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Sample records for aged red wines

  1. Haloanisole and halophenol contamination in Spanish aged red wines.

    PubMed

    Copete, M L; Zalacain, A; Lorenzo, C; Carot, J M; Esteve, M D; Climent, M; Salinas, M R

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to be carried out on the incidence of halophenols and haloanisoles, including trichloroanisole, in aged red wines. A total of 966 red wines, aged for 6, 12 and 24 months in oak barrels and from different Spanish production areas, were analysed by stir bar sorptive extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). From the wines sampled, 155 (16.1%) were contaminated with one or several compounds, with 7.6, 6.9 and 1.5% corresponding to the 12- (aged-12), 6- (aged-6) and 24-month-aged (aged-24) wines, respectively. The most abundant compounds causing taint were 2,3,4,6-tetrachloroanisole and 2,4,6-trichloroanisol (6.8 and 5.3%, respectively). No 2,4,6-tribromophenol was found in any of the samples. Contamination with halo compounds was highest in samples from South-West Spain, followed by those from Northern Spain. The mean concentration for all compounds were always higher than their respective olfactory threshold, but none of these halo compounds represent a health hazard to humans through the consumption of commercial red aged wines.

  2. Haloanisole and halophenol contamination in Spanish aged red wines.

    PubMed

    Copete, M L; Zalacain, A; Lorenzo, C; Carot, J M; Esteve, M D; Climent, M; Salinas, M R

    2009-01-01

    This is the first study to be carried out on the incidence of halophenols and haloanisoles, including trichloroanisole, in aged red wines. A total of 966 red wines, aged for 6, 12 and 24 months in oak barrels and from different Spanish production areas, were analysed by stir bar sorptive extraction followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). From the wines sampled, 155 (16.1%) were contaminated with one or several compounds, with 7.6, 6.9 and 1.5% corresponding to the 12- (aged-12), 6- (aged-6) and 24-month-aged (aged-24) wines, respectively. The most abundant compounds causing taint were 2,3,4,6-tetrachloroanisole and 2,4,6-trichloroanisol (6.8 and 5.3%, respectively). No 2,4,6-tribromophenol was found in any of the samples. Contamination with halo compounds was highest in samples from South-West Spain, followed by those from Northern Spain. The mean concentration for all compounds were always higher than their respective olfactory threshold, but none of these halo compounds represent a health hazard to humans through the consumption of commercial red aged wines. PMID:19680868

  3. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  4. Free radical scavenging capacity in the aging of selected red Spanish wines.

    PubMed

    Larrauri, J A; Sánchez-Moreno, C; Rupérez, P; Saura-Calixto, F

    1999-04-01

    Free radical scavenging capacity by the DPPH(*) method and main physicochemical properties, polyphenols content by HPLC, color by a tristimulus colorimeter, and UV-vis spectra in the aging of selected red Spanish wines, were studied. As the wines age, they become darker (lower lightness, L) and increase their hue angle (lower red color) as well as the ratio of absorbance at 420 nm to that at 520 nm. Main polyphenolics identified in the samples were tannic acid, oenin, and gallic acid. The antiradical efficiency of the samples increased during aging, which could be related to an increase in the tannic acid concentration shown by the following correlationship: EC(50) = 1/(0.18 + 0.0011[tannic acid](mg/L)) with a correlation coefficient of 0.744.

  5. Volatile compounds in a spanish red wine aged in barrels made of Spanish, French, and American oak wood.

    PubMed

    De Simón, Brígida Fernández; Cadahía, Estrella; Jalocha, Jerzy

    2003-12-17

    A red Rioja wine was aged in barrels made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus robur, Quercus petraea,Quercus pyrenaica, and Quercus faginea) during 21 months. The concentrations of some volatile compounds [syringaldehyde, vanillin, eugenol, maltol, guaiacol, 4-ethylphenol, cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, 2-furfuraldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furfuraldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde, and furfuryl alcohol] were studied in these wines and compared with those of the same wine aged in barrels made from French oak of Q. robur (Limousin, France) and Q. petraea (Allier, France) and American oak of Quercus alba (Missouri). Similar concentrations of these compounds were found in wines aged in Spanish and French oak wood barrels, and significantly different concentrations were found with respect to wines aged in barrels made of American oak wood, indicating a different behavior. Thus, wines with different characteristics were obtained, depending on the kind of wood. Also, the kind of wood had an important influence on sensory characteristics of wine during the aging process. Spanish oak wood from Q. robur, Q. petraea, and Q. pyrenaica can be considered to be suitable for barrel production for quality wines, because a wine aged in barrels made of these Spanish oak woods showed similar and intermediate characteristics to those of the same wine aged in French and American oak woods usually used in cooperage.

  6. Changes in chemical composition of a red wine aged in acacia, cherry, chestnut, mulberry, and oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    De Rosso, Mirko; Panighel, Annarita; Dalla Vedova, Antonio; Stella, Laura; Flamini, Riccardo

    2009-03-11

    Aging in wooden barrels is a process used to stabilize the color and enrich the sensorial characteristics of wine. Many compounds are released from wood into the wine; oxygen permeation through the wood favors formation of new anthocyanin and tannin derivatives. Recently, polyphenols and volatile compounds released from acacia, chestnut, cherry, mulberry, and oak wood used in making barrels for spirits and wine aging were studied. Here, changes in volatile and polyphenolic compositions of a red wine aged for 9 months in acacia, cherry, chestnut, mulberry, and oak barrels are studied. Mulberry showed significant decreases of fruity-note ethyl esters and ethylguaiacol and a great cession of ethylphenol (horsey-odor defect). Cherry promoted the highest polyphenol oxidation, making it less suitable for long aging. LC/ESI-MS(n) showed the relevant presence of cis- and trans-piceatannol in mulberry-aged wine, a phytoalexin with antileukemia and antimelanoma activities.

  7. Prediction of aged red wine aroma properties from aroma chemical composition. Partial least squares regression models.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Margarita; López, Ricardo; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2003-04-23

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) models able to predict some of the wine aroma nuances from its chemical composition have been developed. The aromatic sensory characteristics of 57 Spanish aged red wines were determined by 51 experts from the wine industry. The individual descriptions given by the experts were recorded, and the frequency with which a sensory term was used to define a given wine was taken as a measurement of its intensity. The aromatic chemical composition of the wines was determined by already published gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detector and GC-mass spectrometry methods. In the whole, 69 odorants were analyzed. Both matrixes, the sensory and chemical data, were simplified by grouping and rearranging correlated sensory terms or chemical compounds and by the exclusion of secondary aroma terms or of weak aroma chemicals. Finally, models were developed for 18 sensory terms and 27 chemicals or groups of chemicals. Satisfactory models, explaining more than 45% of the original variance, could be found for nine of the most important sensory terms (wood-vanillin-cinnamon, animal-leather-phenolic, toasted-coffee, old wood-reduction, vegetal-pepper, raisin-flowery, sweet-candy-cacao, fruity, and berry fruit). For this set of terms, the correlation coefficients between the measured and predicted Y (determined by cross-validation) ranged from 0.62 to 0.81. Models confirmed the existence of complex multivariate relationships between chemicals and odors. In general, pleasant descriptors were positively correlated to chemicals with pleasant aroma, such as vanillin, beta damascenone, or (E)-beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, and negatively correlated to compounds showing less favorable odor properties, such as 4-ethyl and vinyl phenols, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, or phenylacetaldehyde.

  8. Identification of Piperitone as an Aroma Compound Contributing to the Positive Mint Nuances Perceived in Aged Red Bordeaux Wines.

    PubMed

    Picard, Magali; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2016-01-20

    Although a sensory definition of the aging bouquet of red Bordeaux wines was recently established, its chemical transcription has only partially been elucidated. A multiple-step approach, combining sensory evaluations of red Bordeaux wines and aromatic reconstitutions of wine extract fractions, was used to identify the molecular markers involved. One wine with a high aging-bouquet score and a mint nuance has received particular attention. Various reconstitution and omission tests highlighted the contribution of two specific fractions to the intensity of the perception of mint aroma. Gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry was applied to the targeted fractions to identify molecular marker(s) responsible for the mint nuance in fine red Bordeaux wines. A similar analytical process was applied to selected fractions of essential oils presenting mint odors to characterize them and interpret the mass spectrometry data. This approach resulted in the detection of piperitone, a monoterpene ketone that, to the best of our knowledge, was reported for the first time as a contributor to the positive mint aroma of aged red Bordeaux wines. PMID:26735409

  9. Identification of Piperitone as an Aroma Compound Contributing to the Positive Mint Nuances Perceived in Aged Red Bordeaux Wines.

    PubMed

    Picard, Magali; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2016-01-20

    Although a sensory definition of the aging bouquet of red Bordeaux wines was recently established, its chemical transcription has only partially been elucidated. A multiple-step approach, combining sensory evaluations of red Bordeaux wines and aromatic reconstitutions of wine extract fractions, was used to identify the molecular markers involved. One wine with a high aging-bouquet score and a mint nuance has received particular attention. Various reconstitution and omission tests highlighted the contribution of two specific fractions to the intensity of the perception of mint aroma. Gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry and mass spectrometry was applied to the targeted fractions to identify molecular marker(s) responsible for the mint nuance in fine red Bordeaux wines. A similar analytical process was applied to selected fractions of essential oils presenting mint odors to characterize them and interpret the mass spectrometry data. This approach resulted in the detection of piperitone, a monoterpene ketone that, to the best of our knowledge, was reported for the first time as a contributor to the positive mint aroma of aged red Bordeaux wines.

  10. Polyphenols in red wine aged in acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) and oak (Quercus petraea) wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Cadahía, Estrella; Hernández, Ma Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Martinez, Juana

    2012-06-30

    Polyphenolic composition of two Syrah wines aged during 6 or 12 months in medium toasting acacia and oak 225L barrels was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS. A total of 43 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were found in all wines, and other 15 compounds only in the wines from acacia barrels. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify the wines aged in acacia barrels. Among all of them the dihydrorobinetin highlights because of its high levels, but also robinetin, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, a tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol, fustin, butin, a trihydroxymethoxydihydroflavonol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were detected at appreciable levels in wines during aging in acacia barrels, and could be used as phenolic markers for authenticity purposes. Although longer contact time with acacia wood mean higher concentrations of phenolic markers found in wines, the identification of these wines will also be easy after short aging times due the high levels reached by these compounds, even after only 2 months of aging.

  11. Involvement of Dimethyl Sulfide and Several Polyfunctional Thiols in the Aromatic Expression of the Aging Bouquet of Red Bordeaux Wines.

    PubMed

    Picard, Magali; Thibon, Cécile; Redon, Pascaline; Darriet, Philippe; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2015-10-14

    The development of an aromatic bouquet during fine wine aging depends on complex transformations occurring in a reductive atmosphere, favorable to the formation and preservation of sulfur odorants, such as dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and polyfunctional thiols. The aim of this study was to address their role in the occurrence, evolution, and perceived sensory nuances of the aging bouquet of red Bordeaux wines. These compounds were quantified in 24 wines and scored by a professional wine panel for the degree to which they reflected the aging bouquet olfactory concept. Partial least square (PLS) analysis, combining sensory and quantitative chemical data, predicted that DMS, 2-furanmethanethiol, and 3-sulfanylhexanol concentrations correlated with the typicality score, discriminating highly-typical wines from less-typical ones. Several vintages from three vineyards were then subjected to sensory and chemical analysis to determine how aging bouquet typicality and the intensity of five key aromatic notes (undergrowth, truffle, fresh fruit, toasted, and empyreumatic) evolved during bottle storage in relation to these three sulfur odorants. PCA analysis emphasized their combined impact on aging bouquet typicality and their contribution to undergrowth, truffle, and empyreumatic attributes.

  12. Modulation of the phenolic composition and colour of red wines subjected to accelerated ageing by controlling process variables.

    PubMed

    González-Sáiz, J M; Esteban-Díez, I; Rodríguez-Tecedor, S; Pérez-Del-Notario, N; Arenzana-Rámila, I; Pizarro, C

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the main factors conditioning accelerated ageing processes (oxygen dose, chip dose, wood origin, toasting degree and maceration time) on the phenolic and chromatic profiles of red wines by using a multivariate strategy based on experimental design methodology. The results obtained revealed that the concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols could be modified through the application of particular experimental conditions. This fact was particularly remarkable since changes in phenolic profile were closely linked to changes observed in chromatic parameters. The main strength of this study lies in the possibility of using its conclusions as a basis to make wines with specific colour properties based on quality criteria. To our knowledge, the influence of such a large number of alternative ageing parameters on wine phenolic composition and chromatic attributes has not been studied previously using a comprehensive experimental design methodology.

  13. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  14. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  15. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterisation of red wine aged in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Martínez, J; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-03-15

    The wood-related volatile profile of wines aged in cherry, acacia, ash, chestnut and oak wood barrels was studied by GC-MS, and could be a useful tool to identify the wood specie used. Thus, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in wines aged in acacia barrels, and ethyl-2-benzoate in cherry barrels could be used as chemical markers of these wood species, for authenticity purposes. Also, the quantitative differences obtained in the volatile profiles allow a good classification of all wines regarding wood species of barrels, during all aging time, and they contributed with different intensities to aromatic and gustative characteristics of aged wines. Wines aged in oak were the best valuated during all aging time, but the differences were not always significant. The lowest scores were assigned to wines aged in cherry barrels from 6 months of aging, so this wood could be more suitable in short aging times.

  16. Comparative changes in color features and pigment composition of red wines aged in oak and cherry wood casks.

    PubMed

    Chinnici, Fabio; Natali, Nadia; Sonni, Francesca; Bellachioma, Attilio; Riponi, Claudio

    2011-06-22

    The color features and the evolution of both the monomeric and the derived pigments of red wines aged in oak and cherry 225 L barriques have been investigated during a four months period. For cherry wood, the utilization of 1000 L casks was tested as well. The use of cherry casks resulted in a faster evolution of pigments with a rapid decline of monomeric anthocyanins and a quick augmentation formation of derived and polymeric compounds. At the end of the aging, wines stored in oak and cherry barriques lost, respectively, about 20% and 80% of the initial pigment amount, while in the 1000 L cherry casks, the same compounds diminished by about 60%. Ethyl-bridged adducts and vitisins were the main class of derivatives formed, representing up to 25% of the total pigment amount in the cherry aged samples. Color density augmented in both the oak and cherry wood aged samples, but the latter had the highest values of this parameter. Because of the highly oxidative behavior of the cherry barriques, the use of larger casks (e.g., 1000 L) is proposed in the case of prolonged aging times. PMID:21548629

  17. Comparative changes in color features and pigment composition of red wines aged in oak and cherry wood casks.

    PubMed

    Chinnici, Fabio; Natali, Nadia; Sonni, Francesca; Bellachioma, Attilio; Riponi, Claudio

    2011-06-22

    The color features and the evolution of both the monomeric and the derived pigments of red wines aged in oak and cherry 225 L barriques have been investigated during a four months period. For cherry wood, the utilization of 1000 L casks was tested as well. The use of cherry casks resulted in a faster evolution of pigments with a rapid decline of monomeric anthocyanins and a quick augmentation formation of derived and polymeric compounds. At the end of the aging, wines stored in oak and cherry barriques lost, respectively, about 20% and 80% of the initial pigment amount, while in the 1000 L cherry casks, the same compounds diminished by about 60%. Ethyl-bridged adducts and vitisins were the main class of derivatives formed, representing up to 25% of the total pigment amount in the cherry aged samples. Color density augmented in both the oak and cherry wood aged samples, but the latter had the highest values of this parameter. Because of the highly oxidative behavior of the cherry barriques, the use of larger casks (e.g., 1000 L) is proposed in the case of prolonged aging times.

  18. Effect of micro-oxygenation and wood type on the phenolic composition and color of an aged red wine.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Iglesias, Montserrat; González-Sanjosé, Ma Luisa; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2009-12-23

    Many studies have recently been published focused on the effects of micro-oxygenation on the quality of wines, its application modes, and doses, etc. However, there are still few scientific papers on how previously micro-oxygenated wines perform during storage or barrel aging. This study focused on the evolution of the phenolic composition, especially of anthocyanins, and color, together with astringency and tannins, during micro-oxygenation before barrel aging. In addition, to evaluate whether wine evolution during aging depends on barrel type, wines were aged in four different oak barrel types. Tempranillo wines, some micro-oxygenated before malolactic fermentation and others not, were aged for 12 months in American, French, Central European, and Spanish oak, following wine evolution during that period. The study was carried out for two consecutive vintages. Results showed that all wines evolved similarly; therefore, the micro-oxygenation treatment neither accelerated nor delayed the typical changes of aging. Slightly different evolutions were detected according to the barrel wood type, whether or not the wine was micro-oxygenated. The varied evolutions must therefore be associated with the differences from each oak type (structure, grain and density, composition, etc.).

  19. Anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine.

    PubMed

    Eng, E T; Williams, D; Mandava, U; Kirma, N; Tekmal, R R; Chen, S

    2002-06-01

    Estrogen synthesized in situ plays a more important role in breast cancer cell proliferation than does circulating estrogen. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen and is expressed at a higher level in breast cancer tissue than in surrounding noncancer tissue. A promising route of chemoprevention against breast cancer may be through the suppression of in situ estrogen formation using aromatase inhibitors. A diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the incidence of breast cancer, because they contain phytochemicals that can act as aromatase inhibitors. In our previous studies, we found that grapes and wine contain potent phytochemicals that can inhibit aromatase. We show that red wine was more effective than white wine in suppressing aromatase activity. Interestingly, our results from white wine studies suggest a weak inductive effect of alcohol on aromatase activity. On the other hand, the potent effect of anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine overcomes the weak inductive effect of alcohol in wine. Several purification procedures were performed on whole red wine to separate active aromatase inhibitors from non-active compounds. These techniques included liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel chromatography, various solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and high performance liquid chromatography. An active Pinot Noir red wine SPE C18 column fraction (20% acetonitrile:water) was more effective than complete Pinot Noir wine in suppressing aromatase assay. This red wine extract was further analyzed in a transgenic mouse model in which aromatase was over-expressed in mammary tissue. Our gavaged red wine extract completely abrogated aromatase-induced hyperplasia and other neoplastic changes in mammary tissue. These results suggest that red wine or red wine extract may be a chemopreventive diet supplement for postmenopausal women who have a high risk of breast cancer. Further research is underway to purify and characterize the active compounds in red

  20. Red wine asthma: a controlled challenge study.

    PubMed

    Dahl, R; Henriksen, J M; Harving, H

    1986-12-01

    Drinking red wine may provoke bronchospasm in subjects with asthma. In order to reveal some of the possible agents involved in this reaction, 18 patients with a history of red wine-induced asthma were studied. They received, in a double-blind fashion, red wine with low sulfur dioxide (SO2) and high amine, high SO2 and high amine and low SO2 and low amine content. In each challenge, the wine was administered in stepwise increasing quantities until a total of 385 ml or a fall in peak expiratory flow of greater than 15% was reached. Nine subjects demonstrated a significant fall in peak flow in one or more challenges. In all cases the most severe reaction was observed after the wine with high SO2 content. The study suggests that SO2 is the most important factor in red wine-induced asthma. It is recommended that wine labels provide information on the SO2 content.

  1. Identification and analysis of piperitone in red wines.

    PubMed

    Pons, Alexandre; Lavigne, Valérie; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2016-09-01

    The present study concerns the search for new aroma compounds associated with the flavor of aged and prematurely aged red wines. Sensory descriptive analysis associated with gas chromatography-olfactometry was first performed to find specific odoriferous zones. One of the zones, reminiscent of mint, was found in red wines with a prune flavor. Thanks to several analytical approaches including preparative gas chromatography, p-menth-1-en-3-one (piperitone), has been identified in red wines. The olfactory detection threshold of this terpene reminiscent of mint was 0.9μg/L in model hydroalcoholic solution and 70μg/L in red wines. Chiral multidimensional GC-MS was used to show that piperitone was present mainly in the (R) form in red wines. The concentration of piperitone in aged red wines ranged from a few ng/L to 435ng/L, but the level was not linked to the age of the wine nor to its premature evolution. PMID:27041315

  2. Identification and analysis of piperitone in red wines.

    PubMed

    Pons, Alexandre; Lavigne, Valérie; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2016-09-01

    The present study concerns the search for new aroma compounds associated with the flavor of aged and prematurely aged red wines. Sensory descriptive analysis associated with gas chromatography-olfactometry was first performed to find specific odoriferous zones. One of the zones, reminiscent of mint, was found in red wines with a prune flavor. Thanks to several analytical approaches including preparative gas chromatography, p-menth-1-en-3-one (piperitone), has been identified in red wines. The olfactory detection threshold of this terpene reminiscent of mint was 0.9μg/L in model hydroalcoholic solution and 70μg/L in red wines. Chiral multidimensional GC-MS was used to show that piperitone was present mainly in the (R) form in red wines. The concentration of piperitone in aged red wines ranged from a few ng/L to 435ng/L, but the level was not linked to the age of the wine nor to its premature evolution.

  3. Red wine activates plasma membrane redox system in human erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Idolo; Moccia, Stefania; Volpe, Silvestro; Alfieri, Giovanna; Strollo, Daniela; Bilotto, Stefania; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Di Renzo, Massimo; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Gian Luigi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we report that polyphenols present in red wine obtained by a controlled microvinification process are able to protect human erythrocytes from oxidative stress and to activate Plasma Membrane Redox System (PMRS). Human plasma obtained from healthy subjects was incubated in the presence of whole red wine at a concentration corresponding to 9.13-73 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents to verify the capacity to protect against hypochlorous acid (HOCl)-induced plasma oxidation and to minimize chloramine formation. Red wine reduced hemolysis and chloramine formation induced by HOCl of 40 and 35%, respectively. PMRS present on human erythrocytes transfers electrons from intracellular molecules to extracellular electron acceptors. We demonstrated that whole red wine activated PMRS activity in human erythrocytes isolated from donors in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum at about 70-100 μg/ml gallic acid equivalents. We also showed that red wine increased glutathione (GSH) levels and erythrocytic antioxidant capacity, measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) quenching assay. Furthermore, we reported that GSH played a crucial role in regulating PMRS activity in erythrocytes. In fact, the effect of iodoacetamide, an alkylating agent that induces depletion of intracellular GSH, was completely counteracted by red wine. Bioactive compounds present in red wine, such as gallic acid, resveratrol, catechin, and quercetin were unable to activate PMRS when tested at the concentrations normally present in aged red wines. On the contrary, the increase of PMRS activity was associated with the anthocyanin fraction, suggesting the capacity of this class of compounds to positively modulate PMRS enzymatic activity.

  4. Quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry carried out at different dilutions of an extract. Key differences in the odor profiles of four high-quality Spanish aged red wines.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, V; Aznar, M; López, R; Cacho, J

    2001-10-01

    Four Spanish aged red wines made in different wine-making areas have been extracted, and the extracts and their 1:5, 1:50, and 1:500 dilutions have been analyzed by a gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) approach in which three judges evaluated odor intensity on a four-point scale. Sixty-nine different odor regions were detected in the GC-O profiles of wines, 63 of which could be identified. GC-O data have been processed to calculate averaged flavor dilution factors (FD). Different ANOVA strategies have been further applied on FD and on intensity data to check for significant differences among wines and to assess the effects of dilution and the judge. Data show that FD and the average intensity of the odorants are strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.892). However, the measurement of intensity represents a quantitative advantage in terms of detecting differences. For some odorants, dilution exerts a critical role in the detection of differences. Significant differences among wines have been found in 30 of the 69 odorants detected in the experiment. Most of these differences are introduced by grape compounds such as methyl benzoate and terpenols, by compounds released by the wood, such as furfural, (Z)-whiskey lactone, Furaneol, 4-propylguaiacol, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, isoeugenol, and ethyl vanillate, by compounds formed by lactic acid bacteria, such as 2,3-butanedione and acetoine, or by compounds formed during the oxidative storage of wines, such as methional, sotolon, o-aminoacetophenone, and phenylacetic acid. The most important differences from a quantitative point of view are due to 2-methyl-3-mercaptofuran, 4-propylguaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and isoeugenol.

  5. Quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry carried out at different dilutions of an extract. Key differences in the odor profiles of four high-quality Spanish aged red wines.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, V; Aznar, M; López, R; Cacho, J

    2001-10-01

    Four Spanish aged red wines made in different wine-making areas have been extracted, and the extracts and their 1:5, 1:50, and 1:500 dilutions have been analyzed by a gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) approach in which three judges evaluated odor intensity on a four-point scale. Sixty-nine different odor regions were detected in the GC-O profiles of wines, 63 of which could be identified. GC-O data have been processed to calculate averaged flavor dilution factors (FD). Different ANOVA strategies have been further applied on FD and on intensity data to check for significant differences among wines and to assess the effects of dilution and the judge. Data show that FD and the average intensity of the odorants are strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.892). However, the measurement of intensity represents a quantitative advantage in terms of detecting differences. For some odorants, dilution exerts a critical role in the detection of differences. Significant differences among wines have been found in 30 of the 69 odorants detected in the experiment. Most of these differences are introduced by grape compounds such as methyl benzoate and terpenols, by compounds released by the wood, such as furfural, (Z)-whiskey lactone, Furaneol, 4-propylguaiacol, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, isoeugenol, and ethyl vanillate, by compounds formed by lactic acid bacteria, such as 2,3-butanedione and acetoine, or by compounds formed during the oxidative storage of wines, such as methional, sotolon, o-aminoacetophenone, and phenylacetic acid. The most important differences from a quantitative point of view are due to 2-methyl-3-mercaptofuran, 4-propylguaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and isoeugenol. PMID:11600028

  6. A comprehensive study of red wine properties according to variety.

    PubMed

    Heras-Roger, J; Díaz-Romero, C; Darias-Martín, J

    2016-04-01

    More than 80 properties have been studied in 250 commercial red wines to obtain a reliable description of the characteristics of each variety. Such a large set of data allows the testing of previous assumptions and a thorough investigation about whether varietal discrimination is possible despite the strong influences of ageing and environment. Even though several studies have been performed regarding how variety influences wine phenolics or colour, only a few count on a large data set. Most studies are performed by applying only one technology or on a limited number of wines. In this work, a heterogeneous wine population is thoroughly analysed by using diverse analytical techniques. Therefore, analysis of variance can be applied and patterns are observable in different parameters like flavonols or anthocyanins in spite of the high heterogeneity of the samples. The study confirms that discriminant analysis can be successful in distinguishing wines according to variety in spite of the influences of winemaking techniques and vintage.

  7. Gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative study of the aroma of six premium quality spanish aged red wines.

    PubMed

    Culleré, Laura; Escudero, Ana; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2004-03-24

    The aroma of six premium quality Spanish red wines has been studied by quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and techniques of quantitative chemical analysis. The GC-O study revealed the presence of 85 aromatic notes in which 78 odorants were identified, two of which-1-nonen-3-one (temptatively) and 2-acetylpyrazine-are reported in wine for the first time. Forty out of the 82 quantified odorants may be present at concentrations above their odor threshold. The components with the greatest capacity to introduce differences between these wines are ethyl phenols produced by Brettanomyces yeasts (4-ethylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-propyl-2-methoxyphenol), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), (Z)-3-hexenol, thiols derived from cysteinic precursors (4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, and 3-mercaptohexanol), some components yielded by the wood [(E)-isoeugenol, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, vanillin, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), and (Z)-whiskylactone], and compounds related to the metabolism (2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters of isoacids, 3-methylbutyl acetate) or oxidative degradation of amino acids [phenylacetaldehyde and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon)]. The correlation between the olfactometric intensities and the quantitative data is, in general, satisfactory if olfactometric differences between the samples are high. However, GC-O fails in detecting quantitative differences in those cases in which the olfactive intensity is very high or if odors elute in areas in which the odor chromatogram is too complex.

  8. Chemical, chromatic, and sensory attributes of 6 red wines produced with prefermentative cold soak.

    PubMed

    Casassa, L Federico; Bolcato, Esteban A; Sari, Santiago E

    2015-05-01

    Six red grape cultivars, Barbera D'Asti, Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Merlot, Pinot Noir and Syrah, were produced with or without prefermentative cold soak (CS). Cold soak had no effect on the basic chemical composition of the wines. At pressing, CS wines were more saturated and with a higher red component than control wines. After 1 year of bottle aging, CS wines retained 22% more anthocyanins than control wines, but tannins and total phenolics remained unaffected. Both saturation and the red component of colour were slightly higher in CS wines. From a sensory standpoint, CS only enhanced colour intensity in Barbera D'Asti and Cabernet Sauvignon wines, whereas it diminished colour intensity in Pinot Noir. Cold soak had no effect on perceived aroma, bitterness, astringency, and body of the wines. Principal Component Analysis suggested that the outcome of CS is contingent upon the specific cultivar to which the CS technique is applied.

  9. Study of red wine neuroprotection on astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar; Martín, Sara; Ortega, Teresa; Palomino, Olga M; Prodanov, Marín; Vacas, Visitación; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Carretero, M Emilia

    2009-12-01

    Phenolic composition of wine depends not only on the grape variety from which it is made, but on some external factors such as winemaking technology. Red wine possesses the most antioxidant effect because of its high polyphenolic content. The aim of this work is to study for the first time, the neuroprotective activity of four monovarietal Spanish red wines (Merlot (ME), Tempranillo (T), Garnacha (G) and Cabernet-Sauvignon (CS)) through its antioxidant ability, and to relate this neuroprotection to its polyphenolic composition, if possible. The wine effect on neuroprotection was studied through its effect as free radical scavenger against FeSO4, H2O2 and FeSO4 + H2O2. Effect on cell survival was determined by 3(4,5-dimethyltiazol-2-il)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium reduction assay (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay on astrocytes cultures. Results showed that most of the studied wine varieties induced neuroprotection through their antioxidant ability in astrocytes, Merlot being the most active; this variety is especially rich in phenolic compounds, mainly catechins and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Our results show that red wine exerts a protection against oxidative stress generated by different toxic agents and that the observed neuroprotective activity is related to their polyphenolic content.

  10. Portable Electronic Nose to Discriminate Artificial Aged Wine from Barrel-Aged Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. P.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.; Horrillo, M. C.

    2011-09-01

    A novel portable electronic nose is presented as a fast tool to differentiate traditional aged wines from artificial aged wines. The instrument we have developed for testing the wines is a general purpose wireless portable electronic nose base on micromechanical tin oxide sensors. This system may discriminate among the wine samples obtained with the different aging methods.

  11. Classification of red wines using suitable markers coupled with multivariate statistic analysis.

    PubMed

    Geana, Elisabeta Irina; Popescu, Raluca; Costinel, Diana; Dinca, Oana Romina; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Stefanescu, Ioan; Artem, Victoria; Bala, Camelia

    2016-02-01

    Methodologies for chemometric classification of five authentic red wine varieties from Murfatlar wine center, Romania, young and aged are reported. The discriminant analysis based on several anthocyanins, organic acids, (13)C/(12)C, (18)O/(16)O and D/H isotopic ratios, (1)H and (13)C NMR fingerprints revealed a very satisfactory categorization of the wines, both in terms of variety and vintage, thus illustrating the validity of selected variables for wine authentication purposes. LDA applied to the combined data shows 85.7% classification of wines according to grape variety and 71.1% classification of wines according to vintage year, including a control wine set for each categorization, thus allowing an accurate interpretation of the data. Thereby, anthocyanins, certain anthocyanin ratios, oxalic, shikimic, lactic, citric and succinic acids, sugars like glucose, amino acids like histidine, leucine, isoleucine and alanine, and also 2,3-butanediol, methanol, glycerol and isotopic variables were significant for classification of wines.

  12. Influence of Grape Maturity on Complex Carbohydrate Composition of Red Sparkling Wines.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Williams, Pascale; Doco, Thierry

    2016-06-22

    This paper studied how grape maturity affected complex carbohydrate composition during red sparkling wine making and wine aging. Grape ripening stage (premature and mature grapes) showed a significant impact on the content, composition, and evolution of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides of sparkling wines. Polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, mannoproteins, rhamnogalacturonans II, and oligosaccharides in base wines increased with maturity. For both maturity stages, polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, and the glucuronic acid glycosyl residue of the oligosaccharides were the major carbohydrates detected in all vinification stages. The total glycosyl content of oligosaccharides decreased during the whole period of aging on yeast lees. The reduction of polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose and rhamnogalacturonans type II during the aging was more pronounced in mature samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the polysaccharide and oligosaccharide composition of red sparkling wines.

  13. Influence of Grape Maturity on Complex Carbohydrate Composition of Red Sparkling Wines.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Williams, Pascale; Doco, Thierry

    2016-06-22

    This paper studied how grape maturity affected complex carbohydrate composition during red sparkling wine making and wine aging. Grape ripening stage (premature and mature grapes) showed a significant impact on the content, composition, and evolution of polysaccharides and oligosaccharides of sparkling wines. Polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, mannoproteins, rhamnogalacturonans II, and oligosaccharides in base wines increased with maturity. For both maturity stages, polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose, and the glucuronic acid glycosyl residue of the oligosaccharides were the major carbohydrates detected in all vinification stages. The total glycosyl content of oligosaccharides decreased during the whole period of aging on yeast lees. The reduction of polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose and rhamnogalacturonans type II during the aging was more pronounced in mature samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the polysaccharide and oligosaccharide composition of red sparkling wines. PMID:27226011

  14. Moderate red wine consumption improves hemorheological parameters in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Toth, A; Sandor, B; Papp, J; Rabai, M; Botor, D; Horvath, Zs; Kenyeres, P; Juricskay, I; Toth, K; Czopf, L

    2014-01-01

    Pieces of epidemiological evidence have supported that moderate red wine consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases (French-paradox). Our previous in vitro experiment has demonstrated favourable hemorheological effects of red wine, alcohol-free red wine extract and ethanol. Thirty-nine healthy, non-smoking male volunteers between 18-40 years were assigned into two groups: control group had drunk water, while red wine group had consumed 2 dl of red wine each day at dinner for 3 weeks. No alcohol had been drunk for one week prior to the study. Blood was obtained in the morning of the first and last day. Hematocrit (Hct), plasma (PV) and whole blood viscosity (WBV) (Hevimet 40 capillary viscometer), red blood cell (RBC) aggregation (Myrenne and LORCA aggregometer) and deformability (LORCA ektacytometer) were measured and Hct/WBV ratio was calculated to determine oxygen carrying capacity. Hct was adjusted to 40%. Hct and PV were not affected. WBV remained unchanged in controls, but it considerably decreased in the red wine group compared to the 3-week control group, while Hct/WBV ratio became significantly higher in the red wine group compared to the control (p < 0.05). RBC aggregation significantly decreased in the red wine group and became significantly lower compared to the 3-week controls (p < 0.05). Red wine significantly increased RBC deformability (p < 0.05) at high shear stress. Our results show that moderate red wine consumption has beneficial effects on hemorheological parameters which may contribute to the French-paradox.

  15. Sensory interactions between six common aroma vectors explain four main red wine aroma nuances.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Campo, Eva; Herrero, Paula; de la Fuente, Arancha; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2016-05-15

    This work aims at assessing the aromatic sensory dimensions linked to 6 common wine aroma vectors (N, norisoprenoids; A, branched acids; F, enolones; E, branched ethyl esters; L, fusel alcohols, M, wood compounds) varying in their natural range of occurrence. Wine models were built by adding the vectors at two levels (fractional factorial design 2(VI)) to a de-aromatised aged red wine. Twenty other different models were evaluated by descriptive analysis. Red, black and dried fruits and woody notes were satisfactorily reproduced. Individual vectors explained just 15% of the sensory space, mostly dependent on perceptual interactions. N influences dried and black fruits and suppresses red fruits. A suppresses black fruits and enhances red and dried fruits. F exerts a major role on red fruits. E suppresses dried fruits and modulates black fruits. L is revealed as a strong suppressor of red fruits and particularly of woody notes.

  16. Extraction of phenolics and changes in antioxidant activity of red wines during vinification.

    PubMed

    Burns, J; Gardner, P T; Matthews, D; Duthie, G G; Lean, M E; Crozier, A

    2001-12-01

    The moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages has been associated with protection against the development of coronary heart disease. Although alcohol itself can help prevent coronary heart disease through a number of mechanisms, red wine appears to offer protection above and beyond that attributable to alcohol alone. Red wine is a complex fluid containing grape, yeast, and wood-derived phenolic compounds, the majority of which have been recognized as potent antioxidants. The aim of this study was to investigate the major phenolic contributors to the antioxidant activity of wine. To this end, four wines were followed during the first 7-9 days of vinification. Individual phenolic compounds were quantified by HPLC, and antioxidant activity was determined by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. The extraction of the phenolics was found to be influenced by vinification procedure, grape quality, and grape variety. Although fermenting wines reached a total phenolic content comparable to that of a bottled wine after 9 days of vinification, the antioxidant activity was significantly lower than that of a finished wine. This suggests that the larger polyphenolic complexes and condensation products that appear during aging make a sizable contribution to the overall antioxidant activity of red wines. PMID:11743766

  17. Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines.

    PubMed

    Garaguso, Ivana; Nardini, Mirella

    2015-07-15

    Wine exerts beneficial effects on human health when it is drunk with moderation. Nevertheless, wine may also contain components negatively affecting human health. Among these, sulfites may induce adverse effects after ingestion. We examined total polyphenols and flavonoids content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of eight organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to those of eight conventional red wines. Polyphenols and flavonoids content were slightly higher in organic wines in respect to conventional wines, however differences did not reach statistical significance. The phenolic acids profile was quite similar in both groups of wines. Antioxidant activity was higher in organic wines compared to conventional wines, although differences were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition are comparable to conventional red wines with regard to the total polyphenols and flavonoids content, the phenolics profile and the antioxidant activity.

  18. Identification, content and distribution of anthocyanins and low molecular weight anthocyanin-derived pigments in Spanish commercial red wines.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Vega, Dora; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2014-09-01

    The content and distribution of low molecular weight red wine pigments (anthocyanins, flavanol-anthocyanins adducts and pyranoanthocyanins) has been analysed in 283 wine samples. A total of 90 red wine pigments were identified and up to 68 of them quantified in most of the wine samples. The content of the different pigments classes accounted for wide ranges of values, because of the diversity of the commercial wines regarding grape cultivar and age. Garnacha young wines were prone to contain higher hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanin concentrations. The aging had an effect of making uniform the concentrations and molar percentages of every type of pigments, and only slight differences among wine groups were found for B-type vitisins (highest values for Syrah wines) and 10-hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins (highest values for Merlot wines). Among Tempranillo wines, the ethylidene-bridged flavanol-anthocyanin adducts were the most affected by disappearance during aging, whereas hydroxyphenyl-pyranoanthocyanins increased their contribution in most of those aged wines.

  19. Healthy centenarian subjects: the effect of red wine consumption on liver function tests.

    PubMed

    Pinzani, P; Petruzzi, E; Orlando, C; Malentacchi, F; Petruzzi, I; Pazzagli, M; Masotti, G

    2005-01-01

    Liver function is well maintained with increasing age. The aim of our study was to investigate if long-term moderate (red wine consumption influences the most common laboratory tests of liver function in healthy centenarians. Wine consumption habits were classified as moderate red wine drinkers (D) (red wine consumption in the past and present) (no.=3 males, 16 females) and abstainers (A) who never consumed red wine or alcoholic beverages (no.=1 male, 4 females). None were heavy drinkers. Laboratory tests revealed low levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). AST was higher in A (Mean+/-SE=8.40+/-0.32 U/l) in comparison to D (Mean+/-SE=6.25+/-0.72 U/l), but this difference was not statistically significant. Total-bilirubin (Tbil), alkaline phosphatase (AlkP), gamma- glutamyltransferase (GGT) and pseudocholinesterase (CHE) were in the normal range, and there was no difference between D and A. We conclude that red wine consumption in centenarians had no negative effect on circulating liver enzyme activities.

  20. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  1. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  2. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  3. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  4. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  5. Red wine consumption and risk of prostate cancer: the California men's health study.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chun; Haque, Reina; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Caan, Bette J; Poon, Kwun-Yee T; Quinn, Virginia P

    2010-01-01

    Red wine contains polyphenol antioxidants that inhibit prostate cancer development in animal studies. We investigated the effect of red wine intake on the risk of prostate cancer using data prospectively collected in the California Men's Health Study (CMHS). CMHS is a multiethnic cohort of 84,170 men aged 45-69 years who were members of the Kaiser Permanente Southern and Northern California Health Plans. Information on demographic and lifestyle factors was collected using mailed questionnaires between 2002 and 2003. We used Cox models to estimate the effect of red wine on prostate cancer risk, adjusting for potential confounders. A total of 1,340 incident prostate cancer cases identified from Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result-affiliated cancer registries were included in the analyses. We did not find a clear association between red wine intake and risk of prostate cancer. Hazard ratio (HR) estimates for consuming <1 drink/week, > or =1 drink/week but <1 drink/day and > or =1 drink/day were 0.89, 95% confidence interval (0.74-1.07), 0.99 (0.83-1.17) and 0.88 (0.70-1.12), respectively. Further, we observed no linear dose response. The lack of association for red wine intake was consistently observed when we restricted the analyses to those with and without a history of PSA screening. In addition, we also did not observe any association with prostate cancer for beer, white wine, liquor or combined alcoholic beverage intake (HR for combined alcoholic beverage intake of > or =5 drinks/day = 1.16 (0.83-1.63). Neither red wine nor total alcohol consumption were associated with prostate cancer risk in this population of moderate drinkers.

  6. A Search for Fine Wines: Discovering Close Red Dwarf-White Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Mark; Finch, C. T.; Hambly, N. C.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.; Riedel, A. R.; Subasavage, J. P.; Winters, J. G.; RECONS

    2012-01-01

    Like fine wines, stars come in both red and white varieties. Here we present initial results of the Fine Wines Project that targets red dwarf-white dwarf pairs. The two scientific goals of Fine Wines are (1) to develop methods to estimate ages for red dwarfs based on the cooling ages of the white dwarfs, and (2) to identify suitable pairs for dynamical mass determinations of white dwarfs to probe their interior structures. Here we focus on the search for Fine Wines, including sample selection, elimination of false positives, and initial reconnaissance. The sample was extracted via color-color plots from a pool of more than 30,000 proper motion systems examined during the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) and UCAC3 Proper Motion (UPM) surveys. The initial sample of 75 best candidates is being observed for BVRI photometry and 3500-9500 A spectroscopy to confirm whether or not the systems are red dwarf-white dwarf pairs. Early results indicate that roughly 50% of the candidates selected are indeed Fine Wine systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grant AST 09-08402 and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  7. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Doulia, Danae S; Anagnos, Efstathios K; Liapis, Konstantinos S; Klimentzos, Demetrios A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures. PMID:27262281

  8. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    PubMed

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent.

  9. On the effects of higher alcohols on red wine aroma.

    PubMed

    de-la-Fuente-Blanco, Arancha; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    This work aims to assess the aromatic sensory contribution of the four most relevant wine higher alcohols (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, methionol and β-phenylethanol) on red wine aroma. The four alcohols were added at two levels of concentration, within the natural range of occurrence, to eight different wine models (WM), close reconstitutions of red wines differing in levels of fruity (F), woody (W), animal (A) or humidity (H) notes. Samples were submitted to discriminant and descriptive sensory analysis. Results showed that the contribution of methionol and β-phenylethanol to wine aroma was negligible and confirmed the sensory importance of the pair isobutanol-isoamyl alcohol. Sensory effects were only evident in WM containing intense aromas, demonstrating a strong dependence on the aromatic context. Higher alcohols significantly suppress strawberry/lactic/red fruity, coconut/wood/vanilla and humidity/TCA notes, but not the leather/animal/ink note. The spirit/alcoholic/solvent character generated by higher alcohols has been shown to be wine dependent. PMID:27211627

  10. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging

    PubMed Central

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  11. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging.

    PubMed

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air-liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  12. Volatile compounds of red wines macerated with Spanish, American, and French oak chips.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2009-07-22

    The volatile composition of a red wine aged for 2 months with three different Spanish oak chips (Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus petraea) from different regions of Castilla y León was compared with that of wines aged with American and French chips. In general, the extraction kinetics showed that the maximum concentration of the volatile compounds extracted from wood can be reached in only 1 month. In the final wines, the levels of furanic aldehydes and eugenol were higher in the wines macerated with Spanish chips, whereas cis-whiskey-lactone, vanillin, and methyl vanillate showed higher levels in wines treated with American chips. Among the wines treated with the different Spanish chips, the differences observed in the volatile composition were more related to the geographical origin of the forest than to the botanical species. In general, the wines macerated with Spanish chips showed levels of oak-related volatile compounds that were more similar to those macerated with French chips than to those macerated with American chips.

  13. Volatile compounds of red wines macerated with Spanish, American, and French oak chips.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2009-07-22

    The volatile composition of a red wine aged for 2 months with three different Spanish oak chips (Quercus pyrenaica and Quercus petraea) from different regions of Castilla y León was compared with that of wines aged with American and French chips. In general, the extraction kinetics showed that the maximum concentration of the volatile compounds extracted from wood can be reached in only 1 month. In the final wines, the levels of furanic aldehydes and eugenol were higher in the wines macerated with Spanish chips, whereas cis-whiskey-lactone, vanillin, and methyl vanillate showed higher levels in wines treated with American chips. Among the wines treated with the different Spanish chips, the differences observed in the volatile composition were more related to the geographical origin of the forest than to the botanical species. In general, the wines macerated with Spanish chips showed levels of oak-related volatile compounds that were more similar to those macerated with French chips than to those macerated with American chips. PMID:19601669

  14. [Antioxidant and antiradical properties of red grape wines].

    PubMed

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Muzychenko, G F; Bessonov, V V; Khanferyan, R A

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the results of studies of the antioxidant and antiradical capacity of red table wines. It is shown that the antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines due to the varieties of grapes and processing technologies. A correlation between the concentration of phenolic components of the complex and antiradical properties, as well as antioxidant and antiradical properties of red wines has been established. Antioxidant and antiradical properties were higher in variants with the highest concentration of the most important components of a phenolic complex--catechins and tannins. Their greatest content has been identified in the wine materials Saperavi made on technologies which can extract components polyphenol complex not only from grape skin, and grape seed (seed) containing ellagitannins and gallocatechin (using Vinificator company Padovan; prepared by fermenting mash irrigation heated mash, using a fermentation mash by Fludase). Depending on the grape varieties and production technology, the antioxidant activity varied by more than 30%. These data indicate that the technology can increase the production of wine intravarietal (for grapes) antioxidant activity of 10 to 20%. PMID:26841558

  15. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement. PMID:24915355

  16. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.

  17. Removal of Brettanomyces bruxellensis from red wine using membrane filtration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While sulfites help limit growth of the spoilage yeast, Brettanomyces, SO2 has been reported to decrease cell size, thereby potentially decreasing the porosities of filtration membranes required for removal. B. bruxellensis strains B1b and F3 were inoculated into red wines and after 12 days, half th...

  18. Volatile phenols depletion in red wine using molecular imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Rafaela; Dopico-García, Sonia; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; López-Vilariño, José M; González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Cela-Pérez, Concepción; Silva, Luís R

    2015-12-01

    Wines can be modified by microorganisms during the ageing process, by producing off-flavours like volatile phenols (VP), leading to their deterioration, with great economic losses. The development of methods to recover wines affected by unwanted VP became an important target. Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic materials with artificially-generated recognition sites for selective extraction of organic compounds from different matrices. In this work, two MIPs to remove unwanted VP from wines were developed and their effects were evaluated. Volatile compounds were determined by GC-FID and GC-IT/MS and phenolic compounds (non-coloured and anthocyanins) by HPLC-DAD. The treatment with MIP-4EG and MIP-4EP significantly reduced the content of 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol, respectively. Nevertheless, the changes observed in wine non-coloured and coloured phenolics and sensorial analysis indicate that their specificity and selectivity regarding off-flavours still needs to be improved. PMID:26604347

  19. Polyphenolic compounds as chemical markers of wine ageing in contact with cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Martínez, J; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-01-15

    The nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of four red wines, one white, and one rosé aged using barrels and chips of cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS, to identify the phenolic compounds that woods other than oak contribute to wines, and if some of them can be used as chemical markers of ageing with them. A total of 68 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were identified, 15 found only in wines aged with acacia wood, 6 with cherry wood, and 1 with chestnut wood. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify wines aged in contact with these woods. In addition, some differences in the nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of wines were detected related to both the levels of compounds provided by each wood species and the different evolution of flavonols and flavanols in wines during ageing in barrels or in contact with chips.

  20. Towards the Fecal Metabolome Derived from Moderate Red Wine Intake

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Muñoz-González, Irene; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J.; Moreno-Arribas, María Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2014-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols, including red wine phenolic compounds, are extensively metabolized during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract; and their biological effects at the gut level (i.e., anti-inflammatory activity, microbiota modulation, interaction with cells, among others) seem to be due more to their microbial-derived metabolites rather than to the original forms found in food. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds exert at the gut level, this paper summarizes the changes observed in the human fecal metabolome after an intervention study consisting of a daily consumption of 250 mL of wine during four weeks by healthy volunteers (n = 33). It assembles data from two analytical approaches: (1) UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of phenolic metabolites in fecal solutions (targeted analysis); and (2) UHPLC-TOF MS analysis of the fecal solutions (non-targeted analysis). Both approaches revealed statistically-significant changes in the concentration of several metabolites as a consequence of the wine intake. Similarity and complementarity between targeted and non-targeted approaches in the analysis of the fecal metabolome are discussed. Both strategies allowed the definition of a complex metabolic profile derived from wine intake. Likewise, the identification of endogenous markers could lead to new hypotheses to unravel the relationship between moderate wine consumption and the metabolic functionality of gut microbiota. PMID:25532710

  1. [Antioxidant activity of different types of red grape wines].

    PubMed

    Ageeva, N M; Markosov, V A; Avidzba, A M; Ogay, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    This article represented the data about antioxidant activity in the red table and liqueurfaults, prepared from the types of grapes of Cabernet, Merlot and Saperavi. The antioxidant activity of faults in the conversion to TROLOX, the synthetic analog of gallic acid, was determined by voltammetric method. The determination of antioxidant activity was conducted in the young faults (through 2 month after the completion of fermentation) and through half a year the storage without the air inlet. It has been established that the value of antioxidant activity depended on the type of grapes and technology of the production of wine. It was shown that the addition of ethyl alcohol in the production of wines such as Cahors ensured an increase in the extraction of phenol connections from the skin of grapes. This lead to an increase of the antioxidant activity in the Cahors wines in the comparison with the table wine. During the storage of faults the value of antioxidant activity decreased. In the fault cahors wine it remained at the higher level. PMID:27228712

  2. Identification and quantification of impact odorants of aged red wines from Rioja. GC-olfactometry, quantitative GC-MS, and odor evaluation of HPLC fractions.

    PubMed

    Aznar, M; López, R; Cacho, J F; Ferreira, V

    2001-06-01

    An XAD-4 extract from a 5-year-old wine from Rioja (Spain) was analyzed by aroma extract dilution analysis. Most of the odorants were quantified by GC-MS. A second extract was fractionated in an HPLC system with a C-18 semipreparative column. Fifty fractions were recovered, their alcoholic degree and pH were further adjusted to those of the wine, and those fractions that showed strong odor characteristics were further re-extracted and analyzed by GC-O and GC-MS. Reconstitution experiments were carried out to confirm the role of the odorants detected in the fractions. Fifty-eight odorants were found in the Rioja wine, 52 of which could be identified. Methyl benzoate was found to be a wine aroma constituent for the first time. The most important odorants are 4-ethylguaiacol, (E)-whiskey lactone, 4-ethylphenol, beta-damascenone, fusel alcohols, isovaleric and hexanoic acids, eugenol, fatty acid ethyl esters, and ethyl esters of isoacids, Furaneol, phenylacetic acid, and (E)-2-hexenal. Comparison among the three techniques shows good agreement and demonstrates that they are complementary. PMID:11409988

  3. Bioavailability and Biokinetics of Anthocyanins From Red Grape Juice and Red Wine

    PubMed Central

    Bitsch, Roland

    2004-01-01

    In a comparative study, 9 healthy volunteers ingested a single oral dose of 400 mL red grape juice or red wine with dose-adjusted anthocyanin content (283.5 mg or 279.6 mg, resp) in crossover. The content of anthocyanin glucosides was detected in plasma and urinary excretion. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity was assessed after intake. Based on the plasma content, biokinetic criteria of the single anthocyanins were calculated, such as AUC, cmax, tmax, and the elimination rate t1/2. The urinary excretion of total anthocyanins differed significantly and amounted to 0.18% (red wine) and 0.23% (red grape juice) of the administered dose. Additionally, the plasmatic antioxidant activity increased to higher levels after juice ingestion compared to wine. The intestinal absorption of the anthocyanins of red grape juice seemed to be improved compared to red wine, suggesting a possible synergistic effect of the glucose content of the juice. The improved absorption resulted in an enhanced plasmatic bioactivity. PMID:15577192

  4. Genetic characterization of some Romanian red wine grapevine varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghetea, Ligia Gabriela; Motoc, Rozalia Magda; Niculescu, Ana-Maria; Litescu, Simona Carmen; Duma, Virgil-Florin; Popescu, Carmen Florentina

    2008-04-01

    In our study we have considered three of the most valuable Romanian red wine grapevine cultivars: Feteasca neagra, Feteasca alba and Novac. We have chosen to study grapevine because grapes and wine are an important part of a healthy diet, and because red grapes have the highest content of proanthocyanidins, that act as antioxidants (free radical scavengers) in the human body. Proanthocyanidins possess anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor, anti-viral activities and they present many other confirmed or potential benefits. Genotyping method was applied in order to asses the genetic profile at 14 microsatellite loci, for two cultivars: Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba. In order to achieve this, the HPLC-DAD method was used. The content of anthocyans in grape skin from two cultivars - Feteasca neagra and Novac - was measured. Microsatellite markers have been certified as powerful tools for assessing genetic identities and genetic relationships between grapevine gene pools. Genetic characterization of grapevine cultivars can certify their authenticity and purity, two features that have a direct effect on the quality and value of the finished product, the wine. In our country, this is the first attempt in order to establish a genetic profile for valuable Romanian origin grapevine varieties. In some of the 14 microsatellitic loci, Feteasca neagra and Feteasca alba cultivars presented allele size variants different from the values cited in the literature, proving that these cultivars belong to a geographical distinct gene pool. The content of anthocyans in Feteasca neagra grape skin was significantly higher than in Novac.

  5. Targeted analysis of bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Macedonian red wines.

    PubMed

    Ivanova-Petropulos, Violeta; Ricci, Arianna; Nedelkovski, Dusko; Dimovska, Violeta; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Versari, Andrea

    2015-03-15

    Phenolic composition of twenty-two Macedonian red wines, including ten autochthonous monovarietal Vranec wines produced with different yeasts for fermentation, and twelve wines from international varieties (Syrah, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon) from different wine regions was studied. All wines presented relatively high value of total phenols and antioxidant activity. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified using HPLC-DAD and among them, malvidin-3-glucoside and its derivatives were the major compounds, followed by the petunidin derivatives, while caftaric acid was the predominant cinnamic acid derivative in all wines. The anthocyanin content was mainly affected by the grape variety and to a less extent by the yeast used in fermentation. In particular, the use of locally isolated yeasts affected higher amount of anthocyanins and phenolic acids compared to the wines fermented with commercial yeasts. Principal Component Analysis showed a satisfactory grouping of red wines according to the grape variety.

  6. Release of ( sup 14 C)5-hydroxytryptamine from human platelets by red wine

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, J.; Glover, V.; Sandler, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Red wine, at a final dilution of 1/50, caused released of ({sup 14}C)5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from preloaded platelets, an effect which was not observed with any white wines or beers tested. Since 5-HT, is probably released from body stores during migraine attacks and red wine is known to provoke migraine episodes in susceptible individuals, release of 5-HT, possibly from central stores, could represent a plausible mechanism for its mode of action.

  7. Ultrasonic monitoring of malolactic fermentation in red wines.

    PubMed

    Novoa-Díaz, D; Rodríguez-Nogales, J M; Fernández-Fernández, E; Vila-Crespo, J; García-Álvarez, J; Amer, M A; Chávez, J A; Turó, A; García-Hernández, M J; Salazar, J

    2014-08-01

    The progress of malolactic fermentation in red wines has been monitored by using ultrasonic techniques. The evolution of ultrasonic velocity of a tone burst 1MHz longitudinal wave was measured, analyzed and compared to those parameters of oenological interest obtained simultaneously by analytical methods. Semi-industrial tanks were used during measurements pretending to be in real industrial conditions. Results showed that the ultrasonic velocity mainly changes as a result of the conversion by lactic acid bacteria of malic acid into lactic acid and CO2. Overall, the present study has demonstrated the potential of the ultrasonic technique in monitoring the malolactic fermentation process.

  8. Free radical generation induced by ultrasound in red wine and model wine: An EPR spin-trapping study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-An; Shen, Yuan; Fan, Xue-hui; Martín, Juan Francisco García; Wang, Xi; Song, Yun

    2015-11-01

    Direct evidence for the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl radicals by ultrasound in red wine and air-saturated model wine is presented in this paper. Free radicals are thought to be the key intermediates in the ultrasound processing of wine, but their nature has not been established yet. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrrolin N-oxide (DMPO) was used for the detection of hydroxyl free radicals and 1-hydroxylethyl free radicals. Spin adducts of hydroxyl free radicals were detected in DMPO aqueous solution after sonication while 1-hydroxylethyl free radical adducts were observed in ultrasound-processed red wine and model wine. The latter radical arose from ethanol oxidation via the hydroxyl radical generated by ultrasound in water, thus providing the first direct evidence of the formation of 1-hydroxylethyl free radical in red wine exposed to ultrasound. Finally, the effects of ultrasound frequency, ultrasound power, temperature and ultrasound exposure time were assessed on the intensity of 1-hydroxylethyl radical spin adducts in model wine.

  9. Effect of fining on the colour and pigment composition of young red wines.

    PubMed

    González-Neves, Gustavo; Favre, Guzmán; Gil, Graciela

    2014-08-15

    This work aimed to evaluate the effect of four fining agents on the colour and pigment composition of red wines of Tannat. The wines were analysed 15 days after fining and immediately after separation of sediments and bottling. Colour was evaluated by spectrophotometry and polyphenols were analysed by spectrophotometry and HPLC-DAD. The colour intensity of wine was significantly decreased by bentonite and egg albumin. The most remarkable effects on wine phenolic composition were produced by bentonite and gelatin, which significantly decreased anthocyanin and tannin concentrations, respectively. Results show that each fining agent has very different impact on the wine attributes, and their effects depended as well on the composition of the clarified wine. The use of non-traditional agents of fining, as vegetable proteins, may have less impact on the colour and anthocyanin content of red wines.

  10. Effect of hydroxytyrosol on quality of sulfur dioxide-free red wine.

    PubMed

    Raposo, R; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; Garde-Cerdán, T; Puertas, B; Moreno-Rojas, J M; Gonzalo-Diago, A; Guerrero, R F; Ortiz, V; Cantos-Villar, E

    2016-02-01

    In this work, the feasibility of two commercial products enriched in hydroxytyrosol (HT) as alternative to sulfur dioxide in Syrah red wines was evaluated. The HT enriched products came from synthesis and from olive waste. Wines treated with HT were compared with wines treated with sulfur dioxide at two winemaking stages: bottling and after 6 months of storage in bottle. Minor differences were found in enological parameters and volatile composition (esters, alcohols and acids). Significant differences were observed in color related parameters and sensory analysis. HT wines improved color parameters as well as scents and tasting at bottling. However, after 6 months of storage in bottle HT wines were more oxidized than SO2 wines. The olfactometry profile of HT wines supported sensory analysis. HT wines showed new odorant zones from both the added product and oxidation.

  11. Serum antioxidant capacity is increased by consumption of strawberries, spinach, red wine or vitamin C in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Cao, G; Russell, R M; Lischner, N; Prior, R L

    1998-12-01

    It is often assumed that antioxidant nutrients contribute to the protection afforded by fruits, vegetables, and red wine against diseases of aging. However, the effect of fruit, vegetable and red wine consumption on the overall antioxidant status in human is unclear. In this study we investigated the responses in serum total antioxidant capacity following comsumption of strawberries (240 g), spinach (294 g), red wine (300 ml) or vitamin C (1250 mg) in eight elderly women. Total antioxidant capacity was determined using different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay and ferric reducing ability (FRAP) assay. The results showed that the total antioxidant capacity of serum determined as ORAC, TEAC and FRAP, using the area under the curve, increased significantly by 7-25% during the 4-h period following consumption of red wine, strawberries, vitamin C or spinach. The total antioxidant capacity of urine determined as ORAC increased (P < 0.05) by 9.6, 27.5, and 44.9% for strawberries, spinach, and vitamin C, respectively, during the 24-h period following these treatments. The plasma vitamin C level after the strawberry drink, and the serum urate level after the strawberry and spinach treatments, also increased significantly. However, the increased vitamin C and urate levels could not fully account for the increased total antioxidant capacity in serum following the consumption of strawberries, spinach or red wine. We conclude that the consumption of strawberries, spinach or red wine, which are rich in antioxidant phenolic compounds, can increase the serum antioxidant capacity in humans. J. Nutr. 2383-2390, 1998 PMID:9868185

  12. Antioxidant profile of red wines evaluated by total antioxidant capacity, scavenger activity, and biomarkers of oxidative stress methodologies.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Pérez, M Dolores; Muñiz, Pilar; Gonzalez-Sanjosé, Maria L

    2007-07-11

    The study of the antioxidant capacity of foodstuffs requires the use of diverse determination methods to gain a wider picture of their multiple effects. The aim of this work was to evaluate the "antioxidant profile" of red wines applying TAC (total antioxidant capacity) methods: 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, N,N-dimethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenger activities, and biomarkers of oxidative stress methods such as lipid peroxidation inhibition and inhibition of damage to DNA. Furthermore, levels of total polyphenols (TPP) of wines were also evaluated. Three bottles of 107 different Spanish red wines (total samples 321), made from different grape varieties, aging processes, and vintages, were analyzed. The validation of TAC methods, the first step in this work, provided a good linearity, proportionality, and low detection limits. Among these methods, the ABTS was the most satisfactory for its rapidity, cost, and precision. All wines showed an important capacity to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and were capable of blocking superoxide radicals but with 10 times lower intensity. Wines also showed important protective action on biomarkers of oxidative stress; they were much more active to inhibit lipid peroxidation than DNA oxidation. Few statistically significant correlations among levels of TPP and antioxidant properties of wines were detected. Furthermore, values of these correlations were very low.

  13. Simultaneous determination of 20 components in red wine by LC-MS: application to variations of red wine components in decanting.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yan; Li, Qing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Geng, Lulu; Zhao, Xu; Chen, Xiaohui; Bi, Kaishun

    2012-11-01

    The decanting of red wines has a long tradition in red wine service from the perspective of modifying the aroma or taste of a wine. A simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 20 organic acids and polyphenols in decanting red wine. The separation was performed on a Diamonsil C(18) column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) using a mobile phase composed of methanol-0.1% acetic acid under gradient elution. Analysis was performed in selected ion monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization interface. All the linear regressions showed good linear relationships (r(2) > 0.9973) between the peak area and concentration of each marker. The assay was reproducible with overall intra and interday variation of less than 5.0%. The recoveries for the quantified compounds were observed over the range of 92.1-108.3% with RSD values less than 5.7%. The method developed was successfully applied to determine the variations of the 20 components in red wine after decanting in different conditions. Concentrations of most organic acids and polyphenols investigated in the red wine were decreased in decanting. In addition, increment of duration, temperature, and light intensity would intensify the changes.

  14. Thiamin analysis in red wine by fluorescence reverse phase-HPLC.

    PubMed

    Liddicoat, Callum; Hucker, Barry; Liang, Hao; Vriesekoop, Frank

    2015-06-15

    The derivatization of thiamin vitamers to their respective thiochrome by ferricyanide to facilitate fluorescence detection following separation by HPLC provides a powerful analytical tool. However the polyphenolic compounds in red wine readily interact with ferricyanide, reducing the effectiveness of ferricyanide oxidation in the derivatization of thiamin. We describe a method to facilitate the removal of polyphenolic compounds that interfere with the ferricyanide derivatization of thiamin. Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone afforded the total removal of phenolic compounds from red wines and allowed a spike recovery of thiamin vitamers (101% for thiamin; 104% for TMP; and 100% for TDP) in a wide range of red wines. This research found that Merlot styles of red wine contained the highest concentration of total thiamin (29.01 ng/mL) while Pinot Noir wines contained the lowest total concentration (8.27 ng/mL).

  15. Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics. 1. Tannin and total phenolics concentrations.

    PubMed

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Dambergs, Robert G; Cozzolino, Daniel; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-01

    Measuring chemical composition is a common approach to support decisions about allocating foods and beverages to grades related to market value. Red wine is a particularly complex beverage, and multiple compositional attributes are needed to account for its sensory properties, including measurement of key phenolic components such as anthocyanins, total phenolics, and tannin, which are related to color and astringency. Color has been shown to relate positively to red wine grade; however, little research has been presented that explores the relationship between astringency-related components such as total phenolic or tannin concentration and wine grade. The aim of this research has been to investigate the relationship between the wine grade allocations of commercial wineries and total phenolic and tannin concentrations, respectively, in Australian Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Total phenolic and tannin concentrations were determined using the methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and then compared to wine grade allocations made by winemaker panels during the companies' postvintage allocation process. Data were collected from wines produced by one Australian wine company over the 2005, 2006, and 2007 vintages and by a further two companies in 2007 (total wines = 1643). Statistical analysis revealed a positive trend toward higher wine grade allocation and wines that had higher concentrations of both total phenolics and tannin, respectively. This research demonstrates that for these companies, in general, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines allocated to higher market value grades have higher total phenolics and higher tannin concentrations and suggests that these compositional parameters should be considered in the development of future multiparameter decision support systems for relevant commercial red wine grading processes. In addition, both tannin and total phenolics would ideally be included because although, in general, a positive relationship

  16. Dealcoholated red wine induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in an osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, I; Russo, M; Bilotto, S; Spagnuolo, C; Scognamiglio, A; Palumbo, R; Nappo, A; Iacomino, G; Moio, L; Russo, G L

    2013-10-01

    Until recently, the supposed preventive effects of red wine against cardiovascular diseases, the so-called "French Paradox", has been associated to its antioxidant properties. The interest in the anticancer capacity of polyphenols present in red wine strongly increased consequently to the enormous number of studies on resveratrol. In this study, using lyophilized red wine, we present evidence that its anticancer effect in a cellular model is mediated by apoptotic and autophagic cell death. Using a human osteosarcoma cell line, U2Os, we found that the lyophilized red wine was cytotoxic in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum effect in the range of 100-200 μg/ml equivalents of gallic acid. A mixed phenotype of types I/II cell death was evidenced by means of specific assays following treatment of U2Os with lyophilized red wine, e.g., autophagy and apoptosis. We found that cell death induced by lyophilized red wine proceeded through a mechanism independent from its anti-oxidant activity and involving the inhibition of PI3K/Akt kinase signaling. Considering the relative low concentration of each single bioactive compound in lyophilized red wine, our study suggests the activation of synergistic mechanism able to inhibit growth in malignant cells.

  17. Grapevine-shoot stilbene extract as a preservative in red wine.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Rafaela; Ruiz-Moreno, María José; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Puertas, Belén; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Guerrero, Raúl; Ortíz, Víctor; Cantos-Villar, Emma

    2016-04-15

    This paper reports the use of a grapevine-shoot stilbene extract (Vineatrol®) as a preservative in red wine. Its effectiveness to preserve red wine quality under two different winemaking systems (traditional and Ganimede) was studied at bottling and after twelve months of storage in bottle. Enological parameters, color related parameters, volatile composition, sensory analysis and olfactometric profile were evaluated. At bottling wines treated with Vineatrol showed higher color related parameters and higher score in sensory analysis than those treated with SO2. The use of SO2 increased ester and alcohol volatile compounds in relation to the use of Vineatrol. Wine olfactometric profile was modified by Vineatrol addition. Two new odorant zones with high modified frequency appeared in wines treated with Vineatrol. After 12months of storage in bottle, wines treated with Vineatrol showed parameters related to oxidation. The weak point of the process seemed to be the evolution during the storage in bottle.

  18. Grapevine-shoot stilbene extract as a preservative in red wine.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Rafaela; Ruiz-Moreno, María José; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa; Puertas, Belén; Moreno-Rojas, José Manuel; Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Guerrero, Raúl; Ortíz, Víctor; Cantos-Villar, Emma

    2016-04-15

    This paper reports the use of a grapevine-shoot stilbene extract (Vineatrol®) as a preservative in red wine. Its effectiveness to preserve red wine quality under two different winemaking systems (traditional and Ganimede) was studied at bottling and after twelve months of storage in bottle. Enological parameters, color related parameters, volatile composition, sensory analysis and olfactometric profile were evaluated. At bottling wines treated with Vineatrol showed higher color related parameters and higher score in sensory analysis than those treated with SO2. The use of SO2 increased ester and alcohol volatile compounds in relation to the use of Vineatrol. Wine olfactometric profile was modified by Vineatrol addition. Two new odorant zones with high modified frequency appeared in wines treated with Vineatrol. After 12months of storage in bottle, wines treated with Vineatrol showed parameters related to oxidation. The weak point of the process seemed to be the evolution during the storage in bottle. PMID:26675846

  19. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterization of wines from four Spanish denominations of origin, aged in Spanish Rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam; Poveda, Pilar; Perez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of almost 40 oak-related volatile compounds and the sensorial characteristics of red wines from four Spanish denominations of origin (DOs) (Bierzo, Toro, Ribera de Duero, and Rioja) during aging in barrels made of Rebollo oak wood, Quercus pyrenaica, were studied and compared to the same wines aged in American and French oak barrels. Each oak wood added unique and special characteristics to the wine, and in addition, each wine showed a different ability to extract the compounds, which result in these characteristics from the oak wood. In general, wines aged in Q. pyrenaica wood were characterized by high levels of eugenol, guaiacol, and other volatile phenols. In regards to compounds like cis-whiskylactone or maltol, the behavior of this wood is very similar to that of American oaks. When considering phenolic aldehydes and ketones, the levels of these compounds are intermediate between those of French and American woods and depend greatly on the type of wine. The type of oak, on the other hand, does not affect the chromatic characteristics of the wines. In sensory analysis, the biggest differences are found in the olfactory phase. Among the four DOs studied, wine aged in Q. pyrenaica presented the highest notes of wood, with more aromas of roasting, toasting, milky coffee, spices, or wine-wood interactions. The wines aged in barrels made of Q. pyrenaica wood were highly regarded, and preference was shown for them over those same wines when they had been aged in barrels of American or French oak.

  20. PH-dependent forms of red wine anthocyanins as antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, T; Harel, S; Akiri, B; Granit, R; Kanner, J

    1999-01-01

    Anthocyanins are one of the main classes of flavonoids in red wines, and they appear to contribute significantly to the powerful antioxidant properties of the flavonoids. In grapes and wines the anthocyanins are in the flavylium form. However, during digestion they may reach higher pH values, forming the carbinol pseudo-base, quinoidal-base, or the chalcone, and these compounds appear to be absorbed from the gut into the blood system. The antioxidant activity of these compounds, in several metal-catalyzed lipid oxidation model systems, was evaluated in comparison with other antioxidants. The pseudo-base and quinoidal-base malvidin 3-glucoside significantly inhibited the peroxidation of linoleate by myoglobin. Both compounds were found to work better than catechin, a well-known antioxidant. In a membrane lipid peroxidation system, the effectiveness of the antioxidant was dependent on the catalyst: In the presence of H(2)O(2)-activated myoglobin, the inhibition efficiency of the antioxidant was malvidin 3-glucoside > catechin > malvidin > resveratrol. However, in the presence of an iron redox cycle catalyzer, the order of effectiveness was resveratrol > malvidin 3-glucoside = malvidin > catechin. The pH-transformed forms of the anthocyanins remained effective antioxidants in these systems, and their I(50) values were between 0.5 and 6.2 microM. PMID:10563851

  1. PH-dependent forms of red wine anthocyanins as antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Lapidot, T; Harel, S; Akiri, B; Granit, R; Kanner, J

    1999-01-01

    Anthocyanins are one of the main classes of flavonoids in red wines, and they appear to contribute significantly to the powerful antioxidant properties of the flavonoids. In grapes and wines the anthocyanins are in the flavylium form. However, during digestion they may reach higher pH values, forming the carbinol pseudo-base, quinoidal-base, or the chalcone, and these compounds appear to be absorbed from the gut into the blood system. The antioxidant activity of these compounds, in several metal-catalyzed lipid oxidation model systems, was evaluated in comparison with other antioxidants. The pseudo-base and quinoidal-base malvidin 3-glucoside significantly inhibited the peroxidation of linoleate by myoglobin. Both compounds were found to work better than catechin, a well-known antioxidant. In a membrane lipid peroxidation system, the effectiveness of the antioxidant was dependent on the catalyst: In the presence of H(2)O(2)-activated myoglobin, the inhibition efficiency of the antioxidant was malvidin 3-glucoside > catechin > malvidin > resveratrol. However, in the presence of an iron redox cycle catalyzer, the order of effectiveness was resveratrol > malvidin 3-glucoside = malvidin > catechin. The pH-transformed forms of the anthocyanins remained effective antioxidants in these systems, and their I(50) values were between 0.5 and 6.2 microM.

  2. Analysis of wine volatile profile by purge-and-trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Application to the analysis of red and white wines from different Spanish regions.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Margarita; Arroyo, Teresa

    2007-09-21

    The purge-and-trap extraction method, coupled to a gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry detection, has been applied to the determination of 26 aromatic volatiles in wine. The method was optimized, validated and applied to the analyses of 40 red and white wines from 7 different Spanish regions. Principal components analyses of data showed the correlation between wines of similar origin.

  3. Identification, amounts, and kinetics of extraction of C-glucosidic ellagitannins during wine aging in oak barrels or in stainless steel tanks with oak chips.

    PubMed

    Jourdes, Michaël; Michel, Julien; Saucier, Cédric; Quideau, Stéphane; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-09-01

    The C-glucosidic ellagitannins are found in wine as a result of its aging in oak barrels or in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. Once dissolved in this slightly acidic solution, the C-glucosidic ellagitannins vescalagin can react with nucleophilic entities present in red wine, such as ethanol, catechin, and epicatechin, to generate condensed hybrid products such as the β-1-O-ethylvescalagin and the flavano-ellagitannins (acutissimin A/B and epiacutissimin A/B), respectively. During this study, we first monitored the extraction kinetic and the evolution of the eight major oak-derived C-glucosidic ellagitannins in red wines aged in oak barrels or in stainless steel tank with oak chips. Their extraction rates appeared to be faster during red wine aging in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. However, their overall concentrations in wines were found higher in the wine aged in barrels. The formation rates of the vescalagin-coupled derivatives were also estimated for the first time under both red wine aging conditions (i.e., oak barrels or stainless steel tanks with oak chips). As observed for the oak-native C-glucosidic ellagitannins, the concentrations of these vescalagin derivatives were higher in the red wine aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. Despite these differences, their relative composition was similar under both red wine aging conditions. Finally, the impact of the oak chips size and toasting level on the C-glucosidic ellagitannins concentration in wine was also investigated.

  4. Red cell aging in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ganzoni, A. M.; Oakes, R.; Hillman, R. S.

    1971-01-01

    Previous studies of red cell structure and metabolism during the aging process have relied upon in vitro techniques of cell separation into various age populations. Probably the most common approach is to isolate the older red cells with the assumption that they are more dense. This may lead to a number of inconsistencies in observations, and may certainly raise questions about possible cell changes secondary to manipulative procedures. For this reason, an experimental system was devised where a normal red cell population could be studied, while aging, in an in vivo environment. The initial red cell mass of a large number of inbred rats was transferred repeatedly into an ever smaller number of animals, making it possible to follow an aging population of red cells up to 48 days while preventing contamination with newly produced cells by suppression of erythropoiesis with transfusion-induced polycythemia. During this period, samples of progressively older red cells could be obtained for measurements of red cell constant. It was noted that the normal rat red cell undergoes both volume reduction and significant hemoglobin content loss with aging. In addition, the hemoglobin concentration within the cell demonstrated an early rise after a return to nearly normal values. These findings are noteworthy in that they help to explain the characteristics of life-spans of cohort labeled red cell populations in small animals, and provide a possible example of a cell's remodeling process within the spleen. PMID:5090053

  5. Putative Role of Red Wine Polyphenols against Brain Pathology in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Caruana, Mario; Cauchi, Ruben; Vassallo, Neville

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders and hence pose remarkable socio-economical burdens to both families and state. Although AD and PD have different clinical and neuropathological features, they share common molecular mechanisms that appear to be triggered by multi-factorial events, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress (OS), and neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to neuronal cell death. Currently, there are no established and validated disease-modifying strategies for either AD or PD. Among the various lifestyle factors that may prevent or slow age-related neurodegenerative diseases, epidemiological studies on moderate consumption of red wine, especially as part of a holistic Mediterranean diet, have attracted increasing interest. Red wine is particularly rich in specific polyphenolic compounds that appear to affect the biological processes of AD and PD, such as quercetin, myricetin, catechins, tannins, anthocyanidins, resveratrol, and ferulic acid. Indeed, there is now a consistent body of in vitro and in vivo data on the neuroprotective effects of red wine polyphenols (RWP) showing that they do not merely possess antioxidant properties, but may additionally act upon, in a multi-target manner, the underlying key mechanisms featuring in both AD and PD. Furthermore, it is important that bioavailability issues are addressed in order for neuroprotection to be relevant in a clinical study scenario. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the major classes of RWP and places into perspective their potential to be considered as nutraceuticals to target neuropathology in AD and PD. PMID:27570766

  6. Identification of ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate in red wines, a compound involved in blackberry aroma.

    PubMed

    Falcao, L D; Lytra, G; Darriet, P; Barbe, J-C

    2012-05-01

    The aroma profile of Bordeaux red wines is known to be marked by blackberry and blackcurrant flavours; this study focused on the fresh blackberry aroma in Bordeaux red wines, using sensory gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and two-dimensional gas chromatography analysis (GC-GC-MS). A previous HPLC fractionation of red wine extracts on a C18 column produced four fractions with blackberry aromas that were then analysed by GC-O, GC-GC-MS and GC-MS. From these fractions, 10 esters, corresponding to red- or black-berry fruit descriptors, were characterised by GC-MS. Ethyl 2-hydroxy-4-methylpentanoate (ethyl leucate, EL) was identified for the first time in red and white table wines as a compound directly associated with a "fresh blackberry" aroma. Its perception thresholds were 900 and 300μg/l, respectively, in dearomatized red wine and model wine solution (alcohol 12%, pH 3.5), and the average concentration in the various wines was ∼400μg/l. Sensory omission tests highlighted the importance of this compound and identified a perceptive interaction with ethyl butanoate.

  7. Analysis of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins content in Romanian red wines: prediction of antioxidant activities and classification of wines using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Hosu, Anamaria; Cristea, Vasile-Mircea; Cimpoiu, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Wine is one of the most consumed beverages over the world containing large quantities of polyphenolic compounds. These compounds are responsible for quality of red wines, influencing the antioxidant activity, astringency, bitterness and colour, their composition in wine being influenced by the varieties, the vintage and the wineries. The aim of the present work is to build software instruments intended to work as data-mining tools for predicting valuable properties of wine and for revealing different wine classes. The developed ANNs are able to reveal the relationships between the concentration of total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins content, associated to the antioxidant activity, and the wine distinctive classes determined by the wine variety, harvesting year or winery. The presented ANNs proved to be reliable software tools for assessment or validation of the wine essential characteristics and authenticity and may be further used to establish a database of analytical characteristics of wines.

  8. Analytical methods and validation for determining trace elements in red wines.

    PubMed

    Santos, Susana; Lapa, Nuno; Alves, Andreia; Morais, João; Mendes, Benilde

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify As, Hg, Cd, Ni and Pb in Portuguese red wines. First, the methods for the quantification of trace elements in red wines were validated. Several pre-treatments were compared, namely a pre-digestion process with HNO(3), a pre-oxidation step with H(2)O(2), and a spiking step of wine samples with a known concentration of the trace elements analyzed. Except for As, it was determined that the quantification of the trace elements does not require a pre-digestion process with HNO(3). For all of the trace elements analyzed, a pre-oxidation step with H(2)O(2) may enable an accurate quantification. The techniques chosen for the quantification of trace elements were hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) for As and Hg, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) for Cd, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for Ni and Pb. In the second stage of this work, 25 Portuguese red wines spanning all of the red wine-producing regions were analyzed for all of the five trace elements referred to above. Only Cd and Pb have shown concentrations above the limit values defined by the "Organization Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin." The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) equation was used to determine in which wine-producing regions that wine consumption can be a problem for public health in terms of the concentrations of the five trace elements analyzed. THQ values have indicated that for the universe of the 25 red wines analyzed no region produces wines that can pose problems for public health, when the Portuguese red wine standard consumption is considered.

  9. Factors affecting culturability, viability, and filterability of Dekkera bruxellensis in red wine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forty-eight commercial Washington red wines suspected of Dekkera bruxellensis contamination, determined by winemakers, were donated for this work. Only eight out of 48 wines were confirmed to contain D. bruxellensis by PCR analysis and DNA sequencing. Nine strains of D. bruxellensis, one Candida par...

  10. Metabolism of nonesterified and esterified hydroxycinnamic acids in red wines by Brettanomyces bruxellensis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While Brettanomyces can metabolize non–esterified hydroxycinnamic acids found in grape musts/wines (caffeic, p–coumaric, and ferulic acids), it was not known whether this yeast could utilize the corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, p–coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively). Red wines fr...

  11. Sensory characterization of young South American red wines classified by varietal and origin.

    PubMed

    Llobodanin, Laura Garcia; Barroso, Lucia Pereira; Castro, Inar Alves

    2014-08-01

    Typicality is the set of sensory characteristics that identify a distinctive type of wine. Thus, the aim of this research was to identify the sensory characteristics that contribute to define typicality of young South American red wines based on their varietal and origin, and to evaluate the effect of the vintage on this identification. To achieve this objective, visual appearance, odor, and taste of 138 wines from 2 vintages were submitted to a sensory evaluation using a descriptive analysis complemented with the frequency of citation method, performed by wine experts. The intensity of 17 odor and taste attributes was evaluated using a 5 points rating structured scale. The panel performance evaluation demonstrated its high level of expertise and reproducibility. The wines were separated into 3 clusters by multivariate analyses. Cluster 1 was primarily composed of Carménère, Malbec, and Syrah wines from Chile. Cluster 2 was predominantly composed of Tannat wines from Uruguay and Brazil, while Cluster 3 contained a higher proportion of Malbec and Merlot wines from Argentina and Brazil. Cabernet Sauvignon was equally distributed into all clusters. Wine experts were able to identify the wines according to their varietal and origin, suggesting that there is typicality in young South American red wines. The combination of descriptive analysis with the frequency of citation was useful in characterizing most of the wines, but the typicality perceived by the panelists was not achieved by multivariate analysis. Vintage did not alter the sensory characterization of the wines, and this result could be due the new viticulture or oenological practices used by the winemakers to compensate the environmental variation.

  12. Cole-Cole Measurement of Dispersion Properties for Quality Evaluation of Red Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kota; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the quality of red wine, measurement of the complex relative permittivity was conducted in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 40 GHz with a network analyzer. Results showed that the Cole-Cole plot of red wine consists of a semicircle at frequencies above 1 GHz and a straight line at frequencies below 1 GHz, which come from the dispersion properties for the water solution of alcohol and ingredients peculiar to red wine, respectively. Based on the Cole-Cole plots measured for seven kinds of red wines made from the same brand of Merlot in different production years, we estimated Debye dispersion parameters to reveal that the alcohol concentration and ingredient property can simultaneously be evaluated from the parameters for the semicircle and straight line, respectively.

  13. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the determination of nitrosamines in red wine.

    PubMed

    Lona-Ramirez, Fernando J; Gonzalez-Alatorre, Guillermo; Rico-Ramírez, Vicente; Perez-Perez, Ma Cristina I; Castrejón-González, Edgar O

    2016-04-01

    N-nitrosamines (NAms) are highly active carcinogens that have been detected in food and beverages. Currently certain studies report their presence in red wine, while others fail to detect their presence. In this study the head space solid phase micro-extraction technique coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was applied to quantify four NAms in different types of red wine. The technique was found to be a simple, precise, fast and environmentally friendly alternative for the quantification of volatile NAms. A factorial analysis was carried out to evaluate the influence of the parameters on the HS-SPME technique. This is the first study that such analysis has been reported and where NAms in red wine have been quantified using HS-SPME-GC-MS. The method was validated by calculating the linearity, limit of detection and quantification. Two of the four NAms analyzed were found to be present in red wine samples.

  14. Discrimination of different red wine by Fourier-transform infrared and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-ling; Chen, Jian-bo; Lei, Yu; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-qin; Noda, Isao

    2010-06-01

    Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) correlation spectroscopy were applied to analyze main components of liquid red wine with different sugar contents and volatilization residues of dry red wine from different manufactures. The infrared spectra, second derivative spectra of dry red wine show the typical peaks of alcohol, while the spectra of sweet wine are composed of the peaks of both alcohol and sugar, and the contribution of sugar enhanced as the increase of sugar content. Using principal component analysis (PCA) method, dry and sweet wine can be readily classified. Analysis of the infrared spectra of the volatilization residues of dry red wine samples from five different manufactures indicates that dry red wine may be composed of glycerol, carboxylic acids or esters and carboxyl ate, at the same time, different dry red wine show different characteristic peaks in the second derivative spectra and 2D IR correlation spectra, which can be used to discriminate the different manufactures and evaluate the quality of wine samples. The results suggested that infrared spectroscopy is a direct and effective method for the analysis of principle components of different red wines and discrimination of different red wines.

  15. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A.

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with -SO3H and -COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas -NH2 and -NR3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on -NR3 and -CHO surfaces. The -OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  16. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wine made from grapes treated with different fungicides.

    PubMed

    Mulero, J; Martínez, G; Oliva, J; Cermeño, S; Cayuela, J M; Zafrilla, P; Martínez-Cachá, A; Barba, A

    2015-08-01

    The effect of treating grapes with six fungicides, applied under critical agricultural practices (CAP) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red wines of Monastrell variety was studied. Vinifications were performed through addition of active dry yeast (ADY). Measurement of phenolic compounds was made with HPLC-DAD. Determination of antioxidant activity was through reaction of the wine sample with the DPPH radical. The wine prepared from grapes treated with quinoxyfen shows a greater increase of phenolic compounds than the control wine. In contrast, the wine obtained from grapes treated with trifloxystrobin showed lower total concentration of phenolic compounds, including stilbenes, whilst treatments with kresoxim-methyl, fluquinconazole, and famoxadone slightly reduced their content. Hence, the use of these last four fungicides could cause a decrease in possible health benefits to consumers. Antioxidant activity hardly varied in the assays with quinoxyfen, fluquinconazole and famoxadone, and decreased in the other wines.

  17. Pathogenesis-Related Proteins Limit the Retention of Condensed Tannin Additions to Red Wines.

    PubMed

    Springer, Lindsay F; Sherwood, Robert W; Sacks, Gavin L

    2016-02-17

    Exogenous additions of condensed tannin (CT) to must or wine are a common winemaking practice, but many studies have reported inexplicably low and variable retention of added CT. We observed that additions of purified CT to red wines can result in the formation of an insoluble precipitate with high nitrogen content. Proteomic analysis of the precipitant identified several classes of pathogenesis-related proteins. Proteins in juices and red wines were quantitated by SDS-PAGE and were highest in native Vitis spp., followed by interspecific hybrids and Vitis vinifera. Wine protein was positively correlated with the ratio of juice protein to the quantity of tannin derived from fruit. The binding of added CT by wine protein could be well modeled by the Freundlich equation. These observations may explain the poor CT retention in previous studies, particularly for interspecific hybrids, and also indicate that protein removal during winemaking may improve exogenous CT retention.

  18. Red wine polyphenols modulate fecal microbiota and reduce markers of the metabolic syndrome in obese patients.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Indias, Isabel; Sánchez-Alcoholado, Lidia; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Andrés-Lacueva, Cristina; Cardona, Fernando; Tinahones, Francisco; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the possible prebiotic effect of a moderate intake of red wine polyphenols on the modulation of the gut microbiota composition and the improvement in the risk factors for the metabolic syndrome in obese patients. Ten metabolic syndrome patients and ten healthy subjects were included in a randomized, crossover, controlled intervention study. After a washout period, the subjects consumed red wine and de-alcoholized red wine over a 30 day period for each. The dominant bacterial composition did not differ significantly between the study groups after the two red wine intake periods. In the metabolic syndrome patients, red wine polyphenols significantly increased the number of fecal bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus (intestinal barrier protectors) and butyrate-producing bacteria (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia) at the expense of less desirable groups of bacteria such as LPS producers (Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae). The changes in gut microbiota in these patients could be responsible for the improvement in the metabolic syndrome markers. Modulation of the gut microbiota by using red wine could be an effective strategy for managing metabolic diseases associated with obesity.

  19. The impact of some wine-making practices on the quality of Vranec red wines from Macedonia produced by the newly-selected local strain "F-78".

    PubMed

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Veličkovska, Sanja Kostadinović; Dimovska, Violeta; Spasov, Hristo

    2016-03-01

    The impact of enological practices (temperature, flipping and the inoculation amount of newly selected yeast F-78 from third-stage selection) on the level of monomeric anthocyanins, total phenolic compounds and the overall taste of fifteen red wines from Macedonian Vranec grape variety were studied. The most important factor which affects the level of monomeric anthocyanins was temperature. The inoculation amount had a positive influence on the phenolic extraction. More inoculation amount leads to faster ethanol formation and acceleration of the anthocyanins extraction. The flipping of the must during fermentation was controversial. The best wine-making procedure for production of the typical for the region high-extractive aged wines included a fermentation temperature of 20-24°C, intensive flipping (5-6 times/24h), and inoculation quantity 3-4% and a fermentation on 20°C, medium flipping (3-4 times/24h) and inoculation quantity 3-4% for production of commercial, young and easy to drink "Beaujoulais" wines.

  20. The impact of some wine-making practices on the quality of Vranec red wines from Macedonia produced by the newly-selected local strain "F-78".

    PubMed

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Veličkovska, Sanja Kostadinović; Dimovska, Violeta; Spasov, Hristo

    2016-03-01

    The impact of enological practices (temperature, flipping and the inoculation amount of newly selected yeast F-78 from third-stage selection) on the level of monomeric anthocyanins, total phenolic compounds and the overall taste of fifteen red wines from Macedonian Vranec grape variety were studied. The most important factor which affects the level of monomeric anthocyanins was temperature. The inoculation amount had a positive influence on the phenolic extraction. More inoculation amount leads to faster ethanol formation and acceleration of the anthocyanins extraction. The flipping of the must during fermentation was controversial. The best wine-making procedure for production of the typical for the region high-extractive aged wines included a fermentation temperature of 20-24°C, intensive flipping (5-6 times/24h), and inoculation quantity 3-4% and a fermentation on 20°C, medium flipping (3-4 times/24h) and inoculation quantity 3-4% for production of commercial, young and easy to drink "Beaujoulais" wines. PMID:26471662

  1. Polyphenols are medicine: Is it time to prescribe red wine for our patients?

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, Alfredo C; Sumpio, Bauer E

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol, specifically red wine, has been suggested to play a key role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and other chronic pathologies, including cancer. Its regular and moderate consumption has been found in numerous epidemiological studies to correlate inversely with vascular disease and mortality, despite the presence of risk factors such as high consumption of saturated fats, elevated smoking and low physical activity. This phenomenon, known as the ‘French Paradox’, would be explained mainly by the high levels of polyphenols present in red wine, making it more advantageous than beer, spirits and even white wine. The habit of having one or two drinks of red wine every day with meals may translate to a longer, healthier and better quality of life. PMID:22477510

  2. Contribution of Monomeric Anthocyanins to the Color of Young Red Wine: Statistical and Experimental Approaches.

    PubMed

    Han, Fu Liang; Li, Zheng; Xu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Monomeric anthocyanin contributions to young red wine color were investigated using partial least square regression (PLSR) and aqueous alcohol solutions in this study. Results showed that the correlation between the anthocyanin concentration and the solution color fitted in a quadratic regression rather than linear or cubic regression. Malvidin-3-O-glucoside was estimated to show the highest contribution to young red wine color according to its concentration in wine, whereas peonidin-3-O-glucoside in its concentration contributed the least. The PLSR suggested that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside under the same concentration resulted in a stronger color of young red wine compared with malvidin-3-O-glucoside. These estimates were further confirmed by their color in aqueous alcohol solutions. These results suggested that delphinidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside were primary anthocyanins to enhance young red wine color by increasing their concentrations. This study could provide an alternative approach to improve young red wine color by adjusting anthocyanin composition and concentration.

  3. Odorant Screening and Quantitation of Thiols in Carmenere Red Wine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry and Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    PubMed

    Pavez, Carolina; Agosin, Eduardo; Steinhaus, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The sensory impact of thiols in Vitis vinifera 'Carmenere' red wines was evaluated. For this purpose, aroma extract dilution analysis was applied to the thiols isolated from a Carmenere red wine by affinity chromatography with a mercurated agarose gel. Results revealed the presence of four odorants, identified as 2-furanylmethanethiol, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, and 2-methyl-3-sulfanyl-1-butanol, with the latter being described here for the first time in Carmenere red wines. Quantitation of the four thiols in the Carmenere wine screened by aroma extract dilution analysis and in three additional Carmenere wines by stable isotope dilution assays resulted in concentrations above the respective orthonasal odor detection threshold values. Triangle tests applied to wine model solutions with and without the addition of the four thiols showed significant differences, thus suggesting that the compounds do have the potential to influence the overall aroma of red wine. PMID:27070203

  4. Odorant Screening and Quantitation of Thiols in Carmenere Red Wine by Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry and Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    PubMed

    Pavez, Carolina; Agosin, Eduardo; Steinhaus, Martin

    2016-05-01

    The sensory impact of thiols in Vitis vinifera 'Carmenere' red wines was evaluated. For this purpose, aroma extract dilution analysis was applied to the thiols isolated from a Carmenere red wine by affinity chromatography with a mercurated agarose gel. Results revealed the presence of four odorants, identified as 2-furanylmethanethiol, 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, 3-sulfanyl-1-hexanol, and 2-methyl-3-sulfanyl-1-butanol, with the latter being described here for the first time in Carmenere red wines. Quantitation of the four thiols in the Carmenere wine screened by aroma extract dilution analysis and in three additional Carmenere wines by stable isotope dilution assays resulted in concentrations above the respective orthonasal odor detection threshold values. Triangle tests applied to wine model solutions with and without the addition of the four thiols showed significant differences, thus suggesting that the compounds do have the potential to influence the overall aroma of red wine.

  5. Oligosaccharides of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell red wines.

    PubMed

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Williams, Pascale; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María; Doco, Thierry

    2015-07-15

    Wine oligosaccharides were recently characterized and their concentrations, their composition and their roles on different wines remain to be determined. The concentration and composition of oligosaccharides in Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines was studied. Oligosaccharide fractions were isolated by high resolution size-exclusion chromatography. The neutral and acidic sugar composition was determined by gas chromatography. The MS spectra of the oligosaccharides were performed on an AccuTOF mass spectrometer. Molar-mass distributions were determined by coupling size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle light scattering device (MALLS) and a differential refractive index detector. Results showed significant differences in the oligosaccharidic fraction from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. This study shows the influence that the grape variety seems have on the quantity, composition and structure of oligosaccharides in the finished wine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to research the oligosaccharides composition of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines.

  6. Oligosaccharides of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell red wines.

    PubMed

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Williams, Pascale; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María; Doco, Thierry

    2015-07-15

    Wine oligosaccharides were recently characterized and their concentrations, their composition and their roles on different wines remain to be determined. The concentration and composition of oligosaccharides in Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines was studied. Oligosaccharide fractions were isolated by high resolution size-exclusion chromatography. The neutral and acidic sugar composition was determined by gas chromatography. The MS spectra of the oligosaccharides were performed on an AccuTOF mass spectrometer. Molar-mass distributions were determined by coupling size exclusion chromatography with a multi-angle light scattering device (MALLS) and a differential refractive index detector. Results showed significant differences in the oligosaccharidic fraction from Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. This study shows the influence that the grape variety seems have on the quantity, composition and structure of oligosaccharides in the finished wine. To our knowledge, this is the first report to research the oligosaccharides composition of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Monastrell wines. PMID:25722170

  7. Phenolic and Chromatic Properties of Beibinghong Red Ice Wine during and after Vinification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Chen; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yuan, Zheng-Yi; Liu, Tao; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2016-01-01

    The phenolic and chromatic characteristics of a special red ice wine made from a Vitis amurensis × V. vinifera hybrid cultivar Beibinghong were studied. Results from two different vintages (2013 and 2014) showed that during vinification, the phenolic acid content increased, while the level of flavonoids (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) reduced by a variable extent. The color intensity and red % decreased together with a decrease in anthocyanin content. This was accompanied by an increase in hue as well as yellow %. The final phenolic content was found to be between 119.54 and 180.93 mg/L, with anthocyanins as the predominant phenolic group (92.06%-93.03%), of which 3,5-O-diglucosidic anthocyanins made up 53.55%-79.04%. Phenolic acids were the primary non-anthocyanin phenolics at about 6.64%-7.5%. The phenolic contents and color parameters of Beibinghong dry red wine and several V. vinifera dry red wines of superior color quality were also used in an attempt to clarify the relationship between phenolics and color in the Beibinghong red ice wine. By using Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA), it was found that 3,5-O-diglucosidic anthocyanins and protocatechuic acid were the only characteristic phenolics that differentiated Beibinghong wines from the other selected red wines from more traditional varieties. They were also the main phenolics to be positively correlated with the hue and yellow % of the wine at the early stages leading into maturation. Their presence might, therefore, explain the relatively high hue and yellow % of Beibinghong ice wine. PMID:27104511

  8. Phenolic and Chromatic Properties of Beibinghong Red Ice Wine during and after Vinification.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-Chen; Li, Si-Yu; He, Fei; Yuan, Zheng-Yi; Liu, Tao; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2016-04-20

    The phenolic and chromatic characteristics of a special red ice wine made from a Vitis amurensis × V. vinifera hybrid cultivar Beibinghong were studied. Results from two different vintages (2013 and 2014) showed that during vinification, the phenolic acid content increased, while the level of flavonoids (flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins) reduced by a variable extent. The color intensity and red % decreased together with a decrease in anthocyanin content. This was accompanied by an increase in hue as well as yellow %. The final phenolic content was found to be between 119.54 and 180.93 mg/L, with anthocyanins as the predominant phenolic group (92.06%-93.03%), of which 3,5-O-diglucosidic anthocyanins made up 53.55%-79.04%. Phenolic acids were the primary non-anthocyanin phenolics at about 6.64%-7.5%. The phenolic contents and color parameters of Beibinghong dry red wine and several V. vinifera dry red wines of superior color quality were also used in an attempt to clarify the relationship between phenolics and color in the Beibinghong red ice wine. By using Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis (PCA), it was found that 3,5-O-diglucosidic anthocyanins and protocatechuic acid were the only characteristic phenolics that differentiated Beibinghong wines from the other selected red wines from more traditional varieties. They were also the main phenolics to be positively correlated with the hue and yellow % of the wine at the early stages leading into maturation. Their presence might, therefore, explain the relatively high hue and yellow % of Beibinghong ice wine.

  9. Hypotheses on the effects of enological tannins and total red wine phenolic compounds on Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Krieger-Weber, Sibylle; Déléris-Bou, Magali; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre Louis; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline

    2015-12-01

    Lot of articles report on the impact of polyphenols on wine lactic acid bacteria, but it is clear that the results still remain confusing, because the system is complicated both in term of chemical composition and of diversity of strains. In addition, red wines polyphenols are multiple, complex and reactive molecules. Moreover, the final composition of wine varies according to grape variety and to extraction during winemaking. Therefore it is nearly impossible to deduce their effects on bacteria from experiments in oversimplified conditions. In the present work, effect of tannins preparations, currently considered as possible technological adjuvants, was assessed on growth and malolactic fermentation for two malolactic starters. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory medium and in a white wine. Likewise, impact of total polyphenolic extracts obtained from different grape variety red wines was evaluated in the white wine as culture medium. As expected growth and activity of both strains were affected whatever the additions. Results suggest some interpretations to the observed impacts on bacterial populations. Influence of tannins should be, at least partly, due to redox potential change. Results on wine extracts show the need for investigating the bacterial metabolism of some galloylated molecules. Indeed, they should play on bacterial physiology and probably affect the sensory qualities of wines.

  10. Faecal metabolomic fingerprint after moderate consumption of red wine by healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Girón, Ana; Ibáñez, Clara; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Simó, Carolina; Muñoz-González, Irene; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Bartolomé, Begoña; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria

    2015-02-01

    Faecal metabolome contains information on the metabolites found in the intestine, from which knowledge about the metabolic function of the gut microbiota can be obtained. Changes in the metabolomic profile of faeces reflect, among others, changes in the composition and activity of the intestinal microorganisms. In an effort to improve our understanding of the biological effects that phenolic compounds (including red wine polyphenols) exert at the gut level, in this foodomic study we have undertaken a metabolome characterization of human faeces after moderate consumption of red wine by healthy subjects for 4 weeks. Namely, a nontargeted metabolomic approach based on the use of UHPLC-TOF MS was developed to achieve the maximum metabolite information on 82 human faecal samples. After data processing and statistical analysis, 37 metabolites were related to wine intake, from which 20 could be tentatively or completely identified, including the following: (A) wine compounds, (B) microbial-derived metabolites of wine polyphenols, and (C) endogenous metabolites and/or others derived from other nutrient pathways. After wine consumption, faecal metabolome was fortified in flavan-3-ols metabolites. Also, of relevance was the down regulation of xanthine and bilirubin-derived metabolites such as urobilinogen and stercobilin after moderate wine consumption. As far as we know, this is the first study of the faecal metabolome after wine intake.

  11. Immunochemical and mass spectrometry detection of residual proteins in gluten fined red wine.

    PubMed

    Simonato, Barbara; Mainente, Federica; Tolin, Serena; Pasini, Gabriella

    2011-04-13

    Recently, wheat gluten has been proposed as technological adjuvant in order to clarify wines. However, the possibility that residual gluten proteins remain in treated wines cannot be excluded, representing a hazard for wheat allergic or celiac disease patients. In this work, commercial wheat glutens, in both partially hydrolyzed (GBS-P51) and nonhydrolyzed (Gluvital 21000) forms, were used as fining agents in red wine at different concentrations. Beside immunoenzymatic analyses using anti-gliadin, anti-prolamin antibodies and pooled sera of wheat allergic patients, a method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry has been proposed to detect residues of gluten proteins. Residual gluten proteins were detected by anti-prolamin antibodies, anti-gliadin antibodies and sera-IgE only in the wine treated with GBS-P51 at concentration 50, 150, and 300 g/hL, respectively, whereas no residual proteins were detected by these systems in the wine treated with Gluvital 21000. In contrast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses allowed the detection of proteins in red wines fined down to 1 g/hL of Gluvital 21000 and GBS-P51. Our results indicate that MS methods are superior to immunochemical methods in detecting gluten proteins in wines and that adverse reactions against gluten treated wines cannot be excluded.

  12. Acetobacter oeni sp. nov., isolated from spoiled red wine.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luis R; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Rivas, Raúl; Swings, Jean; Trujillo, Martha E; Willems, Anne; Velázquez, Encarna

    2006-01-01

    A bacterial strain, designated B13T, was isolated from spoiled red wine from the Dão region, Portugal. The strain was Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped and motile. Phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that B13T belonged to the genus Acetobacter within the Alphaproteobacteria. The closest related species was Acetobacter aceti, with 98.4 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. DNA-DNA hybridization showed that B13T constituted a taxon separate from the Acetobacter species with validly published names. The DNA G+C content of B13T was 58.1 mol%. Phenotypic characteristics of B13T allowed its differentiation from the recognized Acetobacter species. B13T produced 5-ketogluconic acid from glucose, but no 2-ketogluconic acid. It produced catalase, but no oxidase. It utilized glycerol, but not maltose, ethanol or methanol as carbon sources. On the basis of the results obtained, B13T represents a novel species for which the name Acetobacter oeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B13T (= LMG 21952T = CECT 5830T).

  13. Astringency reduction in red wine by whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H

    2016-05-15

    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with methylcellulose as a precipitant). The two proteins showed similar selectivity for polyphenols but β-LG did not remove as much catechin. The fining agent was removed completely or to a trace level after centrifugation followed by filtration which minimises its potential allergenicity. In addition, improved understanding of protein-tannin interactions was obtained by fluorescence, size measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Overall this study demonstrates that whey proteins have the potential of reducing astringency in red wine and can find a place in enology.

  14. Astringency reduction in red wine by whey proteins.

    PubMed

    Jauregi, Paula; Olatujoye, Jumoke B; Cabezudo, Ignacio; Frazier, Richard A; Gordon, Michael H

    2016-05-15

    Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing and therefore investigating new applications of whey proteins will contribute towards the valorisation of whey and hence waste reduction. This study shows for the first time a detailed comparison of the effectiveness of gelatin and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) as fining agents. Gelatin was more reactive than whey proteins to tannic acid as shown by both the astringency method (with ovalbumin as a precipitant) and the tannins determination method (with methylcellulose as a precipitant). The two proteins showed similar selectivity for polyphenols but β-LG did not remove as much catechin. The fining agent was removed completely or to a trace level after centrifugation followed by filtration which minimises its potential allergenicity. In addition, improved understanding of protein-tannin interactions was obtained by fluorescence, size measurement and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Overall this study demonstrates that whey proteins have the potential of reducing astringency in red wine and can find a place in enology. PMID:26776007

  15. Role of melatonin, melatonin receptors and STAT3 in the cardioprotective effect of chronic and moderate consumption of red wine.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Kim; Nduhirabandi, Frederic; Adam, Tasneem; Thomas, D Paul; Opie, Lionel H; Lecour, Sandrine

    2015-10-01

    We have recently discovered that melatonin, given acutely and directly to the isolated heart at the concentration found in wine, confers cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). However, whether the presence of melatonin in wine contributes to the cardioprotective effect of chronic and moderate consumption of wine and its signalling mechanisms of protection are unknown. We therefore used both in vivo and in vitro models of I/R to investigate whether the presence of melatonin in red wine may contribute to the cardioprotective effect of chronic and moderate consumption of red wine. Wistar rats and C57black6 mice (WT) received drinking water supplemented daily with a moderate amount of red wine or melatonin given at the concentration found in the red wine. Rats were also pretreated with luzindole, a specific inhibitor of melatonin receptors 1 and 2 (2.3 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally) or prazosin, a specific inhibitor of melatonin receptor type 3 (2.5 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally). After 14 days, hearts were subjected to I/R in vivo or ex vivo. Red wine reduced the infarct size in both rats and WT mice (p < 0.001). Luzindole did not affect wine-induced cardioprotection, while prazosin reduced the infarct sparing effect of red wine (p < 0.05). Furthermore, red wine or melatonin failed to protect tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) receptor 2 knockout or cardiomyocyte specific signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) deficient mice (n.s. vs. control). Our novel findings suggest that the presence of melatonin in red wine contributes to the cardioprotective effect of chronic and moderate consumption of red wine against lethal I/R injuries. This effect is most likely mediated, at least in part, via melatonin receptor 3 and the activation of TNF and STAT3, both key players of the prosurvival and well described SAFE pathway.

  16. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation.

  17. The effect of red and white wine on color changes of nanofilled and nanohybrid resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Tanthanuch, Saijai; Peerasukprasert, Thanwalee; Chanmanee, Nilobon; Chaisomboonphun, Parnchanok; Rodklai, Apisara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the effect of red and white wine on color changes of nanofilled and nanohybrid resin composite. Materials and Methods Sixty specimens of each resin composite were prepared. Baseline data color values were recorded using a spectrophotometer. Three groups of discs (n = 20) were then alternately immersed in red, white wine, and deionized water (as a control) for twenty five minutes and artificial saliva for five minutes for four cycles. Specimens were then stored in artificial saliva for twenty two hours. This process was repeated for five days following immersion in artificial saliva for two days. Subsequently, the process was repeated again. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey's HSD. Results Red wine caused significantly higher color change (ΔE* > 3.3) than did white wine and deionized water (p < 0.05). Nanohybrid resin composites had significantly more color changes than nanofilled resin composite (p < 0.05). Conclusions The effect of red and white wine on the color changes of resin composite restorative materials depended upon the physical and chemical composition of the restorative materials and the types of wine. PMID:27200281

  18. Influence of bottle storage time on colour, phenolic composition and sensory properties of sweet red wines.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Ana; Serratosa, Maria P; Merida, Julieta

    2014-03-01

    Changes in colour and phenolic composition in sweet red wines made from Merlot, Syrah and Tempranillo grapes were studied in order to assess the influence of bottle storage over a period of 12months. For this purpose, wine colour parameters, sensory analysis and concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins, pyranoanthocyanins, methylmethine-mediated condensation adducts, flavan3-ol derivatives and flavonols were measured. Hue increased and red colours decreased with the storage time, particularly over the first 3months. The concentrations of low molecular weight flavan-3-ol derivatives decreased with time due to the effect of their conversion into tannins of high molecular weight. In addition, the glycosylated flavonols decreased through hydrolysis to give the corresponding aglycones. Overall, the concentration of phenolic compounds decreased markedly with storage time, whereas the antioxidant activity in the wines remained constant throughout. A panel of expert tasters judged the colour, aroma and flavour of all initial and final wines to be acceptable.

  19. Physiological Functionalities of Vitis hybrid (Sheridan)-Rubus coreanus Red Wine Made by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Ho; Ahn, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2011-06-01

    Vitis hybrid (Sheridan)-Robus coreanus red wine was vinified by fermentation of a mixture of Vitis hybrid and Robus coreanus must at 25℃ for 10 days. The Vitis hybrid-Robus coreanus red wine had ethanol contents of 10.9%. It had high antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of 57.8% and antioxidant activity of 64.8%. Changes in the physicochemical properties and functionality of the Vitis hybrid-Robus coreanus red wine was investigated during a post-fermentation period of three months. The ACE inhibitory activity of the red wine increased as the post-fermentation period prolonged, and showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity of 70.4% 60 days post-fermentation. However, the antioxidant activity declined significantly to 47.2% during the post-fermentation period of 60 days. In terms of sensory evaluation, the Vitis hybrid-Robus coreanus red wine had the best acceptability 60 days post-fermentation.

  20. Evolution of quality parameters during red wine dealcoholization by osmotic distillation.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Loredana; Russo, Paola; Albanese, Donatella; Di Matteo, Marisa

    2013-09-01

    Osmotic distillation technique was used for the total dealcoholization of a red wine (Aglianico grape variety) up to 0.19 vol.%. The dealcoholization process was performed in subsequent cycles which gave rise wine samples at different alcoholic degrees. The effect of processing on the main chemical and physical properties of Aglianico wine was evaluated. Among wine samples, no significant differences (p<0.05) of oenological parameters such as pH, total acidity were found. Similarly, the total phenolic, flavonoids and tartaric esters content and the composition of organic acids did not show significant differences (p<0.05) during the process. On the contrary, colour intensity and tonality of wine samples changed significantly when the alcohol reduction was over the 6.5 vol.%. Finally, the total dealcoholized wine showed properties similar to Aglianico wine except for the volatile compounds, which decreased over 98%. Hence, flavour enrichment may be required to produce a pleasurable and delicious non alcoholic beverage from wine.

  1. Application of the SPI (Saliva Precipitation Index) to the evaluation of red wine astringency.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Alessandra; Gambuti, Angelita; Moio, Luigi

    2012-12-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the astringency of red wines by means of a SDS-PAGE based-method. The optimization of the in vitro assay, named SPI (Saliva Precipitation Index) that measured the reactivity of salivary proteins towards wine polyphenols, has been performed. Improvements included the choice of saliva:wine ratio, saliva typology (resting or stimulated saliva), and temperature of binding. The LOD (0.05 g/L of condensed tannin) and LOQ (0.1g/L of condensed tannin) for the binding reaction between salivary proteins and tannins added in white wine were also determined. Fifty-seven red wines were analysed by the optimised SPI, the Folin-Ciocalteu Index, the gelatine index, the content of total tannins and the sensory quantitative evaluation of astringency. A significant correlation between the SPI and the astringency of red wines was found (R(2)=0.969), thus indicating that this assay may be useful as estimator of astringency.

  2. Effect of cold pre-fermentative maceration on the color and composition of young red wines cv. Tannat.

    PubMed

    González-Neves, Gustavo; Favre, Guzmán; Gil, Graciela; Ferrer, Milka; Charamelo, Darwin

    2015-06-01

    Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration (CPM) is an interesting winemaking technique to enhance the extraction of pigments, aroma and flavour compounds from grape skins to wine. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration (CPM) on the composition of Tannat red wines produced in Uruguay in several vintages. For this purpose, wines elaborated by CPM were compared with control wines produced by Traditional Maceration (TM) in 4 years. Control wines (TM) were made with classical fermentation on skins. The CPM was carried out with additions of dry ice for 5 days to keep the must at 10 ºC. Wines were analysed at devatting. The impact of CPM on composition and color of wines was different in each year. Color intensity was significantly higher in CPM than control wines in 2007 and 2009 whereas the anthocyanins levels were higher in control wines every year. However, CPM wines had the highest polyphenols contents in 2007, 2009 and 2010 principally due to their catechins and proanthocyanidins contents. Anthocyanin profile was similar in the wines of each vintage, according to the varietal fingerprint. The highest contents of higher alcohols were verified in CPM wines. The Cold Pre-fermentative Maceration could have an important effect on the characteristics of Tannat red wines, although it depends strongly on the composition of the grapes of origin. PMID:26028726

  3. Molecular Properties of Red Wine Compounds and Cardiometabolic Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Markoski, Melissa M.; Garavaglia, Juliano; Oliveira, Aline; Olivaes, Jessica; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Wine has been used since the dawn of human civilization. Despite many health benefits, there is still a lot of discussion about the real properties of its components and its actions on cells and molecular interactions. A large part of these issues permeate the fine line between the amount of alcohol that causes problems to organic systems and the amount that could be beneficial for the health. However, even after the process of fermentation, wine conserves different organic compounds from grapes, such as polysaccharides, acids, and phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and nonflavonoids. These substances have known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities, and are considered as regulatory agents in cardiometabolic process. In this study, the main chemical components present in the wine, its interaction with molecules and biological mechanisms, and their interference with intra- and extracellular signaling are reviewed. Finally, the properties of wine that may benefit cardiovascular system are also revised. PMID:27512338

  4. Molecular Properties of Red Wine Compounds and Cardiometabolic Benefits.

    PubMed

    Markoski, Melissa M; Garavaglia, Juliano; Oliveira, Aline; Olivaes, Jessica; Marcadenti, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Wine has been used since the dawn of human civilization. Despite many health benefits, there is still a lot of discussion about the real properties of its components and its actions on cells and molecular interactions. A large part of these issues permeate the fine line between the amount of alcohol that causes problems to organic systems and the amount that could be beneficial for the health. However, even after the process of fermentation, wine conserves different organic compounds from grapes, such as polysaccharides, acids, and phenolic compounds, such as flavonoids and nonflavonoids. These substances have known anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities, and are considered as regulatory agents in cardiometabolic process. In this study, the main chemical components present in the wine, its interaction with molecules and biological mechanisms, and their interference with intra- and extracellular signaling are reviewed. Finally, the properties of wine that may benefit cardiovascular system are also revised. PMID:27512338

  5. Direct liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in red wines.

    PubMed

    Piñeiro, Zulema; Cantos-Villar, Emma; Palma, Miguel; Puertas, Belen

    2011-11-01

    A validated HPLC method with fluorescence detection for the simultaneous quantification of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol in red wines is described. Detection conditions for both compounds were optimized (excitation at 279 and 278 and emission at 631 and 598 nm for hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, respectively). The validation of the analytical method was based on selectivity, linearity, robustness, detection and quantification limits, repeatability, and recovery. The detection and quantification limits in red wines were set at 0.023 and 0.076 mg L(-1) for hydroxytyrosol and at 0.007 and 0.024 mg L(-1) for tyrosol determination, respectively. Precision values, both within-day and between-day (n = 5), remained below 3% for both compounds. In addition, a fractional factorial experimental design was developed to analyze the influence of six different conditions on analysis. The final optimized HPLC-fluorescence method allowed the analysis of 30 nonpretreated Spanish red wines to evaluate their hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol contents.

  6. Chemiomics: network reconstruction and kinetics of port wine aging.

    PubMed

    Monforte, Ana Rita; Jacobson, Dan; Silva Ferreira, A C

    2015-03-11

    Network reconstruction (NR) has proven to be useful in the detection and visualization of relationships among the compounds present in a Port wine aging data set. This view of the data provides a considerable amount of information with which to understand the kinetic contexts of the molecules represented by peaks in each chromatogram. The aim of this study was to use NR together with the determination of kinetic parameters to extract more information about the mechanisms involved in Port wine aging. The volatile compounds present in samples of Port wines spanning 128 years in age were measured with the use of GC-MS. After chromatogram alignment, a peak matrix was created, and all peak vectors were compared to one another to determine their Pearson correlations over time. A correlation network was created and filtered on the basis of the resulting correlation values. Some nodes in the network were further studied in experiments on Port wines stored under different conditions of oxygen and temperature in order to determine their kinetic parameters. The resulting network can be divided into three main branches. The first branch is related to compounds that do not directly correlate to age, the second branch contains compounds affected by temperature, and the third branch contains compounds associated with oxygen. Compounds clustered in the same branch of the network have similar expression patterns over time as well as the same kinetic order, thus are likely to be dependent on the same technological parameters. Network construction and visualization provides more information with which to understand the probable kinetic contexts of the molecules represented by peaks in each chromatogram. The approach described here is a powerful tool for the study of mechanisms and kinetics in complex systems and should aid in the understanding and monitoring of wine quality.

  7. Volatile profile of Madeira wines submitted to traditional accelerated ageing.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vanda; Cacho, Juan; Marques, José C

    2014-11-01

    The evolution of monovarietal fortified Madeira wines forced-aged by traditional thermal processing (estufagem) were studied in terms of volatiles. SPE extracts were analysed by GC-MS before and after heating at 45 °C for 3 months (standard) and at 70 °C for 1 month (overheating). One hundred and ninety volatile compounds were identified, 53 of which were only encountered in baked wines. Most chemical families increased after standard heating, especially furans and esters, up to 61 and 3-fold, respectively. On the contrary, alcohols, acetates and fatty acids decreased after heating. Varietal aromas, such as Malvasia's monoterpenic alcohols were not detected after baking. The accelerated ageing favoured the development of some volatiles previously reported as typical aromas of finest Madeira wines, particularly phenylacetaldeyde, β-damascenone and 5-ethoxymethylfurfural. Additionally, ethyl butyrate, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, ethyl caproate, ethyl isovalerate, guaiacol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and γ-decalactone were also found as potential contributors to the global aroma of baked wines.

  8. Antimicrobial activities of red wine-based formulations containing plant extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Hadar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the bactericidal activities of red wine and red wine solutions containing a commercial olive extract called Hydrox-12, oregano oil, or a mixture of both in red wine against the following foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, and Stap...

  9. Colour and pigment composition of red wines obtained from co-maceration of Tempranillo and Graciano varieties.

    PubMed

    García-Marino, Matilde; Hernández-Hierro, José Miguel; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa

    2010-02-15

    The Vitis vinifera L. cv Graciano is often used as an integral component of Rioja wines because it is considered to contribute significantly to the quality of Tempranillo based wines. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of the incorporation of the Graciano variety on the colour and pigment composition of Tempranillo based wine and to evaluate the possible differences between blending Tempranillo with Graciano varietal wine (W wine) in contrast to a wine obtained by mixing these two grape varieties in the prefermentative maceration step (M wine). Results indicated that pigment extraction and retention in M wine was higher than in Tempranillo (T) wine. Colour differences (DeltaE(ab)(*)) between wines at the end of the study (after 12 months in bottles) were detectable by the human eye (DeltaE(ab)(*) > or = 3) in all cases except for T and W. These wines have indistinguishable colours even when using analytical methods (DeltaE(ab)(*) < or = 1). Regarding hue h(ab), T and W presented higher values (more orange-red) than Graciano (G) and M (more blue-red). PCA allowed the colour and composition analytical data to be reduced to a small number of principal components that could separate successfully between T and G wines and between the different steps of the winemaking process.

  10. Estimation of Alcohol Concentration of Red Wine Based on Cole-Cole Plot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Kota; Taka, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Osamu

    To evaluate the quality of wine, we previously measured the complex relative permittivity of wine in the frequency range from 10 MHz to 6 GHz with a network analyzer, and suggested a possibility that the maturity and alcohol concentration of wine can simultaneously be estimated from the Cole-Cole plot. Although the absolute accuracy has not been examined yet, this method will enable one to estimate the alcohol concentration of alcoholic beverages without any distillation equipment simply. In this study, to investigate the estimation accuracy of the alcohol concentration of wine by its Cole-Cole plots, we measured the complex relative permittivity of pure water and diluted ethanol solution from 100 MHz to 40 GHz, and obtained the dependence of the Cole-Cole plot parameters on alcohol concentration and temperature. By using these results as calibration data, we estimated the alcohol concentration of red wine from the Cole-Cole plots, which was compared with the measured one based on a distillation method. As a result, we have confirmed that the estimated alcohol concentration of red wine agrees with the measured results in an absolute error by less than 1 %.

  11. What Gives a Wine Its Strong Red Color? Main Correlations Affecting Copigmentation.

    PubMed

    Heras-Roger, Jesus; Díaz-Romero, Carlos; Darias-Martín, Jacinto

    2016-08-31

    Copigmentation and enological parameters were studied in a collection of 250 red wines. Although several copigmentation studies have been performed with model solutions, little is known about the actual consequences directly in wine of anthocyanin interactions. To date, some studies have considered relationships between copigmentation and natural wine constituents, but none correlates copigmentation measurements with the real wide concentration in wine. In this work, published hypotheses based on model solutions such as phenolic acid copigmentation ability or the influence of copigmentation factors such as flavonols are empirically evaluated in a large sample of wines for the first time. The study confirms previous results obtained from solutions, whereas other factors suggested as being relevant seem to be unrelated to the studied effect at the concentration range naturally occurring in the wines studied. For instance, the important role of flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids has been ratified, whereas ethanol, gallic acid, and some metals show significant inverse correlations with copigmentation. Unexpectedly, magnesium content in wine correlates with color, whereas the concentration of traditional copigments, such as quercetin, does not show any correlation with copigmentation.

  12. What Gives a Wine Its Strong Red Color? Main Correlations Affecting Copigmentation.

    PubMed

    Heras-Roger, Jesus; Díaz-Romero, Carlos; Darias-Martín, Jacinto

    2016-08-31

    Copigmentation and enological parameters were studied in a collection of 250 red wines. Although several copigmentation studies have been performed with model solutions, little is known about the actual consequences directly in wine of anthocyanin interactions. To date, some studies have considered relationships between copigmentation and natural wine constituents, but none correlates copigmentation measurements with the real wide concentration in wine. In this work, published hypotheses based on model solutions such as phenolic acid copigmentation ability or the influence of copigmentation factors such as flavonols are empirically evaluated in a large sample of wines for the first time. The study confirms previous results obtained from solutions, whereas other factors suggested as being relevant seem to be unrelated to the studied effect at the concentration range naturally occurring in the wines studied. For instance, the important role of flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids has been ratified, whereas ethanol, gallic acid, and some metals show significant inverse correlations with copigmentation. Unexpectedly, magnesium content in wine correlates with color, whereas the concentration of traditional copigments, such as quercetin, does not show any correlation with copigmentation. PMID:27523569

  13. Quantitative analysis of Bordeaux red wine precipitates by solid-state NMR: Role of tartrates and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Shipra; Iturmendi, Nerea; Grelard, Axelle; Moine, Virginie; Dufourc, Erick

    2016-05-15

    Stability of wines is of great importance in oenology matters. Quantitative estimation of dark red precipitates formed in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from Bordeaux region for vintages 2012 and 2013 was performed during the oak barrel ageing process. Precipitates were obtained by placing wine at -4°C or 4°C for 2-6 days and monitored by periodic sampling during a one-year period. Spectroscopic identification of the main families of components present in the precipitate powder was performed with (13)C solid-state CPMAS NMR and 1D and 2D solution NMR of partially water re-solubilized precipitates. The study revealed that the amount of precipitate obtained is dependent on vintage, temperature and grape variety. Major components identified include potassium bitartrate, polyphenols, polysaccharides, organic acids and free amino acids. No evidence was found for the presence of proteins. The influence of main compounds found in the precipitates is discussed in relation to wine stability. PMID:26775965

  14. Quantitative analysis of Bordeaux red wine precipitates by solid-state NMR: Role of tartrates and polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Shipra; Iturmendi, Nerea; Grelard, Axelle; Moine, Virginie; Dufourc, Erick

    2016-05-15

    Stability of wines is of great importance in oenology matters. Quantitative estimation of dark red precipitates formed in Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from Bordeaux region for vintages 2012 and 2013 was performed during the oak barrel ageing process. Precipitates were obtained by placing wine at -4°C or 4°C for 2-6 days and monitored by periodic sampling during a one-year period. Spectroscopic identification of the main families of components present in the precipitate powder was performed with (13)C solid-state CPMAS NMR and 1D and 2D solution NMR of partially water re-solubilized precipitates. The study revealed that the amount of precipitate obtained is dependent on vintage, temperature and grape variety. Major components identified include potassium bitartrate, polyphenols, polysaccharides, organic acids and free amino acids. No evidence was found for the presence of proteins. The influence of main compounds found in the precipitates is discussed in relation to wine stability.

  15. Rationale for Haze Formation after Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) Addition to Red Wine.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Stephan; Dickescheid, Christian; Harbertson, James F; Fischer, Ulrich; Cohen, Seth D

    2016-09-14

    The aim of this study was to identify the source of haze formation in red wine after the addition of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and to characterize the dynamics of precipitation. Ninety commercial wines representing eight grape varieties were collected, tested with two commercial CMC products, and analyzed for susceptibility to haze formation. Seventy-four of these wines showed a precipitation within 14 days independent of the CMC product used. The precipitates of four representative samples were further analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS analysis) and solubility under different conditions to determine the nature of the solids. All of the precipitates were composed of approximately 50% proteins and 50% CMC and polyphenols. It was determined that the interactions between CMC and bovine serum albumin are pH dependent in wine-like model solution. Furthermore, it was found that the color loss associated with CMC additions required the presence of proteins and cannot be observed with CMC and anthocyanins alone.

  16. Rationale for Haze Formation after Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) Addition to Red Wine.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Stephan; Dickescheid, Christian; Harbertson, James F; Fischer, Ulrich; Cohen, Seth D

    2016-09-14

    The aim of this study was to identify the source of haze formation in red wine after the addition of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and to characterize the dynamics of precipitation. Ninety commercial wines representing eight grape varieties were collected, tested with two commercial CMC products, and analyzed for susceptibility to haze formation. Seventy-four of these wines showed a precipitation within 14 days independent of the CMC product used. The precipitates of four representative samples were further analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS analysis) and solubility under different conditions to determine the nature of the solids. All of the precipitates were composed of approximately 50% proteins and 50% CMC and polyphenols. It was determined that the interactions between CMC and bovine serum albumin are pH dependent in wine-like model solution. Furthermore, it was found that the color loss associated with CMC additions required the presence of proteins and cannot be observed with CMC and anthocyanins alone. PMID:27571332

  17. [Wine and alcohol in apothecaries' shops during the Middle Ages in Southern countries].

    PubMed

    Bénézet, J P

    2001-01-01

    Alcohol, wine and their derivatives do not play during the Middle Ages the role they played during Antiquity. The reading of ancient authors by Arab doctors was probably at the origin of this lack of interest for wine. As ordinary wine, medicinal wines were a matter of conviviality more than of therapeutics. Vinegar was more often used, maybe because of its lack of inebriating properties. Alcohol, this mysterious product, was probably more pertinent in the area of alchemy. Doctors and pharmacists of the enlightened age gave it a new importance. The influence of Islam on Middle Age medicine in Christian occident could explain this lack of interest for wine.

  18. Ultrasonic preliminary measurements of oenological malolactic fermentation parameters in red wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novoa-Díaz, D. F.; Puig-Pujol, A.; García-Álvarez, J.; Chávez, J. A.; Turó, A.; Mínguez, S.; García-Hernández, M. J.; Bertran, E.; Salazar, J.

    2012-12-01

    In the winemaking process, the malolactic fermentation is an essential process in the production of high quality red wines which concerns the conversion of malate into lactate. In this work, the ultrasonic velocity through wine samples with different concentrations of malate and lactate was measured using the pulse echo technique with 1 MHz tone burst signals. The evolution of these concentrations during malolactic fermentation was taken into account in order to determine the ratio between concentrations of malate and lactate of the different samples. These preliminary results have revealed that the ultrasonic velocity increases during the conversion of malate to lactate. In addition, measurements have been conducted to quantify the influence of variations in turbidity and temperature on test samples. Therefore, these results show the possibility of using ultrasonic velocity measurements for on-line monitoring the malolactic fermentation of red wine and may help to improve and contribute to the development of the winemaking process.

  19. Analysis of protein composition of red wine in comparison with rosé and white wines by electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS).

    PubMed

    Wigand, Petra; Tenzer, Stefan; Schild, Hansjoerg; Decker, Heinz

    2009-05-27

    Wine proteins not only influence wine stability but are also being discussed as potential allergens. Proteins from red, rosé, and white wines were enriched by dialysis and lyophilization followed by separation by SDS-PAGE. Significant differences were detected in the protein compositions of the analyzed wine varieties, and the major protein bands were identified by mass spectrometry after in-gel digestion with trypsin. In German Portugieser red wine, a total of 121 tryptic peptides were identified, which were attributed to 12 grape proteins and 6 proteins derived from yeast. Among the identified constituents are several proteins considered to influence wine stability and previously described potential grape allergens. The pathogenesis-related proteins represent the main proteins in all of the wines, but only some red wines show a band with a molecular mass of 12 kDa, identified as a lipid transfer protein (LTP). The occurrence and distribution of LTP depend on the wine variety.

  20. Ultrafast Polyphenol Metabolomics of Red Wines Using MicroLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Tanaka, Nobuo; Vaniya, Arpana; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver

    2016-01-20

    The taste and quality of red wine are determined by its highly complex mixture of polyphenols and many other metabolites. No single method can fully cover the full metabolome, but even for polyphenols and related compounds, current methods proved inadequate. We optimized liquid chromatography resolution and sensitivity using 1 mm i.d. columns with microLC pumps and compared data-dependent to data-independent (SWATH) MS/MS acquisitions. A high-throughput microLC-MS method was developed with a 4 min gradient at 0.05 mL/min flow rate on a Kinetex C18 column and Sciex TripleTOF mass spectrometry. Using the novel software MS-DIAL, we structurally annotated 264 compounds including 165 polyphenols in six commercial red wines by accurate mass MS/MS matching. As proof of concept, multivariate statistics revealed the difference in the metabolite profiles of the six red wines, and regression analysis linked the polyphenol contents to the taste of the red wines.

  1. Ultrafast Polyphenol Metabolomics of Red Wines Using MicroLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yan; Tanaka, Nobuo; Vaniya, Arpana; Kind, Tobias; Fiehn, Oliver

    2016-01-20

    The taste and quality of red wine are determined by its highly complex mixture of polyphenols and many other metabolites. No single method can fully cover the full metabolome, but even for polyphenols and related compounds, current methods proved inadequate. We optimized liquid chromatography resolution and sensitivity using 1 mm i.d. columns with microLC pumps and compared data-dependent to data-independent (SWATH) MS/MS acquisitions. A high-throughput microLC-MS method was developed with a 4 min gradient at 0.05 mL/min flow rate on a Kinetex C18 column and Sciex TripleTOF mass spectrometry. Using the novel software MS-DIAL, we structurally annotated 264 compounds including 165 polyphenols in six commercial red wines by accurate mass MS/MS matching. As proof of concept, multivariate statistics revealed the difference in the metabolite profiles of the six red wines, and regression analysis linked the polyphenol contents to the taste of the red wines. PMID:26698107

  2. The French Paradox: Determining the Superoxide-Scavenging Capacity of Red Wine and Other Beverages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Barry A.; Hammond, Matthew P.; Stormo, Benjamin M.

    2008-01-01

    Plant-derived phenolic compounds such as those found in red wine, tea, and certain fruit juices may protect against cardiovascular disease by detoxifying (scavenging) superoxide and other unstable reactive oxygen species. We present a laboratory exercise that can be used to assess the superoxide-scavenging capacity of beverages. Among the…

  3. Acute transient myopic shift induced by red wine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ziyuan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    This case report described a patient presenting with unilateral transient myopic shift after consuming a lot of red wine. Ultrasound biomicroscopy detected annular shallow ciliary body detachment with supraciliary effusion, as well as a narrow chamber angle. The myopic shift was spontaneously resolved about one week after the onset without any treatment.

  4. Determination of anthocyanidins in berries and red wine by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nyman, N A; Kumpulainen, J T

    2001-09-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of anthocyanidins from berries and red wine is described. Delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and malvidin contents of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus), black currant (Ribes nigrum), strawberry (Fragaria ananassa cv. Jonsok), and a Cabernet sauvignon (Vitis vinifera) red wine were determined. The aglycon forms of the anthocyanins present in the samples were revealed by acid hydrolysis. A reversed phase analytical column was employed to separate the anthocyanidins before identification by diode array detection. The suitability of the method was tested by determining the recovery (95-102% as aglycons and 69-104% from glycosides) for each anthocyanidin. Method repeatability was tested by charting the total aglycon content of two samples over a period of 14 analyses and determining the coefficients of variation (1.41% for bilberry and 2.56% for in-house reference material). The method developed proved thus to be effective for reliable determination of anthocyanidins from freeze-dried berry samples and red wine. The total anthocyanidin content of the tested samples was as follows: in-house reference material, 447 +/- 8 mg/100 g; strawberry, 23.8 +/- 0.4 mg/100 g; black currant, 135 +/- 3 mg/100 g; bilberry, 360 +/- 3 mg/100 g; and Cabernet sauvignon red wine, 26.1 +/- 0.1 mg/100 mL. PMID:11559107

  5. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...

  6. Differential metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids by two Brettanomyces bruxellensis strains grown in red wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acids, respectively) are found in red wines in varying concentrations depending on cultivars and other factors. While some Brettanomyces form volatile phenols...

  7. Lead in Hair and in Red Wine by Potentiometric Stripping Analysis: The University Students' Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josephsen, Jens

    1985-01-01

    A new program for training upper secondary school chemistry teachers (SE 537 693) depends heavily on student project work. A project in which lead in hair and in red wine was examined by potentiometric stripping analysis is described and evaluated. (JN)

  8. Is solar radiation a key to good red wine grape anthocyanin?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite a century of research, we still lack a concrete, mechanistic understanding of solar radiation and temperature effects on anthocyanin accumulation and composition, crucial for red wine grapes. Our aim was to elucidate the mechanistic response to microclimate of anthocyanin metabolism in Viti...

  9. Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect.

  10. Key changes in wine aroma active compounds during bottle storage of Spanish red wines under different oxygen levels.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; Bueno, Mónica; Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Culleré, Laura; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2014-10-15

    Samples from 16 Spanish red wines have been stored for 6 months at 25 °C under different levels of oxygen (0-56 mg/L). Amino acids, metals, and phenolic compounds were analyzed and related to the production or depletion of key oxidation- and reduction-related aroma compounds. Oxidation brings about sensory-relevant increases in Strecker aldehydes, 1-octen-3-one, and vanillin. Formation of Strecker aldehydes correlates to the wine content on the corresponding amino acid precursor, Zn, and caffeic acid ethyl ester and negatively to some flavonols and anthocyanin derivatives. Formation of most carbonyls correlates to wine-combined SO2, suggesting that part of the increments are the result of the release of aldehydes forming bisulfite combinations once SO2 is oxidized. Methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethylsulfide (DMS), but not H2S levels, increase during storage. MeSH increments correlate to methionine levels and proanthocyanidins and negatively to resveratrol and aluminum. H2S, MeSH, and DMS levels all decreased with oxidation, and for the latter two, there are important effects of Mn and pH, respectively.

  11. How do esters and dimethyl sulphide concentrations affect fruity aroma perception of red wine? Demonstration by dynamic sensory profile evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Our study focused on variations in wine aroma perception and molecular composition during tasting over a period of 30min. In parallel, dynamic analytical and sensory methods were applied to study changes in the wines' molecular and aromatic evolution. Dynamic sensory profile evaluations clearly confirmed the evolution of the wine's fruity notes during sensory analysis, highlighting significant differences for red-berry and fresh fruit as well as black berry and jammy fruit, after 5 and 15min, respectively. Dynamic analytical methods revealed a decrease in ester and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) concentrations in the first few minutes. Sensory profiles of aromatic reconstitutions demonstrated that the aromatic modulation of fruity notes observed during wine tasting was explained by changes in ester and DMS concentrations. These results revealed that variations in concentrations of DMS and esters during wine tasting had a qualitative impact, by modulating fruity aromas in red wine.

  12. Identification and characterization of Dekkera bruxellensis, Candida pararugosa, and Pichia guilliermondii isolated from commercial red wines.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Susanne L; Umiker, Nicole L; Arneborg, Nils; Edwards, Charles G

    2009-12-01

    Yeast isolates from commercial red wines were characterized with regards to tolerances to molecular SO(2), ethanol, and temperature as well as synthesis of 4-ethyl-phenol/4-ethyl-guaiacol in grape juice or wine. Based on rDNA sequencing, nine of the 11 isolates belonged to Dekkera bruxellensis (B1a, B1b, B2a, E1, F1a, F3, I1a, N2, and P2) while the other two were Candida pararugosa (Q2) and Pichia guilliermondii (Q3). Strains B1b, Q2, and Q3 were much more resistant to molecular SO(2) in comparison to the other strains of Dekkera. These strains were inoculated (10(3)-10(4)cfu/ml) along with lower populations of Saccharomyces (<500 cfu/ml) into red grape juice and red wine incubated at two temperatures, 15 degrees C and 21 degrees C. Although Saccharomyces quickly dominated fermentations in grape juice, B1b and Q2 grew and eventually reached populations >10(5)cfu/ml. In wine, Q3 never entered logarithmic growth and quickly died in contrast to Q2 which survived >40 days after inoculation. B1b grew well in wine incubated at 21 degrees C while slower growth was observed at 15 degrees C. Neither Q2 nor Q3 produced 4-ethyl-phenol or 4-ethyl-guaiacol, unlike B1b. However, lower concentrations of volatile phenols were present in wine incubated at 15 degrees C compared to 21 degrees C.

  13. Putative Role of Red Wine Polyphenols against Brain Pathology in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Mario; Cauchi, Ruben; Vassallo, Neville

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) are the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorders and hence pose remarkable socio-economical burdens to both families and state. Although AD and PD have different clinical and neuropathological features, they share common molecular mechanisms that appear to be triggered by multi-factorial events, such as protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress (OS), and neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to neuronal cell death. Currently, there are no established and validated disease-modifying strategies for either AD or PD. Among the various lifestyle factors that may prevent or slow age-related neurodegenerative diseases, epidemiological studies on moderate consumption of red wine, especially as part of a holistic Mediterranean diet, have attracted increasing interest. Red wine is particularly rich in specific polyphenolic compounds that appear to affect the biological processes of AD and PD, such as quercetin, myricetin, catechins, tannins, anthocyanidins, resveratrol, and ferulic acid. Indeed, there is now a consistent body of in vitro and in vivo data on the neuroprotective effects of red wine polyphenols (RWP) showing that they do not merely possess antioxidant properties, but may additionally act upon, in a multi-target manner, the underlying key mechanisms featuring in both AD and PD. Furthermore, it is important that bioavailability issues are addressed in order for neuroprotection to be relevant in a clinical study scenario. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the major classes of RWP and places into perspective their potential to be considered as nutraceuticals to target neuropathology in AD and PD. PMID:27570766

  14. Natural co-occurrence of ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B and aflatoxins in Sicilian red wines.

    PubMed

    Di Stefano, Vita; Avellone, Giuseppe; Pitonzo, Rosa; Capocchiano, Valentina Giusi; Mazza, Alessia; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The natural occurrence of ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 (OTA, OTB, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in red wines was investigated by HPLC/FLD after immunoaffinity column clean-up in 57 market samples produced in Sicily (Italy). The results showed a very low incidence of these mycotoxins in analysed samples, confirming the high degree of quality and safety of Sicilian red wines. The results indicated 71.9% and 64.9% positive samples for OTA and OTB respectively, with an average level of 0.13 μg l(-1), well below the European maximum permitted levels (MLs). The aflatoxin most frequently detected in the samples was AFG1, present in 57.9% of samples, while the other aflatoxins were rarely present. Recovery experiments were carried out on eight mycotoxin-free red wines spiked with OTA, OTB, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 at two different levels. The limits of detection (LODs) in wines were 0.02 µg l(-1) for OTA, 0.04 µg l(-1) for OTB, 0.03 µg l(-1) for AFG1, AFG2 and AFB2, and 0.05 µg l(-1) for AFB1. A good correlation was found, with good performances in term of precision for the method.

  15. Classification of rice wine according to different marked ages using a novel artificial olfactory technique based on colorimetric sensor array.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng; Lin, Hao

    2013-06-01

    A novel artificial olfactory technique based on colorimetric sensor array was developed for the classification of Chinese rice wine according to different marked ages. The sensor array was composed of nine porphyrins or metalloporphyrins materials and six pH indicators. When the sensor array was exposed to rice wine for several minutes, a colour change profile for each sample was obtained by differentiating the image of sensor array before and after exposure to the head-gas of the sample. The values of RGB (i.e., red, green, and blue) colour components were extracted from each dye in colour change profiles, and they were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In contrast to PCA, LDA obtained an optimum classification result. This research shows that the artificial olfactory technique based on colorimetric sensor array has a powerful potential in the quality evaluation of rice wine. PMID:23411249

  16. Determination of six metals in galician red wines (in northwestern Spain) by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Núñez, M; Peña, R M; Herrero, C; García, S

    2000-01-01

    A simple technique is described for the routine simultaneous capillary electrophoretic determination of 6 cations in wine. Separation was achieved on a fused silica capillary column with a UV-Cat-1, alpha-hydroxysobutyric acid and 18-crown-6-ether buffer at pH 4.5 and indirect UV detection at 214 nm. The content of magnesium, sodium, potassium, calcium, manganese, and lithium was determined. The method is quantitative, with recoveries in the 92-102% range, and linear over more than one order of magnitude. The precision is better than 2.5-3.4%. The method is sensible, with detection limits between 0.01 and 0.06 mg/L. Twenty-five red wines with a Certified Brand of Origin from Galicia (north-western Spain) were analyzed by the proposed method. Various wines showed very similar electrophoretic profiles, but significant quantitative differences were observed.

  17. Proanthocyanidin screening by LC-ESI-MS of Portuguese red wines made with teinturier grapes.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Natércia; Azevedo, Joana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are one of the most important polyphenolic compounds in wine. Among PAs, prodelphinidin (PD) dimers and trimers have not been widely detected in wines due to the lack of available commercial standards and the difficulty to detect and isolate them from natural sources. LC-ESI-MS (liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) with the right chromatographic conditions has proven to be a powerful tool for PAs detection and identification in complex samples. This technique has been applied to an exhaustive study of PA composition of two Portuguese red wines made with teinturier grapes, especially for the identification of PD dimers and trimers. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) with ion trap provided additional information about the structures of these compounds through the fragmentation patterns of the pseudomolecular ions. A LC-ESI-MS method was optimized and 41 different compounds were found. Among them are included 8 PD dimers and 13 PD trimers.

  18. Detection of Traces of Ovalbumin and Casein in White and Red Wines by Quantitative Western Blotting.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Philippe; Zanetti, Simone

    2015-09-01

    Fining of wine with agents containing cow's milk or hen's egg white is a common and traditional procedure. In light of increasing food allergies all over the world, the presence of fining residues has been subject of intense debate. Switzerland does not make exception, and since 2009 the Federal Department of Home Affairs has modified its food regulations stating that the labels must show if traces of fining agents are present. Nevertheless, the application of this regulation is not based on an official analytical method. In this study we show that immunoblotting is an efficient technique to detect and quantify ovalbumin and casein residues in bottled wine. We showed that final filtration is an essential step to remove finings in red wine, and that overfining of white wine may result in fining residues in finished products. Finally, for the first time in Switzerland, 22 samples were taken by food safety inspectors and officially analyzed for the regional food control authority of the Canton of Vaud. These samples were allergen free, but a larger study is currently planned in collaboration with other regional authorities of Switzerland to complete these results and make a complete picture of the Swiss wine production.

  19. Red wine mitigates the postprandial increase of LDL susceptibility to oxidation.

    PubMed

    Natella, F; Ghiselli, A; Guidi, A; Ursini, F; Scaccini, C

    2001-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to verify the extent of oxidative stress induced by a meal at plasma and LDL level, and to investigate the capacity of red wine to counteract this action. In two different sessions, six healthy men ate the same test meal consisting of "Milanese" meat and fried potatoes. The meal was taken either with 400 ml red wine or with an isocaloric hydroalcoholic solution. Oxidative stress at plasma level was estimated through the measure of ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, protein SH groups, uric acid, and antioxidant capacity, measured before and 1 and 3 h after the meal. The change in the resistance of LDL to oxidative modification was taken as an index of exposure to pro-oxidants. The susceptibility to Cu(II)-catalyzed oxidation of baseline and postprandial LDL was measured as conjugated dienes formation, tryptophan residues, and relative electrophoretic mobility. The experimental meal taken with wine provoked a significant increase in the total plasma antioxidant capacity and in the plasma concentration of alpha-tocopherol and SH groups. Postprandial LDL was more susceptible to metal-catalyzed oxidation than the homologous baseline LDL after the ethanol meal. On the contrary, postprandial LDL obtained after the wine meal was as resistant or more resistant to lipid peroxidation than fasting LDL.

  20. Uncovering the vasorelaxant effect induced by Vale do São Francisco red wine: a role for nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Luciano, Melissa N; Ribeiro, Thaís P; França-Silva, Maria S; do Nascimento, Roberto J B; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; França, Karime C; Antunes, Alessandra A; Nakao, Lia S; Aita, Carlos A M; Braga, Valdir A; de Medeiros, Isac A

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying the vasorelaxant effect induced by the polyphenolic compounds found in red wine from Vale do São Francisco. In phenylephrine (10 μM) precontracted mesenteric artery rings, the red wine caused a concentration-dependent relaxation (maximum response to phenylephrine 10 μM = 87.5% ± 6.5%, n = 10). After endothelium removal, the vasorelaxant effect elicited by red wine was attenuated (28.4% ± 4.9%, n = 10). In addition, the vasorelaxant effect induced by red wine in rings pretreated with 100 μM of N(w)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester and 10 μM of 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo-[4,3-a]-quinoxalin-1-one was attenuated (23.4% ± 5.1%, n = 7 and 11.8% ± 2.7%, n = 6, respectively). Pretreatment with atropine did not affect the vasorelaxant effect induced by red wine (81% ± 3.9%, n = 6). Furthermore, in rabbit aortic endothelial cell line, red wine 100 and 300 μg/mL caused concentration-dependent increases in nitric oxide levels (58 ± 1; 82 ± 7.9; Δ% of fluorescence, n = 5, respectively). In conclusion, we suggest that the alcohol free-lyophilized red wine induces an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effect due, at least in part, to a secondary increase in the concentration of nitric oxide and that this effect might be associated with phenolic compounds found in the red wine.

  1. Effect on the aroma profile of Graciano and Tempranillo red wines of the application of two antifungal treatments onto vines.

    PubMed

    Noguerol-Pato, Raquel; Sieiro-Sampedro, Thais; Sieiro-Sampredro, Thais; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The effect of two antifungals (boscalid+kresoxim-methyl and metrafenone) applied onto vines under Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) on the volatile composition of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines was studied. Changes in aroma profile in the wines were assessed from the combined odour activity values (OAVs) for the volatile compounds in each of seven different odorant series (viz., ripe fruits, fresh fruits, lactic, floral, vinous, spicy and herbaceous). Graciano wines obtained from grapes treated with the antifungals exhibited markedly increased concentrations of varietal volatile compounds (monoterpenes and C13-norisoprenoids) and aldehydes, and decreased concentrations of acetates and aromatic alcohols. By contrast, the concentrations of volatile compounds in Tempranillo wines showed different changes depending on the fungicide applied. Also, the aroma profiles of wines obtained from treated grapes were modified, particularly the ripe fruit nuances in Graciano wines. The OAV of this odorant series underwent an increase by more than 60% with respect to the control wine as a result of the increase of β-damascenone concentration (which imparts wine a dry plum note). The aroma profile of Tempranillo red wines containing metrafenone residues exhibited marked changes relative to those from untreated grapes. PMID:25123185

  2. Effects of Red Wine Tannat on Oxidative Stress Induced by Glucose and Fructose in Erythrocytes in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Pazzini, Camila Eliza Fernandes; Colpo, Ana Ceolin; Poetini, Márcia Rósula; Pires, Cauê Ferreira; de Camargo, Vanessa Brum; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Azevedo, Miriane Lucas; Soares, Júlio César Mendes; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates that red wine presents in its composition several substances that are beneficial to health. This study has investigated the antioxidant effects of Tannat red wine on oxidative stress induced by glucose and fructose in erythrocytes in vitro, with the purpose to determine some of its majoritarian phenolic compounds and its antioxidant capacity. Erythrocytes were incubated using different concentrations of glucose and fructose in the presence or absence of wine. From these erythrocytes were determined the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), glucose consumption, and osmotic fragility. Moreover, quantification of total phenolic, gallic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, resveratrol, and DPPH scavenging activity in wine were also assessed. Red wine showed high levels of polyphenols analyzed, as well as high antioxidant potential. Erythrocytes incubated with glucose and fructose had an increase in lipid peroxidation and this was prevented by the addition of wine. The wine increased glucose uptake into erythrocytes and was able to decrease the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes incubated with fructose. Altogether, these results suggest that wine leads to a reduction of the oxidative stress induced by high concentrations of glucose and fructose. PMID:26078708

  3. Effects of Red Wine Tannat on Oxidative Stress Induced by Glucose and Fructose in Erythrocytes in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Pazzini, Camila Eliza Fernandes; Colpo, Ana Ceolin; Poetini, Márcia Rósula; Pires, Cauê Ferreira; de Camargo, Vanessa Brum; Mendez, Andreas Sebastian Loureiro; Azevedo, Miriane Lucas; Soares, Júlio César Mendes; Folmer, Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    The literature indicates that red wine presents in its composition several substances that are beneficial to health. This study has investigated the antioxidant effects of Tannat red wine on oxidative stress induced by glucose and fructose in erythrocytes in vitro, with the purpose to determine some of its majoritarian phenolic compounds and its antioxidant capacity. Erythrocytes were incubated using different concentrations of glucose and fructose in the presence or absence of wine. From these erythrocytes were determined the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), glucose consumption, and osmotic fragility. Moreover, quantification of total phenolic, gallic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, resveratrol, and DPPH scavenging activity in wine were also assessed. Red wine showed high levels of polyphenols analyzed, as well as high antioxidant potential. Erythrocytes incubated with glucose and fructose had an increase in lipid peroxidation and this was prevented by the addition of wine. The wine increased glucose uptake into erythrocytes and was able to decrease the osmotic fragility of erythrocytes incubated with fructose. Altogether, these results suggest that wine leads to a reduction of the oxidative stress induced by high concentrations of glucose and fructose.

  4. Influence of the use of fungicides on the volatile composition of Monastrell red wines obtained from inoculated fermentation.

    PubMed

    Oliva, J; Martínez-Gil, A M; Lorenzo, C; Cámara, M A; Salinas, M R; Barba, A; Garde-Cerdán, T

    2015-03-01

    The influence of six fungicides (famoxadone, fenhexamid, fluquinconazole, kresoxim-methyl, quinoxyfen and trifloxystrobin) on the volatile composition of red wines obtained from inoculated fermentation was studied. Although treatments were carried out under critical agricultural practices (CAP), the residues in the wines were below their maximum residue limit (MRL). Ethyl decanoate was the compound most influenced by these fungicides, while diethyl succinate, decanoic acid, β-ionone, and citronellol concentration were not changed with any of the treatments. The treatment of grapes with trifloxystrobin induced changes in only one volatile compound, and the variation in volatile composition of wines from grapes treated with fenhexamid, fluquinconazole and quinoxyfen compared to control wines was almost negligible invaluable. The treatment with famoxadone influenced more volatile compounds than the other ones, except for wine from grapes treated with kresoxim-methyl, which was the only wine that showed a big change in its aromatic composition.

  5. Phenolic compounds and browning in sherry wines subjected to oxidative and biological aging.

    PubMed

    Fabios, M; Lopez-Toledano, A; Mayen, M; Merida, J; Medina, M

    2000-06-01

    The composition in hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxycinnamic esters, tyrosol, syringaldehyde, and flavan-3-ol derivatives of three different types of sherry wine obtained by aging of the same starting wine under different conditions was studied. So-called "fino" wine was obtained by biological aging under flor yeasts, "oloroso" wine by oxidative aging, and "amontillado" wine by a first stage of biological aging followed by a second oxidative step. On the basis of the results, the wines subjected to oxidative aging exhibited higher phenol contents, in addition to scarcely polar compounds absorbing at 420 nm that were absent in the wines obtained by biological aging. Taking into account that flavan-3-ol derivatives play an important role in wine browning, a model catechin solution was inoculated with flor yeast which, contrary to the findings of other authors in the absence of yeasts, formed no colored compounds. This different behavior may account for the resistance to browning of pale sherry wines in the presence of flor yeasts. PMID:10888514

  6. Pallidol, a resveratrol dimer from red wine, is a selective singlet oxygen quencher

    SciTech Connect

    He Shan; Jiang Liyan; Wu Bin; Pan Yuanjiang; Sun Cuirong

    2009-02-06

    Pallidol is a naturally occurring resveratrol dimer from red wine with antioxidant and antifungal activities. In this report, with the use of the EPR spin-trapping technique, the scavenging and quenching effects of pallidol on reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated. The results demonstrated that pallidol showed strong quenching effects on singlet oxygen at very low concentrations, but it was ineffective to scavenge hydroxyl radicals or superoxide anions. Further kinetic study revealed that the reaction of pallidol with singlet oxygen had an extremely high rate constant (k{sub a} = 1.71 x 10{sup 10}). Therefore, pallidol is a potent and selective singlet oxygen quencher in aqueous systems. It may be used in singlet oxygen-mediated diseases as a pharmacological agent, which may contribute to the health beneficial effects of red wine.

  7. Surface roughness and erosion of nanohybrid and nanofilled resin composites after immersion in red and white wine

    PubMed Central

    Tantanuch, Saijai; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Peerasukprasert, Thanwalee; Chanmanee, Nilobon; Chaisomboonphun, Parnchanok; Rodklai, Apisara

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effects of red and white wine on the surface roughness and erosion of nanohybrid and nanofilled resin composites. Materials and Methods: Sixty specimens of each resin-based composite (RBC) were prepared. Before immersion, baseline data roughness values were recorded using a profilometer. Three groups of discs (n = 20) were then alternately immersed in red wine, white wine, and deionized water (as a control) for 25 min and artificial saliva for 5 min over four cycles. The specimens were then stored in artificial saliva for 22 h. This process was repeated for 5 days following immersion in artificial saliva for 2 days. Subsequently, the process was repeated. After immersion, the specimens were evaluated and data were analyzed by two-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) (α = 0.05). Results: Red wine caused significantly greater roughness and erosion than did white wine and deionized water (P < 0.05). Nanohybrid resin composites were significantly rougher than nanofilled resin composites (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The effects of red and white wine on the surface roughness and erosion of resin composite restorative materials depended upon the physical and chemical composition of the restorative materials and the types of wine. PMID:26957794

  8. Phenolic compounds from red wine and coffee are associated with specific intestinal microorganisms in allergic subjects.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Adriana; Hevia, Arancha; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana; Diaz, Carmen; Sánchez, Borja; Margolles, Abelardo; González, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    The dietary modulation of gut microbiota, suggested to be involved in allergy processes, has recently attracted much interest. While several studies have addressed the use of fibres to modify intestinal microbial populations, information about other components, such as phenolic compounds, is scarce. The aim of this work was to identify the dietary components able to influence the microbiota in 23 subjects suffering from rhinitis and allergic asthma, and 22 age- and sex-matched controls. The food intake was recorded by means of an annual food frequency questionnaire. Dietary fibre tables were obtained from Marlett et al., and the Phenol-Explorer database was used to assess the phenolic compound intake. The quantification of microbial groups was performed using an Ion Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based analysis. The results showed a direct association between the intake of red wine, a source of stilbenes, and the relative abundance of Bacteroides, and between the intake of coffee, rich in phenolic acids, and the abundance of Clostridium, Lactococcus and Lactobacillus genera. Despite epidemiological analyses not establishing causality, these results support the association between polyphenol-rich beverages and faecal microbiota in allergic patients.

  9. Red wine tannins fluidify and precipitate lipid liposomes and bicelles. A role for lipids in wine tasting?

    PubMed

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Castets, Aurore; Nallet, Frédéric; Pianet, Isabelle; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

    2014-05-20

    Sensory properties of red wine tannins are bound to complex interactions between saliva proteins, membranes taste receptors of the oral cavity, and lipids or proteins from the human diet. Whereas astringency has been widely studied in terms of tannin-saliva protein colloidal complexes, little is known about interactions between tannins and lipids and their implications in the taste of wine. This study deals with tannin-lipid interactions, by mimicking both oral cavity membranes by micrometric size liposomes and lipid droplets in food by nanometric isotropic bicelles. Deuterium and phosphorus solid-state NMR demonstrated the membrane hydrophobic core disordering promoted by catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the latter appearing more efficient. C and EGCG destabilize isotropic bicelles and convert them into an inverted hexagonal phase. Tannins are shown to be located at the membrane interface and stabilize the lamellar phases. These newly found properties point out the importance of lipids in the complex interactions that happen in the mouth during organoleptic feeling when ingesting tannins. PMID:24787144

  10. Red wine tannins fluidify and precipitate lipid liposomes and bicelles. A role for lipids in wine tasting?

    PubMed

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Castets, Aurore; Nallet, Frédéric; Pianet, Isabelle; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

    2014-05-20

    Sensory properties of red wine tannins are bound to complex interactions between saliva proteins, membranes taste receptors of the oral cavity, and lipids or proteins from the human diet. Whereas astringency has been widely studied in terms of tannin-saliva protein colloidal complexes, little is known about interactions between tannins and lipids and their implications in the taste of wine. This study deals with tannin-lipid interactions, by mimicking both oral cavity membranes by micrometric size liposomes and lipid droplets in food by nanometric isotropic bicelles. Deuterium and phosphorus solid-state NMR demonstrated the membrane hydrophobic core disordering promoted by catechin (C), epicatechin (EC), and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the latter appearing more efficient. C and EGCG destabilize isotropic bicelles and convert them into an inverted hexagonal phase. Tannins are shown to be located at the membrane interface and stabilize the lamellar phases. These newly found properties point out the importance of lipids in the complex interactions that happen in the mouth during organoleptic feeling when ingesting tannins.

  11. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of red wine extract: unveiling the mechanisms in colonic epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Carla; Ferreira, Elisabete; Freitas, Víctor; Almeida, Leonor; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, João

    2013-02-26

    The development of new therapeutic approaches, combining efficacy and safety against intestinal inflammation, notably inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), has emerged as an important goal due to the significant side effects and the lack of effectiveness of standard current therapies. Recently, several studies described the health-promoting effects of red wine, including anti-inflammatory properties, but the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial role remain largely unknown. Red wine is rich in phenolic compounds and it has been suggested that the positive effect of red wine intake might be attributed not only to the antioxidant properties of these compounds but also to the modulation of signalling cascades in connection with physiological and pathophysiological conditions such as inflammatory processes. This study assesses the potential anti-inflammatory action of a red wine extract (RWE) enriched in polyphenols in a cellular model of intestinal inflammation using cytokines-stimulated HT-29 colon epithelial cells. RWE suppressed cytokines-induced IκB degradation and interleukin-8 production in a dose-dependent manner. Coherently, key inflammatory mediators downstream NF-κB activation; notably cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase were maintained at low levels by RWE in the presence of the cytokines. Additionally, RWE inhibited both the increase of nitric oxide derived from iNOS and of protein tyrosine nitration, a biomarker of nitrosative stress that typically requires the reaction of nitric oxide with the superoxide radical. Taken together, the anti-inflammatory action of RWE, mechanistically supported by the modulation of cascades orchestrated by NF-κB and involving nitric oxide, suggests that RWE (a readily straightforward preparation when compared with the purification of specific compounds) may represent a simple and inexpensive therapeutic strategy in the context of intestinal inflammation.

  12. Neuroprotective properties of Spanish red wine and its isolated polyphenols on astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Martín, Sara; González-Burgos, Elena; Carretero, M Emilia; Gómez-Serranillos, M Pilar

    2011-09-01

    The neuroprotective effect of Merlot red wine and its isolated polyphenols was evaluated in an oxidative stress model induced by Fenton reaction and hydrogen peroxide in the human astrocytoma U373 MG cell line. Compared with cells treated only with oxidative stress inductors, the pre-incubation with Merlot red wine for 24h caused a significant increase in cell viability for all concentrations assayed. The most abundant polyphenols found in Merlot red wine were the flavonoids catechin (37.8mg/l), epicatechin (52.3mg/l), quercetin (5.89mg/l) and procyanidins (15.2mg/l), the hydroxybenzoic acid gallic acid (16.7mg/l), and the phenolic alcohol tyrosol (31.4mg/l). The potential protective role of these polyphenols when isolated was then assessed in treated Fenton reaction U373 MG cells. Polyphenols decreased reactive oxygen species generation and increased the activity and the protein expression of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Of the polyphenols, quercetin and procyanidins showed the highest neuroprotective effect.

  13. Reversion of nitrate tolerance in rat aorta rings by freeze-dried red wine.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Fabio; Sgaragli, Giampietro

    2015-04-01

    Chronically administered organic nitrates induce nitrate tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which limit their therapeutic use. eNOS uncoupling, ROS over-production, aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) oxidative inhibition, and cGMP desensitization are thought to play an important role. Natural polyphenols are effective antioxidants, which might counteract the mechanisms leading to nitrate tolerance. The aim of this work was to verify whether freeze-dried (dealcoholized) red wine (FDRW) was able to revert glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) tolerance and endothelial dysfunction induced in rat aorta rings with either GTN or diethyldithiocarbamate (DETCA), an irreversible inhibitor of Cu/Zn SOD. GTN induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine. GTN spasmolysis was significantly reduced in rings pre-incubated with either GTN or DETCA. FDRW, at 2.8 µg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL concentration, was able to revert partially, though significantly, GTN-induced tolerance but not tolerance and endothelial dysfunction induced by DETCA. This work provides the first evidence in vitro that red wine components, at concentrations comparable to those achieved in human blood after moderate consumption of red wine, revert tolerance to nitrates with a mechanism possibly mediated by SOD.

  14. Reversion of nitrate tolerance in rat aorta rings by freeze-dried red wine.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Fabio; Sgaragli, Giampietro

    2015-04-01

    Chronically administered organic nitrates induce nitrate tolerance and endothelial dysfunction, which limit their therapeutic use. eNOS uncoupling, ROS over-production, aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) oxidative inhibition, and cGMP desensitization are thought to play an important role. Natural polyphenols are effective antioxidants, which might counteract the mechanisms leading to nitrate tolerance. The aim of this work was to verify whether freeze-dried (dealcoholized) red wine (FDRW) was able to revert glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) tolerance and endothelial dysfunction induced in rat aorta rings with either GTN or diethyldithiocarbamate (DETCA), an irreversible inhibitor of Cu/Zn SOD. GTN induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine. GTN spasmolysis was significantly reduced in rings pre-incubated with either GTN or DETCA. FDRW, at 2.8 µg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL concentration, was able to revert partially, though significantly, GTN-induced tolerance but not tolerance and endothelial dysfunction induced by DETCA. This work provides the first evidence in vitro that red wine components, at concentrations comparable to those achieved in human blood after moderate consumption of red wine, revert tolerance to nitrates with a mechanism possibly mediated by SOD. PMID:25581420

  15. Modeling quality of premium spanish red wines from gas chromatography-olfactometry data.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; San Juan, Felipe; Escudero, Ana; Culleré, Laura; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación; Saenz-Navajas, M Pilar; Cacho, Juan

    2009-08-26

    The aroma compositions of 25 premium Spanish red wines have been screened by quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry and have been related to the quality scores of the wines. The study has shown that up to 65 odorants can be present in the aroma profiles of those wines, 32 of which have been detected in less than half of the samples. One new odorant is reported for the first time in wine [(Z)-2-nonenal], and only 11 odorants, most of them weak and infrequent, remain unknown. Quality was not positively correlated with any single compound or with any olfactometric vector built by the summation of odorants with similar odors. However, an olfactometric vector built by the summation of the olfactometric scores of defective odorants, such as 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 4-ethylphenol, 3-ethylphenol, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole, and o-cresol was significant and negatively related to quality. Quality could be satisfactorily explained by a simple partial least-squares model (79% explained variance in cross-validation) with just three X-variables: the aforementioned defective vector, a second vector grouping 9 other compounds with negative aroma nuances, and the fruity vector, grouping 15 compounds with fruit-sweet descriptors. This result shows that the quality of these red wines is primarily related to the presence of defective or negative odorants, and secondarily to the presence of a relatively large number of fruit-sweet odorants. Remarkably, only in a few low-quality samples could defective aroma nuances be detected, which suggests that defective and negative odorants exert a strong aroma suppression effect on fruity aroma.

  16. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation. PMID:27388819

  17. Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.).

    PubMed

    Gallego, L; Del Alamo, M; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E

    2012-04-01

    Wood of Quercus pyrenaica has suitable properties for the wine ageing process. However, the forest available for the barrel making from this particular type of tree is very limited. Nevertheless, it is highly advisable to use this kind of wood in order to manufacture alternative oak products. This study presents the results of ageing the same red wine using different pieces of wood (chips and staves) of Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), American oak (Quercus alba) and French oak (Quercus petraea) in conjunction with small, controlled amounts of oxygen. In addition, the phenolic parameters, colour and sensory analysis point out that wines aged with Q. pyrenaica pieces have similar enological characteristics to those aged with American or French oak pieces of wood (chips and staves). Furthermore, the total oxygen consumed and its relation with sensory properties also has been studied in this article in order to know how the oxygen behaves in these processes. Besides, it is going to put forward the fact that chips and staves from Q. pyrenaica oak are suitable for the ageing of red wines and better considered than American or French ones, showing higher aromatic intensity, complexity, woody, balsamic and cocoa. Finally, the tasters valued highly the wines with staves, pointing out its flavour and roundness in mouth.

  18. The effect of red wine consumption on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Michał; Średnicka-Tober, Dominika; Stachoń, Małgorzata; Kołota, Aleksandra; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa; Malik, Agnieszka; Hallmann, Ewelina; Rusaczonek, Anna; Gromadzka-Ostrowska, Joanna

    2014-09-01

    Very little is known about the effects of red wine consumption on male reproductive functions. Here we report the effect of regular drinking of different types of red wine on hormonal reproductive parameters and total antioxidant status in young adult male rats. Dry red wine (D-RW) exerted higher antioxidant activity and was characterized by higher concentration of phenolic compounds compared to semi-dry (SD-RW), sweet (S-RW) and semi-sweet (SS-RW) wines. No differences in total antioxidant status of rat plasma after six weeks of drinking of the wines were detected. Increased plasma follicle-stimulating hormone levels in S-RW versus control and D-RW (5.26 vs. 3.06 and 3.21 ng mL(-1)) groups were found. The plasma testosterone concentration was lower in D-RW compared to control, SD-RW, S-RW and SS-RW groups (0.25 vs. 1.12, 1.09, 1.54 and 1.25 ng mL(-1)). Higher plasma 17β-estradiol level in S-RW versus SD-RW and SS-RW (10.94 vs. 7.18 and 6.72 pg mL(-1)) group was stated. The prolactin level was higher in plasma of S-RW versus D-RW and SS-RW (17.35 vs. 9.74 and 8.59 ng mL(-1)) rats. The effects of red wine drinking on the hormonal regulation of the male reproductive system depend on the type and the dose of red wine. Chemical compounds naturally occurring in red wines (i.e. phenolics) may modulate the effects of ethyl alcohol, but also directly affect the male reproduction.

  19. Is Moderate Red Wine Consumption Safe in Inactive Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Garth R.; Tieu, Vanessa; Shaikh, Maliha; Forsyth, Chris; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is a potential trigger for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) flare because of alcohol-induced oxidative stress and its deleterious effects on gut barrier function. Additionally, we have recently shown that alcohol consumption is associated with more symptoms in IBD. However, it is not known whether moderate daily alcohol consumption can modify IBD disease activity. To test what effects alcohol may have on patients with IBD, we evaluated the effect of moderate daily red wine for 1 week on two factors associated with recurrent IBD disease activity: intestinal permeability and stool calprotectin. Methods To assess the effects of moderate daily alcohol consumption on intestinal permeability and inflammation, we recruited 21 patients: 8 with inactive ulcerative colitis (UC), 6 with inactive Crohn's disease (CD), and 7 healthy controls. All participants with IBD completed a validated questionnaire on disease activity (Crohn's disease activity index or ulcerative colitis clinical activity index), to confirm they had inactive disease. All subjects then underwent a baseline assessment that included a blood draw, urine collection after sugar challenge, and stool collection. Subjects then consumed 1–3 glasses of red wine a day for 1 week (approx. 0.4 g EtOH/kg), and repeated the three measures. Results No subjects flared during the study. Moderate alcohol consumption did not significantly change either clinical disease activity scores or C-reactive protein. In contrast to healthy subjects, daily consumption of red wine significantly (1) decreased stool calprotectin in IBD subjects from baseline (p = 0.001) and (2) increased intestinal permeability as measured by urinary lactulose/mannitol excretion (marker of small bowel permeability) in CD (p = 0.028) or urinary sucralose secretion (marker of large bowel permeability) in UC (p = 0.012). Conclusions One week of moderate consumption of red wine in inactive IBD was associated with a significant

  20. Olfactory Impact of Higher Alcohols on Red Wine Fruity Ester Aroma Expression in Model Solution.

    PubMed

    Cameleyre, Margaux; Lytra, Georgia; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-11-11

    This study focused on the impact of five higher alcohols on the perception of fruity aroma in red wines. Various aromatic reconstitutions were prepared, consisting of 13 ethyl esters and acetates and 5 higher alcohols, all at the average concentrations found in red wine. These aromatic reconstitutions were prepared in several matrices. Sensory analysis revealed the interesting behavior of certain compounds among the five higher alcohols following their individual addition or omission. The "olfactory threshold" of the fruity pool was evaluated in several matrices: dilute alcohol solution, dilute alcohol solution containing 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol individually, and dilute alcohol solution containing the mixture of five higher alcohols, blended together at various concentrations. The presence of 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol alone led to a significant decrease in the "olfactory threshold" of the fruity reconstitution, whereas the mixture of alcohols raised the olfactory threshold. Sensory profiles highlighted changes in the perception of fruity nuances in the presence of the mixture of higher alcohols, with specific perceptive interactions, including a relevant masking effect on fresh- and jammy-fruit notes of the fruity mixture in both dilute alcohol solution and dearomatized red wine matrices. When either 3-methylbutan-1-ol or butan-1-ol was added to the fruity reconstitution in dilute alcohol solution, an enhancement of butyric notes was reported with 3-methylbutan-1-ol and fresh- and jammy-fruit with butan-1-ol. This study, the first to focus on the impact of higher alcohols on fruity aromatic expression, revealed that these compounds participate, both quantitatively and qualitatively, in masking fruity aroma perception in a model fruity wine mixture.

  1. Aroma chemical composition of red wines from different price categories and its relationship to quality.

    PubMed

    Juan, Felipe San; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Escudero, Ana

    2012-05-23

    The aroma chemical composition of three sets of Spanish red wines belonging to three different price categories was studied by using an array of gas chromatographic methods. Significant differences were found in the levels of 72 aroma compounds. Expensive wines are richest in wood-related compounds, ethyl phenols, cysteinil-derived mercaptans, volatile sulfur compounds, ethyl esters of branched acids, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde and are poorest in linear and branched fatty acids, fusel alcohols, terpenols, norisoprenoids, fusel alcohol acetates, and ethyl esters of the linear fatty acids; inexpensive wines show exactly the opposite profile, being richest in E-2-nonenal, E-2-hexenal, Z-3-hexenol, acetoin, and ethyl lactate. Satisfactory models relating quality to odorant composition could be built exclusively for expensive and medium-price wines but not for the lower-price sample set in which in-mouth attributes had to be included. The models for quality reveal a common structure, but they are characteristic of a given sample set.

  2. Tartaric acid in red wine as one of the key factors to induce superconductivity in FeTe0.8S0.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deguchi, Keita; Okuda, Tohru; Hara, Hiroshi; Demura, Satoshi; Watanabe, Tohru; Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Masaya; Denholme, Saleem James; Ozaki, Toshinori; Yamaguchi, Takahide; Takeya, Hiroyuki; Saito, Fumie; Hisamoto, Masashi; Takano, Yoshihiko

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the key factor of superconductivity in FeTe1-xSx induced by alcoholic beverages. To understand the reason why red wine shows larger shielding volume fraction than the other alcoholic beverages, the red wine dependence of superconductivity was performed. All the samples heated in red wine made from different grapes shows large shielding volume fraction compared with the samples heated in water and other alcoholic beverages. The shielding volume fraction of the red wine samples is proportional to the concentration of tartaric acid. We found that tartaric acid is one of the key factors to induce superconductivity in FeTe1-xSx.

  3. Assessing the Potential Content of Ethyl Carbamate in White, Red, and Rosé Wines as a Key Factor for Pursuing Urea Degradation by Purified Acid Urease.

    PubMed

    Cerreti, Martina; Fidaleo, Marcello; Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Tamborra, Pasquale; Moresi, Mauro

    2016-07-01

    The ethyl carbamate (EC) content of a wine after a given temperature-time storage was theoretically predicted from the potential concentration of ethyl carbamate (PEC), as determined via an accelerated EC formation test. Such information was used to decide whether an enzymatic treatment was needed to reduce the wine urea level before bottling/aging. To this end, 6 white, red, and rosé wines, manufactured in Italy as such or enriched with urea, were tested for their PEC content either before or after enzymatic treatment using a purified acid urease preparation derived from Lactobacillus fermentum. The treatment was severely affected by the total phenolic content (TP) of the wine, the estimated pseudo-first-order kinetic rate constant for NH3 formation reducing by a factor of approximately 2000 as the TP increased from 0 to 1.64 g L(-1) . Such a sensitivity to TP was by far greater than that pertaining to a killed cell-based enzyme preparation used previously. Urea hydrolysis was successful at reducing EC concentration in wines with low levels of TP and other EC precursors.

  4. NMR and molecular modeling: application to wine ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucier, C.; Pianet, I.; Laguerre, M.; Glories, Y.

    1998-02-01

    Red wine contains polyphenols called tannins which are very important for its taste and longevity. These polymers consist in repeating units of catechin and its epimer epicatechin. During ageing, slow condensation reactions take place which lead to new chemical structures. Among the possible reactions, we have focused our attention on acetaldehyde cross-linking. Catechin was used as a model for the production of polymers with acetaldehyde. Two reaction product fractions have been isolated by liquid chromatography. Mass measurement indicated that these fractions contain dimers. NMR (1D and 2D) and molecular modelling were then used to study the structure and conformations of these products. The first product consist in a pure dimer with the two catechin moieties connected with an ethyl bridge on the carbon 6 and 8. The second fraction was a mixture of two dimers (50/50). NMR measurements showed that it could be two symmetrical dimers involving the same carbon for each catechin moiety (6 or8). Le vin rouge contient des polyphénols appelés tanins qui sont très importants pour son goût et sa longévité. Il s'agit principalement de polymères de catéchine et d'épicatéchine. Durant le vieillissement du vin, des réactions de condensation interviennent lentement et conduisent à de nouvelles structures. Parmi les réactions possibles, nous avons plus spécialement étudié la polymérisation par pontage avec l'éthanal. La catéchine a été utilisée comme modèle de tannin et mise en présence d'éthanal en milieu acide proche du vin. Deux fractions de produits de réaction ont été isolées par chromatographie liquide. La spectrométrie de masse a révélé la présence de dimères. La RMN (1D et 2D) et la modélisation moléculaire ont ensuite été utilisées pour déterminer la structure et la conformation de ces produits. La première fraction a été identifiée comme étant un dimère de deux unités catéchines reliées par un pont éthyle par leur

  5. Effects of Tannic Acid, Green Tea and Red Wine on hERG Channels Expressed in HEK293 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bingyuan; Li, Wenya; Lin, Yue; Sun, Xiaorun; Ding, Chunhua; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    Tannic acid presents in varying concentrations in plant foods, and in relatively high concentrations in green teas and red wines. Human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in multiple tissues (e.g. heart, neurons, smooth muscle and cancer cells), and play important roles in modulating cardiac action potential repolarization and tumor cell biology. The present study investigated the effects of tannic acid, green teas and red wines on hERG currents. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wines on hERG currents stably transfected in HEK293 cells were studied with a perforated patch clamp technique. In this study, we demonstrated that tannic acid inhibited hERG currents with an IC50 of 3.4 μM and ~100% inhibition at higher concentrations, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ23.2 mV). Remarkably, a 100-fold dilution of multiple types of tea (green tea, oolong tea and black tea) or red wine inhibited hERG currents by ~90%, and significantly shifted the voltage dependent activation to more positive potentials (Δ30.8 mV and Δ26.0 mV, respectively). Green tea Lung Ching and red wine inhibited hERG currents, with IC50 of 0.04% and 0.19%, respectively. The effects of tannic acid, teas and red wine on hERG currents were irreversible. These results suggest tannic acid is a novel hERG channel blocker and consequently provide a new mechanistic evidence for understanding the effects of tannic acid. They also revealed the potential pharmacological basis of tea- and red wine-induced biology activities. PMID:26625122

  6. Gel permeation chromatography of anthocyanin pigments from Rosé cider and red wine.

    PubMed

    Shoji, T; Yanagida, A; Kanda, T

    1999-07-01

    Anthocyanin pigments from rosé cider and red wine, which is a sparkling wine made from apples, were separated by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) using a TSK-GEL Toyopearl HW-40 (F) column with a 6:4 mixture of acetone and 8 M urea (pH 2.0) as the eluent. Under this condition, all phenolic compounds containing monomeric anthocyanins (mainly, cyanidin-3-galactoside; Cyn-3-gal), oligomeric and polymeric anthocyanins, chlorogenic acid, catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin B2 (PB2), and procyanidin C1 (PC1) in the apples and rosé cider were found to elute according to molecular weight. Bleaching of the anthocyanin pigments by SO(2) was gradually effective in the fractions separated by GPC according to elution volume. In the case of rosé cider, the levels of Cyn-3-gal decreased markedly during fermentation and then decreased gradually during maturation. We confirmed that anthocyanin polymers are not detectable in apple juice; these polymers are produced during fermentation and maturation as determined by GPC. The polymeric anthocyanins from red wine could be separated by this method, too.

  7. First identification of three p-menthane lactones and their potential precursor, menthofuran, in red wines.

    PubMed

    Picard, Magali; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2017-02-15

    The p-menthane lactones constitute a family of powerful odorants, including the isomers of mintlactone and menthofurolactone that occur naturally in peppermint oil, known for their potent, mint-like olfactory properties. These lactones are closely related to the monoterpene-limonene secondary biotransformation and menthofuran has been identified as their common precursor in Mentha species. Using targeted GC-olfactometry and GC-MS analyses, together with quantification methods, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of the diastereoisomers of these p-menthane lactones, as well as their common precursor, menthofuran, in red wines. In addition, we linked the presence of those lactones to interesting odorant zones, reminiscent of mint, detected in the studied wine. Although these p-menthane lactones may contribute individually to mint and coconut odors, sensory studies suggested for the first time that their combination at the levels found in the red wine studied resulted in a significant accentuation of freshness and mint notes. PMID:27664637

  8. Patagonian red wines: selection of Lactobacillus plantarum isolates as potential starter cultures for malolactic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Ferrada, Bárbara Mercedes; Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Valdés La Hens, Danay; Caballero, Adriana; Semorile, Liliana

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fifty-three Lactobacillus plantarum isolates obtained from a Patagonian red wine, molecularly identified and typified using RAPD analysis, in order to select starter cultures for malolactic fermentation (MLF). The results obtained suggest a considerable genetic diversity, taking into account that all L. plantarum isolates were obtained from one cellar and one vintage. Based on the capacity to tolerate a concentration of 14 % ethanol in MRS broth for 2 days, eight isolates were selected for the subsequent analysis. The incidence of various wine stress factors (ethanol, acid pH, lysozyme and sulfur dioxide) on isolates growth was studied. Besides, glucosidase and tannase activities were evaluated, and the presence of genes involved in the synthesis of biogenic amines was examined by PCR. A previously characterized indigenous Oenococcus oeni strain was included with comparative purposes. Differences in technologically relevant characteristics were observed among the eight L. plantarum selected isolates, revealing an isolate-dependent behavior. Detectable glucosidase and tannase activities were found in all isolates. The presence of genes encoding histidine and tyrosine descarboxylases and putrescine carbamoyltransferase was not detected. The ability of L. plantarum isolates to grow and consume L-malic acid in simulated laboratory-scale vinifications revealed that two of them could be considered as possible MLF starter cultures for Patagonian red wines. These isolates will be subjected to further analysis, for a final winery technological characterization.

  9. Differential protective effects of red wine polyphenol extracts (RWEs) on colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mazué, Frédéric; Delmas, Dominique; Murillo, Genoveva; Saleiro, Diana; Limagne, Emeric; Latruffe, Norbert

    2014-04-01

    Various epidemiological studies have shown that a regular and moderate consumption of red wine is correlated with a decreased relative risk of developing coronary heart disease and cancer. These health benefits are commonly attributed to high contents of polyphenols, particularly resveratrol, representing important sources of antioxidants. However, resveratrol does not seem to be the only bioactive compound present in the wine which contains numerous other polyphenols. The present study investigates the efficiency of red wine extracts (RWEs), containing different polyphenols, on colon cancer cell proliferation in vitro and on colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in vivo. Proliferation, cell cycle analysis and incidence of ACF were monitored to examine the effects of RWEs. RWEs derived from a long vinification process exhibit superior anti-proliferative activity in colon cancer cells and prevent the appearance of ACF in mice. Interestingly, quercetin and resveratrol, representing two major bio-active polyphenols, exhibit synergistic anti-proliferative effects. These data suggest that the efficacy of RWEs on colon carcinogenesis may depend on the polyphenolic content, synergistic interaction of bio-active polyphenols and modulation of cellular uptake of polyphenols.

  10. First identification of three p-menthane lactones and their potential precursor, menthofuran, in red wines.

    PubMed

    Picard, Magali; de Revel, Gilles; Marchand, Stéphanie

    2017-02-15

    The p-menthane lactones constitute a family of powerful odorants, including the isomers of mintlactone and menthofurolactone that occur naturally in peppermint oil, known for their potent, mint-like olfactory properties. These lactones are closely related to the monoterpene-limonene secondary biotransformation and menthofuran has been identified as their common precursor in Mentha species. Using targeted GC-olfactometry and GC-MS analyses, together with quantification methods, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time, the presence of the diastereoisomers of these p-menthane lactones, as well as their common precursor, menthofuran, in red wines. In addition, we linked the presence of those lactones to interesting odorant zones, reminiscent of mint, detected in the studied wine. Although these p-menthane lactones may contribute individually to mint and coconut odors, sensory studies suggested for the first time that their combination at the levels found in the red wine studied resulted in a significant accentuation of freshness and mint notes.

  11. Effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid plus kresoxim-methyl) applied to vines on the color and phenol profile of different red wines.

    PubMed

    Briz-Cid, Noelia; Figueiredo-González, María; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid + kresoxim-methyl) on the color and phenolic profile of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines has been studied. To evaluate possible modifications in color and phenolic composition of wines, control and wines elaborated with treated grapes under good agricultural practices were analyzed. Color was assessed by Glories and CIELab parameters. Color changes were observed for treated wines with boscalid + kresoxim-methyl, leading to the production of wines with less color vividness. Phenolic profile was characterized by HPLC analysis. Boscalid + kresoxim-methyl treatment promoted the greatest decrease on the phenolic content in wines. PMID:24936710

  12. Effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid plus kresoxim-methyl) applied to vines on the color and phenol profile of different red wines.

    PubMed

    Briz-Cid, Noelia; Figueiredo-González, María; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-06-16

    The effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid + kresoxim-methyl) on the color and phenolic profile of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines has been studied. To evaluate possible modifications in color and phenolic composition of wines, control and wines elaborated with treated grapes under good agricultural practices were analyzed. Color was assessed by Glories and CIELab parameters. Color changes were observed for treated wines with boscalid + kresoxim-methyl, leading to the production of wines with less color vividness. Phenolic profile was characterized by HPLC analysis. Boscalid + kresoxim-methyl treatment promoted the greatest decrease on the phenolic content in wines.

  13. Development of a sensitive ELISA for the detection of casein-containing fining agents in red and white wines.

    PubMed

    Deckwart, Marina; Carstens, Carsten; Webber-Witt, Manuella; Schäfer, Volker; Eichhorn, Lisa; Kang, Sophie; Fischer, Markus; Brockow, Knut; Christmann, Monika; Paschke-Kratzin, Angelika

    2014-07-16

    Fining of wine with proteinogenic fining agents such as casein from cow's milk is a traditional and commonly used technique all over the world. Casein and other proteins from cow's milk are well-known food allergens, which pose a risk for allergic consumers. Temporary regulations exempting the labeling of milk and products thereof in wine expired. Since July 1, 2012, these fining agents have to be declared on the wine label under Regulation (EU) No. 579/2012 in conjunction to article 120g of Regulation (EU) No. 1234/2007 if exceeding the threshold of 0.25 mg/L allergenic protein. The aim of the presented study was to develop sensitive ELISA methods for the detection of casein in white and red wines and to investigate the risk of allergenic residues in fined wines. In this context it was shown that the used substance for calibration is highly relevant. Casein wine fining agents of different commercial producers were investigated by LDS-PAGE and immunoblot. In addition to casein, they contain other milk proteins, which are potentially allergic and therefore have to be incorporated in the development of antibodies for an ELISA method to be set up. An indirect ELISA for the investigation of white wine was developed. The LOD is 0.1 mg/L. For red wine the LOD is 0.2 mg/L in an indirect sandwich ELISA setup. The LOD of the indirect sandwich ELISA for white wine depends on the calibration standard. It is 0.1 mg/L for the fining agent casein and 0.01 mg/L for casein from a chemical trader. It is also shown that the use of different technological procedures during winemaking leads to no detectable amounts of casein in various wine samples.

  14. Simultaneous GC-MS Determination of Free and Bound Phenolic Acids in Slovenian Red Wines and Chemometric Characterization.

    PubMed

    Ivanović, Milena; Islamčević Razboršek, Maša; Kolar, Mitja

    2016-01-01

    Several phenolic acids (PAs), caffeic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric and ferulic acid, found in Slovenian red wines were studied using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. For isolation of the PAs from wine samples, solid phase extraction using hydrophilic modified styrene - HLB cartridges was used. The bound PAs were extracted after basic hydrolysis and o-coumaric acid was used as the internal standard. The developed method was validated and the linear concentration range for all analytes was from 1 to 100 mg L-1 with correlation coefficients above 0.999. We show that the method is repeatable (RSD<2%), recoveries were above 96%, and LOD and LOQ values were acceptable. In all of the wine samples tested, caffeic and p-coumaric acid were determined to be the predominant PAs (17-72 mg L-1), while other compounds were found in lower concentrations. Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis were used to study differences between wines related towards varieties and Slovenian wine regions. The results demonstrate that variety has more influence on PAs content than wine regions in Slovenian red wines. PMID:27640394

  15. Relationship between nonvolatile composition and sensory properties of premium Spanish red wines and their correlation to quality perception.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Tao, Yong-Sheng; Dizy, Marta; Ferreira, Vicente; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2010-12-01

    The correlation of nonvolatile composition in wines with quality perception is a critical subject in current enological research, and it is far from being clear. Thus, the present work aims at (1) defining the chemical composition and in-mouth sensory properties of a set of wooded premium Spanish red wines and (2) assessing the implication of their chemical composition in the sensory perception of quality. Therefore, 24 wines were analyzed by sensory descriptive analysis and chemical analysis for nonvolatile composition, and their correlations have been discussed. In parallel, a panel of wine experts performed a quality evaluation based on overall perception. Multivariate statistical analysis has revealed that quality was primarily related to wines without defective aroma and secondarily to the presence of nonvolatile components such as reducing sugars and alcohol content as well as some phenolic compounds: proanthocyanidins linked to polysaccharide, trans-caffeic, trans-coutaric, and trans-caftaric acids, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and malvidin-catechin dimer. The results show that wines evaluated as high-quality wines by experts present higher concentrations of these compounds except for trans-caffeic acid, which accumulates higher concentration levels in low-quality wines.

  16. Differential Adsorption of Ochratoxin A and Anthocyanins by Inactivated Yeasts and Yeast Cell Walls during Simulation of Wine Aging

    PubMed Central

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Baiano, Antonietta; De Gianni, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine OTA adsorption by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the wild strain W13, and the commercial isolate BM45), previously inactivated by heat, and a yeast cell wall preparation. Experiments were conducted using Nero di Troia red wine contaminated with 2 μg/L OTA and supplemented with yeast biomass (20 g/L). The samples were analyzed periodically to assess mycotoxin concentration, chromatic characteristics, and total anthocyanins over 84 days of aging. Yeast cell walls revealed the highest OTA-adsorption in comparison to thermally-inactivated cells (50% vs. 43% toxin reduction), whilst no significant differences were found for the amount of adsorbed anthocyanins in OTA-contaminated and control wines. OTA and anthocyanins adsorption were not competitive phenomena. Unfortunately, the addition of yeast cells to wine could cause color loss; therefore, yeast selection should also focus on this trait to select the best strain. PMID:26516913

  17. Differential Adsorption of Ochratoxin A and Anthocyanins by Inactivated Yeasts and Yeast Cell Walls during Simulation of Wine Aging.

    PubMed

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Baiano, Antonietta; De Gianni, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine OTA adsorption by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the wild strain W13, and the commercial isolate BM45), previously inactivated by heat, and a yeast cell wall preparation. Experiments were conducted using Nero di Troia red wine contaminated with 2 μg/L OTA and supplemented with yeast biomass (20 g/L). The samples were analyzed periodically to assess mycotoxin concentration, chromatic characteristics, and total anthocyanins over 84 days of aging. Yeast cell walls revealed the highest OTA-adsorption in comparison to thermally-inactivated cells (50% vs. 43% toxin reduction), whilst no significant differences were found for the amount of adsorbed anthocyanins in OTA-contaminated and control wines. OTA and anthocyanins adsorption were not competitive phenomena. Unfortunately, the addition of yeast cells to wine could cause color loss; therefore, yeast selection should also focus on this trait to select the best strain. PMID:26516913

  18. Differential Adsorption of Ochratoxin A and Anthocyanins by Inactivated Yeasts and Yeast Cell Walls during Simulation of Wine Aging.

    PubMed

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Baiano, Antonietta; De Gianni, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Antonio

    2015-10-26

    The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine OTA adsorption by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the wild strain W13, and the commercial isolate BM45), previously inactivated by heat, and a yeast cell wall preparation. Experiments were conducted using Nero di Troia red wine contaminated with 2 μg/L OTA and supplemented with yeast biomass (20 g/L). The samples were analyzed periodically to assess mycotoxin concentration, chromatic characteristics, and total anthocyanins over 84 days of aging. Yeast cell walls revealed the highest OTA-adsorption in comparison to thermally-inactivated cells (50% vs. 43% toxin reduction), whilst no significant differences were found for the amount of adsorbed anthocyanins in OTA-contaminated and control wines. OTA and anthocyanins adsorption were not competitive phenomena. Unfortunately, the addition of yeast cells to wine could cause color loss; therefore, yeast selection should also focus on this trait to select the best strain.

  19. [Influence of the concentrate of red wine polyphenols on glutamate neurotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Shurygin, A Ya; Shurygina, L V; Ageeva, N M; Gaponenko, Yu V; Markosov, V A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to assess the influence of the concentrate of red table wine Saperavi on the cultivated nerve cells exposed to glutamate. The selection of Saperavi as the source of phenolic compounds was not accidental: this type of grapes in the Krasnodar region has the highest content of them - up to 4-5 g/dm3 and more. Polyphenol concentrate was prepared by pre-distillation of ethanol using vacuum, evaporation of red table wine with a rotary vaporizer, with the subsequent lyophilic drying. By the methods of voltammetry and chemiluminescence an antioxidant activity, and a quantity of antioxidants in the concentrate have been determined. By HPLC it was established that a large group of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was present in the concentrate of polyphenols: procyanidins (total concentration up to 425 mg/dm3), quercetin (21.8-32.6 mg/dm3), gallic acid (124.2-164.7 mg/dm3), resveratrol (6.26-13.22 mg/dm3), catechins (1026 - 1480 mg/dm3). Effect of red wine Saperavi concentrate on glutamate cytotoxicity was studied in the neuron culture of the cerebellum of 7-9-day-old rats. It was shown that the presence of. antioxidants reduced the intensity of chemiluminescence in model systems that generate free radicals. It was established that quenching of chemiluminescence in the system composed 68.43%, and in the system of the yolk lipoproteins - 86.36%. The application of concentrate Saperavi significantly increased the survivability of neurons: at the doses 5, 10 and 30 mcg/ml the number of intact neurons was respectively 38.6; 41.5 and 37.1%. The dose 20 mcg/ml was the most effective - the proportion of live neurons comprised 47.4%. The obtained results can be explained by the high antioxidant activity of concentrate flavonoids, including high content of biologically active compounds - catechins, quercetin, rutin, resveratrol. Thus, the consumption of red wine in quantities that exclude harmful effects, can

  20. [Influence of the concentrate of red wine polyphenols on glutamate neurotoxicity].

    PubMed

    Shurygin, A Ya; Shurygina, L V; Ageeva, N M; Gaponenko, Yu V; Markosov, V A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the work was to assess the influence of the concentrate of red table wine Saperavi on the cultivated nerve cells exposed to glutamate. The selection of Saperavi as the source of phenolic compounds was not accidental: this type of grapes in the Krasnodar region has the highest content of them - up to 4-5 g/dm3 and more. Polyphenol concentrate was prepared by pre-distillation of ethanol using vacuum, evaporation of red table wine with a rotary vaporizer, with the subsequent lyophilic drying. By the methods of voltammetry and chemiluminescence an antioxidant activity, and a quantity of antioxidants in the concentrate have been determined. By HPLC it was established that a large group of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity was present in the concentrate of polyphenols: procyanidins (total concentration up to 425 mg/dm3), quercetin (21.8-32.6 mg/dm3), gallic acid (124.2-164.7 mg/dm3), resveratrol (6.26-13.22 mg/dm3), catechins (1026 - 1480 mg/dm3). Effect of red wine Saperavi concentrate on glutamate cytotoxicity was studied in the neuron culture of the cerebellum of 7-9-day-old rats. It was shown that the presence of. antioxidants reduced the intensity of chemiluminescence in model systems that generate free radicals. It was established that quenching of chemiluminescence in the system composed 68.43%, and in the system of the yolk lipoproteins - 86.36%. The application of concentrate Saperavi significantly increased the survivability of neurons: at the doses 5, 10 and 30 mcg/ml the number of intact neurons was respectively 38.6; 41.5 and 37.1%. The dose 20 mcg/ml was the most effective - the proportion of live neurons comprised 47.4%. The obtained results can be explained by the high antioxidant activity of concentrate flavonoids, including high content of biologically active compounds - catechins, quercetin, rutin, resveratrol. Thus, the consumption of red wine in quantities that exclude harmful effects, can

  1. Indigenous yeast population from Georgian aged wines produced by traditional "Kakhetian" method.

    PubMed

    Capece, Angela; Siesto, Gabriella; Poeta, Cinzia; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Romano, Patrizia

    2013-12-01

    The yeast microbiota present in wines produced by the ancient "Kakhetian" method in Georgia (EU) was studied. This technique involves the use of terracotta vessels (amphoras), during spontaneous fermentation, maceration phase and wine ageing. The analysed yeasts were collected from wines after maturation for one year in ten amphoras from a Georgian winery. The 260 isolates were all identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the majority were classified as flor yeasts by restriction analysis of ITS region. A first technological and molecular screening was used to select 70 strains for further characterization. Both genetic and metabolic characterization discriminated flor from non-flor strains. The combined results obtained by analysis of interdelta region and mtDNA-RFLP yielded 23 different biotypes; no biotype was common to flor and non-flor strains. The wines produced by flor yeasts showed a high content in acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetoin, whereas the level of other compounds was similar to wines obtained by non-flor strains. This study represents the first report on the composition of yeast microbiota involved in the maturation of this traditional wine. These flor strains represent an interesting yeast population, in possession of peculiar characteristics allowing them to survive during wine ageing, becoming the dominant flora in the final wine.

  2. Red Wine Inhibits Aggregation and Increases ATP-diphosphohydrolase (CD39) Activity of Rat Platelets in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Elisabetta; Tedesco, Idolo; Spagnuolo, Carmela; Russo, Gian Luigi; Ialenti, Armando; Cicala, Carla

    2016-06-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine has been shown to exert a peculiar cardioprotective effect compared with other alcoholic beverages; inhibition of platelet aggregation seems to be one of the mechanisms underlying this beneficial effect. CD39/ATP-diphosphohydrolase is an integral membrane glycoprotein metabolizing ATP and ADP to AMP; in concert with CD73/ecto-5'-nucleotidase, it contributes to extracellular adenosine accumulation. CD39 is considered a key modulator of thrombus formation; it inhibits platelet aggregation by promoting ADP hydrolysis. There is evidence that red wine consumption increases CD39 activity in platelets from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Here we show that two kinds of Aglianico red wines inhibit aggregation and increase ATP--and ADPase activity in rat platelets. PMID:27534113

  3. Determination of stilbene derivatives in Burgundy red wines by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Boutegrabet, Lemia; Fekete, Agnes; Hertkorn, Norbert; Papastamoulis, Yorgos; Waffo-Téguo, Pierre; Mérillon, Jean Michel; Jeandet, Philippe; Gougeon, Régis D; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    The polyphenols, for example stilbenes and flavonoids, are an important family of compounds present in grapes and wines. Several studies have shown that stilbenes are antioxidants and cancer-preventing agents. For the first time, eight natural stilbenes (trans-resveratrol, trans-piceid, cis-piceid, trans-astringin, trans-piceatannol, (+)-trans-ε-viniferin, pallidol, and hopeaphenol), isolated and purified from Vitis vinifera, were simultaneously analysed by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode-array detection. Separation of the stilbenes by UHPLC was optimized with the assistance of "Quality-by-Design" commercial software. Four different reversed-phase columns packed with 1.5-1.7-μm particles were tested and compared for their retention behaviour and separation efficiency. On the basis of the performance characteristics determined, the VisionHT C18 HL column was selected for the stilbenes studied, because resolution of the critical pair was 1.5 with a peak width of 2-4 s. The optimized method resulted in highly repeatable retention times (RSD 0.03-0.07%), peak areas (RSD 3-6%), and linear ranges were between 0.005 and 50 mg L(-1) for most of the compounds. All stilbenes, except trans-astringin, trans-piceatannol, and pallidol were identified and quantified in Burgundy red wines at different concentrations after direct injection of the wines.

  4. Fast and sensitive detection of ochratoxin A in red wine by nanoparticle-enhanced SPR.

    PubMed

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Reiner-Rozman, Ciril; Hageneder, Simone; Dubiak-Szepietowska, Monika; Dostálek, Jakub; Feller, Karl-Heinz

    2016-09-21

    Herein, we present a fast and sensitive biosensor for detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in a red wine that utilizes gold nanoparticle-enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR). By combining an indirect competitive inhibition immunoassay and signal enhancement by secondary antibodies conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), highly sensitive detection of low molecular weight compounds (such as OTA) was achieved. The reported biosensor allowed for OTA detection at concentrations as low as 0.75 ng mL(-1) and its limit of detection was improved by more than one order of magnitude to 0.068 ng mL(-1) by applying AuNPs as a signal enhancer. The study investigates the interplay of size of AuNPs and affinity of recognition elements affecting the efficiency of the signal amplification strategy based on AuNP. Furthermore, we observed that the presence of polyphenolic compounds in wine samples strongly interferes with the affinity binding on the surface. To overcome this limitation, a simple pre-treatment of the wine sample with the binding agent poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was successfully applied.

  5. Fast and sensitive detection of ochratoxin A in red wine by nanoparticle-enhanced SPR.

    PubMed

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Reiner-Rozman, Ciril; Hageneder, Simone; Dubiak-Szepietowska, Monika; Dostálek, Jakub; Feller, Karl-Heinz

    2016-09-21

    Herein, we present a fast and sensitive biosensor for detection of Ochratoxin A (OTA) in a red wine that utilizes gold nanoparticle-enhanced surface plasmon resonance (SPR). By combining an indirect competitive inhibition immunoassay and signal enhancement by secondary antibodies conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), highly sensitive detection of low molecular weight compounds (such as OTA) was achieved. The reported biosensor allowed for OTA detection at concentrations as low as 0.75 ng mL(-1) and its limit of detection was improved by more than one order of magnitude to 0.068 ng mL(-1) by applying AuNPs as a signal enhancer. The study investigates the interplay of size of AuNPs and affinity of recognition elements affecting the efficiency of the signal amplification strategy based on AuNP. Furthermore, we observed that the presence of polyphenolic compounds in wine samples strongly interferes with the affinity binding on the surface. To overcome this limitation, a simple pre-treatment of the wine sample with the binding agent poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) was successfully applied. PMID:27590556

  6. Predicting the composition of red wine blends using an array of multicomponent Peptide-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Eman; Hopfer, Helene; Navarro, Andrea; Ritzer, Maxwell S; Mahmood, Lina; Fredell, Morgan; Cubley, Ashley; Bolen, Jessica; Fattah, Rabia; Teasdale, Katherine; Lieu, Linh; Chua, Tedmund; Marini, Federico; Heymann, Hildegarde; Anslyn, Eric V

    2015-01-01

    Differential sensing using synthetic receptors as mimics of the mammalian senses of taste and smell is a powerful approach for the analysis of complex mixtures. Herein, we report on the effectiveness of a cross-reactive, supramolecular, peptide-based sensing array in differentiating and predicting the composition of red wine blends. Fifteen blends of Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Cabernet Franc, in addition to the mono varietals, were used in this investigation. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) showed a clear differentiation of blends based on tannin concentration and composition where certain mono varietals like Cabernet Sauvignon seemed to contribute less to the overall characteristics of the blend. Partial Least Squares (PLS) Regression and cross validation were used to build a predictive model for the responses of the receptors to eleven binary blends and the three mono varietals. The optimized model was later used to predict the percentage of each mono varietal in an independent test set composted of four tri-blends with a 15% average error. A partial least square regression model using the mouth-feel and taste descriptive sensory attributes of the wine blends revealed a strong correlation of the receptors to perceived astringency, which is indicative of selective binding to polyphenols in wine. PMID:26007178

  7. Insights on the chemical basis of the astringency of Spanish red wines.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Avizcuri, José-Miguel; Ferreira, Vicente; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2012-10-01

    The main goal of the present study is to provide an insight on the role played by non-volatile molecules on the different in-mouth attributes, particularly astringency. For achieving such goal, the main in-mouth sensory attributes of 34 oaked Spanish red wines were measured by a trained panel. The wine content in 30 sensory-active molecules was analysed by different HPLC based methodologies together with classical enological parameters and two proanthocyanidin indexes. Fourteen compounds (aconitic acids, polymeric proanthocyanidins, caftaric, caffeic and coutaric acids and seven quercetins) were found to be at concentrations above reported taste thresholds and to have a reasonably high range of occurrence. Two highly statistically significant models for astringency were built with those compounds. Even if the models could not be fully validated by sensory addition experiments, the research has demonstrated that wine astringency is driven by polymeric proanthocyanidins and by certain phenolic acids, the rate trans/cis-aconitic acid and flavonol profiles. The research has highlighted the existence of extremely complex interactions between non-volatile compounds on the in-mouth sensory perception. Particularly remarkable is the lack of additivity and potential antagonism found between the pairs cis/trans-aconitic acids, between aconitic and caffeic acids and between quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. Also remarkable was the sweetness×astringent interaction and the matrix-dependence of the sensory responses elicited by flavonols. These results suggest the need for new paradigms and experimental procedures for fully decoding the real sensory relevance of individual non-volatile compounds in the overall wine flavour.

  8. Heterocyclic acetals from glycerol and acetaldehyde in Port wines: evolution with aging.

    PubMed

    da Silva Ferreira, Antonio Cesar; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Bertrand, Alain

    2002-04-24

    In Port wine, isomers of glycerol and acetaldehyde acetals have been found at total contents ranging from 9.4 to 175.3 mg/L. During oxidative aging, the concentrations of the 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,3-dioxane and 4-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-1,3-dioxolane isomers increased with time showing a linear correlation (r > 0.95). The flavor threshold for the mixture of the four isomers was evaluated in wine at 100 mg/L. Thus, it is expected that they contribute to "old Port wine" aroma in wines older than 30 years. Experiments with model solutions and wine clearly demonstrated that SO(2) combines with acetaldehyde and blocks the acetalization reaction. PMID:11958622

  9. Influence of Grape Composition on Red Wine Ester Profile: Comparison between Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz Cultivars from Australian Warm Climate.

    PubMed

    Antalick, Guillaume; Šuklje, Katja; Blackman, John W; Meeks, Campbell; Deloire, Alain; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2015-05-13

    The relationship between grape composition and subsequent red wine ester profile was examined. Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz, from the same Australian very warm climate vineyard, were harvested at two different stages of maturity and triplicate wines were vinified. Grape analyses focused on nitrogen and lipid composition by measuring 18 amino acids by HPLC-FLD, 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and 6 C6-compounds derived from lipid degradation by GC-MS. Twenty esters and four higher alcohols were analyzed in wines by HS-SPME-GC-MS. Concentrations of the ethyl esters of branched acids were significantly affected by grape maturity, but the variations were inconsistent between cultivars. Small relative variations were observed between wines for ethyl esters of fatty acids, whereas higher alcohol acetates displayed the most obvious differences with concentrations ranging from 1.5- to 26-fold higher in Shiraz than in Cabernet Sauvignon wines regardless of the grape maturity. Grape analyses revealed the variations of wine ester composition might be related to specific grape juice nitrogen composition and lipid metabolism. To the authors' knowledge the present study is the first to investigate varietal differences in the ester profiles of Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines made with grapes harvested at different maturity stages.

  10. Polysaccharide composition of Monastrell red wines from four different Spanish terroirs: effect of wine-making techniques.

    PubMed

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Williams, Pascale; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María; Doco, Thierry

    2013-03-13

    Monastrell wines made from grapes grown in four different Spanish "terroirs" (Cañada Judı́o, Albatana, Bullas, and Montealegre) were studied. Different wine-making techniques were also used, including different refrigeration techniques (prefermentative cold maceration and dry ice addition) and the addition of two different enzymes (β-galactosidase and commercial pectinase enzyme). The results pointed to significant differences in the Monastrell wine polysaccharide fractions according to the geographical origin of the grapes. The Rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) concentration was 2-fold higher in the Montealegre terroir than in the Bullas terroir. The use of enzymes also modified the polysaccharide content of the wines. RG-II levels were higher in the wines from three terroirs when commercial enzymes were added. The arabinose/galactose ratio of one of the wines was modified by the use of enzymes during wine-making, and some prefermentative cold maceration samples showed high values for several polysaccharides. This study shows the great importance of the "terroir effect" in the polysaccharide composition of wines.

  11. Rapid solid-phase extraction and analysis of resveratrol and other polyphenols in red wine.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Shima N N S; Schwarz, Lachlan J; Boysen, Reinhard I; Yang, Yuanzhong; Danylec, Basil; Hearn, Milton T W

    2013-10-25

    Red wine has long been credited as a good source of health-beneficial antioxidants, including the bioactive polyphenols catechin, quercetin, and (E)-resveratrol. In this paper, we report the application of reusable molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for the selective and robust solid-phase extraction (SPE) and rapid analysis of (E)-resveratrol (LOD=8.87×10(-3) mg/L, LOQ=2.94×10(-2) mg/L), along with a range of other polyphenols from an Australian Pinot noir red wine. Optimization of the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) protocol resulted in the significant enrichment of (E)-resveratrol and several structurally related polyphenols. These secondary metabolites were subsequently identified by RP-HPLC and μLC-ESI ion trap MS/MS methods. The developed MISPE protocol employed low volumes of environmentally benign solvents selected according to the Green Chemistry principles, and resulted in the recovery of 99% of the total (E)-resveratrol present. These results further demonstrate the potential of generic protocols for the analysis of target compound with health beneficial properties within the food and nutraceutical industries using tailor-made MIPs.

  12. Membrane lipids protected from oxidation by red wine tannins: a proton NMR study.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Aurélien L; Jobin, Marie-Lise; Buchoux, Sébastien; Grélard, Axelle; Dufourc, Erick J; Géan, Julie

    2014-12-01

    Dietary polyphenols widespread in vegetables and beverages like red wine and tea have been reported to possess antioxidant properties that could have positive effects on human health. In this study, we propose a new in situ and non-invasive method based on proton liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to determine the antioxidant efficiency of red wine tannins on a twice-unsaturated phospholipid, 1,2-dilinoleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DLiPC), embedded in a membrane model. Four tannins were studied: (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). The lipid degradation kinetics was determined by measuring the loss of the bis-allylic protons during oxidation induced by a radical initiator, 2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The antioxidant efficiency, i.e. the ability of tannins to slow down the lipid oxidation rate, was shown to be higher for galloylated tannins, ECG and EGCG. Furthermore, the mixture of four tannins was more efficient than the most effective tannin, EGCG, demonstrating a synergistic effect. To better understand the antioxidant action mechanism of polyphenols on lipid membranes, the tannin location was investigated by NMR and molecular dynamics. A correlation between antioxidant action of tannins and their location at the membrane interface (inserted at the glycerol backbone level) could thus be established.

  13. Cardioprotective Efficacy of Red Wine Extract of Onion in Healthy Hypercholesterolemic Subjects.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fang; Shen, You-Cheng; Huang, Ting-Yun; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the red wine extract of onion (RO) and red wine (RW) on alleviating the risk factors of cardiovascular disease. During in vitro studies, various antioxidant activities [trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), DPPH, and H2 O2 scavenging ability] of RO and RW group were evaluated. Both RO and RW showed the maximum antioxidant capacity. During in vivo studies, 23 healthy hypercholesterolemic volunteers were randomly selected and assigned into two groups, who drunk 250 mL of RO (n = 11) or RW (n = 10) for 10 weeks. No significant changes were observed in anthropometric parameters (body weight, height, body mass, and BMI) in each group. Both RW and RO extracts elevated (p < 0.05) antioxidant activity and thereby prolonging the lag time of low-density lipoprotein oxidation. However, RO extract intake substantially suppressed (p < 0.05) the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels when equivalence with RW thus, indicating its additional hypocholesterolemic effect. The inflammatory markers such as factor VII were also positively modulated by RO extract. Results indicated that RO extract consumption rendered better cardio protective effect than RW by altering cholesterol, improving antioxidation and suppressing inflammatory marker levels and thereby, attenuating the cardiovascular disease incidence. PMID:26631904

  14. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa

    2016-12-15

    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers. PMID:27451159

  15. Application of LC-MS and tristimulus colorimetry to assess the ageing aptitude of Syrah wine in the Condado de Huelva D.O. (Spain), a typical warm climate region.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, B; Rodríguez-Pulido, F J; Mateus, N; Escudero-Gilete, M L; González-Miret, M L; Heredia, F J; de Freitas, V

    2012-06-30

    The study of the evolutions of different wine pigment families, copigmentation/polymerisation processes and colour characteristics during the first year of ageing in oak barrel has allowed the assessment of the ageing aptitude of Syrah wines from "Condado de Huelva D.O.", a warm climate region. A total of 32 anthocyanic pigments were identified, including 14 major compounds from grape and 18 minor derivatives formed during the vinification. The anthocyanin profile changed towards more chemical complexity, being vitisin-like pyranoanthocyanins the predominant minor pigments during the first month of ageing. As wine became older, a progressive increase on the content of 4-vinylcatechin, 4-vinylphenol and 4-vinylcatechol compounds took place. Results showed that copigmentation occurred during the whole process of ageing inducing visual perceptible colour effects. Simultaneously to the copigmentation decrease, the degree of polymerisation increased during ageing, being maximum at 9 months old wines (77%). The colour of wines evolved progressively in a positive way from 3 to 9 months of ageing, becoming darker and with more vivid colour. However, from 9 to 12 months of ageing, the chemical structure of wines was negatively affected resulting in lighter, with more red-orange hues and less vivid colours. The inclusion of the chemical and colorimetric information on the PCA model allows us to reach very good discriminations among the Syrah wines with different wood contact period. PMID:22688048

  16. Red wine alcohol promotes quercetin absorption and directs its metabolism towards isorhamnetin and tamarixetin in rat intestine in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dragoni, Stefania; Gee, Jennifer; Bennett, Richard; Valoti, Massimo; Sgaragli, Giampietro

    2006-01-01

    Moderate consumption of red wine has been associated with beneficial effects on human health, and this has been attributed to the flavonoid content. Factors that influence the bioavailability of this group of polyphenolic compounds are therefore important. Using the rat cannulated everted jejunal sac technique, we have investigated the effect of alcohol on the intestinal absorption of quercetin and its 3-O-glucoside from red wine. Tissue preparations were incubated in whole or dealcoholised red wine, diluted 1 : 1 with Krebs buffer for 20 min at 37°C, after which the mucosa was removed and processed for HPLC analysis. Tissues exposed to red wine had significantly higher amounts of both quercetin (× 3; P<0.001) and quercetin-3-O-glucoside (× 1.5; P<0.01) associated with them, compared with sacs incubated in the dealcoholised equivalent. In addition, both tamarixetin (T) and isorhamnetin (I), in the mucosal tissue from sacs exposed to the whole wine, were significantly elevated approximately two fold (P<0.05; P<0.01, respectively). Similar results were obtained when sacs were incubated in Krebs buffer containing a mixture of pure quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside with or without alcohol, and, although effects on the apparent absorption of Q and Q-3-G were not so marked, concentrations of the metabolites quercetin-3-O-glucuronide and I were significantly increased by the presence of alcohol (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). It is therefore plausible that the moderate alcohol content of red wine contributes to its beneficial health effects in humans by both increasing the absorption of quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside and by channelling their metabolism towards O-methylation to yield compounds (T and I), which have potential protective effects against cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:16444288

  17. Changes in the sorption of diverse volatiles by Saccharomyces cerevisiae lees during sparkling wine aging.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Chacón, Joan J; Vichi, Stefania; López-Tamames, Elvira; Buxaderas, Susana

    2010-12-01

    The volatile profile of sparkling wine is influenced by the retention and release of volatile compounds by lees during the aging process. Here we attempted to identify the volatiles that are most retained by lees in aging conditions and to study how their sorption varies during aging. We estimated the lees sorption capacity for several representative volatile compounds in sparkling wine samples at a range of time points during aging by assessing the volatiles sorbed on the lees surface and those present in the corresponding wines. The sorption of volatiles was proportional to their hydrophobicity, and their retention by the lees surface changed during aging. The sorption of less hydrophobic compounds decreased after the first 2 months of aging, while that of the most hydrophobic volatiles increased until 18 months, and decreased dramatically thereafter. These results indicate that the length of aging on lees determines the type and the amount of wine volatiles removed with lees in the disgorging step. While most polar aromas seem to be released from the lees surface at the earliest stages of aging, highly hydrophobic compounds and esters in general are progressively retained and subsequently desorbed into wine. Changes in the physicochemical properties of the lees cell surface were monitored during aging, but these could explain only the decrease in the sorption of less hydrophobic compounds.

  18. Yeast Population Dynamics during the Fermentation and Biological Aging of Sherry Wines

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Zarzoso, B.; Peris-Torán, M. J.; García-Maiquez, E.; Uruburu, F.; Querol, A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and physiological analyses were used to study the evolution of the yeast population, from alcoholic fermentation to biological aging in the process of “fino” sherry wine making. The four races of “flor” Saccharomyces cerevisiae (beticus, cheresiensis, montuliensis, and rouxii) exhibited identical restriction patterns for the region spanning the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS-1 and ITS-2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene, but this pattern was different, from those exhibited by non-flor S. cerevisiae strains. This flor-specific pattern was detected only after wines were fortified, never during alcoholic fermentation, and all the strains isolated from the velum exhibited the typical flor yeast pattern. By restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA and karyotyping, we showed that (i) the native strain is better adapted to fermentation conditions than commercial strains; (ii) two different populations of S. cerevisiae strains are involved in the process of elaboration, of fino sherry wine, one of which is responsible for must fermentation and the other, for wine aging; and (iii) one strain was dominant in the flor population integrating the velum from sherry wines produced in González Byass wineries, although other authors have described a succession of races of flor S. cerevisiae during wine aging. Analyzing all these results together, we conclude that yeast population dynamics during biological aging is a complex phenomenon and differences between yeast populations from different wineries can be observed. PMID:11319081

  19. Lead contamination in Portuguese red wines from the Douro region: from the vineyard to the final product.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C Marisa R; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2003-05-01

    To quantify lead contamination in wines and to try to identify major lead sources, two winemaking processes were followed during one annual cycle of wine production. Two vineyards from the Douro Portuguese region and two types of wine, one red table wine, which has been produced in a very modern winery, and one red fortified wine (similar to Port), which has been produced by a traditional vinification process, were selected for this study. Aerosols from the vineyards atmosphere, vineyard soil, vine leaves, grapes, and samples from the intermediary and final wine product were collected. Suitable pretreatments, namely, high-pressure microwave assisted digestion (soil, leaves, and grapes) and UV-irradiation (grape juices and samples from the different steps of the vinification processes), were used. The samples were analyzed in terms of lead total concentration and respective isotope ratios by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry with electrothermal atomization. It was observed that the major sources of lead were in the vinification system, the more traditional one introducing more lead than the modern one. For the fortified wine, the lead concentration increased from 4.7 microg L(-1), in the grape juice, to 17.2 microg L(-1), in the final product, while for the table wine the increase was from 4.1 to 13.1 microg L(-)(1). Therefore, only about 1/4 (fortified wine) and 1/3 (table wine) of the lead total content of the final products came from soil and atmospheric deposition. Therefore, it is expected that marked reductions of the lead content in the wines would occur if the sources of lead were removed from the tubes and containers used in the vinification system, particularly by using welding alloys and small fittings free of lead. The lead levels in the vine leaves (global mean of 0.43 microg g(dry leave)(-1)) and grapes (global mean of 35 ng g(dry grape)(-1)) were similar in both vineyards.

  20. Sensory descriptors, hedonic perception and consumer’s attitudes to Sangiovese red wine deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarini, Ella; Laureati, Monica; Gaeta, Davide

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, produce obtained from organic farming methods (i.e., a system that minimizes pollution and avoids the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides) has rapidly increased in developed countries. This may be explained by the fact that organic food meets the standard requirements for quality and healthiness. Among organic products, wine has greatly attracted the interest of the consumers. In the present study, trained assessors and regular wine consumers were respectively required to identify the sensory properties (e.g., odor, taste, flavor, and mouthfeel sensations) and to evaluate the hedonic dimension of red wines deriving from organically and conventionally grown grapes. Results showed differences related mainly to taste (sour and bitter) and mouthfeel (astringent) sensations, with odor and flavor playing a minor role. However, these differences did not influence liking, as organic and conventional wines were hedonically comparable. Interestingly, 61% of respondents would be willing to pay more for organically produced wines, which suggests that environmentally sustainable practices related to wine quality have good market prospects. PMID:24348447

  1. Molecularly imprinted polymers as a tool for the study of the 4-ethylphenol metabolic pathway in red wines.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Deiene; Gomez-Caballero, Alberto; Guerreiro, Antonio; Goicolea, M Aranzazu; Barrio, Ramon J

    2015-09-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based methodology is described here for the determination of compounds that belong to the 4-ethylphenol (4EP) metabolic pathway in red wines. To this end, two MIP materials have been developed: a 4EP MIP as a class-selective material to extract phenols that belong to the 4EP metabolic pathway and a coumaric acid (CA) imprinted polymer as a MIP-based stationary phase capable of selectively separating these phenols on HPLC analysis, obtaining clean chromatograms. 4-vinyl pyridine and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were respectively used as functional monomer and cross-linker for both MIPs. Once polymer compositions were optimised, the 4EP MIP was packed into SPE cartridges for wine sample clean-up and CA MIP was packed into HPLC columns to chromatographically separate the compounds present in the eluates obtained after SPE extraction. The accuracy of the proposed method was tested spiking wine samples with known concentrations of target compounds and subsequently, analytes were quantified by the standard addition method. Registered mean recoveries ranged from 95.2 to 109.2% and RSD values were below 10% in most cases. The described methodology was found to be suitable for the selective extraction and quantification of the compounds that belong to the 4EP metabolic pathway in red wines with minimal matrix effects and could be undoubtedly exploited to monitor 4EP and its precursors in wines.

  2. Quality and aromatic sensory descriptors (mainly fresh and dry fruit character) of Spanish red wines can be predicted from their aroma-active chemical composition.

    PubMed

    San-Juan, Felipe; Ferreira, Vicente; Cacho, Juan; Escudero, Ana

    2011-07-27

    A satisfactory model explaining quality could be built in a set of 25 high quality Spanish red wines, by aroma-active chemical composition. The quality of the wines was positively correlated with the wine content in fruity esters, acids, enolones, and wood derived compounds, and negatively with phenylacetaldehyde, acetic acid, methional, and 4-ethylphenol. Wine fruitiness was demonstrated to be positively related not only to the wine content on fruity esters and enolones, but to wine volatile fatty acids. Fruitiness is strongly suppressed by 4-ethylphenol, acetic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and methional, this involved in the perception of dry-fruit notes. Sensory effects were more intense in the presence of β-damascenone and β-ionone. A satisfactory model explaining animal notes could be built. Finally, the vegetal character of this set of wines could be related to the combined effect of dimethylsulfide (DMS), 1-hexanol, and methanethiol.

  3. Microbial metabolomic fingerprinting in urine after regular dealcoholized red wine consumption in humans.

    PubMed

    Boto-Ordóñez, María; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Queipo-Ortuño, María Isabel; Corella, Dolores; Tinahones, Francisco J; Estruch, Ramon; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina

    2013-09-25

    The regular consumption of dealcoholized red wine (DRW) has demonstrated benefits in cardiovascular risk factors. The analysis of phenolic metabolites formed in the organism, especially those that could come from microbiota metabolism, would help to understand these benefits. The aim of this study was to determine the widest urinary metabolomic fingerprinting of phenolics and microbial-derived phenolic acids (n = 61) after regular intake of DRW in men at high cardiovascular risk by UPLC-MS/MS using a targeted approach. Up to 49 metabolites, including phase II and microbial phenolic metabolites, increased after DRW consumption compared to baseline (P < 0.05). The highest percentage of increase was found for microbial metabolites from anthocyanin degradation such as syringic, p-coumaric, gallic acids and pyrogallol and from flavan-3-ols degradation such as hydroxyphenylvalerolactones and (epi)catechins. These findings provide the most complete metabolic fingerprinting after wine consumption, amplifying the spectrum of microbial derived metabolites and their potential bioactivity related with health benefits. PMID:24044534

  4. Red Wine Tannin Structure-Activity Relationships during Fermentation and Maceration.

    PubMed

    Yacco, Ralph S; Watrelot, Aude A; Kennedy, James A

    2016-02-01

    The correlation between tannin structure and corresponding activity was investigated by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between tannins isolated from commercial red wine fermentations and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. Must and/or wine samples were collected throughout fermentation/maceration from five Napa Valley wineries. By varying winery, fruit source, maceration time, and cap management practice, it was considered that a reasonably large variation in commercially relevant tannin structure would result. Tannins were isolated from samples collected using low pressure chromatography and were then characterized by gel permeation chromatography and acid-catalyzed cleavage in the presence of excess phloroglucinol (phloroglucinolysis). Corresponding tannin activity was determined using HPLC by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between isolated tannin and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. This measurement approach was designed to determine the ability of tannins to hydrophobically interact with a hydrophobic surface. The results of this study indicate that tannin activity is primarily driven by molecular size. Compositionally, tannin activity was positively associated with seed tannins and negatively associated with skin and pigmented tannins. Although measured indirectly, the extent of tannin oxidation as determined by phloroglucinolysis conversion yield suggests that tannin oxidation at this stage of production reduces tannin activity. Based upon maceration time, this study indicates that observed increases in perceived astringency quality, if related to tannin chemistry, are driven by tannin molecular mass as opposed to pigmented tannin formation or oxidation. Overall, the results of this study give new insight into tannin structure-activity relationships which dominate during extraction.

  5. Red Wine Tannin Structure-Activity Relationships during Fermentation and Maceration.

    PubMed

    Yacco, Ralph S; Watrelot, Aude A; Kennedy, James A

    2016-02-01

    The correlation between tannin structure and corresponding activity was investigated by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between tannins isolated from commercial red wine fermentations and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. Must and/or wine samples were collected throughout fermentation/maceration from five Napa Valley wineries. By varying winery, fruit source, maceration time, and cap management practice, it was considered that a reasonably large variation in commercially relevant tannin structure would result. Tannins were isolated from samples collected using low pressure chromatography and were then characterized by gel permeation chromatography and acid-catalyzed cleavage in the presence of excess phloroglucinol (phloroglucinolysis). Corresponding tannin activity was determined using HPLC by measuring the thermodynamics of interaction between isolated tannin and a polystyrene divinylbenzene HPLC column. This measurement approach was designed to determine the ability of tannins to hydrophobically interact with a hydrophobic surface. The results of this study indicate that tannin activity is primarily driven by molecular size. Compositionally, tannin activity was positively associated with seed tannins and negatively associated with skin and pigmented tannins. Although measured indirectly, the extent of tannin oxidation as determined by phloroglucinolysis conversion yield suggests that tannin oxidation at this stage of production reduces tannin activity. Based upon maceration time, this study indicates that observed increases in perceived astringency quality, if related to tannin chemistry, are driven by tannin molecular mass as opposed to pigmented tannin formation or oxidation. Overall, the results of this study give new insight into tannin structure-activity relationships which dominate during extraction. PMID:26766301

  6. Two-dimensional gas chromatographic profiling as a tool for a rapid screening of the changes in volatile composition occurring due to microoxygenation of red wines.

    PubMed

    Schmarr, Hans-Georg; Bernhardt, Jörg; Fischer, Ulrich; Stephan, Alexander; Müller, Patrick; Durner, Dominik

    2010-07-01

    Microoxygenation (MOX) is a widely applied technique to deliver continuously trace amounts of oxygen to red wine during vinification and ageing in order to improve color stability and sensory properties. Proven by sensory means, the added oxygen modifies not only tannin structure and color of the wines, but also their composition of volatiles. In this study different microoxygenation treatments prior and after malolactic fermentation were carried out for Pinot noir, Cabernet Sauvignon and Dornfelder wines of the 2007 vintage. Volatile components of subsequent wines were analyzed using headspace-solid phase microextraction coupled to comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC x GC-qMS). Quantitative data were retrieved from two-dimensional images obtained from GC x GC chromatograms of volatile compounds applying a software package, which is commonly used in the field of proteomics for two-dimensional electrophoresis gels. This approach revealed a discrimination of the applied treatments by multivariate statistics based on volatiles alone, such as the clear distinction among wines treated before or after malolactic fermentation in case of Cabernet Sauvignon and Dornfelder or the effect of different oxygen doses. Besides the differentiation of MOX treatments from the untreated control, specific varietal and technological effects could be distinguished. The image processing of the GC x GC data offered valuable tools which were able to identify those areas in the 2D images that were most responsible for discrimination among different MOX treatments. Based on the loadings of individual aroma compounds a set of markers for the MOX-induced modifications of volatiles could be suggested.

  7. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines: chromatic properties and global phenolic composition by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-09-01

    Valdeorras (the N.W. corner of Spain) wants to promote the production and marketing of new sweet wines. The present work represents the first study on sweet wines manufactured with red grapes Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera, a teinturier cultivar. Two different red sweet wines were elaborated: the first one was made with dried grapes; Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera has excellent potential to produce wines from raisined grapes; the second one, a fortified sweet wine aged in oak barrels. Different red Garnacha Tintorera-based wines (a dry base wine, GBW; a naturally sweet wine, GNSW; and a fortified sweet wine, GFSW) were characterized. Chromatic characteristics and phenolic compounds were established by spectrophotometric methods in order to assess the technology of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines. High molecular weight brown polymers, produced during the grape drying process and isolated from sweet wines by the dialysis process, were responsible for the brown colour of sweet wines. As a consequence, yellowness of sweet wines was also higher which was confirmed by colorimetric indexes. With respect to phenolic content, GFSW presented the lowest content because the maceration-alcoholic fermentation was stopped through the addition of alcohol before the diffusion of red pigments from skins to must was complete. GNSW presented the highest phenolic content due to the concentration effect resulting from evaporation of water from the grapes. Anthocyanins of sweet wines were polymerised in great extent. The percentage of polymerised tannins was sufficient to guarantee the aging process of sweet wines.

  8. Protective effects of red wine polyphenolic compounds on the cardiovascular system

    PubMed Central

    Zenebe, Woineshet; Pechánová, Olga; Bernátová, Iveta

    2001-01-01

    Phenolic phytochemicals are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. In terms of protective effects on organisms, the group of polyphenols is the most important. In various experiments, it has been shown that selected polyphenols, mainly flavonoids, confer protective effects on the cardiovascular system and have anti-cancer, antiviral and antiallergic properties. In coronary artery disease, the protective effects are due mainly to antithrombic, antioxidant, anti-ischemic and vasorelaxant properties of flavonoids. Flavonoids are low molecular weight compounds composed of a three-ring structure with various substitutions, which appear to be responsible for the antioxidant and antiproliferative properties. It has been hypothesized that the low incidence of coronary artery disease in the French population may be partially related to the pharmacological properties of polyphenolic compounds present in red wine. Many epidemiological studies have shown that regular flavonoid intake is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:20428452

  9. Dual effect of red wine on liver redox status: a concise and mechanistic review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula; Fernandes, Eduarda; Carvalho, Félix

    2015-10-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a strong risk factor for the development of liver disease. Multiple mechanisms are involved in ethanol-mediated liver injury; oxidative stress being pointed has an important factor. However, it should be noted that moderate consumption of red wine has been associated with hepatoprotective effects, mainly due to the antioxidant effect of resveratrol, one of its polyphenolic compounds. In this paper, the potential molecular mechanisms through which the protective effects of resveratrol counteract the oxidative effect of ethanol and the way as this dual effect impacts liver oxidative stress are reviewed. Mechanistic evaluation of modulation of oxidative signaling pathways by ethanol and resveratrol may explain the pathogenesis of various liver diseases and ultimately to disclose possible pharmacological therapies.

  10. Evaluation of the active odorants in Amontillado sherry wines during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Lourdes; Zea, Luis; Moreno, Jose A; Medina, Manuel

    2010-06-01

    Odor compounds in Amontillado sherry white wine obtained by means of biological aging first and oxidative aging second in American oak casks were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Sniffing revealed fruity, fatty, chemical, spicy, vegetable, floral and empyreumatic odors, the first being the most common. Olfactometric intensity was assessed on a four-point scale. Most changes were detected during the first years of the oxidative aging step. Ethyl isobutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, and eugenol were the strongest odor compounds detected by sniffing in wines. The odor spectrum values for all active odorants were calculated in relation to ethyl octanoate, this compound being the most potent odorant. On the basis of olfactometric intensities and odor spectrum values, ethyl octanoate, ethyl butanoate, eugenol, ethyl isobutanoate, and sotolon can be deemed the main group of potent odorants in Amontillado wines. These compounds maintained similar relative contributions to the aroma profile during the oxidative aging step. PMID:20465212

  11. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment during cold maceration and alcoholic fermentation on major red wine qualitative and quantitative parameters.

    PubMed

    El Darra, Nada; Rajha, Hiba N; Ducasse, Marie-Agnès; Turk, Mohammad F; Grimi, Nabil; Maroun, Richard G; Louka, Nicolas; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2016-12-15

    This work studies the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at moderate and high field strengths (E=0.8kV/cm & 5kV/cm) prior and during alcoholic fermentation (AF) of red grapes on improving different parameters of pre-treated extracts: pH, °Brix, colour intensity (CI), total polyphenols content (TPI) of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine. Similar trends were observed for treating grapes using moderate and high electric field strength on the enhancement of CI and TPI of the wine after AF. The application of PEF using moderate strengths at different times during cold maceration (CM) (0, 2 and 4days) was more efficient for treatment during CM. The treatment during AF showed lower extraction rate compared to treating during CM and prior to AF. Our results clearly show that the best time for applying the PEF-treatment through the red fermentation is during the CM step. PMID:27451191

  12. Effect of pulsed electric field treatment during cold maceration and alcoholic fermentation on major red wine qualitative and quantitative parameters.

    PubMed

    El Darra, Nada; Rajha, Hiba N; Ducasse, Marie-Agnès; Turk, Mohammad F; Grimi, Nabil; Maroun, Richard G; Louka, Nicolas; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2016-12-15

    This work studies the effect of pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment at moderate and high field strengths (E=0.8kV/cm & 5kV/cm) prior and during alcoholic fermentation (AF) of red grapes on improving different parameters of pre-treated extracts: pH, °Brix, colour intensity (CI), total polyphenols content (TPI) of Cabernet Sauvignon red wine. Similar trends were observed for treating grapes using moderate and high electric field strength on the enhancement of CI and TPI of the wine after AF. The application of PEF using moderate strengths at different times during cold maceration (CM) (0, 2 and 4days) was more efficient for treatment during CM. The treatment during AF showed lower extraction rate compared to treating during CM and prior to AF. Our results clearly show that the best time for applying the PEF-treatment through the red fermentation is during the CM step.

  13. Calcium isotopes in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  14. Influence of copigmentation and phenolic composition on wine color.

    PubMed

    Heras-Roger, J; Alonso-Alonso, O; Gallo-Montesdeoca, A; Díaz-Romero, C; Darias-Martín, J

    2016-06-01

    Chromatic characteristics and their relationships with copigmentation and phenolic composition were studied in 160 bottled red wines. Free anthocyanins, copigmented anthocyanins and polymeric pigments contributing to color were calculated according to Boulton protocol and related to main changes produced in wine visible spectra after destroying any copigmented anthocyanins effect. Color differences between copigmented and non copigmented wines were quantified and related with ageing, cultivar and phenolic profile. Phenomenon of co-pigmentation visually increases the colour at 420, 520 and 620 nm for most of wines. Copigmented wines showed a mean value of 8.26 CIELab units higher than non copigmented (ΔEab(c-nc)), being this shift deeper for young wines than for aged wines. Copigmentation mostly changed hue and decreased L, a* and b* values therefore resulted into purplish and darker wine. Visual variations in color caused by copigmentation was related to particularly anthocyanins and copigments (mostly flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids).

  15. Influence of copigmentation and phenolic composition on wine color.

    PubMed

    Heras-Roger, J; Alonso-Alonso, O; Gallo-Montesdeoca, A; Díaz-Romero, C; Darias-Martín, J

    2016-06-01

    Chromatic characteristics and their relationships with copigmentation and phenolic composition were studied in 160 bottled red wines. Free anthocyanins, copigmented anthocyanins and polymeric pigments contributing to color were calculated according to Boulton protocol and related to main changes produced in wine visible spectra after destroying any copigmented anthocyanins effect. Color differences between copigmented and non copigmented wines were quantified and related with ageing, cultivar and phenolic profile. Phenomenon of co-pigmentation visually increases the colour at 420, 520 and 620 nm for most of wines. Copigmented wines showed a mean value of 8.26 CIELab units higher than non copigmented (ΔEab(c-nc)), being this shift deeper for young wines than for aged wines. Copigmentation mostly changed hue and decreased L, a* and b* values therefore resulted into purplish and darker wine. Visual variations in color caused by copigmentation was related to particularly anthocyanins and copigments (mostly flavonols and hydroxycinnamic acids). PMID:27478209

  16. Removal of 4-Ethylphenol and 4-Ethylguaiacol with Polyaniline-Based Compounds in Wine-Like Model Solutions and Red Wine.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Sánchez, Verónica; John, Amalraj; Marican, Adolfo; Santos, Leonardo S; Laurie, V Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Volatile phenols, such as 4-ethyphenol (4-EP) and 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), are responsible for the "Brett character" found in wines contaminated with Brettanomyces yeast (i.e., barnyard, animal, spicy and smoky aromas). In these trials, we explore the effectiveness of polyaniline-based compounds (polyaniline emeraldin salt (PANI-ES) and polyanaline emeraldin base (PANI-EB)), for the removal of 4-EP and 4-EG from acidic model solutions and red wine. First, a screening study, performed in an acidified 12% ethanol solution, was used to optimize parameters such as contact time and the amount of polymers required to remove 4-EP and 4-EG. Then, the trapping ability of PANI agents towards 4-EP and 4-EG was evaluated in a model solution containing other wine phenolics that could potentially be trapped by PANI (i.e., gallic acid and 4-methylcatechol). The results of this trial showed that both PANI compounds were capable of removing 4-EP, 4-EG, regardless of the presence of other phenolic compounds present at a much higher concentration. Finally, the capturing ability of PANI was evaluated in a red wine sample containing 5 mg·L-1 of 4-EP, 5 mg·L-1 of 4-EG and 2.03 ± 0.02 g·L-1 of total phenolics. The results showed that PANI-EB removed significantly more 4-EP and 4-EG than PANI-ES. For instance, a treatment with 10 mg·mL-1 of PANI-EB produced a 67.8% reduction of 4-EP, 50% reduction of 4-EG and 41.38% decrease in total phenols. PMID:26251893

  17. Removal of 4-Ethylphenol and 4-Ethylguaiacol with Polyaniline-Based Compounds in Wine-Like Model Solutions and Red Wine.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Sánchez, Verónica; John, Amalraj; Marican, Adolfo; Santos, Leonardo S; Laurie, V Felipe

    2015-08-05

    Volatile phenols, such as 4-ethyphenol (4-EP) and 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG), are responsible for the "Brett character" found in wines contaminated with Brettanomyces yeast (i.e., barnyard, animal, spicy and smoky aromas). In these trials, we explore the effectiveness of polyaniline-based compounds (polyaniline emeraldin salt (PANI-ES) and polyanaline emeraldin base (PANI-EB)), for the removal of 4-EP and 4-EG from acidic model solutions and red wine. First, a screening study, performed in an acidified 12% ethanol solution, was used to optimize parameters such as contact time and the amount of polymers required to remove 4-EP and 4-EG. Then, the trapping ability of PANI agents towards 4-EP and 4-EG was evaluated in a model solution containing other wine phenolics that could potentially be trapped by PANI (i.e., gallic acid and 4-methylcatechol). The results of this trial showed that both PANI compounds were capable of removing 4-EP, 4-EG, regardless of the presence of other phenolic compounds present at a much higher concentration. Finally, the capturing ability of PANI was evaluated in a red wine sample containing 5 mg·L-1 of 4-EP, 5 mg·L-1 of 4-EG and 2.03 ± 0.02 g·L-1 of total phenolics. The results showed that PANI-EB removed significantly more 4-EP and 4-EG than PANI-ES. For instance, a treatment with 10 mg·mL-1 of PANI-EB produced a 67.8% reduction of 4-EP, 50% reduction of 4-EG and 41.38% decrease in total phenols.

  18. Studying the effect of storage conditions on the metabolite content of red wine using HILIC LC-MS based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Corte, Anna Della; Gika, Helen; Narduzzi, Luca; Mattivi, Fulvio; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2016-04-15

    The main aim of this work was to develop an untargeted normal phase LC-MS method, starting from a targeted method already validated for the analysis of 135 polar metabolites. Since the LC instrument and column were the same, most of the chromatographic conditions remained identical, while the adaptations focused on maintaining the ionic strength of the eluents constant. The sample preparation was simplified and the effectiveness of LC-MS for long batches was evaluated, in order to record the maximum number of metabolites with good chromatographic resolution and the best MS stability and accuracy. The method was applied to study the influence of storage conditions on wine composition. Slightly sub-optimum storage conditions had a major impact on the polar metabolite fingerprint of the red wines analysed and the markers revealed included phenolics, vitamins and metabolites indentified in wine for the first time (4-amino-heptanedioic acid and its ethyl ester).

  19. Kaempferol as Selective Human MAO-A Inhibitor: Analytical Detection in Calabrian Red Wines, Biological and Molecular Modeling Studies.

    PubMed

    Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Astorino, Christian; Petzer, Anél; Carradori, Simone; Alcaro, Francesca; Costa, Giosuè; Artese, Anna; Rafele, Giancarlo; Russo, Francesco M; Petzer, Jacobus P; Alcaro, Stefano

    2016-02-17

    The purpose of this work was to determine the kaempferol content in three red wines of Calabria, a southern Italian region with a great number of certified food products. Considering that wine cultivar, climate, and soil influence the qualitative and quantitative composition in flavonoids of Vitis vinifera L. berries, the three analyzed samples were taken from the 2013 vintage. Moreover, the Gaglioppo samples, with assigned Controlled Origin Denomination (DOC), were also investigated in the production of years 2008, 2010, and 2011. In addition to the analysis of kaempferol, which is present in higher concentration than in other Italian wines, in vitro assays were performed to evaluate, for the first time, the inhibition of the human monoamine oxidases (hMAO-A and hMAO-B). Molecular recognition studies were also carried out to provide insight into the binding mode of kaempferol and selectivity of inhibition of the hMAO-A isoform.

  20. Studying the effect of storage conditions on the metabolite content of red wine using HILIC LC-MS based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Corte, Anna Della; Gika, Helen; Narduzzi, Luca; Mattivi, Fulvio; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2016-04-15

    The main aim of this work was to develop an untargeted normal phase LC-MS method, starting from a targeted method already validated for the analysis of 135 polar metabolites. Since the LC instrument and column were the same, most of the chromatographic conditions remained identical, while the adaptations focused on maintaining the ionic strength of the eluents constant. The sample preparation was simplified and the effectiveness of LC-MS for long batches was evaluated, in order to record the maximum number of metabolites with good chromatographic resolution and the best MS stability and accuracy. The method was applied to study the influence of storage conditions on wine composition. Slightly sub-optimum storage conditions had a major impact on the polar metabolite fingerprint of the red wines analysed and the markers revealed included phenolics, vitamins and metabolites indentified in wine for the first time (4-amino-heptanedioic acid and its ethyl ester). PMID:26675875

  1. Kaempferol as Selective Human MAO-A Inhibitor: Analytical Detection in Calabrian Red Wines, Biological and Molecular Modeling Studies.

    PubMed

    Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Astorino, Christian; Petzer, Anél; Carradori, Simone; Alcaro, Francesca; Costa, Giosuè; Artese, Anna; Rafele, Giancarlo; Russo, Francesco M; Petzer, Jacobus P; Alcaro, Stefano

    2016-02-17

    The purpose of this work was to determine the kaempferol content in three red wines of Calabria, a southern Italian region with a great number of certified food products. Considering that wine cultivar, climate, and soil influence the qualitative and quantitative composition in flavonoids of Vitis vinifera L. berries, the three analyzed samples were taken from the 2013 vintage. Moreover, the Gaglioppo samples, with assigned Controlled Origin Denomination (DOC), were also investigated in the production of years 2008, 2010, and 2011. In addition to the analysis of kaempferol, which is present in higher concentration than in other Italian wines, in vitro assays were performed to evaluate, for the first time, the inhibition of the human monoamine oxidases (hMAO-A and hMAO-B). Molecular recognition studies were also carried out to provide insight into the binding mode of kaempferol and selectivity of inhibition of the hMAO-A isoform. PMID:26821152

  2. Effects of red wine on established markers of arterial structure and function in human studies: current knowledge and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Arduino A; Stockley, Creina S; Woodman, Richard J

    2013-11-01

    Evidence from observational studies suggests that mild-to-moderate consumption of red wine is associated with reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Various individual chemical components of red wine also show salutary effects on vascular homeostasis, that is, enhanced endothelial function and arterial distensibility, both in vitro and in animal studies. However, testing the beneficial potential of red wine in primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention on established surrogate cardiovascular markers requires further study with longer term intervention trials. This report reviews and critically appraises the published evidence for the effects of red wine on endothelium-dependent vasodilation, arterial stiffness and arterial wave reflections in healthy subjects and in patients with cardiovascular disease. Suggestions for future research directions are also provided.

  3. The Effects of New Alibernet Red Wine Extract on Nitric Oxide and Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kondrashov, Alexey; Vranková, Stanislava; Dovinová, Ima; Ševčík, Rudolf; Parohová, Jana; Barta, Andrej; Pecháňová, Olga; Kovacsová, Maria

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to perform a chemical analysis of both Alibernet red wine and an alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE) and to investigate the effects of AWE on nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species production as well as blood pressure development in normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Total antioxidant capacity together with total phenolic and selected mineral content was measured in wine and AWE. Young 6-week-old male WKY and SHR were treated with AWE (24,2 mg/kg/day) for 3 weeks. Total NOS and SOD activities, eNOS and SOD1 protein expressions, and superoxide production were determined in the tissues. Both antioxidant capacity and phenolic content were significantly higher in AWE compared to wine. The AWE increased NOS activity in the left ventricle, aorta, and kidney of SHR, while it did not change NOS activity in WKY rats. Similarly, increased SOD activity in the plasma and left ventricle was observed in SHR only. There were no changes in eNOS and SOD1 expressions. In conclusion, phenolics and minerals included in AWE may contribute directly to increased NOS and SOD activities of SHR. Nevertheless, 3 weeks of AWE treatment failed to affect blood pressure of SHR. PMID:22720118

  4. Classification of red wine based on its protected designation of origin (PDO) using Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Moncayo, S; Rosales, J D; Izquierdo-Hornillos, R; Anzano, J; Caceres, J O

    2016-09-01

    This work reports on a simple and fast classification procedure for the quality control of red wines with protected designation of origin (PDO) by means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) technique combined with Neural Networks (NN) in order to increase the quality assurance and authenticity issues. A total of thirty-eight red wine samples from different PDO were analyzed to detect fake wines and to avoid unfair competition in the market. LIBS is well known for not requiring sample preparation, however, in order to increase its analytical performance a new sample preparation treatment by previous liquid-to-solid transformation of the wine using a dry collagen gel has been developed. The use of collagen pellets allowed achieving successful classification results, avoiding the limitations and difficulties of working with aqueous samples. The performance of the NN model was assessed by three validation procedures taking into account their sensitivity (internal validation), generalization ability and robustness (independent external validation). The results of the use of a spectroscopic technique coupled with a chemometric analysis (LIBS-NN) are discussed in terms of its potential use in the food industry, providing a methodology able to perform the quality control of alcoholic beverages. PMID:27343593

  5. Specific phenolic compounds and sensory properties of a new dealcoholized red wine with pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) extract.

    PubMed

    Tárrega, Maria Amparo; Varela, Paula; Fromentin, Emilie; Feuillère, Nicolas; Issaly, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sanz-Buenhombre, Marisa; Villanueva, Sonia; Moro, Carlos; Guadarrama, Alberto; Fiszman, Susana

    2014-09-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruit has a long history of human consumption and possesses notable antioxidant and cardiovascular properties. This work evaluated the feasibility to provide a new functional beverage based on a dealcoholized red wine matrix supplemented by a pomegranate extract. The potential bioactive compounds in the pomegranate extract, punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid, were analyzed during the downstream process in order to evaluate the functional dose in the final beverage. The addition of pomegranate extract to the dealcoholized red wine resulted in a product with more intense yeast odor, acidity, yeast flavor, and astringency and with a less intense berry flavor. Consumer acceptance of the product was also investigated and the results revealed the existence of a niche of consumers willing to consume dealcoholized wine enriched with pomegranate extract. After tasting, 50% and 40% of those consumers initially interested by this product concept declared to be interested to purchase the control sample and the functional beverage, respectively. The daily consumption of two servings of 250 mL of this new pomegranate-enriched dealcoholized wine provides 82 mg of total ellagitannins, corresponding to the sum of punicalagin A and B and ellagic acid.

  6. Analytical characterization of the aroma of five premium red wines. Insights into the role of odor families and the concept of fruitiness of wines.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Ana; Campo, Eva; Fariña, Laura; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2007-05-30

    The aroma profile of five premium red wines has been studied by sensory descriptive analysis, quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and chemical quantitative analysis. The most relevant findings have been confirmed by sensory analysis. Forty-five odorants, including the most intense, were identified. At least 37 odorants can be found at concentrations above their odor threshold. A satisfactory agreement between GC-O and quantitative data was obtained in most cases. Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, (E)-whiskey lactone, and guaiacol were responsible for the veggie, woody, and toasted characters of the wines, respectively. The sweet-caramel notes are related to the presence of at least five compounds with flowery and sweet notes. The phenolic character can be similarly related to the presence of 12 volatile phenols. The berry fruit note of these wines is related to the additive effect of nine fruity esters. Ethanol exerts a strong suppression effect on fruitiness, whereas norisoprenoids and dimethyl sulfide enhance fruity notes. PMID:17488088

  7. A preliminary study about the influence of high hydrostatic pressure processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Sun, Da-Wen; Górecki, Adrian; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Fornal, Józef; Jeliński, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine was investigated preliminarily. Wines were treated by HHP at 250, 450 and 650MPa for up to 45min and French oak chips (5g/L) were added. HHP enhanced the extraction of phenolics from oak chips. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of the wine increased after HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Meanwhile, the anthocyanin content and wine color intensity decreased in the first 5min of pressure treatment and then increased gradually. The multivariate analysis revealed that "pressure holding time" was the key factor affecting wine physicochemical characteristics during HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Furthermore, oak chip maceration with and without HHP processing weakened the intensities of several sensory attributes and provided the wine with an artificial taste.

  8. A preliminary study about the influence of high hydrostatic pressure processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yang; Sun, Da-Wen; Górecki, Adrian; Błaszczak, Wioletta; Lamparski, Grzegorz; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Fornal, Józef; Jeliński, Tomasz

    2016-03-01

    The influence of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing in parallel with oak chip maceration on the physicochemical and sensory properties of a young red wine was investigated preliminarily. Wines were treated by HHP at 250, 450 and 650MPa for up to 45min and French oak chips (5g/L) were added. HHP enhanced the extraction of phenolics from oak chips. The phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of the wine increased after HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Meanwhile, the anthocyanin content and wine color intensity decreased in the first 5min of pressure treatment and then increased gradually. The multivariate analysis revealed that "pressure holding time" was the key factor affecting wine physicochemical characteristics during HHP processing in the presence of oak chips. Furthermore, oak chip maceration with and without HHP processing weakened the intensities of several sensory attributes and provided the wine with an artificial taste. PMID:26471591

  9. Intake of Red Wine in Different Meals Modulates Oxidized LDL Level, Oxidative and Inflammatory Gene Expression in Healthy People: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Di Renzo, Laura; Valente, Roberto; Colica, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, including consumption of red wine, is associated with beneficial effects on oxidative and inflammatory conditions. We evaluate the outcome of consumption of a McDonald's Meal (McD) and a Mediterranean Meal (MM), with and without the additive effect of red wine, in order to ascertain whether the addition of the latter has a positive impact on oxidized (ox-) LDL and on expression of oxidative and inflammatory genes. A total of 24 subjects were analyzed for ox-LDL, CAT, GPX1, SOD2, SIRT2, and CCL5 gene expression levels, before and after consumption of the 4 different meal combinations with washout intervals between each meal. When red wine is associated with McD or MM, values of ox-LDL are lowered (P < 0.05) and expression of antioxidant genes is increased, while CCL5 expression is decreased (P < 0.05). SIRT2 expression after MM and fasting with red wine is significantly correlated with downregulation of CCL5 and upregulation of CAT (P < 0.001). GPX1 increased significantly in the comparison between baseline and all conditions with red wine. We highlighted for the first time the positive effect of red wine intake combined with different but widely consumed meal types on ox-LDL and gene expression. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070. PMID:24876915

  10. Intake of red wine in different meals modulates oxidized LDL level, oxidative and inflammatory gene expression in healthy people: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Laura; Carraro, Alberto; Valente, Roberto; Iacopino, Leonardo; Colica, Carmen; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, including consumption of red wine, is associated with beneficial effects on oxidative and inflammatory conditions. We evaluate the outcome of consumption of a McDonald's Meal (McD) and a Mediterranean Meal (MM), with and without the additive effect of red wine, in order to ascertain whether the addition of the latter has a positive impact on oxidized (ox-) LDL and on expression of oxidative and inflammatory genes. A total of 24 subjects were analyzed for ox-LDL, CAT, GPX1, SOD2, SIRT2, and CCL5 gene expression levels, before and after consumption of the 4 different meal combinations with washout intervals between each meal. When red wine is associated with McD or MM, values of ox-LDL are lowered (P < 0.05) and expression of antioxidant genes is increased, while CCL5 expression is decreased (P < 0.05). SIRT2 expression after MM and fasting with red wine is significantly correlated with downregulation of CCL5 and upregulation of CAT (P < 0.001). GPX1 increased significantly in the comparison between baseline and all conditions with red wine. We highlighted for the first time the positive effect of red wine intake combined with different but widely consumed meal types on ox-LDL and gene expression. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070. PMID:24876915

  11. Intake of red wine in different meals modulates oxidized LDL level, oxidative and inflammatory gene expression in healthy people: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Laura; Carraro, Alberto; Valente, Roberto; Iacopino, Leonardo; Colica, Carmen; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have found that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet, including consumption of red wine, is associated with beneficial effects on oxidative and inflammatory conditions. We evaluate the outcome of consumption of a McDonald's Meal (McD) and a Mediterranean Meal (MM), with and without the additive effect of red wine, in order to ascertain whether the addition of the latter has a positive impact on oxidized (ox-) LDL and on expression of oxidative and inflammatory genes. A total of 24 subjects were analyzed for ox-LDL, CAT, GPX1, SOD2, SIRT2, and CCL5 gene expression levels, before and after consumption of the 4 different meal combinations with washout intervals between each meal. When red wine is associated with McD or MM, values of ox-LDL are lowered (P < 0.05) and expression of antioxidant genes is increased, while CCL5 expression is decreased (P < 0.05). SIRT2 expression after MM and fasting with red wine is significantly correlated with downregulation of CCL5 and upregulation of CAT (P < 0.001). GPX1 increased significantly in the comparison between baseline and all conditions with red wine. We highlighted for the first time the positive effect of red wine intake combined with different but widely consumed meal types on ox-LDL and gene expression. Trial Registration. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01890070.

  12. Identification of phenolic compounds in red wine extract samples and zebrafish embryos by HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Boix, Nuria; Piqué, Ester; Gómez-Catalan, Jesús; Medina-Remon, Alexander; Sasot, Gemma; Mercader-Martí, Mercè; Llobet, Juan M; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2015-08-15

    The zebrafish embryo is a highly interesting biological model with applications in different scientific fields, such as biomedicine, pharmacology and toxicology. In this study, we used liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) to identify the polyphenol compounds in a red wine extract and zebrafish embryos. Phenolic compounds and anthocyanin metabolites were determined in zebrafish embryos previously exposed to the red wine extract. Compounds were identified by injection in a high-resolution system (LTQ-Orbitrap) using accurate mass measurements in MS, MS(2) and MS(3) modes. To our knowledge, this research constitutes the first comprehensive identification of phenolic compounds in zebrafish by HPLC coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry.

  13. Identification of phenolic compounds in red wine extract samples and zebrafish embryos by HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS.

    PubMed

    Vallverdú-Queralt, Anna; Boix, Nuria; Piqué, Ester; Gómez-Catalan, Jesús; Medina-Remon, Alexander; Sasot, Gemma; Mercader-Martí, Mercè; Llobet, Juan M; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M

    2015-08-15

    The zebrafish embryo is a highly interesting biological model with applications in different scientific fields, such as biomedicine, pharmacology and toxicology. In this study, we used liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation-linear ion trap quadrupole-Orbitrap-mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) to identify the polyphenol compounds in a red wine extract and zebrafish embryos. Phenolic compounds and anthocyanin metabolites were determined in zebrafish embryos previously exposed to the red wine extract. Compounds were identified by injection in a high-resolution system (LTQ-Orbitrap) using accurate mass measurements in MS, MS(2) and MS(3) modes. To our knowledge, this research constitutes the first comprehensive identification of phenolic compounds in zebrafish by HPLC coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. PMID:25794733

  14. Effects of freeze-dried red wine on cardiac function and ECG of the Langendorff-perfused rat heart.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Antonella; Fusi, Fabio; Gorelli, Beatrice; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Saponara, Simona

    2014-02-01

    The effect of freeze-dried red wine (FDRW) on cardiac function and electrocardiogram (ECG) in Langendorff-isolated rat hearts was investigated. FDRW significantly decreased left ventricular pressure and coronary perfusion pressure, the latter being dependent on the activation of both phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and eNOS. FDRW did not affect the QRS and QT interval in the ECG, although at 56 μg of gallic acid equivalents/mL, it prolonged PQ interval and induced a second-degree atrioventricular block in 3 out of 6 hearts. This is the first study demonstrating that at concentrations resembling a moderate consumption of red wine, FDRW exhibited negative inotropic and coronary vasodilating activity leaving unaltered ECG, whereas at very high concentrations, it induced arrhythmogenic effects.

  15. Release of macromolecules by Saccharomyces cerevisiae during ageing of French flor sherry wine "Vin jaune".

    PubMed

    Charpentier, C; Dos Santos, A M; Feuillat, M

    2004-11-15

    The French flor sherry wine "Vin jaune" spends 6 years and 3 months in the same barrel under a yeast velum. Because of temperature variations in the cellars, this velum sinks partially into the wine and a deposit of dead yeasts cells accumulates in the bottom of the barrels, favouring the formation of new velum. Growth and autolysis occur simultaneously. This study investigated the evolution of macromolecules released by yeasts during the ageing of "Vin jaune" in a model system closely simulating winemaking. It was observed that the release of macromolecules during the formation of the velums by living yeasts was low but greatly increased when the velums fell and yeast viability decreased. The release of macromolecules was then due to the autolysis of dead cells. Analysis of macromolecules during ageing revealed that they contained 73.3-78.5% neutral sugars and 6-7% proteins according to the ageing stage. Their amino acid composition did not change during ageing. A high content of serine and threonine commonly involved in O-glycosidic linkages present in yeast mannoproteins was observed. Throughout ageing, the mannose and glucose contents of macromolecules increased but the ratio of polymeric mannose to glucose decreased. Size exclusion chromatography showed that mannoproteins released in wine were partially hydrolysed by yeast beta-1,3-glucanases freed in wine.

  16. Effect of short ageing on lees on the mannoprotein content, aromatic profile, and sensorial character of white wines.

    PubMed

    Juega, Marta; Carrascosa, Alfonso V; Martinez-Rodriguez, Adolfo J

    2015-02-01

    In Albariño white wines, aging of wines on lees is a technique not used or only used empirically by some producers to obtain a distinctive character in the final wine. This study analyzes the influence of a short aging on lees on the chemical and sensorial parameters of this young white wine. Albariño grape must was inoculated with a locally selected yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1) and the effect of a short aging on lees was studied during different times (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 d). Mannoprotein content and the aromatic profile were determined and a sensorial analysis of the wines was conducted. Results showed that aging time was correlated with the concentration of some key aroma compounds and mannoproteins in Albariño wines. The best sensorial character was obtained in wines aged 20 d on lees. Further aging times decreased the sensorial quality of Albariño wine and modified its volatile profile and mannoprotein concentration.

  17. Kinetics of odorant compounds in wine brandies aged in different systems.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Ilda; Santos, Rui; Ricardo-da-Silva, Jorge M; Anjos, Ofélia; Mira, Helena; Belchior, A Pedro; Canas, Sara

    2016-11-15

    The odorants compounds of aged wine brandies comprise compounds deriving from the wood, from the distillate and from the reactions that occur inside the barrel. The aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the odorant compounds of a wine brandy during two years of ageing in two ageing systems. The odorant compounds in the analysed brandies changed significantly over the time, but with different evolution patterns. The wood related compounds increased over time, with the highest increase in the first months of ageing. The kinetics of cis, trans-β-methyl-γ-octalactone, acetovanillone and of seven volatile phenols are established for the first time in brandies. Moreover, a significant effect of the ageing system was found on the kinetics of the wood related compounds. These results pointed out the interest of these compounds as a tool to discriminate different ageing technologies. PMID:27283715

  18. Instrumentation and automated photometric titration procedure for total acidity determination in red wine employing a multicommuted flow system.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ausberta Jesus Cabezas; Reis, Boaventura F

    2006-01-01

    An automated procedure for photometric titration of red wine and associated instrumentation is described. The procedure was based on the flow-batch approach implemented employing multicommutation. The photometric detection was carried out using a homemade LED-based photometer. The mixing device, LED, and photodetector were attached to the titration chamber in order to form a compact and small-sized unit. The flow system comprised an automatic injector and three-way solenoid valves, which were controlled by a microcomputer through an electronic interface card. The software, written in Quick BASIC 4.5, was designed with abilities to accomplish all steps of the titration procedure including data acquisition and real-time processing to decide about the course of titration in the following step and so forth, until the titration endpoint was reached. The usefulness of the proposed titration system was demonstrated by analyzing red wine samples. When results were compared with those obtained using the AOAC reference method, no significant difference was observed at the 95% confidence level. A relative standard deviation of ca 2% (n=9) was obtained when processing a typical red wine sample containing 7.3 gl-1 total acidity expressed as tartaric acid.

  19. Volatile compounds and odor preferences of ground beef added with garlic and red wine, and irradiated with charcoal pack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Yun, Hyejeong; Lee, Ju Woon; Ahn, Dong Uk; Lee, Eun Joo; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-08-01

    Irradiation is the most efficient non-thermal technology for improving hygienic quality and extending the shelf-life of food products. One of the adverse effects of food irradiation, however, is off-flavor production, which significantly affects the sensory preferences for certain foods. In this study, garlic (5%, w/w) and red wine (1:1, w/w) were added to ground beef to increase the radiation sensitivity of pathogens and improve meat odor/flavor. Samples were irradiated at 0 or 5 kGy in the presence of charcoal pack. SPME-GC-MS analysis was performed to measure the changes in the volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of the samples. The amount of total volatile compounds produced from ground beef was greater when the sample was irradiated. When garlic and red wine were added to the ground beef, the amount of volatile compounds significantly increased, and the amount of volatile compounds increased even further after irradiation. However, when the samples were irradiated with charcoal pack, the amount of volatile compounds decreased significantly. Sensory evaluation indicated that charcoal pack significantly increased the odor preferences for both irradiated and non-irradiated ground beef added with garlic. These results indicated that addition of charcoal pack to ground beef could reduce off-odor problems induced by irradiation, and this effect was consistent even when certain additives such as garlic and red wine were added.

  20. Instrumentation and automated photometric titration procedure for total acidity determination in red wine employing a multicommuted flow system.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ausberta Jesus Cabezas; Reis, Boaventura F

    2006-01-01

    An automated procedure for photometric titration of red wine and associated instrumentation is described. The procedure was based on the flow-batch approach implemented employing multicommutation. The photometric detection was carried out using a homemade LED-based photometer. The mixing device, LED, and photodetector were attached to the titration chamber in order to form a compact and small-sized unit. The flow system comprised an automatic injector and three-way solenoid valves, which were controlled by a microcomputer through an electronic interface card. The software, written in Quick BASIC 4.5, was designed with abilities to accomplish all steps of the titration procedure including data acquisition and real-time processing to decide about the course of titration in the following step and so forth, until the titration endpoint was reached. The usefulness of the proposed titration system was demonstrated by analyzing red wine samples. When results were compared with those obtained using the AOAC reference method, no significant difference was observed at the 95% confidence level. A relative standard deviation of ca 2% (n=9) was obtained when processing a typical red wine sample containing 7.3 gl-1 total acidity expressed as tartaric acid. PMID:17671625

  1. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects in RAW264.7 Macrophages of Malvidin, a Major Red Wine Polyphenol

    PubMed Central

    Bognar, Eszter; Sarszegi, Zsolt; Szabo, Aliz; Debreceni, Balazs; Kalman, Nikoletta; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Sumegi, Balazs; Gallyas, Ferenc

    2013-01-01

    Background Red wine polyphenols can prevent cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Resveratrol, the most extensively studied constituent, is unlikely to solely account for these beneficial effects because of its rather low abundance and bioavailability. Malvidin is far the most abundant polyphenol in red wine; however, very limited data are available about its effect on inflammatory processes and kinase signaling pathways. Methods & Findings The present study was carried out by using RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide in the presence and absence of malvidin. From the cells, activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B/Akt and poly ADP-ribose polymerase, reactive oxygen species production, mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and mitochondrial depolarization were determined. We found that malvidin attenuated lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB, poly ADP-ribose polymerase and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, reactive oxygen species production and mitochondrial depolarization, while upregulated the compensatory processes; mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression and Akt activation. Conclusions These effects of malvidin may explain the previous findings and at least partially account for the positive effects of moderate red wine consumption on inflammation-mediated chronic maladies such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. PMID:23755222

  2. Red wine extract decreases pro-inflammatory markers, nuclear factor-κB and inducible NOS, in experimental metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Janega, Pavol; Klimentová, Jana; Barta, Andrej; Kovácsová, Mária; Vranková, Stanislava; Cebová, Martina; Čierna, Zuzana; Matúsková, Zuzana; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Pechánová, Olga

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to analyse the effects of alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE) on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and pro-inflammatory markers such as nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) and inducible NOS (iNOS) protein expression in experimental metabolic syndrome. Young 6 week-old male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and obese, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/N-cp) were divided into control groups and groups treated with AWE (24.2 mg per kg per day) for 3 weeks (n = 6 in each group). Total NOS activity and endothelial NOS (eNOS), iNOS and NFκB (p65) protein expressions were determined in the heart left ventricle and aorta by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. All parameters investigated significantly increased in the aorta of SHR/N-cp rats. Pro-inflammatory markers such as NFκB and iNOS were increased in the left ventricle as well. AWE treatment did not affect total NOS activity and eNOS expression in the aorta; however, it was able to decrease NFκB and iNOS protein expression in both the left ventricle and aorta. In conclusion, in the cardiovascular system, Alibernet red wine extract decreased NFκB and iNOS protein expressions elevated as a consequence of developed metabolic syndrome. This effect may represent one of the protective, anti-inflammatory properties of Alibernet red wine polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors related to metabolic syndrome.

  3. Effect of maceration time on free and bound volatiles of red wines from cv. Karaoğlan (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes grown in Arapgir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaztekin, Murat; Kocabey, Nimet; Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan

    2015-03-01

    Skin maceration is an essential winemaking technique that affects sensory properties and aroma of red wines. The aim of this study was to investigate aroma profiles of red wines made from cv. Karaoğlan, a grape variety grown in Arapgir (Malatya, Turkey) and the effect of maceration time (5, 10, and 15 d) on free and bound aroma compounds and sensory properties. Three maceration times were applied in durations of 5, 10, and 15 d. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in Karaoğlan wines, and the effect of different maceration times on aroma composition were evaluated. Results indicate that extended maceration time significantly influenced the aroma composition of wines both qualitatively and quantitatively. A total of 59 free and 22 bound aroma compounds were identified in the final wines. The maximum of free aroma content was achieved with 5 d of maceration, while 15 d of maceration gave the highest amount of glycosidically bound aroma compounds. From sensorial point of view, the wine produced with 10 d of maceration had the best panel score compared to wines with 5 and 15 d of maceration. This is the first study referring to the composition of aroma compounds of red wines made from cv. Karaoğlan. It was concluded that this cultivar resulted in a good quality wine in terms of bound and free aroma compounds. This information of vinification practices that influence the chemical properties of wine is useful for grape growers and winemakers.

  4. Tracing changes in atmospheric sources of lead contamination using lead isotopic compositions in Australian red wine.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Evans, Andrew James

    2016-07-01

    Air quality data detailing changes to atmospheric composition from Australia's leaded petrol consumption is spatially and temporally limited. In order to address this data gap, wine was investigated as a potential proxy for atmospheric lead conditions. Wine spanning sixty years was collected from two wine regions proximal to the South Australian capital city, Adelaide, and analysed for lead concentration and lead and strontium isotopic composition for source apportionment. Maximum wine lead concentrations (328 μg/L) occur prior to the lead-in-air monitoring in South Australia in the later 1970s. Wine lead concentrations mirror available lead-in-air measurements and show a declining trend reflecting parallel reductions in leaded petrol emissions. Lead from petrol dominated the lead in wine ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.086; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.360) until the introduction of unleaded petrol, which resulted in a shift in the wine lead isotopic composition closer to vineyard soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.137; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.421). Current mining activities or vinification processes appear to have no impact with recent wine samples containing less than 4 μg/L of lead. This study demonstrates wine can be used to chronicle changes in environmental lead emissions and is an effective proxy for atmospherically sourced depositions of lead in the absence of air quality data.

  5. Tracing changes in atmospheric sources of lead contamination using lead isotopic compositions in Australian red wine.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick; Evans, Andrew James

    2016-07-01

    Air quality data detailing changes to atmospheric composition from Australia's leaded petrol consumption is spatially and temporally limited. In order to address this data gap, wine was investigated as a potential proxy for atmospheric lead conditions. Wine spanning sixty years was collected from two wine regions proximal to the South Australian capital city, Adelaide, and analysed for lead concentration and lead and strontium isotopic composition for source apportionment. Maximum wine lead concentrations (328 μg/L) occur prior to the lead-in-air monitoring in South Australia in the later 1970s. Wine lead concentrations mirror available lead-in-air measurements and show a declining trend reflecting parallel reductions in leaded petrol emissions. Lead from petrol dominated the lead in wine ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.086; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.360) until the introduction of unleaded petrol, which resulted in a shift in the wine lead isotopic composition closer to vineyard soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb: 1.137; (208)Pb/(207)Pb: 2.421). Current mining activities or vinification processes appear to have no impact with recent wine samples containing less than 4 μg/L of lead. This study demonstrates wine can be used to chronicle changes in environmental lead emissions and is an effective proxy for atmospherically sourced depositions of lead in the absence of air quality data. PMID:27037773

  6. Treatment of red wine vinasses with non-conventional substrates for removing coloured compounds.

    PubMed

    Paradelo, R; Moldes, A B; Barral, M T

    2009-01-01

    Vinasses from the wine industry were treated with different materials to remove colour as a first step for treatment. Peat, several composts and red mud from bauxite refining were evaluated as adsorbents for coloured compounds, and their performances compared to that of activated charcoal. Among the materials assayed, grape marc vermicompost gave the best results, followed by peat. A sharp decrease of absorbance between 400-800 nm took place in vinasses after the treatments with these two materials, whereas the other substrates did not reduce the colour of the vinasses as did activate charcoal, grape marc vermicompost and peat. Moreover, grape marc vermicompost and peat were activated on high temperatures or grinding, producing better results in colour removal, although with negative effects on the electrical conductivity and nutrient concentration in the wastewater. The results of the treatment of vinasses with activated charcoal were reproduced and even overcame, in the case of the reduction of the optical density of vinasses at 665 nm, using grape marc vermicompost.

  7. Arterial pharmacokinetics of red wine polyphenols: implications for novel endovascular therapies targeting restenosis.

    PubMed

    Kleinedler, James J; Pjescic, Ilija; Bullock, Kirby K; Khaliq, Abdul; Foley, John D; Dugas, Tammy R

    2012-05-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DESs) are endovascular devices that provide controlled release of compounds to interfere with restenosis, an adverse outcome of angioplasty characterized by thickening of the arterial wall. Accumulating evidence suggests that arterial pharmacokinetics determine the biological effect and potential toxicity of stent-based therapeutics. The aim of this study was to examine how drug polarity, drug load, and protein binding influence release from a polymer film and distribution within arterial tissue. The transport and safety profile of resveratrol (RESV) and quercetin (QUER), two red wine polyphenols known to interfere with events in the pathogenesis of restenosis, were compared with paclitaxel (Taxol), a lipophilic drug used in DES. In bovine arteries, RESV showed considerable protein binding and arterial kinetics that were found to mimick Taxol. In contrast, the less lipophilic QUER showed limited tissue distribution. Measured diffusivity of RESV and QUER was coupled with a novel computational method for assessment of biphasic drug release kinetics and arterial drug retention profiles. Modeling revealed that drugs associated with high- and low-protein-binding affinity result in markedly distinct arterial drug profiles. These data underscore the importance of arterial partitioning and propagation of drug within arterial tissue in the rational design of DES coatings.

  8. Organ-Protective Effects of Red Wine Extract, Resveratrol, in Oxidative Stress-Mediated Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fu-Chao; Tsai, Hsin-I; Yu, Huang-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol extracted from red wine, possesses potential antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, including the reduction of free radicals and proinflammatory mediators overproduction, the alteration of the expression of adhesion molecules, and the inhibition of neutrophil function. A growing body of evidence indicates that resveratrol plays an important role in reducing organ damage following ischemia- and hemorrhage-induced reperfusion injury. Such protective phenomenon is reported to be implicated in decreasing the formation and reaction of reactive oxygen species and pro-nflammatory cytokines, as well as the mediation of a variety of intracellular signaling pathways, including the nitric oxide synthase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase, deacetylase sirtuin 1, mitogen-activated protein kinase, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha, hemeoxygenase-1, and estrogen receptor-related pathways. Reperfusion injury is a complex pathophysiological process that involves multiple factors and pathways. The resveratrol is an effective reactive oxygen species scavenger that exhibits an antioxidative property. In this review, the organ-protective effects of resveratrol in oxidative stress-related reperfusion injury will be discussed. PMID:26161238

  9. Application of the shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy (SERDS) to the analysis of trace amounts of methanol in red wines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, Boris; Dolgy, Sergei; Ban, Vladimir S.; Gracin, Davor; Juraić, Krunoslav; Gracin, Leo

    2014-03-01

    Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) has proven an effective method for performing Raman analysis of fluorescent samples. This technique allows achieving excellent signal to noise performance with shorter excitation wavelengths, thus taking full advantage of the superior signal strength afforded by shorter excitation wavelengths and the superior performance, also combined with lower cost, delivered by silicon CCDs. The technique is enabled by use of two closely space fixed-wavelength laser diode sources stabilized with the Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs). A side by side comparison reveals that SERDS technique delivers superior signal to noise ratio and better detection limits in most situations, even when a longer excitation wavelength is employed for the purpose of elimination of the fluorescence. We have applied the SERDS technique to the quantitative analysis of the presence of trace amounts of methanol in red wines, which is an important task in quality control operations within wine industry and is currently difficult to perform in the field. So far conventional Raman spectroscopy analysis of red wines has been impractical due to the high degree of fluorescence.

  10. Novel multiresidue method for determination of pesticides in red wine using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Pelajić, Maja; Peček, Gorana; Mutavdžić Pavlović, Dragana; Vitali Čepo, Dubravka

    2016-06-01

    A new multiresidue method was developed for determination of 25 pesticide residues in red wine by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry with a single run of 23.63 min. Samples were extracted from wine with solid phase extraction using Oasis HLB. Mixture of methanol and water was used for rinsing, while acetonitrile and n-hexane were used as elution solvents. Method was validated according to SANCO/12571/2013 criteria in wide linearity range (limit of quantification - 400 μg L(-1)). Limits of quantification (LOQ) were well below 10 μg L(-1) for most pesticides and recoveries at 2×LOQ and 10×LOQ concentration levels were in range 70-120%. Precision, expressed as a relative standard deviation, was always under 14%. The method was applied to 32 red wine samples from Croatia. Pesticides were detected in 30 samples with a total of 15 pesticides found, 7 of which were at a high concentration.

  11. Comparative metabolic profiling to investigate the contribution of O. oeni MLF starter cultures to red wine composition.

    PubMed

    Malherbe, Sulette; Tredoux, Andreas G J; Nieuwoudt, Hélène H; du Toit, Maret

    2012-03-01

    In this research work we investigated changes in volatile aroma composition associated with four commercial Oenococcus oeni malolactic fermentation (MLF) starter cultures in South African Shiraz and Pinotage red wines. A control wine in which MLF was suppressed was included. The MLF progress was monitored by use of infrared spectroscopy. Gas chromatographic analysis and capillary electrophoresis were used to evaluate the volatile aroma composition and organic acid profiles, respectively. Significant strain-specific variations were observed in the degradation of citric acid and production of lactic acid during MLF. Subsequently, compounds directly and indirectly resulting from citric acid metabolism, namely diacetyl, acetic acid, acetoin, and ethyl lactate, were also affected depending on the bacterial strain used for MLF. Bacterial metabolic activity increased concentrations of the higher alcohols, fatty acids, and total esters, with a larger increase in ethyl esters than in acetate esters. Ethyl lactate, diethyl succinate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl 2-methylpropanoate, and ethyl propionate concentrations were increased by MLF. In contrast, levels of hexyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, 2-phenylethyl acetate, and ethyl acetate were reduced or remained unchanged, depending on the strain and cultivar evaluated. Formation of ethyl butyrate, ethyl propionate, ethyl 2-methylbutryate, and ethyl isovalerate was related to specific bacterial strains used, indicating possible differences in esterase activity. A strain-specific tendency to reduce total aldehyde concentrations was found at the completion of MLF, although further investigation is needed in this regard. This study provided insight into metabolism in O. oeni starter cultures during MLF in red wine. PMID:22120647

  12. Sherry wines.

    PubMed

    Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2011-01-01

    Sherry wines are among the most distinctive Spanish wines, mainly produced in the southern Spain (particularly in Jerez and Montilla-Moriles), using traditional practices aimed at ensuring uniform quality and characteristics over time. Several types of Sherry wines are produced depending on the winemaking conditions. Fino-type wines are characterized by a dynamic biological aging, in which a layer of yeast grows in the surface of the wine (flor velum). On the contrary, Oloroso-type sherry wines are subjected to an oxidative aging, while Amontillado-type Sherries are produced by combining both production systems. Therefore, these wines undergo different biological and chemical processes that affect distinctively their chemical composition and their aroma and sensory characteristics. Through this review, the main aspects involved in the winemaking technology of sherry wines, and the latest scientific findings related to the microbiota of the flor film and other aspects associated to the changes in their chemical and sensory composition during aging will be revised. Some new trends in sherry wine technology focused on the acceleration of the biological aging or the use of organic grapes will be also considered.

  13. Sherry wines.

    PubMed

    Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2011-01-01

    Sherry wines are among the most distinctive Spanish wines, mainly produced in the southern Spain (particularly in Jerez and Montilla-Moriles), using traditional practices aimed at ensuring uniform quality and characteristics over time. Several types of Sherry wines are produced depending on the winemaking conditions. Fino-type wines are characterized by a dynamic biological aging, in which a layer of yeast grows in the surface of the wine (flor velum). On the contrary, Oloroso-type sherry wines are subjected to an oxidative aging, while Amontillado-type Sherries are produced by combining both production systems. Therefore, these wines undergo different biological and chemical processes that affect distinctively their chemical composition and their aroma and sensory characteristics. Through this review, the main aspects involved in the winemaking technology of sherry wines, and the latest scientific findings related to the microbiota of the flor film and other aspects associated to the changes in their chemical and sensory composition during aging will be revised. Some new trends in sherry wine technology focused on the acceleration of the biological aging or the use of organic grapes will be also considered. PMID:21867891

  14. High pressure treatments accelerate changes in volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wine during bottle storage.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mickael C; Nunes, Cláudia; Rocha, M Angélica M; Rodrigues, Ana; Rocha, Sílvia M; Saraiva, Jorge A; Coimbra, Manuel A

    2015-12-01

    The impact of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments on volatile composition of sulphur dioxide-free wines during bottle storage was studied. For this purpose, white and red wines were produced without sulphur dioxide (SO2) and, at the end of the alcoholic fermentation, the wines were pressurised at 500 MPa and 425 MPa for 5 min. Wine with 40 ppm of SO2 and a wine without a preservation treatment were used as controls. More than 160 volatile compounds, distributed over 12 chemical groups, were identified in the wines by an advanced gas chromatography technique. The pressurised wines contained a higher content of furans, aldehydes, ketones, and acetals, compared with unpressurised wines after 9 months of storage. The changes in the volatile composition indicate that HHP treatments accelerated the Maillard reaction, and alcohol and fatty acid oxidation, leading to wines with a volatile composition similar to those of faster aged and/or thermally treated wines.

  15. Early exposure to ethanol but not red wine at the same alcohol concentration induces behavioral and brain neurotrophin alterations in young and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Aloe, Luigi; di Fausto, Veronica; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the major causes of mental retardation in western countries by inducing fetal-alcohol-like-syndromes. Red wine is known to contain ethanol but also compounds with putative antioxidant properties. It has also been shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are severely affected by ethanol during prenatal and postnatal life. The aim of the current study was to investigate in male CD1 mice brain alterations in NGF and BDNF due to chronic early exposure to ethanol solution (11 vol%) or to red wine at the same alcohol concentration starting from 60 days before pregnancy up to pups weaning. Data revealed no differences between groups of dams in pregnancy duration, neither in pups delivery, pups mortality and sex ratio. Data also showed that adult animals exposed to only ethanol had disrupted levels of both NGF and BDNF in the hippocampus and other brain areas. This profile was associated with impaired ChAT immunopositivity in the septum and Nuclei Basalis and with altered cognition and emotional behavior. Quite interestingly mice exposed to red wine had no change in the behavior or in ChAT immunopositivity but a decrease in hippocampal BDNF and a mild NGF decrease in the cortex. Also NGF-induced neuritic outgrowth in PC-12 cells was still present when exposed to red wine but not when exposed to ethanol solution only. Data suggest differences in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity between red wine and ethanol solution only.

  16. Early exposure to ethanol but not red wine at the same alcohol concentration induces behavioral and brain neurotrophin alterations in young and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Aloe, Luigi; di Fausto, Veronica; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the major causes of mental retardation in western countries by inducing fetal-alcohol-like-syndromes. Red wine is known to contain ethanol but also compounds with putative antioxidant properties. It has also been shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are severely affected by ethanol during prenatal and postnatal life. The aim of the current study was to investigate in male CD1 mice brain alterations in NGF and BDNF due to chronic early exposure to ethanol solution (11 vol%) or to red wine at the same alcohol concentration starting from 60 days before pregnancy up to pups weaning. Data revealed no differences between groups of dams in pregnancy duration, neither in pups delivery, pups mortality and sex ratio. Data also showed that adult animals exposed to only ethanol had disrupted levels of both NGF and BDNF in the hippocampus and other brain areas. This profile was associated with impaired ChAT immunopositivity in the septum and Nuclei Basalis and with altered cognition and emotional behavior. Quite interestingly mice exposed to red wine had no change in the behavior or in ChAT immunopositivity but a decrease in hippocampal BDNF and a mild NGF decrease in the cortex. Also NGF-induced neuritic outgrowth in PC-12 cells was still present when exposed to red wine but not when exposed to ethanol solution only. Data suggest differences in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity between red wine and ethanol solution only. PMID:19100286

  17. Chronic treatment with red wine modulates the purinergic neurotransmission and decreases blood pressure in hypertensive SHR and diabetic-STZ rats.

    PubMed

    Musial, Diego C; Bomfim, Guilherme H S; Miranda-Ferreira, Regiane; Caricati-Neto, Afonso; Jurkiewicz, Aron; Jurkiewicz, Neide H

    2015-01-01

    It is known that red wine has cardioprotective properties. However, its influence is unknown about purinergic system. Therefore, we study the influence of the treatment with red wine or ethanol in purinergic neurotransmission. We used Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), diabetic streptozotocin-induced WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), treated with red wine (12.5%) or ethanol (12.5%). The cardiovascular function stimulated with purinergic agonists and systolic blood pressure (SBP) was assessed. In atria of diabetics and SHRs, the P1 receptor response was decreased, unlike the P2 receptor response was increased. Likewise, in aorta the affinity to adenosine (ADO) was decreased from SHRs and diabetics. Furthermore, the P2X function was increased just SHRs. All these alterations were improved after treatment with red wine, resulting in reduction of SBP from diabetics and SHRs, but not when treated with ethanol. This study has important implications, because it is shown that consumption of red wine can improve cardiovascular system by purinergic neurotransmission.

  18. Are Enterococcus populations present during malolactic fermentation of red wine safe?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Izquierdo, Pedro Miguel; Palop, María Llanos

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was the genetic characterisation and safety evaluation of 129 Enterococcus isolates obtained from wine undergoing malolactic fermentation. Genetic characterisation by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR displayed 23 genotypes. 25 isolates representative of all genotypes were identified as Enterococcus faecium by species-specific PCR and assayed for antibiotic resistance, presence of virulence genes and aminobiogenic capacity, both in decarboxylase medium and wine. The aminobiogenic capacity in wine was analysed in presence (assay 1) and absence (assay 2) of Oenococcus oeni CECT 7621. Resistance to tetracycline, cotrimoxazol, vancomycin and teicoplanin was exhibited by 96% of the strains, but none of them harboured the assayed virulence genes. All of the strains harboured the tyrosine decarboxylase (tdc) gene, while 44% were positive for tyramine in decarboxylase medium. Only five out of 25 strains survived in wine after seven days of incubation, and when concentrations of biogenic amines in wines were determined by HPLC, only those wines in which the five surviving strains occurred contained biogenic amines. Histamine, putrescine and cadaverine were detected in wines from both assays, although concentrations were higher in assay 2. Tyramine and phenylethylamine were detected only in absence of O. oeni. This research contributes for the knowledge of safety aspects of enterococci related to winemaking.

  19. Tryptophan-ethylester, the false (unveiled) melatonin isomer in red wine.

    PubMed

    Iriti, Marcello; Vigentini, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Among the food plants, the presence of melatonin in grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) deserves particular attention because of the production of wine, an alcoholic beverage of economic relevance and with putative healthy effects. Furthermore, melatonin isomers have been detected in wine too. Recently, one of these isomers has been identified as tryptophan-ethylester, a compound with the same molecular weight of melatonin. In this Commentary, we briefly comment the source(s) of tryptophan-ethylester in wine and the putative nutritional role(s). PMID:25922582

  20. Postprandial plasma carotenoid responses following consumption of strawberries, red wine, vitamin C or spinach by elderly women.

    PubMed

    Paiva, S A; Yeum, K J; Cao, G; Prior, R L; Russell, R M

    1998-12-01

    This study investigated the postprandial plasma responses of carotenoids for 24 h after feeding five specific breakfast beverages; four of which had low or no carotenoid content. In seven fasting healthy elderly female subjects a blood sample (baseline) was obtained, after which they were given a breakfast beverage, containing one of the following: 1) strawberries (240 g); 2) ascorbic acid (1250 mg); 3) spinach (294 g); 4) red wine (300 mL); and 5) control (breakfast beverage only). Blood samples were collected at 0.5, 1, 4, 7, 11, 15 and 24 h. Plasma carotenoids were measured using HPLC. No significant differences were found in the levels of the plasma carotenoids measured among the various treatments at baseline. In the spinach treatment, plasma lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-carotene levels at 7, 11, 15 and 24 h were significantly higher than those at baseline, as expected. All of the carotenoids measured in the control and vitamin C treatments, at subsequent sampling times were not significantly different from those at baseline. However, for most carotenoids, strawberry and red wine feeding resulted in significantly lower carotenoids values from baseline at 11 and 15 h. Subjects who received a diet with low levels of carotenoids, but whose postprandial plasma levels of carotenoids remain steady, might be explained by a mechanism that promotes secretion of carotenoids into the circulation. Assuming that plasma carotenoids are being used over time, we hypothesize that strawberries and red wine contain some substances that interfere with the secretion of carotenoids into the circulation. PMID:9868186

  1. Impact of pectolytic enzyme on the fermentation time and free-run juice rate of Sharad red wine.

    PubMed

    Arora, Bindu; More, Shraddha

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of addition of commercially available pectolytic enzyme preparations in the must from Sharad variety, cultivated in India and its influence on some oenological parameters of red wine. The small scale fermentations demonstrated marked difference of organoleptic (colour) and rheologic characteristics (filterability, settling rates) and aroma between enzyme treated samples and control samples. We observed 29% enhancement in free-run juice yield and a remarkable 43% reduction in the fermentation time compared to the control. This biotechnological approach has demonstrated the economic feasibility and the benefits of adding 0.05 g. Kg(-1) grapes pectolytic enzyme in terms of yield, aroma, colour, clarity and fermentation period.

  2. Chemical and sensory characterisation of Sangiovese red wines: comparison between biodynamic and organic management.

    PubMed

    Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Rombolà, Adamo Domenico; Simoni, Marco; Versari, Andrea

    2015-01-15

    The effects of biodynamic production practices on composition and sensory attributes of Sangiovese wines were examined for 2 years (2009 and 2010) in a vineyard that was converted from organic (ORG) to biodynamic (BDN) viticulture. During the first year (2009), the BDN wines were characterised by low alcohol strength, colour intensity, total polyphenols, monomeric anthocyanins and catechin. Conversely, the second year BDN wines differed from the organic wines in terms of total polyphenols and phenolic compounds, including polymeric pigments, co-pigmentation, tannins and iron-reactive polyphenols. The effect of management practices, harvest and their interaction was analysed for each compound. Positive interaction was observed for total acidity, volatile acidity, cyanidin-3-glucoside, protocatechuic acid, (+)-catechin, quercetin and trans-resveratrol. ORG wine initially showed a more complex aroma profile; however, the differences were almost indistinguishable during the second year. Trained panellists highlighted differences in colour intensity between ORG and BDN wines although no preference was found by consumers. The concentrations of ochratoxin A and biogenic amines were far below the health-hazardous threshold. PMID:25148971

  3. Oxygen Consumption by Red Wines. Part I: Consumption Rates, Relationship with Chemical Composition, and Role of SO₂.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; Carrascon, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Ugliano, Maurizio; Fernandez-Zurbano, Purificación

    2015-12-30

    Fifteen Spanish red wines extensively characterized in terms of SO2, color, antioxidant indexes, metals, and polyphenols were subjected to five consecutive sensor-controlled cycles of air saturation at 25 °C. Within each cycle, O2 consumption rates cannot be interpreted by simple kinetic models. Plots of cumulated consumed O2 made it possible to define a fast and highly wine-dependent initial O2 consumption rate and a second and less variable average O2 consumption rate which remains constant in saturations 2 to 5. Both rates have been satisfactorily modeled, and in both cases they were independent of Fe and SO2 and highly dependent on Cu levels. Average rates were also related to Mn, pH, Folin, protein precipitable proanthocyanidins (PPAs), and polyphenolic profile. Initial rates were strong and negatively correlated to SO2 consumption, indicating that such an initial rate is either controlled by an unknown antioxidant present in some wines or affected by a poor real availability of SO2. Remaining unreacted SO2 is proportional to initial combined SO2 and to final free acetaldehyde.

  4. Oxygen Consumption by Red Wines. Part I: Consumption Rates, Relationship with Chemical Composition, and Role of SO₂.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Vicente; Carrascon, Vanesa; Bueno, Mónica; Ugliano, Maurizio; Fernandez-Zurbano, Purificación

    2015-12-30

    Fifteen Spanish red wines extensively characterized in terms of SO2, color, antioxidant indexes, metals, and polyphenols were subjected to five consecutive sensor-controlled cycles of air saturation at 25 °C. Within each cycle, O2 consumption rates cannot be interpreted by simple kinetic models. Plots of cumulated consumed O2 made it possible to define a fast and highly wine-dependent initial O2 consumption rate and a second and less variable average O2 consumption rate which remains constant in saturations 2 to 5. Both rates have been satisfactorily modeled, and in both cases they were independent of Fe and SO2 and highly dependent on Cu levels. Average rates were also related to Mn, pH, Folin, protein precipitable proanthocyanidins (PPAs), and polyphenolic profile. Initial rates were strong and negatively correlated to SO2 consumption, indicating that such an initial rate is either controlled by an unknown antioxidant present in some wines or affected by a poor real availability of SO2. Remaining unreacted SO2 is proportional to initial combined SO2 and to final free acetaldehyde. PMID:26654524

  5. Polyphenolic pattern and in vitro cardioprotective properties of typical red wines from vineyards cultivated in Scafati (Salerno, Italy).

    PubMed

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Manfra, Michele; Stiuso, Paola; Coppola, Luigi; Russo, Mariateresa; Ritieni, Alberto; Campiglia, Pietro

    2013-10-15

    Wines are the subject of increasing numbers of investigations owing to the pharmaceutical usefulness of grape phytochemicals. The aim of the present work was to hypothesize the use of lyophilised red wines for the formulation of food supplements potentially useful against both physiological and induced cardiac oxidative stress. Cardiac derived H9C2 myocytes were incubated with increasing doses (0.01-1μg) of lyophilised Aglianico wine (lioAW). Experiments showed an appreciable direct radical scavenging activity at a maximum lioAW dose of 0.03μg that made the caspase-3 activity decrease by about 41%. Cardiac cells were exposed to 1μM doxorubicin and its combination with different doses of lioAW. Maximum lioAW aliquot of 0.03μg seemed to effectively contrast the induced oxidant injury decreasing the reactive oxygen species (ROSs) levels by about 38%and depressing the caspase-3 activity by about 63%. In both assays, pro-oxidant effects at higher lioAW concentrations were detected.

  6. Port wine.

    PubMed

    Moreira, N; Guedes de Pinho, P

    2011-01-01

    Port wine is a fortified wine with its origin in the Douro Demarcated Region but also includes Oporto city and the Entreposto of Gaia. Soil, climate, and viticultural conditions are important parameters used to classify and select the best vineyards to produce port wine. Taking into account the winemaking process, two major groups of wines can be distinguished: The wood ports and the bottle-aged ports. These distinct conditions and processes ensure that there is not an unique port wine but, several ports, whose colors range from white to deep purple and that present a wide variety of flavors: vintage, late-bottled vintage, crusted, indication of age, colheita, reserve, white, tawny, ruby, and rosé. PMID:21867894

  7. Port wine.

    PubMed

    Moreira, N; Guedes de Pinho, P

    2011-01-01

    Port wine is a fortified wine with its origin in the Douro Demarcated Region but also includes Oporto city and the Entreposto of Gaia. Soil, climate, and viticultural conditions are important parameters used to classify and select the best vineyards to produce port wine. Taking into account the winemaking process, two major groups of wines can be distinguished: The wood ports and the bottle-aged ports. These distinct conditions and processes ensure that there is not an unique port wine but, several ports, whose colors range from white to deep purple and that present a wide variety of flavors: vintage, late-bottled vintage, crusted, indication of age, colheita, reserve, white, tawny, ruby, and rosé.

  8. Proton Induced X-ray Emission Spectroscopy of Red Wine Samples Using the Union College Pelletron Accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuff, Katie; Labrake, Scott

    2010-11-01

    A 1-megavolt tandem electrostatic Pelletron particle accelerator housed at Union College was used to measure the elemental composition and concentration of homemade Cabernet and Merlot red wine samples. A beam of 1.8-MeV protons directed at an approximately 12-μm thin Mylar substrate onto which 8-μL of concentrated red wine was dried caused inner shell electrons to be ejected from the target nuclei and these vacancies are filled through electronic transitions of higher orbital electrons accompanied by the production of an x-ray photon characteristic of the elemental composition of the target. This is the PIXE Method. Data on the intensity versus energy of the x-rays were collected using an Amptek silicon drift detector and were analyzed to determine the elemental composition and the samples were found to contain P, S, K, Cl, Ca, Sc, Mn, Al, Fe, & Co. Elemental concentrations were determined using the analysis package GUPIX. It is hypothesized that the cobalt seen is a direct result of the uptake by the grapes and as a product of the fermentation process a complex of vitamin B12 is produced.

  9. Impact of short-term intake of red wine and grape polyphenol extract on the human metabolome.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Doris M; Fuhrmann, Jens C; van Dorsten, Ferdinand A; Rein, Dietrich; Peters, Sonja; van Velzen, Ewoud J J; Hollebrands, Boudewijn; Draijer, Richard; van Duynhoven, John; Garczarek, Ursula

    2012-03-28

    Red wine and grape polyphenols are considered to promote cardiovascular health and are involved in multiple biological functions. Their overall impact on the human metabolome is not known. Therefore, exogenous and endogenous metabolic effects were determined in fasting plasma and 24 h urine from healthy male adults consuming a mix of red wine and grape juice extracts (WGM) for 4 days in a placebo-controlled, crossover study. Syringic acid, 3-hydroxyhippuric acid, pyrogallol, 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were confirmed as the strongest urinary markers of WGM intake. Overall, WGM had a mild impact on the endogenous metabolism. Most noticeable were changes in several amino acids deriving from tyrosine and tryptophan. Reductions in the microbial metabolites p-cresol sulfate and 3-indoxylsulfuric acid and increases in indole-3-lactic acid and nicotinic acid were observed in urine. In plasma, tyrosine was reduced. The results suggest that short-term intake of WGM altered microbial protein fermentation and/or amino acid metabolism.

  10. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference and pH in healthy volunteers following intake of coca-cola, red wine, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, E; Hauge, C; Sommer, P; Mortensen, T

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol causes gastroesophageal reflux and mucosal damage in the oesophagus and the stomach. The transmucosal electrical potential difference gives information on gastric mucosal integrity and function, while the validity of oesophageal measurements have been discussed. Baseline oesophageal potential difference measurements were performed three times with an interval of at least one week. We found oesophageal potential difference measurements reliable with an acceptable reproducibility. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference and pH were measured by use of a new microelectrode principle in 10 healthy volunteers following intake of coca-cola, wine and alcohol. Oesophageal and gastric potential difference decreased after intake of 250 ml coca-cola, 250 ml 11 vol% red wine and 60 ml 43 vol% whisky. Gastric potential difference decreased after intake of 250 ml ethanol 11 vol% and 60 ml ethanol 43 vol%. Intake of red wine and whisky resulted in a significant greater gastric potential difference decrease compared to similar concentrations and volumes of ethanol. The time until the potential difference had regained baseline level was longer after intake of red wine compared to coca-cola, whisky and ethanol. Oesophageal pH decreased after intake of coca-cola and red wine, but was unchanged after whisky. Gastric pH was unchanged after intake of all the drinks. In conclusion, the gastric potential difference reduction was not correlated to alcohol concentration. Red wine seems to affect the gastric potential difference more than coca-cola, whisky and ethanol. The observed changes in oesophageal and gastric potential difference might be due to changes in Cl- secretion and/or due to a damaging effect of the additives of the beverages.

  11. Design and Performance Testing of a DNA Extraction Assay for Sensitive and Reliable Quantification of Acetic Acid Bacteria Directly in Red Wine Using Real Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Longin, Cédric; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Alexandre, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Although strategies exist to prevent AAB contamination, the increased interest for wines with low sulfite addition leads to greater AAB spoilage. Hence, there is a real need for a rapid, specific, sensitive, and reliable method for detecting these spoilage bacteria. All these requirements are met by real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (or quantitative PCR; qPCR). Here, we compare existing methods of isolating DNA and their adaptation to a red wine matrix. Two different protocols for isolating DNA and three PCR mix compositions were tested to select the best method. The addition of insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) at 1% (v/v) during DNA extraction using a protocol succeeded in eliminating PCR inhibitors from red wine. We developed a bacterial internal control which was efficient in avoiding false negative results due to decreases in the efficiency of DNA isolation and/or amplification. The specificity, linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method were evaluated. A standard curve was established for the enumeration of AAB inoculated into red wines. The limit of quantification in red wine was 3.7 log AAB/mL and about 2.8 log AAB/mL when the volume of the samples was increased from 1 to 10 mL. Thus, the DNA extraction method developed in this paper allows sensitive and reliable AAB quantification without underestimation thanks to the presence of an internal control. Moreover, monitoring of both the AAB population and the amount of acetic acid in ethanol medium and red wine highlighted that a minimum about 6.0 log cells/mL of AAB is needed to significantly increase the production of acetic acid leading to spoilage. PMID:27313572

  12. Organoleptic impact of 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine on red bordeaux and loire wines. Effect of environmental conditions on concentrations in grapes during ripening.

    PubMed

    Roujou de Boubée, D; Van Leeuwen, C; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-10-01

    The 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine content in grapes and red wines was assayed by stable isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, following vapor extraction and purification on a cation resin microcolumn. The threshold beyond which the green bell pepper character is marked in wines has been determined. From a comparison of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 50 red Bordeaux and Loire wines from different vintages and grape varieties (Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet franc, and Merlot) with the intensity of the green bell pepper character as perceived on tasting, the threshold value was estimated to be 15 ng/L. Statistical analysis of the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentrations of 89 red Bordeaux wines showed that Cabernet wines were more commonly affected by this vegetative character. Changes in the 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine concentration as the grapes ripen are affected by the environmental and cultural conditions (soil, climate, training system, etc.). A very good correlation was shown between the breakdown of malic acid and 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine as the grapes ripened, irrespective of grape variety, type of soil, or weather conditions.

  13. Differentiation of red wines using an electronic nose based on surface acoustic wave devices.

    PubMed

    García, M; Fernández, M J; Fontecha, J L; Lozano, J; Santos, J P; Aleixandre, M; Sayago, I; Gutiérrez, J; Horrillo, M C

    2006-02-15

    An electronic nose, utilizing the principle of surface acoustic waves (SAW), was used to differentiate among different wines of the same variety of grapes which come from the same cellar. The electronic nose is based on eight surface acoustic wave sensors, one is a reference sensor and the others are coated by different polymers by spray coating technique. Data analysis was performed by two pattern recognition methods; principal component analysis (PCA) and probabilistic neuronal network (PNN). The results showed that electronic nose was able to identify the tested wines. PMID:18970446

  14. Differentiation of red wines using an electronic nose based on surface acoustic wave devices.

    PubMed

    García, M; Fernández, M J; Fontecha, J L; Lozano, J; Santos, J P; Aleixandre, M; Sayago, I; Gutiérrez, J; Horrillo, M C

    2006-02-15

    An electronic nose, utilizing the principle of surface acoustic waves (SAW), was used to differentiate among different wines of the same variety of grapes which come from the same cellar. The electronic nose is based on eight surface acoustic wave sensors, one is a reference sensor and the others are coated by different polymers by spray coating technique. Data analysis was performed by two pattern recognition methods; principal component analysis (PCA) and probabilistic neuronal network (PNN). The results showed that electronic nose was able to identify the tested wines.

  15. The Red Book through the ages.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  16. Multielement composition of wines and their precursors including provenance soil and their potentialities as fingerprints of wine origin.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C Marisa R; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2003-07-30

    The influence of the provenance soil and vinification process on the wine multielemental composition was investigated. For this purpose, two different vineyards from the Douro wine district, Portugal, were selected. Monovarietal grapes from a 10 year old vineyard were used to produce a red table wine, in a very modern winery. Polyvarietal grapes from a 60-70 year old vineyard were used to produce a red fortified wine, similar to Port, through a traditional vinification process. The multielement compositions (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hf, Li, Mn, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Ti, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Y, Zn, Zr, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu) of soil, grape juices (prepared in the laboratory), and samples collected in the different steps of each winemaking process were measured. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used, after suitable pretreatment of the samples (by UV irradiation for liquid samples and high-pressure microwave digestion for soil). Both vinification processes influenced the multielement composition of the wines. Most of the elements presented similar or even lower concentrations in the wine as compared to that observed in the respective grape juice, probably as a result of precipitation or coprecipitation with suspended particles during fermentation and/or wine aging. Evidence of effective contamination during grape pressing, fermentation, and/or fining of wines (depending on the element) was observed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn in the fortified wine and Al, Cr, Fe, Ni, Pb, and V in the table wine. Nevertheless, significant correlations were obtained between the multielement composition of the wine and the respective grape juice (R = 0.997 and 0.979 for the fortified and table wines, respectively, n = 31, P < 0.01), as well as between that in the wine (median of the two studied wines) and the provenance soil (R = 0.994, n = 19, P < 0.01), for the set of elements determined in

  17. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...

  18. An evaluation of the flora adjacent to wine grape vineyards for the presence of alternative host plants of grapevine red blotch-associated virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV) is a recently discovered virus of concern to wine grape production in North America. While the vector of this virus is unknown, other elements of virus epidemiology are essential to develop guidelines for the management of the virus as well as to assist ...

  19. Ultrastructural changes of sparkling wine lees during long-term aging in real enological conditions.

    PubMed

    Tudela, Rebeca; Gallardo-Chacón, Joan J; Rius, Núria; López-Tamames, Elvira; Buxaderas, Susana

    2012-06-01

    Ultrastructural changes of lees of three series of sparkling wines produced using the traditional method during long-term aging (4 years) were assessed by high-pressure freezing in combination with transmission electron microscopy. The stratified structure of the cell wall disappeared throughout aging. After 18 months, the microfibrous material of the cell wall appeared more diffuse and the amorphous midzone of the inner wall layer was progressively degraded. From 30 months onward, the cell wall consisted of a tangled structure of fibers. In spite of these changes, the cell wall of yeasts remained unbroken at 48 months of wine aging. Cell membrane breakage was observed for the first time in lees of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An increase in the thickness of the periplasmic space owing to plasmolysis and of the number of cells with less cytoplasmic content was observed during aging. Morphological evidence of microautophagy was detected for the first time in S. cerevisiae in enological conditions. PMID:22404819

  20. Moderate red wine consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the PREDIMED population.

    PubMed

    Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna; Medina-Remón, Alexander; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Bulló, Monica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Gea, Alfredo; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Ros, Emili; Serra-Majem, Luis; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel A; Estruch, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies on the association between alcohol intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have yielded inconsistent results. Besides, few studies have analysed the effects of red wine (RW) consumption on the prevalence of the MetS and its components. As moderate RW drinkers have a better lipid profile and lower incidence rates of diabetes, hypertension and abdominal obesity, all components of the MetS, it was hypothesised that moderate RW consumption could be associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS. In the present cross-sectional study of 5801 elderly participants at a high cardiovascular risk included in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, 3897 fulfilled the criteria of the MetS at baseline. RW intake was recorded using a validated 137-item FFQ. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the association between RW intake and the prevalence of the MetS. Compared with non-drinkers, moderate RW drinkers (≥ 1 drink/d) were found to have a reduced risk of prevalent MetS (OR 0.56, 95 % CI 0.45, 0.68; P < 0.001), a lower risk of having an abnormal waist circumference (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.46, 0.77; P < 0.001), low HDL-cholesterol concentrations (OR 0.42, 95 % CI 0.32, 0.53; P < 0.001), high blood pressure (OR 0.28, 95 % CI 0.17, 0.45; P < 0.001) and high fasting plasma glucose concentrations (OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.54, 0.82; P < 0.001) after adjusting for several confounders. This association was found to be stronger in female participants, in participants aged < 70 years and in participants who were former or current smokers. No significant association was found between RW intake (≥ 1 drink/d) and TAG concentrations. In conclusion, moderate RW consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS in an elderly Mediterranean population at a high cardiovascular risk.

  1. Moderate red wine consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the PREDIMED population.

    PubMed

    Tresserra-Rimbau, Anna; Medina-Remón, Alexander; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Bulló, Monica; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Fitó, Montserrat; Gea, Alfredo; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Lapetra, José; Arós, Fernando; Fiol, Miquel; Ros, Emili; Serra-Majem, Luis; Pintó, Xavier; Muñoz, Miguel A; Estruch, Ramón

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies on the association between alcohol intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) have yielded inconsistent results. Besides, few studies have analysed the effects of red wine (RW) consumption on the prevalence of the MetS and its components. As moderate RW drinkers have a better lipid profile and lower incidence rates of diabetes, hypertension and abdominal obesity, all components of the MetS, it was hypothesised that moderate RW consumption could be associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS. In the present cross-sectional study of 5801 elderly participants at a high cardiovascular risk included in the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study, 3897 fulfilled the criteria of the MetS at baseline. RW intake was recorded using a validated 137-item FFQ. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to estimate the association between RW intake and the prevalence of the MetS. Compared with non-drinkers, moderate RW drinkers (≥ 1 drink/d) were found to have a reduced risk of prevalent MetS (OR 0.56, 95 % CI 0.45, 0.68; P < 0.001), a lower risk of having an abnormal waist circumference (OR 0.59, 95 % CI 0.46, 0.77; P < 0.001), low HDL-cholesterol concentrations (OR 0.42, 95 % CI 0.32, 0.53; P < 0.001), high blood pressure (OR 0.28, 95 % CI 0.17, 0.45; P < 0.001) and high fasting plasma glucose concentrations (OR 0.67, 95 % CI 0.54, 0.82; P < 0.001) after adjusting for several confounders. This association was found to be stronger in female participants, in participants aged < 70 years and in participants who were former or current smokers. No significant association was found between RW intake (≥ 1 drink/d) and TAG concentrations. In conclusion, moderate RW consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of the MetS in an elderly Mediterranean population at a high cardiovascular risk. PMID:26148915

  2. Quantification of the acute effect of a low dose of red wine by nonlinear measures of RR and QT interval series in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Platiša, Mirjana M; Gal, Vera; Nestorović, Zorica; Gojković-Bukarica, Ljiljana

    2014-10-01

    The measures of nonlinear properties of RR interval and QT interval time series are sensitive to physiologically- or pathologically-induced complexity/regularity changes, but were not used to estimate the effect of alcohol intake. We wanted to examine the potential of these measures to quantify the acute effect of a low dose of red wine in healthy subjects. In separate experiments, fourteen young volunteers drank 200ml of red wine and a control drink with equal concentration of ethanol. ECG in supine position was recorded 20min before and 60min after drink intake. RR interval and QT interval series were extracted from ECG and we calculated variability, scaling exponents (α1 and α2) and sample entropy (SampEn) for both series. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP) were measured every 10min. The immediate effect of both the drinks was equal: HR, BP and QT variability exhibited a sudden increase and then a decrease. However, the prolonged effect of wine and the control drink was different. Wine decreased both BP (p<0.05) and reduced complexity of RR and QT series (increased scaling exponents and decreased SampEn). The control drink prolonged QT and RR intervals (p<0.05). These results point out that the nonlinear properties of RR and QT interval series could be used to differentiate the effect of wine and ethanol. Changes in RR and QT interval series induced by a low dose of red wine are more detectable by methods that quantify the structure of the series than by methods that quantify their variability.

  3. Identification and Organoleptic Contribution of Vanillylthiol in Wines.

    PubMed

    Floch, Morgan; Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Darriet, Philippe; Pons, Alexandre

    2016-02-17

    Vanillylthiol, a chemical compound reminiscent of clove and smoke, has been identified for the first time in young red and dry white wines. The chemical structure of this new aroma was confirmed by original chemical synthesis. Vanillylthiol was prepared by a two-step procedure from vanillin. The conversion of vanillin to divanillyl disulfide was easily achieved by treatment with an inorganic sulfur-donor reagent. Reduction of the disulfide gave the target thiol in good yield. The quantification of vanillylthiol in wine was performed by nonspecific liquid/liquid extraction (CH2Cl2), separation of the volatile compounds using gas chromatography, and specific detection using tandem mass spectrometry (triple quadrupole). Vanillylthiol was found particularly in young wines aged in new oak barrels. These wines contained between a few 50 ng/L to more than 8300 ng/L. The highest levels were found in red wines aged 12 months in new oak barrels. Given its perception threshold in a wine model solution (3.8 μg/L), vanillylthiol may contribute to the spicy, clove-like flavor of red wines aged in oak barrels.

  4. Identification and Organoleptic Contribution of Vanillylthiol in Wines.

    PubMed

    Floch, Morgan; Shinkaruk, Svitlana; Darriet, Philippe; Pons, Alexandre

    2016-02-17

    Vanillylthiol, a chemical compound reminiscent of clove and smoke, has been identified for the first time in young red and dry white wines. The chemical structure of this new aroma was confirmed by original chemical synthesis. Vanillylthiol was prepared by a two-step procedure from vanillin. The conversion of vanillin to divanillyl disulfide was easily achieved by treatment with an inorganic sulfur-donor reagent. Reduction of the disulfide gave the target thiol in good yield. The quantification of vanillylthiol in wine was performed by nonspecific liquid/liquid extraction (CH2Cl2), separation of the volatile compounds using gas chromatography, and specific detection using tandem mass spectrometry (triple quadrupole). Vanillylthiol was found particularly in young wines aged in new oak barrels. These wines contained between a few 50 ng/L to more than 8300 ng/L. The highest levels were found in red wines aged 12 months in new oak barrels. Given its perception threshold in a wine model solution (3.8 μg/L), vanillylthiol may contribute to the spicy, clove-like flavor of red wines aged in oak barrels. PMID:26806420

  5. Effect of enzyme additions on the oligosaccharide composition of Monastrell red wines from four different wine-growing origins in Spain.

    PubMed

    Apolinar-Valiente, Rafael; Williams, Pascale; Mazerolles, Gérard; Romero-Cascales, Inmaculada; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna; López-Roca, José María; Ros-García, José María; Doco, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    The release of oligosaccharides during winemaking depends on the grape skin cell wall degradation, which can be facilitated by the use of enzymes. Oligosaccharide quantities and composition in wine could be influenced by the "terroir" effect. Monastrell wine was elaborated from grapes from four different "terroirs" (Cañada Judío, Albatana, Chaparral-Bullas and Montealegre). Monastrell wines were also treated with β-galactosidase enzyme addition and commercial enzyme addition. The results showed significant differences in the Monastrell wine oligosaccharide fractions, according to the geographical origin of grapes. A higher quantity of oligosaccharides was found for three out of four terroirs studied when commercial enzymes were added. The use of commercial enzyme modified the Arabinose/Galactose and the Rhamnose/Galacturonic acid ratios in Cañada Judío and Albatana terroirs wines, and it modified the (Arabinose+Galactose)/Rhamnose ratio in Cañada Judío, Albatana and Chaparral-Bullas terroirs wines. Therefore, the "terroir" impacts the effect of commercial enzyme treatment on wine oligosaccharide composition.

  6. Spectroscopic Determination of Masses (and Implied Ages) for Red Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, M.; Hogg, David W.; Rix, H.-W.; Martig, M.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Ho, A. Y. Q.

    2016-06-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter. For red giant stars, tracers luminous enough to be observed across the Galaxy, mass implies a stellar evolution age. It has proven to be extremely difficult to infer ages and masses directly from red giant spectra using existing methods. From the Kepler and apogee surveys, samples of several thousand stars exist with high-quality spectra and asteroseismic masses. Here we show that from these data we can build a data-driven spectral model using The Cannon, which can determine stellar masses to ˜0.07 dex from apogee dr12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to ˜0.2 dex (40%). We show that The Cannon constrains these ages foremost from spectral regions with CN absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 70,000 giants (including 20,000 red clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R˜ 20 kpc). We show that the age information in the spectra is not simply a corollary of the birth-material abundances {{[Fe/H]}} and [α /{Fe}], and that, even within a monoabundance population of stars, there are age variations that vary sensibly with Galactic position. Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  7. Polyphenolic Compositions and Chromatic Characteristics of Bog Bilberry Syrup Wines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Xun; Yang, Hang-Yu; Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yue; Li, Teng; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Zhang, Bo-Lin

    2015-11-04

    Phenolic compounds determine the color quality of fruit wines. In this study, the phenolic compound content and composition, color characteristics and changes during 6 months of bottle aging were studied in wines fermented with bog bilberry syrup under three different pHs. The total anthocyanins and total phenols were around 15.12-16.23 mg/L and 475.82 to 486.50 mg GAE/L in fresh wines and declined 22%-31% and about 11% in bottle aged wines, respectively. In fresh wines, eight anthocyanins, six phenolic aids and 14 flavonols, but no flavon-3-ols were identified; Malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinium-3-O-glucoside were the predominant pigments; Chlorogentic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside accounted for nearly 90% of the total flavonols. During 6 months of bottle storage, the amounts of all the monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids were reduced dramatically, while the glycosidyl flavonols remained constant or were less reduced and their corresponding aglycones increased a lot. The effects of aging on blueberry wine color were described as the loss of color intensity with a dramatic change in color hue, from initial red-purple up to final red-brick nuances, while the pH of the fermentation matrix was negatively related to the color stability of aged wine.

  8. Spectroscopic determination of masses (and implied ages) for red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ness, Melissa; Hogg, David W.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Martig, Marie; Ho, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The mass of a star is arguably its most fundamental parameter and for red giant stars it implies a stellar evolution age. Stellar masses and ages have never been derived directly from spectra of red giants. However, using the APOGEE Kepler sample of stars, (the APOKASC sample), with high-quality spectra and astroseismic masses, we can build a data-driven spectral model using THE CANNON (arXiv:1501.07604) to infer stellar mass and therefore age from stellar spectra. We determine stellar masses to 0.07 dex from APOGEE DR12 spectra of red giants; these imply age estimates accurate to 0.2 dex (40 percent). THE CANNON constrains the ages foremost from spectral regions with particular absorption lines, elements whose surface abundances reflect mass-dependent dredge-up. We deliver an unprecedented catalog of 85,000 giants (including 20,000 red-clump stars) with mass and age estimates, spanning the entire disk (from the Galactic center to R ˜ 20 kpc). Such stellar age constraints across the Milky Way open up new avenues in Galactic archeology.

  9. Selection of 80 newly isolated autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and their impact on the quality of red wines produced from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Kostadinović Veličkovska, Sanja; Dimovska, Violeta; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Spasov, Hristo

    2017-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (i) isolate newly autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and (ii) test their impact on the quality of red wines from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties. The newly isolated yeast strains were obtained by spontaneous fermentation of grape must from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties collected from ten different micro-regions in Macedonia. The grapevines from both varieties grown in "Barovo" micro-region were the richest sources of yeast strains. In addition, the molecular identification and typing of strains were also carried out. The monomeric anthocyanins, polyphenolic content and other oenochemical characteristics of the wines were also compared with the wines from commercial yeast strain "SiHa". The Vranec wine from yeast strain F-8 and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from yeast strain F-20 had significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds than other wines.

  10. Selection of 80 newly isolated autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and their impact on the quality of red wines produced from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Ilieva, Fidanka; Kostadinović Veličkovska, Sanja; Dimovska, Violeta; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Spasov, Hristo

    2017-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (i) isolate newly autochthonous yeast strains from the Tikveš region of Macedonia and (ii) test their impact on the quality of red wines from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon grape varieties. The newly isolated yeast strains were obtained by spontaneous fermentation of grape must from Vranec and Cabernet Sauvignon varieties collected from ten different micro-regions in Macedonia. The grapevines from both varieties grown in "Barovo" micro-region were the richest sources of yeast strains. In addition, the molecular identification and typing of strains were also carried out. The monomeric anthocyanins, polyphenolic content and other oenochemical characteristics of the wines were also compared with the wines from commercial yeast strain "SiHa". The Vranec wine from yeast strain F-8 and Cabernet Sauvignon wine from yeast strain F-20 had significantly (p<0.05) higher concentrations of monomeric anthocyanins and total phenolic compounds than other wines. PMID:27596425

  11. Phosphatidylserine exposure and red cell viability in red cell aging and in hemolytic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Boas, Franz Edward; Forman, Linda; Beutler, Ernest

    1998-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) normally localizes to the inner leaflet of cell membranes but becomes exposed in abnormal or apoptotic cells, signaling macrophages to ingest them. Along similar lines, it seemed possible that the removal of red cells from circulation because of normal aging or in hemolytic anemias might be triggered by PS exposure. To investigate the role of PS exposure in normal red cell aging, we used N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin to tag rabbit red cells in vivo, then used phycoerythrin-streptavidin to label the biotinylated cells, and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to detect the exposed PS. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells drawn at 10-day intervals up to 70 days after biotinylation indicated that older, biotinylated cells expose more PS. Furthermore, our data match a simple model of red cell senescence that assumes both an age-dependent destruction of senescent red cells preceded by several hours of PS exposure and a random destruction of red cells without PS exposure. By using this model, we demonstrated that the exposure of PS parallels the rate at which biotinylated red cells are removed from circulation. On the other hand, using an annexin V-FITC label and flow cytometry demonstrates that exposed PS does not cause the reduced red cell life span of patients with hemolytic anemia, with the possible exception of those with unstable hemoglobins or sickle cell anemia. Thus, in some cases PS exposure on the cell surface may signal the removal of red cells from circulation, but in other cases some other signal must trigger the sequestration of cells. PMID:9501218

  12. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (Δλ) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval Δλ from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  13. Molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid phase clean-up for analysis of ochratoxin A in beer, red wine, and grape juice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiliang; Kong, Weijun; Zhou, Shujun; Yin, Lihui; Wan, Li; Yang, Meihua

    2013-04-01

    A simple, reliable, and low-cost method based on molecularly imprinted polymer as a selective sorbent of SPE was proposed for the determination of ochratoxin A (OTA) in beer, red wine, and grape juice by HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Samples were diluted with water and cleaned up with an AFFINIMIP® SPE OTA column. After washing and eluting, the analyte was analyzed by HPLC-FLD. Under the optimized conditions, LOD and LOQ for OTA were 0.025 and 0.08 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries of OTA from beer, red wine, and grape spiked at 0.1, 2, and 5 ng/mL ranged from 91.6 to 101.7%. Furthermore, after a simple regenerated procedure, the molecularly imprinted polymer based SPE column could be reused at least 14 times to achieve more than 80% recoveries of OTA in real samples. The developed method was applied to the detection of 30 beer, red wine, and grape juice samples and only four samples were contaminated by OTA with levels below the legal limits.

  14. Application of dispersive solid-phase extraction and ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in food additive residue analysis of red wine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Shen, Hao-Yu; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-11-01

    A novel and effective dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) procedure with rapid magnetic separation using ethylenediamine-functionalized magnetic polymer as an adsorbent was developed. The new procedure had excellent clean-up ability for the selective removal of the matrix in red wine. An accurate, simple, and rapid analytical method using ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives (i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, sodium cyclamate, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid, and neotame) in red wine was also used and validated. Recoveries ranging from 78.5% to 99.2% with relative standard deviations ranging from 0.46% to 6.3% were obtained using the new method. All target compounds showed good linearities in the tested range with correlation coefficients (r) higher than 0.9993. The limits of quantification for the nine food additives were between 0.10 μg/L and 50.0 μg/L. The proposed dSPE-UFLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied in the food-safety risk monitoring of real red wine in Zhejiang Province, China.

  15. Arsenic content in some Spanish wines. Influence of the wine-making technique on arsenic content in musts and wines.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, M V; Martinez, M C; Masoud, T A

    1987-09-01

    All of the essential technological means of treating grapes, must and wine were examined systematically. The main reasons for the differences in the arsenic (As) content of rosé and red wines are explained. In this study a relationship has been found between the As level and the wine-making technique. Rosé wines contain more As than red wines because they require a shorter period of contact with the skins. In order to prove this, the average values for the rosé and red wine samples from the same winery were compared.

  16. Red meat consumption and healthy ageing: A review.

    PubMed

    Kouvari, Matina; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-02-01

    According to World Health Organization older individuals is the fastest growing age-group around the globe, thanks to the tremendous improvements in medical and pharmaceutical therapies, as well as in quality of life. Unfortunately, this raise in life span is accompanied by significant increase in disease burden, and consequent economical costs. Lifestyle modifications and effective prevention strategies have shown considerable benefits as regards the development of age-oriented chronic diseases. Among lifestyle factors, nutrition is a key component for achieving good health. Nevertheless, this parameter has insufficiently been investigated in older people. This is a rather important scientific gap, considering the westernization of nutritional habits observed the last few decades, with high red meat consumption and its processed products being an indispensable part. Moreover, its adverse impact in cardiovascular disease and cancer has been extensively investigated, while in recent literature, interest has been remarkably oriented towards its subtypes (i.e., fresh and processed); however, outcomes as regards the older population are controversial with a variety of them proposing moderation of red meat mainly the processed type, whilst others recognizing fresh red meat, especially the lean type, an important source of high quality protein so as to manage muscle tissue loss, a common implication of advanced-age discount. The aim of the present review was to present an overview of studies which have investigated the association between red meat and its subtypes, with chronic diseases, in middle and advanced age individuals. PMID:26642896

  17. Red meat consumption and healthy ageing: A review.

    PubMed

    Kouvari, Matina; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B

    2016-02-01

    According to World Health Organization older individuals is the fastest growing age-group around the globe, thanks to the tremendous improvements in medical and pharmaceutical therapies, as well as in quality of life. Unfortunately, this raise in life span is accompanied by significant increase in disease burden, and consequent economical costs. Lifestyle modifications and effective prevention strategies have shown considerable benefits as regards the development of age-oriented chronic diseases. Among lifestyle factors, nutrition is a key component for achieving good health. Nevertheless, this parameter has insufficiently been investigated in older people. This is a rather important scientific gap, considering the westernization of nutritional habits observed the last few decades, with high red meat consumption and its processed products being an indispensable part. Moreover, its adverse impact in cardiovascular disease and cancer has been extensively investigated, while in recent literature, interest has been remarkably oriented towards its subtypes (i.e., fresh and processed); however, outcomes as regards the older population are controversial with a variety of them proposing moderation of red meat mainly the processed type, whilst others recognizing fresh red meat, especially the lean type, an important source of high quality protein so as to manage muscle tissue loss, a common implication of advanced-age discount. The aim of the present review was to present an overview of studies which have investigated the association between red meat and its subtypes, with chronic diseases, in middle and advanced age individuals.

  18. Viticultural Performance of Red and White Wine Grape Cultivars in Southwestern Idaho, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Matching germplasm to site location is a fundamental viticultural practice to enhance yield and fruit quality. A diverse collection of red and white-skinned winegrape cultivars from established production regions in Austria, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Spain, and South Africa were ev...

  19. Role of endothelial cell membrane transport in red wine polyphenols-induced coronary vasorelaxation: involvement of bilitranslocase.

    PubMed

    Ziberna, Lovro; Kim, Jong-Hun; Auger, Cyril; Passamonti, Sabina; Schini-Kerth, Valérie

    2013-10-01

    Red wine polyphenols (RWP) induce nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-mediated coronary vasodilatation involving the redox-sensitive PI3-kinase/Akt-dependent pathway in the endothelium. However, there is a gap of knowledge in explaining how bioactive polyphenols initialize their signalling pathway in endothelial cells. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that flavonoids act subsequently to their entry into the endothelium via the flavonoid membrane transporter bilitranslocase (TC 2.A.65.1.1). Thus, vascular reactivity studies were performed using isolated porcine coronary artery rings. We separately determined the NO- and EDH-mediated components of the relaxation in the presence of specific inhibitors. In either case, bilitranslocase antibodies significantly reduced the relaxations of coronary artery rings induced by RWP. Furthermore, bilitranslocase antibodies significantly reduced RWP-induced phosphorylation levels of Akt and eNOS, assessed in cultured endothelial cells from porcine coronary arteries by Western blot analysis. The present findings indicate that bilitranslocase-mediated membrane transport substantially contributes to the initial step of RWP-induced coronary vasodilatation. PMID:23963285

  20. EPR study of free radicals in non- and gamma-irradiated nutritive supplements containing anthocyanins concentrate from lyophilized red wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mladenova, Ralitsa B.; Firzov, Cyril; Yordanov, Nicola D.

    2010-09-01

    Nutritive supplements Enoviton, Enoviton C and Enoviton CE containing standardized anthocyanins from lyophilized red wine, vitamins (some of them) and excipients were investigated by EPR spectrometry before and after gamma-irradiation. Non-irradiated samples exhibit one singlet line with g=2.0039±0.0002, most probably due to free radicals from anthocyanins. After irradiation with 10 kGy gamma-rays, tablets of Еnoviton, Еnoviton С and Еnoviton СЕ, all exhibit complex EPR signals centered at a g-value of g=2.0034. The EPR spectrum of irradiated Enoviton is different from that of Еnoviton С or Еnoviton СЕ due to the overlap of the spectra of microcrystalline cellulose and the background singlet spectrum present in all tablets with the EPR resonance due to irradiated ascorbic acid (in Еnoviton С and Еnoviton СЕ). Gamma-induced free radicals exhibit long time stability—for a six months period the intensity of central peak decrease with 30-40%.

  1. δ(15) N from soil to wine in bulk samples and proline.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Mauro; Ziller, Luca; Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Larcher, Roberto; Nicolini, Giorgio; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of using δ(15) N as an additional isotopic marker able to link wine to its area of origin was investigated. The whole production chain (soil-leaves-grape-wine) was considered. Moreover, the research included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process, the use of different types of yeast and white and red vinification, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. The δ(15) N of grapes and wine was measured in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in proline, for the first time. Despite isotopic fractionation from soil to wine, the δ(15) N values of leaves, grapes, wine and particularly must and wine proline conserved the variability of δ(15) N in the growing soil. Fermentation and ultrasound treatment did not affect the δ(15) N values of grape must, which was therefore conserved in wine. The addition of inorganic or organic adjuvants was able to influence the δ(15) N of bulk wine, depending on the amount and the difference between the δ(15) N of must and that of the adjuvant. The δ(15) N of wine proline was not influenced by adjuvant addition and is therefore the best marker for tracing the geographical origin of wine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. δ(15) N from soil to wine in bulk samples and proline.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Mauro; Ziller, Luca; Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Larcher, Roberto; Nicolini, Giorgio; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of using δ(15) N as an additional isotopic marker able to link wine to its area of origin was investigated. The whole production chain (soil-leaves-grape-wine) was considered. Moreover, the research included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process, the use of different types of yeast and white and red vinification, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. The δ(15) N of grapes and wine was measured in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in proline, for the first time. Despite isotopic fractionation from soil to wine, the δ(15) N values of leaves, grapes, wine and particularly must and wine proline conserved the variability of δ(15) N in the growing soil. Fermentation and ultrasound treatment did not affect the δ(15) N values of grape must, which was therefore conserved in wine. The addition of inorganic or organic adjuvants was able to influence the δ(15) N of bulk wine, depending on the amount and the difference between the δ(15) N of must and that of the adjuvant. The δ(15) N of wine proline was not influenced by adjuvant addition and is therefore the best marker for tracing the geographical origin of wine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27479606

  3. A digital image-based method for determining of total acidity in red wines using acid-base titration without indicator.

    PubMed

    Tôrres, Adamastor Rodrigues; Lyra, Wellington da Silva; de Andrade, Stéfani Iury Evangelista; Andrade, Renato Allan Navarro; da Silva, Edvan Cirino; Araújo, Mário César Ugulino; Gaião, Edvaldo da Nóbrega

    2011-05-15

    This work proposes the use of digital image-based method for determination of total acidity in red wines by means of acid-base titration without using an external indicator or any pre-treatment of the sample. Digital images present the colour of the emergent radiation which is complementary to the radiation absorbed by anthocyanines present in wines. Anthocyanines change colour depending on the pH of the medium, and from the variation of colour in the images obtained during titration, the end point can be localized with accuracy and precision. RGB-based values were employed to build titration curves, and end points were localized by second derivative curves. The official method recommends potentiometric titration with a NaOH standard solution, and sample dilution until the pH reaches 8.2-8.4. In order to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method, titrations of ten red wines were carried out. Results were compared with the reference method, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the results by applying the paired t-test at the 95% confidence level. The proposed method yielded more precise results than the official method. This is due to the trivariate nature of the measurements (RGB), associated with digital images.

  4. Feasibility of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for extraction and preconcentration of Cu and Fe in red and white wine and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Tassia S.; Rosa, Francisco C.; Bizzi, Cezar A.; Dressler, Valderi L.; Flores, Erico M. M.; Duarte, Fabio A.

    2015-03-01

    A method for extraction and preconcentration of Cu and Fe in red and white wines using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS) was developed. Extraction was performed using sodium diethyldithiocarbamate as chelating agent and a mixture of 40 μL of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (extraction solvent) and 900 μL of methanol (dispersive solvent). Some parameters that influencing the extraction efficiency such as pH (2 to 5), concentration of chelating agent (0 to 2%), effect of salt addition (0 to 10%), number of washing steps (1 to 4) and centrifugation time (0 to 15 min) were studied. Accuracy was evaluated after microwave-assisted digestion in closed vessels and analytes were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Agreement with the proposed method ranged from 91 to 110 and from 89 to 113% for Cu and Fe, respectively. Calibration of F AAS instrument was performed using analyte addition method and limits of detection were 6.3 and 2.4 μg L- 1 for Cu and Fe, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Cu and Fe in five samples of red wine and three samples of white wine, with concentration ranging from 21 to 178 μg L- 1 and from 1.38 to 3.74 mg L- 1, respectively.

  5. Oxygen Consumption by Red Wines. Part II: Differential Effects on Color and Chemical Composition Caused by Oxygen Taken in Different Sulfur Dioxide-Related Oxidation Contexts.

    PubMed

    Carrascon, Vanesa; Fernandez-Zurbano, Purificación; Bueno, Mónica; Ferreira, Vicente

    2015-12-30

    Chemical changes caused by oxidation of red wines during 5 consecutive air-saturation cycles have been assessed. In order to investigate the existing relationship between the effects caused by O2 and the levels and consumption rates of wine SO2, the total oxygen consumed by the wines (16-25 mg/L) was subdivided into different nonmutually exclusive categories. The ones found most influential on chemical changes were the O2 consumed in the first saturation without equivalent SO2 consumption (O2preSO2) and the O2 consumed when levels of free SO2 were below 5 mg/L (radical forming O2). Chromatic changes were strongly related to both O2 categories, even though anthocyanidin degradation was not related to any O2 category. Radical forming O2 prevented both formation of red pigments and reduction of epigallocatechin and other proanthocyanidins, induced accumulation of phenolic acids, and caused losses of β-damascenone and whiskylactone without evidence of acetaldehyde formation. O2preSO2 seemed to play a key role in the formation of blue pigments and in the decrease of Folin index and of many important aroma compounds. PMID:26646423

  6. Geographic classification of spanish and Australian tempranillo red wines by visible and near-infrared spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Cozzolino, D; Cynkar, W U; Gishen, M; Colby, C B

    2006-09-01

    Visible (vis) and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis was used to classify the geographical origin of commercial Tempranillo wines from Australia and Spain. Wines (n = 63) were scanned in the vis and NIR regions (400-2500 nm) in a monochromator instrument in transmission. Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based on PCA scores were used to classify Tempranillo wines according to their geographical origin. Full cross-validation (leave-one-out) was used as validation method when PCA and LDA classification models were developed. PLS-DA models correctly classified 100% and 84.7% of the Australian and Spanish Tempranillo wine samples, respectively. LDA calibration models correctly classified 72% of the Australian wines and 85% of the Spanish wines. These results demonstrate the potential use of vis and NIR spectroscopy, combined with chemometrics as a rapid method to classify Tempranillo wines accordingly to their geographical origin.

  7. Effect of cluster thinning and prohexadione calcium applications on phenolic composition and sensory properties of red wines.

    PubMed

    Avizcuri-Inac, José-Miguel; Gonzalo-Diago, Ana; Sanz-Asensio, Jesús; Martínez-Soria, María-Teresa; López-Alonso, Miguel; Dizy-Soto, Marta; Echávarri-Granado, José-Federico; Vaquero-Fernández, Luis; Fernández-Zurbano, Purificación

    2013-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effect of manual cluster thinning (CT) and the application of the growth regulator Prohexadione calcium (ProCa) on the phenolic composition and the sensory profile of Tempranillo and Grenache wines produced from treated vines in La Rioja (Spain). ProCa was applied at preblooming and CT was carried out at veraison in two consecutive years. Different physicochemical parameters and analyses of phenolic compounds were carried out in control, CT and ProCa grapes and wines and wine sensory was performed. Thinning treatments decreased crop yield, besides ProCa application reduced berry size, and berry weight. Color and phenolic composition of Grenache and Tempranillo wines in general were affected by thinning treatments, with an increase in anthocyanin, flavanol and flavonol concentrations. In sensory analysis, wines obtained from thinned vines presented higher values for several aromatic (e.g., white and yellow fruits, fresh flowers) and taste attributes (i.e., astringency, bitternes, persistence). CT and ProCa treatments resulted in an improvement in wine quality. In general, similar results in phenolic composition, sensory properties and quality of wines were obtained by manual and chemical cluster thinning. ProCa as a growth regulator may be an option for a quality vitiviniculture.

  8. Determination of flavonoids and stilbenes in red wine and related biological products by HPLC and HPLC-ESI-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Stecher, G; Huck, C W; Popp, M; Bonn, G K

    2001-09-01

    To investigate probable health benefits of flavonoids and stilbenes in red wine a new reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid-chromatographic (HPLC) method with enhanced separation efficiency and improved selectivity, sensitivity, and speed has been established for determination of the flavonoids quercetin, myricetin and kaempferol and the stilbenes cis- and trans-resveratrol, in a single run . UV-absorbance, fluorescence (FLD), and mass-spectrometric (MS) detection were also evaluated. UV-absorbance detection at 320 nm for stilbenes and 377 nm for flavonoids enables their determination up to the nanogram range with a linearity of R2>0.9999 (linear range 50 ng mL(-1)-50 microg mL(-1)). Calculated values of average recoveries were between 95 and 105% for all analytes. For resveratrol, fluorescence detection was highly selective and twice as sensitive as UV detection, and linearity was satisfactory (R2>0.9996; linear range see UV detection). For the detection of the hydrophilic glycosidic compounds piceid and rutin, which are coeluted with other hydrophilic ingredients, the validated RP HPLC system was coupled to a quadrupole ion-trap mass-spectrometer (MS) via an electrospray interface (ESI) with 25% ammonia solution as sheath liquid. MS detection was, highly linear (R2>0.9878; linear range 50 ng mL(-1)-50 microg mL(-1)) for all investigated analytes and the limits of detection were in the low nanogram range. Compared with UV detection MS detection resulted in a 200% increase in signal intensity for myricetin and 400% increases for quercetin and kaempferol, but equal signal intensity for resveratrol. Calculated values of average recoveries were 102% for myricetin and 79% for piceid. Collision induced dissociation (CID) was also used to obtain characteristic fragmentation fingerprints to facilitate qualitative and quantitative analysis even in complex matrices. Finally, this hyphenated HPLC-ESI-MS method was highly suitable and an essential improvement compared

  9. Nanosilica-based molecularly imprinted polymer nanoshell for specific recognition and determination of rhodamine B in red wine and beverages.

    PubMed

    Long, Zerong; Xu, Weiwei; Lu, Yi; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2016-09-01

    A new and facile rhodamine B (RhB)-imprinted polymer nanoshell coating for SiO2 nanoparticles was readily prepared by a combination of silica gel modification and molecular surface imprinting. The RhB-imprinted polymers (RhB-MIPs) were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-vis spectroscopy; the binding properties and selectivity of these MIPs were investigated in detail. The uniformly imprinted nanoparticles displayed a rather thin shell thickness (23nm) with highly effective recognition sites, showing homogenous distribution and monolayer adsorption. The maximum MIP adsorption capacity (Qm) was as high as 45.2mgg(-1), with an adsorption equilibrium time of about 15min at ambient temperature. Dynamic rebinding experiments showed that chemical adsorption is crucial for RhB binding to RhB-MIPs. The adsorption isotherm for RhB-MIPs binding could also be described by the Langmuir equation at different temperatures and pH values. Increasing temperature led to an enhanced Qm, a decreased dissociation constant (K'd), and a more negative free energy (ΔG), indicating that adsorption is favored at higher temperatures. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of RhB was remarkably affected by pH. At pH>7, the adsorption of RhB was driven by hydrogen bonding interactions, while at pH<7 electrostatic forces were dominant. Additionally, the MIPs also showed specific recognition of RhB from the standard mixture solution containing five structurally analogs. This method was also successfully employed to determine RhB content in red wine and beverages using three levels of spiking, with recoveries in the range of 91.6-93.1% and relative standard deviations lower than 4.1%. PMID:27372912

  10. Influence of different mineral and Organic pesticide treatments on Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) contents determined by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis in Italian white and red wines.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Francesco; La Pera, Lara; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Nicotina, Mariano; Dugo, Giacomo

    2003-02-12

    This paper deals with the use of derivative potentiometric stripping analysis (dPSA) as a rapid and precise method to determine Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels in red and white wine samples from Sicily, Campania, and Tuscany and to investigate the possible connection between the content of these metals and the pesticide treatments used in vine-growing to control plant diseases and pests. dPSA allowed direct quantitation of heavy metals in acidified wines without any sample pretreatment. Mean recoveries of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ranged from 95.5 to 99.2% for white wine samples and from 96.1 to 100.0% for red wine samples. The obtained results showed that Cd(II) was not found in any sample and that Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels were always lower than the toxicity limits in both fungicide- and water-treated wines. Nevertheless, the contents of metals were increased in samples from organic and inorganic pesticides treatment with respect to the water-treated samples. In particular, quinoxyfen, dinocap-penconazole, and dinocap applications considerably increased Cu(II) and Zn(II) contents in white and red wines. The levels of lead were significantly raised by azoxystrobin and sulfur treatments.

  11. Development of lysozyme-combined antibacterial system to reduce sulfur dioxide and to stabilize Italian Riesling ice wine during aging process

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Han, Shun-yu; Zhang, Bo; Li, Min; Sheng, Wen-jun

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of SO2 reduction and stabilizing ice wine, a new antibacterial technique was developed and verified in order to reduce the content of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and simultaneously maintain protein stability during ice wine aging process. Hazardous bacterial strain (lactic acid bacteria, LAB) and protein stability of Italian Riesling ice wine were evaluated in terms of different amounts of lysozyme, SO2, polyphenols, and wine pH by single-factor experiments. Subsequently, a quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite design with four variables was conducted to establish the multiple linear regression model that demonstrated the influence of different treatments on synthesis score between LAB inhibition and protein stability of ice wine. The results showed that, synthesis score can be influenced by lysozyme and SO2 concentrations on an extremely significant level (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the lysozyme-combined antibacterial system, which is specially designed for ice wine aging, was optimized step by step by response surface methodology and ridge analysis. As a result, the optimal proportion should be control in ice wine as follows: 179.31 mg L−1 lysozyme, 177.14 mg L−1 SO2, 0.60 g L−1 polyphenols, and 4.01 ice wine pH. Based on this system, the normalized synthesis score between LAB inhibition and protein stability can reach the highest point 0.920. Finally, by the experiments of verification and comparison, it was indicated that lysozyme-combined antibacterial system, which was a practical and prospective method to reduce SO2 concentration and effectively prevent contamination from hazardous LAB, can be used to stabilize ice wine during aging process. PMID:26405531

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography with diamond ATR-FTIR detection for the determination of carbohydrates, alcohols and organic acids in red wine.

    PubMed

    Edelmann, Andrea; Diewok, Josef; Baena, Josefa Rodriguez; Lendl, Bernhard

    2003-05-01

    A horizontal diamond attenuated total reflection (ATR) element has been incorporated in a flow-through cell with low dead volume and used for on-line mid-IR detection in high-performance liquid chromatography. The chemical inertness of the ATR element permitted the use of a strongly acidic mobile phase in the isocratic separation. The hyphenation was used for the analysis of organic acids, sugars and alcohols in red wine. In the case of co-eluting analytes multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was successfully employed for quantitative analysis.

  13. Matrix-calibrated LC-MS/MS quantitation and sensory evaluation of oak Ellagitannins and their transformation products in red wines.

    PubMed

    Stark, Timo; Wollmann, Nadine; Wenker, Kerstin; Lösch, Sofie; Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-05-26

    Aimed at investigating the concentrations and taste contribution of the oak-derived ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin as well as their transformation products acutissimin A/B, epiacutissimin A/B, and beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin in red wine, a highly sensitive and accurate quantification method was developed on the basis of LC-MS/MS-MRM analysis with matrix calibration. Method validation showed good recovery rates ranging from 102.4 +/- 5.9% (vescalagin) to 113.7 +/- 15.2% (epiacutissimin A). In oak-matured wines, castalagin was found as the predominant ellagitannin, followed by beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin, whereas the flavano-C-ellagitannins (epi)acutissimin A/B were present in significantly lower amounts. In contrast to the high threshold concentration levels (600-1000 micromol/L) and the puckering astringent orosensation induced by flavan-3-ols, all of the ellagitannin derivatives were found to induce a smooth and velvety astringent oral sensation at rather low threshold concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 micromol/L. Dose/activity considerations demonstrated that, among all the ellagitannins investigated, castalagin exclusively exceeded its threshold concentration in various oak-matured wine samples.

  14. Distribution and Organoleptic Impact of Ethyl 3-Hydroxybutanoate Enantiomers in Wine.

    PubMed

    Lytra, Georgia; Cameleyre, Margaux; Tempere, Sophie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Enantiomers of ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate were assayed in 87 commercial wines from various vintages and origins, using chiral gas chromatography (β-cyclodextrin). Generally, ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate levels were higher in red than in white wines of the same age. The average S/R enantiomeric ratio of this compound in red wine was approximately 75:25 (± 13), with an average total concentration of ∼ 450 (± 150) μg/L. In red wines, R-form levels increased gradually during aging, but no variations were observed in S-form concentrations. To our knowledge, no previous research had determined the enantiomeric distribution of this compound in wine. The olfactory threshold of the S-form in dilute alcohol solution was 21 mg/L, one-third that of the R-form: 63 mg/L. The S- and R-forms had different aromatic nuances. The olfactory threshold of their mixture (85:15, m/m) was 14 mg/L, indicating a simple additive effect in this binary mixture. Furthermore, the concentrations found in red wines were considerably below the olfactory threshold under the same experimental conditions. Sensory analysis revealed that ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate (S/R, 85:15, m/m) had an enhancing effect on the perception of fruity aromas in the matrices studied. Sensory profiles highlighted the contribution of ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate to red-berry and fresh-fruit descriptors, despite its subthreshold concentrations.

  15. Effect of size, seasoning and toasting in the volatile compounds in toasted oak wood and in a red wine treated with them.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E; del Alamo, M; Nevares, I

    2010-02-15

    The increasing demand for wood for barrel-making in addition to the rapid extension of alternative aging system, have led to looking into the possibility of utilizing Spanish oak. Quercus pyrenaica is the species that predominates in Spain, and the chemical composition of its heartwood (ellagitannins, low molecular weight phenolic and volatile compounds) and its incidence in characteristics of wine are similar to that of other species that are of recognized oenological quality for barrel-making, showing only quantitative differences with respect to French (Quercus petraea) and American (Quercus alba) species. However, at present, the quantity of good quality wood that we can obtain from the Q. pyrenaica Spanish forest is limited. Hence, in the short term, and considering the high chemical oenological quality of Q. pyrenaica wood, we propose the utilizing of chips, segments, staves, and other oak alternatives for wine aging, which would be obtained from wooden remnants from barrel-making as well as from trees with small diameters or physical defects which would normally be inappropriate for cooperage. With regards to the latter idea, studies on special chip-making processes, and other oak wood pieces are being carried out, especially focused on reducing seasoning time, and to toasting optimization as a function of wood piece size, in addition to its behaviour when incorporated into the different alternative aging systems. We present in this study the effect of seasoning way (traditional or unconventional) on volatile composition of Q. pyrenaica chips and staves at three toasting levels (light, medium and heavy), and the evolution of the wood-released aromatic composition of a Spanish artificially aged wine, using these alternative products. The wines showed in general small differences in their oak-derived characteristics, which were more related to the wood piece size and the toasting intensity than to the seasoning way, and they could be linked with the

  16. Rosé wine volatile composition and the preferences of Chinese wine professionals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Capone, Dimitra L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Jeffery, David W

    2016-07-01

    Rosé wine aromas range from fruity and floral, to more developed, savoury characters. Lighter than red wines, rosé wines tend to match well with Asian cuisines, yet little is known about the factors driving desirability of rosé wines in emerging markets such as China. This study involved Chinese wine professionals participating in blind rosé wine tastings comprising 23 rosé wines from Australia, China and France in three major cities in China. According to the sensory results, a link between the preference, quality and expected retail price of the wines was observed, and assessors preferred wines with prominent red fruit, floral, confectionery and honey characters, and without developed attributes or too much sweetness. Basic wine chemical parameters and 47 volatile compounds, including 5 potent thiols, were determined. Correlations between chemical components, sensory attributes and preference/quality/expected price were visualised by network analysis, revealing relationships that are worthy of further investigation.

  17. Rosé wine volatile composition and the preferences of Chinese wine professionals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaming; Capone, Dimitra L; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Jeffery, David W

    2016-07-01

    Rosé wine aromas range from fruity and floral, to more developed, savoury characters. Lighter than red wines, rosé wines tend to match well with Asian cuisines, yet little is known about the factors driving desirability of rosé wines in emerging markets such as China. This study involved Chinese wine professionals participating in blind rosé wine tastings comprising 23 rosé wines from Australia, China and France in three major cities in China. According to the sensory results, a link between the preference, quality and expected retail price of the wines was observed, and assessors preferred wines with prominent red fruit, floral, confectionery and honey characters, and without developed attributes or too much sweetness. Basic wine chemical parameters and 47 volatile compounds, including 5 potent thiols, were determined. Correlations between chemical components, sensory attributes and preference/quality/expected price were visualised by network analysis, revealing relationships that are worthy of further investigation. PMID:26920325

  18. The red envelope and the age of the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Connell, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The photometric evolution of old stellar populations is slow in the optical/IR. Consequently, observational error is a strongly limiting factor in the accuracy possible for determining galaxy ages or estimating q0 at high redshifts from indices such as the 4000-A break. Existing observations of the red envelope at z above about 0.3 are consistent with a wide range of evolutionary histories. The middle-UV spectral region (rest wavelengths = 2000-3300 A) appears to promise less ambiguous results.

  19. Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces strains co-fermentation increases acetaldehyde accumulation: effect on anthocyanin-derived pigments in Tannat red wines.

    PubMed

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    During fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae releases into the medium secondary metabolic products, such as acetaldehyde, able to react with anthocyanins, producing more stable derived pigments. However, very limited reports are found about non-Saccharomyces effects on grape fermentation. In this study, six non-Saccharomyces yeast strains, belonging to the genera Metschnikowia and Hanseniaspora, were screened for their effect on red wine colour and wine-making capacity under pure culture conditions and mixed with Saccharomyces. An artificial red grape must was prepared, containing a phenolic extract of Tannat grapes that allows monitoring changes of key phenol parameters during fermentation, but without skin solids in the medium. When fermented in pure cultures, S. cerevisiae produced higher concentrations of acetaldehyde and vitisin B (acetaldehyde reaction-dependent) compared to M. pulcherrima M00/09G, Hanseniaspora guillermondii T06/09G, H. opuntiae T06/01G, H. vineae T02/05F and H. clermontiae (A10/82Fand C10/54F). However, co-fermentation of H. vineae and H. clermontiae with S. cerevisiae resulted in a significantly higher concentration of acetaldehyde compared with the pure S. cerevisiae control. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis confirmed an increased formation of vitisin B in co-fermentation treatments when compared to pure Saccharomyces fermentation, suggesting the key role of acetaldehyde. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26888345

  20. Fabrication of a Microbial Biosensor Based on QD-MWNT Supports by a One-Step Radiation Reaction and Detection of Phenolic Compounds in Red Wines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seul-Ki; Kwen, Hai-Doo; Choi, Seong-Ho

    2011-01-01

    An Acaligense sp.-immobilized biosensor was fabricated based on QD-MWNT composites as an electron transfer mediator and a microbe immobilization support by a one-step radiation reaction and used for sensing phenolic compounds in commercial red wines. First, a quantum dot-modified multi-wall carbon nanotube (QD-MWNT) composite was prepared in the presence of MWNT by a one-step radiation reaction in an aqueous solution at room temperature. The successful preparation of the QD-MWNT composite was confirmed by XPS, TEM, and elemental analysis. Second, the microbial biosensor was fabricated by immobilization of Acaligense sp. on the surface of the composite thin film of a glassy carbon (GC) electrode, which was prepared by a hand casting method with a mixture of the previously obtained composite and Nafion solution. The sensing ranges of the microbial biosensor based on CdS-MWNT and Cu2S-MWNT supports were 0.5–5.0 mM and 0.7–10 mM for phenol in a phosphate buffer solution, respectively. Total concentration of phenolic compounds contained in commercial red wines was also determined using the prepared microbial immobilized biosensor. PMID:22319395

  1. Non-Saccharomyces and Saccharomyces strains co-fermentation increases acetaldehyde accumulation: effect on anthocyanin-derived pigments in Tannat red wines.

    PubMed

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Fariña, Laura; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    During fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae releases into the medium secondary metabolic products, such as acetaldehyde, able to react with anthocyanins, producing more stable derived pigments. However, very limited reports are found about non-Saccharomyces effects on grape fermentation. In this study, six non-Saccharomyces yeast strains, belonging to the genera Metschnikowia and Hanseniaspora, were screened for their effect on red wine colour and wine-making capacity under pure culture conditions and mixed with Saccharomyces. An artificial red grape must was prepared, containing a phenolic extract of Tannat grapes that allows monitoring changes of key phenol parameters during fermentation, but without skin solids in the medium. When fermented in pure cultures, S. cerevisiae produced higher concentrations of acetaldehyde and vitisin B (acetaldehyde reaction-dependent) compared to M. pulcherrima M00/09G, Hanseniaspora guillermondii T06/09G, H. opuntiae T06/01G, H. vineae T02/05F and H. clermontiae (A10/82Fand C10/54F). However, co-fermentation of H. vineae and H. clermontiae with S. cerevisiae resulted in a significantly higher concentration of acetaldehyde compared with the pure S. cerevisiae control. HPLC-DAD-MS analysis confirmed an increased formation of vitisin B in co-fermentation treatments when compared to pure Saccharomyces fermentation, suggesting the key role of acetaldehyde. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Direct and selective flow-injection method for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of calcium and magnesium in red and white wines using online dilution based on "Zone Sampling".

    PubMed

    Themelis, D G; Tzanavaras, P D; Trellopoulos, A V; Sofoniou, M C

    2001-11-01

    The present work reports a selective and simple flow injection method for the direct and simultaneous determination of calcium and magnesium ions in red, rose, and white wines. Both ions react with methylthymol blue (MTB) at a strongly basic medium to form colored complexes that are monitored spectrophotometrically (lambda(max) = 610 nm). The simultaneous determination is achieved by online masking of magnesium by 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ). Incorporating an online dilution mode based on the "zone sampling" technique in the FI system, the determination of both analytes was achieved without any pretreatment of the samples, in the range 0-350 mg L(-1) and 0-200 mg L(-1) for Ca(II) and Mg(II), respectively. The 3 sigma detection limits were quite satisfactory (2.1 and 1.8 mg L(-1) for Ca(II) and Mg(II) respectively), and the precision was 1.2% (at a mixture of 100.0 mg L(-1) Ca(II) + 100.0 mg L(-1) Mg(II), n = 12). A detailed study of interferences proved that the proposed method is highly selective. The application of the method to the direct analysis of red, rose, and white wines yielded excellent results compared with those obtained by using FAAS as a reference method (e(r) < 2.8%).

  3. Simple and fast method for iron determination in white and red wines using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Juliana V; Soares, Bruno M; Mandlate, Jaime S; Picoloto, Rochele S; Bizzi, Cezar A; Flores, Erico M M; Duarte, Fabio A

    2014-08-20

    This work reports the development of a method for Fe extraction in white and red wines using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and determination by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. For optimization of the DLLME method, the following parameters were evaluated: type and volume of dispersive (1300 μL of acetonitrile) and extraction (80 μL of C(2)Cl(4)) solvents, pH (3.0), concentration of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC, 500 μL of 1% m/v APDC solution), NaCl concentration (not added), and extraction time. The calibration curve was performed using the analyte addition method, and the limit of detection and relative standard deviation were 0.2 mg L(-1) and below 7%, respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results obtained after Fe determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with agreement ranging from 94 to 105%. The proposed method was applied for Fe determination in white and red wines with concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 4.7 mg L(-1).

  4. An analysis on flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids contents in brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact fermentation techniques of Mao Luang ripe fruits (Antidesma bunius) harvested from Phupan Valley in Northeast Thailand.

    PubMed

    Samappito, S; Butkhup, L

    2008-07-01

    The experiment was carried out at the Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University, Northeast Thailand during the 2006. The study aimed to determine amounts of flavonoids, phenolics and organic acids in ripe fruits and brewed red wines of both non-skin contact and skin contact winemaking techniques where Mao Luang ripe fruits of both Fapratan and Sangkrow2 cultivars were used. The experiment was laid in a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications. The results showed that mean values of primary data of fresh Mao Luang ripe fruits on weight of 100 berries (g) and mean values of juice:solids, pH, total soluble solid (TSS, 0brix), total organic acids (TOA, mg L(-1)), TSS:TOA (%), total flavonoids contents (TFC, mg L(-l)), total phenolic acids (TPA, mg L(-1)), total procyanidins contents (TPC, mg L(-1)) and reducing sugar (g L(-1)) were 65.62, 3.28, 3.51, 16.50, 49.36, 28.10, 397.90, 76.04, 156.21 and 184.32, respectively. Skin contact Mao Luang red wine gave higher amounts of flavonoids, phenolic acids, anthocyanins of procyanidin B1 and procyanidin B2, organic acids than non-skin contact red wine. The differences were highly significant. Furthermore, ethanol (%) and total acidity (g L(-1) citric acid) were much higher for skin contact wine than non-skin contact wine but a reverse was found with total soluble solids (0brix), pH where non-skin contact wine gave higher mean values than skin contact wine.

  5. Effect of Early Seed Removal During Fermentation on Proanthocyanidin Extraction in Red Wine: A Commercial Production Example

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Merlot) were made by a commercial winery to examine the effects of seed removal at ~10 °Brix on the extraction of proanthocyanidins during fermentation. Seeds were removed at the point when they fell to the bottom of the fermentor, and were thus easily removed during reg...

  6. Age and Availability of Nonstructural Carbohydrates in Red Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, M. S.; Keenan, T. F.; Czimczik, C. I.; Murakami, P.; O'Keefe, J.; Schaberg, P.; Xu, X.; Richardson, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies show that nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) pools in mature trees can be quite large and on average a decade old. Yet, little is known about how older stored NSC reserves vs. recently-assimilated NSCs are used to support growth and metabolism, or how available these stored NSC reserves are to trees during stress or following disturbance. To better understand these aspects of NSC dynamics, we studied mature red maple (Acer rubrum) trees that ranged in size and age in two New England temperate forests, Harvard Forest (Massachusetts) and Bartlett Experimental Forest (New Hampshire). Applying the radiocarbon (14C) "bomb spike" approach, we estimated the age of carbon in stemwood NSCs, bole respiration, and stump sprouts regenerated following harvesting. These isotopic measurements along with stemwood NSC concentrations allowed us to compare the NSC used for metabolic demands and the NSC available for regrowth following disturbance to the NSC actually present in the stemwood. We found that the mean age of stemwood sugars was 9.8 ± 5.3 y. Trees with slower growth rates had older sugar reserves and lower concentrations of sugar, starch, and total NSC reserves. The age of NSCs used to support dormant season metabolism (bole respiration) was between 1-3.5 y, and thus much younger than the mean age of stemwood sugars, indicating preferential use of more recently-assimilated NSC. There were no relationships observed between tree age or size and 1) the age of sugars present in stemwood cores or 2) the age of NSCs used for bole respiration. Moreover, there was no relationship between the age of sugars in stemwood and the age of NSCs used for bole respiration. The stump sprouts were formed from NSCs 1-17 y old, (mean 5.8 ± 5.4 y), with older trees using older NSCs to produce stump sprouts. The stump sprout data indicate that some of these older NSCs reserves are available to the tree for use following major disturbance. However, the bole respiration data

  7. Red wine polyphenolics reduce the expression of inflammation markers in human colon-derived CCD-18Co myofibroblast cells: potential role of microRNA-126.

    PubMed

    Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Noratto, Giuliana; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne

    2012-07-01

    Chronic intestinal inflammation is an established risk factor for colon cancer. Polyphenolic compounds from fruit and vegetables have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties in several cell lines and tissues. However, their anti-inflammatory mechanisms, involving microRNAs in the regulation of inflammation, have not been extensively investigated. The goal of this research was to assess the chemopreventive potential of polyphenolics extracted from red wine made with Lenoir grapes (Vitis aestivalis hybrid) in human colon-derived CCD-18Co myofibroblasts cells, and to assess the potential involvement of microRNA-126 (miR-126) in the underlying mechanisms. The results show that the polyphenolic red wine extract (WE) decreased mRNA expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediators NF-kB, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and PECAM-1 by 1.95-, 1.98-, 1.52-, and 1.84-fold respectively, in a dose dependent manner (0-100 μg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) mL(-1)) down to 0.80-, 0.79-, 0.66-, and 0.68-fold in DMSO-treated control cells not challenged with LPS, respectively. Correspondingly, miR-126, which has a target region within the 3'-UTR of VCAM-1 mRNA, was increased 2.79-fold by the WE at 100 μg GAE mL(-1). The potential role of miR-126 was confirmed by transfecting cells with a specific miR-126-antagomir, as-miR-126. Transfection with as-miR-126 down-regulated miR-126 to 0.71-fold in the control cells and up-regulated mRNA levels of NF-kB, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and PECAM-1 to 1.80-, 1.49-, 2.30-, and 1.95-fold of controls, respectively. WE at 100 μg GAE mL(-1) partially reversed the effects of the as-miR-126 to 1.02-, 1.01-, 1.04-, and 1.05-fold, for mRNA levels of NF-kB, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and PECAM-1 respectively. This indicates the potential role of miR-126 in the anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenolics from red wine in CCD-18Co myofibroblasts cells. PMID:22572890

  8. Age, allocation, and availability of nonstructural carbohydrates in red maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Mariah; Keenan, Trevor; Czimczik, Claudia; Murakami, Paula; O'Keefe, John; Pederson, Neil; Schaberg, Paul; Xu, Xiaomei; Richardson, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) are the primary products of photosynthesis, composed mostly of sugars and starch. Recent studies show that NSC pools in mature trees can be quite large and on average a decade old. Thus, NSC pools integrate years of carbon assimilation and represent significant ecological memory at the whole plant and ecosystem level. However, we know very little about how older stored NSC versus newly assimilated NSC are used to support growth and metabolism, or how available older NSC are to trees during stress or following disturbance. To better understand these potential lags in NSC allocation, we studied mature red maple (Acer rubrum) trees in New England temperate forests. Applying the radiocarbon (14C) "bomb spike" approach, we estimated the age of carbon in stemwood NSC, ring cellulose, bole respiration, and stump sprouts regenerated following harvesting. These measurements allowed us to compare the NSC used for metabolic demands, annual growth, and the NSC available for regrowth following disturbance to the NSC actually present in the stemwood. Finally, tree ring widths were analyzed to determine the annual autocorrelation in radial wood increment. We found that the mean age of stemwood sugars was 9.8 ± 5 y. The age of NSC used to support metabolism (bole respiration) was much younger than the mean age of stemwood sugars, indicating preferential use of more recently assimilated NSC. In the spring before leaves emerged, bole respiration was between 1-2 y, whereas it was composed of newly assimilated NSC in the late summer. The ring cellulose 14C age was on average 0.8 y older than direct ring counts (within error of 14C measurement) which may or may not indicate a stored NSC contribution. Tree ring width analyses indicate strong autocorrelation between ring growth in one year and in the following year, in agreement with ring cellulose 14C ages. However, autocorrelation weakened over the following 10 years, consistent with the measured mean

  9. Changes in analytical and volatile compositions of red wines induced by pre-fermentation heat treatment of grapes.

    PubMed

    Geffroy, Olivier; Lopez, Ricardo; Serrano, Eric; Dufourcq, Thierry; Gracia-Moreno, Elisa; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2015-11-15

    Experiments were carried out on Grenache, Carignan and Fer grapes in order to characterize the changes in nitrogen content of the musts, conventional enological parameters and aroma compounds of the wines induced by pre-fermentation heating of the grapes followed by alcoholic fermentation in liquid phase or in solid phase. In comparison to a standard vinification, we showed that a two-hour heat treatment at 70 °C induced a significant loss in several grape-derived aroma compounds (terpenols, norisoprenoids and some phenols) associated with an increase in α-terpineol, guaiacol and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, which suggests thermal degradation. A significant increase in most of the ethyl esters, in acetates and in fatty acids were observed in wines fermented in liquid phase, together with a decrease in fusel alcohols. The substantial modification in the amino acid composition of the must seems to be a crucial element for the understanding of these changes. PMID:25977023

  10. Preparation of biosensors by immobilization of polyphenol oxidase in conducting copolymers and their use in determination of phenolic compounds in red wine.

    PubMed

    Böyükbayram, A Elif; Kiralp, Senem; Toppare, Levent; Yağci, Yusuf

    2006-10-01

    Electrochemically produced graft copolymers of thiophene capped polytetrahydofuran (TPTHF1 and TPTHF2) and pyrrole were achieved by constant potential electrolysis using sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) as the supporting electrolyte. Characterizations were based on Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrical conductivities were measured by the four-probe technique. Novel biosensors for phenolic compounds were constructed by immobilizing polyphenol oxidase (PPO) into conducting copolymers prepared by electropolymerization of pyrrole with thiophene capped polytetrahydrofuran. Kinetic parameters, maximum reaction rate (V(max)) and Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) and optimum conditions regarding temperature and pH were determined for the immobilized enzyme. Operational stability and shelf-life of the enzyme electrodes were investigated. Enzyme electrodes of polyphenol oxidase were used to determine the amount of phenolic compounds in two brands of Turkish red wines and found very useful owing to their high kinetic parameters and wide pH working range.

  11. Effect of dietary supplementation with red wine extract or vitamin E, in combination with linseed and fish oil, on lamb meat quality.

    PubMed

    Muíño, Iria; Apeleo, Elizabeth; de la Fuente, Jesús; Pérez-Santaescolástica, Cristina; Rivas-Cañedo, Ana; Pérez, Concepción; Díaz, María Teresa; Cañeque, Vicente; Lauzurica, Sara

    2014-10-01

    Thirty lambs were assigned to the following treatments: control diet (C) rich in omega-3 fatty acids; C plus 900ppm red wine extract (RWE), or C plus 300ppm vitamin E (VE). Oxidative stability and sensory properties of chops stored in MAP (70% O2/30% CO2) during 12days were evaluated. Chops from the VE group showed lower lipid oxidation (p<0.001) and protein carbonylation (p<0.05), stable omega-3 fatty acids proportions and overall liking sensory scores (p<0.05). Dietary RWE supplementation did not influence oxidative stability of chops, however levels of C20:5n-3 were greater (p<0.05) and n-6/n-3 ratio (p<0.01) was lower, relative to controls. PMID:24927047

  12. Metabolism of antioxidant and chemopreventive ellagitannins from strawberries, raspberries, walnuts, and oak-aged wine in humans: identification of biomarkers and individual variability.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Begoña; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2005-01-26

    Ellagitannins (ETs) are dietary polyphenols, containing ellagic acid (EA) subunits, with antioxidant and cancer chemopreventive activities that might contribute to health benefits in humans. However, little is known about their metabolic fate. We investigate here the metabolism of different dietary ETs and EA derivatives in humans. Forty healthy volunteers were distributed in four groups. Each group consumed, in a single dose, a different ET-containing foodstuff, i.e., strawberries (250 g), red raspberries (225 g), walnuts (35 g), and oak-aged red wine (300 mL). After the intake, five urine fractions (F) were collected at 8 (F1), 16 (F2), 32 (F3), 40 (F4), and 56 (F5) h. Neither ETs nor EA were detected in urine after LC-MS/MS analysis. However, the microbial metabolite 3,8-dihydroxy-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-6-one (urolithin B) conjugated with glucuronic acid was detected along the fractions F3-F5 in all of the subjects, independently of the consumed foodstuff. The mean percentage of metabolite excretion ranged from 2.8 (strawberries) to 16.6% (walnuts) regarding the ingested ETs. Considerable interindividual differences were noted, identifying "high and low metabolite excreters" in each group, which supported the involvement of the colonic microflora in ET metabolism. These results indicate that urolithin B (a previously described antiangiogenic and hyaluronidase inhibitor compound) is a biomarker of human exposure to dietary ETs and may be useful in intervention studies with ET-containing products. The antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects of dietary ETs and EA should be considered in the gastrointestinal tract whereas the study of potential systemic activities should be focused on the bioavailable urolithin B derivatives. PMID:15656654

  13. Assessment of the genetic polymorphism and physiological characterization of indigenous Oenococcus oeni strains isolated from Aglianico del Vulture red wine.

    PubMed

    Cafaro, Caterina; Bonomo, Maria Grazia; Guerrieri, Antonio; Crispo, Fabiana; Ciriello, Rosanna; Salzano, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was a reliable intra-species discrimination and strain biodiversity in Oenococcus oeni populations of two different Aglianico wineries by molecular, biochemical, and physiological characterization. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis revealed a high polymorphism related to the origin (winery) of strains, while differential display PCR (DD-PCR) allowed a further discrimination of strains from the same winery. Moreover, the heterogeneity of these natural populations was investigated by capillary electrophoresis and enzymatic assays. A variability related to a different surface charge distribution was observed among strains, linked to their origin. Malolactic activity study evidenced strain-specific differences in malic acid degradation, and then, only the presence of L(-)-malic acid in the medium induced the mle gene. This study provided evidences on the importance of intra-species biodiversity of malolactic bacterial populations in wine ecosystems, as each wine possess peculiar winemaking conditions and physical-chemical properties which make specific the bacterial survival and growth. This study highlighted a great biodiversity among O. oeni strains that can be also winery specific. Such biodiversity within a certain winery and winemaking area is important for selecting malolactic starters, and strain-specific trait identification is especially important to match individual strains to specific industrial process.

  14. Intraregional classification of wine via ICP-MS elemental fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, P P; van Jaarsveld, F P; Vanhaecke, F

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of elemental fingerprinting in the classification of wines according to their provenance vineyard soil was investigated in the relatively small geographical area of a single wine district. Results for the Stellenbosch wine district (Western Cape Wine Region, South Africa), comprising an area of less than 1,000 km(2), suggest that classification of wines from different estates (120 wines from 23 estates) is indeed possible using accurate elemental data and multivariate statistical analysis based on a combination of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. This is the first study to demonstrate the successful classification of wines at estate level in a single wine district in South Africa. The elements B, Ba, Cs, Cu, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl and Zn were identified as suitable indicators. White and red wines were grouped in separate data sets to allow successful classification of wines. Correlation between wine classification and soil type distributions in the area was observed. PMID:24996361

  15. Intraregional classification of wine via ICP-MS elemental fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, P P; van Jaarsveld, F P; Vanhaecke, F

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of elemental fingerprinting in the classification of wines according to their provenance vineyard soil was investigated in the relatively small geographical area of a single wine district. Results for the Stellenbosch wine district (Western Cape Wine Region, South Africa), comprising an area of less than 1,000 km(2), suggest that classification of wines from different estates (120 wines from 23 estates) is indeed possible using accurate elemental data and multivariate statistical analysis based on a combination of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. This is the first study to demonstrate the successful classification of wines at estate level in a single wine district in South Africa. The elements B, Ba, Cs, Cu, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl and Zn were identified as suitable indicators. White and red wines were grouped in separate data sets to allow successful classification of wines. Correlation between wine classification and soil type distributions in the area was observed.

  16. Simultaneous separation and identification of oligomeric procyanidins and anthocyanin-derived pigments in raw red wine by HPLC-UV-ESI-MSn.

    PubMed

    Pati, S; Losito, I; Gambacorta, G; La Notte, E; Palmisano, F; Zambonin, P G

    2006-07-01

    Samples of raw red wine (Primitivo di Manduria, Apulia, Southern Italy) were analysed without any pre-treatment (except 1:2 dilution with water) using HPLC with detection based on UV absorbance and Electrospray Ionisation Sequential Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MSn, with n = 1-3) in a series configuration. In particular, absorbance at 520 nm was monitored for UV detection in order to identify pigments responsible for wine colour. On the other hand, two subsequent stages of MS detection based on positive ions were adopted. The first consisted of an explorative MS acquisition, aimed at the individuation of the m/z ratios for positively charged compounds; the second was based on fragmentation of the detected ions within an ion trap analyser, followed by MS/MS and, if required, MS3 acquisitions. The synergy between UV detection and MSn analysis led to the identification of 41 pigments, which can be classified into five groups: grape anthocyanins, pyranoanthocyanins, vinyl-linked anthocyanin-flavanol pigments, ethyl-bridged anthocyanin-flavanol pigments and flavanol-anthocyanin compounds. Many isomeric and oligomeric structures were found within each group. A further class of compounds, not absorbing in the visible spectrum, could be also characterised by ESI-MSn and corresponded to B-type procyanidins, i.e. proanthocyanidins arising from C4-->C8/C4-->C6 couplings between catechin or epicatechin units. In particular, oligomeric structures (from dimers to pentamers), often present with several isomers, were identified and their fragmentation patterns clarified. PMID:16770836

  17. Short- and long-term efficiency of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) to prevent crystal formation in South African wine.

    PubMed

    Greeff, A E; Robillard, B; du Toit, W J

    2012-01-01

    Crystal formation in bottled wine occurs due to the over-saturation of wine with potassium bitartrate (KHT) salt when exposed to low temperatures. In this study, special focus was given to the efficiency of a crystallisation-inhibiting additive, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), which is widely used in the food industry. In 2008, CMC was authorised by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine (OIV) for use in white and sparkling wines, but is not yet officially permitted in all wine-producing countries. The use of CMC could be of economical importance to the wine industry because energy costs due to cooling can be reduced. Unlike traditional cooling methods, the use of CMC theoretically prevents the loss of acidity. In this study, the short- and long-term efficiencies of CMC were investigated in South African white, rosé and red wines. Efficiency was determined primarily by measuring changes in potassium (K(+)) and tartaric acid (H(2)T) concentrations and visual crystal formation. As part of this study CMC's efficiency was compared with several other crystal inhibition treatments, and was also evaluated for its temperature stability over a year. CMC's effect on colour and total phenols was also assessed. The results reveal a high efficiency in preventing losses in K(+) and H(2)T concentrations in white wines, even with an ageing period of up to 12 months. The addition of CMC to rosé wines also delivered certain positive results, but less so for red wine. Three different commercial CMCs were also compared with mannoproteins to prevent changes in K(+) and H(2)T concentrations in three different wines. Furthermore, sensory evaluation was performed to determine certain organoleptic changes as a result of CMC treatments. PMID:22762479

  18. Wine Polyphenols: Potential Agents in Neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    Basli, Abdelkader; Soulet, Stéphanie; Chaher, Nassima; Mérillon, Jean-Michel; Chibane, Mohamed; Monti, Jean-Pierre; Richard, Tristan

    2012-01-01

    There are numerous studies indicating that a moderate consumption of red wine provides certain health benefits, such as the protection against neurodegenerative diseases. This protective effect is most likely due to the presence of phenolic compounds in wine. Wine polyphenolic compounds are well known for the antioxidant properties. Oxidative stress is involved in many forms of cellular and molecular deterioration. This damage can lead to cell death and various neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's or Alzheimer's diseases. Extensive investigations have been undertaken to determine the neuroprotective effects of wine-related polyphenols. In this review we present the neuroprotective abilities of the major classes of wine-related polyphenols. PMID:22829964

  19. Changes in En(a-) human red blood cell membranes during in vivo ageing.

    PubMed

    Shinozuka, T; Miyata, Y; Takei, S; Yoshida, R; Ogamo, A; Nakagawa, Y; Kuroda, N; Yanagida, J

    1996-01-01

    The human red blood cells with phenotype En(a-) were characterized by the lack of MN antigens. The red blood cells with phenotype En(a-) which were found in a Japanese family were tested to clarify the changes in membrane surfaces of the red blood cells during in vivo ageing. The contents of sialic acid, glucose, mannose, galactose, fucose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine of the red blood cell membranes obtained from the old red blood cells with phenotype En(a-) were significantly lower than those of the young red blood cell membranes. Neither the young nor the old red blood cells with phenotype En(a-) showed the agglutination with Arachis hypogaea (PNA) which was capable of binding to T agglutinogen. It is presumed that En(a-) red blood cells are not exposed to sialidase in vivo. In comparison with the young En(a-) red blood cell membranes, the number and the distribution density of lectin receptor sites on the old ones for Limulus polyphemus (LPA), Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Triticum vulgaris (WGA) and Bauhinia purpurea (BPA) were significantly lower. It is thought that En(a-) red blood cell ageing is accompanied by elimination of some sialoglycoconjugates which have affinity for LPA, Con A, WGA and BPA, whereas En(a-) red blood cells lack glycophorin A. PMID:8866734

  20. The Influence of Prefermentative Addition of Gallic Acid on the Phenolic Composition and Chromatic Characteristics of Cabernet Sauvignon Wines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Zhang, Bo; He, Fei; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the prefermentative addition of gallic acid in Cabernet Sauvignon red winemaking was performed. The influence of gallic acid addition on wine phenolic composition, the ratio of copigmentation, and the color parameters were monitored throughout the winemaking process. The results showed that the prefermentative addition of gallic acid enhanced the extraction of total anthocyanins and the copigmentation effect, producing wines with more darkness, redness, yellowness, and saturation. Moreover, the addition of gallic acid contributed to the concentration of total phenolic acids. However, it had a negative effect on the concentrations of flavonols and flavan-3-ols in the final wines. Thus, the prefermentative addition of gallic acid at appropriate levels might be a promising enological technology to obtain wines with high color quality and aging potential.

  1. Conservation of (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotopic ratios during the winemaking processes of 'Red' wines to validate their use as geographic tracer.

    PubMed

    Marchionni, Sara; Buccianti, Antonella; Bollati, Andrea; Braschi, Eleonora; Cifelli, Francesca; Molin, Paola; Parotto, Maurizio; Mattei, Massimo; Tommasini, Simone; Conticelli, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    (87)Sr/(86)Sr has been determined in wines, musts grape juices, soils and rocks from six selected vineyards of 'Cesanese' wine area. Cesanese is a monocultivar wine from a small region characterised by different geologic substrata, a key locality to test the influence of both substratum and winemaking procedure on the (87)Sr/(86)Sr of wines. Experimental work has been performed on wines from different vintage years to check possible seasonal variations. The data reveal that (87)Sr/(86)Sr does not change through time, to validate the selection of wineries performed, and in addition no isotopic variations are observed during winemaking. Indeed, no significant isotopic variations have been observed in musts and wines. These findings reinforce the hypothesis that the isotopic signature of wines is strongly related to the bioavailable fraction of the soil rather than to its bulk. The data corroborate the possibility that Sr-isotopes of high-quality wines can be used as a reliable tool for fingerprinting wine geographic provenance. PMID:26213038

  2. Conservation of (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotopic ratios during the winemaking processes of 'Red' wines to validate their use as geographic tracer.

    PubMed

    Marchionni, Sara; Buccianti, Antonella; Bollati, Andrea; Braschi, Eleonora; Cifelli, Francesca; Molin, Paola; Parotto, Maurizio; Mattei, Massimo; Tommasini, Simone; Conticelli, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    (87)Sr/(86)Sr has been determined in wines, musts grape juices, soils and rocks from six selected vineyards of 'Cesanese' wine area. Cesanese is a monocultivar wine from a small region characterised by different geologic substrata, a key locality to test the influence of both substratum and winemaking procedure on the (87)Sr/(86)Sr of wines. Experimental work has been performed on wines from different vintage years to check possible seasonal variations. The data reveal that (87)Sr/(86)Sr does not change through time, to validate the selection of wineries performed, and in addition no isotopic variations are observed during winemaking. Indeed, no significant isotopic variations have been observed in musts and wines. These findings reinforce the hypothesis that the isotopic signature of wines is strongly related to the bioavailable fraction of the soil rather than to its bulk. The data corroborate the possibility that Sr-isotopes of high-quality wines can be used as a reliable tool for fingerprinting wine geographic provenance.

  3. Changes in LDL Oxidative Status and Oxidative and Inflammatory Gene Expression after Red Wine Intake in Healthy People: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Di Renzo, Laura; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Gualtieri, Paola; Gratteri, Santo; Tomasi, Diego; Gaiotti, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. Micronutrients modulate immune system and exert a protective action by reducing low density lipoproteins (LDL) oxidation via induction of antioxidant enzymes. We evaluated the gene expression of oxidative stress (HOSp), inflammasome (HIp), and human drug metabolism pathways (HDM) and ox-LDL level at baseline and after the intake of red wine naturally enriched with resveratrol (NPVRW), in association with or without a McDonald's meal (McDM). The ox-LDL levels significantly increase comparing baseline (B) versus McDM and decreased comparing McDM versus McDM + NPVRW (P ≤ 0.05). Percentages of significant genes expressed after each nutritional intervention were the following: (1) B versus McDM, 2.88% HOSp, 2.40% of HIp, and 3.37% of HDMp; (2) B versus McDM + NPVRW, 1.44% of HOSp, 4.81% of HIp, and 0.96% of HDMp; (3) McDM versus McDM + NPVRW, 2.40% of HOSp, 2.40% of HIp, and 5.77% of HDMp; (4) B versus NPVRW, 4.80% HOSp, 3.85% HIp, and 3.85% HDMp. NPVRW intake reduced postprandial ox-LDL and the expression of inflammation and oxidative stress related genes. Chronic studies on larger population are necessary before definitive conclusions. PMID:26101461

  4. Dietary nitrite induces nitrosation of the gastric mucosa: the protective action of the mucus and the modulatory effect of red wine.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cassilda; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, João

    2015-05-01

    The stomach chemical environment promotes the production of new molecules that can induce post-translational modifications of endogenous proteins with physiological impact. The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway is relevant in this process via production of nitric oxide ((•)NO) and nitric oxide-derived nitrogen oxides (NOx) at high concentrations. Using a highly sensitive and selective chemiluminescence approach, we found that exposure the stomach of rats to nitrite yielded S- and N-nitroso derivatives in gastric mucus cysteine-rich glycoproteins (mucins). To lesser extent, the underlying epithelial cell layers also suffered nitrite-driven S- and N-nitroso modifications which increased upon mucus removal, indicating that, under normal nitrite load, (•)NO and NOx can reach inner layers of the stomach wall and locally modify proteins. S-nitrosation was by large the predominant modification. In vitro and ex vivo experiments indicated that the gastric nitrosation pattern is triggered by dietary nitrite in a concentration dependent manner, encompassing the intermediary formation of (•)NO and is susceptible to modulation by dietary reductants, notably red wine polyphenols. Collectively, these results suggest a protective action of the mucus and potential (•)NO-dependent biochemical effects at deeper cells layers of the mucosa. PMID:25701398

  5. Changes in LDL Oxidative Status and Oxidative and Inflammatory Gene Expression after Red Wine Intake in Healthy People: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Laura; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Carraro, Alberto; Valente, Roberto; Gualtieri, Paola; Gratteri, Santo; Tomasi, Diego; Gaiotti, Federica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. Micronutrients modulate immune system and exert a protective action by reducing low density lipoproteins (LDL) oxidation via induction of antioxidant enzymes. We evaluated the gene expression of oxidative stress (HOSp), inflammasome (HIp), and human drug metabolism pathways (HDM) and ox-LDL level at baseline and after the intake of red wine naturally enriched with resveratrol (NPVRW), in association with or without a McDonald's meal (McDM). The ox-LDL levels significantly increase comparing baseline (B) versus McDM and decreased comparing McDM versus McDM + NPVRW (P ≤ 0.05). Percentages of significant genes expressed after each nutritional intervention were the following: (1) B versus McDM, 2.88% HOSp, 2.40% of HIp, and 3.37% of HDMp; (2) B versus McDM + NPVRW, 1.44% of HOSp, 4.81% of HIp, and 0.96% of HDMp; (3) McDM versus McDM + NPVRW, 2.40% of HOSp, 2.40% of HIp, and 5.77% of HDMp; (4) B versus NPVRW, 4.80% HOSp, 3.85% HIp, and 3.85% HDMp. NPVRW intake reduced postprandial ox-LDL and the expression of inflammation and oxidative stress related genes. Chronic studies on larger population are necessary before definitive conclusions. PMID:26101461

  6. Changes in LDL Oxidative Status and Oxidative and Inflammatory Gene Expression after Red Wine Intake in Healthy People: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Laura; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Carraro, Alberto; Valente, Roberto; Gualtieri, Paola; Gratteri, Santo; Tomasi, Diego; Gaiotti, Federica; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial oxidative stress is characterized by an increased susceptibility of the organism towards oxidative damage after consumption of a meal rich in lipids and/or carbohydrates. Micronutrients modulate immune system and exert a protective action by reducing low density lipoproteins (LDL) oxidation via induction of antioxidant enzymes. We evaluated the gene expression of oxidative stress (HOSp), inflammasome (HIp), and human drug metabolism pathways (HDM) and ox-LDL level at baseline and after the intake of red wine naturally enriched with resveratrol (NPVRW), in association with or without a McDonald's meal (McDM). The ox-LDL levels significantly increase comparing baseline (B) versus McDM and decreased comparing McDM versus McDM + NPVRW (P ≤ 0.05). Percentages of significant genes expressed after each nutritional intervention were the following: (1) B versus McDM, 2.88% HOSp, 2.40% of HIp, and 3.37% of HDMp; (2) B versus McDM + NPVRW, 1.44% of HOSp, 4.81% of HIp, and 0.96% of HDMp; (3) McDM versus McDM + NPVRW, 2.40% of HOSp, 2.40% of HIp, and 5.77% of HDMp; (4) B versus NPVRW, 4.80% HOSp, 3.85% HIp, and 3.85% HDMp. NPVRW intake reduced postprandial ox-LDL and the expression of inflammation and oxidative stress related genes. Chronic studies on larger population are necessary before definitive conclusions.

  7. Emission factor development for the malt beverage, wine, and distilled spirits industries

    SciTech Connect

    Lapp, T.; Shrager, B.; Safriet, D.

    1996-12-31

    Midwest Research Institute is currently developing emission factors for inclusion in AP-42 Chapter 9, Food and Agricultural Industries. Three of the sections cover the production of malt beverages, wine, and distilled spirits. The malt beverage segment focuses on the development of ethanol emission factors for filling operations, which were recently identified as the large source of brewery ethanol emissions. The discussion includes a description of the production process and emissions factors for breweries, a history of emission factories for breweries, a description of emission testing conducted at two large breweries, and a presentation of some of the emission factors for malt beverage production. The wine industry segment focuses on emissions from the fermentation stage for red and white wines, the pomace screen and pomace press for red wines, and bottling of white wine. Emission factors are presented for ethanol emissions from each of these sources as well as other VOC emissions from the fermentation process. A discussion of the wine production process is presented. A discussion of the emission sources and available emission factors is presented for the distilled spirits industry segment. Factors are presented for the fermentation and aging stages. A process description is presented for the production of Bourbon whisky.

  8. Dependency of Phytoprostane Fingerprints of Must and Wine on Viticulture and Enological Processes.

    PubMed

    Marhuenda, Javier; Medina, Sonia; Díaz-Castro, Alexandra; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro; Arina, Simón; Zafrilla, Pilar; Mulero, Juana; Oger, Camille; Galano, Jean-Marie; Durand, Thierry; Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-10-21

    Wine is one of the most consumed alcoholic beverages around the world. Red wine has demonstrated several benefits for health maintenance. One group of potential anti-inflammatory compounds is the phytoprostanes, oxidative degradation products of linolenic acid. The aim of the present study was to measure, for the first time, the phytoprostane content in wine and must by an UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS method after solid-phase extraction. The data showed two predominant classes of phytoprostanes: F1- and D1-phytoprostane series. In wines, the total phytoprostane concentration ranged from 134.1 ± 2.3 to 216.2 ± 3.06 ng/mL. Musts showed concentrations between 21.4 ± 0.8 and 447.1 ± 15.8 ng/mL. The vinification and aging procedures for the production of wine seem to influence the final phytoprostane levels in red wine and to modify the phytoprostane profile. The high concentrations observed and previous reports on anti-inflammatory effects of phytoprostanes make further research on the benefits of phytoprostanes more important.

  9. Volumetric studies on the red nucleus of the rat at different ages.

    PubMed

    Boseila, A W; Hashem, S M; Badawy, Y H

    1975-01-01

    The postnatal development of the red nucleus in albino rat was quantitatively studied. Planimetric studies on stained paraffin sections of the midbrain showed that the red nucleus has a rounded contour with tapering ends and a broad centre. The volume of the red nucleus revealed an increase from birth, to reach its maximum at the age of 3 months, then declines until the age of 2 years. However, the size does not regain its newly born value. On the other hand, the number of cells remains constant during the entire life span of the animal.

  10. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Ross R; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N; Nichols, David S; Breadmore, Michael C; Shellie, Robert A; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-27

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 (o)C. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  11. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles. PMID:26610612

  12. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  13. Antioxidant activity of selected Spanish wines in corn oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Moreno, C; Satué-Gracia, M T; Frankel, E N

    2000-11-01

    Wines contain phenolic compounds that may be useful for preventing lipid oxidation as dietary antioxidants. This study was aimed at evaluating the antioxidant activity in corn oil emulsions of seventeen selected Spanish wines and two California wines. The inhibition of hydroperoxide formation at 10 microM gallic acid equivalents (GAE) varied from 8.4% to 40.2% with the red wines, from 20.9% to 45.8% with the rosé wines, and from 6.5% to 47.0% with the white wines. The inhibition of hydroperoxide formation at 20 microM GAE varied from 11.9% to 34.1% with the red wines, from 0.1% to 34. 5% with the rosé wines, and from 3.3% to 37.2% with the white wines. The inhibition of hexanal formation at 10 microM GAE varied from 23. 6% to 64.4% with the red wines, from 42.7% to 68.5% with the rosé wines, and from 28.4% to 68.8% with the white wines. The inhibition of hexanal formation at 20 microM GAE varied from 33.0% to 46.3% with the red wines, from 11.3% to 66.5% with the rosé wines, and from -16.7% to +21.0% with the white wines. The antioxidant effect decreased with increasing concentration. This antioxidant activity was related to the five main groups of phenolic compounds identified in wines by HPLC. The relative antioxidant activity correlated positively with the total phenol content of wines (by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and by HPLC), benzoic acids, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, and flavonols, for the inhibition of hydroperoxides and hexanal at 10 and 20 microM GAE.

  14. Red raspberries can improve motor function in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Many foods rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds have been shown to increase health and reduce markers of aging. A number of berry fruits high in polyphenols are known to ameliorate age-related declines in cellular, cognitive and behavioral function in rats. OBJECTIVES: Thi...

  15. Deficit Irrigation during Berry Development: Impact on Aroma Composition of Merlot Wine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of irrigation on wine grape composition and wine aroma has been investigated extensively and is still of interest today because of the complexity of wine aroma. Merlot is one of the most popular red wines in the world and is well suited to cultivation in eastern Washington, southwestern ...

  16. SEM analysis of red blood cells in aged human bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Hortolà, P

    1992-08-01

    Mammal red blood cells (RBC) in bloodstains have been previously detected by light microscopy on stone tools from as early as 100,000 +/- 25,000 years ago. In order to evaluate the degree of morphological preservation of erythrocytes in bloodstains, an accidental human blood smear on white chert and several experimental bloodstains on hard substrates (the same stone-white chert; another type of stone-graywacke; a non-stone support-stainless steel), were stored in a room, in non-sterile and fluctuating conditions, for lengths of time ranging from 3 to 18 months. Afterwards, the specimens were coated with gold and examined by a Cambridge Stereoscan 120 scanning electron microscope. Results revealed a high preservation of RBC integrity, with the maintenance of several discocytary shapes, a low tendency to echinocytosis and a frequent appearance of a moon-like erythrocytary shape in the thinner areas of the bloodstains. PMID:1398371

  17. Cyclostratigraphy for Chinese red clay sequences: Implications to changing previous age models and paleoclimate interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, T.; Kravchinsky, V. A.; Zhang, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Chinese Loess Plateau contains red clay sequence which has continuous alternation of sedimentary cycles with recurrent paleoclimatic fluctuations. Absence of abundant fossils and inability of radiometric dating method made magnetostratigraphy a leading method to build age model for the red clay. Here magnetostratigraphic age model in red clay sequence is tested using cyclostratigraphy as orbital parameters of Earth are known. Milankovitch periodicities recorded in magnetic susceptibility and grain size in the Shilou red clay section are investigated and previously found age of 11 Ma for this section is re-evaluated. Magnetostratigraphy dating based on only visual correlation could potentially lead to erroneous age model. In this study the correlation is executed through the iteration procedure until it is supported by cyclostratigraphy; i.e. Milankovitch cycles are resolved in the best possible manner. Our new approach provides an age of 5.2 Ma for the Shilou profile. Wavelet analysis reveals that a 400 kyr eccentricity cycle is well preserved and the existence of a 100 kyr eccentricity in the red clay sequence on the eastern Chinese Loess Plateau suggests that eccentricity plays a vital role in Pliocene climate evolution. Paleomonsoon evolution is reconstructed and divided into three intervals (5.2-4.5 Ma, 4.5-3.6 Ma and 3.6-2.58 Ma). The earliest stage indicates that summer and winter monsoon cycles may rapidly alter, whereas the middle stage reflects an intensification of winter monsoon and aridification in Asia, and the youngest stage is characterized by relatively intensified summer monsoon. This study demonstrates that cyclostratigraphy can greatly assist magnetostratigraphy in dating the red clay sequences, and implies that many published age models for the red clay sequences should likely be re-assessed where possible. An evaluation of the monsoon system and climate change in eastern Asia might prominently benefit from this approach.

  18. [Cultural history of wine, the theoretical background of wine therapy].

    PubMed

    Fehér, János; Lengyel, Gabriella; Lugasi, Andrea

    2005-12-25

    The knowledge of wine and grapes as old as the cultural history of human population. The small consumption of wine could be advantageous. Also it has been well established for several thousands of years, that it could cause acute and chronic injuries after higher consumption. Its antiinfectious effect in dermatological drugs had been known in the archeological ages. The unguents containing wine polyphenols are advantageous in some dermatological injuries and also in the treatment of muscular and articular alterations. Moderate consumption of wine may decrease the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. In healthy individuals consumption of one-two dl of wine can decrease the mortality rate of cardiovascular diseases. This quantity, however, may be injurious in pregnancy, in children, and in various organic diseases, especially in liver disease, as well as if combined with common drugs.

  19. Reductive off-odors in wines: Formation and release of H₂S and methanethiol during the accelerated anoxic storage of wines.

    PubMed

    Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-05-15

    In order to better understand the processes involved in the development of H2S and methanethiol (MeSH) along anoxic storage of wines, 24 wines were stored in strict anoxia at 50°C for 3weeks. Free and total forms of H2S and MeSH were measured at different times. Results showed that: (1) all wines contain relevant proportions of bonded forms of H2S and MeSH (93% and 47% on average); (2) such % decreases with age; (3) levels of total forms are related to wine metal composition; (4) anoxic storage brings about an increase of free forms, a strong decrease in the percentage of bonded forms, and except for H2S in red wines, an increase in total forms. Both de novo formation and release contribute to reductive off-odors. Release is predominant for reds and H2S, while at 50°C, de novo formation dominates for whites and rosés and MeSH.

  20. Ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction based on the solidification of a floating organic droplet used for the simultaneous determination of six fungicide residues in juices and red wine.

    PubMed

    You, Xiangwei; Wang, Suli; Liu, Fengmao; Shi, Kaiwei

    2013-07-26

    A novel ultrasound-assisted surfactant-enhanced emulsification microextraction technique based on the solidification of a floating organic droplet followed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was developed for simultaneous determination of six fungicide residues in juices and red wine samples. The low-toxicity solvent, 1-dodecanol, was used as an extraction solvent. For its low density and proper melting point near room temperature, the extractant droplet was collected easily by solidifying it at a low temperature. The surfactant, Tween 80, was used as an emulsifier to enhance the dispersion of the water-immiscible extraction solvent into an aqueous phase, which hastened the mass-transfer of the analytes. Organic dispersive solvent typically required in common dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction methods was not used in the proposed method. Some parameters (e.g., the type and volume of extraction solvent, the type and concentration of surfactant, ultrasound extraction time, salt addition, and volume of samples) that affect the extraction efficiency were optimized. The proposed method showed a good linearity within the range of 5μgL(-1)-1000μgL(-1), with the correlation coefficients (γ) higher than 0.9969. The limits of detection for the method ranged from 0.4μgL(-1) to 1.4μgL(-1). Further, this simple, practical, sensitive, and environmentally friendly method was successfully applied to determine the target fungicides in juice and red wine samples. The recoveries of the target fungicides in red wine and fruit juice samples were 79.5%-113.4%, with relative standard deviations that ranged from 0.4% to 12.3%.

  1. [Healthcare expenditures growth: the red herring of demographic ageing?].

    PubMed

    Tenand, Marianne

    2016-02-01

    Demographic ageing is often deemed responsible for the massive increase in health expenditures experienced by developed countries. As the elderly consume more medical care than the rest of the population, how could the increase in the share of the 60 + not lead to a marked expansion of healthcare public and private budgets? Despite its apparent logics, such reasoning is fallacious: it ignores that medical care consumption depends on many factors beyond age, which have tremendously evolved in the last decades and may change again in the future. Based on French stylized facts, this article provides an overview of the international literature that aimed at disentangling the respective roles of population ageing and of the non-demographic factors in explaining the dynamics of health expenditures. Paradoxically, technical medical progress has been a major contributor to the increase of healthcare spending. Results from economics research lead to qualify the impact of demographic trends and call for more attention to the public policies decisions that shape healthcare systems.

  2. [Healthcare expenditures growth: the red herring of demographic ageing?].

    PubMed

    Tenand, Marianne

    2016-02-01

    Demographic ageing is often deemed responsible for the massive increase in health expenditures experienced by developed countries. As the elderly consume more medical care than the rest of the population, how could the increase in the share of the 60 + not lead to a marked expansion of healthcare public and private budgets? Despite its apparent logics, such reasoning is fallacious: it ignores that medical care consumption depends on many factors beyond age, which have tremendously evolved in the last decades and may change again in the future. Based on French stylized facts, this article provides an overview of the international literature that aimed at disentangling the respective roles of population ageing and of the non-demographic factors in explaining the dynamics of health expenditures. Paradoxically, technical medical progress has been a major contributor to the increase of healthcare spending. Results from economics research lead to qualify the impact of demographic trends and call for more attention to the public policies decisions that shape healthcare systems. PMID:26936179

  3. Wine flavor and aroma.

    PubMed

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  4. Age and growth of the red tilefish, Branchiostegus japonicus in the northern East China Sea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Joon Taek; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Yeong Hye; Choi, Jung Hwa

    2008-07-01

    Age and growth of the red tilefish, Branchiostegus japonicus in the northern East China Sea were examined from right otoliths of 591 fish. Marginal increment analysis showed that annual ring formation occurs during the early winter months, supporting the hypothesis that one growth ring is deposited each year Growth of red filefish was expressed by von Bertalanffy's equation as TLt = 61.5[1 - exp{-0.150(t-0.312)}] for males and TLt = 50.6[1 - exp{-0.162 (t + 0.337)}] for females, where TLt is the total length in cm and t is age in years. It was found that females during the first 3 years grew larger than males, but after 3 years females were smaller than males. This phenomenon may be closely related to sexual maturity of red filefish.

  5. Classification and characterisation of Spanish red wines according to their appellation of origin based on chromatographic profiles and chemometric data analysis.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Lourido, Daniel; Saurina, Javier; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago; Checa, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Chromatographic profiles of wines have been used as a fingerprint for the discrimination of Spanish wines based on oenological practices. In order to extract information of different families of phenolic compounds, profiles of different UV-vis absorption wavelengths (280, 310, 370 and 520nm) and fluorescence (ex=260nm; em=360nm) were analysed. A total of thirteen phenolic compounds which allowed the discrimination of wines of three different Spanish appellations (Penedes, Rioja and Ribera del Duero) were selected by means of principal component analysis (PCA). Afterwards, these compounds were used to build partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS1-DA and PLS2-DA) models which allowed the discrimination of wines according to their appellation with classification rates for independent test sets higher than 96% and 93% for PLS1-DA and PLS2-DA models respectively. Finally, characteristic compounds of each appellation were tentatively identified by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Thus, ten out of thirteen compounds (i.e., gallic acid for Penedes, trans-coumaroyltartaric and trans-caffeoyltartaric acids for Rioja and myricetin for Ribera del Duero wines) have been proposed.

  6. Red iron-ore beds of Silurian age in northeastern Alabama, northwestern Georgia, and eastern Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitlow, Jesse W.

    1962-01-01

    Geological studies have determined the lithology and approximate extent of the red iron ores of Silurian age in the Southeast. Detailed investigations have been made by private companies and government agencies. Most of this work has been in the Birmingham, Ala., district, and the remainder of the region has relatively little study in recent years. 

  7. Red blood cell antioxidant enzymes in age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed Central

    De La Paz, M A; Zhang, J; Fridovich, I

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Oxidative damage has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (ARMD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether red blood cell antioxidant enzyme activity correlates with severity of aging maculopathy in affected individuals. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 54 patients with varying severity of aging maculopathy and 12 similarly aged individuals with normal ophthalmoscopic examination. Macular findings were graded according to a modification of the method described for the Age-Related Eye Disease Study. (AREDS). The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were measured in red blood cells. Haemoglobin content of whole blood was measured, and enzyme activity was determined per mg haemoglobin. RESULTS: Multiple regression analysis and ordinal logistic regression analysis were performed to determine whether antioxidant enzyme activity was associated with severity of ARMD. No significant association between disease severity of ARMD and antioxidant enzyme activity was identified for any of the enzymes. CONCLUSION: These results do not provide evidence for a relation between oxidative stress, as measured by antioxidant enzyme activity in red blood cells, and disease severity in ARMD. PMID:8695567

  8. Wine, alcohol and pills: What future for the French paradox?

    PubMed

    Biagi, Marco; Bertelli, Alberto A E

    2015-06-15

    The present review discusses the acquisitions obtained to date on the subject of wine consumption, health and cardiovascular protection. We distinguished the cardiovascular effects related to the consumption of wine and other alcoholic beverages focusing on non-alcoholic wine fraction: polyphenols and especially resveratrol. In the second part of the review we have addressed the issue of resveratrol bioavailability and the importance of wine matrix and phytocomplex highlighting the biological effects that can be obtained with nutraceuticals and resveratrol pills compared to the daily consumption of a glass of red wine.

  9. Fundamental Parameters of Nearby Red Dwarfs: Stellar Radius as an Indicator of Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Michele L.; Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Riedel, Adric R.; Dieterich, Sergio; RECONS Team

    2016-01-01

    Red dwarfs dominate the Galactic population, yet determining one of their most fundamental characteristics --- age --- has proven difficult. The characterization of red dwarfs in terms of their age is fundamental to mapping the history of star and, ultimately, planet formation in the Milky Way. Here we report on a compelling technique to evaluate the radii of red dwarfs, which can be used to provide leverage in estimating their ages. These radii are also particularly valuable in the cases of transiting exoplanet hosts because accurate stellar radii are required to determine accurate planetary radii.In this work, we use the BT-Settl models in combination with Johnson-Kron-Cousins VRI, 2MASS JHK, and WISE All-Sky Release photometry to produce spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to determine the temperatures and bolometric fluxes for 500 red dwarfs, most of which are in the southern sky. The full suites of our photometric and astrometric data (including hundreds of accurate new parallaxes from the RECONS team at the CTIO/SMARTS 0.9m) allow us to also determine the bolometric luminosities and radii. This method of radius determination is validated by a comparison of our measurements to those found using the CHARA Array (Boyajian et al. 2012), which match within a few percent.In addition to a compilation of red dwarf fundamental parameters, our findings provide a snapshot of relative stellar ages in the solar neighborhood. Of particular interest are the cohorts of very young and very old stars identified within 50 pc. These outliers exemplify the demographic extremes of the nearest stars.This effort has been supported by the NSF through grants AST-0908402, AST-1109445, and AST-1412026, and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  10. "It's your badge of inclusion": the Red Hat Society as a gendered subculture of aging.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne E; Pai, Manacy; Redmond, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    Although studies document the health-enhancing effects of social engagement, they reveal little about the underlying mechanisms operating within specific organizational contexts. Limited attention is given to the role of inequality--particularly age and gender--in shaping either the organizations to which we belong or their consequences for our well-being. We address this issue by examining the Red Hat Society, a social organization for middle-aged and older women. Interviews with members (n=52) illustrate how age and gender inequality interact to shape the organization, which can be viewed as a gendered subculture of aging. Drawing on this framework, we discuss four processes through which participation generates benefits for older women involved in age- and gender-segregated organizations: enhancing social networks, countering invisibility, creating positive frames for aging experiences, and promoting youthful identities.

  11. Validation of a mass spectrometry method to quantify oak ellagitannins in wine samples.

    PubMed

    García-Estévez, Ignacio; Escribano-Bailón, M Teresa; Rivas-Gonzalo, Julián C; Alcalde-Eon, Cristina

    2012-02-15

    Detection and individual quantification of oak wood ellagitannins in oak barrel aged red wine samples are difficult mainly due to their low levels and the similarity between their structures. In this work, a quantification method using mass spectrometry has been developed and validated to quantify wine ellagitannins after sample fractionation with a previously reported method. The use of an internal standard is a requirement to correct mass signal variability. (-)-Gallocatechin, among the different tested compounds, was the only one that proved to be a suitable internal standard making possible the accurate and individual quantification of the main oak wood ellagitannins. The developed methodology has been used to detect and quantify these ellagitannins in different Spanish commercial wines, proving its usefulness.

  12. Investigation of captive red wolf ejaculate characteristics in relation to age and inbreeding.

    PubMed

    Lockyear, K M; MacDonald, S E; Waddell, W T; Goodrowe, K L

    2016-09-15

    An evaluation of a large database of red wolf fresh ejaculate characteristics (n = 427 ejaculates from 64 wolves) was undertaken to increase knowledge of seminal characteristics in the red wolf and evaluate possible relationships between inbreeding, age, and seminal quality. Phase microscopy analysis of electroejaculates collected over 14 natural breeding seasons was compared with animal ages and inbreeding coefficients. Ejaculate volume increased and sperm concentration and total count decreased as wolves aged (P < 0.01, 0.001, and 0.05, respectively), and the proportion of sperm cell morphological abnormalities was greater in animals with higher coefficients of inbreeding (P < 0.001), particularly for older animals (P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean coefficient of inbreeding of animals that had failed to reproduce given at least one opportunity during their lifetimes was significantly greater than that of wolves with proven fertility, and wolves of proven fertility exhibited higher sperm concentrations and total counts than nonproven wolves. Thus, as the captive red wolf population becomes more inbred, the maximum age of reproduction is likely to decrease; an important finding to consider when projecting population dynamics and determining pairing recommendations. PMID:27283782

  13. Investigation of captive red wolf ejaculate characteristics in relation to age and inbreeding.

    PubMed

    Lockyear, K M; MacDonald, S E; Waddell, W T; Goodrowe, K L

    2016-09-15

    An evaluation of a large database of red wolf fresh ejaculate characteristics (n = 427 ejaculates from 64 wolves) was undertaken to increase knowledge of seminal characteristics in the red wolf and evaluate possible relationships between inbreeding, age, and seminal quality. Phase microscopy analysis of electroejaculates collected over 14 natural breeding seasons was compared with animal ages and inbreeding coefficients. Ejaculate volume increased and sperm concentration and total count decreased as wolves aged (P < 0.01, 0.001, and 0.05, respectively), and the proportion of sperm cell morphological abnormalities was greater in animals with higher coefficients of inbreeding (P < 0.001), particularly for older animals (P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean coefficient of inbreeding of animals that had failed to reproduce given at least one opportunity during their lifetimes was significantly greater than that of wolves with proven fertility, and wolves of proven fertility exhibited higher sperm concentrations and total counts than nonproven wolves. Thus, as the captive red wolf population becomes more inbred, the maximum age of reproduction is likely to decrease; an important finding to consider when projecting population dynamics and determining pairing recommendations.

  14. Wine and tobacco: risk factors for gastric cancer in France.

    PubMed

    Hoey, J; Montvernay, C; Lambert, R

    1981-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies in France have shown strong regional correlations between death rates from alcohol related diseases and death rates from gastric cancer. The present study involved 40 cases of newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the stomach and 168 control subjects with one of four other gastrointestinal diagnoses selected from the same hospital service during the same time period, 1978-1980. On the basis of a standard nutritional interview alcohol and particularly red wine were seen to be significant risk factors for this cancer (relative risks of 6.9 with 95% confidence limits (CL) of 3.3-14.3 for alcohol and 6.3 with CL 3.1-12.7 for wine). Smoking of one or more cigarettes per day was associated with a relative risk for gastric cancer of 4.8 with CL of 1.6-14.8. The presence of both risk factors was associated with a relative risk of 9.3 with 95% CL of 4.6-19.0. Possible confounding by age, smoking, and eating lettuce (a reported protective factor for gastric cancer in other studies) did not explain these results. The relative risks were consistently found and remained significant when each diagnostic group of control subjects was analyzed separately. These results suggest that alcohol, and particularly red wine, may be important risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the stomach in France. In addition, cigarette smoking, a risk factor in itself, when coupled with alcohol appears markedly to increase the risk.

  15. Talking About Wine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Adrienne

    1975-01-01

    A structural analysis of the wine vocabulary used by wine experts is given. Experiments involving typical wine drinkers show that there is little consensus in how the words are applied to wine. Communication tasks show that the sender and receiver of messages about wine perform little better than chance. (Author/RM)

  16. The "Red Lady" ages gracefully: new ultrafiltration AMS determinations from Paviland.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, R M; Higham, T F G

    2008-11-01

    The "Red Lady" partial human skeleton found at Goat's Hole, Paviland, in south Wales by William Buckland in 1823 is one of the iconic relics of the British Paleolithic. Originally thought to be Roman, a Paleolithic age has been suspected from the middle of the 19th century. Several attempts have been made at directly radiocarbon dating the "Red Lady," and here we report new determinations that suggest that it is, by a significant margin, the oldest of a group of 'rich,' Mid-Upper Paleolithic burials. We list similar Gravettian-aged burials from Europe, which have been dated recently for comparison. In this paper, we also reconsider the chronology of human use of the cave, apart from as a burial location.

  17. Influence of Dietary Capsaicin on Redox Status in Red Blood Cells During Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prabhanshu; Chand, Subhash; Chandra, Pranjal; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a major pungent compound found in hot peppers of the plant genus Capsicum. In vitro effects of dietary capsaicin on redox status in red blood cells during human aging have been explored. Methods: Total antioxidant potential of capsaicin was evaluated using Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. GSH was measured as per standard protocol. The in vitro effect of capsaicin was evaluated by incubation of the cells in the assay medium with 10-5M capsaicin (final concentration) for 60 min at 37°C. Results: Treatment with capsaicin (10-5M) caused a significant (p < 0.01) increase in GSH level in all age groups. Reduced glutathione (GSH) / Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio measures the redox status of the red blood cell. Significant increase in GSH level due to capsaicin, shift the GSH/GSSG ratio, thus alters the redox status of the cell. Conclusion: The results conclusively prove the efficacy of the antioxidant property of capsaicin and its role in modulating the redox status of red blood cells. This evidence suggests that dietary factors that act as antioxidants to increase GSH level may contribute to a protective effect against age related diseases. This antioxidant effect may, in part, explain the high consumption of capsicum in certain regions of the world. PMID:26819932

  18. Functional Properties of Grape and Wine Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Giovinazzo, Giovanna; Grieco, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Grape berries polyphenols are mainly synthesized in the skin tissues and seeds and they are extracted during the winemaking process. These substances have a potentially positive effect, on human health, thus giving to grape and red wine "functional properties" that can contribute to prevent a number of human illness. Nevertheless, the research community is showing that the real effect is a result of a combination of different factors, notably daily intake, bioavailability, or in vivo antioxidant activity that are yet to be resolved. Viticulture and winemaking practices, determine the concentration of polyphenols in grape and wine. To date, reduced knowledge is existing on the effects of different yeast strains on the final concentration of polyphenols in red wine. We summarize the recent findings concerning the effects of polyphenols on human chronic disease and the future directions for research to increase the amount of these compounds in wine.

  19. Wine and heart health

    MedlinePlus

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and liver. ...

  20. Port-Wine Stain

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Port-Wine Stain A parent's guide for infants and babies ... a three-month-old infant with a port-wine stain. Overview A port-wine stain is a ...

  1. Red giant masses and ages derived from carbon and nitrogen abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martig, Marie; Fouesneau, Morgan; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ness, Melissa; Mészáros, Szabolcs; García-Hernández, D. A.; Pinsonneault, Marc; Serenelli, Aldo; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Zamora, Olga

    2016-03-01

    We show that the masses of red giant stars can be well predicted from their photospheric carbon and nitrogen abundances, in conjunction with their spectroscopic stellar labels log g, Teff, and [Fe/H]. This is qualitatively expected from mass-dependent post-main-sequence evolution. We here establish an empirical relation between these quantities by drawing on 1475 red giants with asteroseismic mass estimates from Kepler that also have spectroscopic labels from Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) DR12. We assess the accuracy of our model, and find that it predicts stellar masses with fractional rms errors of about 14 per cent (typically 0.2 M⊙). From these masses, we derive ages with rms errors of 40 per cent. This empirical model allows us for the first time to make age determinations (in the range 1-13 Gyr) for vast numbers of giant stars across the Galaxy. We apply our model to ˜52 000 stars in APOGEE DR12, for which no direct mass and age information was previously available. We find that these estimates highlight the vertical age structure of the Milky Way disc, and that the relation of age with [α/M] and metallicity is broadly consistent with established expectations based on detailed studies of the solar neighbourhood.

  2. Use of polyaspartate as inhibitor of tartaric precipitations in wines.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Antonella; Panero, Loretta; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Sollazzo, Marco; Asproudi, Andriani; Motta, Silvia; Guaita, Massimo

    2015-10-15

    All additives used to stabilize wines against the precipitations of potassium bitartrate have some limits: metatartaric acid (MTA) is effective but very unstable, carboxymethylcellulose is stable and effective in white wines but affects color stability in red wines, mannoproteins have a variable effectiveness depending on wine composition. This work was aimed at testing the effect of new stabilizing products on tartaric precipitations, focusing on the use of Na and K polyaspartate salts (PASPs). The effectiveness of 4 different PASPs and 1 MTA added to red and white wines was compared using the mini-contact test and cold test. The dose effect and the stability of the products over time were also studied. The PASPs showed a similar stabilizing effect and a longer stability over time compared to MTA. PASPs can be considered interesting as additives for wine tartaric stabilization. Further work is in progress to better characterize their enological properties.

  3. [The wine from Champagne during the Empire].

    PubMed

    Demouy, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    After the revolutionary upheavals (dispersal of the big properties of privileged persons and abolition of many rights) and a fold on the local market, the vine growing in Champagne found a new balance due to good grape harvests between 1804 and 1814 and due to the territorial expansion. Without supplanting the red wines, the sparkling white wines conquered a new foreign clientele. After the fall of the Eagle the traders rushed to the new markets offered by peace.

  4. Single and repeated moderate consumption of native or dealcoholized red wine show different effects on antioxidant parameters in blood and DNA strand breaks in peripheral leukocytes in healthy volunteers: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN68505294

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Bianca M; Ellinger, Sabine; Kekic, Klaudia; Geus, Leonie; Fimmers, Rolf; Spengler, Ulrich; Müller, Wolfgang-Ulrich; Goerlich, Roland

    2005-01-01

    Background Red wine (RW) is rich in antioxidant polyphenols that might protect from oxidative stress related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Antioxidant effects after single ingestion of RW or dealcoholized RW (DRW) have been observed in several studies, but results after regular consumption are contradictory. Thus, we examined if single or repeated consumption of moderate amounts of RW or DRW exert antioxidant activity in vivo. Methods Total phenolic content and concentration of other antioxidants in plasma/serum, total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in plasma as well as DNA strand breaks in peripheral leukocytes were measured in healthy non-smokers A) before, 90 and 360 min after ingestion of one glass of RW, DRW or water; B) before and after consumption of one glass of RW or DRW daily for 6 weeks. DNA strand breaks (SB) were determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet Assay) in untreated cells and after induction of oxidative stress ex vivo with H2O2 (300 μM, 20 min). Results Both RW and DRW transiently increased total phenolic content in plasma after single consumption, but only RW lead to a sustained increase if consumed regularly. Plasma antioxidant capacity was not affected by single or regular consumption of RW or DRW. Effects of RW and DRW on DNA SB were conflicting. DNA strand breaks in untreated cells increased after a single dose of RW and DRW, whereas H2O2 induced SB were reduced after DRW. In contrast, regular RW consumption reduced SB in untreated cells but did not affect H2O2 induced SB. Conclusion The results suggest that consumption of both RW and DRW leads to an accumulation of phenolic compounds in plasma without increasing plasma antioxidant capacity. Red wine and DRW seem to affect the occurrence of DNA strand breaks, but this cannot be referred to antioxidant effects. PMID:16287499

  5. Determination of 2-Aminoacetophenone in wine by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Horlacher, Nora; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    2-Aminoacetophenone (AAP) is closely correlated with the appearance of the sensory phenomenon of UTA ("untypical aging off-flavor") in wine. AAP analyses are generally performed by gas chromatography and mass selective detection (GC/MS), when AAP is extracted from wines by liquid-liquid, solid-liquid or solid phase microextraction. Here we present a rapid, selective and sensitive method for the determination of AAP in wine by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD). As internal standard, 2-amino-4-methoxyacetophenone was used. Liquid-liquid extraction with t-butyl methyl ether was followed by a basic cleanup of the extracts, which were applied onto HPTLC amino plates developed with methylene chloride/toluene (7+3, v/v) as mobile phase. Dipping the dried plate into hexane-paraffin solution enhanced fluorescence that was scanned at 366/>400nm. Limits of detection and quantitation were determined to be 0.1 and 0.3μgL(-1) wine, respectively, while only AAP concentrations >0.5μgL(-1) result in UTA. Recoveries were near 100% for model, white, rosé and red wines. Thus, the HPTLC-FLD method enables the analysis of AAP in wines clearly below the odor thresholds and represents a rapid and convenient screening alternative to existing GC/MS methods.

  6. Determination of 2-Aminoacetophenone in wine by high-performance thin-layer chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Horlacher, Nora; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2016-02-01

    2-Aminoacetophenone (AAP) is closely correlated with the appearance of the sensory phenomenon of UTA ("untypical aging off-flavor") in wine. AAP analyses are generally performed by gas chromatography and mass selective detection (GC/MS), when AAP is extracted from wines by liquid-liquid, solid-liquid or solid phase microextraction. Here we present a rapid, selective and sensitive method for the determination of AAP in wine by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPTLC-FLD). As internal standard, 2-amino-4-methoxyacetophenone was used. Liquid-liquid extraction with t-butyl methyl ether was followed by a basic cleanup of the extracts, which were applied onto HPTLC amino plates developed with methylene chloride/toluene (7+3, v/v) as mobile phase. Dipping the dried plate into hexane-paraffin solution enhanced fluorescence that was scanned at 366/>400nm. Limits of detection and quantitation were determined to be 0.1 and 0.3μgL(-1) wine, respectively, while only AAP concentrations >0.5μgL(-1) result in UTA. Recoveries were near 100% for model, white, rosé and red wines. Thus, the HPTLC-FLD method enables the analysis of AAP in wines clearly below the odor thresholds and represents a rapid and convenient screening alternative to existing GC/MS methods. PMID:26777086

  7. Red Dwarf Stars: Ages, Rotation, Magnetic Dynamo Activity and the Habitability of Hosted Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, S. G.; Guinan, E. F.

    2011-12-01

    We report on our continued efforts to understand and delineate the magnetic dynamo-induced behavior/variability of red dwarf (K5 V - M6 V) stars over their long lifetimes. These properties include: rotation, light variations (from star spots), coronal-chromospheric XUV activity and flares. This study is being carried out as part of the NSF-sponsored Living with a Red Dwarf program. The Living with a Red Dwarf program's database of dM stars with photometrically determined rotation rates (from starspot modulations) continues to expand, as does the inventory of archival XUV observations. Recently, the photometric properties of several hundred dM stars from the Kepler database are being analyzed to determine the rotation rates, starspot areal coverage/distributions and stellar flare rates. When all data setsare combined with ages from cluster/population memberships and kinematics, the determination of Age-Rotation-Activity relationships is possible. Such relationships have broad impacts not only on the studies of magnetic dynamo theory and angular momentum loss of low-mass stars with deep convective zones, but also on the suitability of planets hosted by red dwarfs to support life. With intrinsically low luminosities (L< 0.02L⊙), the liquid water habitable zones (HZs) for hosted planets are very close to their host stars - typically at ˜0.1 AU < HZ < 0.4 AU. Planets located close to their host stars risk damage and atmospheric loss from coronal & chromospheric XUV radiation, flares and plasma blasts via strong winds and coronal mass ejections. In addition, our relationships permit the stellar ages to be determined through measures of either the stars' rotation periods (best way) or XUV activity levels. This also permits a determination of the ages of their hosted planets. We illustrate this with examples of age determinations of the exoplanet systems: GJ 581 and HD 85512 (both with large Earth-size planets within the host star's HZ), GJ 1214 (hot, close

  8. Age of red blood cells and mortality in the critically ill

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In critically ill patients, it is uncertain whether exposure to older red blood cells (RBCs) may contribute to mortality. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between the age of RBCs and outcome in a large unselected cohort of critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand. We hypothesized that exposure to even a single unit of older RBCs may be associated with an increased risk of death. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational study in 47 ICUs during a 5-week period between August 2008 and September 2008. We included 757 critically ill adult patients receiving at least one unit of RBCs. To test our hypothesis we compared hospital mortality according to quartiles of exposure to maximum age of RBCs without and with adjustment for possible confounding factors. Results Compared with other quartiles (mean maximum red cell age 22.7 days; mortality 121/568 (21.3%)), patients treated with exposure to the lowest quartile of oldest RBCs (mean maximum red cell age 7.7 days; hospital mortality 25/189 (13.2%)) had an unadjusted absolute risk reduction in hospital mortality of 8.1% (95% confidence interval = 2.2 to 14.0%). After adjustment for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, other blood component transfusions, number of RBC transfusions, pretransfusion hemoglobin concentration, and cardiac surgery, the odds ratio for hospital mortality for patients exposed to the older three quartiles compared with the lowest quartile was 2.01 (95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 3.77). Conclusions In critically ill patients, in Australia and New Zealand, exposure to older RBCs is independently associated with an increased risk of death. PMID:21496231

  9. Contribution of anthocyanin fraction to the antioxidant properties of wine.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Pérez, M D; Muñiz, P; González-Sanjosé, M L

    2008-08-01

    The wine is a beverage with an important antioxidant efficiency which is attributed to their bioactives compounds, especially polyphenols. The anthocyanins are the main phenolic compounds of red wine and its consumption has been partially related with the "French Paradox". The aim of the present work was to evaluate the contribution of the anthocyanins to the antioxidant properties of red wines. So, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), hydroxyl and superoxide scavenger activity and lipid peroxidation of 80 Spanish red wines and their anthocyanins fractions have been assessed for ABTS, DPPH, DMPD, and FRAP methods, hydroxyl radical (HRSA), superoxide radical scavenger activity (SRSA) and ABAP-lipid peroxidation (ABAP-LP). The results showed that free anthocyanins fraction are main responsible of the total antioxidant capacity of red wines correlated with electron transference processes. In similar way, free anthocyanins are the maximum responsible of HRSA scavenger activity of red wines, contributing less extensively to their SRSA capacity or to their protective action on lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, simple anthocyanins exert a low action in TAC process involved with proton transference. Glycosilated and methoxylic anthocyanins as malvidin-3-glucoside, seem to be the type of anthocyanins with higher participation on the antioxidant effect of red wine.

  10. Identification of compounds in wine by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Lucio; Buiarelli, Francesca; Coccioli, Franco; Jasionowska, Renata

    2004-01-01

    In this work several compounds were detected in wines by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. In particular cinnamic and benzoic acids, tyrosol, apigenin-7-glucoside and luteolin-7-glucoside were identified and quantified in Italian wines. Red wines show bigger amount of cinnamic and benzoic acids than white wines. tyrosol is in bigger amount with respect to two flavones: luteolin-7-glucoside and apigenin-7-glucoside. These last two flavones are only in some wine, but it can be important to detect the presence of different substances in small amount to be able to characterize a wine.

  11. Identification of compounds in wine by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Lucio; Buiarelli, Francesca; Coccioli, Franco; Jasionowska, Renata

    2004-01-01

    In this work several compounds were detected in wines by HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. In particular cinnamic and benzoic acids, tyrosol, apigenin-7-glucoside and luteolin-7-glucoside were identified and quantified in Italian wines. Red wines show bigger amount of cinnamic and benzoic acids than white wines. tyrosol is in bigger amount with respect to two flavones: luteolin-7-glucoside and apigenin-7-glucoside. These last two flavones are only in some wine, but it can be important to detect the presence of different substances in small amount to be able to characterize a wine. PMID:15506618

  12. Quantitation of ochratoxin A in South African wines.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Gordon S; Fabiani, Alessandra; Stockenström, Sonja; Mshicileli, Ndumiso; Sewram, Vikash

    2003-02-12

    The natural occurrence of the carcinogenic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) in wines sold in local retail outlets in South Africa and Italy was investigated by HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection following cleanup by immunoaffinity column. All 24 local South African wines tested (15 white and 9 red) were found to contain detectable levels (>0.01 microg/L) of OTA, with a mean of 0.16 microg/L in the white wines and a mean of 0.24 microg/L in the red wines. Results were subsequently confirmed by LC-MS analysis using positive ion electrospray ionization with collision-induced dissociation of the protonated molecular ion [M + H](+) at m/z 404 and selected reaction monitoring of the resultant product ions [M + H - H(2)O - CO](+) at m/z 358 and [M + H - H(2)O](+) at m/z 386. Comparison with the fluorescence method gave a significant correlation (r = 0.87; p < 0.01). Although OTA contamination was present in all of the South African samples analyzed, levels were well below the suggested European Union limit of 0.5 microg/kg. The highest level found in a locally purchased wine was 0.39 microg/L in a blend of local and imported Spanish red wine. Of the eight Italian wines analyzed, only two red wines were contaminated above the suggested maximum level.

  13. Asteroseismology of red giants: From analysing light curves to estimating ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. R.; Miglio, A.

    2016-09-01

    Asteroseismology has started to provide constraints on stellar properties that will be essential to accurately reconstruct the history of the Milky Way. Here we look at the information content in data sets representing current and future space missions (CoRoT, Kepler, K2, TESS, and PLATO) for red giant stars. We describe techniques for extracting the information in the frequency power spectrum and apply these techniques to Kepler data sets of different observing length to represent the different space missions. We demonstrate that for KIC 12008916, a low-luminosity red giant branch star, we can extract useful information from all data sets, and for all but the shortest data set we obtain good constraint on the g-mode period spacing and core rotation rates. We discuss how the high precision in these parameters will constrain the stellar properties of stellar radius, distance, mass and age. We show that high precision can be achieved in mass and hence age when values of the g-mode period spacing are available. We caution that tests to establish the accuracy of asteroseismic masses and ages are still ``work in progress''.

  14. Tears of Wine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugliotti, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    The unique occurrence of the upward motion of a thin film of wine, and its formation into drops inside the wall of a wine glass is explained. Evaporation of alcohol generates a surface tension gradient, moving the film of wine upwards on the internal sides of a wine glass, where it collects and forms into drops or tears.

  15. Age of red blood cells and outcome in acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) and, in particular, older RBCs has been associated with increased short-term mortality in critically ill patients. We evaluated the association between age of transfused RBCs and acute kidney injury (AKI), hospital, and 90-day mortality in critically ill patients. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational, predefined sub-study within the FINNish Acute Kidney Injury (FINNAKI) study. This study included all elective ICU admissions with expected ICU stay of more than 24 hours and all emergency admissions from September to November 2011. To study the age of RBCs, we classified transfused patients into quartiles according to the age of oldest transfused RBC unit in the ICU. AKI was defined according to KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) criteria. Results Out of 1798 patients, 652 received at least one RBC unit. The median [interquartile range] age of the oldest RBC unit transfused was 12 [11-13] days in the freshest quartile and 21 [17-27] days in the quartiles 2 to 4. On logistic regression, RBC age was not associated with the development of KDIGO stage 3 AKI. Patients in the quartile of freshest RBCs had lower crude hospital and 90-day mortality rates compared to those in the quartiles of older blood. After adjustments, older RBC age was associated with significantly increased risk for hospital mortality. Age, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II)-score without age points, maximum Sequental Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and the total number of transfused RBC units were independently associated with 90-day mortality. Conclusions The age of transfused RBC units was independently associated with hospital mortality but not with 90-day mortality or KDIGO stage 3 AKI. The number of transfused RBC units was an independent risk factor for 90-day mortality. PMID:24093554

  16. Interactions of grape tannins and wine polyphenols with a yeast protein extract, mannoproteins and β-glucan.

    PubMed

    Mekoue Nguela, J; Poncet-Legrand, C; Sieczkowski, N; Vernhet, A

    2016-11-01

    At present, there is a great interest in enology for yeast derived products to replace aging on lees in winemaking or as an alternative for wine fining. These are yeast protein extracts (YPE), cell walls and mannoproteins. Our aim was to further understand the mechanisms that drive interactions between these components and red wine polyphenols. To this end, interactions between grape skin tannins or wine polyphenols or tannins and a YPE, a mannoprotein fraction and a β-glucan were monitored by binding experiments, ITC and DLS. Depending on the tannin structure, a different affinity between the polyphenols and the YPE was observed, as well as differences in the stability of the aggregates. This was attributed to the mean degree of polymerization of tannins in the polyphenol fractions and to chemical changes that occur during winemaking. Much lower affinities were found between polyphenols and polysaccharides, with different behaviors between mannoproteins and β-glucans.

  17. Interactions of grape tannins and wine polyphenols with a yeast protein extract, mannoproteins and β-glucan.

    PubMed

    Mekoue Nguela, J; Poncet-Legrand, C; Sieczkowski, N; Vernhet, A

    2016-11-01

    At present, there is a great interest in enology for yeast derived products to replace aging on lees in winemaking or as an alternative for wine fining. These are yeast protein extracts (YPE), cell walls and mannoproteins. Our aim was to further understand the mechanisms that drive interactions between these components and red wine polyphenols. To this end, interactions between grape skin tannins or wine polyphenols or tannins and a YPE, a mannoprotein fraction and a β-glucan were monitored by binding experiments, ITC and DLS. Depending on the tannin structure, a different affinity between the polyphenols and the YPE was observed, as well as differences in the stability of the aggregates. This was attributed to the mean degree of polymerization of tannins in the polyphenol fractions and to chemical changes that occur during winemaking. Much lower affinities were found between polyphenols and polysaccharides, with different behaviors between mannoproteins and β-glucans. PMID:27211695

  18. Endogenous nitrogen excretion by red kangaroos (Macropus rufus): effects of animal age and forage quality.

    PubMed

    Munn, Adam J; Dawson, Terence J; Hume, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) are large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupials common to arid and semiarid Australia. The population dynamics of red kangaroos are linked with environmental factors, operating largely through juvenile survival. A crucial period is the young-at-foot (YAF) stage, when juveniles have permanently left the mother's pouch but still take milk from a teat in the pouch. Forage quantity and quality have been implicated in drought-related mortalities of juvenile kangaroos. Here we compared how forage quality affected nitrogen (N) intake and excretion by YAF, weaned, and mature, nonlactating female red kangaroos. On high-quality forage (chopped lucerne hay, Medicago sativa) low in neutral-detergent fiber (43%+/-1%) and high in N (2.9%+/-0.1%), YAF and weaned kangaroos had ideal growth rates and retained 460-570 mg dietary N kg(-0.75) d(-1). But on poor-quality forage (chopped oaten hay, Avena sativa) high in neutral-detergent fiber (64%+/-1%) and low in N (0.9%+/-0.1%), YAF and weaned kangaroos could not sustain growth and were in negative N balance at -103+/-26 mg and -57+/-31 mg N kg(-0.75) d(-1), respectively. Notably, the YAF kangaroos excreted 64% of their truly digestible N intake from forage as nondietary fecal N (NDFN). By weaning age, the situation had improved, but the juveniles still lost 40% of their truly digestible N intake as NDFN compared with only 30% by the mature females. Our findings support field observations that forage quality, and not just quantity, is a major factor affecting the mortality of juvenile red kangaroos during drought. PMID:16555200

  19. Endogenous nitrogen excretion by red kangaroos (Macropus rufus): effects of animal age and forage quality.

    PubMed

    Munn, Adam J; Dawson, Terence J; Hume, Ian D

    2006-01-01

    Red kangaroos (Macropus rufus) are large (>20 kg) herbivorous marsupials common to arid and semiarid Australia. The population dynamics of red kangaroos are linked with environmental factors, operating largely through juvenile survival. A crucial period is the young-at-foot (YAF) stage, when juveniles have permanently left the mother's pouch but still take milk from a teat in the pouch. Forage quantity and quality have been implicated in drought-related mortalities of juvenile kangaroos. Here we compared how forage quality affected nitrogen (N) intake and excretion by YAF, weaned, and mature, nonlactating female red kangaroos. On high-quality forage (chopped lucerne hay, Medicago sativa) low in neutral-detergent fiber (43%+/-1%) and high in N (2.9%+/-0.1%), YAF and weaned kangaroos had ideal growth rates and retained 460-570 mg dietary N kg(-0.75) d(-1). But on poor-quality forage (chopped oaten hay, Avena sativa) high in neutral-detergent fiber (64%+/-1%) and low in N (0.9%+/-0.1%), YAF and weaned kangaroos could not sustain growth and were in negative N balance at -103+/-26 mg and -57+/-31 mg N kg(-0.75) d(-1), respectively. Notably, the YAF kangaroos excreted 64% of their truly digestible N intake from forage as nondietary fecal N (NDFN). By weaning age, the situation had improved, but the juveniles still lost 40% of their truly digestible N intake as NDFN compared with only 30% by the mature females. Our findings support field observations that forage quality, and not just quantity, is a major factor affecting the mortality of juvenile red kangaroos during drought.

  20. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in fruit wines from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry in central Shaanxi area

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yiming; Liu, Min; Ouyang, Yanan; Zhao, Xianfang; Ju, Yanlun; Fang, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    Background Although grape wines have firmly dominated the production and consumption markets of fruit wines, raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry have been utilized to make wines because of their joyful aroma and high contents of polyphenolic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids. However, little is known about aromatic compounds of the wines produced from these three fruits. Methods The aromatic composition of fruit wines produced from raspberry, strawberry, mulberry, and red grape was analyzed by GC-MS. Odor activity values (OAVs) and relative odor contributions (ROCs) were used to estimate the sensory contribution of the aromatic compounds to the overall flavor of the wines. Results In strawberry, raspberry, and mulberry wines, 27, 30, and 31 odorants were detected, respectively. Alcohols formed the most abundant group, followed by esters and acids. The grape wine contained a wider variety (16 types) of alcohols, and 4-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-butanediol were not present in the three fruit wines. The quantity of esters in raspberry (1.54%) and mulberry wines (2.08%) were higher than those of strawberry wine (0.78%), and mulberry wine contained more types of esters. There were no significant differences of acids between the three fruit wines and the control wine. In addition, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone were unique to raspberry wine, and nonanal was present only in mulberry wine. The indistinguishable aroma of the three fruit wines was attributed to the dominance of fruity and floral odor components derived from ethyl esters of fatty acids and their contributions to the global aroma of the three fruit wines. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that there were significant differences in the volatile components of fruit wines made from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry. The aroma compounds were more abundant in the raspberry and mulberry wines than in the strawberry wine, but the quality of strawberry wine was superior to

  1. Red ginseng delays age-related hearing and vestibular dysfunction in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunjie; Kim, Yeon Ju; Lim, Hye Jin; Kim, Young Sun; Park, Hun Yi; Choung, Yun-Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Since Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been proven to protect against gentamicin-induced vestibular and hearing dysfunction, the effects of KRG on age-related inner ear disorder in C57BL/6 mice were investigated. While age-related hearing loss was detected at the age of 6months (32kHz) and 9months (16kHz) in the control group, it was significantly delayed (p<0.05) in the 150mg/kg KRG-treated group. Vestibular dysfunction was observed in the tail-hanging and swimming tests, with significantly different severity scores and swimming times detected between the control and 150mg/kg KRG-treated group at the age of 12months (p<0.05). Mice treated with 500mg/kg KRG exhibited irritability and aggravated inner ear dysfunction. Histological observation supported the findings of hearing and vestibular function defects. In conclusion, C57BL/6 mice showed early-onset hearing loss and progressive vestibular dysfunction with aging, which were delayed by treatment with 150mg/kg KRG. However, 500mg/kg KRG treatment may induce aggressive behavior. PMID:24952098

  2. Human red blood cell aging: correlative changes in surface charge and cell properties.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Xiong; Wu, Zheng-Jie; Mehrishi, Jitendra; Huang, Bao-Tian; Chen, Xing-Yao; Zheng, Xin-Jing; Liu, Wen-Jing; Luo, Man

    2011-12-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) during microcirculation, aging and storage, lose N-acetylneuraminic acid (NANA) and other biomaterials thereby altering cell structures, some properties and functions. Such cell damage very likely underlies the serious adverse effects of blood transfusion. However, a controversy has remained since 1961-1977 as to whether with aging, the RBCs, suffering loss of NANA, do have a decreased charge density. Any correlation between the changes in the cell properties with cell aging is also not clear. Therefore, to remove the ambiguity and uncertainty, we carried out multiparameteric studies on Percoll fractions of blood of 38 volunteers (lightest-young-Y-RBCs, densest-old-O-RBCs, two middle fractions).We found that there were striking differences between the properties of Y-RBCs and O-RBCs. The ζ-potential of Y-RBCs decreased gradually with aging. Studies in parallel on RBC fractions incubated with both positively charged quantum dots and Sambucus Nigra-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) along with their ζ-potentials provide for the first time direct visual evidence about the lesser amount of charge density and NANA on O-RBCs, and a collinear decrease in their respective ζ-potentials. Close correlation was found between the surface charge on an aging RBC and its structure and functions, from the cell morphology, the membrane deformability to the intracellular Hb structure and oxidation ability. This quantitative approach not only clarifies the picture but also has implications in biology and medicine.

  3. Chronocoulometry of wine on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrode: Antioxidant capacity assay.

    PubMed

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel; Kozlova, Ekaterina; Budnikov, Herman

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic antioxidants of wine were electrochemically oxidized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWNT/GCE) in phosphate buffer solution. Three oxidation peaks were observed at 0.39, 0.61 and 0.83V for red dry wine and 0.39, 0.80 and 1.18 V for white dry wine, respectively, using differential pulse voltammetry at pH 4.0. The oxidation potentials for individual phenolic antioxidants confirmed the integral nature of the analytical signals for the wines examined. A one-step chronocoulometric method at 0.83 and 1.18 V for red and white wines, respectively, has been developed for the evaluation of wine antioxidant capacity (AOC). The AOC is expressed in gallic acid equivalents per 1L of wine. The AOC of white wine was significantly less than red wine (386 ± 112 vs. 1224 ± 184, p<0.0001), as might be expected. Positive correlations were observed between gallic acid equivalent AOC of wine and total antioxidant capacity, based on coulometric titration with electrogenerated bromine (r=0.8957 at n=5 and r=0.8986 at n=4 for red and white wines, respectively).

  4. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., vinegar, nonbeverage cooking wine. (b) Salted wine. Salted wine is a wine or wine product not for beverage... salt per 100 milliliter of wine. (12.5 pounds of salt/100 gallons of wine.) (c) Vinegar. Vinegar is...

  5. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., vinegar, nonbeverage cooking wine. (b) Salted wine. Salted wine is a wine or wine product not for beverage... salt per 100 milliliter of wine. (12.5 pounds of salt/100 gallons of wine.) (c) Vinegar. Vinegar is...

  6. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., vinegar, nonbeverage cooking wine. (b) Salted wine. Salted wine is a wine or wine product not for beverage... salt per 100 milliliter of wine. (12.5 pounds of salt/100 gallons of wine.) (c) Vinegar. Vinegar is...

  7. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., vinegar, nonbeverage cooking wine. (b) Salted wine. Salted wine is a wine or wine product not for beverage... salt per 100 milliliter of wine. (12.5 pounds of salt/100 gallons of wine.) (c) Vinegar. Vinegar is...

  8. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., vinegar, nonbeverage cooking wine. (b) Salted wine. Salted wine is a wine or wine product not for beverage... salt per 100 milliliter of wine. (12.5 pounds of salt/100 gallons of wine.) (c) Vinegar. Vinegar is...

  9. Preferential phagocytosis of in vivo aged murine red blood cells by a macrophage-like cell line.

    PubMed

    Walker, W S; Singer, J A; Morrison, M; Jackson, C W

    1984-10-01

    The ability of an established line of mouse macrophages (IC-21) to ingest red blood cells (RBC) aged in vivo was assessed. RBC populations of increasing age were prepared in mice by serial hypertransfusion, a procedure that inhibits erythropoiesis. Mouse RBC with a mean age of about 58 d (normal RBC life span, 60 d) had a circulating half-life of less than 1 d when transfused into normal mice. IC-21 macrophages ingested the in vivo aged RBC in preference to RBC from normal mice (mean RBC age, 30 d). RBC isolated from mice 10 d after being released from one red blood cell lifespan (60 d) of inhibited erythropoiesis (mean RBC age 5 d) were ingested significantly less than RBC from normal mice. The IC-21 macrophage line used with in vivo aged RBC affords a highly defined model system for identifying the mechanism(s) of macrophage-mediated homeostasis. PMID:6477835

  10. Age- and density-dependent reproductive effort in male red deer.

    PubMed Central

    Yoccoz, Nigel G; Mysterud, Atle; Langvatn, Rolf; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2002-01-01

    Reproductive effort in female ungulates originates from gestation and lactation and has been studied extensively; however, no comparable studies of reproductive effort in males (due to fighting for access to mates) have, to our knowledge, previously been reported. Here, we report on weight loss of male red deer during the annual mating season--a direct measure of male reproductive effort (or somatic reproductive costs). The 'terminal investment' hypothesis predicts that reproductive effort should increase with age, given that costs remain stable. We also propose the 'mating strategy-effort' hypothesis, which predicts that reproductive effort peaks in prime-aged males, since they are most often the harem holders. Consistent with the mating strategy-effort hypothesis, relative weight loss during the rutting season peaked at prime age and was lower in younger and senescent males. Weight loss during the rut was relatively smaller as density increased and more so for older males. This is probably primarily due to males (particularly senescent males) starting their rut in poorer condition at high density. The pattern of reproductive effort in males with regard to age and density therefore differs markedly from the pattern reported for females. PMID:12184820

  11. Age, allocation and availability of nonstructural carbon in mature red maple trees.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Mariah S; Czimczik, Claudia I; Keenan, Trevor F; Murakami, Paula F; Pederson, Neil; Schaberg, Paul G; Xu, Xiaomei; Richardson, Andrew D

    2013-12-01

    The allocation of nonstructural carbon (NSC) to growth, metabolism and storage remains poorly understood, but is critical for the prediction of stress tolerance and mortality. We used the radiocarbon ((14) C) 'bomb spike' as a tracer of substrate and age of carbon in stemwood NSC, CO2 emitted by stems, tree ring cellulose and stump sprouts regenerated following harvesting in mature red maple trees. We addressed the following questions: which factors influence the age of stemwood NSC?; to what extent is stored vs new NSC used for metabolism and growth?; and, is older, stored NSC available for use? The mean age of extracted stemwood NSC was 10 yr. More vigorous trees had both larger and younger stemwood NSC pools. NSC used to support metabolism (stem CO2 ) was 1-2 yr old in spring before leaves emerged, but reflected current-year photosynthetic products in late summer. The tree ring cellulose (14) C age was 0.9 yr older than direct ring counts. Stump sprouts were formed from NSC up to 17 yr old. Thus, younger NSC is preferentially used for growth and day-to-day metabolic demands. More recently stored NSC contributes to annual ring growth and metabolism in the dormant season, yet decade-old and older NSC is accessible for regrowth. PMID:24032647

  12. Age and Sex Ratios in a High-Density Wild Red-Legged Partridge Population

    PubMed Central

    Nadal, Jesús; Ponz, Carolina; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a wild red-legged partridge population were examined over a 14-year period in Spain to identify patterns in age and sex ratios in relation to weather parameters, and to assess the importance of these parameters in population dynamics and management. The results gave age ratios of 1.07 (but 2.13 in July counts), juvenile sex ratios of 1.01 and adult sex ratios of 1.47. Overall, 12% more females were hatched and female juvenile mortality was 7.3% higher than in males. Sex differential mortality explains the 19.2% deficit in adult females, which are more heavily predated than males during the breeding period. Accordingly, age ratios are dependent on sex ratios and both are density dependent. Over time, ratios and density changes appear to be influenced by weather and management. When the habitat is well conserved, partridge population dynamics can be explained by a causal chain: weather operates on net primary production, thereby affecting partridge reproduction and predation and, as a result, age and sex ratios in the October population. A reduction in the impact of predation (i.e. the effects of ground predators on eggs, chicks and breeding females) is the key factor to improve the conservation of partridge populations and associated biological processes. PMID:27508503

  13. Age, allocation and availability of nonstructural carbon in mature red maple trees.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Mariah S; Czimczik, Claudia I; Keenan, Trevor F; Murakami, Paula F; Pederson, Neil; Schaberg, Paul G; Xu, Xiaomei; Richardson, Andrew D

    2013-12-01

    The allocation of nonstructural carbon (NSC) to growth, metabolism and storage remains poorly understood, but is critical for the prediction of stress tolerance and mortality. We used the radiocarbon ((14) C) 'bomb spike' as a tracer of substrate and age of carbon in stemwood NSC, CO2 emitted by stems, tree ring cellulose and stump sprouts regenerated following harvesting in mature red maple trees. We addressed the following questions: which factors influence the age of stemwood NSC?; to what extent is stored vs new NSC used for metabolism and growth?; and, is older, stored NSC available for use? The mean age of extracted stemwood NSC was 10 yr. More vigorous trees had both larger and younger stemwood NSC pools. NSC used to support metabolism (stem CO2 ) was 1-2 yr old in spring before leaves emerged, but reflected current-year photosynthetic products in late summer. The tree ring cellulose (14) C age was 0.9 yr older than direct ring counts. Stump sprouts were formed from NSC up to 17 yr old. Thus, younger NSC is preferentially used for growth and day-to-day metabolic demands. More recently stored NSC contributes to annual ring growth and metabolism in the dormant season, yet decade-old and older NSC is accessible for regrowth.

  14. Age and Sex Ratios in a High-Density Wild Red-Legged Partridge Population.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Jesús; Ponz, Carolina; Margalida, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a wild red-legged partridge population were examined over a 14-year period in Spain to identify patterns in age and sex ratios in relation to weather parameters, and to assess the importance of these parameters in population dynamics and management. The results gave age ratios of 1.07 (but 2.13 in July counts), juvenile sex ratios of 1.01 and adult sex ratios of 1.47. Overall, 12% more females were hatched and female juvenile mortality was 7.3% higher than in males. Sex differential mortality explains the 19.2% deficit in adult females, which are more heavily predated than males during the breeding period. Accordingly, age ratios are dependent on sex ratios and both are density dependent. Over time, ratios and density changes appear to be influenced by weather and management. When the habitat is well conserved, partridge population dynamics can be explained by a causal chain: weather operates on net primary production, thereby affecting partridge reproduction and predation and, as a result, age and sex ratios in the October population. A reduction in the impact of predation (i.e. the effects of ground predators on eggs, chicks and breeding females) is the key factor to improve the conservation of partridge populations and associated biological processes. PMID:27508503

  15. Yeast effects on Pinot noir wine phenolics, color, and tannin composition.

    PubMed

    Carew, Anna L; Smith, Paul; Close, Dugald C; Curtin, Chris; Dambergs, Robert G

    2013-10-16

    Extraction and stabilization of wine phenolics can be challenging for wine makers. This study examined how yeast choice affected phenolic outcomes in Pinot noir wine. Five yeast treatments were applied in replicated microvinification, and wines were analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry. At bottling, yeast treatment Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC212 wine had significantly higher concentrations of total pigment, free anthocyanin, nonbleachable pigment, and total tannin and showed high color density. Some phenolic effects were retained at 6 months' bottle age, and RC212 and S. cerevisae EC1118 wines showed increased mean nonbleachable pigment concentrations. Wine tannin composition analysis showed three treatments were associated with a higher percentage of trihydroxylated subunits (skin tannin indicator). A high degree of tannin polymerization was observed in wines made with RC212 and Torulaspora delbruekii , whereas tannin size by gel permeation chromatography was higher only in the RC212 wines. The results emphasize the importance of yeast strain choice for optimizing Pinot noir wine phenolics.

  16. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine,...

  17. Increased resveratrol production in wines using engineered wine strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118 and relaxed antibiotic or auxotrophic selection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ping; Liang, Jing-Long; Kang, Lin-Zhi; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Jia-Jun; Ye, Zhi-Wei; Guo, Li-Qiong; Lin, Jun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with diverse beneficial effects on human health. Red wine is the major dietary source of resveratrol but the amount that people can obtain from wines is limited. To increase the resveratrol production in wines, two expression vectors carrying 4-coumarate: coenzyme A ligase gene (4CL) from Arabidopsis thaliana and resveratrol synthase gene (RS) from Vitis vinifera were transformed into industrial wine strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae EC1118. When cultured with 1 mM p-coumaric acid, the engineered strains grown with and without the addition of antibiotics produced 8.249 and 3.317 mg/L of trans-resveratrol in the culture broth, respectively. Resveratrol content of the wine fermented with engineered strains was twice higher than that of the control, indicating that our engineered strains could increase the production of resveratrol during wine fermentation.

  18. In vitro assays and clinical trials in red blood cell aging: Lost in translation.

    PubMed

    Prudent, Michel; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2015-06-01

    The age of erythrocyte concentrates (EC) in transfusion medicine and the adverse outcomes when transfusing long-term-stored EC are highly controversial issues. Whereas the definition of a short-term-stored EC or a long-term-stored EC is unclear in clinical trials, data based on in vitro storage assays can help defining a limit in addition of the expiration date. The present review merges together these data in order to highlight an EC age cut-off and points out potential misleading consideration. The analysis of in vitro data highlights the presence of reversible and irreversible storage lesions and demonstrates that red blood cells (RBC) exhibit two limits during storage: one around 2 weeks and another one around 4 weeks of storage. Of particular importance, the first lesions to appear, i.e. the reversible ones, are per se reversible once transfused, whereas the irreversible lesions are not. In clinical trials, the EC age cut-off for short-term storage is in general fewer than 14 days (11 ± 4 days) and more disperse for long-term-stored EC (17 ± 13 days), regardless the clinical outcomes. Taking together, EC age cut-off in clinical trials does not totally fall into line of in vitro aging data, whereas it is the key criteria in clinical studies. Long-term-stored EC considered in clinical trials are not probably old enough to answer the question: "Does transfusion of long-term-stored EC (older than 4 weeks) result in worse clinical outcomes?" Depending on ethical concerns and clinical practices, older EC than currently assayed in clinical trials should have to be considered. These two worlds trying to understand the aging of erythrocytes and the impact on patients do not seem to speak the same language.

  19. Offspring sex ratio in red-winged blackbirds is dependent on maternal age.

    PubMed

    Blank, J L; Nolan, V

    1983-10-01

    In a marsh-breeding population of red-winged blackbirds, the sex ratio of offspring that survived to leave the nest varied with maternal age. Old mothers produced an excess of male fledglings, middle-aged mothers produced almost equal proportions of males and females, and young mothers produced nearly twice as many females as males. More males than females hatched from the eggs of old mothers, whereas among newly hatched progeny of middle-aged and young mothers the sex ratio did not differ from unity. The hatching rate of eggs of old mothers was unusually low, suggesting that the biased sex ratio of their hatchlings may have been caused by more frequent death of female embryos, although other possibilities can be imagined. Starvation of nestlings after hatching also affected the sex ratio among young that left the nest. When starvation occurred, it fell principally on young produced by the last and next-to-last eggs laid in the clutch. Because old mothers allocated relatively more energy to those eggs than to earlier-laid eggs, whereas young mothers apportioned energy equally to their eggs, few nestlings of old mothers but many nestlings of young mothers starved. Most nestlings that died were male. It followed that the male bias in sex ratio of progeny of old mothers did not change between hatching and nestleaving, but the ratio among progeny of young mothers shifted after hatching to a strong bias favoring females at nest-leaving.

  20. Lithofacies, age, and geochemistry of the Otuk Formation (Triassic) in the Red Dog District, northwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Burruss, Robert A.; Blome, Charles D.

    2011-01-01

    A complete penetration of the Otuk Fm. in continuous drill core (DH 927) from the Red Dog District illuminates the facies, age, source rock potential, and isotope stratigraphy of this unit in northwest Alaska. The section, in the Wolverine Creek plate of the Endicott Mountains Allochthon, is ~82 m thick. It gradationally overlies undated gray siliceous mudstone of the Siksikpuk Fm. and underlies undated black organic-rich mudstone of the Kingak(?) Shale. Shale, chert, and limestone members of the Otuk are recognized in DH 927 but the Blankenship Member is absent. The lower (shale) member consists of 28 m of variegated, silty shale with up to 6.9 wt % TOC; thin limy layers near the base contain bivalve fragments (Claraia sp.?) consistent with an Early Triassic (Griesbachian-early Smithian) age. Gray radiolarian chert dominates the middle member (25 m thick) and yields radiolarians of Middle Triassic (Anisian, Ladinian) and Late Triassic (Carnian-Norian) ages; a distinctive, ~2.5-m-thick interval of black shale and calcareous radiolarite ~6 m below the top has 9.8 wt % TOC. The upper (limestone) member (29 m thick) is lime mudstone with monotid bivalves and late Norian radiolarians, overlain by gray chert that contains the first Rhaetian (latest Triassic) radiolarians recognized in the Otuk. Rare black shale interbeds have up to 3.4 wt % TOC. Regional correlations indicate that Otuk lithofacies vary with both structural and geographic position.

  1. Alloimmunization is associated with older age of transfused red blood cells in sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Payal C.; Deal, Allison M.; Pfaff, Emily R.; Qaqish, Bahjat; Hebden, Leyna M.; Park, Yara A.; Ataga, Kenneth I.

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a significant clinical complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). It can lead to difficulty with cross-matching for future transfusions and may sometimes trigger life-threatening delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the association of clinical complications and age of RBC with alloimmunization in patients with SCD followed at a single institution from 2005 to 2012. One hundred and sixty six patients with a total of 488 RBC transfusions were evaluated. Nineteen patients (11%) developed new alloantibodies following blood transfusions during the period of review. The median age of RBC units was 20 days (interquartile range: 14–27 days). RBC antibody formation was significantly associated with the age of RBC units (P = 0.002), with a hazard ratio of 3.5 (95% CI: 1.71–7.11) for a RBC unit that was 7 days old and 9.8 (95% CI: 2.66–35.97) for a unit that was 35 days old, 28 days after the blood transfusion. No association was observed between RBC alloimmunization and acute vaso-occlusive complications. Although increased echocardiography-derived tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was associated with the presence of RBC alloantibodies (P = 0.02), TRV was not significantly associated with alloimmunization when adjusted for patient age and number of transfused RBC units. Our study suggests that RBC antibody formation is significantly associated with older age of RBCs at the time of transfusion. Prospective studies in patients with SCD are required to confirm this finding. PMID:25963831

  2. Laser Treatment of Port Wine Stains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majaron, Boris; Nelson, J. Stuart

    Port wine stain (PWS), also called nevus flammeus, is a congenital, cutaneous vascular malformation involving post-capillary venules which produce a light pink to red to dark-red-violet discoloration of human skin [1]. PWS occurs in an estimated 3 children per 1000 live births, affecting males and females and all racial groups equally [2]. There appears to be no hereditary predilection for PWS within families. There are no known risk factors or ways to prevent PWS.

  3. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    PubMed

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations.

  4. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    PubMed

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations. PMID:16637699

  5. Use of red blood cell membranes to evaluate the antioxidant potential of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Cavallini, Gabriella; Dachà, Marina; Potenza, Lucia; Ranieri, Annamaria; Scattino, Claudia; Castagna, Antonella; Bergamini, Ettore

    2014-06-01

    Antioxidant phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables of a vegetarian diet may account for the reduced risk of aging and stress oxidative associated diseases. In this study, a simple, rapid and accurate new bioassay for the determination of the antioxidant activity of purified or crude plant extracts and thier interactions is described, based on the fluorimetric determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) released by UV-B radiated red blood cell (RBC) ghosts. Pure resveratrol, white and red wine and pomegranate juice (PJ) were used as antioxidant source to test the biological method. TBARS production is a function of radiation time, the number of RBC ghosts in the radiated sample and the loaded antioxidant. The antioxidant activity of resveratrol was detected at a submicromolar concentration range [0.02 μg/mL-0.1 μmol/L]. The activity of red wine was almost 10 times higher than that of white wine, and PJ juice had the highest activity. Submaximal protective effects of PJ and red wine were additive. PMID:24682659

  6. Occurrence and stability of inorganic and organic arsenic species in wines, rice wines and beers from Central European market.

    PubMed

    Huang, J-H; Hu, K-N; Ilgen, J; Ilgen, G

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in total 80 wine samples of different types and seven grape juice and 23 beer samples purchased from markets in Central Europe in order to understand the arsenic (As) speciation and help assess the potential As toxicity via intake of alcoholic beverages. Generally, total As concentrations in most samples investigated were below the drinking water limit 10 µg l(-1) published by the World Health Organization (WHO); ranging from 0.46 to 21.0 µg l(-1) As in red and white wines and from 0.75 to 13.4 µg l(-1) As in beers. In addition, concentrations of total As in rice wine and in rice beer were 0.63-6.07 and 3.69-8.23 µg l(-1) As, respectively. The total As concentrations in ice wine ranged from 7.94 to 18.8 µg l(-1) As, significantly higher than in white and red wine. Arsenite predominated as the As species in most of the wine samples, whereas arsenate was the dominant species in rice wine, beer and rice beer. Methyl As components were usually minor components in all wine and beer samples. Monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid and two additional unknown As species were frequently found in grape juice, late harvest and ice wine with higher sweetness. After air exposure, arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid were stable at 4°C for months, probably due to the acidic conditions of wine and beer samples. The presence of sulfite had little influence on As speciation in wine. Despite the predominance of more toxic arsenite and arsenate in wine and beer, the estimated weekly exposure to As (via consumption of beer, wine and rice wine) is low. The As intake per capita is 6.81 µg from beer, <1.93 µg from wine and 0.88 µg from rice wine, estimated using the median of total As concentration multiplied by the average consumption per capita of the corresponding beverage.

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Mechanisms That Govern Red Blood Cell Age Structure and Dynamics during Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Savill, Nicholas J.; Chadwick, William; Reece, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical modelling has proven an important tool in elucidating and quantifying mechanisms that govern the age structure and population dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs). Here we synthesise ideas from previous experimental data and the mathematical modelling literature with new data in order to test hypotheses and generate new predictions about these mechanisms. The result is a set of competing hypotheses about three intrinsic mechanisms: the feedback from circulating RBC concentration to production rate of immature RBCs (reticulocytes) in bone marrow, the release of reticulocytes from bone marrow into the circulation, and their subsequent ageing and clearance. In addition we examine two mechanisms specific to our experimental system: the effect of phenylhydrazine (PHZ) and blood sampling on RBC dynamics. We performed a set of experiments to quantify the dynamics of reticulocyte proportion, RBC concentration, and erythropoietin concentration in PHZ-induced anaemic mice. By quantifying experimental error we are able to fit and assess each hypothesis against our data and recover parameter estimates using Markov chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian inference. We find that, under normal conditions, about 3% of reticulocytes are released early from bone marrow and upon maturation all cells are released immediately. In the circulation, RBCs undergo random clearance but have a maximum lifespan of about 50 days. Under anaemic conditions reticulocyte production rate is linearly correlated with the difference between normal and anaemic RBC concentrations, and their release rate is exponentially correlated with the same. PHZ appears to age rather than kill RBCs, and younger RBCs are affected more than older RBCs. Blood sampling caused short aperiodic spikes in the proportion of reticulocytes which appear to have a different developmental pathway than normal reticulocytes. We also provide evidence of large diurnal oscillations in serum erythropoietin levels during anaemia

  8. Controversial age spreads from the main sequence turn-off and red clump in intermediate-age clusters in the LMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederhofer, F.; Bastian, N.; Kozhurina-Platais, V.; Hilker, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Cabrera-Ziri, I.; Li, C.; Ercolano, B.

    2016-02-01

    Most star clusters at an intermediate age (1-2 Gyr) in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds show a puzzling feature in their color-magnitude diagrams (CMD) that is not in agreement with a simple stellar population. The main sequence turn-off of these clusters is much broader than expected from photometric uncertainties. One interpretation of this feature is that age spreads of the order of 200-500 Myr exist within individual clusters, although this interpretation is highly debated. Such large age spreads should affect other parts of the CMD, which are sensitive to age, as well. In this study, we analyze the CMDs of a sample of 12 intermediate-age clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud that all show an extended turn-off using archival optical data taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. We fit the star formation history of the turn-off region and the red clump region independently. We find that in most cases, the age spreads inferred from the red clumps are smaller than those that result from the turn-off region. However, the age ranges that result from the red clump region are broader than expected for a single age. Only two out of 12 clusters in our sample show a red clump which seems to be consistent with a single age. As our results are ambiguous, by fitting the star formation histories to the red clump regions, we cannot ultimately tell if the extended main sequence turn-off feature is the result of an age spread or not. However, we do find that the width of the extended main sequence turn-off feature is correlated with the age of the clusters in a way which would be unexplained in the so-called age spread interpretation, but which may be expected if stellar rotation is the cause of the spread at the turn-off. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and obtained from the Hubble Legacy Archive, which is a collaboration between the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI/NASA), the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST

  9. Humoral immune responses are maintained with age in a long-lived ectotherm, the red-eared slider turtle.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Laura M; Clairardin, Sandrine G; Paitz, Ryan T; Hicke, Justin W; LaMagdeleine, Katie A; Vogel, Laura A; Bowden, Rachel M

    2013-02-15

    Aging is typically associated with a decrease in immune function. However, aging does not affect each branch of the immune system equally. Because of these varying effects of age on immune responses, aging could affect taxa differently based on how the particular taxon employs its resources towards different components of immune defense. An example of this is found in the humoral immune system. Specific responses tend to decrease with age while non-specific, natural antibody responses increase with age. Compared with mammals, reptiles of all ages have a slower and less robust humoral immune system. Therefore, they may invest more in non-specific responses and thus avoid the negative consequences of age on the immune system. We examined how the humoral immune system of reptiles is affected by aging and investigated the roles of non-specific, natural antibody responses and specific responses by examining several characteristics of antibodies against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the red-eared slider turtle. We found very little evidence of immunosenescence in the humoral immune system of the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta, which supports the idea that non-specific, natural antibody responses are an important line of defense in reptiles. Overall, this demonstrates that a taxon's immune strategy can influence how the immune system is affected by age.

  10. The influence of physiological status on age prediction of Anopheles arabiensis using near infra-red spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the age of malaria vectors is essential for evaluating the impact of interventions that reduce the survival of wild mosquito populations and for estimating changes in vectorial capacity. Near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) is a simple and non-destructive method that has been used to deter...

  11. Distinctive characteristics of Madeira wine regarding its traditional winemaking and modern analytical methodologies.

    PubMed

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Albuquerque, Francisco; Rocha, Sílvia M; Câmara, José S

    2011-01-01

    Madeira wine, a fortified wine produced in Madeira Island, is a special wine among all types of wine due its specific winemaking process. The aim of this chapter is to describe important aspects of Madeira winemaking and some scientific research currently carried out in these particular kinds of wines. The first part of the chapter concerns the most important aspects of winemaking technology used in Madeira wine production. The second part, the more extensive, deals with the different groups of compounds and how these are modified during the various steps of the production process, namely the aging period.

  12. [Study on fluorescence spectra of Chinese rice wine].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhou-yi; Zhu, Tuo; Gu, En-dong; Liu, Ying; Song, Chun-yuan

    2008-10-01

    Chinese rice wine has a history of more than 5000 years, only in China, hich is called "Nation Wine", and Shao Xing Chinese rice wine is a representative of it. The fluorescence spectra of 3 kinds of Shao Xing Chinese rice wine with different storage age induced by suitable UV-light were obtained in the present paper through experiment. The authors compared and analyzed them comprehensively by using three dimensional contour and two dimensional fluorescence technique, and found that their best induced light was all in the vicinity of 370 nm. The peak wavelength of 3 year storage age wine was 504 nm, while 488 nm and 505 nm were for 5 and 8 year storage age wine respectively. The emitted fluorescence existed in 400 to 680 nm, which had wide peak. More over, the emitting mechanism of Shao Xing Chinese rice wine was discussed. The authors also have explained the similarity and difference of fluorescence spectra among the 3 kinds of wine. The reason for wide fluorescence peak was also analyzed. This investigation contributes to the study of the characteristic, year detection and food safety of Chinese rice wine.

  13. Electroanalytical determination and fractionation of copper in wine.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Misiego, A; García-Moncó Carra, R M; Ambel Carracedo, M P; Guerra Sánchez-Simón, M T

    2004-08-25

    Eight different bottled wines (six red wines and two white ones) were studied for copper determination and fractionation. For this purpose, copper determination by square wave voltammetry (SWV) and potentiometry (PSA) stripping analysis using Hg electrodes (drop and film, respectively) were carried out. Two direct procedures for the determination of total copper in wine are proposed; in both cases, drastic treatment of samples is not necessary, the procedures are very fast (estimated time to carry out an analysis is <10 min) and require no deaeration. Fractionating treatment consists of various HCl additions followed by the addition of ethylenediamine. Precision (RSD < 3%) and accuracy (recovery > 98%) data justify that both methods proposed are valid for total copper determination in wine. The wines studied displayed similar behaviors regarding fractionation: the percentages of total copper fractionated in each step are statistically similar: differences are lower than 2 S.

  14. Off-flavours in wines through indirect transfer of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from coatings.

    PubMed

    Fumi, M D; Lambri, M; De Faveri, D M

    2009-05-01

    This paper assesses the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the drying of coatings on the sensory characters of corks and wines. According to Italian National Standard Method 11021:2002, a small-scale chamber was used (1) to expose wines to the drying of coatings with both low and high VOCs, and (2) to expose corks to the same coatings. After exposure to the coatings, the corks were then placed in direct contact with wine. Different styles of white, red and rose wines were tested. In both directly exposed wines and in wines after contact with the exposed cork, the taste and smell off-flavour perception and intensity were assessed by a panel of eight experienced wine tasters using a five-point numerical scale according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard methods. The results showed that the sensory characters of wines, especially taste, were influenced by the VOC content of the coatings. The taste off-flavour perception was found to be higher than the smell in wines exposed to coatings with either high or low VOCs contents. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan analysis prove that: (1) panellist's answers were significantly different, (2) it was difficult to differentiate the off-flavour perception on the high-level scale, and (3) the panellist off-flavour perceptions versus wine style discriminated the wines into two groups (red and white/rose). For all the wine styles, Pearson's test showed no significant correlation between off-flavour perception levels and the main chemical characters of the wines. For the wines that were in direct contact with the exposed corks, the panellists detect the off-flavours according to the levels of VOCs in the coating and wine styles and they assessed the highest levels of alteration were to the taste.

  15. High precision mass measurements for wine metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Gougeon, Régis; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    An overview of the critical steps for the non-targeted Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) analysis of wine chemistry is given, ranging from the study design, data preprocessing and statistical analyses, to markers identification. UPLC-Q-ToF-MS data was enhanced by the alignment of exact mass data from FTICR-MS, and marker peaks were identified using UPLC-Q-ToF-MS². In combination with multivariate statistical tools and the annotation of peaks with metabolites from relevant databases, this analytical process provides a fine description of the chemical complexity of wines, as exemplified in the case of red (Pinot noir) and white (Chardonnay) wines from various geographic origins in Burgundy.

  16. High precision mass measurements for wine metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Gougeon, Régis D.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the critical steps for the non-targeted Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) analysis of wine chemistry is given, ranging from the study design, data preprocessing and statistical analyses, to markers identification. UPLC-Q-ToF-MS data was enhanced by the alignment of exact mass data from FTICR-MS, and marker peaks were identified using UPLC-Q-ToF-MS2. In combination with multivariate statistical tools and the annotation of peaks with metabolites from relevant databases, this analytical process provides a fine description of the chemical complexity of wines, as exemplified in the case of red (Pinot noir) and white (Chardonnay) wines from various geographic origins in Burgundy. PMID:25431760

  17. Analysis of nine food additives in red wine by ion-suppression reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using trifluoroacetic acid and ammonium acetate as ion-suppressors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Gang; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Shan-Shan; Pan, Sheng-Dong; Li, Xiao-Ping; Jin, Mi-Cong

    2012-01-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of nine food additives, i.e., acesulfame, saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, stevioside, dehydroacetic acid and neotame in red wine. The effects of ion-suppressors, i.e., trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and ammonium acetate (AmAc) on retention behavior of nine food additives in RP-HPLC separation were discussed in detail. The relationships between retention factors of solutes and volume percent of ion-suppressors in the mobile-phase systems of acetonitrile-TFA aqueous solution and acetonitrile-TFA-AmAc aqueous solution were quantitatively established, respectively. The results showed that the ion suppressors had not only an ion suppression effect, but also an organic modification effect on the acidic analytes. The baseline separation of nine food additives was completed by a gradient elution with acetonitrile-TFA(0.01%, v/v)-AmAc(2.5 mmol L(-1)) aqueous solution as the mobile phase. The recoveries were between 80.2 - 99.5% for all analytes with RSDs in the range of 1.5 - 8.9%. The linearities were in the range of 0.2 - 100.0 mg L(-1) with determination coefficients (r(2)) higher than 0.9991 for all analytes. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.53 - 0.99 mg L(-1). The applicability of the proposed method to detect and quantify food additives has been demonstrated in the analysis of 30 real samples.

  18. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    PubMed Central

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration. PMID:26771632

  19. Antioxidant Activity of Berry and Fruit Wines and Liquors.

    PubMed

    Heinonen; Lehtonen; Hopia

    1998-01-19

    A total of 44 different berry and fruit wines and liquors with total phenolic contents between 91 and 1820 mg/L, expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE), were evaluated for antioxidant activity. Dealcoholized wine extracts were added to methyl linoleate (MeLo), and the oxidation in the dark at 40 degrees C was followed by conjugated diene measurement. Wines made of mixtures of black currants and crowberries or bilberries (240-275 µM GAE) were slightly superior to reference red grape wines (330-375 µM GAE) and equally as active as the control antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (50 µM), in inhibiting MeLo hydroperoxide formation. Also, raw materials including apple, arctic bramble, cowberries, cranberries, red currants, or rowanberries possessed antioxidant activity. Thus, these raw materials contain phenolic compounds, some of which are capable of protecting lipids against oxidation also in a hydrophobic lipid system. Liquors, apart from arctic bramble liquor, were less active than wines. However, the total phenolic content did not correlate with the antioxidant activity of the berry and fruit wines and liquors, therefore alleviating the importance of further characterization of the phenolic antioxidants present in berry and fruit wines. PMID:10554191

  20. Mixtures of wine, essential oils, and plant polyphenolics do not act synergistically against Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella enterica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red wine or fortified red wine formulations containing some various essential oils from oregano or thyme or their pure active components, and a mixture of plant extract powders from apple skin, green tea, and olive, were evaluated for inhibitory activity against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia c...

  1. Enhancing the natural folate level in wine using bioengineering and stabilization strategies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yazheng; Walkey, Christopher J; Green, Timothy J; van Vuuren, Hennie J J; Kitts, David D

    2016-03-01

    Folate deficiency is linked to many diseases, some of which may have higher probability in individuals with alcohol-induced alterations in one-carbon metabolism. Our study shows that folate content in commercial wine is not related to white or red varieties, but associated with the yeast that is used to produce the wine. The stability of folate in these wines, once opened for consumption, did not correlate with total phenolic or sulfite content. In addition, we employed yeast bioengineering to fortify wine with folate. We confirmed by overexpression that FOL2 was the key gene encoding the rate-limiting step of folate biosynthesis in wine yeast. In this study, we also show that overexpression of other folate biosynthesis genes, including ABZ1, ABZ2, DFR1, FOL1 and FOL3, had no effect on folate levels in wine. Ensuring stability of the increased natural folate in all wines was achieved by the addition of ascorbate.

  2. Evaluation of colour parameters and antioxidant activities of fruit wines.

    PubMed

    Kalkan Yildirim, Hatice

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of oenological colorimetric indexes, CIELAB parameters, total phenols and antioxidant activities has been studied in different fruit wines made from black mulberry, blackberry, quince, apple, apricot, melon, red raspberry, bilberry, sour cherry and strawberry. The highest value of antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents were determined in bilberry, blackberry and black mulberry wines (61.80%, 1161 mg/l gallic acid equivalents; 60.00%, 1232 mg/l gallic acid equivalents; 58.10%, 1081 mg/l gallic acid equivalents), respectively. The highest values for A420 nm, A520 nm, A620 nm, the proportion of blue, wine colour, wine total colour of pigments, wine polymeric pigment colour and K-K values logarithmic colour intensity) were determined in bilberry fruit wine. Positive correlation was found between antioxidant activities and total phenols (r=0.958, P = 0.001). The results of grouping of different parameters in n-dimensional space with different fruit wines demonstrated the importance of bilberry, blackberry and black mulberry wines as natural antioxidants and colourants. PMID:16849114

  3. Potential of a multiparametric optical sensor for determining in situ the maturity components of red and white Vitis vinifera wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Ducci, Eleonora; Cuzzola, Angela; Remorini, Damiano; Tuccio, Lorenza; Lazzini, Francesca; Mattii, Giovanni

    2013-12-18

    A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture. PMID:24279372

  4. Demography of deep-dwelling red coral populations: Age and reproductive structure of a highly valued marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priori, Cristina; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Erra, Fabrizio; Angiolillo, Michela; Canese, Simonpietro; Santangelo, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    The valuable Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum (Octocorallia Gorgonacea) has been harvested for more than 2 thousand years. Although our knowledge on the demographic features of red coral populations living between 10 and 50 m depth has increased considerably in recent years, the main life-history traits of deeper populations (the main target of current harvesting) are still largely unknown. To increase the demographic knowledge of the latter populations, sampling was carried out during early Summer 2010 in the North-Western Mediterranean (Tyrrhenian Sea - Italy), between 50 and 130 m depth. This paper quantifies the main demographic descriptors of this coral population in terms of size/age and sexual structure. Colony age was estimated by counting annual growth rings on thin sections of 69 colonies. A 2-way ANOVA showed no significant difference between the age estimated by three independent observers. The average annual colony growth rate (basal diameter), showing some decrease with colony age increase, was 0.26 mm/yr. The relationship between age and basal diameter derived from a subsample of colonies was then applied to assess the age of a larger sample of the population and showed 38% of the sampled colonies reached the commercial size (≥7 mm of basal diameter), corresponding to about 30 years in this population and a maximum life span of 93 years; about half of them (51.1%) were in the 21-25 and 26-30 age classes. The analysis of the sexual features revealed a balanced sex ratio, a colony fertility of 90.3% and an average fecundity of 0.83 oocytes or planulae per polyp. The knowledge of these life-history descriptors is needed for our understanding of deep dwelling red coral population dynamics and for matching of harvesting to population growth rate.

  5. Trends in wine microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ramón, D

    1997-12-01

    During the last few years many winemakers have started to use pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, frequently isolated from their own geographical regions, to produce wines of more reproductable quality. This microbiological simplification has opened the way for the genetic modification of wine yeast strains. This review concerns the application of molecular techniques in oenology, not only from the point of view of the construction of recombinant strains but also for the study of the population dynamics of wine fermentations.

  6. Determination of ortho- and retronasal detection thresholds for 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine in wine.

    PubMed

    Pickering, G J; Karthik, A; Inglis, D; Sears, M; Ker, K

    2007-09-01

    2-Isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP) is a grape-derived component of wine flavor in some wine varieties as well as the causal compound of the off-flavor known as ladybug taint (LBT), which occurs when Harmonia axyridis beetles are incorporated with the grapes during juice and wine processing. The main objective of this study was to obtain robust estimates of the orthonasal (ON) and retronasal (RN) detection thresholds (DTs) for IPMP in wines of differing styles. The ASTM E679 ascending forced choice method of limits was used to determine DTs for 47 individuals in 3 different wines--Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer, and a red wine blend of Baco Noir and Marechel Foch. The group best estimate thresholds (BETs) obtained for IPMP (ng/L) were Chardonnay, ON: 0.32; Gewürztraminer, ON: 1.56, RN: 1.15, and red wine blend, ON: 1.03, RN: 2.29. A large variation in individual DTs was observed. Familiarity with LBT was inversely correlated with DTs for Gewürztraminer, and no difference in thresholds was observed between winemakers and nonwinemakers. We conclude that the human DT for IPMP is extremely low and influenced significantly by wine style and evaluation mode. We recommend against the reporting of single-threshold values for wine flavor compounds, and encourage the determination of consumer rejection thresholds for IPMP in wine. PMID:17995659

  7. Changes in the level and activation state of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase during aging of red beet slices.

    PubMed Central

    Papini, R; De Michelis, M I

    1997-01-01

    The effect of aging on the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) parenchyma discs was analyzed in PM purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning. Aging increased both the activity in the amount of immunodetectable H(+)-ATPase in the PM. The activity assayed at slightly alkaline pH values increased earlier and more strongly than that assayed at acidic pH values, so that the pH curve of the enzyme from aged beet discs was shifted toward more alkaline values. Aging decreased the stimulation of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity by controlled trypsin treatments or by lysophosphatidylcholine. After trypsin treatment the pH dependence of H(+)-ATPase from dormant or aged beet discs became equal. These results indicate that aging not only increases the level of H(+)-ATPase in the PM, but also determines its activation, most likely by modifying the interaction between the autoinhibitory carboxyl-terminal domain and the catalytic site. When the PM H(+)-ATPase activity was assayed at a slightly alkaline pH, the tyrosine modifier N-acetylimidazole inhibited the H(+)-ATPase in the PM from dormant beet discs much less than in the PM from aged discs, suggesting that modification of a tyrosine residue may be involved in the activation of the PM H(+)-ATPase induced by aging. The results are discussed with regard to aging-induced development of transmembrane transport activities. PMID:9232872

  8. Sex, age, spleen size, and kidney fat of red deer relative to infection intensities of the lungworm Elaphostrongylus cervi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicente, J.; Pérez-Rodríguez, L.; Gortazar, C.

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the relationships among spleen size, body condition (measured as kidney fat), and larval counts of the nematode Elaphostrongylus cervi in red deer ( Cervus elaphus). The aim was to investigate the interaction between host body condition and intensity of infection with parasites. As red deer are highly polygynous, we also tested whether these relationships varied with sex and age of the hosts. Kidney fat and spleen size were positively correlated in subadults (2-3 years old) and adults (>3 years old), but not in calves (<1 year old) or yearlings (1-2 years old). Spleen size was negatively associated with nematode load in subadult females and in adult males. These two age classes are potentially the most nutritionally stressed, as subadult hinds are still growing and often engaging in rearing their first calf, and adult stags were sampled just after the rut, which is recognized as a substantial energy drain in this age-sex class, as they compete to hold females during the mating season. Body condition related negatively to parasite count only in adult males. In the context of red deer life history, these findings suggest that spleen size is dependent on body condition and that it could be affected by variation in resource partitioning among immune defense, growth, and reproductive effort in red deer. For the first time in a wild mammal, the spleen mass is shown to be positively related to body condition and negatively related to parasite infection. We conclude that elucidating whether spleen mass reflects immune defense investment or a measure of general body condition should contribute to understanding topical issues in mammal ecology.

  9. The Living with a Red Dwarf Program: Observing the Decline in dM Star FUV Emissions With Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Edward F.; Mizusawa, Trisha

    2009-05-01

    Red Dwarf (dM) stars are overwhelmingly the most numerous stars in our Galaxy. These cool, faint and low mass stars make up >80% of all stars. Also dM stars have extremely long life times (>50-100 Gyr). Determining the number of red dwarfs with planets and assessing planetary habitability (a planet's potential to develop and sustain life) is critically important because such studies would indicate how common life is in the universe. Our program-``Living with a Red Dwarf''-addresses these questions by investigating the long-term nuclear evolution and the coronal and chromospheric properties of red dwarf stars with widely different ages (~50 Myr-12 Gyr). One major focus of the program is to study the magnetic-dynamo generated coronal and chromospheric X-ray-FUV/UV emissions and flare properties of a sample of dM0-5 stars. Observations carried out by FUSE of a number of young to old dM stars provide important data for understanding transition region heating in these stars with deep convective zones as well as providing measures of FUV irradiances. Also studied are the effects of X-ray-FUV emissions on possible hosted planets and impacts of this radiation on their habitability. Using these data we are constructing irradiance tables (X-UV irradiances) that can be used to model the effects of XUV radiation on planetary atmospheres and possible life on planetary surfaces. The initial results of this program are discussed.

  10. Port-wine stain

    MedlinePlus

    Many treatments have been tried for port-wine stains, including freezing, surgery, radiation, and tattooing. Laser therapy is most successful in eliminating port-wine stains. It is the only method that can destroy the tiny blood vessels in the skin ...

  11. Molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen for the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Yuko; Shigemasa, Yuki; Abe, Yoko; Ohgushi, Ikumi; Ueno, Eriko; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO(2) A) prepared from healthy donors showed a tendency to produce hemichrome, even at close to physiological temperature and pH. Recent studies found that the number of Heinz bodies formed in red cells increased with increasing temperature when freshly drawn venous blood from healthy donors was subjected to mild heating above 37 °C. These findings suggest that Hb molecules control the removal of non-functional erythrocytes from the circulation via hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering. In this review, we discuss the molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen, where hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering within erythrocytes play a key role in the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

  12. Red blood cells open promising avenues for longitudinal studies of ageing in laboratory, non-model and wild animals.

    PubMed

    Stier, Antoine; Reichert, Sophie; Criscuolo, Francois; Bize, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Ageing is characterized by a progressive deterioration of multiple physiological and molecular pathways, which impair organismal performance and increase risks of death with advancing age. Hence, ageing studies must identify physiological and molecular pathways that show signs of age-related deterioration, and test their association with the risk of death and longevity. This approach necessitates longitudinal sampling of the same individuals, and therefore requires a minimally invasive sampling technique that provides access to the larger spectrum of physiological and molecular pathways that are putatively associated with ageing. The present paper underlines the interest in using red blood cells (RBCs) as a promising target for longitudinal studies of ageing in vertebrates. RBCs provide valuable information on the following six pathways: cell maintenance and turnover (RBC number, size, and heterogeneity), glucose homeostasis (RBC glycated haemoglobin), oxidative stress parameters, membrane composition and integrity, mitochondrial functioning, and telomere dynamics. The last two pathways are specific to RBCs of non-mammalian species, which possess a nucleus and functional mitochondria. We present the current knowledge about RBCs and age-dependent changes in these pathways in non-model and wild species that are especially suitable to address questions related to ageing using longitudinal studies. We discuss how the different pathways relate with survival and lifespan and give information on their genetic and environmental determinants to appraise their evolutionary potential.

  13. Aging effect on the leaching behavior of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, and Cd) in red paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Li, Zhongwu; Huang, Jinquan; Chen, Guiqiu; Nie, Xiaodong; Ma, Wenming; Yao, Hongbo; Zhen, Jiamei; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-08-01

    Aging effect can influence the fractions distribution and mobility of metals after they are added into soil. In this study, incubation and soil column experiments under simulated acid rain condition were conducted to evaluate aging effect on the leaching characteristic of Cu, Zn, and Cd in artificial polluted red paddy soil. Our results showed that aging effect reduced metal contents in exchangeable and HoAc soluble fractions. Power function was the most excellent to describe the variation of exchangeable fraction, while pseudo first- and second-order functions were more successful to describe the leaching characteristic of metals from soil columns. The leaching amount of the metals from the polluted soil only accounted for a small part of their total content in soil, and the leachability of Cu was the weakest. Both the exchangeable and HoAc soluble fraction were available as indicators to evaluate the leachability of metals in red paddy soil. The shorter time the soil was contaminated, the more amounts of metals released from the soil. The reduction of exchangeable fraction caused by aging effect was the main reason for the decrease of metal mobility in soil. PMID:25821039

  14. Aging effect on the leaching behavior of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, and Cd) in red paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bin; Li, Zhongwu; Huang, Jinquan; Chen, Guiqiu; Nie, Xiaodong; Ma, Wenming; Yao, Hongbo; Zhen, Jiamei; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-08-01

    Aging effect can influence the fractions distribution and mobility of metals after they are added into soil. In this study, incubation and soil column experiments under simulated acid rain condition were conducted to evaluate aging effect on the leaching characteristic of Cu, Zn, and Cd in artificial polluted red paddy soil. Our results showed that aging effect reduced metal contents in exchangeable and HoAc soluble fractions. Power function was the most excellent to describe the variation of exchangeable fraction, while pseudo first- and second-order functions were more successful to describe the leaching characteristic of metals from soil columns. The leaching amount of the metals from the polluted soil only accounted for a small part of their total content in soil, and the leachability of Cu was the weakest. Both the exchangeable and HoAc soluble fraction were available as indicators to evaluate the leachability of metals in red paddy soil. The shorter time the soil was contaminated, the more amounts of metals released from the soil. The reduction of exchangeable fraction caused by aging effect was the main reason for the decrease of metal mobility in soil.

  15. Pushing the Red Wheelbarrow: From Age Five to Sixty-Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Peggy

    1998-01-01

    Aims for students to explore spontaneous ways of finding material for their poems by suppressing control over their subject matter and letting their unconscious minds do the work. Uses a poem of William Carlos Williams, "Red Wheelbarrow," both with K-2 students and adults in a poetry workshop. Illustrates class procedures and activities with…

  16. Seven Red Herrings: The Opposition to Closure of Aging Urban Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Russ

    2003-01-01

    Considers how the closure and consolidation of schools are seen by cash-strapped boards of education as means to save money. Addresses the same "seven red herrings" or arguments that are repeated loudly and angrily to officials as they go through the process of public consultation. (SG)

  17. The effects of age and previous experience on social rank in female red junglefowl, Gallus gallus spadiceus.

    PubMed

    Kim; Zuk

    2000-08-01

    Social rank can influence lifetime reproductive success and therefore fitness. We examined the effects of morphology, age, previous social experience and aggressiveness on social rank in all-female flocks of red junglefowl. None of the morphological characters measured (mass, tarsus length, comb height or comb length) appeared to play a role in determining rank. Older females were not more likely to be dominant, while previous social experience and aggression levels were both important in dominance determination. Flock-experienced hens were more likely to be dominant as were more aggressive individuals. Red junglefowl females most likely use a combination of characters to establish social order in a newly formed flock. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10973726

  18. Relationship between vasodilation capacity and phenolic content of Spanish wines.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Eugenia; Ruiz, Emilio; Redondo, Santiago; Gordillo-Moscoso, Antonio; Slowing, Karla; Tejerina, Teresa

    2005-07-01

    We aimed to determine: 1) the concentration of polyphenols in Spanish red wines, 2) the vasodilatory properties of those wines in relation with their polyphenol concentrations and 3) the vasodilation induced by some of these polyphenols in rat aortic rings. In the wines studied the concentration of rutin and kaempferol was high compared with other polyphenols. All wines relaxed precontracted rat aortic rings and this effect was directly related with the concentration of myricetin and kaempferol in the wines. Kaempferol and rutin also induced endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation, kaempferol was more potent. This relaxation was not inhibited by the estrogen receptor alpha antagonist ICI 182,760. Kaempferol also potentiated the endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine, which was reversed by Nw-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). These findings show a good correlation between the concentration of polyphenols (especially kaempferol) of Spanish red wines and the vasodilatory effect, which may confer on them unique features in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  19. Membrane skeletal alterations during in vivo mouse red cell aging. Increase in the band 4.1a:4.1b ratio.

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, T J; Jackson, C W; Dockter, M E; Morrison, M

    1987-01-01

    We have examined membrane protein profiles for alterations during red blood cell aging. To obtain populations of in vivo-aged red cells, we maintained mice in a state of continuous erythropoietic suppression for up to 8 wk using serial hypertransfusion. The circulating t1/2 of red cells from mice which had been erythropoietically suppressed for 8 wk was less than 1 d compared with a t1/2 of 15 d for red cells from normal animals. The most obvious alteration in membrane proteins was an increase in the ratio of the membrane skeletal components 4.1a:4.1b from 0.3 for the normal red cell population to greater than 1 for these old cells. The 4.1a:4.1b ratio thus appears to be a useful index of red cell age. Analyses of the density profile of cells aged in the hypertransfused mice disclosed that these old cells had a density range similar to that of controls, suggesting that cell density does not increase significantly with red cell age in the mouse. Images PMID:3805278

  20. The impact of moderate wine consumption on health.

    PubMed

    Artero, Ana; Artero, Arturo; Tarín, Juan J; Cano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Wine is a traditional beverage that has been associated with both healthy and harmful effects. Conceptions like the so-called "French paradox" or the beneficial impact of the Mediterranean diet suggest benefit. Wine has a complex composition, which is affected by whether it is red or white or by other variables, like the variety of grapes or others. Alcohol and phenolic compounds have been attributed a participation in the benefits ascribed to wine. The case of alcohol has been extensively studied, but the key question is whether wine offers additional benefits. Resveratrol, a non-flavonoid compound, and quercetin, a flavonol, have received particular attention. There is much experimental work confirming a beneficial balance for both substances, particularly resveratrol, in various organs and systems. The pharmacological dosages used in many of those experiments have shed doubt, however, on the clinical translation of those findings. Clinical studies are limited by their observational nature as well as for the difficulties to abstract the benefits of wine from other confounders. Notwithstanding the doubts, there is reasonable unanimity in beneficial effects of moderate wine consumption in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, maybe neurological diseases, and longevity. Observations are less enthusiastic in what refers to cancer. While considering these limitations, clinicians may spread the message that the balance of moderate wine consumption seems beneficial.

  1. Classification of Sparkling Wine Style and Quality by MIR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Julie; Cozzolino, Daniel; Ristic, Renata; Wilkinson, Kerry

    2015-05-08

    In this study, the suitability of attenuated total reflection (ATR) mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy, combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression, was evaluated as a rapid analytical technique for the classification of sparkling wine style and quality. Australian sparkling wines (n = 139) comprising a range of styles (i.e., white, rosé, red, Prosecco and Moscato) were analyzed by ATR-MIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis. The MIR spectra of 50 sparkling white wines, produced according to four different production methods (i.e., Carbonation, Charmat, Transfer and Methodé Traditionelle) were also evaluated against: (i) quality ratings determined by an expert panel; and (ii) sensory attributes rated by a trained sensory panel. Wine pH, titratable acidity (TA), residual sugar (RS), alcohol and total phenolic content were also determined. The sparkling wine styles were separated on the PCA score plot based on their MIR spectral data; while the sparkling white wines showed separation based on production method, which strongly influenced the style and sensory properties of wine (i.e., the intensity of fruit versus yeast-derived characters). PLS calibrations of 0.73, 0.77, 0.82 and 0.86 were obtained for sweetness, tropical fruit, confectionary and toasty characters (on the palate), respectively.

  2. Identification of Catechin, Syringic Acid, and Procyanidin B2 in Wine as Stimulants of Gastric Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Eder, Reinhard; Wendelin, Sylvia; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-09-01

    Organic acids of wine, in addition to ethanol, have been identified as stimulants of gastric acid secretion. This study characterized the influence of other wine compounds, particularly phenolic compounds, on proton secretion. Forty wine parameters were determined in four red wines and six white wines, including the contents of organic acids and phenolic compounds. The secretory activity of the wines was determined in a gastric cell culture model (HGT-1 cells) by means of a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. Red wines stimulated proton secretion more than white wines. Lactic acid and the phenolic compounds syringic acid, catechin, and procyanidin B2 stimulated proton secretion and correlated with the pro-secretory effect of the wines. Addition of the phenolic compounds to the least active white wine sample enhanced its proton secretory effect by 65 ± 21% (p < 0.05). These results indicate that not only malic and lactic acid but also bitter and astringent tasting phenolic compounds in wine contribute to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion.

  3. Ethanol Concentration Influences the Mechanisms of Wine Tannin Interactions with Poly(L-proline) in Model Wine.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Ziora, Zyta M; Kassara, Stella; Cooper, Matthew A; Smith, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    Changes in ethanol concentration influence red wine astringency, and yet the effect of ethanol on wine tannin-salivary protein interactions is not well understood. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used to measure the binding strength between the model salivary protein, poly(L-proline) (PLP) and a range of wine tannins (tannin fractions from a 3- and a 7-year old Cabernet Sauvignon wine) across different ethanol concentrations (5, 10, 15, and 40% v/v). Tannin-PLP interactions were stronger at 5% ethanol than at 40% ethanol. The mechanism of interaction changed for most tannin samples across the wine-like ethanol range (10-15%) from a combination of hydrophobic and hydrogen binding at 10% ethanol to only hydrogen binding at 15% ethanol. These results indicate that ethanol concentration can influence the mechanisms of wine tannin-protein interactions and that the previously reported decrease in wine astringency with increasing alcohol may, in part, relate to a decrease tannin-protein interaction strength.

  4. Laser treatment of port-wine stains

    PubMed Central

    Brightman, Lori A; Geronemus, Roy G; Reddy, Kavitha K

    2015-01-01

    Port-wine stains are a type of capillary malformation affecting 0.3% to 0.5% of the population. Port-wine stains present at birth as pink to erythematous patches on the skin and/or mucosa. Without treatment, the patches typically darken with age and may eventually develop nodular thickening or associated pyogenic granuloma. Laser and light treatments provide improvement through selective destruction of vasculature. A variety of vascular-selective lasers may be employed, with the pulsed dye laser being the most common and well studied. Early treatment produces more optimal results. Advances in imaging and laser treatment technologies demonstrate potential to further improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25624768

  5. Determination of piceid and resveratrol in Spanish wines deriving from Monastrell (Vitis vinifera L.) grape variety.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Labanda, Juan F; Mallavia, Ricardo; Pérez-Fons, Laura; Lizama, Victoria; Saura, Domingo; Micol, Vicente

    2004-08-25

    The presence of stilbenes in wine is becoming an important issue due to their claimed relation to a low incidence in coronary diseases and their increasing implication as cancer chemopreventive and neuroprotective agents. Total resveratrol content, quantified as glucoside and aglycone forms of resveratrol, has been determined in a survey of 45 Monastrell monovarietal Spanish red wine types (around 135 wine samples), belonging to Alicante and Bullas appellations. The average between ratio glucoside/aglycone forms of resveratrol in these wines was considerably high, ranging from 82 to 91% of resveratrol in its glycosidic form. This characteristic was observed in a high percentage of the studied wines, which were made under different winemaking procedures, and from different vintages (1995-2002). In addition, wines made using macerative fermentations with double amount of solid parts ("doble pasta") reached the highest levels of total stilbene content expressed as resveratrol equivalent, i.e., 30 mg/L (average of 18.8 mg/L). It can be concluded that high resveratrol glucoside concentration and low free isomer content can be considered characteristics of the Monastrell variety, as it happens to red wines deriving from other varieties grown at warm climates. This fact, also observed for other French and Portuguese red varieties, might play an important role in food habits involving these types of wines.

  6. Contribution to the study of ochratoxin A in Spanish wines.

    PubMed

    Lopez de Cerain, A; González-Peñas, E; Jiménez, A M; Bello, J

    2002-11-01

    With the aim of assessing ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination in wines from a Spanish northern region and the influence of harvest conditions, the following samples were analysed: 40 wines (28 red and 12 white) obtained from grapes cultivated in three different places of the northern Spanish region of Navarra, but in different years, 20 samples in 1997 and 20 in 1998. Wine samples were provided by a viticultural experimental station with very consistent and controlled cultural and enological practices. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with fluorescence detection and immunoaffinity columns was employed (LOD = 0.05 ng ml(-1); method recovery = 101%). Eighty five per cent of the samples from 1997 showed OTA levels >0.05 ng ml(-1) (range 0.056-0.316 ng ml(-1)) and 15% of the samples from 1998 showed OTA levels above the LOD (range 0.074-0.193 ng ml(-1)). Averages detected in 1997 positive samples were 0.185 ng OTA ml(-1) wine (SD = 0.023) in white wine samples (n = 6) and 0.160 ng ml(-1) (SD = 0.119) in the red wine samples (n = 11). These differences between contamination by OTA in the samples from the two different years were attributed to the different quality of the grapes, due to the bad climate in 1997. The possibility of the loss of the mycotoxin was excluded by the analysis of OTA in contaminated wine during 12 months. This study showed that OTA is stable in wine for at least 1 year.

  7. Low molecular-weight phenols in Tannat wines made by alternative winemaking procedures.

    PubMed

    Favre, Guzmán; Peña-Neira, Álvaro; Baldi, Cecilia; Hernández, Natalia; Traverso, Sofía; Gil, Graciela; González-Neves, Gustavo

    2014-09-01

    Low molecular weight phenols of Tannat red wines produced by Traditional Maceration (TM), Prefermentative Cold Maceration (PCM), Maceration Enzyme (ENZ) and grape-Seed Tannins additions (ST), were performed and discussed. Alternatives to TM increased wine phenolic contents but unequally, ST increased mainly smaller flavans-3-ol, PCM anthocyanins and ENZ proanthocyanidins (up to 2250 mg/L). However low molecular weight flavan-3-ols remained below 9 mg/L in all wines, showing that there is not necessarily a correspondence between wine richness in total tannins and flavan-3-ols contents at low molecular weight. PCM wines had particularly high concentrations of tyrosol and tryptophol, yeast metabolism derived compounds. The use of grape-seed enological tannins did not increase grape seed derived phenolic compounds such as gallic acid. Caftaric acid was found in concentrations much higher than those reported in other grape varieties. Wine phenolic content and composition was considerably affected by the winemaking procedures tested.

  8. A Novel Physiology-Based Mathematical Model to Estimate Red Blood Cell Lifespan in Different Human Age Groups.

    PubMed

    An, Guohua; Widness, John A; Mock, Donald M; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Direct measurement of red blood cell (RBC) survival in humans has improved from the original accurate but limited differential agglutination technique to the current reliable, safe, and accurate biotin method. Despite this, all of these methods are time consuming and require blood sampling over several months to determine the RBC lifespan. For situations in which RBC survival information must be obtained quickly, these methods are not suitable. With the exception of adults and infants, RBC survival has not been extensively investigated in other age groups. To address this need, we developed a novel, physiology-based mathematical model that quickly estimates RBC lifespan in healthy individuals at any age. The model is based on the assumption that the total number of RBC recirculations during the lifespan of each RBC (denoted by N max) is relatively constant for all age groups. The model was initially validated using the data from our prior infant and adult biotin-labeled red blood cell studies and then extended to the other age groups. The model generated the following estimated RBC lifespans in 2-year-old, 5-year-old, 8-year-old, and 10-year-old children: 62, 74, 82, and 86 days, respectively. We speculate that this model has useful clinical applications. For example, HbA1c testing is not reliable in identifying children with diabetes because HbA1c is directly affected by RBC lifespan. Because our model can estimate RBC lifespan in children at any age, corrections to HbA1c values based on the model-generated RBC lifespan could improve diabetes diagnosis as well as therapy in children.

  9. Influence of fruit maturity at harvest on the intensity of smoke taint in wine.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Renata; Boss, Paul K; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2015-05-18

    Bushfire smoke can affect the composition and sensory properties of grapes and wines, in some cases leading to wines which exhibit undesirable "smoky", "ashy" and "medicinal" characters. This study investigated the extent to which fruit maturity (i.e., ripeness) influences the perception of smoke taint in wine. Two white grape varieties (Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc) and two red grape varieties (Merlot and Shiraz) were exposed to smoke under experimental conditions, at approximately seven days post-veraison. Fruit was then harvested at two levels of maturity: Harvest A, when total soluble solids were 16-20 °Brix, i.e., the berry ripeness typically required for production of sparkling or light-bodied wines; and Harvest B, when total soluble solids were 22-25 °Brix, i.e., the berry ripeness typically required for production of full-bodied wines. The intensity of smoke taint in resulting wines was found to be influenced by fruit maturity, but differed between grape varieties. Smoke-related sensory attributes were apparent in Sauvignon Blanc wine made from early-harvested fruit and in Chardonnay wine made from late-harvested fruit, only; whereas Merlot and Shiraz wines exhibited smoke taint irrespective of fruit maturity. Smoke-derived volatile phenols, and various alcohols, esters and acids, were also quantified to determine the impact of smoke exposure and fruit maturity respectively, on wine composition.

  10. Straightforward strategy for quantifying rotundone in wine at ngL(-1) level using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Occurrence in different varieties of spicy wines.

    PubMed

    Culleré, Laura; Ontañón, Ignacio; Escudero, Ana; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a straightforward methodology to quantify rotundone in wine at ngL(-1) level. This compound, responsible for the black pepper aromatic note, may have sensorial relevance in some wines due to its low odor threshold, estimated at only 16ngL(-1) in red wines. The proposed strategy is based on solid phase extraction and analysis by GC-MS. The detection limit value was 0.6ngL(-1), which is more than one order of magnitude below its odor threshold in wine. Matrix effects have not been found and a synthetic wine calibration was proposed. The precision of the method was evaluated in reproducibility terms, obtaining a very acceptable value (RSD 4%). The optimized and validated strategy was applied to quantify this molecule in thirty wines belonging to different varieties as Graciano, Maturana tinta, Schioppettino, Shiraz, Duras and Gamay. Two of these wines exhibited levels higher than 100ngL(-1).

  11. The morphology of the sub-giant branch and red clump reveal no sign of age spreads in intermediate-age clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, N.; Niederhofer, F.

    2015-04-01

    A recent surprise in stellar cluster research, made possible through the precision of Hubble Space Telescope photometry, was that some intermediate-age (1-2 Gyr) clusters in the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds have main-sequence turn-off (MSTO) widths that are significantly broader than would be expected for a simple stellar population (SSP). One interpretation of these extended MSTOs (eMSTOs) is that age spreads of the order of ˜500 Myr exist within the clusters, radically redefining our view of stellar clusters, which are traditionally thought of as single-age, single-metallicity stellar populations. Here we test this interpretation by studying other regions of the CMD that should also be affected by such large age spreads, namely the width of the sub-giant branch (SGB) and the red clump (RC). We study two massive clusters in the LMC that display the eMSTO phenomenon (NGC 1806 and NGC 1846) and show that both have SGB and RC morphologies that are in conflict with expectations if large age spreads exist within the clusters. We conclude that the SGB and RC widths are inconsistent with extended star formation histories within these clusters, hence age spreads are not likely to be the cause of the eMSTO phenomenon. Our results are in agreement with recent studies that also have cast doubt on whether large age spreads can exist in massive clusters; namely the failure to find age spreads in young massive clusters, a lack of gas/dust detected within massive clusters, and homogeneous abundances within clusters that exhibit the eMSTO phenomenon.

  12. 2-bromo-4-methylphenol, a compound responsible for iodine off-flavor in wines.

    PubMed

    Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Tempere, Sophie; Riquier, Laurent; Lytra, Georgia; Marchand, Stéphanie; de Revel, Gilles

    2014-12-01

    This study focuses on an off-flavor in wines treated by an acidification technique involving ion-exchange resins. Applying reversed-phase HPLC on a C18 column to a contaminated wine extract resulted in 25 fractions in dilute alcohol medium, and only one, fraction 19, presented this off-flavor. Its composition was analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to olfactometry (GC-O) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), leading to the identification of 2-bromo-4-methylphenol for the first time as a compound associated with an "iodine" aroma in white, rosé, and red table wines. Contaminated wines presented a wide range of levels, with maximum concentrations of 28900, 7556, and 48000 ng/L and minimum values of 260, 35, and 63 ng/L in white, rosé, and red wines, respectively. Sensory studies investigating 2-bromo-4-methylphenol gave very interesting results. Individual thresholds ranged from 0.15 to >77.4 ng/L in reverse osmosis water, from 0.4 to >193.5 ng/L in white wine, from 0.5 to >774 ng/L in rosé wine, and from 0.5 to >774 ng/L in red wine. The very wide distribution of individual thresholds suggested the presence of two populations, sensitive and nonsensitive, with a bimodal frequency distribution. The odor descriptions quoted by the more sensitive group characterized 2-bromo-4-methylphenol using terms with "iodine" connotations in both the reverse osmosis water and red wine matrices. The descriptors for commercial wines naturally affected by this defect were seafood, iodine, mud, and fish.

  13. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  14. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  15. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  16. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  17. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  18. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  19. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  20. A comparison of zircon U-Pb age results of the Red Clay sequence on the central Chinese Loess Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hujun; Nie, Junsheng; Wang, Zhao; Peng, Wenbin; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Yunxiang

    2016-08-01

    Single grain zircon U-Pb geochronology has demonstrated great potentials in extracting tectonic and atmospheric circulation signal carried by aeolian, fluvial, and fluviolacustrine sediments. A routine in this sort of studies is analyzing 100–150 grains and then compares zircon U-Pb age spectra between the measured sample and the potential sources. Here we compared the zircon U-Pb age results of the late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence of two neighboring sites from the Chinese Loess Plateau where similar provenance signal is expected. Although the results from the 5.5 Ma sediment support this prediction, the results from the 3 Ma sediment at these two sites differ from each other significantly. These results emphasize the importance of increasing analysis number per sample and combining the zircon U-Pb geochronology with other provenance tools in order to get reliable provenance information.