and HSL(-/-) mice during aging for changes in serum biochemical values, trabecular bone density using micro-computed tomography, bone histomorphometry, and characteristics of primary bone marrow cells and preosteoblasts. There is a regulated expression of HSL and genes involved in lipid metabolism in the bone marrow during aging. HSL(-/-) mice have increased serum levels of insulin and osteocalcin with decreased leptin levels. Compared with the marked adipocyte infiltration in WT bone marrow (65% by area) at 14 mo, HSL(-/-) mice have fewer (16%, P<0.05) and smaller adipocytes in bone marrow. While peak bone density is similar, HSL(-/-) mice maintain a higher bone density (bone volume/total volume 6.1%) with age than WT