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Sample records for aged white wines

  1. Changes in the sotolon content of dry white wines during barrel and bottle aging.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Valérie; Pons, Alexandre; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2008-04-23

    GC-MS in electron ionization mode (EI) was used as a simple, sensitive method for assaying sotolon [4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5) H-furanone] in various dry white wines. The impact of barrel-aging conditions, that is, whether yeast lees were present or not, on the formation of sotolon in dry white wines was then studied. The sotolon content was highest in dry white wines aged in new barrels without lees, often exceeding the perception threshold (8 microg/L). These results demonstrated that yeast lees were capable of minimizing the formation of sotolon in dry white wines during aging. The sotolon and oxygen contents of several bottle of the same white wine were also compared 7 years after bottling. At the range of dissolved oxygen concentrations generally measured, between 5 and 100 microg/L, the sotolon content remained below its perception threshold in wine. The perception threshold was exceeded only in wines with oxygen concentrations above 500 microg/L. The presence of dissolved oxygen in the wine samples analyzed also resulted in a decrease in their free sulfur dioxide content.

  2. Cardioprotective abilities of white wine.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianhua; Tosaki, Arpad; Cordis, Gerald A; Bertelli, Alberto A E; Bertelli, Aldo; Maulik, Nilanjana; Das, Dipak K

    2002-05-01

    To study if white wines, like red wine, can also protect the heart from ischemia reperfusion injury, ethanol-free extracts of three different white wines (WW1, WW2 and WW3) (100 mg/100 g body weight) were given orally to Sprague Dawley rats (200 g body weight) for three weeks. Control rats were given water only for the same period of time. After three weeks, rats were anesthetized and sacrificed, and the hearts excised for the preparation of isolated working rat heart. All hearts were subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by two hours of reperfusion. The results demonstrated that among the three different white wines, only WW2 showed cardioprotection as evidenced by improved post-ischemic ventricular recovery compared to control. The amount of malonaldehyde production in white wine-fed rat hearts were lower compared to that found in control hearts indicating reduced formation of the reactive oxygen species. In vitro studies using chemiluminescence technique revealed that these white wines scavenged both superoxide anions and hydroxyl radicals. The results of our study demonstrated that only WW2 white wine provided cardioprotection as evidenced by the improved the post-ischemic contractile recovery and reduced myocardial infarct size. The cardioprotective effect of this white wine may be attributed, at least in part, from its ability to function as an in vivo antioxidant.

  3. Study of low molecular weight phenolic compounds during the aging of sparkling wines manufactured with red and white grape varieties.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Bayón, M Angeles; Hernández, M Teresa; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Polo, M Carmen

    2003-03-26

    Thirty-two phenolic compounds of low molecular weight were identified in 36 white, blanc de noir, and rosé sparkling wines by using HPLC with photodiode array and mass spectrometry detection. Some of the identified compounds, such as cis- and trans-ethylcaftaric, cis- and trans-ethylcaffeic, and cis- or trans-ethyl-p-coumaric acids, 2R,3R-dihydroquercetin, 2R,3R-dihydrokaempferol 3-O-beta-d-glucoside, and a lignan derivative are described for the first time in sparkling wines manufactured with grapes of red varieties. This is also the first time that cis- or trans-diethylfertaric acids have been identified in wines. When cluster analysis was applied to the data of 19 of the 32 identified compounds, the greatest differences found in the low molecular weight phenolic compounds in sparkling wines were due to the grape variety from which they were manufactured, whereas aging time did not significantly influence phenolic composition. Nine phenolic compounds, that is, trans-p-coumaric and trans-caftaric acids, trans-resveratrol glucoside, cis-coutaric, trans-coutaric, cis-p-coumaric, and cis-caftaric acids, tryptophol, and syringic acid, permit the wines to be classified correctly in accordance with the grape variety from which they were manufactured.

  4. Assay of glutathione in must and wines using capillary electrophoresis and laser-induced fluorescence detection. Changes in concentration in dry white wines during alcoholic fermentation and aging.

    PubMed

    Lavigne, Valérie; Pons, Alexandre; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2007-01-12

    Glutathione (GSH) was assayed in must and wine using capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) detection. Sample preparation involved conjugating thiols with monobromobimane (MBB) in a 2-(N-cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid [CHES] buffer (179mM). The electrophoretic conditions were 30kV with a capillary length of 105cm from the inlet to the detector (120cm total length) and a 50microm inner diameter. Under these conditions, the complete separation from the other main non-volatile thiols took less than 20min. We also described the optimum conditions for derivatizing wine samples with MBB to increase eletrophoretic sensitivity. The detection limit for glutathione assay is 65nmol/L. This simple, sensitive method provides a specific assay of glutathione in reduced form, as the sample preparation technique does not modify the balance of oxidized and reduced forms. We used this method to monitor changes in the reduced glutathione content of a white wine during alcoholic fermentation and barrel aging.

  5. Influence of storage conditions on the formation of some volatile compounds in white fortified wines (Vins doux naturels) during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Cutzach, I; Chatonnet, P; Dubourdieu, D

    2000-06-01

    Sweet fortified wines, traditionally aged under strong oxidation conditions, have a characteristic aroma. An experimental study investigated the aging of white sweet fortified wines under various conditions. The development of various molecules, previously identified as characteristic of the aroma of this type of wine, was monitored by analysis. The development of these compounds during accelerated aging was affected by oxidation and the color of the wine. Aging in oak containers, variable storage temperatures, and variable modes of oxidation affect the formation of many of the volatile compounds responsible for the aging aroma of vins doux naturels (fortified wines). Furfural (1), 5-ethoxymethylfurfural (2), and sotolon (3) always reach concentrations above their perception thresholds in wood-aged wines, especially when new oak is used. The isomers of methyl-gamma-octalactone (4 and 5) are reliable indicators of aging in oak. Among the many identifiable volatile phenols, only the vanillin (7) content increases with aging, particularly if the container is made of wood and there is a high degree of oxidation. This molecule frequently reaches and even exceeds its perception threshold. We show here that vanillin and isomers of methyl-gamma-octalactone have a major impact on the aromas of fortified wines.

  6. UHPLC quantification of sotolon in white wine.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Mario; Fracassetti, Daniela; Tirelli, Antonio

    2014-05-28

    Sotolon (4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2,5-dihydrofuran-2-one) is a volatile compound involved in the atypical aging of dry white wine, causing an irreversible defect when it exceeds 7-8 μg L(-1), and it might be adopted as a chemical marker of oxidative aging. An easier and sensitive ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography method for its determination in white wine is reported. The sample preparation is based on the liquid/liquid extraction by dichloromethane and the purification by solid phase extraction of the redissolved dry sample. This method showed good linearity and intermediate repeatability (<0.7 μg L(-1)), high recovery (>89.5%), and low detection limit (0.029 μg L(-1)). This method was usefully applied to 30 Italian sparkling and still white wine samples, where sotolon was not detected in most of them and exceeded the perception threshold only in one sparkling wine (13 μg L(-1)). The proposed method could be used to further investigate the aging/storage conditions and the chemical-physical parameters affecting its formation in wine.

  7. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines.

  8. Identification of a sotolon pathway in dry white wines.

    PubMed

    Pons, Alexandre; Lavigne, Valérie; Landais, Yannick; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2010-06-23

    Sotolon (3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone) is a chiral furanone, an aroma compound known to be responsible for premature-aging flavor in dry white wines. Sotolon generally results from mild oxygenation during bottle aging, and until now, its formation pathways had not been elucidated. The ability of the main precursors described in the literature under very different experimental conditions to produce sotolon was tested. In model wine solution maintained at 40 degrees C for 6 months, sotolon was produced by the oxidative degradation of ascorbic acid. By use of GC-MS, 2-ketobutyric acid, produced by the oxidative degradation of the ascorbic acid in the model wine solution, was identified as a potent precursor of sotolon in this pathway. Ascorbic acid is an exogenous compound, added before bottling, but 2-ketobutyric acid was found even in white wines that had not been supplemented. Consequently, this sotolon formation pathway is also valid in white wines with no added ascorbic acid. In addition, we showed that Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were capable of producing variable concentrations of this ketone during alcoholic fermentation. In model wine solution, certain yeast strains released large quantities of 2-ketobutyric acid, similar to those found in oxidized dry white wines. In view of these results, the role of yeast strains in this premature-aging phenomenon of dry white wines is discussed. Finally, these investigations revealed that one chemical mechanism responsible for the low concentrations of sotolon found in prematurely aged white wines made from various grape varieties was an aldol condensation between 2-ketobutyric acid and acetaldehyde.

  9. Distribution and organoleptic impact of sotolon enantiomers in dry white wines.

    PubMed

    Pons, Alexandre; Lavigne, Valérie; Landais, Yannick; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2008-03-12

    The enantiomers of sotolon, a flavor compound typical of oxidized white wines, were separated by preparative HPLC to determine their perception thresholds and distribution in wines. The enantiomeric ratios of chiral sotolon were evaluated in several dry white wines using gas chromatography and a chiral column (beta-cyclodextrin) connected to a 2 m precolumn (BP20). The perception threshold of (S)-sotolon (0.8 microg/L) in model wine solution was 100 times lower than that of the (R) form (89 microg/L), indicating that (S)-sotolon contributes to the characteristic aroma of prematurely aged dry white wines. Both enantiomers are detected in white wines. Analysis of commercial dry white wines from various vintages and origins revealed three types of distribution patterns: the racemic form, an excess of R, and an excess of S. The proportions found in these wines may be partially explained by the slow racemization kinetics (20 months) of optically active sotolon.

  10. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging.

    PubMed

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air-liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed.

  11. Flor Yeast: New Perspectives Beyond Wine Aging

    PubMed Central

    Legras, Jean-Luc; Moreno-Garcia, Jaime; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Garcia-Martinez, Teresa; Mauricio, Juan C.; Mannazzu, Ilaria; Coi, Anna L.; Bou Zeidan, Marc; Dequin, Sylvie; Moreno, Juan; Budroni, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    The most important dogma in white-wine production is the preservation of the wine aroma and the limitation of the oxidative action of oxygen. In contrast, the aging of Sherry and Sherry-like wines is an aerobic process that depends on the oxidative activity of flor strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Under depletion of nitrogen and fermentable carbon sources, these yeast produce aggregates of floating cells and form an air–liquid biofilm on the wine surface, which is also known as velum or flor. This behavior is due to genetic and metabolic peculiarities that differentiate flor yeast from other wine yeast. This review will focus first on the most updated data obtained through the analysis of flor yeast with -omic tools. Comparative genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics of flor and wine yeast strains are shedding new light on several features of these special yeast, and in particular, they have revealed the extent of proteome remodeling imposed by the biofilm life-style. Finally, new insights in terms of promotion and inhibition of biofilm formation through small molecules, amino acids, and di/tri-peptides, and novel possibilities for the exploitation of biofilm immobilization within a fungal hyphae framework, will be discussed. PMID:27148192

  12. Colorimetric Sensor Array for White Wine Tasting.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo; Park, Tu San; Park, Soo Hyun; Kim, Joon Yong; Park, Seongmin; Son, Daesik; Bae, Young Min; Cho, Seong In

    2015-07-24

    A colorimetric sensor array was developed to characterize and quantify the taste of white wines. A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera captured images of the sensor array from 23 different white wine samples, and the change in the R, G, B color components from the control were analyzed by principal component analysis. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to analyze the chemical components of each wine sample responsible for its taste. A two-dimensional score plot was created with 23 data points. It revealed clusters created from the same type of grape, and trends of sweetness, sourness, and astringency were mapped. An artificial neural network model was developed to predict the degree of sweetness, sourness, and astringency of the white wines. The coefficients of determination (R2) for the HPLC results and the sweetness, sourness, and astringency were 0.96, 0.95, and 0.83, respectively. This research could provide a simple and low-cost but sensitive taste prediction system, and, by helping consumer selection, will be able to have a positive effect on the wine industry.

  13. Expression of the longevity proteins by both red and white wines and their cardioprotective components, resveratrol, tyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Subhendu; Lekli, Istvan; Gurusamy, Narasimman; Bertelli, Alberto A A; Das, Dipak K

    2009-03-01

    Resveratrol increases longevity through SirT1, which is activated with NAD(+) supplied by an anti-aging enzyme PBEF. SirT1 interacts with an anti-aging transcription factor, FoxO1, which is negatively regulated by Akt. Since white wine could have similar health benefits as red wine, we determined if white wine and its cardioprotective components possess anti-aging properties by feeding rats with these compounds. The hearts expressed SirT, FoxO, and PBEF in the order of white wine>resveratrol>tyrosol>hydroxytyrosol>red wine, while cardioprotection shown by reduction of infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis followed a different pattern: resveratrol>red wine>hydroxytyrosol>white wine>tyrosol, suggesting the existence of different signaling mechanisms for the induction of longevity and survival.

  14. Rapid fingerprinting of white wine oxidizable fraction and classification of white wines using disposable screen printed sensors and derivative voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Ugliano, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    This work describes the application of disposable screen printed carbon paste sensors for the analysis of the main white wine oxidizable compounds as well as for the rapid fingerprinting and classification of white wines from different grape varieties. The response of individual white wine antioxidants such as flavanols, flavanol derivatives, phenolic acids, SO2 and ascorbic acid was first assessed in model wine. Analysis of commercial white wines gave voltammograms featuring two unresolved anodic waves corresponding to the oxidation of different compounds, mostly phenolic antioxidants. Calculation of the first order derivative of measured current vs. applied potential allowed resolving these two waves, highlighting the occurrence of several electrode processes corresponding to the oxidation of individual wine components. Through the application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA), derivative voltammograms were used to discriminate among wines of different varieties.

  15. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine

    PubMed Central

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-01

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Methods: Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B6). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration. PMID:26771632

  16. Classification of white wine aromas with an electronic nose.

    PubMed

    Lozano, J; Santos, J P; Horrillo, M C

    2005-09-15

    This paper reports the use of a tin dioxide multisensor array based electronic nose for recognition of 29 typical aromas in white wine. Headspace technique has been used to extract aroma of the wine. Multivariate analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) as well as probabilistic neural networks (PNNs), has been used to identify the main aroma added to the wine. The results showed that in spite of the strong influence of ethanol and other majority compounds of wine, the system could discriminate correctly the aromatic compounds added to the wine with a minimum accuracy of 97.2%.

  17. Study of the formation mechanisms of some volatile compounds during the aging of sweet fortified wines.

    PubMed

    Cutzach, I; Chatonnet, P; Dubourdieu, D

    1999-07-01

    Sweet fortified wines, traditionally aged under strong oxidation conditions, have a characteristic aroma. An experimental laboratory study investigated the aging of red and white sweet fortified wines under various conditions. The formation of various molecules, previously identified as characteristic of the aroma of this type of wine, was monitored by analysis. The development of these compounds during accelerated aging was affected by oxidation and the color of the wine. Among the molecules studied, sotolon [3-hydroxy-4, 5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone] was one of the few molecules present in concentrations above the perception threshold, in both red and white wines. Buildup was strongly affected by the presence of oxygen in white wine subjected to accelerated aging. (Ethoxymethyl)furfural, formed from 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, and furfural, derived from sugars, are also involved in the aroma of sweet fortified white wines aged in oxygen-free conditions. The substances most characteristic of accelerated aging of sweet fortified red wines were 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural, acetylformoin, and hydroxymaltol, the formation of which is affected by oxidation, and dihydromaltol, formed in the absence of oxidation.

  18. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  19. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  20. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  1. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  2. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging...

  3. A Search for Fine Wines: Discovering Close Red Dwarf-White Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Mark; Finch, C. T.; Hambly, N. C.; Henry, T. J.; Jao, W.; Riedel, A. R.; Subasavage, J. P.; Winters, J. G.; RECONS

    2012-01-01

    Like fine wines, stars come in both red and white varieties. Here we present initial results of the Fine Wines Project that targets red dwarf-white dwarf pairs. The two scientific goals of Fine Wines are (1) to develop methods to estimate ages for red dwarfs based on the cooling ages of the white dwarfs, and (2) to identify suitable pairs for dynamical mass determinations of white dwarfs to probe their interior structures. Here we focus on the search for Fine Wines, including sample selection, elimination of false positives, and initial reconnaissance. The sample was extracted via color-color plots from a pool of more than 30,000 proper motion systems examined during the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) and UCAC3 Proper Motion (UPM) surveys. The initial sample of 75 best candidates is being observed for BVRI photometry and 3500-9500 A spectroscopy to confirm whether or not the systems are red dwarf-white dwarf pairs. Early results indicate that roughly 50% of the candidates selected are indeed Fine Wine systems. This effort is supported by the NSF through grant AST 09-08402 and via observations made possible by the SMARTS Consortium.

  4. Identification of key odorants related to the typical aroma of oxidation-spoiled white wines.

    PubMed

    Silva Ferreira, Antonio César; Hogg, Timothy; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2003-02-26

    The oxidative degradation of white wines rapidly leads to a loss of their sensorial qualities. The identification of the most important descriptors related with oxidation-spoiled wine was performed by a trained sensory panel. The terms selected were "honey-like", "farm-feed", "hay", and "woody-like". By gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis three aromatic zones related to these descriptors in the oxidation-spoiled white wines could be determined. Comparison of the aroma extract dilution analysis aromagrams of oxidation-spoiled white wines and a nonspoiled wine showed the highest values of dilution factors were attributed to 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN), and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon). A "forced aging" experiment was implemented to simulate the typical oxidation-spoiled aroma. Samples rated with the highest score in the ranking test were also those that presented the highest concentration of these four molecules. To test the sensory impact of these substances, a normal wine (unspoiled) was spiked with these molecules (with the exception of TDN) singly and in combination, and the similarity value (SV) between samples and the oxidation-spoiled white wines was then determined. The highest value from the similarity tests was 5.4 when the three compounds were added simultaneously; 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde alone was found to be responsible for 3.6, suggesting that, among the molecules studied, it is the most important contributor to the typical aroma of an oxidation-spoiled white wine.

  5. Does white wine qualify for French paradox? Comparison of the cardioprotective effects of red and white wines and their constituents: resveratrol, tyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Jocelyn I; Lekli, Istvan; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Das, Manika; Bertelli, Alberto A A; Das, Dipak K

    2008-10-22

    It is generally believed that the French paradox is related to the consumption of red wine and not other varieties of wine, including white wine or champagne. Some recent studies have indicated that white wine could also be as cardioprotective as red wine. The present investigation compares the cardioprotective abilities of red wine, white wine, and their principal cardioprotective constituents. Different groups of rats were gavaged with red wine, white wine, resveratrol, tyrosol, and hydroxytyrosol. Red wine and its constituent resveratrol and white wine and its constituents tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol all showed different degrees of cardioprotection as evidenced by their abilities to improve postischemic ventricular performance, reduce myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and reduce peroxide formation. It was discovered in this study that although each of the wines and their components increased the enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial complex (I-IV) and citrate synthase, which play very important roles in oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthesis, some of the groups were more complex-specific in inducing the activity compared to the other groups. Cardioprotective ability was further confirmed by increased expression of phospho-Akt, Bcl-2, eNOS, iNOS, COX-1, COX-2, Trx-1, Trx-2, and HO-1. The results of this study suggest that white wine can provide cardioprotection similar to red wine if it is rich in tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol.

  6. Polyphenols produced during red wine ageing.

    PubMed

    Brouillard, R; George, F; Fougerousse, A

    1997-01-01

    Over the past few years, it has been accepted that a moderate red wine consumption is a factor beneficial to human health. Indeed, people of France and Italy, the two major wine-producing European countries, eat a lot of fatty foods but suffer less from fatal heart strokes than people in North-America or in the northern regions of Europe, where wine is not consumed on a regular basis. For a time, ethanol was thought to be the "good" chemical species hiding behind what is known as the "French paradox". Researchers now have turned their investigations towards a family of natural substances called "polyphenols", which are only found in plants and are abundant in grapes. It is well known that these molecules behave as radical scavengers and antioxidants, and it has been demonstrated that they can protect cholesterol in the LDL species from oxidation, a process thought to be at the origin of many fatal heart attacks. However, taken one by one, it remains difficult to demonstrate which are the best polyphenols as far as their antioxidant activities are concerned. The main obstacle in that kind of research is not the design of the chemical and biological tests themselves, but surprisingly enough, the limited access to chemically pure and structurally elucidated polyphenolic compounds. In this article, particular attention will be paid to polyphenols of red wine made from Vitis vinifera cultivars. With respect to the "French paradox", we address the following question: are wine polyphenolic compounds identical to those found in grapes (skin, pulp and seed), or are there biochemical modifications specifically taking place on the native flavonoids when a wine ages? Indeed, structural changes occur during wine conservation, and one of the most studied of those changes concerns red wine colour evolution, called "wine ageing". As a wine ages, it has been demonstrated that the initially present grape pigments slowly turn into new more stable red pigments. That phenomenon goes on

  7. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration.

    PubMed

    Doulia, Danae S; Anagnos, Efstathios K; Liapis, Konstantinos S; Klimentzos, Demetrios A

    2016-11-05

    The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  8. White wine continuous protein stabilization by packed column.

    PubMed

    Pashova, Vesselina; Güell, Carme; López, Francisco

    2004-03-24

    Protein stabilization is an important stage in the production of white wine. This paper studies white wine protein stabilization using a continuous process with zirconium oxide (powder and pellets) packed in a column. The results show that the total proteins decrease by 50 and 70% for the pellet and powdered zirconium oxides, respectively. Treatment with all zirconium oxides improves wine stability. The effect of the heat regeneration process on both zirconium oxide forms is to increase the adsorption capacity. The wine treated with powdered zirconium oxide after the regeneration is the most effective for preventing protein haze. The protein profile of wine after treatment shows that the 20-50 kDa and 50-70 kDa fractions are the ones removed preferentially, while the 15 kDa fraction and the ones higher than 70 kDa are removed the least. The results show that the protein fraction with a molecular weight of 15 kDa does not affect the protein instability of the wines studied. The protein fraction with a molecular weight higher than 70 kDa seems to influence protein instability. The physicochemical properties of wine after treatment were not affected, and the values obtained were like those of the standardized range.

  9. Spectroscopic and theoretical investigations of phenolic acids in white wines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Castet, Frédéric; Fritsch, Alain; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Jourdes, Michael; Guillaume, François

    2017-04-15

    Model solutions of white wines containing phenolic acids have been investigated by means of UV-vis, laser induced fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques. In order to interpret the spectra, density functional theory calculations of phenolic acids have been performed. This work demonstrates that only hydroxynamic acids are in resonance with a laser excitation line with 325nm wavelength and are therefore at the origin of the strong enhancement of the Raman light scattering. Real white wines also display such resonance Raman scattering so that their content in hydroxycinnamic acids may be quite precisely determined. The analysis of the Raman spectrum of a real dry white wine reveals qualitatively the preponderance in its composition of p-coumaric and caftaric acids.

  10. Origin of the pinking phenomenon of white wines.

    PubMed

    Andrea-Silva, Jenny; Cosme, Fernanda; Ribeiro, Luís Filipe; Moreira, Ana S P; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Coimbra, Manuel A; Domingues, M Rosário M; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-06-18

    Pinking is the terminology used for the salmon-red blush color that may appear in white wines produced exclusively from white grape varieties. The isolation of pinking compounds and their analysis by RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS(n) showed that the origin of the pinking phenomenon in white wines from Vitis vinifera L. of Sı́ria grape variety are the anthocyanins, mainly malvidin-3-O-glucoside. The analysis showed that the anthocyanins were located both in the pulp and in the skin. Wine pinking severity was negatively related with the increase of the average temperature of the first 10 days of October, the final period of grape maturation. The minimum amount of anthocyanins needed for the pink color visualization in wine was 0.3 mg/L. The appearance of pinking in white wines after bottling is due to the lowering of free sulfur dioxide, which leads to an increase of the relative amount of the anthocyanins red flavylium form and their polymerization, resulting in the formation of colored compounds resistant to pH changes and sulfur dioxide bleaching.

  11. Wine metabolomics reveals new sulfonated products in bottled white wines, promoted by small amounts of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Ugliano, Maurizio; Perenzoni, Daniele; Angeli, Andrea; Pangrazzi, Paolo; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2016-01-15

    The impact of minute amounts of oxygen in the headspace on the post-bottling development of wine is generally considered to be very important, since oxygen can either damage or improve the quality of wine. This project aimed to gain new experimental evidence about the chemistry of the interaction between wine and oxygen. The experimental design included 216 bottles of 12 different white wines produced from 6 different cultivars (Inzolia, Muller Thurgau, Chardonnay, Grillo, Traminer and Pinot gris). Half of them were bottled using the standard industrial process with inert headspace and the other half without inert gas and with extra headspace. After 60 days of storage at room temperature, the wines were analysed using an untargeted LC-MS method. The use of a detailed holistic analysis workflow, with several levels of quality control and marker selection, gave 35 metabolites putatively induced by the different amounts of oxygen. These metabolite markers included ascorbic acid, tartaric acid and various sulfonated compounds observed in wine for the first time (e.g. S-sulfonated cysteine, glutathione and pantetheine; and sulfonated indole-3-lactic acid hexoside and tryptophol). The consumption of SO2 mediated by these sulfonation reactions was promoted by the presence of higher levels of oxygen on bottling.

  12. Oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction modulation by white wine.

    PubMed

    Bertelli, Alberto A E; Migliori, Massamiliano; Panichi, Vincenzo; Longoni, Bianamaria; Origlia, Nicola; Ferretti, Agnese; Cuttano, Maria Giuseppa; Giovannini, Luca

    2002-05-01

    Wine and olive oil, essential components of the Mediterranean diet, are considered important factors for a healthy life style. Tyrosol (T) and caffeic acid (CA) are found in both extra virgin olive oil and in white wine. Three white wines from the northeast Italy and four white wines from Germany were analyzed for their content of T and CA. These compounds were tested for their antioxidant activity and their capacity to modulate three different cytokines: IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha, which are currently considered to be the major cytokines influencing the acute phase of the inflammatory response. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of T and CA was analyzed by monitoring the oxidation of a redox-sensitive probe by using laser scanning confocal microscopy. T and CA, applied at nanomolar range, were found to significantly reduce the generation of oxidants induced by azobis-amidinopropanedihydrochloride. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy volunteers were incubated at 37 degrees C for 12 hours with 100 ng LPS (E. coli and P. maltofilia). Increasing doses of T and CA (150 nM to 300 microM) were added and cell-associated IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha were determined by immunoreactive tests after three freeze-thaw cycles. IL-6 release was also determined in cell surnatants. LPS-stimulated PBMC showed a significant increase in cytokine release, while T and CA, used at nanomolar concentrations, were able to modulate their expression. Taken together, these results suggest a remarkable effect of white wine non-alcoholic compounds on oxidative stress and inflammatory reaction.

  13. Oxidation management of white wines using cyclic voltammetry and multivariate process monitoring.

    PubMed

    Martins, Rui C; Oliveira, Raquel; Bento, Fatima; Geraldo, Dulce; Lopes, Vitor V; Guedes de Pinho, Paula; Oliveira, Carla M; Silva Ferreira, Antonio C

    2008-12-24

    The development of a fingerprinting strategy capable to evaluate the "oxidation status" of white wines based on cyclic voltammetry is proposed here. It is known that the levels of specific antioxidants and redox mechanisms may be evaluated by cyclic voltammetry. This electrochemical technique was applied on two sets of samples. One group was composed of normal aged white wines and a second group obtained from a white wine forced aging protocol with different oxygen, SO(2), pH, and temperature regimens. A study of antioxidant additions, namely ascorbic acid, was also made in order to establish a statistical link between voltammogram fingerprints and chemical antioxidant substances. It was observed that the oxidation curve presented typical features, which enables sample discrimination according to age, oxygen consumption, and antioxidant additions. In fact, it was possible to place the results into four significant orthogonal directions, compressing 99.8% of nonrandom features. Attempts were made to make voltammogram fingerprinting a tool for monitoring oxidation management. For this purpose, a supervised multivariate control chart was developed using a control sample as reference. When white wines are plotted onto the chart, it is possible to monitor the oxidation status and to diagnose the effects of oxygen regimes and antioxidant activity. Finally, quantification of substances implicated in the oxidation process as reagents (antioxidants) and products (off-flavors) was tried using a supervised algorithmic the partial least square regression analysis. Good correlations (r > 0.93) were observed for ascorbic acid, Folin-Ciocalteu index, total SO(2), methional, and phenylacetaldehyde. These results show that cyclic voltammetry fingerprinting can be used to monitor and diagnose the effects of wine oxidation.

  14. Polyphenolic compounds as chemical markers of wine ageing in contact with cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Martínez, J; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-01-15

    The nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of four red wines, one white, and one rosé aged using barrels and chips of cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS, to identify the phenolic compounds that woods other than oak contribute to wines, and if some of them can be used as chemical markers of ageing with them. A total of 68 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were identified, 15 found only in wines aged with acacia wood, 6 with cherry wood, and 1 with chestnut wood. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify wines aged in contact with these woods. In addition, some differences in the nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of wines were detected related to both the levels of compounds provided by each wood species and the different evolution of flavonols and flavanols in wines during ageing in barrels or in contact with chips.

  15. Comparative study of protein stabilization in white wine using zirconia and bentonite: physicochemical and wine sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Fernando N; Achaerandio, Isabel; Labb, Mariela A; Gell, Carme; Lpez, Francisco

    2006-12-27

    A semi-industrial application of the continuous stabilization of white wine protein using a column packed with zirconia was studied and compared to the traditional bentonite treatment using a Macabeu white wine. Physicochemical and wine sensory properties were evaluated using a rating system and triangle tests. Continuous protein stabilization was analyzed in three residence times, and the equivalent of 300 BV of wine was used for both treatments. Wine protein content was reduced by 21%, 40%, and 42% using the continuous process with residence times of 7.5, 15, and 30 min, respectively, and by 61.4% using the bentonite treatment. The wines obtained from the packed column were protein stable up to 25, 75, and 175 BV for residence times of 7.5, 15, and 30 min, respectively. The amount of polyphenol removed was less than 10%, and similar amounts were removed from the wine regardless of residence time, while 20.6% of polyphenol was removed using bentonite. The physicochemical and sensory properties of wine treated with bentonite were similar to those of wine treated with zirconia.

  16. Determination of sotolon content in South African white wines by two novel HPLC-UV and UPLC-MS methods.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Mario; Buica, Astrid; Fracassetti, Daniela; Stander, Marietjie; Tirelli, Antonio; du Toit, Wessel J

    2015-02-15

    Sotolon has been reported to play an important role in the atypical ageing and aroma character of many wines. A number of analytical techniques for sotolon analysis in wine have been reported, but these often require extensive sample preparation. In this work we report a HPLC-UV method and a novel UPLC-MS method to determine sotolon concentrations in white wines with little sample preparation applied for the first time for the evaluation of sotolon levels in South African wines. The validation showed that the instrumental methods had good accuracy, repeatability and linearity, but the UPLC-MS method proved more sensitive. For both methods, quantification limits were lower than the sotolon odour threshold in wine (10μg/L), 0.86μg/L and 0.013μg/L, for HPLC-UV and UPLC-MS methods, respectively. Sotolon levels in 65 South African white wines were often found to be lower than the reported odour threshold, with the highest concentration being 9.11μg/L. However, for low levels (<1μg/L), unknown interferences in certain wines led to sotolon not being quantified with the HPLC-UV method, which made the UPLC-MS method more suitable.

  17. Characterisation of free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds of La Mancha Verdejo white wines.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Palomo, E; Alonso-Villegas, R; González Viñas, M A

    2015-04-15

    The aroma of Verdejo La Mancha white wines was studied by instrumental and sensory analysis across five consecutive vintages to determine their typicity and quality. Free and glycosidically-bound aroma compounds were isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE) to later be analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seventy-four (74) free aroma compounds and thirty-six (36) bound aroma compounds were identified and quantified in La Mancha Verdejo wines oven this five year period. Based on the result, Verdejo white wines presents a complex chemical profile with a wealth of aromas in its aromatic composition. The sensory profile of Verdejo wines was evaluated by experienced wine-tasters and was characterised by fresh, citric, green apple, fruity and tropical fruit aroma descriptors. This study shows the first complete aromatic characterisation of La Mancha Verdejo white wines, also the data suggest that these wines present a great aromatic potential.

  18. White wine taste and mouthfeel as affected by juice extraction and processing.

    PubMed

    Gawel, Richard; Day, Martin; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Holt, Helen; Waters, Elizabeth J; Smith, Paul A

    2014-10-15

    The juice used to make white wine can be extracted using various physical processes that affect the amount and timing of contact of juice with skins. The influence of juice extraction processes on the mouthfeel and taste of white wine and their relationship to wine composition were determined. The amount and type of interaction of juice with skins affected both wine total phenolic concentration and phenolic composition. Wine pH strongly influenced perceived viscosity, astringency/drying, and acidity. Despite a 5-fold variation in total phenolics among wines, differences in bitter taste were small. Perceived viscosity was associated with higher phenolics but was not associated with either glycerol or polysaccharide concentration. Bitterness may be reduced by using juice extraction and handling processes that minimize phenolic concentration, but lowering phenolic concentration may also result in wines of lower perceived viscosity.

  19. Use of Commercial Dry Yeast Products Rich in Mannoproteins for White and Rosé Sparkling Wine Elaboration.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Bueno-Herrera, Marta; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén

    2015-06-17

    In sparkling wines, mannoproteins released during yeast autolysis largely affect their final quality. This process is very slow and may take several months. The aim of this work was to study the effect of several commercial dry yeast autolysates on the chemical composition, foam, and sensory properties of white and rosé sparkling wines aged on lees for 9 months during two consecutive vintages. The addition of these products in the tirage phase did not affect either the content of phenolic compounds, amino acids, and biogenic amines or the foam properties. The commercial product with the highest mannoprotein content and the highest purity caused significant changes in the volatile composition of the wines and enhanced the fruity aromas in both Verdejo and Godello sparkling wines.

  20. Evaluation of the active odorants in Amontillado sherry wines during the aging process.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Lourdes; Zea, Luis; Moreno, Jose A; Medina, Manuel

    2010-06-09

    Odor compounds in Amontillado sherry white wine obtained by means of biological aging first and oxidative aging second in American oak casks were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry. Sniffing revealed fruity, fatty, chemical, spicy, vegetable, floral and empyreumatic odors, the first being the most common. Olfactometric intensity was assessed on a four-point scale. Most changes were detected during the first years of the oxidative aging step. Ethyl isobutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl octanoate, and eugenol were the strongest odor compounds detected by sniffing in wines. The odor spectrum values for all active odorants were calculated in relation to ethyl octanoate, this compound being the most potent odorant. On the basis of olfactometric intensities and odor spectrum values, ethyl octanoate, ethyl butanoate, eugenol, ethyl isobutanoate, and sotolon can be deemed the main group of potent odorants in Amontillado wines. These compounds maintained similar relative contributions to the aroma profile during the oxidative aging step.

  1. Fining treatments of white wines by means of polymeric adjuvants for their stabilization against browning.

    PubMed

    Spagna, G; Barbagallo, R N; Pifferi, P G

    2000-10-01

    Browning and maderization represent important problems for white wine stability. Essentially, this is due to polyphenol oxidation in the wine. The problem has been remedied by adsorption of polyphenol compounds with polymeric adjuvants (chitosans, scleroprotein, and polylactic acid) not used traditionally in wine-making. In particular, some chitosans reduced the polyphenol content and stabilized two Italian white wines (Trebbiano and Albana) to the same extent as did potassium caseinate, an adjuvant normally used in enology. Moreover, chitosans could be reused after a simple regeneration process.

  2. Phenolic compositions of 50 and 30 year sequences of Australian red wines: the impact of wine age.

    PubMed

    McRae, Jacqui M; Dambergs, Robert G; Kassara, Stella; Parker, Mango; Jeffery, David W; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2012-10-10

    The phenolic composition of red wine impacts upon the color and mouthfeel and thus quality of the wine. Both of these characteristics differ depending on the age of a wine, with the purple of young wines changing to brick red and the puckering or aggressive astringency softening in older wines. This study investigated the color parameters, tannin concentrations and tannin composition of a 50 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon wines from a commercial label as well as 30 year series of Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines from a separate commercial label to assess the impact of wine age on phenolic composition and concentration. The wine color density in wines of 40 to 50 years old was around 5 AU compared with 16 AU of wine less than 12 months old, which correlated well with the concentration of non-bleachable pigments and pigmented polymers. Conversely, the anthocyanin concentrations in 10 year old wines were substantially lower than that of recently bottled wines (around 100 mg/L compared with 627 mg/L, respectively), adding further evidence that non-bleachable pigments including pigmented polymers play a much larger role in long-term wine color than anthocyanins. No age-related trend was observed for tannin concentration, indicating that the widely noted softer astringency of older red wines cannot necessarily be directly related to lower concentrations of soluble wine tannin and is potentially a consequence of changes in tannin structure. Wine tannins from older wines were generally larger than tannins from younger wines and showed structural changes consistent with oxidation.

  3. Oxygen contribution to wine aroma evolution during bottle aging.

    PubMed

    Ugliano, Maurizio

    2013-07-03

    Wine aroma undergoes major changes during bottle aging, which are deeply influenced by the degree of oxygen exposure in the bottle. This review discusses the involvement of oxygen in the main chemical transformations occurring in wine aroma composition during bottle aging, with particular emphasis on the formation of oxidative aroma compounds and formation/degradation of sulfur-containing volatile compounds. The implications for wine sensory properties are discussed, as well as some practical aspects of oxygen management during bottle aging, including the role of closure oxygen permeability.

  4. Comparison between different types of carboxylmethylcellulose and other oenological additives used for white wine tartaric stabilization.

    PubMed

    Guise, R; Filipe-Ribeiro, L; Nascimento, D; Bessa, O; Nunes, F M; Cosme, F

    2014-08-01

    Carboxylmethylcellulose (CMC) is authorised to prevent wine tartaric instability. The effect of CMC structural characteristics on their effectiveness is not well understood. The main purpose of this study was to compare the impact of CMC's with different degrees of substitution and molecular weight, on tartaric stability, tartaric acid, mineral concentration, phenolic compounds, chromatic and sensory characteristics in white wines, and compare its effectiveness with other oenological additives. Mini-contact test showed that all CMC's and metatartaric acid stabilized the wines; however, some arabic gums and mannoproteins do not stabilized the wines. CMC's had no significant effect on tartaric acid, potassium, calcium and sensory attributes. Tartaric stabilization effectiveness depends on CMC's degree of substitution, but also on wine matrix, probably its initial potassium content. Results suggest that CMC is a good alternative to white wine tartaric stabilization; nevertheless deeper structure knowledge is necessary in order to choose the appropriate CMC for a given tartaric instability.

  5. Application of an E-Tongue to the Analysis of Monovarietal and Blends of White Wines

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Manuel; Llobera, Andreu; Ipatov, Andrey; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Mínguez, Santiago; Demming, Stefanie; Büttgenbach, Stephanus; Capdevila, Fina; Domingo, Carme; Jiménez-Jorquera, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a multiparametric system capable of characterizing and classifying white wines according to the grape variety and geographical origin. Besides, it quantifies specific parameters of interest for quality control in wine. The system, known as a hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors—six ISFET based sensors, a conductivity sensor, a redox potential sensor and two amperometric electrodes, a gold microelectrode and a microelectrode for sensing electrochemical oxygen demand—and a miniaturized optofluidic system. The test sample set comprised eighteen Catalan monovarietal white wines from four different grape varieties, two Croatian monovarietal white wines and seven bi- and trivarietal mixtures prepared from the Catalan varieties. Different chemometric tools were used to characterize (i.e., Principal Component Analysis), classify (i.e., Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy) and quantify (i.e., Partial-Least Squares) some parameters of interest. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the multisensor system for analysis of wine. PMID:22163879

  6. Light-induced changes in bottled white wine and underlying photochemical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Grant-Preece, Paris; Barril, Celia; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Scollary, Geoffrey R; Clark, Andrew C

    2017-03-04

    Bottled white wine may be exposed to UV-visible light for considerable periods of time before it is consumed. Light exposure may induce an off-flavor known as "sunlight" flavor, bleach the color of the wine, and/or increase browning and deplete sulfur dioxide. The changes that occur in bottled white wine exposed to light depend on the wine composition, the irradiation conditions, and the light exposure time. The light-induced changes in the aroma, volatile composition, color, and concentrations of oxygen and sulfur dioxide in bottled white wine are reviewed. In addition, the photochemical reactions thought to have a role in these changes are described. These include the riboflavin-sensitized oxidation of methionine, resulting in the formation of methanethiol and dimethyl disulfide, and the photodegradation of iron(III) tartrate, which gives rise to glyoxylic acid, an aldehyde known to react with flavan-3-ols to form yellow xanthylium cation pigments.

  7. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation of white wine chromophoric colloidal matter.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Christian; Parot, Jérémie; Gonsior, Michael; Nikolantonaki, Maria; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Parlanti, Edith; Gougeon, Régis D

    2017-04-01

    Two analytical separation methods-size-exclusion chromatography and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation-were implemented to evaluate the integrity of the colloidal composition of Chardonnay white wine and the impact of pressing and fermentations on the final macromolecular composition. Wine chromophoric colloidal matter, representing UV-visible-absorbing wine macromolecules, was evaluated by optical and structural measurements combined with the description of elution profiles obtained by both separative techniques. The objective of this study was to apply these two types of fractionation on a typical Chardonnay white wine produced in Burgundy and to evaluate how each of them impacted the determination of the macromolecular chromophoric content of wine. UV-visible and fluorescence measurements of collected fractions were successfully applied. An additional proteomic study revealed that grape and microorganism proteins largely impacted the composition of chromophoric colloidal matter of Chardonnay wines. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation appeared to be more reliable and less invasive with respect to the native chemical environment of chromophoric wine macromolecules, and hence is recommended as a tool to fractionate chromophoric colloidal matter in white wines. Graphical Abstract An innovative macromolecular separation method based on Asymmetrical Flow Field-Flow Fractionation was developed to better control colloidal dynamics across Chardonnay white winemaking.

  8. Role of major wine constituents in the foam properties of white and rosé sparkling wines.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lapuente, Leticia; Guadalupe, Zenaida; Ayestarán, Belén; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia

    2015-05-01

    The chemical composition of sparkling wines is directly related to their foam quality, but the compounds responsible are not yet completely established. This work aims at identifying the contribution of the different wine compounds to the foaming properties of white and rosé sparkling wines. Our results demonstrated the positive contribution of anthocyanins and amino acids to the foamability parameters HM (maximum height reached by foam after CO2 injection) and HS (foam stability height during CO2 injection), and the negative contribution of proanthocyanidins. Mannoproteins and polysaccharides rich in arabinose and galactose (PRAG) were poor foam formers but good foam stabilizers. The different forms of malvidin showed the highest influence on the HM and HS parameters, followed by amino acid compounds, mainly β-alanine. The model to explain foam stability was only predicted by polysaccharides from grapes, concretely PRAG. To our knowledge, this is the first time these correlations in sparkling wines have been described.

  9. Reducing the sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines by solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Saidane, Dorra; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Birot, Marc; Deleuze, Hervé

    2013-11-01

    The high sulfur-dioxide binding power of sweet white wines may be reduced by extracting the naturally present carbonyl compounds from wine that are responsible for carbonyl bisulphites formation. The carbonyl compounds mainly responsible for trapping SO2 are acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, and 2-oxoglutaric acid. The method employed was selective solid phase extraction, using phenylsulfonylhydrazine as a scavenging agent. The scavenging function was grafted onto a support prepared from raw materials derived from lignin. This approach is more acceptable to winemakers than the polymer media previously reported, as it reduces the possible contamination of wine to molecules already present in the wine making process.

  10. Formation and Degradation of Furfuryl Alcohol, 5-Methylfurfuryl Alcohol, Vanillyl Alcohol, and Their Ethyl Ethers in Barrel-Aged Wines.

    PubMed

    Spillman; Pollnitz; Liacopoulos; Pardon; Sefton

    1998-02-16

    Furfural, 5-methylfurfural, and vanillin co-occurred in 64 barrel-aged red, white, and model wines with the reduction products, furfuryl alcohol, 5-methylfurfuryl alcohol, and vanillyl alcohol, and with the corresponding ethyl ethers of these alcohols. Hydrolytic studies in a model wine have shown that 5-methylfurfuryl ethyl ether is formed rapidly from 5-methylfurfuryl alcohol, but both decomposed quickly under the conditions. Vanillyl ethyl ether was also formed relatively rapidly, and both this ether and vanillyl alcohol were stable in the model wine. The formation of furfuryl ethyl ether from furfuryl alcohol and the subsequent decomposition of these two compounds were comparatively slow. The relative concentration of these aromatic alcohols and ethers in the barrel-aged wines was consistent with the observed stability of the furan derivatives, but low concentrations of vanillyl alcohol and vanillyl ethyl ether observed in all samples showed that factors other than solvolytic degradation were responsible for reducing the concentration of these compounds in wine. Furfuryl ethyl ether, which had an aroma threshold of 430 µg/L in a white wine, was found at approximate concentrations of up to 230 µg/L in the wines.

  11. Unveiling the potential of novel yeast protein extracts in white wines clarification and stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Joana P.; Neto, Rodrigo; Centeno, Filipe; De Fátima Teixeira, Maria; Gomes, Ana Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Fining agents derived from animal and mineral sources are widely used to clarify and stabilize white wines. Nevertheless, health and environmental problems are being raised, concerning the allergenic and environmental impact of some of those fining products. In this study, our aim is to validate the potential of yeast protein extracts, obtained from an alternative and safe source, naturally present in wine: oenological yeasts. Three untreated white wines were used in this work in order to evaluate the impact of these novel yeast protein extracts (YPE) in terms of the wine clarification and stabilization improvement. Two separated fining trials were thus conducted at laboratory scale and the yeast alternatives were compared with reference fining agents, obtained from mineral, animal and vegetable origins. Our results indicate that YPE were capable to promote (i) brilliance/color improvement, (ii) turbidity reduction (76–89% comparing with the untreated wines), and (iii) production of compact and homogeneous lees (44% smaller volume than obtained with bentonite). Additionally, after submitting wines to natural and forced oxidations, YPE treatments revealed (iv) different forms of colloidal stabilization, by presenting comparable or superior effects when particularly compared to casein. Altogether, this study reveals that YPE represent a promising alternative for white wine fining, since they are resultant from a natural and more sustainable origin, at present not regarded as potential allergenic according to Regulation (EC) No. 1169/2011. PMID:25853122

  12. Unveiling the potential of novel yeast protein extracts in white wines clarification and stabilization.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Joana P; Neto, Rodrigo; Centeno, Filipe; De Fátima Teixeira, Maria; Gomes, Ana Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Fining agents derived from animal and mineral sources are widely used to clarify and stabilize white wines. Nevertheless, health and environmental problems are being raised, concerning the allergenic and environmental impact of some of those fining products. In this study, our aim is to validate the potential of yeast protein extracts, obtained from an alternative and safe source, naturally present in wine: oenological yeasts. Three untreated white wines were used in this work in order to evaluate the impact of these novel yeast protein extracts (YPE) in terms of the wine clarification and stabilization improvement. Two separated fining trials were thus conducted at laboratory scale and the yeast alternatives were compared with reference fining agents, obtained from mineral, animal and vegetable origins. Our results indicate that YPE were capable to promote (i) brilliance/color improvement, (ii) turbidity reduction (76-89% comparing with the untreated wines), and (iii) production of compact and homogeneous lees (44% smaller volume than obtained with bentonite). Additionally, after submitting wines to natural and forced oxidations, YPE treatments revealed (iv) different forms of colloidal stabilization, by presenting comparable or superior effects when particularly compared to casein. Altogether, this study reveals that YPE represent a promising alternative for white wine fining, since they are resultant from a natural and more sustainable origin, at present not regarded as potential allergenic according to Regulation (EC) No. 1169/2011.

  13. The effect of red and white wine on color changes of nanofilled and nanohybrid resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Tanthanuch, Saijai; Peerasukprasert, Thanwalee; Chanmanee, Nilobon; Chaisomboonphun, Parnchanok; Rodklai, Apisara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the effect of red and white wine on color changes of nanofilled and nanohybrid resin composite. Materials and Methods Sixty specimens of each resin composite were prepared. Baseline data color values were recorded using a spectrophotometer. Three groups of discs (n = 20) were then alternately immersed in red, white wine, and deionized water (as a control) for twenty five minutes and artificial saliva for five minutes for four cycles. Specimens were then stored in artificial saliva for twenty two hours. This process was repeated for five days following immersion in artificial saliva for two days. Subsequently, the process was repeated again. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated ANOVA, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey's HSD. Results Red wine caused significantly higher color change (ΔE* > 3.3) than did white wine and deionized water (p < 0.05). Nanohybrid resin composites had significantly more color changes than nanofilled resin composite (p < 0.05). Conclusions The effect of red and white wine on the color changes of resin composite restorative materials depended upon the physical and chemical composition of the restorative materials and the types of wine. PMID:27200281

  14. Immunochemical investigation of allergenic residues in experimental and commercially-available wines fined with egg white proteins.

    PubMed

    Uberti, Francesca; Danzi, Roberta; Stockley, Creina; Peñas, Elena; Ballabio, Cinzia; Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Tarantino, Chiara; Restani, Patrizia

    2014-09-15

    Proteinaceous egg whites are widely used as a fining agent during the production of red wines. Residues of egg white in the final wine could present a risk for individuals allergic to eggs. This study investigated the presence of allergenic residues in both red and white wines fined with egg whites. Experimental and commercially available wines fined with egg whites, with or without subsequent bentonite fining, were studied. Unfined wines were used as negative controls. The physicochemical characteristics of each wine were determined to assess their possible role in enhancing or hindering the elimination of allergenic residues from wine. The amount of egg white protein residues was investigated both by a specifically developed/validated ELISA test and by immunoblotting. Both immunochemical tests used the same anti-total egg white protein antibody and were highly sensitive to the allergen. No egg white protein was detected in the wines studied in either immunochemical test, irrespective of the physicochemical characteristics of the wine, the type and dosage of the fining agent and the oenological process used. The risk of adverse reactions in egg-allergic individuals should therefore be considered negligible, but the exemption from labelling should be allowed only when the absence of residues is confirmed by analytical controls.

  15. Evidence for yeast autophagy during simulation of sparkling wine aging: a reappraisal of the mechanism of yeast autolysis in wine.

    PubMed

    Cebollero, Eduardo; Carrascosa, Alfonso V; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2005-01-01

    Yeast autolysis is the source of several molecules responsible for the quality of wines aged in contact with yeast cells. However, the mechanisms of yeast autolysis during wine aging are not completely understood. All descriptions of yeast autolysis in enological conditions emphasize the disturbance of cell organization as the starting event in the internal digestion of the cell, while no reference to autophagy is found in wine-related literature. By using yeast mutants defective in the autophagic or the Cvt pathways we have demonstrated that autophagy does take place in wine production conditions. This finding has implications for the genetic improvement of yeasts for accelerated autolysis.

  16. Analysis of terpenes in white wines using SPE-SPME-GC/MS approach.

    PubMed

    Dziadas, Mariusz; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2010-09-10

    Terpenes contribute to some white wines aroma, especially these produced from Muscat grapes and others aromatic ones of high terpene contents (Gewürtztramminer, Traminer, Huxel, Sylvaner). Terpenes are present in wine in free and bound (in a form of glycosides) forms. Analyses of bound terpenes are usually performed using solid phase extraction after hydrolysis of glycosides. A new method for determination of terpenes from wine, focused on determination of terpenes released after acidic hydrolysis, based on solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by solid phase microextraction (SPME) was developed. Non-polar (free) and polar (bound terpenes) fractions were separated on 500 mg C18 cartridges. Bound terpenes were sampled using SPME immediately after acidic hydrolysis in non-equilibrium conditions. Application of combined SPE-SPME approach allowed quantification of selected terpenes in lower concentrations than in SPE approach and added a selectivity to the method, which enabled detection of compounds non-detectable in SPE extracts. Results obtained by SPE and SPE-SPME approach were correlated for free terpenes and those released after acid hydrolysis 20 white wines obtained from different grape varieties (R(2)=0.923). Although developed for wine terpenes analysis, SPE followed by SPME approach has a great potential in analysis of other bound wine flavor compounds, especially those potent odorants present in trace amounts.

  17. New method for reducing the binding power of sweet white wines.

    PubMed

    Blasi, Mélanie; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Dubourdieu, Denis; Deleuze, Hervé

    2008-09-24

    Sulfur dioxide is now considered to be a toxic chemical by most world health authorities. However, it remains an irreplaceable additive in enology for wine conservation, combining antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Sweet white wines from botrytized grapes retain particularly high SO 2 levels due to their high sulfur dioxide binding power. This paper presents a new method for reducing this binding power by removing some of the carbonyl compounds responsible, which are naturally present in these wines. The main carbonyl compounds responsible for the SO 2 binding power of sweet wines were removed, that is, acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, 2-oxoglutaric acid, and 5-oxofructose. The method retained was selective liquid-solid removal, using phenylsulfonylhydrazine as a scavenging agent. The scavenging function was grafted on different classes of porous polymer supports, and its efficiency was evaluated on sweet white wines under conditions intended to conserve their organoleptic qualities. The results obtained showed that the method was efficient for removing carbonyl compounds and significantly reduced the binding power of the wines. Sensory analysis revealed that this process did not deteriorate their organoleptic qualities.

  18. Metabolomic by 1H NMR spectroscopy differentiates "Fiano di Avellino" white wines obtained with different yeast strains.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Pierluigi; Spaccini, Riccardo; Francesca, Nicola; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2013-11-13

    We employed (1)H NMR spectroscopy to examine the molecular profile of a white "Fiano di Avellino" wine obtained through fermentation by either a commercial or a selected autochthonous Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast starter. The latter was isolated from the same grape variety used in the wine-making process in order to strengthen the relationship between wine molecular quality and its geographical origin. (1)H NMR spectra, where water and ethanol signals were suppressed by a presaturated T1-edited NMR pulse sequence, allowed for definition of the metabolic content of the two differently treated wines. Elaboration of NMR spectral data by multivariate statistical analyses showed that the two different yeasts led to significant diversity in the wine metabolomes. Our results indicate that metabolomics by (1)H NMR spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistical analysis enables wine differentiation as a function of yeast species and other wine-making factors, thereby contributing to objectively relate wine quality to the terroir.

  19. Chemiomics: Network Reconstruction and Kinetics of Port Wine Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Monforte, Ana Rita; Jacobson, Dan; Silva Ferreira, A. C.

    2015-02-11

    Network reconstruction (NR) has proven to be useful in the detection and visualization of relationships among the compounds present in a Port wine aging data set. This view of the data provides a considerable amount of information with which to understand the kinetic contexts of the molecules represented by peaks in each chromatogram. The aim of this paper was to use NR together with the determination of kinetic parameters to extract more information about the mechanisms involved in Port wine aging. The volatile compounds present in samples of Port wines spanning 128 years in age were measured with the use of GC-MS. After chromatogram alignment, a peak matrix was created, and all peak vectors were compared to one another to determine their Pearson correlations over time. A correlation network was created and filtered on the basis of the resulting correlation values. Some nodes in the network were further studied in experiments on Port wines stored under different conditions of oxygen and temperature in order to determine their kinetic parameters. The resulting network can be divided into three main branches. The first branch is related to compounds that do not directly correlate to age, the second branch contains compounds affected by temperature, and the third branch contains compounds associated with oxygen. Compounds clustered in the same branch of the network have similar expression patterns over time as well as the same kinetic order, thus are likely to be dependent on the same technological parameters. Network construction and visualization provides more information with which to understand the probable kinetic contexts of the molecules represented by peaks in each chromatogram. Finally, the approach described here is a powerful tool for the study of mechanisms and kinetics in complex systems and should aid in the understanding and monitoring of wine quality.

  20. Chemiomics: Network Reconstruction and Kinetics of Port Wine Aging

    DOE PAGES

    Monforte, Ana Rita; Jacobson, Dan; Silva Ferreira, A. C.

    2015-02-11

    Network reconstruction (NR) has proven to be useful in the detection and visualization of relationships among the compounds present in a Port wine aging data set. This view of the data provides a considerable amount of information with which to understand the kinetic contexts of the molecules represented by peaks in each chromatogram. The aim of this paper was to use NR together with the determination of kinetic parameters to extract more information about the mechanisms involved in Port wine aging. The volatile compounds present in samples of Port wines spanning 128 years in age were measured with the usemore » of GC-MS. After chromatogram alignment, a peak matrix was created, and all peak vectors were compared to one another to determine their Pearson correlations over time. A correlation network was created and filtered on the basis of the resulting correlation values. Some nodes in the network were further studied in experiments on Port wines stored under different conditions of oxygen and temperature in order to determine their kinetic parameters. The resulting network can be divided into three main branches. The first branch is related to compounds that do not directly correlate to age, the second branch contains compounds affected by temperature, and the third branch contains compounds associated with oxygen. Compounds clustered in the same branch of the network have similar expression patterns over time as well as the same kinetic order, thus are likely to be dependent on the same technological parameters. Network construction and visualization provides more information with which to understand the probable kinetic contexts of the molecules represented by peaks in each chromatogram. Finally, the approach described here is a powerful tool for the study of mechanisms and kinetics in complex systems and should aid in the understanding and monitoring of wine quality.« less

  1. Fate of key odorants in Sauternes wines through aging.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Sabine; Jerkovic, Vesna; Meurée, Ariane; Timmermans, Aurore; Collin, Sonia

    2009-09-23

    Recent work has revealed the importance of polyfunctional thiols in young Sauternes wines, but very little is yet known about the fate of such compounds during aging in the bottle. In this study, two Sauternes wines were investigated by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) after XAD 2 and thiol-specific extractions. Most polyfunctional thiols (3-sulfanylpropyl acetate, 2-sulfanylethyl acetate, 3-methyl-3-sulfanylbutanal, etc.) proved to be completely degraded after 2 years of bottle aging in a cellar. Only 3-sulfanylhexan-1-ol was still found in aged samples at concentrations above its threshold value. Most other key odorants found in the young noble rot wine were still detected 5-6 years after harvest: varietal aroma (alpha-terpineol), sotolon, fermentation alcohols (3-methylbutan-1-ol and 2-phenylethanol) and esters (ethyl butyrate, isobutyrate, hexanoate, and isovalerate), and oak maturation-related compounds (guaiacol, vanillin, eugenol, beta-damascenone, trans-non-2-enal, beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, gamma-nonalactone, and furaneol), as well as three newly identified aromas exhibiting interesting cake, honey-like, and dried apricot odors: homofuraneol, theaspirane, and gamma-decalactone. Interestingly, abhexon, never mentioned in sweet wines before, was found to be synthesized during bottle aging. An optimized extraction method allowed us to quantify this honey/spicy compound at levels close to its threshold value (up to 7 microg/L after 5-6 years), thus suggesting a key role of this strong odorant in old Sauternes wines.

  2. The Influence of the Variety, Vineyard, and Vintage on the Romanian White Wines Quality

    PubMed Central

    Hosu, Anamaria; Floare-Avram, Veronica; Feher, Ioana; Inceu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    The wine is one of the most consumed drinks over the world, being subjected to falsification or adulteration regarding the variety, vintage, and geographical region. In this study, the influence of different characteristics of wines (type, production year, and origin) on the total phenolic content, total flavonoids content, antioxidant activity, total sugars content, pH, and 18O/16O isotopic ratio was investigated. The differentiation of selected wines on the basis of tested parameters was investigated using chemometric techniques, such as analysis of variance, cluster analysis, and principal component analysis. The experimental results are in agreement with other outcomes and allow concluding that variety and vineyard have the major influence on the studied parameters, but, also, statistical interaction effect between year and vineyard and year and variety is observed in some cases. The obtained results have demonstrated that these parameters together with chemometric techniques show a significant potential to be used for discrimination of white wines. PMID:27840767

  3. Structure elucidation of phenolic compounds from red/white wine with antiatherogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Demopoulos, Constantinos A

    2003-06-10

    The oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is supposed to play a critical role in atherogenesis. During this oxidation a potent inflammatory phospholipid mediator named platelet activating factor (PAF) is produced, and it is believed to be the key for the initiation of the inflammation and therefore for the process of atherogenesis. From many studies, it is established that wine has beneficial effects on health, including protection against cardiovascular diseases. According to our point of view, the cardioprotective effect of wine may be attributed partly to the existence of PAF antagonists in red or white wine and partly to the existence of antioxidants that reduce the oxidation of LDL and therefore the production of PAF. In this study, wine compounds that antagonize PAF were isolated and purified via chromatographic procedures, and determined structurally using chemical, enzymatic and spectroscopic methods.

  4. The role of light, temperature and wine bottle colour on pigment enhancement in white wine.

    PubMed

    Dias, Daniel A; Smith, Trevor A; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2012-12-15

    Pigmentation enhancement in a Chardonnay wine with high flavan-3-ol concentration was examined by irradiating the wine under controlled conditions. Heating the wine in darkness required temperatures in excess of 50°C before enhanced pigmentation became apparent. It was found that ultraviolet and, to a lesser extent, low wavelength visible light contributed to pigment production. The development of pigmentation depended on wine bottle glass colour: Flint>Arctic Blue>French Green>Antique Green. This is in agreement with the transmission characteristics of the bottles with even the darkest (Antique Green) allowing the transmission of some ultraviolet light. Riboflavin, when added to the wine, degraded rapidly when exposed to radiation <400 nm. The degradation of riboflavin and the onset of colour development depended on the actual amounts as well as the ratio of riboflavin to flavan-3-ol, suggesting that a complex series of reactions are occurring. A degradation product of riboflavin may be contributing to the increase in absorbance in the visible region observed during light exposure.

  5. Impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the in vivo aroma release from wines.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-González, Carolina; Martín-Álvarez, Pedro J; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-01-08

    The impact of the nonvolatile wine matrix composition on the retronasal aroma release of four volatile compounds added to different types of wines has been evaluated. For this purpose, a tailor-made retronasal aroma trapping device (RATD) was used to entrap the exhaled breath of six panelists previously trained in a specific consumption procedure. Five wines of different composition (white wine, sparkling white wine, young red wine, aged red wine, and a sweet wine) were evaluated. Prior to the evaluation, with the exception of the sweet wine, the wines were adjusted to the same ethanol content and aromatized with a mixture of four target volatile compounds. Aroma release data were submitted to multivariate statistical analysis in order to relate wine chemical composition and aroma release during wine drinking. Results showed interindividual differences and a clustering of panelists among lower and higher aroma releasers, which was in agreement to the differences in their breathing capacity. A significant influence of the matrix composition in the low aroma releasers group during wine consumption was observed. The consumption of red wines provoked a significantly higher aroma release than the consumption of white and sweet wines. From the chemical composition determined in the wine samples (pH, total acidity, total polyphenols, neutral polysaccharides, residual sugar, and nitrogenous compounds), the amount of total polyphenols was better correlated with the observed effect.

  6. Effect of packaging material on enological parameters and volatile compounds of dry white wine.

    PubMed

    Revi, M; Badeka, A; Kontakos, S; Kontominas, M G

    2014-01-01

    The enological parameters and volatile compounds of white wine packaged in dark coloured glass and two commercial bag-in-box (BIB) pouches (low density polyethylene - LDPE and ethylene vinyl acetate - EVA lined) were determined for a period of 6 months at 20 °C. Parameters monitored included: titratable acidity, volatile acidity, pH, total SO2, free SO2, colour, volatile compounds and sensory attributes. The BIB packaging materials affected the titratable acidity, total and free SO2 and colour of wine. A substantial portion of the wine aroma compounds was adsorbed by the plastic materials or lost to the environment through leakage of the valve fitment. Between the two plastics, the LDPE lined pouch showed a considerably higher aroma sorption as compared to EVA. Wine packaged in glass retained the largest portion of its aroma compounds. Sensory evaluation showed that white wine packaged in both plastics was of acceptable quality for 3 months vs. at least 6 months for that in glass bottles.

  7. Contractile and extensile effects of red and white wine on rat and Mongolian gerbil gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Shimamura, Hideo; Hirota, Mikako; Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Kinjo, Noriko; Mineshita, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    The contractile and extensile effects of red and white wine on rat and Mongolian gerbil (gerbil) gastrointestinal smooth muscle were investigated. Both wines elicited contractile responses on rat and gerbil duodenum and ileum but had no such effects on the colon or rectum. Dichloromethane extracts derived from either wine showed extensile responses only on rat duodenum and ileum, and did not elicit extensile effects on the colon or rectum. In contrast, wine dichloromethane extracts did not elicit any extensile effects on either gerbil duodenum or ileum. Moreover, dichloromethane extracts had suppressive effects on acetylcholine-induced contractile responses. Red and white wine has been documented to contain a number of organic acids such as tartaric, malic, lactic, and citric acid. Individually, such compounds evoked contractile response on rat duodenum with an order of contractile potency; citric > tartaric >or= malic > lactic acid. The abundance of such compounds in either wine implicates them as the active component responsible for gastrointestinal smooth muscle responses.

  8. Contribution to the aroma of white wines by controlled Torulaspora delbrueckii cultures in association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Azzolini, Michela; Tosi, Emanuele; Lorenzini, Marilinda; Finato, Fabio; Zapparoli, Giacomo

    2015-02-01

    Although the positive role of non-Saccharomyces yeasts on the overall quality of wine is encouraging research into their oenological potential, current knowledge on the topic is still far from satisfactory. This work analyzes the contribution of starter cultures of Torulaspora delbrueckii, inoculated sequentially with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (multi-starter fermentation), on the fermentation and aromas of two different white style wines, i.e., dry and sweet wines. Chemical analysis of Soave and Chardonnay wines (dry wines) showed that multi-starter fermentation greatly affected the content of several important volatile compounds, including 2-phenylethanol, isoamyl acetate, fatty acid esters, C4-C10 fatty acids and vinylphenols. Moreover, strain-specific contributions have been shown by testing two different T. delbrueckii strains. Evidence of the positive impact of T. delbrueckii activity on wine quality was also demonstrated in Vino Santo, a sweet wine. Due to its low production of acetic acid, this non-Saccharomyces yeast is recommended for the fermentation of high sugar grapes. T. delbrueckii also influenced the content of different variety of chemical groups, including lactones. From a sensory perspective, all wines produced by multi-starter fermentation have greater aromatic intensity and complexity than wines resulting from a monoculture fermentation. These results emphasize the potential of employing T. delbrueckii, in association with S. cerevisiae, for the production of white wines of different styles with improved and enhanced flavour.

  9. Influence of Production Method on the Chemical Composition, Foaming Properties, and Quality of Australian Carbonated and Sparkling White Wines.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Julie A; McRae, Jacqui M; Condé, Bruna C; Schmidtke, Leigh M; Nicholson, Emily L; Smith, Paul A; Howell, Kate S; Boss, Paul K; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2017-02-22

    The chemical composition (protein, polysaccharide, amino acid, and fatty acid/ethyl ester content), foaming properties, and quality of 50 Australian sparkling white wines, representing the four key production methods, that is, Méthode Traditionelle (n = 20), transfer (n = 10), Charmat (n = 10), and carbonation (n = 10), were studied. Méthode Traditionelle wines were typically rated highest in quality and were higher in alcohol and protein contents, but lower in residual sugar and total phenolics, than other sparkling wines. They also exhibited higher foam volume and stability, which might be attributable to higher protein concentrations. Bottle-fermented Méthode Traditionelle and transfer wines contained greater proportions of yeast-derived mannoproteins, whereas Charmat and carbonated wines were higher in grape-derived rhamnogalacturonans; however, total polysaccharide concentrations were not significantly different between sparkling wine styles. Free amino acids were most abundant in carbonated wines, which likely reflects production via primary fermentation only and/or the inclusion of nontraditional grape varieties. Fatty acids and their esters were not correlated with foaming properties, but octanoic and decanoic acids and their ethyl esters were present in Charmat and carbonated wines at significantly higher concentrations than in bottle-fermented wines and were negatively correlated with quality ratings. Research findings provide industry with a better understanding of the compositional factors driving the style and quality of sparkling white wine.

  10. Phenolic and Aroma Composition of White Wines Produced by Prolonged Maceration and Maturation in Wooden Barrels

    PubMed Central

    Jedrejčić, Nikolina; Ganić, Karin Kovačević; Staver, Mario; Peršurić, Đordano

    2015-01-01

    Summary To investigate the phenolic and aroma composition of Malvazija istarska (Vitis vinifera L.) white wines produced by an unconventional technology comprising prolonged maceration followed by maturation in wooden barrels, representative samples were subjected to analysis by UV/Vis spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When compared to standard wines, the investigated samples contained higher levels of dry extract, volatile acidity, lactic acid, phenols, colour intensity, antioxidant activity, majority of monoterpenes, C13-norisoprenoids, methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl acetate, branched-chain esters and esters of hydroxy and dicarboxylic acids, ethylphenols, furans, and acetals, as well as lower levels of malic acid, β-damascenone, straight-chain fatty acids, ethyl and acetate esters. It was estimated that maceration had a stronger influence on phenols, and maturation on volatile aromas. Despite different vintages and technological details, the investigated wines showed a relative homogeneity in the composition, representing a clear and distinctive type. PMID:27904375

  11. Degradation of white wine haze proteins by Aspergillopepsin I and II during juice flash pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Marangon, Matteo; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Robinson, Ella M C; Muhlack, Richard A; Holt, Helen E; Haynes, Paul A; Godden, Peter W; Smith, Paul A; Waters, Elizabeth J

    2012-12-01

    Bentonite is commonly used to remove grape proteins responsible for haze formation in white wines. Proteases potentially represent an alternative to bentonite, but so far none has shown satisfactory activity under winemaking conditions. A promising candidate is AGP, a mixture of Aspergillopepsins I and II.; a food grade, well characterized and inexpensive protease, active at wine pH and at high temperatures (60-80°C). AGP was added to two clarified grape juices with and without heat treatments (75°C, 1min) prior to fermentation. AGP showed some activity at fermentation temperatures (≈20% total protein reduction compared to control wine) and excellent activity when combined with juice heating (≈90% total protein reduction). The more heat stable grape proteins, i.e. those not contributing to wine hazing, were not affected by the treatments and therefore accounted for the remaining 10% of protein still in solution after the treatments. The main physicochemical parameters and sensorial characteristics of wines produced with AGP were not different from controls.

  12. Surface roughness and erosion of nanohybrid and nanofilled resin composites after immersion in red and white wine

    PubMed Central

    Tantanuch, Saijai; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Peerasukprasert, Thanwalee; Chanmanee, Nilobon; Chaisomboonphun, Parnchanok; Rodklai, Apisara

    2016-01-01

    Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effects of red and white wine on the surface roughness and erosion of nanohybrid and nanofilled resin composites. Materials and Methods: Sixty specimens of each resin-based composite (RBC) were prepared. Before immersion, baseline data roughness values were recorded using a profilometer. Three groups of discs (n = 20) were then alternately immersed in red wine, white wine, and deionized water (as a control) for 25 min and artificial saliva for 5 min over four cycles. The specimens were then stored in artificial saliva for 22 h. This process was repeated for 5 days following immersion in artificial saliva for 2 days. Subsequently, the process was repeated. After immersion, the specimens were evaluated and data were analyzed by two-way repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD) (α = 0.05). Results: Red wine caused significantly greater roughness and erosion than did white wine and deionized water (P < 0.05). Nanohybrid resin composites were significantly rougher than nanofilled resin composites (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The effects of red and white wine on the surface roughness and erosion of resin composite restorative materials depended upon the physical and chemical composition of the restorative materials and the types of wine. PMID:26957794

  13. Transgenic wine yeast technology comes of age: is it time for transgenic wine?

    PubMed

    Cebollero, Eduardo; Gonzalez-Ramos, Daniel; Tabera, Laura; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2007-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the main yeast responsible for alcoholic fermentation of grape juice during wine making. This makes wine strains of this species perfect targets for the improvement of wine technology and quality. Progress in winemaking has been achieved through the use of selected yeast strains, as well as genetic improvement of wine yeast strains through the sexual and pararexual cycles, random mutagenesis and genetic engineering. Development of genetically engineered wine yeasts, their potential application, and factors affecting their commercial viability will be discussed in this review.

  14. Analysis of protein composition of red wine in comparison with rosé and white wines by electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS).

    PubMed

    Wigand, Petra; Tenzer, Stefan; Schild, Hansjoerg; Decker, Heinz

    2009-05-27

    Wine proteins not only influence wine stability but are also being discussed as potential allergens. Proteins from red, rosé, and white wines were enriched by dialysis and lyophilization followed by separation by SDS-PAGE. Significant differences were detected in the protein compositions of the analyzed wine varieties, and the major protein bands were identified by mass spectrometry after in-gel digestion with trypsin. In German Portugieser red wine, a total of 121 tryptic peptides were identified, which were attributed to 12 grape proteins and 6 proteins derived from yeast. Among the identified constituents are several proteins considered to influence wine stability and previously described potential grape allergens. The pathogenesis-related proteins represent the main proteins in all of the wines, but only some red wines show a band with a molecular mass of 12 kDa, identified as a lipid transfer protein (LTP). The occurrence and distribution of LTP depend on the wine variety.

  15. Development of a sensitive ELISA for the detection of casein-containing fining agents in red and white wines.

    PubMed

    Deckwart, Marina; Carstens, Carsten; Webber-Witt, Manuella; Schäfer, Volker; Eichhorn, Lisa; Kang, Sophie; Fischer, Markus; Brockow, Knut; Christmann, Monika; Paschke-Kratzin, Angelika

    2014-07-16

    Fining of wine with proteinogenic fining agents such as casein from cow's milk is a traditional and commonly used technique all over the world. Casein and other proteins from cow's milk are well-known food allergens, which pose a risk for allergic consumers. Temporary regulations exempting the labeling of milk and products thereof in wine expired. Since July 1, 2012, these fining agents have to be declared on the wine label under Regulation (EU) No. 579/2012 in conjunction to article 120g of Regulation (EU) No. 1234/2007 if exceeding the threshold of 0.25 mg/L allergenic protein. The aim of the presented study was to develop sensitive ELISA methods for the detection of casein in white and red wines and to investigate the risk of allergenic residues in fined wines. In this context it was shown that the used substance for calibration is highly relevant. Casein wine fining agents of different commercial producers were investigated by LDS-PAGE and immunoblot. In addition to casein, they contain other milk proteins, which are potentially allergic and therefore have to be incorporated in the development of antibodies for an ELISA method to be set up. An indirect ELISA for the investigation of white wine was developed. The LOD is 0.1 mg/L. For red wine the LOD is 0.2 mg/L in an indirect sandwich ELISA setup. The LOD of the indirect sandwich ELISA for white wine depends on the calibration standard. It is 0.1 mg/L for the fining agent casein and 0.01 mg/L for casein from a chemical trader. It is also shown that the use of different technological procedures during winemaking leads to no detectable amounts of casein in various wine samples.

  16. Determination of Polyphenols in White Wines by Liquid Chromatography: Application to the Characterization of Alella (Catalonia, Spain) Wines Using Chemometric Methods.

    PubMed

    Larrauri, Alexander; Núñez, Oscar; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago; Saurina, Javier

    2017-03-01

    The determination of polyphenols in wines is of great interest in the field of food analysis due to health and organoleptic implications. In addition, the applicability of polyphenols as food descriptors to be used for characterization, classification, and authentication purposes is gaining popularity. In this work, a simple and reliable method based on HPLC separation in reversed-phase mode with UV-Vis detection was developed and applied to determine polyphenolic compounds in white wines. The chromatographic separation was performed using a C18 column under a methanol elution gradient and assessed by an experimental design approach. Analytical parameters were established under the optimal experimental conditions. LOD values were between 3 and 220 µg/L, and repeatability values were better than 1% for most of the analyzed polyphenols. Compositional data were further exploited to characterize white wines based on principal component analysis to discriminate among mono- and polyvarietal compositions.

  17. Acid-base chemistry of white wine: analytical characterisation and chemical modelling.

    PubMed

    Prenesti, Enrico; Berto, Silvia; Toso, Simona; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria). Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids) with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture), ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic "wine" especially adapted for testing.

  18. Outlining the influence of non-conventional yeasts in wine ageing over lees.

    PubMed

    Belda, Ignacio; Navascués, Eva; Marquina, Domingo; Santos, Antonio; Calderón, Fernando; Benito, Santiago

    2016-07-01

    During the last decade, the use of innovative yeast cultures of both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts as alternative tools to manage the winemaking process have turned the oenology industry. Although the contribution of different yeast species to wine quality during fermentation is increasingly understood, information about their role in wine ageing over lees is really scarce. This work aims to analyse the incidence of three non-Saccharomyces yeast species of oenological interest (Torulaspora delbrueckii, Lachancea thermotolerans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) and of a commercial mannoprotein-overproducer S. cerevisiae strain compared with a conventional industrial yeast strain during wine ageing over lees. To evaluate their incidence in mouthfeel properties of wine after 4 months of ageing, the mannoprotein content of wines was evaluated, together with other wine analytic parameters, such as colour and aroma, biogenic amines and amino acids profile. Some differences among the studied parameters were observed during the study, especially regarding the mannoprotein concentration of wines. Our results suggest that the use of T. delbrueckii lees in wine ageing is a useful tool for the improvement of overall wine quality by notably increasing mannoproteins, reaching values higher than obtained using a S. cerevisiae overproducer strain. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of bitterness in white wine applying descriptive analysis, time-intensity analysis, and temporal dominance of sensations analysis.

    PubMed

    Sokolowsky, Martina; Fischer, Ulrich

    2012-06-30

    Bitterness in wine, especially in white wine, is a complex and sensitive topic as it is a persistent sensation with negative connotation by consumers. However, the molecular base for bitter taste in white wines is still widely unknown yet. At the same time studies dealing with bitterness have to cope with the temporal dynamics of bitter perception. The most common method to describe bitter taste is the static measurement amongst other attributes during a descriptive analysis. A less frequently applied method, the time-intensity analysis, evaluates the temporal gustatory changes focusing on bitterness alone. The most recently developed multidimensional approach of the temporal dominance of sensations method reveals the temporal dominance of bitter taste in relation to other attributes. In order to compare the results comprised with these different sensory methodologies, 13 commercial white wines were evaluated by the same panel. To facilitate a statistical comparison, parameters were extracted from bitterness curves obtained from time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations analysis and were compared to bitter intensity as well as bitter persistency based on descriptive analysis. Analysis of variance differentiated significantly the wines regarding all measured bitterness parameters obtained from the three sensory techniques. Comparing the information of all sensory parameters by multiple factor analysis and correlation, each technique provided additional valuable information regarding the complex bitter perception in white wine.

  20. Electricity generation using white and red wine lees in air cathode microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe Sciarria, Tommy; Merlino, Giuseppe; Scaglia, Barbara; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Mecheri, Barbara; Borin, Sara; Licoccia, Silvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a useful biotechnology to produce electrical energy from different organic substrates. This work reports for the first time results of the application of single chamber MFCs to generate electrical energy from diluted white wine (WWL) and red wine (RWL) lees. Power obtained was of 8.2 W m-3 (262 mW m-2; 500 Ω) and of 3.1 W m-3 (111 mW m-2; 500Ω) using white and red wine lees, respectively. Biological processes lead to a reduction of chemical oxygen (TCOD) and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) of 27% and 83% for RWL and of 90% and 95% for WWL, respectively. These results depended on the degradability of organic compounds contained, as suggest by BOD5/TCOD of WWL (0.93) vs BOD5/TCOD of RWL (0.33), and to the high presence of polyphenols in RWL that inhibited the process. Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 15 ± 0%, for WWL, was in line with those reported in the literature for other substrates, i.e. CE of 14.9 ± 11.3%. Different substrates led to different microbial consortia, particularly at the anode. Bacterial species responsible for the generation of electricity, were physically connected to the electrode, where the direct electron transfer took place.

  1. Measurement of dissolved oxygen during red wines tank aging with chips and micro-oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Nevares, I; del Alamo, M

    2008-07-21

    Nowadays, micro-oxygenation is a very important technique used in aging wines in order to improve their characteristics. The techniques of wine tank aging imply the use of small doses of oxygen and the addition of wood pieces of oak to the wine. Considering the low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels used by micro-oxygenation technique it is necessary to choose the appropriate measurement principle to apply the precise oxygen dosage in wine at any time, in order to assure its correct assimilation. This knowledge will allow the oenologist to control and run the wine aging correctly. This work is a thorough revision of DO measurement main technologies applied to oenology. It describes the strengths and weaknesses of each of them, and draws a comparison of their workings in wine measurement. Both, the traditional systems by electrochemical probes, and the newest photoluminescence-based probes have been used. These probes adapted to red wines ageing study are then compared. This paper also details the first results of the dissolved oxygen content evolution in red wines during a traditional and alternative tank aging. Samples have been treated by three different ageing systems: oak barrels, stainless-steel tanks with small oak wood pieces (chips) and with bigger oak pieces (staves) with low micro-oxygenation levels. French and American oak barrels manufactured by the same cooperage have been used.

  2. Acid-Base Chemistry of White Wine: Analytical Characterisation and Chemical Modelling

    PubMed Central

    Prenesti, Enrico; Berto, Silvia; Toso, Simona; Daniele, Pier Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    A chemical model of the acid-base properties is optimized for each white wine under study, together with the calculation of their ionic strength, taking into account the contributions of all significant ionic species (strong electrolytes and weak one sensitive to the chemical equilibria). Coupling the HPLC-IEC and HPLC-RP methods, we are able to quantify up to 12 carboxylic acids, the most relevant substances responsible of the acid-base equilibria of wine. The analytical concentration of carboxylic acids and of other acid-base active substances was used as input, with the total acidity, for the chemical modelling step of the study based on the contemporary treatment of overlapped protonation equilibria. New protonation constants were refined (L-lactic and succinic acids) with respect to our previous investigation on red wines. Attention was paid for mixed solvent (ethanol-water mixture), ionic strength, and temperature to ensure a thermodynamic level to the study. Validation of the chemical model optimized is achieved by way of conductometric measurements and using a synthetic “wine” especially adapted for testing. PMID:22566762

  3. Red and white wines inhibit cholesterol oxidation induced by free radicals.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ling; Wang, Hua; Abdallah, Ahmed Moursy; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Xu, Zhimin

    2011-06-22

    The capabilities of two red (RW) and two white wines (WW) in inhibiting cholesterol oxidation were evaluated using a cholesterol emulsion (CE) system. Each RW or WW was mixed with CE at different (v/v) ratios. Cholesterol oxidation was accelerated by a free radical generator, 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH), at 37 °C. The major oxidation product, 7-ketocholesterol, was monitored to determine cholesterol stability in the CE system. At a ratio of 1:250 (RW/CE), 7-ketocholesterol production was not detected during 72 h of oxidation. At a 1:1000 ratio, the inhibition rate of each RW was maintained at 100% at 24 h but decreased afterward. Both WWs had 100% inhibition rate within 48 h at a ratio of 1:10. Also, the capabilities of catechin and resveratrol solutions (1 mg/mL) in inhibiting cholesterol oxidation were studied. Each of the wine polyphenolics showed a 100% of 7-ketocholesterol inhibition rate in 24 h at a ratio of 1:500 (solution/CE). However, the inhibition rate of resveratrol was lower than that of catechin at 48 or 72 h. The results demonstrated that red wine possesses great anti-cholesterol-oxidation capability, which may contribute to health benefits in preventing cardiovascular diseases. Catechin may play a more important role than resveratrol in inhibiting cholesterol oxidation.

  4. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, Rocío; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L; Hernández, Luis M; Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii-dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odor descriptors, including those with the greatest odor activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate), were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii-dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odors. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S. cerevisiae.

  5. Effects of new Torulaspora delbrueckii killer yeasts on the must fermentation kinetics and aroma compounds of white table wine

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez, Rocío; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L.; Hernández, Luis M.; Ramírez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Torulaspora delbrueckii is becoming widely recommended for improving some specific characteristics of wines. However, its impact on wine quality is still far from satisfactory at the winery level, mostly because it is easily replaced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae-like yeasts during must fermentation. New T. delbrueckii killer strains were here isolated and selected for winemaking. They killed S. cerevisiae yeasts and were able to dominate and complete the fermentation of sterile grape must. Sequential yeast inoculation of non-sterile white must with T. delbrueckii followed by S. cerevisiae did not ensure T. delbrueckii dominance or wine quality improvement. Only a single initial must inoculation at high cell concentrations allowed the T. delbrueckii killer strains to dominate and complete the must fermentation to reach above 11% ethanol, but not the non-killer strains. None of the wines underwent malolactic fermentation as long as the must had low turbidity and pH. Although no statistically significant differences were found in the wine quality score, the S. cerevisiae-dominated wines were preferred over the T. delbrueckii-dominated ones because the former had high-intensity fresh fruit aromas while the latter had lower intensity, but nevertheless nice and unusual dried fruit/pastry aromas. Except for ethyl propanoate and 3-ethoxy-1-propanol, which were more abundant in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines, most of the compounds with fresh fruit odor descriptors, including those with the greatest odor activity values (isoamyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate), were more abundant in the S. cerevisiae–dominated wines. The low relative concentrations of these fruity compounds made it possible to detect in the T. delbrueckii–dominated wines the low-relative-concentration compounds with dried fruit and pastry odors. An example was γ-ethoxy-butyrolactone which was significantly more abundant in these wines than in those dominated by S. cerevisiae. PMID

  6. Study of quinones reactions with wine nucleophiles by cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Carla M; Barros, António S; Ferreira, António C S; Silva, Artur M S

    2016-11-15

    Quinones are electrophilic species which can react with various nucleophiles, like wine antioxidants, such as sulfur dioxide or ascorbic acid, thiols, amino acids, and numerous polyphenols. These reactions are very important in wine aging because they mediate oxygen reactions during both production and bottle aging phases. In this work, the major challenge was to determine the interaction between ortho-quinones and wine nucleophiles (amino acids, thiols, and the antioxidants SO2 and ascorbic acid), by cyclic voltammetry. Wine-model solutions with gallic acid, caffeic acid, or (+)-catechin and nucleophilic compounds were used. To understand the effect of nucleophilic addition in wine, a white wine with the same added nucleophiles was also analysed. Cyclic voltammograms were taken with glassy carbon electrode or screen-printed carbon electrodes, respectively, for wine-model and white wines solutions, in the absence and in the presence of nucleophiles. A nucleophilic order profile related to the cathodic current intensity decrease was observed.

  7. Polyphenols in red wine aged in acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia) and oak (Quercus petraea) wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Cadahía, Estrella; Hernández, Ma Teresa; Estrella, Isabel; Martinez, Juana

    2012-06-30

    Polyphenolic composition of two Syrah wines aged during 6 or 12 months in medium toasting acacia and oak 225L barrels was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS. A total of 43 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were found in all wines, and other 15 compounds only in the wines from acacia barrels. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify the wines aged in acacia barrels. Among all of them the dihydrorobinetin highlights because of its high levels, but also robinetin, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, a tetrahydroxydihydroflavonol, fustin, butin, a trihydroxymethoxydihydroflavonol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid were detected at appreciable levels in wines during aging in acacia barrels, and could be used as phenolic markers for authenticity purposes. Although longer contact time with acacia wood mean higher concentrations of phenolic markers found in wines, the identification of these wines will also be easy after short aging times due the high levels reached by these compounds, even after only 2 months of aging.

  8. Indigenous yeast population from Georgian aged wines produced by traditional "Kakhetian" method.

    PubMed

    Capece, Angela; Siesto, Gabriella; Poeta, Cinzia; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Romano, Patrizia

    2013-12-01

    The yeast microbiota present in wines produced by the ancient "Kakhetian" method in Georgia (EU) was studied. This technique involves the use of terracotta vessels (amphoras), during spontaneous fermentation, maceration phase and wine ageing. The analysed yeasts were collected from wines after maturation for one year in ten amphoras from a Georgian winery. The 260 isolates were all identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the majority were classified as flor yeasts by restriction analysis of ITS region. A first technological and molecular screening was used to select 70 strains for further characterization. Both genetic and metabolic characterization discriminated flor from non-flor strains. The combined results obtained by analysis of interdelta region and mtDNA-RFLP yielded 23 different biotypes; no biotype was common to flor and non-flor strains. The wines produced by flor yeasts showed a high content in acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetoin, whereas the level of other compounds was similar to wines obtained by non-flor strains. This study represents the first report on the composition of yeast microbiota involved in the maturation of this traditional wine. These flor strains represent an interesting yeast population, in possession of peculiar characteristics allowing them to survive during wine ageing, becoming the dominant flora in the final wine.

  9. Effect of champagne compared to still white wine on peripheral neurotransmitter concentrations.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Bancel, Etiennette; Perray, Pascale Fabbro; Pouderoux, Philippe; Balmes, Jean-Louis; Bali, Jean-Pierre

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate how the peripheral release of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, cholecystokinin, and beta-endorphin is involved in drinking behavior, blood concentrations of these neurotransmitters were followed in 40 healthy young volunteers during the first hour after ingestion of a moderate dose of some common alcoholic beverages (champagne, still white wine) as compared to water. Concerning serotonin levels, two groups of subjects are statistically distinct: one with low basal serotonin levels (< 620 nmol/L) which responded with an increase in serotonin (52% in 10 minutes), and a second group with higher basal serotonin levels (> 620 nmol/L) which responded with a decrease ( 190% in 60 minutes). Variations in serotonin concentrations appear to depend upon the alcoholic content of the beverage. A rapid increase in plasma dopamine concentrations after consumption of champagne seems to be due to the nonalcoholic content of the beverage. Cholecystokinin values were not significantly different between the three beverages: the observed increase can be explained by a moderate gastric distention. Beta-endorphin levels didn't change significantly after drinking. In conclusion, some significant blood variations of serotonin and dopamine appeared even after moderately dose of champagne or still white wine. These changes might be partially responsible for the different drinking behavior.

  10. Influence of the structural features of commercial mannoproteins in white wine protein stabilization and chemical and sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Fernandes, C; Nunes, F M; Filipe-Ribeiro, L; Cosme, F

    2014-09-15

    The cloudy aspect formed in white wines due to protein instability is a visual defect. Sodium bentonite is the most commonly used fining agent to treat this instability, but has usually a negative impact on the wine's physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Aiming to find suitable alternatives, eleven commercial mannoproteins were chemically characterized concerning their sugar composition and protein content, and their effectiveness on wine protein stabilization. Also, their effect on the amount and nature of phenolic compounds, browning potential, chromatic and sensory characteristic was evaluated. Protein stabilization effectiveness was related to their chemical composition, namely their high mannose to glucose ratio. Additionally, some mannoproteins decreased the browning potential. Thus, mannoproteins could be an effective alternative for protein stabilization, preserving or even improving wine quality.

  11. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterisation of red wine aged in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Martínez, J; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-03-15

    The wood-related volatile profile of wines aged in cherry, acacia, ash, chestnut and oak wood barrels was studied by GC-MS, and could be a useful tool to identify the wood specie used. Thus, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in wines aged in acacia barrels, and ethyl-2-benzoate in cherry barrels could be used as chemical markers of these wood species, for authenticity purposes. Also, the quantitative differences obtained in the volatile profiles allow a good classification of all wines regarding wood species of barrels, during all aging time, and they contributed with different intensities to aromatic and gustative characteristics of aged wines. Wines aged in oak were the best valuated during all aging time, but the differences were not always significant. The lowest scores were assigned to wines aged in cherry barrels from 6 months of aging, so this wood could be more suitable in short aging times.

  12. N,S,O-Heterocycles in Aged Champagne Reserve Wines and Correlation with Free Amino Acid Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Le Menn, Nicolas; Marchand, Stephanie; de Revel, Gilles; Demarville, Dominique; Laborde, Delphine; Marchal, Richard

    2017-03-14

    Champagne regulations allow winegrowers to stock still wines to compensate for quality shifts in vintages, mainly due to climate variations. According to their technical requirements and house style, Champagne producers use these stored wines in their blends to enhance complexity. The presence of lees and aging at low pH (2.95-3.15), as in Champagne wines, lead to several modifications in wine composition. These conditions, combined with extended aging, result in the required environment for the Maillard chemical reaction, involving aromatic molecules, including sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen heterocycles (such as thiazole, furan, and pyrazine derivatives), which may have a sensory impact on wine. Some aromatic heterocycles in 50 monovarietal wines aged from 1 to 27 years provided by Veuve Clicquot Ponsardin Champagne house were determined by the SPME-GC-MS method. The most interesting result highlighted a strong correlation between certain heterocycle concentrations and wine age. The second revealed a correlation between heterocyclic compound and free amino acid concentrations measured in the wines, suggesting that these compounds are potential aromatic precursors when wine is aged on lees and, thus, potential key compounds in the bouquet of aged Champagnes. The principal outcome of these assays was to reveal, for the first time, that aromatic heterocycle concentrations in Champagne base wines are correlated with wine age.

  13. Evolution of phenolic compounds and astringency during aging of red wine: effect of oxygen exposure before and after bottling.

    PubMed

    Gambuti, Angelita; Rinaldi, Alessandra; Ugliano, Maurizio; Moio, Luigi

    2013-02-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oxygen exposure of red wine, before (micro-oxygenation) and after (nano-oxygenation) bottling, on the phenolic composition and astringency of wine. The astringency was evaluated by sensory analysis and by a method based on the SDS-PAGE of salivary proteins after reaction of saliva with wine (SPI, saliva precipitation index). Micro-oxygenation caused a stabilization of color, but this effect disappeared after long aging. For the wine with the lower pH a decrease of wine astringency and SPI was observed 42 months after micro-oxygenation. Oxygen ingress through the closure postbottling was positively correlated with the decrease of SPI. Therefore, the astringency and reactivity of wines toward salivary proteins of a bottled red wine can be modulated by controlled oxygen exposure during aging. For both experiments the effect of oxygen exposure depended on wine composition.

  14. Effects of sugar concentration processes in grapes and wine aging on aroma compounds of sweet wines—a review.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Dessert sweet wines from Europe and North America are described in this review from two points of view: both their aroma profile and also their sensorial description. There are growing literature data about the chemical composition and sensory properties of these wines. Wines were grouped according to the production method (concentration of sugars in grapes) and to the aging process of wine (oxidative, biological, or a combination of both and aging in the bottle). It was found that wines natively sweets and wines fortified with liquors differ in their volatile compounds. Sensory properties of these wines include those of dried fruit (raisins), red berries, honey, chocolate and vanilla, which is contributing to their growing sales. However, there is still a need for scientific research on the understanding of the mechanisms for wine flavor enhancement.

  15. Peculiarities of flor strains adapted to Sardinian sherry-like wine ageing conditions.

    PubMed

    Budroni, Marilena; Zara, Severino; Zara, Giacomo; Pirino, Giorgia; Mannazzu, Ilaria

    2005-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae flor yeasts, which are subjected to stressful conditions during wine ageing, exhibit a number of characteristics which distinguish them from non-flor S. cerevisiae wine strains. In the present work, 22 flor and 14 non-flor S. cerevisiae wine strains are compared, in order to elucidate other possible peculiarities of these yeasts. The results obtained demonstrate that in contrast to the homothallic nature of the non-flor strains, 77% of the flor strains exhibit two variants of a semi-homothallic life cycle. Moreover, the flor-forming ability is shown to be inversely correlated to spore viability and the utilisation of maltose and galactose.

  16. Yeast Population Dynamics during the Fermentation and Biological Aging of Sherry Wines

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Zarzoso, B.; Peris-Torán, M. J.; García-Maiquez, E.; Uruburu, F.; Querol, A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular and physiological analyses were used to study the evolution of the yeast population, from alcoholic fermentation to biological aging in the process of “fino” sherry wine making. The four races of “flor” Saccharomyces cerevisiae (beticus, cheresiensis, montuliensis, and rouxii) exhibited identical restriction patterns for the region spanning the internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2 (ITS-1 and ITS-2) and the 5.8S rRNA gene, but this pattern was different, from those exhibited by non-flor S. cerevisiae strains. This flor-specific pattern was detected only after wines were fortified, never during alcoholic fermentation, and all the strains isolated from the velum exhibited the typical flor yeast pattern. By restriction fragment length polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA and karyotyping, we showed that (i) the native strain is better adapted to fermentation conditions than commercial strains; (ii) two different populations of S. cerevisiae strains are involved in the process of elaboration, of fino sherry wine, one of which is responsible for must fermentation and the other, for wine aging; and (iii) one strain was dominant in the flor population integrating the velum from sherry wines produced in González Byass wineries, although other authors have described a succession of races of flor S. cerevisiae during wine aging. Analyzing all these results together, we conclude that yeast population dynamics during biological aging is a complex phenomenon and differences between yeast populations from different wineries can be observed. PMID:11319081

  17. Volatile compounds in a spanish red wine aged in barrels made of Spanish, French, and American oak wood.

    PubMed

    De Simón, Brígida Fernández; Cadahía, Estrella; Jalocha, Jerzy

    2003-12-17

    A red Rioja wine was aged in barrels made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus robur, Quercus petraea,Quercus pyrenaica, and Quercus faginea) during 21 months. The concentrations of some volatile compounds [syringaldehyde, vanillin, eugenol, maltol, guaiacol, 4-ethylphenol, cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone, 2-furfuraldehyde, 5-methyl-2-furfuraldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfuraldehyde, and furfuryl alcohol] were studied in these wines and compared with those of the same wine aged in barrels made from French oak of Q. robur (Limousin, France) and Q. petraea (Allier, France) and American oak of Quercus alba (Missouri). Similar concentrations of these compounds were found in wines aged in Spanish and French oak wood barrels, and significantly different concentrations were found with respect to wines aged in barrels made of American oak wood, indicating a different behavior. Thus, wines with different characteristics were obtained, depending on the kind of wood. Also, the kind of wood had an important influence on sensory characteristics of wine during the aging process. Spanish oak wood from Q. robur, Q. petraea, and Q. pyrenaica can be considered to be suitable for barrel production for quality wines, because a wine aged in barrels made of these Spanish oak woods showed similar and intermediate characteristics to those of the same wine aged in French and American oak woods usually used in cooperage.

  18. Recent temporal variations of trace metal content in an Italian white wine.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldi, Anna; Truzzi, Cristina; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2014-09-15

    For the first time in Italy, the temporal variations of Cd, Pb and Cu content in an Italian white wine were studied over the period 1995-2010. A previously set up and optimized Square-Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetric technique was used. Cd showed a first decrease (∼30%) due to the use of pesticides with progressively low Cd residues. Since 2000 Cd had constant and extremely low values (0.17±0.07 μg L(-1)). A significant decrease (∼74%) from 1995 to 2010 was observed for Pb (mean concentration, 18±10 μg L(-1)) probably due to the recent decrease in Pb emissions in the atmosphere following the phasing out of metal from gasoline (in Italy since 2002). The Cu reduction (mean value, 32±15 μg L(-1)) of ∼74% from 1995 to 2010 was related to the use of phytoiatric products with a progressively low Cu content.

  19. Effect of artificial ageing using different wood chips on the antioxidant activity, resveratrol and catechin concentration, sensory properties and colour of two Greek red wines.

    PubMed

    Gortzi, Olga; Metaxa, Xenia; Mantanis, George; Lalas, Stavros

    2013-12-01

    Two Greek red wines (Syrah and Cabernet) were artificially aged with different wood chips (white oak, red oak, Turkey oak, chestnut, Bosnian pine, cherry, common juniper, common walnut, white mulberry, black locust and apricot). The influence of each wood species was tested for up to 20 days. The optimum duration for the extraction of total polyphenols was 20 days (Syrah) or 10 days (Cabernet) when chips of white oak, chestnut, cherry, white mulberry, black locust and apricot where used. Resveratrol and catechin concentrations ranged within the limits previously reported in literature. A high antioxidant activity was established after 10 days of artificial ageing. The sensory evaluation showed that the best results were produced by the apricot chips after 5 days (Syrah) or black locust and apricot after 5 days (Cabernet). Colour was seen to increase with both time of ageing and number of wood chips added.

  20. Evolutions of volatile sulfur compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during aging in different oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dong-Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Tian; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Duan, Chang-Qing; Liu, Yan-Lin

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines from seven regions of China during maturation in oak barrels was investigated. The barrels were made of different wood grains (fine and medium) and toasting levels (light and medium). Twelve VSCs were quantified by GC/FPD, with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methionol exceeding their sensory thresholds. Most VSCs tended to decline during the aging, while DMS was found to increase. After one year aging, the levels of DMS, 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one and sulfur-containing esters were lower in the wines aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks. The wood grain and toasting level of oak barrels significantly influenced the concentration of S-methyl thioacetate and 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one. This study reported the evolution of VSCs in wines during oak barrel aging for the first time and evaluated the influence of barrel types, which would provide wine-makers with references in making proposals about wine aging.

  1. Impact of forced-aging process on madeira wine flavor.

    PubMed

    Oliveira e Silva, Hugo; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Machado, Beatriz P; Hogg, Tim; Marques, J C; Câmara, José S; Albuquerque, F; Ferreira, Antonio C Silva

    2008-12-24

    The aim of this study was to determine the optimal temperature and baking time to obtain a Madeira wine considered typical by an expert panel. For this purpose simultaneous descriptive analyses of typical Madeira wines were performed, and seven descriptors were selected: "dried fruit", "nutty", "musty", "baked", "oak", "mushroom", and "brown sugar". Up to 10 odor-active zones were the most frequently cited by the members of the GC-olfactometry panel as corresponding to the panel's descriptors. The odor importance of each of the zones reported by the GC-O analysis was ranked by AEDA. Three odor zones were identified as common to both Malvasia and Sercial wines and had retention indices (RI) of 1993 ("brown sugar" and "toasted"), 2151 ("brown sugar"), and 2174 ("nutty", "dried fruits"); sotolon was identified as responsible for this last aroma. Several molecules were selected to be quantified on baked wines on the basis of AEDA results and expected Maillard volatiles, such as sotolon, furfural, 5-methylfurfural, 5-ethoximethylfurfural, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde. It was observed that typicity scores were positively correlated with the concentrations of sotolon and sugar and baking time and negatively with the fermentation length.

  2. Protein haze formation in white wines: effect of saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall components prepared with different procedures.

    PubMed

    Lomolino, Giovanna; Curioni, Andrea

    2007-10-17

    Cell wall material was extracted by five different methods from an oenological strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Enzyme preparations containing beta-glucanase activity (Zymolyase, Glucanex, and Finizym 250L) allowed a better extraction yield compared to that of dithiothreitol (DTT) and EDTA. The yeast extracts were only soluble in part in wine. The wine-soluble fraction (WSF) of the five extracts, differing in both protein and sugar contents, when added in increasing amounts to white wine differently affected protein haze formation, as determined by the heat test, giving dose/response curves of different shapes. The curves obtained with the WSF derived from DDT and Zymolyase extracts showed a plateau value corresponding to 90% and 80% of wine haze reduction, respectively. In contrast, addition of the WSF derived from the other extracts resulted in increased turbidity with respect to the original wine. The mannoproteins (MP), isolated from each yeast extract by Concanavalin-A chromatography, gave dose/response curves showing shapes more similar among them than those obtained with the whole WSFs. The best wine stabilization was obtained with the MP of the DTT and Zymolyase extracts. The supernatants obtained after heating the MP of the different extracts were also tested. The stabilizing effect of the heat-stable MP (HSMP) was always larger than that of the corresponding total (un-heated) MP. The HSMP obtained starting from the DTT and Zymolyase extracts showed the best haze-protecting effect, which was, however, lower than that obtained with their corresponding WSF. This result suggests that wine protein stabilization by compounds of the yeast cell wall could be related, in addition to the action of the MP, also to the presence of other substances of different nature.

  3. Model aging and oxidation effects on varietal, fermentative, and sulfur compounds in a dry botrytized red wine.

    PubMed

    Fedrizzi, Bruno; Zapparoli, Giacomo; Finato, Fabio; Tosi, Emanuele; Turri, Arianna; Azzolini, Michela; Versini, Giuseppe

    2011-03-09

    From harvest until wine arrives to the consumer, oxygen plays a crucial role in the definition of the final aroma. In the present research, the effect of the model oxidative aging on a dry red Botrytis wine, such as Italian Amarone, was considered. Amarone wine was submitted to model oxidative aging and then analyzed with two different approaches (SPE-GC-MS and HS-SPME/GC-MS). The same sampling plan was adopted to study the model aging of the same Amarone wine in anaerobic conditions. The HS-SPME/GC-MS method was applied to investigate for the first time the effect of the oxidative aging on a vast number of fermentative sulfur compounds. This research highlighted peculiar evolutions for several volatile compounds. In particular, benzaldehyde showed a sensitive increment during the oxidative aging, with a rate much higher than that reported for non-Botrytis red wines. On the other hand, several sulfides (dimethyl sulfide, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, etc.) disappeared after just 15 days of oxidative aging. A wine oxidation marker such as 3-(methylthio)-propanal was not found in any of the oxidized wines; conversely methionol-S-oxide was tentatively identified. This evidence has not been mentioned in the literature. A possible involvement of grape withering process and Botrytis in these mechanisms was supposed: a dry red wine, produced from the same but without any grape withering process and Botrytis infection (e.g., Bardolino wine), was submitted to oxidative aging and analysis. This red wine showed an evolution similar to those reported in the literature for dry red wines but significantly different from the Amarone wine.

  4. Impact of adding white pomace to red grapes on the phenolic composition and color stability of Syrah wines from a warm climate.

    PubMed

    Gordillo, Belén; Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Jara-Palacios, M José; Ramírez-Pérez, Pilar; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-03-26

    The influence of the fermentative addition of Pedro Ximenez grape pomace (PXGP, white variety) on the phenolic composition and color of Syrah red wines from a warm climate was studied. Changes on phenolic composition (HPLC), copigmentation/polymerization (spectrophotometry), and color (tristimulus colorimetry) allowed differences among the maceration treatments to be established. PXGP additions at the rates studied increased the extraction of total phenolics, phenolic acids, and monomeric flavanols. However, the effect on the anthocyanins, copigmentation, and polymerization depended on the doses applied, with important consequences on the color. PXGP addition at 10% led to wines with higher polymerization, more stable colors, and bluish hues. in contrast, perceptibly lighter and less intense wines were obtained with PXGP addition at 20%. Thus, the use of white grape byproducts as wine additives at appropriate levels (10% w/w) could improve the phenolic potential of red young wines from a warm climate, contributing to preserve their color characteristic.

  5. Micro-oxygenation strategy depends on origin and size of oak chips or staves during accelerated red wine aging.

    PubMed

    Del Alamo, María; Nevares, Ignacio; Gallego, Laura; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella

    2010-02-15

    The practice of wine aging in stainless steel tank involves storing wine in contact with wood and dosing it with small oxygen quantities in order to obtain a final wine more stable in time and with the same characteristics of barrel-aged wines. Oxygen dosing is a key factor and, to achieve a correct development of wine, needs to be applied according to wine necessities and to the kind of wood chosen. This paper shows the results obtained from the study of oxygen required by a same wine aged in tanks with different alternative products (chips and staves) made of American (Q. alba), French (Q. petraea) and Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), with a strategy of micro-oxygenation as required. The results indicate that the size and origin of the wood used determine the oxygen management during the process. In fact, wine treated with big pieces (staves) consumes more oxygen and, with regard to wood origin, wine aged with French oak (Q. petraea) products needs of a higher oxygen dosage.

  6. Barrel maturation, oak alternatives and micro-oxygenation: influence on red wine aging and quality.

    PubMed

    Oberholster, A; Elmendorf, B L; Lerno, L A; King, E S; Heymann, H; Brenneman, C E; Boulton, R B

    2015-04-15

    The impact of micro-oxygenation (MOX) in conjunction with a variety of oak alternatives on phenolic composition and red wine aging was investigated and compared with traditional barrel aging. Although several studies concluded that MOX give similar results to barrel aging, few have compared them directly and none directly compared MOX with and without wood alternatives and barrel aging. Results confirmed that MOX had a positive effect on colour density, even after 5 months of bottle aging. This is supported by an increase in polymeric phenol and pigment content not only with aging but in the MOX compared to barrel matured wine treatments. Descriptive analysis showed that MOX in combination with wood alternatives such as oak chips and staves could mimic short term (six months) barrel aging in new American and French oak barrels in regards to sensory characteristics.

  7. Calcium isotopes in wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmden, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    The δ 44/40Ca values of bottled wine vary between -0.76% to -1.55% on the seawater scale and correlate weakly with inverse Ca concentration and Mg/Ca ratio, such that the lowest δ 44/40Ca values have the highest Ca concentrations and lowest Mg/Ca ratios. The correlation is notable in the sense that the measured wines include both whites and reds sampled from different wine growing regions of the world, and cover a wide range of quality. Trends among the data yield clues regarding the cause of the observed isotopic fractionation. White wines, and wines generally perceived to be of lower quality, have lower δ 44/40Ca values compared to red wines and wines of generally perceived higher quality. Quality was assessed qualitatively through sensory evaluation, price, and scores assigned by critics. The relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality was most apparent when comparing wines of one varietal from one producer from the same growing region. In the vineyard, wine quality is related to factors such as the tonnage of the crop and the ripeness of the grapes at the time of harvesting, the thickness of the skins for reds, the age of the vines, as well as the place where the grapes were grown (terroir). Quality is also influenced by winemaking practices such as fermentation temperature, duration of skin contact, and barrel ageing. Accordingly, the relationship between δ 44/40Ca and wine quality may originate during grape ripening in the vineyard or during winemaking in the cellar. We tested the grape ripening hypothesis using Merlot grapes sampled from a vineyard in the Okanagan, British Columbia, using sugar content (degrees Brix) as an indicator of ripeness. The grapes were separated into pulp, skin, and pip fractions and were analyzed separately. Thus far, there is no clear evidence for a systematic change in δ 44/40Ca values associated with progressive ripening of grapes in the vineyard. On the day of harvesting, the δ 44/40Ca value of juice squeezed from

  8. NMR and molecular modeling: application to wine ageing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucier, C.; Pianet, I.; Laguerre, M.; Glories, Y.

    1998-02-01

    Red wine contains polyphenols called tannins which are very important for its taste and longevity. These polymers consist in repeating units of catechin and its epimer epicatechin. During ageing, slow condensation reactions take place which lead to new chemical structures. Among the possible reactions, we have focused our attention on acetaldehyde cross-linking. Catechin was used as a model for the production of polymers with acetaldehyde. Two reaction product fractions have been isolated by liquid chromatography. Mass measurement indicated that these fractions contain dimers. NMR (1D and 2D) and molecular modelling were then used to study the structure and conformations of these products. The first product consist in a pure dimer with the two catechin moieties connected with an ethyl bridge on the carbon 6 and 8. The second fraction was a mixture of two dimers (50/50). NMR measurements showed that it could be two symmetrical dimers involving the same carbon for each catechin moiety (6 or8). Le vin rouge contient des polyphénols appelés tanins qui sont très importants pour son goût et sa longévité. Il s'agit principalement de polymères de catéchine et d'épicatéchine. Durant le vieillissement du vin, des réactions de condensation interviennent lentement et conduisent à de nouvelles structures. Parmi les réactions possibles, nous avons plus spécialement étudié la polymérisation par pontage avec l'éthanal. La catéchine a été utilisée comme modèle de tannin et mise en présence d'éthanal en milieu acide proche du vin. Deux fractions de produits de réaction ont été isolées par chromatographie liquide. La spectrométrie de masse a révélé la présence de dimères. La RMN (1D et 2D) et la modélisation moléculaire ont ensuite été utilisées pour déterminer la structure et la conformation de ces produits. La première fraction a été identifiée comme étant un dimère de deux unités catéchines reliées par un pont éthyle par leur

  9. Kinetics of odorant compounds in wine brandies aged in different systems.

    PubMed

    Caldeira, Ilda; Santos, Rui; Ricardo-da-Silva, Jorge M; Anjos, Ofélia; Mira, Helena; Belchior, A Pedro; Canas, Sara

    2016-11-15

    The odorants compounds of aged wine brandies comprise compounds deriving from the wood, from the distillate and from the reactions that occur inside the barrel. The aim of this work was to study the kinetics of the odorant compounds of a wine brandy during two years of ageing in two ageing systems. The odorant compounds in the analysed brandies changed significantly over the time, but with different evolution patterns. The wood related compounds increased over time, with the highest increase in the first months of ageing. The kinetics of cis, trans-β-methyl-γ-octalactone, acetovanillone and of seven volatile phenols are established for the first time in brandies. Moreover, a significant effect of the ageing system was found on the kinetics of the wood related compounds. These results pointed out the interest of these compounds as a tool to discriminate different ageing technologies.

  10. Total polyphenols content in white wines on a microfluidic flow injection analyzer with embedded optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Oscar, Sandoval-Ventura; Fernando, Olguín-Contreras Luis; Del Pilar, Cañizares-Macías María

    2017-04-15

    Absorbance detection in food microdevices has not been thoroughly used due to low levels of sensitivity in measurements. Thus, it is necessary to develop microfluidic methods for improving photometric detection. For this purpose, a simple coupled-optical-fiber-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microdevice was developed, to quantify polyphenols content in white wine employing the Folin-Ciocalteu reaction method. A 6V and 10W halogen lamp with an optical path length of 7mm between optical fibers, which were placed into the microchip, using guides at the outlet of the flow, increased the level of sensitivity during detection. The linear range was from 0.03mmol/L to 0.18mmol/L. Thus, the corresponding equation was: Abs=4.00(±0.16) [tannic acid]+0.17(±0.017). Intra-laboratory repeatability and reproducibility percentages were 2.95% and 6.84%, respectively. Such results were compared to those obtained from applying the conventional flow-injection analysis method, based on the same type of reaction. The relative error between methods was less than 13%.

  11. Effect of lysozyme on "flor" velum yeasts in the biological aging of sherry wines.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Ana; Lasanta, Cristina; Caro, Ildefonso; Palacios, Víctor

    2012-05-01

    Biological aging is a key step in the production of Sherry wine classified as "fine". During this stage, a film of yeast referred to as "flor velum" covers the surface of the wine and substantially alters its characteristics. Other microorganisms may coexist with flor yeasts, such as lactic acid bacteria and non-Saccharomyces yeasts, whose growth may be favored under certain conditions, causing organoleptic deviations and deterioration of the wine. To prevent the development of lactic bacteria, lysozyme usage has been introduced. Lysozyme is a hydrolytic enzyme with muramidase activity that can lyse gram-positive bacteria; its use in winemaking was approved by the OIV in 1997 (resolution OENO 10/97). Thus far, the use of lysozyme during the production of Sherry wines is not widespread despite its effectiveness in controlling lactic acid bacteria. However, there have been no studies on the effect of lysozyme on flor velum. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of lysozyme on yeast growth and the formation, development and metabolism of flor velum during the biological aging process of Sherry wine. The results indicate that lysozyme does not affect the flor yeast during the fermentative stage or biofilm stage. However, if yeast inoculation is carried out under submerged culture conditions during biological aging, low doses of lysozyme (≥12.5 g/hL) affect cell multiplication and the membrane hydrophobicity of the yeast, inhibiting their aggregation and flotation and the subsequent development of flor velum. Thus, the yeast inoculation protocol and the methodology used for the addition of lysozyme influence velum development, its metabolism and the wine characteristics.

  12. Identification of Hydrogen Disulfanes and Hydrogen Trisulfanes in H2S Bottle, in Flint, and in Dry Mineral White Wine.

    PubMed

    Starkenmann, Christian; Chappuis, Charles Jean-Francois; Niclass, Yvan; Deneulin, Pascale

    2016-11-30

    Through the accidental contamination of a gas cylinder of H2S, the importance of polysulfanes for flint, gun powder, and match odors was discovered. The hydrogen disulfane was prepared from disulfanediylbis[methyl(diphenyl)silane], and its odor descriptor was evaluated in the gas phase from a gas chromatograph coupled to an olfaction port. The occurrence of this compound in flint and pebbles was confirmed by analyses after derivatization with pentafluorobromobenzene. The occurrence of this sulfane was also confirmed in two dry white Swiss Chasselas wines, sorted by a large-scale sensory analysis from 80 bottles and evaluated by 62 wine professionals. The occurrence of disulfane was confirmed for the two wines described as the most mineral. Polysulfane comprises a class of compounds contributing to the flint odor and that may contribute to the wine mineral odor descriptor. Due to the high volatility and instability pure HSSH was not isolated but kept in solution and its odor profile was described by gas chromatography coupled to an olfaction port as flint, matches, and fireworks with a higher odor intensity compared to H2S.

  13. Delving into the environmental aspect of a Sardinian white wine: from partial to total life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Fusi, Alessandra; Guidetti, Riccardo; Benedetto, Graziella

    2014-02-15

    The aim of this study was to deepen the assessment of the environmental impacts of a white wine produced in Sardinia (FU 750 ml), performing an attributional LCA. The system boundaries were extended, from 'cradle to gate' (partial LCA) of a previous study, to 'cradle to grave' (total LCA), in order to identify the environmental impacts occurring along the wine life cycle stages (vine planting, grape production, wine production, bottling and packaging, distribution, final disposal of the glass bottle). Some assumptions were made in order to quantify the environmental impact of the transportation phase, regarding the few data which were available. Inventory data were mainly collected through direct communication with the Company involved in the study. Results showed that the environmental performance of wine was mostly determined by the glass bottle production (for all impact categories except ozone layer depletion). The second contributor was the agricultural phase, which included two sub-phases: vine planting and grape production. Results showed that the vine planting sub-phase was not negligible given its contribution to the agricultural phase, mainly due to diesel fuel consumption. Transportation impact was found to be relevant for long distance distribution (USA); the impact categories more affected by transport were acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation and global warming potential. Suggested opportunities to reduce the overall environmental impact were the introduction of a lighter glass bottle or the substitution of the glass bottle with a polylaminate container.

  14. Modeling excitation-emission fluorescence matrices with pattern recognition algorithms for classification of Argentine white wines according grape variety.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Alcaraz, Mirta R; Ugulino de Araújo, Mário C; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports the modeling of excitation-emission matrices for classification of Argentinean white wines according to the grape variety employing chemometric tools for pattern recognition. The discriminative power of the data was first investigated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC). The score plots showed strong overlapping between classes. A forty-one samples set was partitioned into training and test sets by the Kennard-Stone algorithm. The algorithms evaluated were SIMCA, N- and U-PLS-DA and SPA-LDA. The fit of the implemented models was assessed by mean of accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. These models were then used to assign the type of grape of the wines corresponding to the twenty samples test set. The best results were obtained for U-PLS-DA and SPA-LDA with 76% and 80% accuracy.

  15. Evaluation of aroma enhancement for "Ecolly" dry white wines by mixed inoculation of selected Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Chen; Li, Ai-Hua; Dizy, Marta; Ullah, Niamat; Sun, Wei-Xuan; Tao, Yong-Sheng

    2017-08-01

    To improve the aroma profile of Ecolly dry white wine, the simultaneous and sequential inoculations of selected Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were performed in wine making of this work. The two yeasts were mixed in various ratios for making the mixed inoculum. The amount of volatiles and aroma characteristics were determined the following year. Mixed fermentation improved both the varietal and fermentative aroma compound composition, especially that of (Z)-3-hexene-1-ol, nerol oxide, certain acetates and ethyls group compounds. Citrus, sweet fruit, acid fruit, berry, and floral aroma traits were enhanced by mixed fermentation; however, an animal note was introduced upon using higher amounts of R. mucilaginosa. Aroma traits were regressed with volatiles as observed by the partial least-square regression method. Analysis of correlation coefficients revealed that the aroma traits were the multiple interactions of volatile compounds, with the fermentative volatiles having more impact on aroma than varietal compounds.

  16. Population analysis of biofilm yeasts during fino sherry wine aging in the Montilla-Moriles D.O. region.

    PubMed

    Marin-Menguiano, Miriam; Romero-Sanchez, Sandra; Barrales, Ramón R; Ibeas, Jose I

    2017-03-06

    Fino is the most popular sherry wine produced in southern Spain. Fino is matured by biological aging under a yeast biofilm constituted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts. Although different S. cerevisiae strains can be identified in such biofilms, their diversity and contribution to wine character have been poorly studied. In this work, we analyse the flor yeast population in five different wineries from the Montilla-Moriles D.O. (Denominación de Origen) in southern Spain. Yeasts present in wines of different ages were identified using two different culture-dependent molecular techniques. From 2000 individual yeast isolates, five different strains were identified with one of them dominating in four out of the five wineries analysed, and representing 76% of all the yeast isolates collected. Surprisingly, this strain is similar to the predominant strain isolated twenty years ago in Jerez D.O. wines, suggesting that this yeast is particularly able to adapt to such a stressful environment. Fino wine produced with pure cultures of three of the isolated strains resulted in different levels of acetaldehyde. Because acetaldehyde levels are a distinctive characteristic of fino wines and an indicator of fino aging, the use of molecular techniques for yeast identification and management of yeast populations may be of interest for fino wine producers looking to control one of the main features of this wine.

  17. Colour Evaluation, Bioactive Compound Content, Phenolic Acid Profiles and in Vitro Biological Activity of Passerina del Frusinate White Wines: Influence of Pre-Fermentative Skin Contact Times.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Katya; Fiordiponti, Luciano

    2016-07-22

    Passerina del Frusinate is an autochthonous wine grape variety, which grows in the Lazio region that is currently being evaluated by local wine producers. In this study, colour properties (CIELab coordinates), bioactive compounds (total polyphenols and flavan-3-ols), HPLC-DAD phenolic acid profiles and in vitro biological activity of monovarietal Passerina del Frusinate white wines and the effect of different maceration times (0, 18 and 24 h) were evaluated based on these parameters. Results highlighted statistically significant differences for almost all analysed parameters due to a strong influence of the pre-fermentative skin contact time. The flavan content of macerated wines was six times higher than that of the control, while total polyphenols were 1.5 times higher. According to their phytochemical content, macerated wines showed the highest antiradical capacity tested by means of DPPH(•) and ABTS(+•) assays. Besides, prolonged maceration resulted in a reduction of CIELab coordinates as well as of the content of phenolic substances and antiradical capacity. Among the phenolic acids analysed, the most abundant were vanillic acid and caffeic acid; the latter proved to be the most susceptible to degradation as a result of prolonged maceration. Passerina del Frusinate appears as a phenol-rich white wine with a strong antioxidant potential similar to that of red wines.

  18. Sherry wines.

    PubMed

    Ángeles Pozo-Bayón, M; Victoria Moreno-Arribas, M

    2011-01-01

    Sherry wines are among the most distinctive Spanish wines, mainly produced in the southern Spain (particularly in Jerez and Montilla-Moriles), using traditional practices aimed at ensuring uniform quality and characteristics over time. Several types of Sherry wines are produced depending on the winemaking conditions. Fino-type wines are characterized by a dynamic biological aging, in which a layer of yeast grows in the surface of the wine (flor velum). On the contrary, Oloroso-type sherry wines are subjected to an oxidative aging, while Amontillado-type Sherries are produced by combining both production systems. Therefore, these wines undergo different biological and chemical processes that affect distinctively their chemical composition and their aroma and sensory characteristics. Through this review, the main aspects involved in the winemaking technology of sherry wines, and the latest scientific findings related to the microbiota of the flor film and other aspects associated to the changes in their chemical and sensory composition during aging will be revised. Some new trends in sherry wine technology focused on the acceleration of the biological aging or the use of organic grapes will be also considered.

  19. Addition of carrageenan at different stages of winemaking for white wine protein stabilization.

    PubMed

    Marangon, Matteo; Stockdale, Vanessa J; Munro, Peter; Trethewey, Timra; Schulkin, Alex; Holt, Helen E; Smith, Paul A

    2013-07-03

    Carrageenan added at different stages of winemaking was assessed for its protein removal and impact on wine heat stability and on the chemical and sensorial profile of the wines. Carrageenan was added to a Semillon during fermentation and after fermentation and to finished wines, and the effect of each addition was compared to that of bentonite fining at the same time point. Data on protein concentration, heat stability, and bentonite requirement indicate that when added at the correct dosage carrageenan was very effective in stabilizing wines at dosages at least three times lower than those of bentonite. In addition, carrageenan treatment did not cause an increase in lees volume relative to bentonite and resulted in very similar chemical parameters to the unfined and bentonite-treated wine. Sensorially, although carrageenan-treated wine was significantly different from the unfined wine, the magnitude of difference did not vary significantly when compared to bentonite treatment. The feasibility of carrageenan use in a winery production setting will need to be determined by individual wineries, as technical issues including frothing, slower filterability, and risk of overfining will need to be considered relative to the benefits, particularly when carrageenan is used before or during fermentation.

  20. Genomic signatures of adaptation to wine biological ageing conditions in biofilm-forming flor yeasts.

    PubMed

    Coi, A L; Bigey, F; Mallet, S; Marsit, S; Zara, G; Gladieux, P; Galeote, V; Budroni, M; Dequin, S; Legras, J L

    2017-02-13

    The molecular and evolutionary processes underlying fungal domestication remain largely unknown despite the importance of fungi to bioindustry and for comparative adaptation genomics in eukaryotes. Wine fermentation and biological ageing are performed by strains of S. cerevisiae with, respectively, pelagic fermentative growth on glucose and biofilm aerobic growth utilizing ethanol. Here, we use environmental samples of wine and flor yeasts to investigate the genomic basis of yeast adaptation to contrasted anthropogenic environments. Phylogenetic inference and population structure analysis based on single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed a group of flor yeasts separated from wine yeasts. A combination of methods revealed several highly differentiated regions between wine and flor yeasts, and analyses using codon-substitution models for detecting molecular adaptation identified sites under positive selection in the high-affinity transporter gene ZRT1. The cross-population composite likelihood ratio revealed selective sweeps at three regions, including in the hexose transporter gene HXT7, the yapsin gene YPS6 and the membrane protein coding gene MTS27. Our analyses also revealed that the biological ageing environment has led to the accumulation of numerous mutations in proteins from several networks, including Flo11 regulation and divalent metal transport. Together, our findings suggest that the tuning of FLO11 expression and zinc transport networks are a distinctive feature of the genetic changes underlying the domestication of flor yeasts. Our study highlights the multiplicity of genomic changes underlying yeast adaptation to man-made habitats and reveals that flor/wine yeast lineage can serve as a useful model for studying the genomics of adaptive divergence.

  1. Detection of non-coloured anthocyanin-flavanol derivatives in Rioja aged red wines by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ilárduya, María Belén; Sánchez-Fernández, Cristina; Garmón-Lobato, Sergio; Abad-García, Beatriz; Berrueta, Luis Angel; Gallo, Blanca; Vicente, Francisca

    2014-04-01

    Anthocyanins, responsible for wine colour, are involved in many reactions during wine ageing. Anthocyanin-flavanol associations give rise to derivatives in flavylium form that provide blue hues, but also derivatives that do not directly influence wine colour. These colourless derivatives remain mostly unknown but their roles during wine ageing are important for controlling wine quality. Colourless anthocyanin-flavanol derivatives formed during wine ageing have been studied in three aged red wines from Rioja using a combined method with Column Chromatography (CC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array and Mass Spectrometric detections (HPLC-DADMS). Twenty-six compounds have been detected: 17 dimers with the anthocyanin in flavene form with possible anthocyanin-flavanol (type 1) and flavanol-anthocyanin (type 2) structures, and 9 with an A-type bicyclic anthocyanin-flavanol structure (type 3). Although some of malvidin derivatives have been previously reported, this is the first time that these derivatives (including different isomers) have also been detected for delphinidin, petunidin and peonidin.

  2. Second-order capillary electrophoresis diode array detector data modeled with the Tucker3 algorithm: A novel strategy for Argentinean white wine discrimination respect to grape variety.

    PubMed

    Azcarate, Silvana M; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; Vera-Candioti, Luciana; Cesar Ugulino de Araújo, Mário; Camiña, José M; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2016-07-01

    Data obtained by capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection (CE-DAD) were modeled with the purpose to discriminate Argentinean white wines samples produced from three grape varieties (Torrontés, Chardonnay, and Sauvignon blanc). Thirty-eight samples of commercial white wine from four wine-producing provinces of Argentina (Mendoza, San Juan, Salta, and Rio Negro) were analyzed. CE-DAD matrices with dimensions of 421 elution times (from 1.17 to 7.39 minutes) × 71 wavelengths (from 227 to 367 nm) were joined in a three way data array and decomposed by Tucker3 method under non-negativity constraint, employing 18, 18 and six factors in the modes 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Using the scores of Tucker model, it was possible to discriminate samples of Argentinean white wine by linear discriminant analysis and Kernel linear discriminant analysis. Core element analysis of the Tucker3 model allows identifying the loading profiles in spectral mode related to Argentinean white wine samples.

  3. The chemical characterization of the aroma of dessert and sparkling white wines (Pedro Ximénez, Fino, Sauternes, and Cava) by gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Campo, Eva; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2008-04-09

    Wines from Pedro Ximénez (PX), Fino, botrytized Sauternes, and Cava were screened by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O), and the most relevant aroma compounds were further quantified in six different wines of each group. The comparison of GC-O and quantitative data with similar data from white young wines has made it possible to identify the aroma compounds potentially responsible for the specific sensory characteristics of these wines. Results have shown that all these wines are relatively rich in 3-methylbutanal, phenylacetaldehyde, methional, sotolon, and the ethyl esters of 2-, 3-, and 4-methylpentanoic acids. While Cava has a less specific aroma profile halfway between these special wines and young white wines, PX is richest in 3-methylbutanal, furfural, beta-damascenone, ethyl cyclohexanoate, and sotolon; Fino in acetaldehyde, diacetyl, ethyl esters of branched aliphatic acids with four, five, or six carbon atoms, and 4-ethylguaiacol; and Sauternes in phenylacetaldehyde, 3-mercaptohexanol, and 4-methyl-4-mercaptopentanone.

  4. Epigenetic Age Acceleration Assessed With Human White-Matter Images.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Karen; Carless, Melanie A; Kulkarni, Hemant; Curran, Joanne E; Sprooten, Emma; Knowles, Emma E; Mathias, Samuel; Göring, Harald Hh; Yao, Nailin; Olvera, Rene L; Fox, Peter T; Almasy, Laura; Duggirala, Ravi; Blangero, John; Glahn, David C

    2017-04-06

    The accurate estimation of age using methylation data has proved a useful and heritable biomarker, with acceleration in epigenetic age predicting a number of age-related phenotypes. Measures of white matter integrity in the brain are also heritable and highly sensitive to both normal and pathological aging processes across adulthood. We consider the phenotypic and genetic interrelationships between epigenetic age acceleration and white matter integrity in humans. Our goal was to investigate processes that underlie inter-individual variability in age-related changes in the brain. Using blood taken from a Mexican-American extended pedigree sample (n=628; age=23.28-93.11 years), epigenetic age was estimated using the method developed by S. Horvath (2013). For n=376 individuals, DTI scans were also available. The interrelationship between epigenetic age acceleration and global white matter integrity were investigated with variance decomposition methods. To test for neuroanatomical specificity, 16 specific tracts were additionally considered. We observed negative phenotypic correlations between epigenetic age acceleration and global white matter tract integrity (ρpheno=-0.119, p=0.028), with evidence of shared genetic (ρgene=-0.463, p=0.013) but not environmental influences. Negative phenotypic and genetic correlations with age acceleration were also seen for a number of specific white matter tracts, along with additional negative phenotypic correlations between granulocyte abundance and white matter integrity. These findings that increased acceleration in epigenetic age in peripheral blood correlates with reduced white matter integrity in the brain, and shares common genetic influences. provide a window into the neurobiology of aging processes within the brain and a potential biomarker of normal and pathological brain aging.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTEpigenetic measures can be used to predict age with a high degree of accuracy and so capture acceleration in biological age

  5. Metabolism of SO₂ binding compounds by Oenococcus oeni during and after malolactic fermentation in white wine.

    PubMed

    Jackowetz, J N; Mira de Orduña, R

    2012-04-16

    Sulfur dioxide SO₂ is the key additive for the preservation of wines. Carbonyl and keto compounds in wine can bind to SO₂ and decrease its efficacy, resulting in higher total SO₂ requirements. Increased consumer demand for low sulfite and organic wines pose production challenges if SO₂ binders have not been properly managed during vinification. Malolactic fermentation (MLF) has been known to reduce bound SO₂ levels but detailed time course studies are not available. In this work, the kinetics of major SO₂ binding compounds and malic acid were followed during MLF in wine with 12 commercially available strains of Oenococcus oeni. Pyruvic acid, acetaldehyde and α-ketoglutaric acid were degraded to various degrees by O. oeni, but galacturonic acid was not. At the time of malic acid depletion, percent degradation of pyruvate, α-ketoglutaric acid and acetaldehyde was 49%, 14% and 30%, respectively. During MLF, the decrease in average bound SO₂ levels, as calculated from carbonyl metabolism, was 22%. The largest reduction in wine carbonyl content occurred in the week after completion of MLF and was 53% (107 mg/L to 34 mg/L) calculated as bound SO₂. Prolonged activity of bacteria in the wines (up to 3 weeks post malic acid depletion) resulted only in reduced additional reductions in bound SO₂ levels. The results suggest that microbiological wine stabilization one week after malic acid depletion is an effective strategy for maximum removal of SO₂ binders while reducing the risk of possible post-ML spoilage by O. oeni leading to the production acetic acid and biogenic amines.

  6. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterization of wines from four Spanish denominations of origin, aged in Spanish Rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam; Poveda, Pilar; Perez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2008-10-08

    The evolution of almost 40 oak-related volatile compounds and the sensorial characteristics of red wines from four Spanish denominations of origin (DOs) (Bierzo, Toro, Ribera de Duero, and Rioja) during aging in barrels made of Rebollo oak wood, Quercus pyrenaica, were studied and compared to the same wines aged in American and French oak barrels. Each oak wood added unique and special characteristics to the wine, and in addition, each wine showed a different ability to extract the compounds, which result in these characteristics from the oak wood. In general, wines aged in Q. pyrenaica wood were characterized by high levels of eugenol, guaiacol, and other volatile phenols. In regards to compounds like cis-whiskylactone or maltol, the behavior of this wood is very similar to that of American oaks. When considering phenolic aldehydes and ketones, the levels of these compounds are intermediate between those of French and American woods and depend greatly on the type of wine. The type of oak, on the other hand, does not affect the chromatic characteristics of the wines. In sensory analysis, the biggest differences are found in the olfactory phase. Among the four DOs studied, wine aged in Q. pyrenaica presented the highest notes of wood, with more aromas of roasting, toasting, milky coffee, spices, or wine-wood interactions. The wines aged in barrels made of Q. pyrenaica wood were highly regarded, and preference was shown for them over those same wines when they had been aged in barrels of American or French oak.

  7. Trace determination of organophosphate esters in white wine, red wine, and beer samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pang, Long; Yang, Huiqiang; Yang, Peijie; Zhang, Hongzhong; Zhao, Jihong

    2017-08-15

    In this study, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of five representative organophosphate esters (OPEs) in wine samples. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method resulted in good linearity (R(2)>0.9933) over the range of 0.1-100μgL(-1), with limits of detection (LODs, S/N =3) and quantification (LOQs, S/N =10) in the ranges of 0.48-18.8ngL(-1) and 1.58-62.5ngL(-1), respectively. Inter- and intra-assay precisions of RSD% ranged from 3.21% to 6.13% and from 1.69% to 7.63%, respectively. The spiked recoveries of target OPEs from white wine, red wine, and beer samples were in the ranges of 80-122%, 76-120%, and 76-110%, respectively, at two different concentration levels. The total concentrations of five OPEs found in white wine, red wine, and beer samples were in the ranges of 0.29-0.85μgL(-1), 1.00-3.05μgL(-1), and 0.86-1.47μgL(-1), respectively.

  8. Application of a high-throughput process analytical technology metabolomics pipeline to Port wine forced ageing process.

    PubMed

    Castro, Cristiana C; Martins, R C; Teixeira, José A; Silva Ferreira, António C

    2014-01-15

    Metabolomics aims at gathering the maximum amount of metabolic information for a total interpretation of biological systems. A process analytical technology pipeline, combining gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data preprocessing with multivariate analysis, was applied to a Port wine "forced ageing" process under different oxygen saturation regimes at 60°C. It was found that extreme "forced ageing" conditions promote the occurrence of undesirable chemical reactions by production of dioxane and dioxolane isomers, furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which affect the quality of the final product through the degradation of the wine aromatic profile, colour and taste. Also, were found high kinetical correlations between these key metabolites with benzaldehyde, sotolon, and many other metabolites that contribute for the final aromatic profile of the Port wine. The use of the kinetical correlations in time-dependent processes as wine ageing can further contribute to biological or chemical systems monitoring, new biomarkers discovery and metabolic network investigations.

  9. White wine proteins: how does the pH affect their conformation at room temperature?

    PubMed

    Dufrechou, Marie; Vernhet, Aude; Roblin, Pierre; Sauvage, François-Xavier; Poncet-Legrand, Céline

    2013-08-20

    Our studies focused on the determination of aggregation mechanisms of proteins occurring in wine at room temperature. Even if the wine pH range is narrow (2.8 to 3.7), some proteins are affected by this parameter. At low pH, the formation of aggregates and the development of a haze due to proteins sometimes occur. The objective of this work was to determine if the pH impacted the conformational stability of wine proteins. Different techniques were used: circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy to investigate the modification of their secondary and tertiary structure and also SAXS to determine their global shape. Four pure proteins were used, two considered to be stable (invertase and thaumatin-like proteins) and two considered to be unstable (two chitinase isoforms). Two pH values were tested to emphasize their behavior (pH 2.5 and 4.0). The present work highlighted the fact that the conformational stability of some wine proteins (chitinases) was impacted by partial modifications, related to the exposure of some hydrophobic sites. These modifications were enough to destabilize the native state of the protein. These modifications were not observed on wine proteins determined to be stable (invertase and thaumatin-like proteins).

  10. Roles of proteins, polysaccharides, and phenolics in haze formation in white wine via reconstitution experiments.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, Diana; Van Sluyter, Steven C; Curioni, Andrea; Waters, Elizabeth J; Marangon, Matteo

    2012-10-24

    Residual proteins in finished wines can aggregate to form haze. To obtain insights into the mechanism of protein haze formation, a reconstitution approach was used to study the heat-induced aggregation behavior of purified wine proteins. A chitinase, four thaumatin-like protein (TLP) isoforms, phenolics, and polysaccharides were isolated from a Chardonnay wine. The same wine was stripped of these compounds and used as a base to reconstitute each of the proteins alone or in combination with the isolated phenolics and/or polysaccharides. After a heating and cooling cycle (70 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 15 h), the size and concentration of the aggregates formed were measured by scanning ion occlusion sensing (SIOS), a technique to detect and quantify nanoparticles. The chitinase was the protein most prone to aggregate and the one that formed the largest particles; phenolics and polysaccharides did not have a significant impact on its aggregation behavior. TLP isoforms varied in susceptibility to haze formation and in interactions with polysaccharides and phenolics. The work establishes SIOS as a useful method for studying wine haze.

  11. Trace elements determination in red and white wines using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anjos, M. J.; Lopes, R. T.; de Jesus, E. F. O.; Moreira, S.; Barroso, R. C.; Castro, C. R. F.

    2003-12-01

    Several wines produced in different regions from south of Brazil and available in markets in Rio de Janeiro were analyzed for their contents of elements such as: P, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb and Sr. Multi-element analysis was possible with simple sample preparation and subsequent analysis by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation. The measurement was carried at the X-ray fluorescence beamline in the Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory in Campinas, Brazil. The levels of the various elements obtained were lower in the Brazilian wines than the values generally found in the literature. The present study indicates the capability of multi-element analysis for determining the contents of various elements present in wines coming from Brazil vineyards by using a simple, sensitive and precise method.

  12. Age exacerbates HIV-associated white matter abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Seider, Talia R; Gongvatana, Assawin; Woods, Adam J; Chen, Huaihou; Porges, Eric C; Cummings, Tiffany; Correia, Stephen; Tashima, Karen; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-04-01

    Both HIV disease and advanced age have been associated with alterations to cerebral white matter, as measured with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and more recently with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study investigates the combined effects of age and HIV serostatus on WMH and DTI measures, as well as the relationships between these white matter measures, in 88 HIV seropositive (HIV+) and 49 seronegative (HIV-) individuals aged 23-79 years. A whole-brain volumetric measure of WMH was quantified from FLAIR images using a semi-automated process, while fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated for 15 regions of a whole-brain white matter skeleton generated using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). An age by HIV interaction was found indicating a significant association between WMH and older age in HIV+ participants only. Similarly, significant age by HIV interactions were found indicating stronger associations between older age and decreased FA in the posterior limbs of the internal capsules, cerebral peduncles, and anterior corona radiata in HIV+ vs. HIV- participants. The interactive effects of HIV and age were stronger with respect to whole-brain WMH than for any of the FA measures. Among HIV+ participants, greater WMH and lower anterior corona radiata FA were associated with active hepatitis C virus infection, a history of AIDS, and higher current CD4 cell count. Results indicate that age exacerbates HIV-associated abnormalities of whole-brain WMH and fronto-subcortical white matter integrity.

  13. Age of initial drug experimentation among white and non-white ethnics.

    PubMed

    Jackson, N; Carlisi, J; Greenway, C; Zalesnick, M

    1981-12-01

    Students in four cities completed a questionnaire regarding their ethnic background and drug use patterns. From this information, comparisons in age of initial drug experimentation among ethnic groups and races were made. The results indicated significant differences in actual age of experimentation among ethnic groups, as well as differences in other general pattern relating to age of first drug use. A comparison of Whites to non-Whites showed little difference in ages of initial drug experimentation. It was concluded that ethnicity, more so than mere race, was related to age of first use of drugs.

  14. Impact of glutathione-enriched inactive dry yeast preparations on the stability of terpenes during model wine aging.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Bencomo, Juan José; Andújar-Ortiz, Inmaculada; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Simó, Carolina; González, Javier; Chana, Antonio; Dávalos, Juan; Pozo-Bayón, M Ángeles

    2014-02-12

    The impact of the addition of glutathione-enriched Inactive dry yeast preparations (g-IDYs) on the stability of some typical wine terpenes (linalool, α-terpineol, β-citronellol, and nerol) stored under accelerated oxidative conditions was evaluated in model wines. Additionally, the effects of a second type of IDY preparation with a different claim (fermentative nutrient) and the sole addition of commercial glutathione into the model wines were also assessed. Model wines were spiked with the low molecular weight fraction (<3 kDa permeate) isolated from the IDYs, avoiding the interaction of aroma compounds with other yeast components. An exhaustive chemical characterization of both IDY permeates was carried out by using targeted and nontargeted metabolomics approaches using CE-MS and FT-ICR-MS analytical platforms. The findings suggest that the addition of <3 kDa permeate isolated from any of the IDYs employed decreases the loss of typical wine terpenes in model wines submitted to accelerated aging conditions. The g-IDY preparation did indeed release reduced GSH into the model wines, although this compound did not seem exclusively related to the protective effect on some aroma compounds determined in both model wines. The presence of other sulfur-containing compounds from yeast origin in g-IDY, and also the presence of small yeast peptides, such as methionine/tryptophan/tyrosine-containing tripeptide in both types of IDYs, seemed to be related to the antioxidant activity determined in the two permeates and to the minor loss of some terpenes in the model wines spiked with them.

  15. Analysis of polyphenols in white wine by CZE with amperometric detection using carbon nanotube-modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Mónica; Arribas, Alberto Sánchez; Bermejo, Esperanza; Zapardiel, Antonio; Chicharro, Manuel

    2011-04-01

    A method for the simultaneous detection of five polyphenols (caffeic, chlorogenic, ferulic and gallic acids and (+)-catechin) by CZE with electrochemical detection was developed. Separation of these polyphenols was performed in a 100 mM borate buffer (pH 9.2) within 15 min. Under optimized separation conditions, the performance of glassy carbon (GC) electrodes modified with multiwalled carbon nanotube layer obtained from different dispersions was examined. GC electrode modified with a dispersion of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) in polyethylenimine has proven to be the most suitable CNT-based electrode for its application as amperometric detector for the CZE separation of the studied compounds. The excellent electrochemical properties of this electrode allowed the detection of the selected polyphenols at +200 mV and improved the efficiency and the resolution of their CZE separation. Limits of detection below 3.1 μM were obtained with linear ranges covering the 10⁻⁵ to 10⁻⁴  M range. The proposed method has been successfully applied for the detection (ferulic, caffeic and gallic acids and (+)-catechin) and the quantification (gallic acid and (+)-catechin) of polyphenols in two different white wines without any preconcentration step. A remarkable signal stability was observed on the electrode performance despite the presence of potential fouling substances in wine.

  16. Foaming properties of various Champagne wines depending on several parameters: grape variety, aging, protein and CO2 content.

    PubMed

    Cilindre, Clara; Liger-Belair, Gérard; Villaume, Sandra; Jeandet, Philippe; Marchal, Richard

    2010-02-15

    A comparison of the foaming parameters of various Champagne wines was undergone with two well distinct methods: (i) a classical gas-sparging method providing standardized but artificial effervescence conditions (the so-called Mosalux), and (ii) a computer assisted viewing equipment (CAVE), much closer to the real champagne tasting conditions. The latter one is the only apparatus which enables a thorough descriptive analysis of foam behavior, during the pouring process of a sparkling wine, and from the end of its pouring. Various Champagne wines elaborated from two grape varieties (Chardonnay and Pinot Meunier) and having experienced different aging-periods (15 months and 5 years) were analyzed and compared to a model sparkling wine, elaborated from a model base wine (devoid of grape colloids). The CO(2) and protein content was also investigated to discuss the foaming behavior of these wines. A significant loss of the CO(2) content during aging was observed and might be the reason for the worse foaming properties of the old champagnes, as determined with CAVE. It is worth noting that contradictory foaming parameters were obtained through the Mosalux method, which is indeed more intrusive than the CAVE, and finally far from the real champagne tasting conditions, since it requires filtration and champagne degassing prior experiment.

  17. Variation of some fermentative sulfur compounds in Italian "millesime" classic sparkling wines during aging and storage on lees.

    PubMed

    Fedrizzi, Bruno; Magno, Franco; Finato, Fabio; Versini, Giuseppe

    2010-09-08

    Fermentative sulfur compounds are recognized as strongly affecting wine aroma, mainly as off-flavors, but recently also as possible positive contributors to wine quality and typicity in still wines. Nevertheless, no evidence has been provided for the influence of these molecules on sparkling wine aroma, except for peculiar volatile thiols found in French Champagne. According to the traditional method, the second fermentation, occurring in sealed bottles, is the essence of the procedure. After this fermentation, sparkling wine is aged on yeast lees for a period ranging from a few months to several years so that yeast autolysis can take place. So far, no evidence is provided for the effect of yeast contact duration on the level of sulfur compounds. Following a HS-SPME/GC-MS method, 13 sulfur compounds, that is, ethylmercaptan, dimethyl sulfide, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, diethyl disulfide, methyl thioacetate, ethyl thioacetate, 2-mercaptoethanol, 2-(methylthio)-1-ethanol, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, 4-(methylthio)-1-butanol, benzothiazole, and 5-(2-hydroxyethyl)-4-methylthiazole, were quantified in several Italian sparkling wines, produced according to the traditional method in two wineries from Trentino-South Tyrol, region. Additionally, the influence of winemaking technology differences and vintage effects on the evolution of the quoted sulfur compounds was considered. This investigation was carried out by coupling the HS-SPME data with those obtained by SPE method and relevant to other volatile compounds, which are considered as winemaking markers. This work furnished the first evidence of the effect of aging and lees contact at different storage temperatures on the levels of these analytes in sparkling wines. Significant increments were observed for dimethyl sulfide, diethyl sulfide, 2-(methylthio)-1-ethanol, 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol, and 4-(methylthio)-1-butanol during aging with a different variation slope possibly due to the remarkably different

  18. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity in sparkling wines: modulation by the ageing on lees.

    PubMed

    Stefenon, C A; Bonesi, C De M; Marzarotto, V; Barnabé, D; Spinelli, F R; Webber, V; Vanderlinde, R

    2014-02-15

    Sparkling wines (SW) have a special biological ageing on lees that is performed using two distinct methods: in the bottle (Champenoise) or in isobaric tanks (Charmat method). The objective of this study was to compare the levels of phenolic compounds, β-Glucosidase and antioxidant activity during the ageing on lees, in samples of SW produced at industrial scale by both methods. The β-Glucosidase activity has been constant over time, showing a close relationship with all the polyphenols studied (resveratrol, piceid, tyrosol, gallic, caffeic and ferulic acids), which were affected by the sur lie time. With these cross-reactions, the biological properties of the SW were also modulated. The results showed that the long period of ageing decreased the antioxidant potential in all samples. This work demonstrates that the sur lie is more important than the production method itself, due to its ability to modulate the necessary changes to achieve the specific objective.

  19. Potential application of dietary polyphenols from red wine to attaining healthy ageing.

    PubMed

    Magrone, T; Jirillo, E

    2011-01-01

    Polyphenols are ubiquitous compounds present in the vegetal kingdom and endowed with an array of beneficial activities to human health. In this review, the effects of dietary polyphenols on the prevention and/or mitigation of cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis will be illustrated. Moreover, emphasis will be placed on our own data concerning the in vitro effects performed by polyphenols from an Italian red wine "Negroamaro" on human healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Particularly, production of nitric oxide and maintenance of the inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokine network will be discussed also in relation to potential application to human age-related diseases. In conclusion, polyphenols in virtue of the plethora of protective effects manifested in various experimental models and clinical trials seem to be appropriate as dietary supplements for preventing the functional decline of organs with age.

  20. Cognitive aging in older Black and White persons.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert S; Capuano, Ana W; Sytsma, Joel; Bennett, David A; Barnes, Lisa L

    2015-06-01

    During a mean of 5.2 years of annual follow-up, older Black (n = 647) and White (n = 647) persons of equivalent age and education completed a battery of 17 cognitive tests from which composite measures of 5 abilities were derived. Baseline level of each ability was lower in the Black subgroup. Decline in episodic and working memory was not related to race. Decline in semantic memory, perceptual speed, and visuospatial ability was slower in Black persons than White persons, and in semantic memory and perceptual speed this effect was stronger in older than younger participants. Racial differences persisted after adjustment for retest effects. The results suggest subtle cognitive aging differences between Black persons and White persons.

  1. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Information Briefs #1 - 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 22 information briefs from the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. Four of the briefs provide data on health, available services, income, and employment from a report comparing the well-being of older people in three rural and urban locations. National estimates are provided about the need for meals for older people, and…

  2. Identification, amounts, and kinetics of extraction of C-glucosidic ellagitannins during wine aging in oak barrels or in stainless steel tanks with oak chips.

    PubMed

    Jourdes, Michaël; Michel, Julien; Saucier, Cédric; Quideau, Stéphane; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-09-01

    The C-glucosidic ellagitannins are found in wine as a result of its aging in oak barrels or in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. Once dissolved in this slightly acidic solution, the C-glucosidic ellagitannins vescalagin can react with nucleophilic entities present in red wine, such as ethanol, catechin, and epicatechin, to generate condensed hybrid products such as the β-1-O-ethylvescalagin and the flavano-ellagitannins (acutissimin A/B and epiacutissimin A/B), respectively. During this study, we first monitored the extraction kinetic and the evolution of the eight major oak-derived C-glucosidic ellagitannins in red wines aged in oak barrels or in stainless steel tank with oak chips. Their extraction rates appeared to be faster during red wine aging in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. However, their overall concentrations in wines were found higher in the wine aged in barrels. The formation rates of the vescalagin-coupled derivatives were also estimated for the first time under both red wine aging conditions (i.e., oak barrels or stainless steel tanks with oak chips). As observed for the oak-native C-glucosidic ellagitannins, the concentrations of these vescalagin derivatives were higher in the red wine aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. Despite these differences, their relative composition was similar under both red wine aging conditions. Finally, the impact of the oak chips size and toasting level on the C-glucosidic ellagitannins concentration in wine was also investigated.

  3. Effect of the aging on lees and other alternative techniques on the low molecular weight phenols of Tempranillo red wine aged in oak barrels.

    PubMed

    Del Barrio-Galán, Rubén; Pérez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam

    2012-06-30

    The effect of different alternative techniques to the traditional aging on lees on the low molecular weight phenolic compounds of red wines was study as well as their evolution during the aging in oak wood barrels for six months. The study was carried out with Tempranillo red grapes from two consecutive vintages. The techniques assayed were the traditional aging on lees with or without the addition of exogenous β-glucanase enzymes, the use of yeast derivative preparations also with or without the addition of exogenous β-glucanase enzymes, the micro-oxygenation applied together with the aging on lees, and the use of non-toasted oak wood chips. Hydroxycinnamic acids were the compounds most affected by these treatments, mainly in the wines treated with chips and commercial yeast derivative products, which showed higher concentrations of the free acids, compounds that play an important role in wine stabilization color since they can act as anthocyanin copigments. The differences found between the assayed treatments were more important in the 2007 vintage than in the 2008. However, a more significant effect of micro-oxygenation in the 2008 vintage was observed, which could be related to the fact that in this vintage the treatment was longer. In the 2008 vintage, the differences between treatments decreased along the aging in barrel. This vintage effect could be associated to the differences in the phenolic concentration of the initial wines. In this sense more research should be done to corroborate this fact.

  4. Matrix solid-phase dispersion and solid-phase microextraction applied to study the distribution of fenbutatin oxide in grapes and white wine.

    PubMed

    Montes, R; Canosa, P; Lamas, J Pablo; Piñeiro, A; Orriols, I; Cela, R; Rodríguez, I

    2009-12-01

    The fate of the acaricide fenbutatin oxide (FBTO) during the elaboration of white wine is evaluated. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) were used as sample preparation techniques applied to the semi-solid and the liquid matrices involved in this research, respectively. Selective determination of FBTO was achieved by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection (GC-AED). GC coupled to mass spectrometry was also used to establish the identity of FBTO by-products detected in must and wine samples. MSPD extractions were accomplished using C18 as dispersant and co-sorbent. Sugars and other polar interferences were first removed with water and water/acetone mixtures, then FBTO was recovered with 8 mL of acetone. When used in combination with GC-AED, the MSPD method provided limits of quantification (LOQs) in the low nanogram per gram range, recoveries around 90% and relative standard deviations below 13% for extractions performed in different days. Performance of SPME for must and wine was mainly controlled by the extraction temperature, time and fibre coating. Under final conditions, FBTO was extracted in the headspace mode for 45 min at 100 degrees C, using a 100 microm poly(dimethylsiloxane)-coated fibre. The achieved LOQs remained around or below 0.1 ng mL(-1), depending on the type of sample, and the inter-day precision ranged from 10% to 13%. FBTO residues in grapes stayed mostly on the skin of the fruit. Although FBTO was not removed during must and white wine elaboration, it remained associated with suspended particles existing in must and lees, settled after must fermentation, with a negligible risk of being transferred to commercialised wine. On the other hand, two by-products of FBTO (bis and mono (2-methyl-2-phenylpropyl) tin) were identified, for first time, in must and final white wines obtained from FBTO treated grapes. Found values for the first species ranged from 0.03 to 0.9 ng mL(-1).

  5. Variations in oxygen and ellagitannins, and organoleptic properties of red wine aged in French oak barrels classified by a near infrared system.

    PubMed

    Michel, Julien; Albertin, Warren; Jourdes, Michael; Le Floch, Alexandra; Giordanengo, Thomas; Mourey, Nicolas; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2016-08-01

    During wine aging in barrels, antioxidant molecules from wood, such as ellagitannins, are solubilized and react with wine molecules and oxygen. However, their concentrations are highly variable. Oxygen is an important factor, as it plays a role in wine parameters and organoleptic perceptions. Five barrel modalities were used; three polyphenol indices (IP), classified using the NIRS procedure, and three grain qualities. Barrels were equipped with windows to measure the oxygen using luminescence technology. The ellagitannin concentrations in the wine and its organoleptic properties were monitored. Oxygen concentrations decreased quickly during the first 8days of aging and this phenomenon was significantly more marked in barrels with a higher IP and medium grain. The ellagitannin concentrations were believed to be correlated with wood classification and oxygen consumption. Furthermore, the organoleptic properties were significantly impacted, as the wine with the lowest ellagitannin level was described as less astringent, bitter, woody, and smoky/toasty.

  6. Feasibility of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for extraction and preconcentration of Cu and Fe in red and white wine and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seeger, Tassia S.; Rosa, Francisco C.; Bizzi, Cezar A.; Dressler, Valderi L.; Flores, Erico M. M.; Duarte, Fabio A.

    2015-03-01

    A method for extraction and preconcentration of Cu and Fe in red and white wines using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F AAS) was developed. Extraction was performed using sodium diethyldithiocarbamate as chelating agent and a mixture of 40 μL of 1,2-dichlorobenzene (extraction solvent) and 900 μL of methanol (dispersive solvent). Some parameters that influencing the extraction efficiency such as pH (2 to 5), concentration of chelating agent (0 to 2%), effect of salt addition (0 to 10%), number of washing steps (1 to 4) and centrifugation time (0 to 15 min) were studied. Accuracy was evaluated after microwave-assisted digestion in closed vessels and analytes were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Agreement with the proposed method ranged from 91 to 110 and from 89 to 113% for Cu and Fe, respectively. Calibration of F AAS instrument was performed using analyte addition method and limits of detection were 6.3 and 2.4 μg L- 1 for Cu and Fe, respectively. The proposed method was applied for the determination of Cu and Fe in five samples of red wine and three samples of white wine, with concentration ranging from 21 to 178 μg L- 1 and from 1.38 to 3.74 mg L- 1, respectively.

  7. δ(15) N from soil to wine in bulk samples and proline.

    PubMed

    Paolini, Mauro; Ziller, Luca; Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Larcher, Roberto; Nicolini, Giorgio; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The feasibility of using δ(15) N as an additional isotopic marker able to link wine to its area of origin was investigated. The whole production chain (soil-leaves-grape-wine) was considered. Moreover, the research included evaluation of the effect of the fermentation process, the use of different types of yeast and white and red vinification, the addition of nitrogen adjuvants and ultrasound lysis simulating wine ageing. The δ(15) N of grapes and wine was measured in bulk samples and compounds, specifically in proline, for the first time. Despite isotopic fractionation from soil to wine, the δ(15) N values of leaves, grapes, wine and particularly must and wine proline conserved the variability of δ(15) N in the growing soil. Fermentation and ultrasound treatment did not affect the δ(15) N values of grape must, which was therefore conserved in wine. The addition of inorganic or organic adjuvants was able to influence the δ(15) N of bulk wine, depending on the amount and the difference between the δ(15) N of must and that of the adjuvant. The δ(15) N of wine proline was not influenced by adjuvant addition and is therefore the best marker for tracing the geographical origin of wine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Sensitivity analysis in a life cycle assessment of an aged red wine production from Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Meneses, M; Torres, C M; Castells, F

    2016-08-15

    Sustainability in agriculture and food processing is an issue with a clear growing interest; especially in products were consumers have particular awareness regarding its environmental profile. This is the case of wine industry depending on grape production, winemaking and bottling. Also viticulture and generally agricultural production is significantly affected by climate variations. The aim of this article is to determine the environmental load of an aged red wine from a winery in Catalonia, Spain, over its entire life cycle, including sensitivity analysis of the main parameters related to the cultivation, vinification and bottling. The life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology is used for the environmental analysis. In a first step, life cycle inventory (LCI) data were collected by questionnaires and interviews with the winemaker, all data are actual operating data and all the stages involved in the production have been taken into account (viticulture, vinification, bottling and the disposal subsystem). Data were then used to determine the environmental profile by a life cycle impact assessment using the ReCiPe method. Annual variability in environmental performance, stresses the importance of including timeline analysis in the wine sector. Because of that this study is accompanied with a sensitivity analysis carried out by a Monte Carlo simulation that takes into account the uncertainty and variability of the parameters used. In this manner, the results are presented with confidence intervals to provide a wider view of the environmental issues derived from the activities of the studied wine estate regardless of the eventualities of a specific harvesting year. Since the beverage packaging has an important influence in this case, a dataset for the production of green glass was adapted to reflect the actual recycling situation in Spain. Furthermore, a hypothetical variation of the glass-recycling rate in the glass production completes this article, as a key variable

  9. General Thomas Dresser White: Renaissance Man in a Dark Age

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    GENERAL THOMAS DRESSER WHITE: RENAISSANCE MAN IN A DARK AGE BY CHRIS WINKLEPLECK A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF...remain a plebe but for a matter of months due to the shortened program. In all, his class spent only two years at the...short of swamp. No injury except for skinned finger and stiff back. Ambassador apparently calm and very decent about matter . He sent wires to the

  10. Effect of Oak Chips on Evolution of Phenolic Compounds and Color Attributes of Bog Bilberry Syrup Wine During Bottle-Aging.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuxun; Wang, Shaoyang; Yuan, Guanshen; Ouyang, Xiaoyu; Liu, Yaran; Zhu, Baoqing; Zhang, Bolin

    2016-10-18

    This study investigated the evolution of phenolic compounds of bog bilberry syrup wine during a bottle-aging process, and further estimated the oak chip treatment on the wine color alteration. The wine was macerated with oak chips (2 or 5 g/L under light or medium toasting level) for 20 d and then bottle-aged for 6 mo. Results showed that the oak chip treatment significantly increased the content of phenolic compounds and enhanced the copigmented anthocyanin level before aging. It also resulted in an increase on a(*) and C(*) but a decrease on L(*) , b(*) , and H(*) of the wine. During aging process, a content decrease of total phenol and antioxidant capacity of the wine was observed. Phenolic acids, flavonol glycosides, and anthocyanins reduced the content, whereas flavonol increased the content. Free and copigmented anthocyanin levels decreased, whereas polymerized anthocyanins level increased. This process caused an increase on L(*) , b(*) , and H(*) , but a decrease on a(*) and C(*) . The oak chip treatment delayed the wine color change and its effect was mainly depended on the addition amount. Partial least square regression revealed that flavonol glycosides, phenolic acids, and anthocyanins displayed a positive correlation with L(*) , b(*) , and H(*) , but a negative correlation with a(*) and C(*) . Quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, myricetin-3-O-galactoside, chlorogenic acid, and quercetin exerted a more important effect on the color alteration in wine.

  11. Genome-wide association analysis on five isolated populations identifies variants of the HLA-DOA gene associated with white wine liking

    PubMed Central

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Traglia, Michela; Robino, Antonietta; Willems, Sara M; Pistis, Giorgio; Amin, Najaf; Sala, Cinzia; Karssen, Lennart C; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Wine is the most popular alcoholic beverage around the world and because of its importance in society has been widely studied. Understanding what drives its flavor has been a quest for decades but much is still unknown and will be determined at least in part by individual taste preferences. Recently studies in the genetics of taste have uncovered the role of different genes in the determination of food preferences giving new insight on its physiology. In this context we have performed a genome-wide association study on red and white wine liking using three isolated populations collected in Italy, and replicated our results on two additional populations coming from the Netherland and Central Asia for a total of 3885 samples. We have found a significant association (P=2.1 × 10−8) between white wine liking and rs9276975:C>T a polymorphism in the HLA-DOA gene encoding a non-canonical MHC II molecule, which regulates other MHC II molecules. The same association was also found with red wine liking (P=8.3 × 10−6). Sex-separated analysis have also revealed that the effect of HLA-DOA is twice as large in women as compared to men suggesting an interaction between this polymorphism and gender. Our results are one of the first examples of genome-wide association between liking of a commonly consumed food and gene variants. Moreover, our results suggest a role of the MHC system in the determination of food preferences opening new insight in this field in general. PMID:25758996

  12. Genome-wide association analysis on five isolated populations identifies variants of the HLA-DOA gene associated with white wine liking.

    PubMed

    Pirastu, Nicola; Kooyman, Maarten; Traglia, Michela; Robino, Antonietta; Willems, Sara M; Pistis, Giorgio; Amin, Najaf; Sala, Cinzia; Karssen, Lennart C; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Toniolo, Daniela; Gasparini, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Wine is the most popular alcoholic beverage around the world and because of its importance in society has been widely studied. Understanding what drives its flavor has been a quest for decades but much is still unknown and will be determined at least in part by individual taste preferences. Recently studies in the genetics of taste have uncovered the role of different genes in the determination of food preferences giving new insight on its physiology. In this context we have performed a genome-wide association study on red and white wine liking using three isolated populations collected in Italy, and replicated our results on two additional populations coming from the Netherland and Central Asia for a total of 3885 samples. We have found a significant association (P=2.1 × 10(-8)) between white wine liking and rs9276975:C>T a polymorphism in the HLA-DOA gene encoding a non-canonical MHC II molecule, which regulates other MHC II molecules. The same association was also found with red wine liking (P=8.3 × 10(-6)). Sex-separated analysis have also revealed that the effect of HLA-DOA is twice as large in women as compared to men suggesting an interaction between this polymorphism and gender. Our results are one of the first examples of genome-wide association between liking of a commonly consumed food and gene variants. Moreover, our results suggest a role of the MHC system in the determination of food preferences opening new insight in this field in general.

  13. Differential Adsorption of Ochratoxin A and Anthocyanins by Inactivated Yeasts and Yeast Cell Walls during Simulation of Wine Aging

    PubMed Central

    Petruzzi, Leonardo; Baiano, Antonietta; De Gianni, Antonio; Sinigaglia, Milena; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Bevilacqua, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The adsorption of ochratoxin A (OTA) by yeasts is a promising approach for the decontamination of musts and wines, but some potential competitive or interactive phenomena between mycotoxin, yeast cells, and anthocyanins might modify the intensity of the phenomenon. The aim of this study was to examine OTA adsorption by two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (the wild strain W13, and the commercial isolate BM45), previously inactivated by heat, and a yeast cell wall preparation. Experiments were conducted using Nero di Troia red wine contaminated with 2 μg/L OTA and supplemented with yeast biomass (20 g/L). The samples were analyzed periodically to assess mycotoxin concentration, chromatic characteristics, and total anthocyanins over 84 days of aging. Yeast cell walls revealed the highest OTA-adsorption in comparison to thermally-inactivated cells (50% vs. 43% toxin reduction), whilst no significant differences were found for the amount of adsorbed anthocyanins in OTA-contaminated and control wines. OTA and anthocyanins adsorption were not competitive phenomena. Unfortunately, the addition of yeast cells to wine could cause color loss; therefore, yeast selection should also focus on this trait to select the best strain. PMID:26516913

  14. Effects of aging and heat treatment on whole yeast cells and yeast cell walls and on adsorption of ochratoxin A in a wine model system.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Y P; Pueyo, E; Carrascosa, A V; Martínez-Rodríguez, A J

    2008-07-01

    A wine model was evaluated to determine the influence of aging on the ability of whole yeast cells (WY) and yeast cell walls (YCW) to remove ochratoxin A (OTA). Aging and autolysis were monitored for 214 h in the model wine. The original concentration of OTA in the model wine was 10 microg/liter, and WY and YCW were added at a final concentration of 1 g/liter. YCW mannoproteins were involved in the removal of OTA from the model wine through adsorption mechanisms. Aging affected the capacity of WY to remove OTA, but YCW removal capacity remained constant during aging. A previous heat treatment (85 degrees C for 10 min) of WY and YCW increased their removal capacity and increased the efficiency of the decontamination process.

  15. White Matter Neurons in Young Adult and Aged Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Farzad; Wang, Xiyue; Rosene, Douglas L.; Rockland, Kathleen S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and non-human primates (NHP), white matter neurons (WMNs) persist beyond early development. Their functional importance is largely unknown, but they have both corticothalamic and corticocortical connectivity and at least one subpopulation has been implicated in vascular regulation and sleep. Several other studies have reported that the density of WMNs in humans is altered in neuropathological or psychiatric conditions. The present investigation evaluates and compares the density of superficial and deep WMNs in frontal (FR), temporal (TE), and parietal (Par) association regions of four young adult and four aged male rhesus monkeys. A major aim was to determine whether there was age-related neuronal loss, as might be expected given the substantial age-related changes known to occur in the surrounding white matter environment. Neurons were visualized by immunocytochemistry for Neu-N in coronal tissue sections (30 μm thickness), and neuronal density was assessed by systematic random sampling. Per 0.16 mm2 sampling box, this yielded about 40 neurons in the superficial WM and 10 in the deep WM. Consistent with multiple studies of cell density in the cortical gray matter of normal brains, neither the superficial nor deep WM populations showed statistically significant age-related neuronal loss, although we observed a moderate decrease with age for the deep WMNs in the frontal region. Morphometric analyses, in contrast, showed significant age effects in soma size and circularity. In specific, superficial WMNs were larger in FR and Par WM regions of the young monkeys; but in the TE, these were larger in the older monkeys. An age effect was also observed for soma circularity: superficial WMNs were more circular in FR and Par of the older monkeys. This second, morphometric result raises the question of whether other age-related morphological, connectivity, or molecular changes occur in the WMNs. These could have multiple impacts, given the wide range of putative

  16. Influence of different mineral and Organic pesticide treatments on Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) contents determined by derivative potentiometric stripping analysis in Italian white and red wines.

    PubMed

    Salvo, Francesco; La Pera, Lara; Di Bella, Giuseppa; Nicotina, Mariano; Dugo, Giacomo

    2003-02-12

    This paper deals with the use of derivative potentiometric stripping analysis (dPSA) as a rapid and precise method to determine Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels in red and white wine samples from Sicily, Campania, and Tuscany and to investigate the possible connection between the content of these metals and the pesticide treatments used in vine-growing to control plant diseases and pests. dPSA allowed direct quantitation of heavy metals in acidified wines without any sample pretreatment. Mean recoveries of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) ranged from 95.5 to 99.2% for white wine samples and from 96.1 to 100.0% for red wine samples. The obtained results showed that Cd(II) was not found in any sample and that Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) levels were always lower than the toxicity limits in both fungicide- and water-treated wines. Nevertheless, the contents of metals were increased in samples from organic and inorganic pesticides treatment with respect to the water-treated samples. In particular, quinoxyfen, dinocap-penconazole, and dinocap applications considerably increased Cu(II) and Zn(II) contents in white and red wines. The levels of lead were significantly raised by azoxystrobin and sulfur treatments.

  17. 3-Hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone: a key odorant of the typical aroma of oxidative aged Port wine.

    PubMed

    Silva Ferreira, A C; Barbe, Jean-Christophe; Bertrand, Alain

    2003-07-16

    Application of aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) on organic extracts from Port wines barrel-aged over 40 years revealed 5 odor-active compounds corresponding to descriptors used to qualify the characteristic old wine aroma. One of the compounds, described as "nutty" and "spicy-like", and present in at least 9 dilutions above the others, was perceived as particularly important. The compound responsible for this flavor was identified as 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon). The levels ranged from 5 to 958 microg/L for wines between 1 and 60 years old. It was also observed that during oxidative aging the concentration of this compound increased with time according to a linear trend (r > 0.95). Although the presence of 2-ketobutyric acid was verified, the constant rate of formation of sotolon with aging and its high correlation with sugar derivates (HMF, furfural) suggests other mechanisms, different from those reported for other wines. The flavor threshold of sotolon was evaluated in Port wine at 19 microg/L. Sensorial tests provided valuable information concerning sotolon impact on Port wine aroma. Samples supplemented with this substance were consistently ranked as older. In view of these results it can be expected that sotolon plays a pre-eminent role in the characteristic old Port wine aroma.

  18. Volatile compounds as markers of ageing in Tempranillo red wines from La Mancha D.O. stored in oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Castro-Vázquez, Lucía; Alañón, M Elena; Calvo, Elena; Cejudo, M Jesús; Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2011-07-29

    Solid-phase extraction cartridges (SPE)-GC/MS method was used to analyse red wines aromas. The matrix effect was studied with chemicals standard prepared in synthetic wines with water/alcohol solutions (12% ethanol, v/v) following the procedure proposed. The method offers good reproducibility since the relative standard deviations (RSD%) for the volatile compounds levels were less than 9%. This method was used to differentiate the aroma of one hundred mono-varietal young, crianza, reserva and gran reserva La Mancha D.O. wines (cv. Tempranillo) on the basis of oak barrel contact period. Samples were checked at ten time points over 36 months. Sixty important wine odorants, such as volatile phenols, vanillin derivatives, lactones, norisoprenoids, benzene compounds, esters and terpenols, can be quantitatively determined in a single run. Results showed significant quantitative differences in the volatile profiles of wines depending on the length of time in contact with wood, even in wines belonging to the same commercial category. Stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) was used to obtain a model that predicted the time of barrel ageing to which wines were submitted in relation with the wine volatile composition. A successful function based on eight compounds with a mean deviation of 0.37 months in the predictions, was obtained.

  19. Auditory white noise reduces age-related fluctuations in balance.

    PubMed

    Ross, J M; Will, O J; McGann, Z; Balasubramaniam, R

    2016-09-06

    Fall prevention technologies have the potential to improve the lives of older adults. Because of the multisensory nature of human balance control, sensory therapies, including some involving tactile and auditory noise, are being explored that might reduce increased balance variability due to typical age-related sensory declines. Auditory white noise has previously been shown to reduce postural sway variability in healthy young adults. In the present experiment, we examined this treatment in young adults and typically aging older adults. We measured postural sway of healthy young adults and adults over the age of 65 years during silence and auditory white noise, with and without vision. Our results show reduced postural sway variability in young and older adults with auditory noise, even in the absence of vision. We show that vision and noise can reduce sway variability for both feedback-based and exploratory balance processes. In addition, we show changes with auditory noise in nonlinear patterns of sway in older adults that reflect what is more typical of young adults, and these changes did not interfere with the typical random walk behavior of sway. Our results suggest that auditory noise might be valuable for therapeutic and rehabilitative purposes in older adults with typical age-related balance variability.

  20. Study of a laboratory-scaled new method for the accelerated continuous ageing of wine spirits by applying ultrasound energy.

    PubMed

    Delgado-González, M J; Sánchez-Guillén, M M; García-Moreno, M V; Rodríguez-Dodero, M C; García-Barroso, C; Guillén-Sánchez, D A

    2017-05-01

    During the ageing of brandies, many physicochemical processes take place involving the distilled spirit and the wood of the casks. Because of these reactions, the polyphenolic content of brandies and their content of organic acids increase with the ageing. These reactions are slow, and the ageing of high-quality brandies takes several years. In this paper, the development of a system that uses the circulation of the wine distillate through encapsulated American oak chips and the application of ultrasound energy with the aim of producing aged wine spirits has been carried out, and the influences of the operation variables over the characteristics of the produced drink have been measured. With that proposal, the influence of different powers of ultrasound, and also the influence of the movement of the liquor through oak chips, was determined first. This way, the results show that higher powers of ultrasound, of nearly 40W/L, in addition with the movement of the spirit, improve the extraction of phenolic compounds in a 33.94%, after seven days of ageing. Then, applying Youden and Steiner's experimental design, eight experiments of ageing were performed, and the samples obtained by this new method were analysed to obtain information related to their physicochemical and oenological characterisation in order to determine the experimental conditions that produce the best ageing results. This way, the best spirit produced by this new method of ageing is obtained with a high alcoholic strength of the distilled wine and a high quantity of oak chips, and with room temperature and high flow rate. In addition, the presence of oxygen in the sample and the absence of light increase the quality of the produced spirit. Finally, the application of ultrasound energy in large pulses is related with the improvement of two important ageing markers: the intensity of the colour and the TPI. As a last experiment, we applied this ageing method to five varietal spirits. The sensorial

  1. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Benjamin B.; Robinson, Meghan E.; Milberg, William P.; McGlinchey, Regina E.

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure—one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan—is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure × age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a ‘dose-response’ relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast

  2. Military blast exposure, ageing and white matter integrity.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Benjamin B; Robinson, Meghan E; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H

    2015-08-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury, or concussion, is associated with a range of neural changes including altered white matter structure. There is emerging evidence that blast exposure-one of the most pervasive causes of casualties in the recent overseas conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan-is accompanied by a range of neurobiological events that may result in pathological changes to brain structure and function that occur independently of overt concussion symptoms. The potential effects of brain injury due to blast exposure are of great concern as a history of mild traumatic brain injury has been identified as a risk factor for age-associated neurodegenerative disease. The present study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether military-associated blast exposure influences the association between age and white matter tissue structure integrity in a large sample of veterans of the recent conflicts (n = 190 blast-exposed; 59 without exposure) between the ages of 19 and 62 years. Tract-based spatial statistics revealed a significant blast exposure × age interaction on diffusion parameters with blast-exposed individuals exhibiting a more rapid cross-sectional age trajectory towards reduced tissue integrity. Both distinct and overlapping voxel clusters demonstrating the interaction were observed among the examined diffusion contrast measures (e.g. fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity). The regions showing the effect on fractional anisotropy included voxels both within and beyond the boundaries of the regions exhibiting a significant negative association between fractional anisotropy and age in the entire cohort. The regional effect was sensitive to the degree of blast exposure, suggesting a 'dose-response' relationship between the number of blast exposures and white matter integrity. Additionally, there was an age-independent negative association between fractional anisotropy and years since most severe blast exposure in a subset of the blast-exposed group

  3. Superficial white matter: effects of age, sex, and hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Owen R; Clark, Kristi A; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18-74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies.

  4. Superficial White Matter: Effects of Age, Sex, and Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Owen R.; Clark, Kristi A.; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H.; Woods, Roger P.; Mazziotta, John C.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18–74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies. PMID:23461767

  5. Development of lysozyme-combined antibacterial system to reduce sulfur dioxide and to stabilize Italian Riesling ice wine during aging process

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kai; Han, Shun-yu; Zhang, Bo; Li, Min; Sheng, Wen-jun

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of SO2 reduction and stabilizing ice wine, a new antibacterial technique was developed and verified in order to reduce the content of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and simultaneously maintain protein stability during ice wine aging process. Hazardous bacterial strain (lactic acid bacteria, LAB) and protein stability of Italian Riesling ice wine were evaluated in terms of different amounts of lysozyme, SO2, polyphenols, and wine pH by single-factor experiments. Subsequently, a quadratic rotation-orthogonal composite design with four variables was conducted to establish the multiple linear regression model that demonstrated the influence of different treatments on synthesis score between LAB inhibition and protein stability of ice wine. The results showed that, synthesis score can be influenced by lysozyme and SO2 concentrations on an extremely significant level (P < 0.01). Furthermore, the lysozyme-combined antibacterial system, which is specially designed for ice wine aging, was optimized step by step by response surface methodology and ridge analysis. As a result, the optimal proportion should be control in ice wine as follows: 179.31 mg L−1 lysozyme, 177.14 mg L−1 SO2, 0.60 g L−1 polyphenols, and 4.01 ice wine pH. Based on this system, the normalized synthesis score between LAB inhibition and protein stability can reach the highest point 0.920. Finally, by the experiments of verification and comparison, it was indicated that lysozyme-combined antibacterial system, which was a practical and prospective method to reduce SO2 concentration and effectively prevent contamination from hazardous LAB, can be used to stabilize ice wine during aging process. PMID:26405531

  6. Combined effects of prefermentative skin maceration and oxygen addition of must on color-related phenolics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics of Airén white wine.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Castro-Vázquez, Lucía; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Pérez-Coello, María Soledad

    2011-11-23

    The effects of the joint prefermentative maceration and hyperoxygenation of Airén white must and wine on the phenolic content, chromatic characteristics, volatile composition, and sensory characteristics, not previously described in combination, have been evaluated. A total of 20 phenolic and 149 volatile compounds have been identified and quantified for that purpose. As a consequence of the oxygen addition, the concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and flavan-3-ols decreased (above all t-GRP and (+)-catechin), leading to color stabilization, but also the concentrations of several volatile compounds with a great importance for quality aroma decreased. Prefermentative skin maceration, previously applied to the hyperoxygenation of Airén musts, provided the aforementioned color stabilization in the respective wine but also increased the content of short-chain fatty acid esters and terpenes and decreased the concentration of C(6) alcohols. That combination of prefermentative treatments (skin maceration followed by must hyperoxygenation) produced an improvement of the global impression of the final wine based on significantly better scores of tropical fruit, body, and herbaceous notes.

  7. White matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter integrity in the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Clayden, Jonathan D; Royle, Natalie A; Murray, Catherine; Morris, Zoe; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Bastin, Mark E; Deary, Ian J; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2015-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) of presumed vascular origin are a common finding in brain magnetic resonance imaging of older individuals and contribute to cognitive and functional decline. It is unknown how WMH form, although white matter degeneration is characterized pathologically by demyelination, axonal loss, and rarefaction, often attributed to ischemia. Changes within normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) in subjects with WMH have also been reported but have not yet been fully characterized. Here, we describe the in vivo imaging signatures of both NAWM and WMH in a large group of community-dwelling older people of similar age using biomarkers derived from magnetic resonance imaging that collectively reflect white matter integrity, myelination, and brain water content. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) were significantly lower, whereas mean diffusivity (MD) and longitudinal relaxation time (T1) were significantly higher, in WMH than NAWM (p < 0.0001), with MD providing the largest difference between NAWM and WMH. Receiver operating characteristic analysis on each biomarker showed that MD differentiated best between NAWM and WMH, identifying 94.6% of the lesions using a threshold of 0.747 × 10(-9) m(2)s(-1) (area under curve, 0.982; 95% CI, 0.975-0.989). Furthermore, the level of deterioration of NAWM was strongly associated with the severity of WMH, with MD and T1 increasing and FA and MTR decreasing in NAWM with increasing WMH score, a relationship that was sustained regardless of distance from the WMH. These multimodal imaging data indicate that WMH have reduced structural integrity compared with surrounding NAWM, and MD provides the best discriminator between the 2 tissue classes even within the mild range of WMH severity, whereas FA, MTR, and T1 only start reflecting significant changes in tissue microstructure as WMH become more severe.

  8. White dwarf stars and the age of the Galactic disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. A.

    1990-01-01

    The history of the Galaxy is written in its oldest stars, the white dwarf (WD) stars. Significant limits can be placed on both the Galactic age and star formation history. A wide range of input WD model sequences is used to derive the current limits to the age estimates suggested by fitting to the observed falloff in the WD luminosity function. The results suggest that the star formation rate over the history of the Galaxy has been relatively constant, and that the disk age lies in the range 6-12 billion years, depending upon the assumed structure of WD stars, and in particular on the core composition and surface helium layer mass. Using plausible mixed C/O core input models, the estimates for the disk age range from 8-10.5 Gyr, i.e.,sustantially younger than most age estimates for the halo globular clusters. After speculating on the significance of the results, expected observational and theoretical refinements which will further enhance the reliability of the method are discussed.

  9. Chartbook on Aging in America [and] Supplement. White House Conference on Aging, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Carole, Comp.; Brotman, Herman, Comp.

    This chartbook, developed for participants in the 1981 White House Conference on Aging, depicts past, present, and projected developments in demographics, economics, and other areas to explain the size and makeup of the older population and its economic and social roles in society. Each of the 70 charts, classified under seven headings, includes a…

  10. Comparison of electron and chemical ionization modes for the quantification of thiols and oxidative compounds in white wines by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Thibon, Cécile; Pons, Alexandre; Mouakka, Nadia; Redon, Pascaline; Méreau, Raphaël; Darriet, Philippe

    2015-10-09

    A rapid, sensitive method for assaying volatile impact compounds in white wine was developed using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) technology, with a triple quadrupole analyzer operating in chemical ionization and electron impact mode. This GC-MS/MS method made it possible to assay volatile thiols (3SH: 3-sulfanylhexanol, formerly 3MH; 3SHA: 3-sulfanylhexyl acetate, formerly 3MHA; 4MSP: 4-methyl-4-sulfanylpentan-2-one, formerly 4MMP; BM: benzenemethanethiol; E2SA: ethyl 2-sulfanylacetate; and 2FM: 2-furanmethanethiol) and odoriferous oxidation markers (Sotolon: 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5)H-furanone, methional, and phenylacetaldehyde) simultaneously in dry white wines, comparing electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) modes. More molecular ions were produced by CI than protonated molecules, despite the greater fragmentation caused by EI. So, even using the best reactant gas giving the highest signal for thiols, EI was the best ionization mode, with the lowest detection limits. For all compounds of interest, the limits of quantification (LOQ) obtained were well below their detection thresholds (ranging from 0.5 to 8.5ng/L for volatile thiols and 65-260ng/L for oxidation markers). Recovery rates ranged from 86% to 111%, reproducibility (in terms of relative standard deviation; RSD) was below 18% in all cases, with correlation coefficients above 0.991 for all analytes. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of compounds of interest in Sauvignon Blanc wines from a single estate and ten different vintages.

  11. Simple and fast method for iron determination in white and red wines using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Maciel, Juliana V; Soares, Bruno M; Mandlate, Jaime S; Picoloto, Rochele S; Bizzi, Cezar A; Flores, Erico M M; Duarte, Fabio A

    2014-08-20

    This work reports the development of a method for Fe extraction in white and red wines using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and determination by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. For optimization of the DLLME method, the following parameters were evaluated: type and volume of dispersive (1300 μL of acetonitrile) and extraction (80 μL of C(2)Cl(4)) solvents, pH (3.0), concentration of ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC, 500 μL of 1% m/v APDC solution), NaCl concentration (not added), and extraction time. The calibration curve was performed using the analyte addition method, and the limit of detection and relative standard deviation were 0.2 mg L(-1) and below 7%, respectively. The accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results obtained after Fe determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with agreement ranging from 94 to 105%. The proposed method was applied for Fe determination in white and red wines with concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 4.7 mg L(-1).

  12. Nitrogen compounds in must and volatile profile of white wine: Influence of clarification process before alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Burin, Vívian Maria; Caliari, Vinícius; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding a fining agent to the must in relation to the fermentation kinetics and the volatile composition of the wine produced. Three fining agents, bentonite, pectinolytic enzyme and silica were applied, separately, to samples of Chardonnay must. It was observed that the addition of a fining agent had a significant influence on the must and wine composition. The must clarified with bentonite showed the lowest nitrogen content and the enzyme addition led to the highest nitrogen content. During the fermentation process, a difference in the consumption rate was observed for each amino acid in relation to the fining agent used in the process. In relation to the volatile composition, the wine produced had different characteristics according to the fining agent added to the must, which was confirmed by separation of the samples using principal component analysis.

  13. Factors influencing the aroma composition of Chardonnay wines.

    PubMed

    Gambetta, Joanna M; Bastian, Susan E P; Cozzolino, Daniel; Jeffery, David W

    2014-07-16

    Chardonnay is one of the oldest and most widely distributed wine grape cultivars and is of commercial importance for the world's wine-producing nations. It is an extremely flexible variety that has adapted to different regions with varied weather and soil characteristics. Somewhat uniquely among white wines, Chardonnay lends itself to a wide variety of production styles, which can be tailored to the target market. Techniques such as skin maceration, barrel and stainless steel fermentation, use of selected or indigenous yeasts, malolactic fermentation, and aging in barrels with or without lees are all applicable and lead to different compositional outcomes. A number of research papers have been published with a view to understanding Chardonnay composition and quality as well as the impact of different enological techniques on the final product. This review summarizes current knowledge, explaining the influence of viticultural and production techniques on aroma composition, and poses directions for further research into Chardonnay wines.

  14. Phenolic compounds and sensorial characterization of wines aged with alternative to barrel products made of Spanish oak wood (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.).

    PubMed

    Gallego, L; Del Alamo, M; Nevares, I; Fernández, J A; Fernández de Simón, B; Cadahía, E

    2012-04-01

    Wood of Quercus pyrenaica has suitable properties for the wine ageing process. However, the forest available for the barrel making from this particular type of tree is very limited. Nevertheless, it is highly advisable to use this kind of wood in order to manufacture alternative oak products. This study presents the results of ageing the same red wine using different pieces of wood (chips and staves) of Spanish oak (Q. pyrenaica), American oak (Quercus alba) and French oak (Quercus petraea) in conjunction with small, controlled amounts of oxygen. In addition, the phenolic parameters, colour and sensory analysis point out that wines aged with Q. pyrenaica pieces have similar enological characteristics to those aged with American or French oak pieces of wood (chips and staves). Furthermore, the total oxygen consumed and its relation with sensory properties also has been studied in this article in order to know how the oxygen behaves in these processes. Besides, it is going to put forward the fact that chips and staves from Q. pyrenaica oak are suitable for the ageing of red wines and better considered than American or French ones, showing higher aromatic intensity, complexity, woody, balsamic and cocoa. Finally, the tasters valued highly the wines with staves, pointing out its flavour and roundness in mouth.

  15. Relationship between Menthiafolic Acid and Wine Lactone in Wine.

    PubMed

    Giaccio, Joanne; Curtin, Chris D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2015-09-23

    Menthiafolic acid (6-hydroxy-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoic acid, 2a) was quantified by GC-MS in 28 white wines, 4 Shiraz wines, and for the first time in 6 white grape juice samples. Menthiafolic acid was detected in all but one of the wine samples at concentrations ranging from 26 to 342 μg/L and in the juice samples from 16 to 236 μg/L. Various model fermentation experiments showed that some menthiafolic acid in wine could be generated from the grape-derived menthiafolic acid glucose ester (2b) during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Samples containing high concentrations of menthiafolic acid were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS and were shown to contain this compound in predominantly the (S)-configuration. Enantioselective analysis of wine lactone (1) in one of these samples, a four-year-old Chardonnay wine showed, for the first time, the presence of the 3R,3aR,7aS isomer of wine lactone (1b), which is the enantiomer of the form previously reported as the sole isomer present in young wine samples. The weakly odorous 3R,3aR,7aS 1b form comprised 69% of the total wine lactone in the sample. On the basis of the enantioselectivity of the hydrolytic conversion of menthiafolic acid to wine lactone at pH 3.0 determined previously and the relative proportions of (R)- and (S)-menthiafolic acid in the Chardonnay wine, the predicted ratio of wine lactone enantiomers that would be formed from hydrolysis at ambient temperature of the menthiafolic acid present in this wine was close to the ratio measured, which was consistent with menthiafolic acid being the major or sole precursor to wine lactone in this sample.

  16. Antioxidant and Vasodilatory Effects of Blackberry and Grape Wines

    PubMed Central

    Mudnic, Ivana; Budimir, Danijela; Modun, Darko; Gunjaca, Grgo; Generalic, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Katalinic, Visnja; Ljubenkov, Ivica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In contrast to the well-described various biological effects of grape wines, the potential effects of commonly consumed blackberry wine have not been studied. We examined in vitro antioxidant and vasodilatory effects of four blackberry wines and compared them with the effects of two red and two white grape wines. Although some blackberry wines had lower total phenolic content relative to the red grape wines, their antioxidant capacity was stronger, which may be related to a higher content of non-flavonoid compounds (most notably gallic acid) in blackberry wines. Although maximal vasodilation induced by blackberry wines was generally similar to that of red wines, blackberry wines were less potent vasodilators. Vasodilatory activity of all wines, in addition to their flavonoid and total phenolic content, was most significantly associated with their content of anthocyanins. No association of vasodilation with any individual polyphenolic compound was found. Our results indicate the biological potential of blackberry wines, which deserves deeper scientific attention. PMID:22082099

  17. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white…

  18. Cerebral White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Aging: Contributions from Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Bennett, Ilana J.; Song, Allen W.

    2009-01-01

    The integrity of cerebral white matter is critical for efficient cognitive functioning, but little is known regarding the role of white matter integrity in age-related differences in cognition. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures the directional displacement of molecular water and as a result can characterize the properties of white matter that combine to restrict diffusivity in a spatially coherent manner. This review considers DTI studies of aging and their implications for understanding adult age differences in cognitive performance. Decline in white matter integrity contributes to a disconnection among distributed neural systems, with a consistent effect on perceptual speed and executive functioning. The relation between white matter integrity and cognition varies across brain regions, with some evidence suggesting that age-related effects exhibit an anterior-posterior gradient. With continued improvements in spatial resolution and integration with functional brain imaging, DTI holds considerable promise, both for theories of cognitive aging and for translational application. PMID:19705281

  19. Frontostriatal white matter integrity mediates adult age differences in probabilistic reward learning.

    PubMed

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Levens, Sara M; Perry, Lee M; Dougherty, Robert F; Knutson, Brian

    2012-04-11

    Frontostriatal circuits have been implicated in reward learning, and emerging findings suggest that frontal white matter structural integrity and probabilistic reward learning are reduced in older age. This cross-sectional study examined whether age differences in frontostriatal white matter integrity could account for age differences in reward learning in a community life span sample of human adults. By combining diffusion tensor imaging with a probabilistic reward learning task, we found that older age was associated with decreased reward learning and decreased white matter integrity in specific pathways running from the thalamus to the medial prefrontal cortex and from the medial prefrontal cortex to the ventral striatum. Further, white matter integrity in these thalamocorticostriatal paths could statistically account for age differences in learning. These findings suggest that the integrity of frontostriatal white matter pathways critically supports reward learning. The findings also raise the possibility that interventions that bolster frontostriatal integrity might improve reward learning and decision making.

  20. Microoxidation in wine production.

    PubMed

    Kilmartin, Paul A

    2010-01-01

    Microoxygenation (MOX) is now widely applied for the maturation of red wines as an alternative to barrel aging. The proposed improvements in wine quality arising from MOX include color stabilization, removal of unwanted off-odors, and improvements in wine mouthfeel. In this review, an outline is provided of oxygenation systems, particularly microbullage and polymer membrane delivery, and of the current understanding of wine oxidation processes. A summary of the results from published studies into red wine MOX is then provided, beginning with observations on O(2) and acetaldehyde accumulation, and the moderating effect of added sulfur dioxide. Effects upon red wine color, particularly the more rapid formation of polymeric pigments and higher color retention, have been consistently demonstrated in MOX studies, along with further effects on specific polyphenol compounds. A few reports have recently examined the effect of MOX on red wine aromas, but these have yet to identify compounds that consistently change in a manner that would explain sensory observations regarding a lowering of herbaceous and reductive odors. Likewise, tannin analyses have been undertaken in several studies, but explanations of the decline in wine astringency remain to be developed. The accelerated growth of unwanted microorganisms has also been examined in a limited number of studies, but no major problems have been identified in this area.

  1. White matter hyperintensities and imaging patterns of brain ageing in the general population.

    PubMed

    Habes, Mohamad; Erus, Guray; Toledo, Jon B; Zhang, Tianhao; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J; Rosseel, Yves; Janowitz, Deborah; Doshi, Jimit; Van der Auwera, Sandra; von Sarnowski, Bettina; Hegenscheid, Katrin; Hosten, Norbert; Homuth, Georg; Völzke, Henry; Schminke, Ulf; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Grabe, Hans J; Davatzikos, Christos

    2016-04-01

    White matter hyperintensities are associated with increased risk of dementia and cognitive decline. The current study investigates the relationship between white matter hyperintensities burden and patterns of brain atrophy associated with brain ageing and Alzheimer's disease in a large populatison-based sample (n = 2367) encompassing a wide age range (20-90 years), from the Study of Health in Pomerania. We quantified white matter hyperintensities using automated segmentation and summarized atrophy patterns using machine learning methods resulting in two indices: the SPARE-BA index (capturing age-related brain atrophy), and the SPARE-AD index (previously developed to capture patterns of atrophy found in patients with Alzheimer's disease). A characteristic pattern of age-related accumulation of white matter hyperintensities in both periventricular and deep white matter areas was found. Individuals with high white matter hyperintensities burden showed significantly (P < 0.0001) lower SPARE-BA and higher SPARE-AD values compared to those with low white matter hyperintensities burden, indicating that the former had more patterns of atrophy in brain regions typically affected by ageing and Alzheimer's disease dementia. To investigate a possibly causal role of white matter hyperintensities, structural equation modelling was used to quantify the effect of Framingham cardiovascular disease risk score and white matter hyperintensities burden on SPARE-BA, revealing a statistically significant (P < 0.0001) causal relationship between them. Structural equation modelling showed that the age effect on SPARE-BA was mediated by white matter hyperintensities and cardiovascular risk score each explaining 10.4% and 21.6% of the variance, respectively. The direct age effect explained 70.2% of the SPARE-BA variance. Only white matter hyperintensities significantly mediated the age effect on SPARE-AD explaining 32.8% of the variance. The direct age effect explained 66.0% of the SPARE

  2. Improved method for the extraction and chromatographic analysis on a fused-core column of ellagitannins found in oak-aged wine.

    PubMed

    Navarro, María; Kontoudakis, Nikolaos; Canals, Joan Miquel; García-Romero, Esteban; Gómez-Alonso, Sergio; Zamora, Fernando; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro

    2017-07-01

    A new method for the analysis of ellagitannins observed in oak-aged wine is proposed, exhibiting interesting advantages with regard to previously reported analytical methods. The necessary extraction of ellagitannins from wine was simplified to a single step of solid phase extraction (SPE) using size exclusion chromatography with Sephadex LH-20 without the need for any previous SPE of phenolic compounds using reversed-phase materials. The quantitative recovery of wine ellagitannins requires a combined elution with methanol and ethyl acetate, especially for increasing the recovery of the less polar acutissimins. The chromatographic method was performed using a fused-core C18 column, thereby avoiding the coelution of main ellagitannins, such as vescalagin and roburin E. However, the very polar ellagitannins, namely, the roburins A, B and C, still partially coeluted, and their quantification was assisted by the MS detector. This methodology also enabled the analysis of free gallic and ellagic acids in the same chromatographic run.

  3. Stir bar sorptive extraction for the determination of volatile compounds in oak-aged wines.

    PubMed

    Marín, J; Zalacain, A; De Miguel, C; Alonso, G L; Salinas, M R

    2005-12-09

    Stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) followed by a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has been optimized for the determination of 13 of the most important oak volatiles in wine samples, all in a single run. The stir bar sorptive extraction method was optimized in terms of temperature, time, pH and NaCl addition, and the best results were obtained after stirring the wine sample with the polydimethylsiloxane stir bar during 90min at room temperature. The addition of sodium chloride did not enhance the volatile extraction. The method proposed showed good linearity over the concentration range tested, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.92 to 0.99 for all the analytes. The reproducibility and repeatability of the method was estimated between 0.11 and 5.45%. The detection and quantification limits of all analytes were lower than their respective olfactory threshold values, and, most importantly, no artifacts have been observed during the analysis as described in most extractions using other current methodologies.

  4. Determination of Favorite Wine from Comparison of Wine Aroma Attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Takayuki; Kamimura, Hironobu; Shimada, Kouji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kaneki, Noriaki

    The decision to choose the appropriate product matching the preference of each individual is based on the psychological impression of the adjective and the alternatives. The preference for a product group and physical condition also affect decision-making. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of differences in the preference of wine and changes in hunger level on the psychological and neuro-physiological aspects of decision-making where the subjects were asked to choose their most favorite wine after sniffing the aroma of several wines. The psychological aspects of decision-making while sniffing five different kinds of wine were evaluated by the analytical hierarchal process (AHP) method, while the neuro-physiological aspects were evaluated by measuring the level of oxygenated hemoglobin concentrations (O2Hb) in the process of smelling the wine aromas within three minutes compared to when the non-odor and alcoholic solutions were presented. AHP analysis showed that the adjective “Favorite” was given the highest importance and a white wine with a sweet aroma was the most favored wine, regardless of the wine preference. The normalized mean O2Hb levels in each minute showed that, in the case of the wine lovers, the time course of the O2Hb level, decreased when they sensed the wine aroma compared to when they sensed non-odor solutions, and, in non-wine lovers, the O2Hb levels remained at higher values compared to the smell of the non-odor solution when they sensed the aroma of the alcoholic solution. The results indicate that there are differences with regard to decision-making between the psychological and physiological aspects when people are made to choose their most favorite wine by sniffing wine aromas.

  5. Selective effects of aging on brain white matter microstructure: a diffusion tensor imaging tractography study.

    PubMed

    Michielse, Stijn; Coupland, Nick; Camicioli, Richard; Carter, Rawle; Seres, Peter; Sabino, Jennifer; Malykhin, Nikolai

    2010-10-01

    We examined age-related changes in the cerebral white matter. Structural magnetic resonance images (MRIs) and diffusion tensor images (DTIs) were acquired from 69 healthy subjects aged 22-84 years. Quantitative DTI tractography was performed for nine different white matter tracts to determine tract volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial, and radial diffusivities. We used automated and manual segmentation to determine volumes of gray matter (GM), white mater (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and intracranial space. The results showed significant effects of aging on WM, GM, CSF volumes, and selective effects of aging on structural integrity of different white matter tracts. WM of the prefrontal region was the most vulnerable to aging, while temporal lobe connections, cingulum, and parieto-occipital commissural connections showed relative preservation with age. This study was cross-sectional, and therefore, additional longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  6. Financial literacy is associated with white matter integrity in old age.

    PubMed

    Han, S Duke; Boyle, Patricia A; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra; Yu, Lei; James, Bryan D; Bennett, David A

    2016-04-15

    Financial literacy, the ability to understand, access, and utilize information in ways that contribute to optimal financial outcomes, is important for independence and wellbeing in old age. We previously reported that financial literacy is associated with greater functional connectivity between brain regions in old age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy would be associated with greater white matter integrity in old age. Participants included 346 persons without dementia (mean age=81.36, mean education=15.39, male/female=79/267, mean MMSE=28.52) from the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Financial literacy was assessed using a series of questions imbedded as part of an ongoing decision making study. White matter integrity was assessed with diffusion anisotropy measured with diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI). We tested the hypothesis that higher financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter, adjusting for the effects of age, education, sex, and white matter hyperintense lesions. We then repeated the analysis also adjusting for cognitive function. Analyses revealed regions with significant positive associations between financial literacy and diffusion anisotropy, and many remained significant after accounting for cognitive function. White matter tracts connecting right hemisphere temporal-parietal brain regions were particularly implicated. Greater financial literacy is associated with higher diffusion anisotropy in white matter of nondemented older adults after adjusting for important covariates. These results suggest that financial literacy is positively associated with white matter integrity in old age.

  7. Intraregional classification of wine via ICP-MS elemental fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, P P; van Jaarsveld, F P; Vanhaecke, F

    2014-12-01

    The feasibility of elemental fingerprinting in the classification of wines according to their provenance vineyard soil was investigated in the relatively small geographical area of a single wine district. Results for the Stellenbosch wine district (Western Cape Wine Region, South Africa), comprising an area of less than 1,000 km(2), suggest that classification of wines from different estates (120 wines from 23 estates) is indeed possible using accurate elemental data and multivariate statistical analysis based on a combination of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. This is the first study to demonstrate the successful classification of wines at estate level in a single wine district in South Africa. The elements B, Ba, Cs, Cu, Mg, Rb, Sr, Tl and Zn were identified as suitable indicators. White and red wines were grouped in separate data sets to allow successful classification of wines. Correlation between wine classification and soil type distributions in the area was observed.

  8. Age-related differences in autism: The case of white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Caan, Matthan W A; Teeuw, Jalmar; Olabarriaga, Sílvia D; Geurts, Hilde M

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is typified as a brain connectivity disorder in which white matter abnormalities are already present early on in life. However, it is unknown if and to which extent these abnormalities are hard-wired in (older) adults with ASD and how this interacts with age-related white matter changes as observed in typical aging. The aim of this first cross-sectional study in mid- and late-aged adults with ASD was to characterize white matter microstructure and its relationship with age. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging with head motion control in 48 adults with ASD and 48 age-matched controls (30-74 years), who also completed a Flanker task. Intra-individual variability of reaction times (IIVRT) measures based on performance on the Flanker interference task were used to assess IIVRT-white matter microstructure associations. We observed primarily higher mean and radial diffusivity in white matter microstructure in ASD, particularly in long-range fibers, which persisted after taking head motion into account. Importantly, group-by-age interactions revealed higher age-related mean and radial diffusivity in ASD, in projection and association fiber tracts. Subtle dissociations were observed in IIVRT-white matter microstructure relations between groups, with the IIVRT-white matter association pattern in ASD resembling observations in cognitive aging. The observed white matter microstructure differences are lending support to the structural underconnectivity hypothesis in ASD. These reductions seem to have behavioral percussions given the atypical relationship with IIVRT. Taken together, the current results may indicate different age-related patterns of white matter microstructure in adults with ASD. Hum Brain Mapp 38:82-96, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Development of a rapid method for the quantitative analysis of four methoxypyrazines in white and red wine using multi-dimensional Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Botezatu, Andreea; Pickering, Gary J; Kotseridis, Yorgos

    2014-10-01

    Alkyl-methoxypyrazines (MPs) are important odour-active constituents of many grape cultivars and their wines. Recently, a new MP - 2,5-dimethyl-3-methoxypyrazine (DMMP) - has been reported as a possible constituent of wine. This study sought to develop a rapid and reliable method for quantifying DMMP, isopropyl methoxypyrazine (IPMP), secbutyl methoxypyrazine (SBMP) and isobutyl methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in wine. The proposed method is able to rapidly and accurately resolve all 4 MPs in a range of wine styles, with limits of detection between 1 and 2 ng L(-1) for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP and 5 ng L(-1) for DMMP. Analysis of a set of 11 commercial wines agrees with previously published values for IPMP, SBMP and IBMP, and shows for the first time that DMMP may be an important and somewhat common odorant in red wines. To our knowledge, this is the first analytical method developed for the quantification of DMMP in wine.

  10. White matter hyperintensities are associated with visual search behavior independent of generalized slowing in aging

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Samuel N.; Roach, Alexandra E.; Luck, Steven J.; Geng, Joy; Beckett, Laurel; Carmichael, Owen; DeCarli, Charles

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental controversy is whether cognitive decline with advancing age can be entirely explained by decreased processing speed, or whether specific neural changes can elicit cognitive decline, independent of slowing. These hypotheses are anchored by studies of healthy older individuals where age is presumed the sole influence. Unfortunately, advancing age is also associated with asymptomatic brain white matter injury. We hypothesized that differences in white matter injury extent, manifest by MRI white matter hyperintensities (WMH), mediate differences in visual attentional control in healthy aging, beyond processing speed differences. We tested young and cognitively healthy older adults on search tasks indexing speed and attentional control. Increasing age was associated with generally slowed performance. WMH was also associated with slowed search times independent of processing speed differences. Consistent with evidence attributing reduced network connectivity to WMH, these results conclusively demonstrate that clinically silent white matter injury contributes to slower search performance indicative of compromised cognitive control, independent of generalized slowing of processing speed. PMID:24183716

  11. Development of a quantitation method to assay both lyoniresinol enantiomers in wines, spirits, and oak wood by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cretin, Blandine N; Dubourdieu, Denis; Marchal, Axel

    2016-05-01

    Wine taste balance evolves during oak aging by the release of volatile and non-volatile compounds from wood. Among them, an enantiomer of lyoniresinol, (+)-lyoniresinol, has been shown to exhibit bitterness. To evaluate the impact of (+)-lyoniresinol on wine taste, a two-step quantitation method was developed and validated. First, (±)-lyoniresinol was assayed in wines, spirits, and oak wood macerates by C-18 liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Then, the lyoniresinol enantiomeric ratio was determined by chiral LC-HRMS in order to calculate the (+)-lyoniresinol content. In red and white wines, the average concentrations of (+)-lyoniresinol were 1.9 and 0.8 mg/L, respectively. The enantiomer proportions were not affected by bottle aging, and lyoniresinol appeared to remain stable over time. The sensory study of (+)-lyoniresinol established its perception threshold at 0.46 mg/L in wine. All the commercial wines quantitated were above this perception threshold, demonstrating its impact on wine taste by an increase in bitterness. In spirits, (+)-lyoniresinol ranged from 2.0 to 10.0 mg/L and was found to be released continuously during oak aging. Finally, neither botanical origin nor toasting was found to significantly affect the (+)-lyoniresinol content of oak wood. Graphical abstract From oak wood to wine: evaluation of the influence of (+)-lyoniresinol on the bitterness of wines and spirits.

  12. A white dwarf cooling age of 8 Gyr for NGC 6791 from physical separation processes.

    PubMed

    García-Berro, Enrique; Torres, Santiago; Althaus, Leandro G; Renedo, Isabel; Lorén-Aguilar, Pablo; Córsico, Alejandro H; Rohrmann, René D; Salaris, Maurizio; Isern, Jordi

    2010-05-13

    NGC 6791 is a well studied open cluster that it is so close to us that can be imaged down to very faint luminosities. The main-sequence turn-off age ( approximately 8 Gyr) and the age derived from the termination of the white dwarf cooling sequence ( approximately 6 Gyr) are very different. One possible explanation is that as white dwarfs cool, one of the ashes of helium burning, (22)Ne, sinks in the deep interior of these stars. At lower temperatures, white dwarfs are expected to crystallize and phase separation of the main constituents of the core of a typical white dwarf ((12)C and (16)O) is expected to occur. This sequence of events is expected to introduce long delays in the cooling times, but has not hitherto been proven. Here we report that, as theoretically anticipated, physical separation processes occur in the cores of white dwarfs, resolving the age discrepancy for NGC 6791.

  13. Sensitivity Analysis of Hierarchical Models for the Ages of Galactic Halo White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, S.; van Dyk, D. A.; von Hippel, T.

    2017-03-01

    The ages of white dwarfs are of great importance in stellar evolution. Si et al. developed a novel approach to increase the precision of such estimates by combining multiple white dwarfs in a Bayesian hierarchical model. In this paper, we further investigate the robustness of the Bayesian hierarchical model by performing a simulation study.

  14. Quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry carried out at different dilutions of an extract. Key differences in the odor profiles of four high-quality Spanish aged red wines.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, V; Aznar, M; López, R; Cacho, J

    2001-10-01

    Four Spanish aged red wines made in different wine-making areas have been extracted, and the extracts and their 1:5, 1:50, and 1:500 dilutions have been analyzed by a gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) approach in which three judges evaluated odor intensity on a four-point scale. Sixty-nine different odor regions were detected in the GC-O profiles of wines, 63 of which could be identified. GC-O data have been processed to calculate averaged flavor dilution factors (FD). Different ANOVA strategies have been further applied on FD and on intensity data to check for significant differences among wines and to assess the effects of dilution and the judge. Data show that FD and the average intensity of the odorants are strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.892). However, the measurement of intensity represents a quantitative advantage in terms of detecting differences. For some odorants, dilution exerts a critical role in the detection of differences. Significant differences among wines have been found in 30 of the 69 odorants detected in the experiment. Most of these differences are introduced by grape compounds such as methyl benzoate and terpenols, by compounds released by the wood, such as furfural, (Z)-whiskey lactone, Furaneol, 4-propylguaiacol, eugenol, 4-ethylphenol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, isoeugenol, and ethyl vanillate, by compounds formed by lactic acid bacteria, such as 2,3-butanedione and acetoine, or by compounds formed during the oxidative storage of wines, such as methional, sotolon, o-aminoacetophenone, and phenylacetic acid. The most important differences from a quantitative point of view are due to 2-methyl-3-mercaptofuran, 4-propylguaiacol, 2,6-dimethoxyphenol, and isoeugenol.

  15. White House Conference on Aging Literature: A Gold Mine of Issues for the 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurie, William F.

    The 1981 White House Conference on Aging, particularly the 50 State Conferences on Aging, generated over 1,500 pages of data on aging, addressing over 3,000 issues. To summarize the information from the 16 Technical Committee reports, a conceptual framework was used which focused on the well being of older people in three dimensions - health,…

  16. Black and white differences in the effect of women's educational attainment on age at first marriage.

    PubMed

    Dobson, C D; Houseknecht, S K

    1998-03-01

    "This study uses data from the June 1992 Current Population Survey to examine the effect of educational attainment on age at first marriage among Black and White women in the United States. The results both support and modify claims stemming from previous research. There is evidence for the contention that educational attainment delays age at first marriage for Black and White women. The greater impact of educational attainment on delaying marriage for White women in confirmed. An important discovery stems from using degree attained rather than years of education and our distinguishing four levels of education beyond high school. At less than a bachelor's degree, Black women marry later than White women, but among those with a bachelor's degree or higher, Black women who marry do so earlier than White women."

  17. Age-related abnormalities in white matter microstructure in autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Pauley, Gregory; Richards, Todd; Neuhaus, Emily; Martin, Nathalie; Corrigan, Neva M.; Shaw, Dennis W.; Estes, Annette; Dager, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in structural and functional connectivity have been reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) across a wide age range. However, developmental changes in white matter microstructure are poorly understood. We used a cross-sectional design to determine whether white matter abnormalities measured using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were present in adolescents and adults with ASD and whether age-related changes in white matter microstructure differed between ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals. Participants included 28 individuals with ASD and 33 TD controls matched on age and IQ and assessed at one time point. Widespread decreased fractional anisotropy (FA), and increased radial diffusivity (RaD) and mean diffusivity (MD) were observed in the ASD group compared to the TD group. In addition, significant group-by-age interactions were also observed in FA, RaD, and MD in all major tracts except the brain stem, indicating that age-related changes in white matter microstructure differed between the groups. We propose that white matter microstructural changes in ASD may reflect myelination and/or other structural differences including differences in axonal density/arborization. In addition, we suggest that white matter microstuctural impairments may be normalizing during young adulthood in ASD. Future longitudinal studies that include a wider range of ages and more extensive clinical characterization will be critical for further uncovering the neurodevelopmental processes unfolding during this dynamic time in development. PMID:22902768

  18. Qualitative data analysis for an exploratory sensory study of Grechetto wine.

    PubMed

    Esti, Marco; González Airola, Ricardo L; Moneta, Elisabetta; Paperaio, Marina; Sinesio, Fiorella

    2010-02-15

    Grechetto is a traditional white-grape vine, widespread in Umbria and Lazio regions in central Italy. Despite the wine commercial diffusion, little literature on its sensory characteristics is available. The present study is an exploratory research conducted with the aim of identifying the sensory markers of Grechetto wine and of evaluating the effect of clone, geographical area, vintage and producer on sensory attributes. A qualitative sensory study was conducted on 16 wines, differing for vintage, Typical Geographic Indication, and clone, collected from 7 wineries, using a trained panel in isolation who referred to a glossary of 133 white wine descriptors. Sixty-five attributes identified by a minimum of 50% of the respondents were submitted to a correspondence analysis to link wine samples to the sensory attributes. Seventeen terms identified as common to all samples are considered as characteristics of Grechetto wine, 10 of which olfactory: fruity, apple, acacia flower, pineapple, banana, floral, herbaceous, honey, apricot and peach. In order to interpret the relationship between design variables and sensory attributes data on 2005 and 2006 wines, the 28 most discriminating descriptors were projected in a principal component analysis. The first principal component was best described by olfactory terms and the second by gustative attributes. Good reproducibility of results was obtained for the two vintages. For one winery, vintage effect (2002-2006) was described in a new principal component analysis model applied on 39 most discriminating descriptors, which globally explained about 84% of the variance. In the young wines the notes of sulphur, yeast, dried fruit, butter, combined with herbaceous fresh and tropical fruity notes (melon, grapefruit) were dominant. During wine aging, sweeter notes, like honey, caramel, jam, become more dominant as well as some mineral notes, such as tuff and flint.

  19. Testing of a simplified LED based vis/NIR system for rapid ripeness evaluation of white grape (Vitis vinifera L.) for Franciacorta wine.

    PubMed

    Giovenzana, Valentina; Civelli, Raffaele; Beghi, Roberto; Oberti, Roberto; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this work was to test a simplified optical prototype for a rapid estimation of the ripening parameters of white grape for Franciacorta wine directly in field. Spectral acquisition based on reflectance at four wavelengths (630, 690, 750 and 850 nm) was proposed. The integration of a simple processing algorithm in the microcontroller software would allow to visualize real time values of spectral reflectance. Non-destructive analyses were carried out on 95 grape bunches for a total of 475 berries. Samplings were performed weekly during the last ripening stages. Optical measurements were carried out both using the simplified system and a portable commercial vis/NIR spectrophotometer, as reference instrument for performance comparison. Chemometric analyses were performed in order to extract the maximum useful information from optical data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed for a preliminary evaluation of the data. Correlations between the optical data matrix and ripening parameters (total soluble solids content, SSC; titratable acidity, TA) were carried out using partial least square (PLS) regression for spectra and using multiple linear regression (MLR) for data from the simplified device. Classification analysis were also performed with the aim of discriminate ripe and unripe samples. PCA, MLR and classification analyses show the effectiveness of the simplified system in separating samples among different sampling dates and in discriminating ripe from unripe samples. Finally, simple equations for SSC and TA prediction were calculated.

  20. Validation of a rapid conductimetric test for the measurement of wine tartaric stability.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Antonella; Motta, Silvia; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Guaita, Massimo; Asproudi, Andriani; Panero, Loretta

    2016-12-01

    This work was aimed at optimizing a rapid and reproducible conductivity test for the evaluation of wine tartaric stability, in order to improve the practices for the prevention of tartaric precipitations during bottle aging. The test consists in measuring the drop of conductivity in wines kept under stirring for a fixed time, at low temperature, after the addition of micronized potassium bitartrate crystals (KHT). An experimental design was planned to study three factors affecting the test: temperature, duration and dose of added potassium bitartrate. A standard protocol was defined to produce a micronized potassium bitartrate starting from available commercial products, since the dimensions of the crystals can affect the final conductivity values. After the choice of the best conditions the method was validated. Two different stability thresholds were defined for white wines and for red/rosé wines by comparing the results of the mini-contact test with those of the cold test.

  1. Polyphenolic profile as a useful tool to identify the wood used in wine aging.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miriam; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Hernández, Ma Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2012-06-30

    Although oak wood is the main material used in cooperage, other species are being considered as possible sources of wood for the production of wines and their derived products. In this work we have compared the phenolic composition of acacia (Robinia pseudoacacia), chestnut (Castanea sativa), cherry (Prunus avium) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior and F. americana) heartwoods, by using HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS/MS (some of these data have been showed in previous paper), as well as the changes that toasting intensity at cooperage produce in each polyphenolic profile. Before toasting, each wood shows a different and specific polyphenolic profile, with both qualitative and quantitative differences among them. Toasting notably changed these profiles, in general, proportionally to toasting intensity and led to a minor differentiation among species in toasted woods, although we also found phenolic markers in toasted woods. Thus, methyl syringate, benzoic acid, methyl vanillate, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethylphenol and p-coumaric acid, condensed tannins of the procyanidin type, and the flavonoids naringenin, aromadendrin, isosakuranetin and taxifolin will be a good tool to identify cherry wood. In acacia wood the chemical markers will be the aldehydes gallic and β-resorcylic and two not fully identified hydroxycinnamic compounds, condensed tannins of the prorobinetin type, and when using untoasted wood, dihydrorobinetin, and in toasted acacia wood, robinetin. In untoasted ash wood, the presence of secoiridoids, phenylethanoid glycosides, or di and oligolignols will be a good tool, especially oleuropein, ligstroside and olivil, together verbascoside and isoverbascoside in F. excelsior, and oleoside in F. americana. In toasted ash wood, tyrosol, syringaresinol, cyclolovil, verbascoside and olivil, could be used to identify the botanical origin. In addition, in ash wood, seasoned and toasted, neither hydrolysable nor condensed tannins were detected. Lastly, in chestnut wood, gallic

  2. Emission factor development for the malt beverage, wine, and distilled spirits industries

    SciTech Connect

    Lapp, T.; Shrager, B.; Safriet, D.

    1996-12-31

    Midwest Research Institute is currently developing emission factors for inclusion in AP-42 Chapter 9, Food and Agricultural Industries. Three of the sections cover the production of malt beverages, wine, and distilled spirits. The malt beverage segment focuses on the development of ethanol emission factors for filling operations, which were recently identified as the large source of brewery ethanol emissions. The discussion includes a description of the production process and emissions factors for breweries, a history of emission factories for breweries, a description of emission testing conducted at two large breweries, and a presentation of some of the emission factors for malt beverage production. The wine industry segment focuses on emissions from the fermentation stage for red and white wines, the pomace screen and pomace press for red wines, and bottling of white wine. Emission factors are presented for ethanol emissions from each of these sources as well as other VOC emissions from the fermentation process. A discussion of the wine production process is presented. A discussion of the emission sources and available emission factors is presented for the distilled spirits industry segment. Factors are presented for the fermentation and aging stages. A process description is presented for the production of Bourbon whisky.

  3. Ageing and brain white matter structure in 3,513 UK Biobank participants

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Simon R.; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Liewald, David C.; Hagenaars, Saskia P.; Davies, Gail; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Gale, Catharine R.; Bastin, Mark E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the microstructural properties of the human brain's connections is necessary for understanding normal ageing and disease. Here we examine brain white matter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data in 3,513 generally healthy people aged 44.64–77.12 years from the UK Biobank. Using conventional water diffusion measures and newer, rarely studied indices from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging, we document large age associations with white matter microstructure. Mean diffusivity is the most age-sensitive measure, with negative age associations strongest in the thalamic radiation and association fibres. White matter microstructure across brain tracts becomes increasingly correlated in older age. This may reflect an age-related aggregation of systemic detrimental effects. We report several other novel results, including age associations with hemisphere and sex, and comparative volumetric MRI analyses. Results from this unusually large, single-scanner sample provide one of the most extensive characterizations of age associations with major white matter tracts in the human brain. PMID:27976682

  4. Cerebral White Matter Integrity Mediates Adult Age Differences in Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Costello, Matthew C.; Bucur, Barbara; White, Leonard E.; Cabeza, Roberto; Davis, Simon W.; Dennis, Nancy A.; Provenzale, James M.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that age-related decline occurs in measures of cerebral white matter integrity, but the role of this decline in age-related cognitive changes is not clear. To conclude that white matter integrity has a mediating (causal) contribution, it is necessary to demonstrate that statistical control of the white matter-cognition relation reduces the magnitude of age-cognition relation. In this research, we tested the mediating role of white matter integrity, in the context of a task switching paradigm involving word categorization. Participants were 20 healthy, community-dwelling older adults (60–85 years), and 20 younger adults (18–27 years). From diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, we obtained fractional anisotropy (FA) as an index of white matter integrity in the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). Mean FA values exhibited age-related decline consistent with a decrease in white matter integrity. From a model of reaction time distributions, we obtained independent estimates of the decisional and nondecisional (perceptual-motor) components of task performance. Age-related decline was evident in both components. Critically, age differences in task performance were mediated by FA in two regions: the central portion of the genu, and splenium-parietal fibers in the right hemisphere. This relation held only for the decisional component and was not evident in the nondecisional component. This result is the first demonstration that the integrity of specific white matter tracts is a mediator of age-related changes in cognitive performance. PMID:18564054

  5. Dopamine transporter availability in clinically normal aging is associated with individual differences in white matter integrity.

    PubMed

    Rieckmann, Anna; Hedden, Trey; Younger, Alayna P; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Buckner, Randy L

    2016-02-01

    Aging-related differences in white matter integrity, the presence of amyloid plaques, and density of biomarkers indicative of dopamine functions can be detected and quantified with in vivo human imaging. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate whether these imaging-based measures constitute independent imaging biomarkers in older adults, which would speak to the hypothesis that the aging brain is characterized by multiple independent neurobiological cascades. We assessed MRI-based markers of white matter integrity and PET-based marker of dopamine transporter density and amyloid deposition in the same set of 53 clinically normal individuals (age 65-87). A multiple regression analysis demonstrated that dopamine transporter availability is predicted by white matter integrity, which was detectable even after controlling for chronological age. Further post-hoc exploration revealed that dopamine transporter availability was further associated with systolic blood pressure, mirroring the established association between cardiovascular health and white matter integrity. Dopamine transporter availability was not associated with the presence of amyloid burden. Neurobiological correlates of dopamine transporter measures in aging are therefore likely unrelated to Alzheimer's disease but are aligned with white matter integrity and cardiovascular risk. More generally, these results suggest that two common imaging markers of the aging brain that are typically investigated separately do not reflect independent neurobiological processes. Hum Brain Mapp 37:621-631, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Support to Aging Parents and Grown Children in Black and White Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; VanderDrift, Laura E.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Black and White middle-aged adults typically are in a pivot position of providing support to generations above and below. Racial differences in support to each generation in the family remain unclear, however. Different factors may account for racial differences in support of grown children versus aging parents. Design and Methods:…

  7. Anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine.

    PubMed

    Eng, E T; Williams, D; Mandava, U; Kirma, N; Tekmal, R R; Chen, S

    2002-06-01

    Estrogen synthesized in situ plays a more important role in breast cancer cell proliferation than does circulating estrogen. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen and is expressed at a higher level in breast cancer tissue than in surrounding noncancer tissue. A promising route of chemoprevention against breast cancer may be through the suppression of in situ estrogen formation using aromatase inhibitors. A diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the incidence of breast cancer, because they contain phytochemicals that can act as aromatase inhibitors. In our previous studies, we found that grapes and wine contain potent phytochemicals that can inhibit aromatase. We show that red wine was more effective than white wine in suppressing aromatase activity. Interestingly, our results from white wine studies suggest a weak inductive effect of alcohol on aromatase activity. On the other hand, the potent effect of anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine overcomes the weak inductive effect of alcohol in wine. Several purification procedures were performed on whole red wine to separate active aromatase inhibitors from non-active compounds. These techniques included liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel chromatography, various solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and high performance liquid chromatography. An active Pinot Noir red wine SPE C18 column fraction (20% acetonitrile:water) was more effective than complete Pinot Noir wine in suppressing aromatase assay. This red wine extract was further analyzed in a transgenic mouse model in which aromatase was over-expressed in mammary tissue. Our gavaged red wine extract completely abrogated aromatase-induced hyperplasia and other neoplastic changes in mammary tissue. These results suggest that red wine or red wine extract may be a chemopreventive diet supplement for postmenopausal women who have a high risk of breast cancer. Further research is underway to purify and characterize the active compounds in red

  8. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  9. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles. PMID:26610612

  10. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Ross R; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N; Nichols, David S; Breadmore, Michael C; Shellie, Robert A; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-27

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 (o)C. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  11. White Matter Changes in Tinnitus: Is It All Age and Hearing Loss?

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hye Bin; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Tinnitus is a condition characterized by the perception of auditory phantom sounds. It is known as the result of complex interactions between auditory and nonauditory regions. However, previous structural imaging studies on tinnitus patients showed evidence of significant white matter changes caused by hearing loss that are positively correlated with aging. Current study focused on which aspects of tinnitus pathologies affect the white matter integrity the most. We used the diffusion tensor imaging technique to acquire images that have higher contrast in brain white matter to analyze how white matter is influenced by tinnitus-related factors using voxel-based methods, region of interest analysis, and deterministic tractography. As a result, white matter integrity in chronic tinnitus patients was both directly affected by age and also mediated by the hearing loss. The most important changes in white matter regions were found bilaterally in the anterior corona radiata, anterior corpus callosum, and bilateral sagittal strata. In the tractography analysis, the white matter integrity values in tracts of right parahippocampus were correlated with the subjective tinnitus loudness.

  12. Indirect cannibalism by crèche-aged American White Pelican (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Alisa J.; Sovada, Marsha A.; Igl, Lawrence D.; Pietz, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    At nesting colonies of American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos), many chicks die from siblicide, severe weather, and disease; this results in carcasses available for scavenging by conspecifics (i.e., indirect cannibalism). Indirect cannibalism has not been reported previously for this species. We describe five cases of crèche-aged American White Pelican chicks consuming or attempting to consume dead younger chicks at two nesting colonies in the northern plains of North America. Cannibalism in the American White Pelican appears to be rare and likely plays no role in the species’ population ecology or dynamics; however, it might be an important survival strategy of individual chicks when food resources are limited.

  13. African-American/white differences in the age of menarche: accounting for the difference.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Patricia B; Salsberry, Pamela J; Fang, Muriel Z; Gardner, William P; Pajer, Kathleen

    2012-10-01

    Lifetime health disparity between African-American and white females begins with lower birthweight and higher rates of childhood overweight. In adolescence, African-American girls experience earlier menarche. Understanding the origins of these health disparities is a national priority. There is growing literature suggesting that the life course health development model is a useful framework for studying disparities. The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of explanatory factors from key developmental stages on the age of menarche and to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche they could explain. The factors were maternal age of menarche, birthweight, poverty during early childhood (age 0 through 5 years), and child BMI z-scores at 6 years. The sample, drawn from the US National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth Child-Mother file, consisted of 2337 girls born between 1978 and 1998. Mean age of menarche in months was 144 for African-American girls and 150 for whites. An instrumental variable approach was used to estimate a causal effect of child BMI z-score on age of menarche. The instrumental variables were pre-pregnancy BMI, high gestational weight gain and smoking during pregnancy. We found strong effects of maternal age of menarche, birthweight, and child BMI z-score (-5.23, 95% CI [-7.35,-3.12]) for both African-Americans and whites. Age of menarche declined with increases in exposure to poverty during early childhood for whites. There was no effect of poverty for African-Americans. We used Oaxaca decomposition techniques to determine how much of the overall race difference in age of menarche was attributable to race differences in observable factors and how much was due to race dependent responses. The African-American/white difference in childhood BMI explained about 18% of the overall difference in age of menarche and birthweight differences explained another 11%.

  14. Pattern of normal age-related regional differences in white matter microstructure is modified by vascular risk.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Kristen M; Raz, Naftali

    2009-11-10

    Even successful aging is associated with regional brain shrinkage and deterioration of the cerebral white matter. Aging also brings about an increase in vascular risk, and vascular impairment may be a potential mechanism behind the observed patterns of aging. The goals of this study were to characterize the normal age differences in white matter integrity in several brain regions across the adult life span and to assess the modifying effect of vascular risk on the observed pattern of regional white matter integrity. We estimated fractional anisotropy and diffusivity of white matter in nine cerebral regions of interest in 77 healthy adults (19-84 years old). There was a widespread reduction of white matter anisotropy with age, and prefrontal and occipital regions evidenced the greatest age-related differences. Diffusivity increased with age, and the magnitude of age differences increased beginning with the middle of the fifth decade. Vascular risk factors modified age differences in white matter integrity. Clinically diagnosed and treated arterial hypertension was associated with reduced white matter anisotropy and increased diffusivity beyond the effects of age. In the normotensive participants, elevation of arterial pulse pressure (a surrogate of arterial stiffness) was linked to deterioration of the white matter integrity in the frontal regions. Although the causal role of vascular risk in brain aging is unclear, the observed pattern of effects suggests that vascular risk may drive the expansion of age-related white matter damage from anterior to posterior regions.

  15. Oxygen consumption and development of volatile sulfur compounds during bottle aging of two Shiraz wines. Influence of pre- and postbottling controlled oxygen exposure.

    PubMed

    Ugliano, Maurizio; Dieval, Jean-Baptiste; Siebert, Tracey E; Kwiatkowski, Mariola; Aagaard, Olav; Vidal, Stéphane; Waters, Elizabeth J

    2012-09-05

    The evolution of different volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) during bottle maturation of two Shiraz wines submitted to controlled oxygen exposure prior to bottling (through micro-oxygenation, MOX) and postbottling (through the closure) was investigated. H(2)S, methyl mercaptan (MeSH), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were found to increase during aging. Lower postbottling oxygen exposure, as obtained by different degrees of oxygen ingress through the closure, resulted in increased H(2)S and methyl mercaptan. In one wine MOX increased the concentration of H(2)S and methyl mercaptan during maturation. Dimethyl disulfide and DMS were not affected by any form of oxygen exposure. Overall, postbottling oxygen had a stronger influence than MOX on the evolution of VSCs. Data suggest that dimethyl disulfide was not a precursor to methyl mercaptan during bottle maturation. For the two wines studied, a consumption of oxygen of 5 mg/L over 12 months was the most effective oxygen exposure regimen to decrease accumulation of MeSH and H(2)S during bottle aging.

  16. Mature Age "White Collar" Workers' Training and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymock, Darryl; Billett, Stephen; Klieve, Helen; Johnson, Greer Cavallaro; Martin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Global concerns about the growing impact of ageing populations on workplace productivity and on welfare budgets have led to a range of government-supported measures intended to retain and upskill older workers. Yet, a consistent theme in the research literature is that older workers are reluctant and harder to train than younger workers, and that,…

  17. Application of a headspace mass spectrometry system to the differentiation and classification of wines according to their origin, variety and ageing.

    PubMed

    Martí, M Pilar; Busto, Olga; Guasch, Josep

    2004-11-19

    The system based on coupling a headspace sampler to a mass spectrometer (HS-MS), considered a kind of electronic nose (e-nose), is an emerging technique in the field of food aroma analysis. The global mass spectrum this system provides is a fingerprint of each sample analysed that contains the information related to volatile composition of the sample. The use of chemometric techniques allows to compare the spectra of the samples and then, to classify them according to different properties. In this paper, we present the development of a method for wine analysis using a HS-MS system and multivariate analysis techniques. The method was successfully applied to differentiate and classify wines according to its origin, variety and ageing. The main advantages of the proposed methodology are the minimum sample preparation required and the speed of analysis (10 min/sample).

  18. Observational Constraints on the Age-Metallicity Relation from White Dwarf-Main Sequence Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Anguiano, B.; García-Berro, E.; Freeman, K. C.; Cojocaru, R.; Manser, C. J.; Pala, A. F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X.-W.

    2017-03-01

    The age-metallicity relation (AMR) is a fundamental observational property to understand how the Galactic disc formed and evolved chemically in time. However, there is not yet a consensus on the observed properties of the AMR for the solar neighbourhood. This is due primarily to the difficulty of obtaining precise stellar ages for individual field stars. We have started an observational campaign to provide the much needed observational AMR by using white dwarf-main sequence (WDMS) binaries. White dwarfs are natural clocks and can be used to derive accurate ages. Metallicities can be obtained from the main sequence companions. Since white dwarfs and main sequence stars in these binary systems are coeval, these binaries provide an unique opportunity to observationally determine in a robust way the AMR. Here we present the AMR derived from the analysis of a sample of 23 WDMS binaries.

  19. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Klosinski, Lauren P; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N; Harrington, Michael G; Christensen, Trace A; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-12-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical.

  20. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on white matter in rhesus macaques

    PubMed Central

    Bendlin, B.B.; Canu, E.; Willette, A.A.; Kastman, E.K.; McLaren, D.G.; Kosmatka, K.J.; Xu, G.; Field, A.S.; Colman, R.J.; Coe, C.L.; Weindruch, R.H.; Alexander, A.L.; Johnson, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhesus macaques on a calorie restricted diet (CR) develop less age-related disease, have virtually no indication of diabetes, are protected against sarcopenia, and potentially live longer. Beneficial effects of CR likely include reductions in age-related inflammation and oxidative damage. Oligodendrocytes are particularly susceptible to inflammation and oxidative stress, therefore, we hypothesized that CR would have a beneficial effect on brain white matter and would attenuate age-related decline in this tissue. CR monkeys and controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A beneficial effect of CR indexed by DTI was observed in superior longitudinal fasciculus, fronto-occipital fasciculus, external capsule, and brainstem. Aging effects were observed in several regions, although CR appeared to attenuate age-related alterations in superior longitudinal fasciculus, frontal white matter, external capsule, right parahippocampal white matter and dorsal occipital bundle. The results, however, were regionally specific and also suggested that CR is not salutary across all white matter. Further evaluation of this unique cohort of elderly primates to mortality will shed light on the ultimate benefits of an adult-onset, moderate CR diet for deferring brain aging. PMID:20541839

  1. White Matter Lipids as a Ketogenic Fuel Supply in Aging Female Brain: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klosinski, Lauren P.; Yao, Jia; Yin, Fei; Fonteh, Alfred N.; Harrington, Michael G.; Christensen, Trace A.; Trushina, Eugenia; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2015-01-01

    White matter degeneration is a pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's. Age remains the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's and the prevalence of age-related late onset Alzheimer's is greatest in females. We investigated mechanisms underlying white matter degeneration in an animal model consistent with the sex at greatest Alzheimer's risk. Results of these analyses demonstrated decline in mitochondrial respiration, increased mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production and cytosolic-phospholipase-A2 sphingomyelinase pathway activation during female brain aging. Electron microscopic and lipidomic analyses confirmed myelin degeneration. An increase in fatty acids and mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism machinery was coincident with a rise in brain ketone bodies and decline in plasma ketone bodies. This mechanistic pathway and its chronologically phased activation, links mitochondrial dysfunction early in aging with later age development of white matter degeneration. The catabolism of myelin lipids to generate ketone bodies can be viewed as a systems level adaptive response to address brain fuel and energy demand. Elucidation of the initiating factors and the mechanistic pathway leading to white matter catabolism in the aging female brain provides potential therapeutic targets to prevent and treat demyelinating diseases such as Alzheimer's and multiple sclerosis. Targeting stages of disease and associated mechanisms will be critical. PMID:26844268

  2. Structural organization of the prefrontal white matter pathways in the adult and aging brain measured by diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Malykhin, Nikolai; Vahidy, Sana; Michielse, Stijn; Coupland, Nick; Camicioli, Richard; Seres, Peter; Carter, Rawle

    2011-11-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies confirmed the vulnerability of frontal callosal fibers to normal aging. The present study extended this examination systematically to other prefrontal white matter regions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging and DTI datasets were acquired from 69 healthy subjects aged 22-84 years. The prefrontal white matter was parcellated into several anatomical sub-regions: medial and lateral orbitofrontal white matter, dorsolateral prefrontal white matter, and medial prefrontal white matter, using reliable DTI-tractography protocols. Tract-specific characteristics were calculated using Matlab. Regression models were used to determine the relationship between age and structural integrity of white matter tracts. The results of our study demonstrate regional age-related changes in the prefrontal white matter tracts of the human brain. This study was cross-sectional and therefore additional longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our findings.

  3. Deferoxamine reduces intracerebral hemorrhage-induced white matter damage in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ni, Wei; Okauchi, Masanobu; Hatakeyama, Tetsuhiro; Gu, Yuxiang; Keep, Richard F; Xi, Guohua; Hua, Ya

    2015-10-01

    Iron contributes to c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) activation in young rats and white matter injury in piglets after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In the present study, we examined the effect of deferoxamine on ICH-induced white matter injury and JNK activation and in aged rats. Male Fischer 344 rats (18months old) had either an intracaudate injection of 100μl of autologous blood or a needle insertion (sham). The rats were treated with deferoxamine or vehicle with different regimen (dosage, duration and time window). White matter injury and activation of JNK were examined. We found that a dose of DFX should be at more than 10mg/kg for a therapeutic duration more than 2days with a therapeutic time window of 12h to reduce ICH-induced white matter loss at 2months. ICH-induced white matter injury was associated with JNK activation. The protein levels of phosphorylated-JNK (P-JNK) were upregulated at day-1 after ICH and then gradually decreased. P-JNK immunoreactivity was mostly located in white matter bundles. ICH-induced JNK activation was reduced by DFX treatment. This study demonstrated that DFX can reduce ICH-induced JNK activation and white matter damage.

  4. The Ages of the Thin Disk, Thick Disk, and the Halo from Nearby White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Mukremin; Munn, Jeffrey A.; Harris, Hugh C.; von Hippel, Ted; Liebert, James W.; Williams, Kurtis A.; Jeffery, Elizabeth; DeGennaro, Steven

    2017-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the white dwarf luminosity functions derived from the local 40 pc sample and the deep proper motion catalog of Munn et al. Many previous studies have ignored the contribution of thick disk white dwarfs to the Galactic disk luminosity function, which results in an erroneous age measurement. We demonstrate that the ratio of thick/thin disk white dwarfs is roughly 20% in the local sample. Simultaneously fitting for both disk components, we derive ages of 6.8–7.0 Gyr for the thin disk and 8.7 ± 0.1 Gyr for the thick disk from the local 40 pc sample. Similarly, we derive ages of 7.4–8.2 Gyr for the thin disk and 9.5–9.9 Gyr for the thick disk from the deep proper motion catalog, which shows no evidence of a deviation from a constant star formation rate in the past 2.5 Gyr. We constrain the time difference between the onset of star formation in the thin disk and the thick disk to be {1.6}-0.4+0.3 Gyr. The faint end of the luminosity function for the halo white dwarfs is less constrained, resulting in an age estimate of {12.5}-3.4+1.4 Gyr for the Galactic inner halo. This is the first time that ages for all three major components of the Galaxy have been obtained from a sample of field white dwarfs that is large enough to contain significant numbers of disk and halo objects. The resultant ages agree reasonably well with the age estimates for the oldest open and globular clusters.

  5. Differences in hypertension prevalence among U.S. black and white women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, A T; Andersen, H F; Bound, J

    1991-01-01

    Hypertension and its sequelae complicate pregnancy and can result in poor perinatal outcomes. Overall, U.S. blacks are more likely to be hypertensive than whites, but the degree to which this is true among women of childbearing age (including teenagers) is unknown. Using data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), the authors describe hypertension prevalence rates for 422 black and 2,700 white reproductive-age women. The authors present observed data and also predicted prevalence rates derived by modeling the odds of hypertension using logistic regression statistical techniques. They find that black-white differences in hypertension prevalence are negligible among teenagers, but they are pronounced in the older reproductive ages. They estimate that twice the proportion of black women relative to white are hypertensive during pregnancy. Their results suggest that differential rates of hypertension between black and white women may contribute to the persistent excess infant mortality among blacks, but conclusive results cannot be determined from these data. These data are also valuable for the design and evaluation of screening, intervention, and followup programs for hypertensive disease among young women. PMID:1908590

  6. Untangling the chemistry of port wine aging with the use of GC-FID, multivariate statistics, and network reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Dan; Monforte, Ana Rita; Silva Ferreira, António César

    2013-03-13

    Chromatography separates the different components of complex mixtures and generates a fingerprint representing the chemical composition of the sample. The resulting data structure depends on the characteristics of the detector used, univariate for devices such as a flame ionization detector (FID) or multivariate for mass spectroscopy (MS). This study addresses the potential use of a univariate signal for a nontargeted approach to (i) classify samples according to a given process or perturbation, (ii) evaluate the feasibility of developing a screening procedure to select candidates related to the process, and (iii) provide insight into the chemical mechanisms that are affected by the perturbation. To achieve this, it was necessary to use and develop methods for data preprocessing and visualization tools to assist an analytical chemist to view and interpret complex multidimensional data sets. Dichloromethane Port wine extracts were collected using GC-FID; the chromatograms were then aligned with correlation optimized warping (COW) and subsequently analyzed with multivariate statistics (MVA) by principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least-squares regression (PLS-R). Furthermore, wavelets were used for peak calling and alignment refinement, and the resulting matrix was used to perform kinetic network reconstruction via correlation networks and maximum spanning trees. Network-target correlation projections were used to screen for potential chromatographic regions/peaks related to aging mechanisms. Results from PLS between aligned chromatograms and target molecules showed high X to Y correlations of 0.91, 092, and 0.89 with 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) (Maillard), acetaldehyde (oxidation), and 4,5-dimethyl-(5H)-3-hydroxy-2-furanone, respectively. The context of the correlation (and therefore likely kinetic) relationships among compounds detected by GC-FID and the relationships between target compounds within different regions of the network can be clearly seen.

  7. Associations between reaction time measures and white matter hyperintensities in very old age.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Becky I; Bunce, David; Kochan, Nicole A; Wen, Wei; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2017-02-01

    In old age, a relationship has been reported between intraindividual variability (IIV) in reaction time and white matter integrity as evidenced by white matter hyperintensities (WMH). However, it is unclear how far such associations are due to incipient neurodegenerative pathology in the samples investigated. The present study examined the relationship between IIV and WMH in older individuals (N=526) drawn from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. Using a complex reaction time (RT) task, greater IIV and mean-RT were related to a higher WMH burden in the frontal lobe. Critically, significant associations remained having taken future dementia into account suggesting that they were not explained by incipient dementia. Additionally, independent measures of executive function accounted for the association between RT metrics and WHM. The results are consistent with the view that frontally-supported cognitive processes are involved in IIV-WMH relations, and that RT measures are sensitive to compromise in white matter structures in non-demented older individuals.

  8. Age-related decline in oligodendrogenesis retards white matter repair in mice

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Nobukazu; Pham, Loc-Duyen D.; Hayakawa, Kazuhide; Matsuzaki, Toshinori; Seo, Ji Hae; Magnain, Caroline; Ayata, Cenk; Kim, Kyu-Won; Boas, David; Lo, Eng H.; Arai, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Background/Purpose Aging is one of the major risk factors for white matter injury in cerebrovascular disease. However, the effects of age on the mechanisms of injury/repair in white matter remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we ask if compared to young brains, white matter regions in older brains may be more vulnerable in part due to decreased rates of compensatory oligodendrogenesis after injury. Methods A mouse model of prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion was prepared by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis in 2-month and 8-month old mice. Matching in vitro studies were performed by subjecting oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) to sub-lethal 7-day CoCl2 treatment to induce chemical hypoxic stress. Results Baseline myelin density in the corpus callosum was similar in 2-month and 8-month old mice. But after induction of prolonged cerebral hypoperfusion, older mice showed more severe white matter injury together with worse deficits in working memory. The numbers of newborn oligodendrocytes and their precursors were increased by cerebral hypoperfusion in young mice, whereas these endogenous responses were significantly dampened in older mice. Defects in CREB signaling may be involved because activating CREB with the type-III phosphodiesterase inhibitor cilostazol in older mice restored the differentiation of OPCs, alleviated myelin loss and improved cognitive dysfunction during cerebral hypoperfusion. Cell culture systems confirmed that cilostazol promoted the differentiation of OPCs. Conclusions An age-related decline in CREB-mediated oligodendrogenesis may compromise endogenous white matter repair mechanisms, and therefore, drugs that activate CREB signaling provide a potential therapeutic approach for treating white matter injury in aging brains. PMID:23881957

  9. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981: Reports of the Mini-Conferences, MCR 1-42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the 42 reports from mini-conferences held in various nationwide locations prior to the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. Each report presents an overview of the topic, descriptions of particular problems, and statements of recommendations, based on the views of mini-conference participants, and made available to the…

  10. Incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus among white Americans by sex, stage, and age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Linda Morris; Devesa, Susan S; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2008-08-20

    Rapid increases in the incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus have been reported among white men. We further explored the temporal patterns of this disease among white individuals by sex, stage, and age by use of data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. We identified 22,759 patients from January 1, 1975, through December 31, 2004, with esophageal cancer, of whom 9526 were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Among white men, increases in the incidence of esophageal cancer were largely attributed to a 463% increase in the incidence of adenocarcinoma over this time period, from 1.01 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.90 to 1.13) in 1975-1979 to 5.69 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI = 5.47 to 5.91) in 2000-2004. A similar rapid increase was also apparent among white women, among whom the adenocarcinoma rate increased 335%, from 0.17 (95% CI = 0.13 to 0.21) to 0.74 per 100,000 person-years (95% CI = 0.67 to 0.81), over the same time period. Adenocarcinoma rates rose among white men and women in all stage and age groups, indicating that these increases are real and not an artifact of surveillance.

  11. CoFe2O4 nanoparticles as oxidase mimic-mediated chemiluminescence of aqueous luminol for sulfite in white wines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodan; He, Shaohui; Chen, Zhaohui; Huang, Yuming

    2013-01-30

    Recently, the intrinsic enzyme-like activity of nanoparticles (NPs) has become a growing area of interest. However, the analytical applications of the NP-based enzyme mimetic are mainly concentrated on their peroxidase-like activity; no attempts have been made to investigate the analytical applications based on the oxidase mimic activities of NPs. For the first time, we report that CoFe(2)O(4) NPs were found to possess intrinsic oxidase-like activity and could catalyze luminol oxidation by dissolved oxygen to produce intensified chemiluminescence (CL). The effect of sulfite on CoFe(2)O(4) NP oxidase mimic-mediated CL of aqueous luminol was investigated. It is very interesting that when adding sulfite to the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) system, the role of sulfite in the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite system depends on its concentration. At a relatively low concentration level, sulfite presents an inhibition effect on the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP system. However, it does have an enhancement effect at a higher concentration level. Investigations on the effect of the solution pH and luminol and CoFe(2)O(4) NP concentrations on the kinetic characteristics of the studied CL system in the presence of trace sulfite suggested that the enhancement and inhibition of the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite CL system also depended on the solution pH. It seems that the concentrations of luminol and CoFe(2)O(4) NPs did not influence the CL pathway. The possible mechanism of the luminol-CoFe(2)O(4) NP-sulfite CL system was also discussed. On this basis, a flow injection chemiluminescence method was established for the determination of trace sulfite in this study. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed system could respond down to 2.0 × 10(-8) M sulfite. The method has been applied to the determination of trace sulfite in white wine samples with satisfactory results. The results given by the proposed method are in good agreement with those given by the standard titration method.

  12. Morphometric analysis of arteriolar tortuosity in human cerebral white matter of preterm, young, and aged subjects.

    PubMed

    Thore, Clara R; Anstrom, John A; Moody, Dixon M; Challa, Venkata R; Marion, Miranda C; Brown, William R

    2007-05-01

    Arteriolar tortuousities, consisting of vascular coils, loops, and spirals, appear in white matter in a subset of human cerebral vessels. Computerized morphometry was used to analyze brain sections from a broad age range of subjects to determine whether tortuosity is a phenomenon of aging or is associated with leukoaraiosis (LA) or Alzheimer disease (AD). Autopsy brains were studied from 55 subjects ranging in age from 23 weeks postconception to 102 years. Fourteen aged subjects were diagnosed with LA and 7 with AD. By using computerized morphometry, vascular curl (curvilinear length/straight length) was measured in white matter arterioles in 100-microm-thick, alkaline phosphatase-stained sections. Aging subjects, compared with young subjects, showed significant increases in both the prevalence and severity of tortuosity. Curl scores in aged subjects with LA or AD were not significantly different from aged controls without LA or AD. We conclude that 1) tortuous vessels are extremely rare in preterm babies, children, or young adults; 2) significant tortuosity, as indicated by elevated curl scores, begins in middle age; 3) tortuosity does not appear in a subset of aged individuals regardless of longevity; and 4) tortuosity does not appear in a subset of individuals with either LA or AD.

  13. A BAYESIAN APPROACH TO DERIVING AGES OF INDIVIDUAL FIELD WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    O'Malley, Erin M.; Von Hippel, Ted; Van Dyk, David A. E-mail: dvandyke@imperial.ac.uk

    2013-09-20

    We apply a self-consistent and robust Bayesian statistical approach to determine the ages, distances, and zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) masses of 28 field DA white dwarfs (WDs) with ages of approximately 4-8 Gyr. Our technique requires only quality optical and near-infrared photometry to derive ages with <15% uncertainties, generally with little sensitivity to our choice of modern initial-final mass relation. We find that age, distance, and ZAMS mass are correlated in a manner that is too complex to be captured by traditional error propagation techniques. We further find that the posterior distributions of age are often asymmetric, indicating that the standard approach to deriving WD ages can yield misleading results.

  14. Wine flavor and aroma.

    PubMed

    Styger, Gustav; Prior, Bernard; Bauer, Florian F

    2011-09-01

    The perception of wine flavor and aroma is the result of a multitude of interactions between a large number of chemical compounds and sensory receptors. Compounds interact and combine and show synergistic (i.e., the presence of one compound enhances the perception of another) and antagonistic (a compound suppresses the perception of another) interactions. The chemical profile of a wine is derived from the grape, the fermentation microflora (in particular the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae), secondary microbial fermentations that may occur, and the aging and storage conditions. Grape composition depends on the varietal and clonal genotype of the vine and on the interaction of the genotype and its phenotype with many environmental factors which, in wine terms, are usually grouped under the concept of "terroir" (macro, meso and microclimate, soil, topography). The microflora, and in particular the yeast responsible for fermentation, contributes to wine aroma by several mechanisms: firstly by utilizing grape juice constituents and biotransforming them into aroma- or flavor-impacting components, secondly by producing enzymes that transform neutral grape compounds into flavor-active compounds, and lastly by the de novo synthesis of many flavor-active primary (e.g., ethanol, glycerol, acetic acid, and acetaldehyde) and secondary metabolites (e.g., esters, higher alcohols, fatty acids). This review aims to present an overview of the formation of wine flavor and aroma-active components, including the varietal precursor molecules present in grapes and the chemical compounds produced during alcoholic fermentation by yeast, including compounds directly related to ethanol production or secondary metabolites. The contribution of malolactic fermentation, ageing, and maturation on the aroma and flavor of wine is also discussed.

  15. The White Dwarf Luminosity Function and the Age of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. A.; Oswalt, T. D.

    1996-12-01

    We present the results for the White Dwarf Luminosity Function (WDLF) derived from our entire sample of common proper motion binaries (CPMBs) containing white dwarfs (WDs). Approximately 170 WDs are contained in our study which makes it one of the largest samples ever used in the determination of the WDLF. We will discuss our sample selection and completion techniques and the constraint this sample places on the debate about the age of the Galaxy and ultimately the Universe. The WDs in this study were identified spectroscopically [Oswalt et al. in White Dwarfs, ed. G. Wegner, (Springer: Berlin), (1990)] and satisfy the limits [V < 18.50, mu > 0.10 "/yr] over which the sample's incompleteness is well-behaved (and hence correctible). The size of this sample allows us to set firm limits on the age of Galactic disk, making use of the latest interior [Wood, in White Dwarfs, eds. D. Koester & K. Werner (Kluwer: Dordrecht), 1995] and atmosphere [Bergeron, P., et al. Astrophys. J. 449, 258-279, 1995] models. Our new results, which strengthen the >= 9.5(+1.1}_{-0.8) Gyr(1 sigma ) age for the Galactic disk [Oswalt et al. Nature 382, 692 (1996)], will be presented. JAS gratefully acknowledges support from the NASA Graduate Student Researchers Program, grant NGT-51086 and TDO gratefully acknowledges support from NSF grant AST 90-16284.

  16. Age-Related Changes in Axonal and Mitochondrial Ultrastructure and Function in White Matter

    PubMed Central

    Stahon, Katharine E.; Bastian, Chinthasagar; Griffith, Shelby; Kidd, Grahame J.; Brunet, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The impact of aging on CNS white matter (WM) is of general interest because the global effects of aging on myelinated nerve fibers are more complex and profound than those in cortical gray matter. It is important to distinguish between axonal changes created by normal aging and those caused by neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, stroke, glaucoma, Alzheimer's disease, and traumatic brain injury. Using three-dimensional electron microscopy, we show that in mouse optic nerve, which is a pure and fully myelinated WM tract, aging axons are larger, have thicker myelin, and are characterized by longer and thicker mitochondria, which are associated with altered levels of mitochondrial shaping proteins. These structural alterations in aging mitochondria correlate with lower ATP levels and increased generation of nitric oxide, protein nitration, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, mitochondria–smooth endoplasmic reticulum interactions are compromised due to decreased associations and decreased levels of calnexin and calreticulin, suggesting a disruption in Ca2+ homeostasis and defective unfolded protein responses in aging axons. Despite these age-related modifications, axon function is sustained in aging WM, which suggests that age-dependent changes do not lead to irreversible functional decline under normal conditions, as is observed in neurodegenerative diseases. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Aging is a common risk factor for a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage with age are hypothesized to increase risk for stroke. We compared axon–myelin–node–mitochondrion–smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) interactions in white matter obtained at 1 and 12 months. We show that aging axons have enlarged volume, thicker myelin, and elongated and thicker mitochondria. Furthermore, there are reduced SER connections to mitochondria that correlate with lower calnexin and calreticulin levels. Despite a

  17. Hypertension-related alterations in white matter microstructure detectable in middle age.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, Linda K; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Eyler, Lisa T; Franz, Carol E; Hagler, Donald J; Lyons, Michael J; Panizzon, Matthew S; Rinker, Daniel A; Dale, Anders M; Kremen, William S

    2015-08-01

    Most studies examining associations between hypertension and brain white matter microstructure have focused on older adults or on cohorts with a large age range. Because hypertension effects on the brain may vary with age, it is important to focus on middle age, when hypertension becomes more prevalent. We used linear mixed-effect models to examine differences in white matter diffusion metrics as a function of hypertension in a well-characterized cohort of middle-aged men (n=316; mean, 61.8 years; range, 56.7-65.6). Diffusion metrics were examined in 9 tracts reported to be sensitive to hypertension in older adults. Relative to normotensive individuals, individuals with long-standing hypertension (>5.6 years) showed reduced fractional anisotropy or increased diffusivity in most tracts. Effects were stronger among carriers than among noncarriers of the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele for 2 tracts connecting frontal regions with other brain areas. Significant differences were observed even after adjustment for potentially related lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors. Shorter duration of hypertension or better blood pressure control among hypertensive individuals did not lessen the adverse effects. These findings suggest that microstructural white matter alterations appear early in the course of hypertension and may persist despite adequate treatment. Although longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these findings, the results suggest that prevention-rather than management-of hypertension may be vital to preserving brain health in aging.

  18. Differential Aging of Cerebral White Matter in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Seven-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrew R.; Völkle, Manuel C.; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effects models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 65.4, SD = 9.0 years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging. PMID:26481675

  19. Age of Neoproterozoic bilatarian body and trace fossils, White Sea, Russia: implications for metazoan evolution.

    PubMed

    Martin, M W; Grazhdankin, D V; Bowring, S A; Evans, D A; Fedonkin, M A; Kirschvink, J L

    2000-05-05

    A uranium-lead zircon age for a volcanic ash interstratified with fossil-bearing, shallow marine siliciclastic rocks in the Zimnie Gory section of the White Sea region indicates that a diverse assemblage of body and trace fossils occurred before 555.3 +/- 0.3 million years ago. This age is a minimum for the oldest well-documented triploblastic bilaterian Kimberella. It also makes co-occurring trace fossils the oldest that are reliably dated. This determination of age implies that there is no simple relation between Ediacaran diversity and the carbon isotopic composition of Neoproterozoic seawater.

  20. Early exposure to ethanol or red wine and long-lasting effects in aged mice. A study on nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Laviola, Giovanni; Rossi, Simona; Romeo, Marina; Fiore, Marco

    2012-02-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure produces severe changes in brain, liver, and kidney through mechanisms involving growth factors. These molecules regulate survival, differentiation, maintenance, and connectivity of brain, liver, and kidney cells. Despite the abundant available data on the short and mid-lasting effects of ethanol intoxication, only few data show the long-lasting damage induced by early ethanol administration. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in brain areas, liver, and kidney of 18-mo-old male mice exposed perinatally to ethanol at 11% vol or to red wine at the same ethanol concentration. The authors found that ethanol per se elevated NGF, BDNF, HGF, and VEGF measured by ELISA in brain limbic system areas. In the liver, early exposure to ethanol solution and red wine depleted BDNF and VEGF concentrations. In the kidney, red wine exposure only decreased VEGF. In conclusion, the present study shows that, in aged mice, early administration of ethanol solution induced long-lasting damage at growth factor levels in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and liver but not in kidney. Otherwise, in mice exposed to red wine, significant changes were observed in the liver and kidney but not in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The brain differences in ethanol-induced toxicity when ethanol is administered alone or in red wine may be related to compounds with antioxidant properties present in the red wine.

  1. The Association of Aging with White Matter Integrity and Functional Connectivity Hubs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Albert C.; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Liu, Mu-En; Huang, Chu-Chung; Lin, Ching-Po

    2016-01-01

    Normal aging is associated with reduced cerebral structural integrity and altered functional brain activity, yet the association of aging with the relationship between structural and functional brain changes remains unclear. Using combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) modalities, we hypothesized that aging-related changes in white matter integrity (i.e., fractional anisotropy) was associated with the short- or long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) in hub regions. We tested this hypothesis by using a healthy aging cohort comprised of 140 younger adults aged 20–39 years and 109 older adults aged 60–79 years. Compared with the younger group, older adults exhibited widespread reductions in white matter integrity with selective preservation in brain stem tracts and the cingulum connected to the hippocampus and cingulate cortex, whereas FCD mapping in older adults showed a reduced FCD in the visual, somatosensory, and motor functional networks and an increased FCD in the default mode network. The older adults exhibited significantly increased short- or long-range FCD in functional hubs of the precuneus, posterior, and middle cingulate, and thalamus, hippocampus, fusiform, and inferior temporal cortex. Furthermore, DTI-fMRI relationship were predominantly identified in older adults in whom short- and long-range FCD in the left precuneus was negatively correlated to structural integrity of adjacent and nonadjacent white matter tracts, respectively. We also found that long-range FCD in the left precuneus was positively correlated to cognitive function. These results support the compensatory hypothesis of neurocognitive aging theory and reveal the DTI-fMRI relationship associated with normal aging. PMID:27378915

  2. Aging leads to a programmed loss of brown adipocytes in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicole H; Landa, Alejandro; Park, Seongjoon; Smith, Roy G

    2012-12-01

    Insulin sensitivity deteriorates with age, but mechanisms remain unclear. Age-related changes in the function of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) are less characterized than those in visceral WAT. We hypothesized that metabolic alterations in sWAT, which in contrast to epididymal WAT, harbors a subpopulation of energy-dissipating UCP1+ brown adipocytes, promote age-dependent progression toward insulin resistance. Indeed, we show that a predominant consequence of aging in murine sWAT is loss of 'browning'. sWAT from young mice is histologically similar to brown adipose tissue (multilocular, UCP1+), but becomes morphologically white by 12 months of age. Correspondingly, sWAT expression of ucp1 precipitously declines (~300-fold) between 3 and 12 months. Loss continues into old age (24 months) and is inversely correlated with the development of insulin resistance. Additional age-dependent changes in sWAT include lower expression of adbr3 and higher expression of maoa, suggesting reduced local adrenergic tone as a potential mechanism. Indeed, treatment with a β3-adrenergic agonist to compensate for reduced tone rescues the aged sWAT phenotype. Age-related changes in sWAT are not explained by the differences in body weight; mice subjected to 40% caloric restriction for 12 months are of body weight similar to 3-month-old ad lib fed mice, but display sWAT resembling that of age-matched ad lib fed mice (devoid of brown adipose-like morphology). Overall, findings identify the loss of 'browning' in sWAT as a new aging phenomenon and provide insight into the pathogenesis of age-associated metabolic disease by revealing novel molecular changes tied to systemic metabolic dysfunction.

  3. Cultural and age differences in beliefs about depression: British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Alastair; Khanam, Shopnara; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study examines beliefs about depression as a function of ethnic background (British Bangladeshis vs. British Whites) and age. A total of 364 participants completed a 65-item questionnaire, containing general questions regarding depression and anti-depressive behaviour; the causes of depression, and treatments for depression. The hypotheses were broadly supported; there were significant interactions between ethnicity and age, which generally revealed an increasingly negative attitude towards depression with increasing age amongst British Bangladeshis. Older British Bangladeshis believed depression was an illness that brought a sense of shame and loss of dignity to the individual and his or her family, and they also favoured a lay referral system for sufferers. They also had more superstitious beliefs about depression than both younger British Bangladeshis and British Whites. A pattern of increasing negativity with increasing age was not evident amongst the British Whites, but older individuals in both groups tended to believe that depression was not helped by psychological intervention. The attitudes towards depression in the young was similar (and generally positive) in both ethnic groups. These findings highlight the necessity to provide more culturally sensitive and accessible services for migrant communities – particularly amongst older individuals. PMID:25076835

  4. [Does patient age influence the indications for investigating asympatomatic Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Brembilla-Perrot, B; Holban, I; Houriez, P; Beurrier, D; Claudon, O; Vançon, A C

    2000-12-01

    Sudden death may be the presenting symptom of a Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Electrophysiological investigation is the best method of identifying high risk cases. The aim of this study was to determine whether this investigation should be proposed to all patients, irrespective of age. Transoesophageal stimulation was performed in 85 asymptomatic patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Of the 85 subjects, 13 were under 20 years of age, 30 under 30 years, 15 under 40 years, 16 under 50 years and 11 between 50 and 69 years of age. A protocol of incremental stimulation until 2nd degree AVB was attained and programmed atrial stimulation with one or two extrastimuli delivered on 2 paced cycles (600 and 400 ms) was used under basal conditions and with Isoprenaline. A malignant form of the condition was defined as the demonstration of two abnormalities: rapid conduction in the bundle of Kent (over 240/min) under basal conditions or over 300/min after Isoprenaline, and if it induced sustained atrial fibrillation (> 1 min). The results were: [table: see text] In conclusion, the number of malignant forms of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is exactly the same, irrespective of age. Elderly patients remain at risk of malignant WPW syndrome because of the increased incidence of atrial fibrillation. Therefore, the authors recommend systematic evaluation of this syndrome if the patient has an active life-style especially with regard to sporting activities.

  5. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Antimicrobial Property of Wine and Ozone with Calcium Hydroxide and Chlorhexidine

    PubMed Central

    Ebenezar, A. V. Rajesh; Anand, Nirupa; Mary, A.Vinita; Mony, Bejoy

    2015-01-01

    Background The antibacterial properties of wine and ozone have been established but their antibacterial efficacies against endodontic pathogens are yet to be ascertained. Aim The purpose of this study is to comparatively evaluate the antibacterial property of ozonated water, white wine (14%) and de-alcoholised white wine. Materials and Methods S.mutans and E.faecalis were subcultured and inoculated in a nutrient broth for 24 hours. The following groups were formulated: Group 1A:2% Chlorhexidine (Control group); Group 1B:White wine; Group 1C:Dealcoholised white wine; Group 1D:Ozonated water; Group 2A: Ca(OH)2 + Chlorhexidine (Control group); Group 2B: White wine + Ca(OH)2; Group 2C:De-alcoholised White wine + Ca(OH)2 + chlorhexidine; Group 2D:White wine + Ca(OH)2 + chlorhexidine and group 2E: Dealcoholised white wine + Ca(OH)2 + chlorhexidine. The samples were allowed to diffuse into the culture medium for two hours, later the S. mutans were streaked on to the blood agar medium and the E. faecalis were streaked on to the Muller Hilton agar medium and incubated for 48 hours at 370C the zone of inhibition was measured after 48 hours. Results There was no growth of microorganisms seen with ozonated water. Chlorhexidine showed large zone of inhibition compared to the other groups. White wine has better antimicrobial property than de-alcoholised white wine, but when mixed with calcium hydroxide the dealcoholised white wine has better action against the microorganisms. Conclusion Ozonated water has the best antibacterial property and the antibacterial action of Calcium hydroxide is enhanced when it is mixed with de-alcoholised white wine. PMID:26266206

  7. Parenting and feeding behaviors associated with school-aged African American and White children.

    PubMed

    Polfuss, Michele Lynn; Frenn, Marilyn

    2012-08-01

    Pediatric obesity is multifactorial and difficult to treat. Parenting and feeding behaviors have been shown to influence a child's weight status. Most prior studies have focused on preschool-aged White children. Additional complicating factors include parents' inability to accurately identify their child's abnormal weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors used by 176 African American and White parents of school-age children were examined. Assessment included (a) identifying what behaviors were reported when parent expressed concern with child's weight and (b) the relationship of these behaviors on child's body mass index percentile (BMI%), considering ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and parent's body mass index (BMI). Findings included African American parents and parents concerned about their child's weight exhibited increased controlling/authoritarian parenting and feeding behaviors. Parents were able to accurately identify their child's weight status. Parenting and feeding behaviors played a significant role in the children's BMI% even when controlling for ethnicity, SES, and parent's BMI.

  8. Age-related slowing of memory retrieval: Contributions of perceptual speed and cerebral white matter integrity

    PubMed Central

    Bucur, Barbara; Madden, David J.; Spaniol, Julia; Provenzale, James M.; Cabeza, Roberto; White, Leonard E.; Huettel, Scott A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous research suggests that, in reaction time (RT) measures of episodic memory retrieval, the unique effects of adult age are relatively small compared to the effects aging shares with more elementary abilities such as perceptual speed. Little is known, however, regarding the mechanisms of perceptual speed. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to test the hypothesis that white matter integrity, as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA), serves as one mechanism of perceptual slowing in episodic memory retrieval. Results indicated that declines in FA in the pericallosal frontal region and in the genu of the corpus callosum, but not in other regions, mediated the relationship between perceptual speed and episodic retrieval RT. This relation held, though to a different degree, for both hits and correct rejections. These findings suggest that white matter integrity in prefrontal regions is one mechanism underlying the relation between individual differences in perceptual speed and episodic retrieval. PMID:17383774

  9. Comparison between Aging of Slices and Ethylene Treatment of Whole White Potato Tubers.

    PubMed

    Janes, H W; Wiest, S C

    1980-07-01

    Cyanide-resistant O(2) consumption can be stimulated by either treating whole white potato tubers (Norchip) with ethylene, in the presence of 100% O(2), or aging slices obtained from untreated potato tubers. A comparison of alternative pathway activity elicited by either treatment was undertaken. The proportion of electrons flowing through the alternative path in the presence of intermediate concentrations of KCN and at various concentrations of salicylhydroxamic acid was identical in both cases. However, the respiration of slices from ethylene-treated tubers was in every case stimulated by KCN, whereas the aged slices never exhibited this phenomenon. Furthermore, the metabolism of d-[U-(14)C]glucose was several hundred times greater in aged slices than in fresh slices from C(2)H(4)-treated tubers. These results, along with the respiratory kinetics of aged slices from ethylene-treated tubers, suggest that aged slices and fresh slices from ethylene-treated tubers are biochemically dissimilar.

  10. An examination of successful aging among Southern Black and White older adults.

    PubMed

    Troutman-Jordan, Meredith; Nies, Mary A; Davis, Boyd

    2013-03-01

    Research on successful aging in minority older adults and those from certain regions of the United States, such as the South, is lacking. It is important to learn whether disparities exist in Southern Black older adults' perceptions of successful aging compared to those of majority older adults. Thus, this study examined successful aging using focus groups to obtain a regionally and racially sensitive understanding of the phenomenon. Focus group sessions were facilitated with Southern Black and White older adults with questions on successful aging, using content analysis to interpret the findings. Four central themes were found: Connecting and Relating; Temporality; Perception and Interpretation; and Activity. Beliefs and decisions about managing oneself through life events, including health problems and disability, may have a major influence on the trajectory of progressive, chronic illness, and consequently, successful aging.

  11. Sensing Free Sulfur Dioxide in Wine

    PubMed Central

    Monro, Tanya M.; Moore, Rachel L.; Nguyen, Mai-Chi; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Skouroumounis, George K.; Elsey, Gordon M.; Taylor, Dennis K.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is important in the winemaking process as it aids in preventing microbial growth and the oxidation of wine. These processes and others consume the SO2 over time, resulting in wines with little SO2 protection. Furthermore, SO2 and sulfiting agents are known to be allergens to many individuals and for that reason their levels need to be monitored and regulated in final wine products. Many of the current techniques for monitoring SO2 in wine require the SO2 to be separated from the wine prior to analysis. This investigation demonstrates a technique capable of measuring free sulfite concentrations in low volume liquid samples in white wine. This approach adapts a known colorimetric reaction to a suspended core optical fiber sensing platform, and exploits the interaction between guided light located within the fiber voids and a mixture of the wine sample and a colorimetric analyte. We have shown that this technique enables measurements to be made without dilution of the wine samples, thus paving the way towards real time in situ wine monitoring. PMID:23112627

  12. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok; Joo, Seong-So; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2015-09-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation.

  13. Extraction conditions of white rose petals for the inhibition of enzymes related to skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Guo, Haiyu; Choi, Jae-Kwon; Jang, Su-Kil; Shin, Kyungha; Cha, Ye-Seul; Choi, Youngjin; Seo, Da-Woom; Lee, Yoon-Bok

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess inhibitory potentials of white rose petal extracts (WRPE) on the activities of enzymes related to dermal aging according to the extraction conditions, three extraction methods were adopted. WRPE was prepared by extracting dried white rose (Rosa hybrida) petals with 50% ethanol (WRPE-EtOH), Pectinex® SMASH XXL enzyme (WRPE-enzyme) or high temperature-high pressure (WRPE-HTHP). In the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1, although the enzyme activity was fully inhibited by all 3 extracts at 100 µg/mL in 60 min, partial inhibition (50-70%) was achieved only by WRPE-EtOH and WRPE-enzyme at 50 µg/mL. High concentrations (≥250 µg/mL) of all 3 extracts markedly inhibited the elastase activity. However, at low concentrations (15.6-125 µg/mL), only WRPE-EtOH inhibited the enzyme activity. Notably, WRPE-EtOH was superior to WRPE-enzyme and WRPE-HTHP in the inhibition of tyrosinase. WRPE-EtOH significantly inhibited the enzyme activity from 31.2 µM, reaching 80% inhibition at 125 µM. In addition to its strong antioxidative activity, the ethanol extract of white rose petals was confirmed to be effective in inhibiting skin aging-related enzymes. Therefore, it is suggested that WRPE-EtOH could be a good candidate for the improvement of skin aging such as wrinkle formation and pigmentation. PMID:26472968

  14. Oxidative Glial Cell Damage Associated with White Matter Lesions in the Aging Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Al-Mashhadi, Sufana; Simpson, Julie E; Heath, Paul R; Dickman, Mark; Forster, Gillian; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol; Ince, Paul G; Wharton, Stephen B

    2015-09-01

    White matter lesions (WML) are common in brain aging and are associated with dementia. We aimed to investigate whether oxidative DNA damage and occur in WML and in apparently normal white matter in cases with lesions. Tissue from WML and control white matter from brains with lesions (controls lesional) and without lesions (controls non-lesional) were obtained, using post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging-guided sampling, from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study. Oxidative damage was assessed by immunohistochemistry to 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxoguanosine (8-OHdG) and Western blotting for malondialdehyde. DNA response was assessed by phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), p53, senescence markers and by quantitative Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) panel for candidate DNA damage-associated genes. 8-OHdG was expressed in glia and endothelium, with increased expression in both WML and controls lesional compared with controls non-lesional (P < 0.001). γH2Ax showed a similar, although attenuated difference among groups (P = 0.03). Expression of senescence-associated β-galactosidase and p16 suggested induction of senescence mechanisms in glia. Oxidative DNA damage and a DNA damage response are features of WML pathogenesis and suggest candidate mechanisms for glial dysfunction. Their expression in apparently normal white matter in cases with WML suggests that white matter dysfunction is not restricted to lesions. The role of this field-effect lesion pathogenesis and cognitive impairment are areas to be defined.

  15. Reductive off-odors in wines: Formation and release of H₂S and methanethiol during the accelerated anoxic storage of wines.

    PubMed

    Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-05-15

    In order to better understand the processes involved in the development of H2S and methanethiol (MeSH) along anoxic storage of wines, 24 wines were stored in strict anoxia at 50°C for 3weeks. Free and total forms of H2S and MeSH were measured at different times. Results showed that: (1) all wines contain relevant proportions of bonded forms of H2S and MeSH (93% and 47% on average); (2) such % decreases with age; (3) levels of total forms are related to wine metal composition; (4) anoxic storage brings about an increase of free forms, a strong decrease in the percentage of bonded forms, and except for H2S in red wines, an increase in total forms. Both de novo formation and release contribute to reductive off-odors. Release is predominant for reds and H2S, while at 50°C, de novo formation dominates for whites and rosés and MeSH.

  16. Regional staging of white matter signal abnormalities in aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lindemer, Emily R; Greve, Douglas N; Fischl, Bruce R; Augustinack, Jean C; Salat, David H

    2017-01-01

    White matter lesions, quantified as 'white matter signal abnormalities' (WMSA) on neuroimaging, are common incidental findings on brain images of older adults. This tissue damage is linked to cerebrovascular dysfunction and is associated with cognitive decline. The regional distribution of WMSA throughout the cerebral white matter has been described at a gross scale; however, to date no prior study has described regional patterns relative to cortical gyral landmarks which may be important for understanding functional impact. Additionally, no prior study has described how regional WMSA volume scales with total global WMSA. Such information could be used in the creation of a pathologic 'staging' of WMSA through a detailed regional characterization at the individual level. Magnetic resonance imaging data from 97 cognitively-healthy older individuals (OC) aged 52-90 from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) study were processed using a novel WMSA labeling procedure described in our prior work. WMSA were quantified regionally using a procedure that segments the cerebral white matter into 35 bilateral units based on proximity to landmarks in the cerebral cortex. An initial staging was performed by quantifying the regional WMSA volume in four groups based on quartiles of total WMSA volume (quartiles I-IV). A consistent spatial pattern of WMSA accumulation was observed with increasing quartile. A clustering procedure was then used to distinguish regions based on patterns of scaling of regional WMSA to global WMSA. Three patterns were extracted that showed high, medium, and non-scaling with global WMSA. Regions in the high-scaling cluster included periventricular, caudal and rostral middle frontal, inferior and superior parietal, supramarginal, and precuneus white matter. A data-driven staging procedure was then created based on patterns of WMSA scaling and specific regional cut-off values from the quartile analyses. Individuals with Alzheimer's disease

  17. White Matter Microstructural Organization Is Higher with Age in Adult Superior Cerebellar Peduncles

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Richard A.; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco M.; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; McGuire, Philip K.

    2016-01-01

    Using diffusion tensor imaging, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the relationship between white matter tract microstructure and age in 200 healthy adult subjects using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Though most tracts showed the slight decline in microstructural organization with age widely noted, in both superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) it correlated positively with age, a result not previously reported. We confirmed this by using an alternative method, and by repeating our TBSS analysis in an additional sample of 133 healthy adults. In exploring this surprising result we considered the possibility that this might arise from the continual cognitive and motor refinement that is enacted in the cerebellum: we found that tract microstructure in both SCPs was also strongly correlated with IQ, again in contrast with all other tracts, and its relationship with age mediated by IQ, as a training model would predict. PMID:27148043

  18. White Matter Microstructural Organization Is Higher with Age in Adult Superior Cerebellar Peduncles.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Richard A; Allin, Matthew; Picchioni, Marco M; Shergill, Sukhwinder S; McGuire, Philip K

    2016-01-01

    Using diffusion tensor imaging, we conducted an exploratory investigation of the relationship between white matter tract microstructure and age in 200 healthy adult subjects using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Though most tracts showed the slight decline in microstructural organization with age widely noted, in both superior cerebellar peduncles (SCP) it correlated positively with age, a result not previously reported. We confirmed this by using an alternative method, and by repeating our TBSS analysis in an additional sample of 133 healthy adults. In exploring this surprising result we considered the possibility that this might arise from the continual cognitive and motor refinement that is enacted in the cerebellum: we found that tract microstructure in both SCPs was also strongly correlated with IQ, again in contrast with all other tracts, and its relationship with age mediated by IQ, as a training model would predict.

  19. Quantitative fiber tracking of lateral and interhemispheric white matter systems in normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Edith V.; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2009-01-01

    The integrity of white matter, as measured in vivo with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), is disrupted in normal aging. A current consensus is that in adults advancing age affects anterior brain regions disproportionately more than posterior regions; however, the mainstay of studies supporting this anterior-posterior gradient is based primarily on measures of the corpus callosum. Using our quantitative fiber tracking approach, we assessed fiber tract integrity of samples of major white matter cortical, subcortical, interhemispheric, and cerebellar systems (11 bilateral and 2 callosal) on DTI data collected at 1.5 T magnet strength. Participants were 55 men (age 20-78 years) and 65 women (age 28-81 years), deemed healthy and cognitively intact following interview and behavioral testing. Fiber integrity was measured as orientational diffusion coherence (fractional anisotropy, FA) and magnitude of diffusion, which was quantified separately for longitudinal diffusivity (λL), an index of axonal length or number, and transverse diffusivity (λT), an index of myelin integrity. Aging effects were more evident in diffusivity than FA measures. Men and women, examined separately, showed similar age-related increases in longitudinal and transverse diffusivity in fibers of the internal and external capsules bilaterally and the fornix. FA was lower and diffusivity higher in anterior than posterior fibers of regional paired comparisons (genu versus splenium and frontal versus occipital forceps). Diffusivity with older age was generally greater or FA lower in the superior than inferior fiber systems (longitudinal fasciculi, cingulate bundles), with little to no evidence for age-related degradation in pontine or cerebellar systems. The most striking sex difference emerged for the corpus callosum, for which men showed significant decline in FA and increase in longitudinal and transverse diffusivity in the genu but not splenium. By contrast, in women the age effect was present in both

  20. White matter tract covariance patterns predict age-declining cognitive abilities

    PubMed Central

    Gazes, Yunglin; Bowman, F. DuBois; Razlighi, Qolamreza R.; O’Shea, Deirdre; Stern, Yaakov; Habeck, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the relationship of white matter (WM) integrity to cognitive abilities and aging and have either focused on a global measure or a few selected WM tracts. Ideally, contribution from all of the WM tracts should be evaluated at the same time. However, the high collinearity among WM tracts precludes systematic examination of WM tracts simultaneously without sacrificing statistical power due to stringent multiple-comparison corrections. Multivariate covariance techniques enable comprehensive simultaneous examination of all WM tracts without being penalized for high collinearity among observations. Method In this study, Scaled Subprofile Modeling (SSM) was applied to the mean integrity of 18 major WM tracts to extract covariance patterns that optimally predicted four cognitive abilities (perceptual speed, episodic memory, fluid reasoning, and vocabulary) in 346 participants across ages 20 to 79 years old. Using expression of the covariance patterns, age-independent effects of white matter integrity on cognition and the indirect effect of WM integrity on age-related differences in cognition were tested separately, but inferences from the indirect analyses were cautiously made given cross-sectional data set was used in the analysis. Results A separate covariance pattern was identified that significantly predicted each cognitive ability after controlling for age except for vocabulary, but Age by WM covariance pattern interactions were not significant for any of the three abilities. Furthermore, each of the patterns mediated the effect of age on the respective cognitive ability. A distinct set of WM tracts was most influential in each of the three patterns. The WM covariance pattern accounting for fluid reasoning showed the most number of influential WM tracts whereas the episodic memory pattern showed the least number. Conclusion Specific patterns of WM tracts make significant contributions to the age-related differences in perceptual speed

  1. Talking About Wine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Adrienne

    1975-01-01

    A structural analysis of the wine vocabulary used by wine experts is given. Experiments involving typical wine drinkers show that there is little consensus in how the words are applied to wine. Communication tasks show that the sender and receiver of messages about wine perform little better than chance. (Author/RM)

  2. White Dwarfs and the Age of our Galaxy: A Professional Development Workshop for Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemenway, M. K.; Armosky, B. J.; Kilic, M.; Shipman, H.; von Hippel, T.

    2005-12-01

    The first of a planned series of workshops for secondary school science teachers was conducted at McDonald Observatory in 2005. In preparation for the workshop, new instructional materials on white dwarfs and the age of our Galaxy were prepared and pilot-tested. Thirteen teachers from Arizona, Delaware, and Texas performed these standards-aligned activities at the workshop in preparation for using them within their own classrooms. During four nights of observing, the participants made CCD-images at the 0.8-m telescope and reduced the data with personal computers using easily available image reduction software. Working in teams, they created a color-magnitude diagram for an open cluster and found several white dwarf candidates within the cluster. With guidance, they used the work of the White Dwarf Luminosity Function Collaboration, which fostered this workshop, to estimate the age of the Galaxy. The workshop included tours of other observatory facilities, practical exercises with small telescopes, and time to reflect on their own teaching practices. Evaluation on the workshop and the use of the instructional materials is continuing. Support from the National Science Foundation (AST 0307315), National Science FoundationsDistinguished Teaching Scholars Program (DUE-0306557), and The National Aeronautics and Space Administration under an Education and Public Outreach supplement to Grant/Contract/Agreement No. NAG5-13070 issued through the Office of Space Science is gratefully acknowledged.

  3. Aging White Matter and Cognition: Differential Effects of Regional Variations in Diffusion Properties on Memory, Executive Functions, and Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Raz, Naftali

    2009-01-01

    Disruption of cerebral white matter has been proposed as an explanation for age-related cognitive declines. However, the role of specific regions in specific cognitive declines remains unclear. We used diffusion tensor imaging to examine the associations between regional microstructural integrity of the white matter and performance on…

  4. Comparison of TW1 and TW2 skeletal age differences in American black and white and in Mexican children 6-13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Malina, R M; Little, B B

    1981-01-01

    Differences in Tanner-Whitehouse (TW) skeletal ages as derived from the original (TW1) and revised (TW2) systems were compared in three ethnically different samples of children 6-13 years of age: mixed longitudinal samples of American White and Black children for Philadelphia, and a cross-sectional samples of Mexican children from Oaxaca in southern Mexico. TW2 skeletal ages are, on average, consistently lower than TW1 skeletal ages. Within a given chronological age and sex group, the differences are similar in terms of means and variation about the means in better-off children, both black and White in Philadelphia and in disadvantaged Mexican children.

  5. Bioactive components of Prunus avium L. black gold (red cherry) and Prunus avium L. stark gold (white cherry) juices, wines and vinegars.

    PubMed

    Budak, Nilgün H

    2017-01-01

    Cherries are one of the most popular fruits, characterized by attractive colour, firmness, appearance and delicious tastes. Cherries are consumed fresh as well as in jams, wine, dried, candy and other processed products. Cherries vary in antioxidant properties and phenolic substances. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of ethanol and acetic acid fermentation on total antioxidant activities and phenolic substances of cherry juice. Total investigation of solids, pH, soluble solids, phenolic substances, ORAC and TEAC of Prunus avium L. cherry juices, macerated cherries wine, and vinegars were analyzed. All samples had 300.1-854.79 mg GAE/L of total phenolic contents, and 6.62-17.97 µmol/mL of ORAC values, and 1.5-5.5 mmol/mL of TEAC. Chlorogenic acid was present in the highest amount P. avium L. black gold vinegar.

  6. Gas chromatography-olfactometry and chemical quantitative study of the aroma of six premium quality spanish aged red wines.

    PubMed

    Culleré, Laura; Escudero, Ana; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2004-03-24

    The aroma of six premium quality Spanish red wines has been studied by quantitative gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and techniques of quantitative chemical analysis. The GC-O study revealed the presence of 85 aromatic notes in which 78 odorants were identified, two of which-1-nonen-3-one (temptatively) and 2-acetylpyrazine-are reported in wine for the first time. Forty out of the 82 quantified odorants may be present at concentrations above their odor threshold. The components with the greatest capacity to introduce differences between these wines are ethyl phenols produced by Brettanomyces yeasts (4-ethylphenol, 4-ethyl-2-methoxyphenol, and 4-propyl-2-methoxyphenol), 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), (Z)-3-hexenol, thiols derived from cysteinic precursors (4-methyl-4-mercaptopentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexyl acetate, and 3-mercaptohexanol), some components yielded by the wood [(E)-isoeugenol, 4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol, vanillin, 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol), and (Z)-whiskylactone], and compounds related to the metabolism (2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters of isoacids, 3-methylbutyl acetate) or oxidative degradation of amino acids [phenylacetaldehyde and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon)]. The correlation between the olfactometric intensities and the quantitative data is, in general, satisfactory if olfactometric differences between the samples are high. However, GC-O fails in detecting quantitative differences in those cases in which the olfactive intensity is very high or if odors elute in areas in which the odor chromatogram is too complex.

  7. Age-related differences in white matter integrity and cognitive function are related to APOE status

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite growing evidence that ε4 increases cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine these relationships in a group of community-dwelling cognitively normal older adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 126 individuals (ages 52–92) that included 32 ε4 heterozygotes, 6 ε4 homozygotes, and 88 non-carriers. Two measures of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), were obtained from six brain regions – frontal white matter, lateral parietal white matter, the centrum semiovale, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the temporal stem white matter – and were used to predict composite scores of cognitive function in two domains, executive function and memory function. Results indicated that ADC and FA differed with increasing age in all six brain regions, and these differences were significantly greater for ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Importantly, after controlling for age, diffusion measures predicted cognitive function in a region-specific way that was also influenced by ε4 status. Regardless of APOE status, frontal ADC and FA independently predicted executive function scores for all participants, while temporal lobe ADC additionally predicted executive function for ε4 carriers, but not noncarriers. Memory scores were predicted by temporal lobe ADC but not frontal diffusion for all participants, and this relationship was significantly stronger in ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Taken together, age and temporal lobe ADC accounted for a striking 53% of the variance in memory scores within the ε4 carrier

  8. Macro- and micro-structural white matter differences correlate with cognitive performance in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paulo César Gonçalves; Soares, José Miguel Montenegro; Magalhães, Ricardo José da Silva; Santos, Nadine Correia; Sousa, Nuno Jorge Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    Studies have shown that white matter (WM) volumetric reductions and overall degradation occur with aging. Nonetheless little is known about the WM alterations that may underlie different cognitive status in older individuals. The main goal of the present work was to identify and characterize possible macro and microstructural WM alterations that could distinguish between older healthy individuals with contrasting cognitive profiles (i.e., "poor" vs "good" cognitive performers). Structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging was performed in order to quantify local WM volumes, white matter signal abnormalities (WMSA) volume (a measure of lesion burden) and diffusion tensor imaging scalar maps known to probe WM microstructure. A battery of neurocognitive/psychological tests was administered to assess the cognitive performance. Poor performers showed a higher slope for the positive association between WMSA volume and age compared to good performers. Even when controlling for WMSA volume, poor performers also evidenced lower fractional anisotropy, as well as positive associations with age with higher slopes of regression parameters in radial and axial diffusivity. Altogether results suggest that cognitive performance is related to differences in WM, with poor cognitive performers displaying signs of faster aging in WM.

  9. Integrity of normal-appearing white matter: Influence of age, visible lesion burden and hypertension in patients with small-vessel disease.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Chappell, Francesca M; Valdés Hernández, Maria C; Armitage, Paul A; Makin, Stephen D; Heye, Anna K; Thrippleton, Michael J; Sakka, Eleni; Shuler, Kirsten; Dennis, Martin S; Wardlaw, Joanna M

    2017-02-01

    White matter hyperintensities accumulate with age and occur in patients with stroke, but their pathogenesis is poorly understood. We measured multiple magnetic resonance imaging biomarkers of tissue integrity in normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensities in patients with mild stroke, to improve understanding of white matter hyperintensities origins. We classified white matter into white matter hyperintensities and normal-appearing white matter and measured fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, water content (T1-relaxation time) and blood-brain barrier leakage (signal enhancement slope from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging). We studied the effects of age, white matter hyperintensities burden (Fazekas score) and vascular risk factors on each biomarker, in normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensities, and performed receiver-operator characteristic curve analysis. Amongst 204 patients (34.3-90.9 years), all biomarkers differed between normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensities ( P < 0.001). In normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensities, mean diffusivity and T1 increased with age ( P < 0.001), all biomarkers varied with white matter hyperintensities burden ( P < 0.001; P = 0.02 signal enhancement slope), but only signal enhancement slope increased with hypertension ( P = 0.028). Fractional anisotropy showed complex age-white matter hyperintensities-tissue interactions; enhancement slope showed white matter hyperintensities-tissue interactions. Mean diffusivity distinguished white matter hyperintensities from normal-appearing white matter best at all ages. Blood-brain barrier leakage increases with hypertension and white matter hyperintensities burden at all ages in normal-appearing white matter and white matter hyperintensities, whereas water mobility and content increase as tissue damage accrues, suggesting that blood-brain barrier leakage

  10. Use of polyaspartate as inhibitor of tartaric precipitations in wines.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Antonella; Panero, Loretta; Petrozziello, Maurizio; Sollazzo, Marco; Asproudi, Andriani; Motta, Silvia; Guaita, Massimo

    2015-10-15

    All additives used to stabilize wines against the precipitations of potassium bitartrate have some limits: metatartaric acid (MTA) is effective but very unstable, carboxymethylcellulose is stable and effective in white wines but affects color stability in red wines, mannoproteins have a variable effectiveness depending on wine composition. This work was aimed at testing the effect of new stabilizing products on tartaric precipitations, focusing on the use of Na and K polyaspartate salts (PASPs). The effectiveness of 4 different PASPs and 1 MTA added to red and white wines was compared using the mini-contact test and cold test. The dose effect and the stability of the products over time were also studied. The PASPs showed a similar stabilizing effect and a longer stability over time compared to MTA. PASPs can be considered interesting as additives for wine tartaric stabilization. Further work is in progress to better characterize their enological properties.

  11. Adsorption of Wine Constituents on Functionalized Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A

    2016-10-18

    The adsorption of macromolecules on solid surfaces is of great importance in the field of nanotechnology, biomaterials, biotechnological, and food processes. In the field of oenology adsorption of wine macromolecules such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, and proteins is much less desirable on membrane materials because of fouling and reduced filtering performance. On the other hand, adsorption of these molecules on processing aids is very beneficial for achieving wine clarity and stability. In this article, the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of white, rosé, and red wine constituents was evaluated. Allylamine, acrylic acid, and ethanol were selected as precursors for plasma polymerization in order to generate coatings rich in amine, carboxyl, and hydroxyl chemical groups, respectively. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the ability of different surface chemical functionalities to adsorb wine constituents were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results demonstrated that the amine and carboxyl modified surfaces encourage adsorption of constituents from white wine. The hydroxyl modified surfaces have the ability to preferentially adsorb rosé wine constituents, whereas red wine adsorbed to the highest extent on acrylic acid surface.

  12. Age and breeding success related to nest position in a White stork Ciconia ciconia colony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Pablo; Aguirre, José I.

    2006-11-01

    Coloniality is a breeding system that may produce benefits in terms of breeding success, although these advantages could vary according to factors such as colony size or nest position. We studied breeder's age in relation to nest position (peripheral or central) within the colony. In addition, we studied the relationship between breeding success and nest position, controlling for breeder's age, a highly correlated factor, in a White Stork Ciconia ciconia colony over a 7-year period. Our results show that central nests are mainly occupied by adult birds and had lower failure rates. However, controlling for breeder's age, nest position per se did not explain breeding success. The scarce predation and the lack of human disturbance in the study colony could explain the absence of differences in breeding success between different nest positions within the colony.

  13. Does white matter structure or hippocampal volume mediate associations between cortisol and cognitive ageing?

    PubMed

    Cox, Simon R; MacPherson, Sarah E; Ferguson, Karen J; Royle, Natalie A; Maniega, Susana Muñoz; Hernández, Maria Del C Valdés; Bastin, Mark E; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Deary, Ian J

    2015-12-01

    Elevated glucocorticoid (GC) levels putatively damage specific brain regions, which in turn may accelerate cognitive ageing. However, many studies are cross-sectional or have relatively short follow-up periods, making it difficult to relate GCs directly to changes in cognitive ability with increasing age. Moreover, studies combining endocrine, MRI and cognitive variables are scarce, measurement methods vary considerably, and formal tests of the underlying causal hypothesis (cortisol→brain→cognition) are absent. In this study, 90 men, aged 73 years, provided measures of fluid intelligence, processing speed and memory, diurnal and reactive salivary cortisol and two measures of white matter (WM) structure (WM hyperintensity volume from structural MRI and mean diffusivity averaged across 12 major tracts from diffusion tensor MRI), hippocampal volume, and also cognitive ability at age 11. We tested whether negative relationships between cognitive ageing differences (over more than 60 years) and salivary cortisol were significantly mediated by WM and hippocampal volume. Significant associations between reactive cortisol at 73 and cognitive ageing differences between 11 and 73 (r=-.28 to -.36, p<.05) were partially mediated by both WM structural measures, but not hippocampal volume. Cortisol-WM relationships were modest, as was the degree to which WM structure attenuated cortisol-cognition associations (<15%). These data support the hypothesis that GCs contribute to cognitive ageing differences from childhood to the early 70s, partly via brain WM structure.

  14. Wine and heart health

    MedlinePlus

    Health and wine; Wine and heart disease; Preventing heart disease - wine; Preventing heart disease - alcohol ... more often just to lower your risk of heart disease. Heavier drinking can harm the heart and ...

  15. Microembolism Induces Anhedonia but No Detectable Changes in White Matter Integrity in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nemeth, Christina L.; Gutman, David A.; Majeed, Waqas; Keilholz, Shella D.; Neigh, Gretchen N.

    2014-01-01

    Microvascular disease leads to alterations of cerebral vasculature including the formation of microembolic (ME) strokes. Though ME are associated with changes in mood and the severity and progression of cognitive decline, the effect of ME strokes on cerebral microstructure and its relationship to behavioral endpoints is unknown. Here, we used adult and aged male rats to test the hypotheses that ME lesions result in subtle changes to white and gray matter integrity as detected by high-throughput diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and that these structural disruptions correspond to behavioral deficits. Two weeks post-surgery, aged animals showed depressive-like behaviors in the sucrose consumption test in the absence of altered cerebral diffusivity as assessed by ex-vivo DTI. Furthermore, DTI indices did not correlate with the degree of behavioral disruption in aged animals or in a subset of animals with observed tissue cavitation and subtle DTI alterations. Together, data suggest that behavioral deficits are not the result of damage to brain regions or white matter tracts, rather the activity of other systems may underlie functional disruption and recovery. PMID:24811070

  16. A fast and environment-friendly MEPSPEP/UHPLC-PDA methodology to assess 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone in fortified wines.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Jorge; Perestrelo, Rosa; Cassaca, Rubina; Castillo, Mariangie; Santos, Mariana; Pereira, Jorge; Câmara, José S

    2017-01-01

    Sotolon is widely associated with the quality of fortified aged wines, and has also been linked to premature oxidative aging (premox). Here we developed a single, fast and environmental-friendly microextraction by packed sorbent ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography analysis (MEPS/UHPLC-PDA) for sotolon quantification in different wines. The best extraction conditions (loading three times 250μL samples through the MEPSPEP sorbent and elution with 100μL of 50% MeOH) were combined with a fast UHPLC separation (5min separation using acidified 10% MeOH isocratic flow in a CORTECS C18 column) to allow unparalleled minimum sample and solvents volumes usage. The validated methodology showed good linearity (r(2)>0.993) and precision (<5.6%); high recovery (>81%) and detection limits (0.45-2.51μg/L) far below sotolon odor threshold for any type of wine. The methodology was successfully applied to selected white table and Madeira wines, encompassing therefore a wide range of alcohol and sugar contents. Furthermore, as far we may know, this is the first time a single methodology can be used to assess both wine aging or premox according to the type of wine.

  17. Chronic intake of red wine polyphenols by young rats prevents aging-induced endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance: role of NADPH oxidase.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ros, Stéphanie; Zoll, Joffrey; Lang, Anne-Laure; Auger, Cyril; Keller, Nathalie; Bronner, Christian; Geny, Bernard; Schini-Kerth, Valérie B

    2011-01-14

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress-mediated endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance, which promote cardiovascular diseases. This study examined whether chronic intake of red wine polyphenols (RWPs), a rich source of natural antioxidants, prevents aging-related impairment of vascular function and physical exercise capacity. Vascular reactivity from 12, 20 and 40 week-old rats was assessed in organ chambers. Rats received from week 16 to 40 either solvent, RWPs or the antioxidant and NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin. Aging was associated with blunted endothelium-dependent relaxations, oxidative stress (dihydroethidine staining), and an upregulation of eNOS, arginase I, NADPH oxidase p22phox and nox1 subunits, and AT1 and AT2 receptors (assessed by immunohistochemistry) in the mesenteric artery. RWPs and apocynin improved the endothelial dysfunction, normalized oxidative stress and the expression of the different proteins. RWPs also improved aging-related decline in physical exercise. Thus, intake of RWPs protects against aging-induced endothelial dysfunction and decline in physical performance. These effects likely involve the ability of RWPs to normalize oxidative stress and the expression of proteins involved in the formation of NO and the angiotensin II pathway.

  18. Age-Associated Alterations in Corpus Callosum White Matter Integrity in Bipolar Disorder Assessed Using Probabilistic Tractography

    PubMed Central

    Toteja, Nitin; Cokol, Perihan Guvenek; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Kafantaris, Vivian; Peters, Bart D.; Burdick, Katherine E.; John, Majnu; Malhotra, Anil K.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Atypical age-associated changes in white matter integrity may play a role in the neurobiology of bipolar disorder, but no studies have examined the major white matter tracts using nonlinear statistical modeling across a wide age range in this disorder. The goal of this study was to identify possible deviations in the typical pattern of age-associated changes in white matter integrity in patients with bipolar disorder across the age range of 9 to 62 years. Methods Diffusion tensor imaging was performed in 57 (20M/37F) patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and 57 (20M/37F) age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy were computed for the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, two projection tracts, and five association tracts using probabilistic tractography. Results Overall, patients had lower fractional anisotropy and higher mean diffusivity compared to healthy volunteers across all tracts (while controlling for the effects of age and age2). In addition, there were greater age-associated increases in mean diffusivity in patients compared to healthy volunteers within the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum beginning in the second and third decades of life. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for alterations in the typical pattern of white matter development in patients with bipolar disorder compared to healthy volunteers. Changes in white matter development within the corpus callosum may lead to altered inter-hemispheric communication that is considered integral to the neurobiology of the disorder. PMID:25532972

  19. A comparison of attitudes about cremation among Black and White middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Glass, Anne P; Samuel, Linda F

    2011-05-01

    Social workers must be instrumental in educating elders and their families to make informed decisions about death and dying. As part of a larger qualitative study, we explored attitudes about cremation of 25 older and 25 middle-aged adults, evenly split between Black and White respondents. Major themes emerged about disposition of the body after death. Costs and land conservation influenced support for cremation; reasons against cremation include religious beliefs, lack of closure, and sense of place. Additionally, some respondents were against cremation primarily because of lack of exposure, as it was not their family tradition, suggesting a role for education.

  20. Flocculation and transcriptional adaptation to fermentation conditions in a recombinant wine yeast strain defective for KNR4/SMI1.

    PubMed

    Penacho, Vanessa; Blondin, Bruno; Valero, Eva; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    KNR4 defective recombinant wine yeast strains were previously shown to oversecrete mannoproteins during alcoholic fermentation and, depending on the genetic background, to contribute to protein stability of white wines. We have tried to get a deeper insight into the consequences of KNR4 deletion in a wine yeast strain, from both a biological and an enological standpoint, and to understand the mechanisms leading to improved mannoprotein release. In fermentation experiments, followed by aging on lees, and compared to the parent strain, the recombinant strain shows increased release of mannoproteins during the fermentation but little increase during aging. Mannoprotein release by the recombinant strain takes place mainly during the fermentation step. In contrast, autolysis of the recombinant strain keeps going after aging for 78 days. In addition, the recombinant strain is moderately flocculent, which would be interesting for the production of sparkling wines. This might be related to changes in the expression of Flo1p-regulated genes. The new biological processes affected by KNR4 deletion in wine yeasts, as revealed by this transcriptomic study are flocculation, adaptation to anaerobiosis, oxidative stress response, and ethanol tolerance, as well as FKS1 overexpression; but no overexpression was detected for genes coding for major structural mannoproteins of the cell wall.

  1. Determination of total carbohydrates in wine and wine-like beverages by HPLC with a refractive index detector: First Action 2013.12.

    PubMed

    Kupina, Steve; Roman, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted of an HPLC-refractive index (RI) detector method for the determination of the combined amounts of sugars, glycerol, organic acids, and phenolic compounds in wines and wine-like beverages. Nine collaborating laboratories representing major winery, contract laboratories, and government laboratories tested eight different materials as blind duplicates using the proposed method. Sample materials included red and white wines, port, wine cooler, and nonalcoholic wine. One material was a negative control, and one material was a reference material. Samples were either treated with an ion-exchange resin to remove interfering organic acids prior to analysis or left untreated to include organic acids and phenolics. Red wine samples were treated with polyvinylpolypyrrolidone to remove potential interferences from phenolics prior to analysis. The HPLC analyses were performed on a Bio-Rad Fast Acid Analysis Column using RI detection. Reproducibility (RSD(R)) for untreated samples (sugars + phenolics + organic acids) ranged from 6.6% for Titrivin AA4 reference material to 11.0% for dry red wine. RSD(R) for treated samples (sugars only) ranged from 6.8% for white zinfandel to 18.9% for dry white wine. RSD(R) for treated samples (sugars only) + glycerol ranged from 6.4% for white zinfandel to 19.8% for dry red wine. Based on these results, the method was adopted as Official First Action status for determination of total carbohydrates in wine and wine-like beverages.

  2. Uncertainty in age-specific harvest estimates and consequences for white-tailed deer management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collier, B.A.; Krementz, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    Age structure proportions (proportion of harvested individuals within each age class) are commonly used as support for regulatory restrictions and input for deer population models. Such use requires critical evaluation when harvest regulations force hunters to selectively harvest specific age classes, due to impact on the underlying population age structure. We used a stochastic population simulation model to evaluate the impact of using harvest proportions to evaluate changes in population age structure under a selective harvest management program at two scales. Using harvest proportions to parameterize the age-specific harvest segment of the model for the local scale showed that predictions of post-harvest age structure did not vary dependent upon whether selective harvest criteria were in use or not. At the county scale, yearling frequency in the post-harvest population increased, but model predictions indicated that post-harvest population size of 2.5 years old males would decline below levels found before implementation of the antler restriction, reducing the number of individuals recruited into older age classes. Across the range of age-specific harvest rates modeled, our simulation predicted that underestimation of age-specific harvest rates has considerable influence on predictions of post-harvest population age structure. We found that the consequence of uncertainty in harvest rates corresponds to uncertainty in predictions of residual population structure, and this correspondence is proportional to scale. Our simulations also indicate that regardless of use of harvest proportions or harvest rates, at either the local or county scale the modeled SHC had a high probability (>0.60 and >0.75, respectively) of eliminating recruitment into >2.5 years old age classes. Although frequently used to increase population age structure, our modeling indicated that selective harvest criteria can decrease or eliminate the number of white-tailed deer recruited into older

  3. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Iva; Pérez-Gregorio, Rosa; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-02-14

    Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids bioavailability and their health

  4. Reduced Frontal Cortex Efficiency is Associated with Lower White Matter Integrity in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zude; Johnson, Nathan F.; Kim, Chobok; Gold, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Increased frontal cortex activation during cognitive task performance is common in aging but remains poorly understood. Here we explored patterns of age-related frontal brain activations under multiple task performance conditions and their relationship to white matter (WM) microstructure. Groups of younger (N = 28) and older (N = 33) participants completed a task-switching paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed, and rested while diffusion tensor imaging was performed. Results from fMRI analyses indicated age-related increases in frontal brain activations under conditions of poorer performance in the older group (the nonswitch and switch conditions) and for a contrast in which behavioral performance was equated (older group nonswitch condition vs. younger group switch condition). Within the older adult group, higher frontal activation was associated with poorer behavioral performance under all task conditions. In 2 regions in right frontal cortex, blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) magnitudes were negatively correlated with WM integrity in tracts connecting these structures with other task-relevant frontoparietal and striatal regions. Our results link age-related declines in the efficiency of frontal cortex functioning with lower WM integrity in aging. PMID:23960206

  5. [Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome after 50 yars of age. Clinical and electrophysiological data].

    PubMed

    Lévy, S; Borde, C; Dupon, J; Bémurat, M; Gérard, R; Bricaud, H

    1980-07-01

    The Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is usually observed in young people and is much rarer in patients over 50 years old. This fact may be explained by the demise of a certain number of patients before the age of 50 and/or a change in the clinical features of the syndrome with age and/or of the electrophysiological properties of the normal and accessory conduction pathways. To test the latter hypothesis, the clinical and electrophysiological data of 15 patients over 50 years old with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (Group I) were compared with that of 10 patients under 30 years old with the same syndrome (Group II). The same protocol of electrophysiological investigation was used in both groups of patients. The results showed a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the two groups in the incidence of associated cardiac disease. This was more common in Group I (1 4 out of 15 patients) than in Group II (2 out of 10 patients). The cardiothoracic ratio was significantly higher in Group I (p < 0.01). The two groups also differed in the age at which tachycardia first occured. 9 out of 11 patients in Group I only had symptoms after thirty years. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the types of tachycardia and the frequency of attacks. There was no significant difference in QRS, PR, AH, HV intervals, in the ventriculo-atrial conduction time and the effective refractory periods of the atrium, right ventricle or atrio-ventricular node. There was no significant difference in the anterograde and retrograde refractory periods of the accessory pathways between the two groups. Reciprocating tachycardia, initiated by electrical stimulation in 7 patients in Group I and 6 patients in Group II, was conducted anterogradely to the ventricles through the normal pathway and retrogradely to the atria through the the accessory pathway. This study suggest that age-related changes in the electrophysiological properties of the accessory are not an important

  6. Half full or empty: cues that lead wine drinkers to unintentionally overpour.

    PubMed

    Walker, Doug; Smarandescu, Laura; Wansink, Brian

    2014-02-01

    Wine drinkers often pour their own wine, but is the amount they pour influenced by the shape of the glass, the color of the wine, or how they pour? Building on research involving visual illusions and haptic cues, an exploratory field study shows that while wine drinkers typically poured 3.95 fl. oz. of wine into a standard baseline (10 fl. oz.) glass, they poured 11.9% more into a wider glass, 9.2% more when the wine was white (the low contrast with the glass makes it difficult to see), and 12.2% more when the wine glass was held in their hand rather than sitting on the table. Using narrower wine glasses and not pouring while holding one's glass may be steps toward modestly reducing the amount of wine a social drinker pours and drinks.

  7. Tears of Wine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gugliotti, Marcos

    2004-01-01

    The unique occurrence of the upward motion of a thin film of wine, and its formation into drops inside the wall of a wine glass is explained. Evaporation of alcohol generates a surface tension gradient, moving the film of wine upwards on the internal sides of a wine glass, where it collects and forms into drops or tears.

  8. Impact of alternative technique to ageing using oak chips in alcoholic or in malolactic fermentation on volatile and sensory composition of red wines.

    PubMed

    Gómez García-Carpintero, E; Gómez Gallego, M A; Sánchez-Palomo, E; González Viñas, M A

    2012-09-15

    This paper reports on a complete study of the effect of wood, in the form of oak chips, on the volatile composition and sensory characteristics of Moravia Agria wines added at different stages of the fermentation process. Aroma compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Sensory profile was evaluated by experienced wine-testers. Oak chips were added to wines in two dose rates at different stages of the winemaking process: during alcoholic fermentation (AF), during malolactic fermentation (MLF) and in young, red Moravia Agria wine. Wines fermented with oak chips during AF showed higher concentrations of the ethyl esters of straight-chain fatty acids, ethyl, hexyl, isoamyl acetates and superior alcohols than the control wines. The higher concentrations of benzene compound, oak lactones and furanic compounds were found in wines in contact with oak chips during MLF. The use of oak chips gives rise to a different sensorial profile of wines depending of the point of addition. Higher intensities of woody, coconut, vanilla and sweet spices descriptors were obtained when a large dose rate of chips was employed.

  9. Diffuse white matter tract abnormalities in clinically normal ageing retired athletes with a history of sports-related concussions.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Sebastien; Henry, Luke C; Bedetti, Christophe; Larson-Dupuis, Camille; Gagnon, Jean-François; Evans, Alan C; Théoret, Hugo; Lassonde, Maryse; De Beaumont, Louis

    2014-11-01

    Sports-related concussions have been shown to lead to persistent subclinical anomalies of the motor and cognitive systems in young asymptomatic athletes. In advancing age, these latent alterations correlate with detectable motor and cognitive function decline. Until now, the interacting effects of concussions and the normal ageing process on white matter tract integrity remain unknown. Here we used a tract-based spatial statistical method to uncover potential white matter tissue damage in 15 retired athletes with a history of concussions, free of comorbid medical conditions. We also investigated potential associations between white matter integrity and declines in cognitive and motor functions. Compared to an age- and education-matched control group of 15 retired athletes without concussions, former athletes with concussions exhibited widespread white matter anomalies along many major association, interhemispheric, and projection tracts. Group contrasts revealed decreases in fractional anisotropy, as well as increases in mean and radial diffusivity measures in the concussed group. These differences were primarily apparent in fronto-parietal networks as well as in the frontal aspect of the corpus callosum. The white matter anomalies uncovered in concussed athletes were significantly associated with a decline in episodic memory and lateral ventricle expansion. Finally, the expected association between frontal white matter integrity and motor learning found in former non-concussed athletes was absent in concussed participants. Together, these results show that advancing age in retired athletes presenting with a history of sports-related concussions is linked to diffuse white matter abnormalities that are consistent with the effects of traumatic axonal injury and exacerbated demyelination. These changes in white matter integrity might explain the cognitive and motor function declines documented in this population.

  10. Scalping of light volatile sulfur compounds by wine closures.

    PubMed

    Silva, Maria A; Jourdes, Michaël; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2012-11-07

    Closures have an important influence on wine quality during aging in a bottle. Closures have a direct impact on oxygen exposure and on volatiles scavenging in wine. Model wine solution soaking assays of several types of closures (i.e., natural and technical cork stoppers, synthetic closures, screw caps) with two important wine volatile sulfur compounds led to a considerable reduction in their levels. After 25 days, cork closures and synthetic closures, to a lesser extent, have significantly scavenged hydrogen sulfide and dimethyl sulfide. These compounds have a determinant impact on wine aging bouquet, being largely responsible for "reduced off-flavors". Hydrogen sulfide levels are often not well correlated with the exposure of wine to oxygen or with the permeability of the closure. Its preferential sorption by some types of closures may explain that behavior. Scalping phenomenon should be taken into account when studying wine post-bottling development.

  11. Chronocoulometry of wine on multi-walled carbon nanotube modified electrode: Antioxidant capacity assay.

    PubMed

    Ziyatdinova, Guzel; Kozlova, Ekaterina; Budnikov, Herman

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic antioxidants of wine were electrochemically oxidized on multi-walled carbon nanotubes modified glassy carbon electrode (MWNT/GCE) in phosphate buffer solution. Three oxidation peaks were observed at 0.39, 0.61 and 0.83V for red dry wine and 0.39, 0.80 and 1.18 V for white dry wine, respectively, using differential pulse voltammetry at pH 4.0. The oxidation potentials for individual phenolic antioxidants confirmed the integral nature of the analytical signals for the wines examined. A one-step chronocoulometric method at 0.83 and 1.18 V for red and white wines, respectively, has been developed for the evaluation of wine antioxidant capacity (AOC). The AOC is expressed in gallic acid equivalents per 1L of wine. The AOC of white wine was significantly less than red wine (386 ± 112 vs. 1224 ± 184, p<0.0001), as might be expected. Positive correlations were observed between gallic acid equivalent AOC of wine and total antioxidant capacity, based on coulometric titration with electrogenerated bromine (r=0.8957 at n=5 and r=0.8986 at n=4 for red and white wines, respectively).

  12. Development of reliable analytical tools for evaluating the influence of reductive winemaking on the quality of Lugana wines.

    PubMed

    Mattivi, Fulvio; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Zenato, Alberto; Tiefenthaler, Paolo; Tempesta, Silvano; Perenzoni, Daniele; Cantarella, Paolo; Simeoni, Federico; Vrhovsek, Urska

    2012-06-30

    This paper presents methods for the definition of important analytical tools, such as the development of sensitive and rapid methods for analysing reduced and oxidised glutathione (GSH and GSSG), hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), bound thiols (GSH-3MH and Cys-3MH) and free thiols (3MH and 3MHA), and their first application to evaluate the effect of reductive winemaking on the composition of Lugana juices and wines. Lugana is a traditional white wine from the Lake Garda region (Italy), produced using a local grape variety, Trebbiano di Lugana. An innovative winemaking procedure based on preliminary cooling of grape berries followed by crushing in an inert environment was implemented and explored on a winery scale. The effects of these procedures on hydroxycinnamic acids, GSH, GSSG, free and bound thiols and flavanols content were investigated. The juices and wines produced using different protocols were examined. Moreover, wines aged in tanks for 1, 2 and 3 months were analysed. The high level of GSH found in Lugana grapes, which can act as a natural antioxidant and be preserved in must and young wines, thus reducing the need of exogenous antioxidants, was particularly interesting. Moreover, it was clear that polyphenol concentrations (hydroxycinnamic acids and catechins) were strongly influenced by winemaking and pressing conditions, which required fine tuning of pressing. Above-threshold levels of 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) were found in the wines and changed according to the winemaking procedure applied. Interestingly, the evolution during the first three months also varied depending on the procedure adopted. Organic synthesis of cysteine and glutathione conjugates was carried out and juices and wines were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis. These two molecules appeared to be strongly affected by the winemaking procedure, but did not show any significant change during the first 3 months of post-bottling ageing. This supports the theory

  13. Estimating ages of white-tailed deer: Age and sex patterns of error using tooth wear-and-replacement and consistency of cementum annuli

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Storm, Daniel J.; Rolley, Robert E.; Beissel, Thomas; Richards, Bryan J.; Van Deelen, Timothy R.

    2014-01-01

    The age structure of harvested animals provides the basis for many demographic analyses. Ages of harvested white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and other ungulates often are estimated by evaluating replacement and wear patterns of teeth, which is subjective and error-prone. Few previous studies however, examined age- and sex-specific error rates. Counting cementum annuli of incisors is an alternative, more accurate method of estimating age, but factors that influence consistency of cementum annuli counts are poorly known. We estimated age of 1,261 adult (≥1.5 yr old) white-tailed deer harvested in Wisconsin and Illinois (USA; 2005–2008) using both wear-and-replacement and cementum annuli. We compared cementum annuli with wear-and-replacement estimates to assess misclassification rates by sex and age. Wear-and-replacement for estimating ages of white-tailed deer resulted in substantial misclassification compared with cementum annuli. Age classes of females were consistently underestimated, while those of males were underestimated for younger age classes but overestimated for older age classes. Misclassification resulted in an impression of a younger age-structure than actually was the case. Additionally, we obtained paired age-estimates from cementum annuli for 295 deer. Consistency of paired cementum annuli age-estimates decreased with age, was lower in females than males, and decreased as age estimates became less certain. Our results indicated that errors in the wear-and-replacement techniques are substantial and could impact demographic analyses that use age-structure information. 

  14. Wines as possible meat marinade ingredients possess antimicrobial potential against Campylobacter.

    PubMed

    Isohanni, P; Alter, T; Saris, P; Lyhs, U

    2010-12-01

    This research studied the survival of high (7 log cfu/mL) and low (3 log cfu/mL) inoculum levels of Campylobacter in white and red wines and in grape and tomato juices, which could function as potential antimicrobial marinade ingredients. For comparison, survival was also studied in a commercial poultry meat marinade. White and red wines were shown to have very high bactericidal effects against Campylobacter. High counts were rapidly inactivated to undetectable numbers within 15 min in white wine and within 1 h in red wine, and low counts within 15 min in white wine and within 30 min in red wine. By contrast, grape and tomato juices did not possess high bactericidal effects against Campylobacter because even low counts were occasionally detected after 48 h. The commercial marinade had rather high bactericidal effects against Campylobacter; the high counts were inactivated in most cases within 48 h, and all the low counts were inactivated within 3 h. When testing chicken meat inoculated with Campylobacter and subsequently submerged in white or red wine, the antibacterial activity of the wine was largely reduced. Wines lowered the Campylobacter load inoculated on chicken meat by approximately 1 log cfu/mL over 48 h. The results suggest that wines could be used as antimicrobial ingredients together with the addition of further antimicrobial agents in meat marinades to reduce the numbers of Campylobacter in naturally contaminated poultry products, thus lowering the risk of Campylobacter cross-contamination and transmission through food.

  15. Ripper procedure for determining sulfur dioxide in wine: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Vahl, J M; Converse, J E

    1980-03-01

    Twenty-three laboratories analyzed 5 replicate wine samples according to a specified version of the Ripper direct iodometric titration for sulfur dioxide. Each sample was analyzed for (A) free SO2, (B) total SO2, and (C) iodine-reactive substances other than SO2. Although variation of A with temperature and of A and B with time of analysis were anticipated, analysis of covariance showed no significant reduction in error when these variables were taken into account. Error did vary with SO2 level and wine type, red vs white. Pooled estimates of precision (within-laboratory error) in mg SO2/L wine were, for white wine: (A) 3.3, (B) 10.4, (C) 1.9; for red wine: (A) 3.8, (B) 7.3, (C) 1.9. Pooled estimates of systematic (between-laboratory) error in mgSO2/L wine were, for white wine: (A) 2.7, (B) 16.6, (C) 2.1; for red wine: (A) 4.3, (B) 15.1, (C) 3.0. Although rapid and convenient, the Ripper method is severely limited by poor precision and large systematic error. The Ripper method is not recommended for adoption by the AOAC.

  16. White LED compared with other light sources: age-dependent photobiological effects and parameters for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rebec, Katja Malovrh; Klanjšek-Gunde, Marta; Bizjak, Grega; Kobav, Matej B

    2015-01-01

    Ergonomic science at work and living places should appraise human factors concerning the photobiological effects of lighting. Thorough knowledge on this subject has been gained in the past; however, few attempts have been made to propose suitable evaluation parameters. The blue light hazard and its influence on melatonin secretion in age-dependent observers is considered in this paper and parameters for its evaluation are proposed. New parameters were applied to analyse the effects of white light-emitting diode (LED) light sources and to compare them with the currently applied light sources. The photobiological effects of light sources with the same illuminance but different spectral power distribution were determined for healthy 4-76-year-old observers. The suitability of new parameters is discussed. Correlated colour temperature, the only parameter currently used to assess photobiological effects, is evaluated and compared to new parameters.

  17. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (Δλ) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval Δλ from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  18. Lifelong bilingualism contributes to cognitive reserve against white matter integrity declines in aging.

    PubMed

    Gold, Brian T; Johnson, Nathan F; Powell, David K

    2013-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve (CR) in normal aging. However, there is currently no neuroimaging evidence to suggest that lifelong bilinguals can retain normal cognitive functioning in the face of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we explored this issue by comparing white matter (WM) integrity and gray matter (GM) volumetric patterns of older adult lifelong bilinguals (N=20) and monolinguals (N=20). The groups were matched on a range of relevant cognitive test scores and on the established CR variables of education, socioeconomic status and intelligence. Participants underwent high-resolution structural imaging for assessment of GM volume and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of WM integrity. Results indicated significantly lower microstructural integrity in the bilingual group in several WM tracts. In particular, compared to their monolingual peers, the bilingual group showed lower fractional anisotropy and/or higher radial diffusivity in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus bilaterally, the fornix, and multiple portions of the corpus callosum. There were no group differences in GM volume. Our results suggest that lifelong bilingualism contributes to CR against WM integrity declines in aging.

  19. White noise and synchronization shaping the age structure of the human population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebrat, Stanislaw; Biecek, Przemyslaw; Bonkowska, Katarzyna; Kula, Mateusz

    2007-06-01

    We have modified the standard diploid Penna model of ageing in such a way that instead of threshold of defective loci resulting in genetic death of individuals, the fluctuation of environment and "personal" fluctuations of individuals were introduced. The sum of the both fluctuations describes the health status of the individual. While environmental fluctuations are the same for all individuals in the population, the personal component of fluctuations is composed of fluctuations corresponding to each physiological function (gene, genetic locus). It is rather accepted hypothesis that physiological parameters of any organism fluctuate highly nonlinearly. Transition to the synchronized behaviors could be a very strong diagnostic signal of the life threatening disorder. Thus, in our model, mutations of genes change the chaotic fluctuations representing the function of a wild gene to the synchronized signals generated by mutated genes. Genes are switched on chronologically, like in the standard Penna model. Accumulation of defective genes predicted by Medawar's theory of ageing leads to the replacement of uncorrelated white noise corresponding to the healthy organism by the correlated signals of defective functions. As a result we have got the age distribution of population corresponding to the human demographic data.

  20. Quantitative T2 mapping of white matter: applications for ageing and cognitive decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Michael J.; McCann, Bryony; Tsivos, Demitra; Dillon, Serena; Coulthard, Elizabeth; Kauppinen, Risto A.

    2016-08-01

    In MRI, the coherence lifetime T2 is sensitive to the magnetic environment imposed by tissue microstructure and biochemistry in vivo. Here we explore the possibility that the use of T2 relaxometry may provide information complementary to that provided by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in ageing of healthy controls (HC), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). T2 and diffusion MRI metrics were quantified in HC and patients with MCI and mild AD using multi-echo MRI and DTI. We used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to evaluate quantitative MRI parameters in white matter (WM). A prolonged T2 in WM was associated with AD, and able to distinguish AD from MCI, and AD from HC. Shorter WM T2 was associated with better cognition and younger age in general. In no case was a reduction in T2 associated with poorer cognition. We also applied principal component analysis, showing that WM volume changes independently of  T2, MRI diffusion indices and cognitive performance indices. Our data add to the evidence that age-related and AD-related decline in cognition is in part attributable to WM tissue state, and much less to WM quantity. These observations suggest that WM is involved in AD pathology, and that T2 relaxometry is a potential imaging modality for detecting and characterising WM in cognitive decline and dementia.

  1. Effects of Long-Term Mindfulness Meditation on Brain's White Matter Microstructure and its Aging

    PubMed Central

    Laneri, Davide; Schuster, Verena; Dietsche, Bruno; Jansen, Andreas; Ott, Ulrich; Sommer, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Although research on the effects of mindfulness meditation (MM) is increasing, still very little has been done to address its influence on the white matter (WM) of the brain. We hypothesized that the practice of MM might affect the WM microstructure adjacent to five brain regions of interest associated with mindfulness. Diffusion tensor imaging was employed on samples of meditators and non-meditators (n = 64) in order to investigate the effects of MM on group difference and aging. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to estimate the fractional anisotrophy of the WM connected to the thalamus, insula, amygdala, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex. The subsequent generalized linear model analysis revealed group differences and a group-by-age interaction in all five selected regions. These data provide preliminary indications that the practice of MM might result in WM connectivity change and might provide evidence on its ability to help diminish age-related WM degeneration in key regions which participate in processes of mindfulness. PMID:26834624

  2. Lifelong Bilingualism Contributes to Cognitive Reserve against White Matter Integrity Declines in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Brian T.; Johnson, Nathan F.; Powell, David K.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lifelong bilingualism may contribute to cognitive reserve (CR) in normal aging. However, there is currently no neuroimaging evidence to suggest that lifelong bilinguals can retain normal cognitive functioning in the face of age-related neurodegeneration. Here we explored this issue by comparing white matter (WM) integrity and gray matter (GM) volumetric patterns of older adult lifelong bilinguals (N = 20) and monolinguals (N = 20). The groups were matched on a range of relevant cognitive test scores and on the established CR variables of education, socioeconomic status and intelligence. Participants underwent high-resolution structural imaging for assessment of GM volume and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for assessment of WM integrity. Results indicated significantly lower microstructural integrity in the bilingual group in several WM tracts. In particular, compared to their monolingual peers, the bilingual group showed lower fractional anisotropy and/or higher radial diffusivity in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus/inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus bilaterally, the fornix, and multiple portions of the corpus callosum. There were no group differences in GM volume. Our results suggest that lifelong bilingualism contributes to CR against WM integrity declines in aging. PMID:24103400

  3. Chemosensory characterization of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir base wines of Champagne. Two very different varieties for a common product.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Paula; Sáenz-Navajas, Pilar; Culleré, Laura; Ferreira, Vicente; Chatin, Amelie; Chaperon, Vincent; Litoux-Desrues, François; Escudero, Ana

    2016-09-15

    Five different methodologies were applied for the quantitative analysis of 86 volatile molecules in 32 Chardonnay and 30 Pinot Noir Champagne white base wines. Sensory characterization was carried out by descriptive analysis. Pinot Noir wines had more constitutive compounds while Chardonnay wines had more discriminant compounds. Only four compounds predominated in Chardonnay wines: 4-vinylphenol, guaiacol, sotolon and 4-methyl-4-mercapto-2-pentanone. Correlation studies and PLSR models were calculated with sensory and chemical variables. For Pinot Noir wines, they were not as revealing as for Chardonnay base wines. Sulfur-related compounds were suggested to be involved in tropical fruit, dried fruit and citric sensory notes. This family of compounds seemed to be responsible for discriminant sensory terms in Champagne base wines. Fermentative compounds (aromatic buffer) were found at significantly higher levels in Pinot Noir wines, which would explain the fact that these wines were more difficult to describe in comparison with Chardonnay base wines.

  4. The age-testosterone relationship in black, white, and Mexican-American men, and reasons for ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies give contradictory findings regarding testosterone levels in white, black, and Hispanic men. Here, I present a cross-sectional reanalysis of serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in 1637 males, aged 12-90, who participated in the morning examination of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) during the year 1988-1991. Testosterone and SHBG in males are described precisely over the age range 12 to 90 years. Testosterone and SHBG are not notably different in white and Mexican-American (MA) males. In the age range 20-69 years, black men average 0.39 ng/ml higher testosterone than white and MA men (p < 0.001). The higher testosterone in black men is partly explained by low marriage rate and low adiposity.

  5. Does White Matter Matter? Spatio-temporal Dynamics of Task Switching in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gratton, Gabriele; Wee, Emily; Rykhlevskaia, Elena I.; Leaver, Echo E.; Fabiani, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Older adults often encounter difficulties in switching between tasks, perhaps because of age-related decreases in executive function. Executive function may largely depend on connections between brain areas—connections that may become structurally and functionally weaker in aging. Here we investigated functional and structural age-related changes in switching between a spatial and a verbal task. These tasks were chosen because they are expected to differentially use the two hemispheres. Brain measures included anatomical information about anterior corpus callosum size (CC; the major commissure linking the left and right hemisphere), and the event-related optical signal (EROS). Behavioral results indicated that older adults had greater task-switching difficulties, which, however, were largely restricted to switching to the spatial task and to individuals with smaller anterior CCs. The EROS data showed both general switching-related activity in the left middle frontal gyrus (with approximately 300-msec latency) and task-specific activity in the inferior frontal gyrus, lateralized to the left for the switch-to-verbal condition and to the right for the switch-to-spatial condition. This lateralization was most evident in younger adults. In older adults, activity in the switch-to-spatial condition was lateralized to the right hemisphere in individuals with large CC, and to the left in individuals with small CC. These data suggest that (a) task switching may involve both task-general and task-specific processes; and (b) white matter changes may underlie some of the age-related problems in switching. These effects are discussed in terms of the hypothesis that aging involves some degree of cortical disconnection, both functional and anatomical. PMID:18752402

  6. Genetics of ageing-related changes in brain white matter integrity - a review.

    PubMed

    Kanchibhotla, Sri C; Mather, Karen A; Wen, Wei; Schofield, Peter R; Kwok, John B J; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2013-01-01

    White matter (WM) plays a vital role in the efficient transfer of information between grey matter regions. Modern imaging techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have enabled the examination of WM microstructural changes across the lifespan, but there is limited knowledge about the role genetics plays in the pattern and aetiology of age-related WM microstructural changes. Family and twin studies suggest that the heritability of WM integrity measures changes over the lifespan, with the common DTI measure, fractional anisotropy (FA), showing moderate to high heritability in adults. However, few heritability studies have been undertaken in older adults. Linkage studies in middle-aged adults suggest that specific regions on chromosomes 3 and 15 may harbour genetic variants for WM integrity. A number of studies have investigated candidate genes, with the APOE ɛ4 polymorphism being the most frequently studied. Although these candidate gene studies suggest associations of particular genes with WM integrity measures in some specific brain regions, the findings remain inconsistent due to differences in their methodologies, samples and the outcome measures used. The APOE ɛ4 allele has been associated with decreased WM integrity (FA) in the cingulum, corpus callosum and parahippocampal gyrus. Only one genome-wide association study of global WM integrity measures in older adults has been published, and reported suggestive single nucleotide polymorphisms await replication. Overall, genetic age-related WM integrity studies are lacking and a concerted effort to examine the genetic determinants of age-related decline in WM integrity is clearly needed to improve our understanding of the ageing brain.

  7. [SVM-based qualitative analysis of Muscat Hamburg wine produced in Tianjin region].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Fang; Wei, Ji-Ping; Li, Chang-Wen; Yang, Hua; Shao, Chun-Fu; Zhang, Fu-Qing; Yin, Ji-Tai; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose was to achieve the identification of Muscat Hamburg wines produced in Tianjin region through scanning and analyzing dry white wine samples of different grape varieties and regions by infrared spectroscopy technology. A support vector machine (SVM) based method was introduced to analyze infrared spectra of dry white wines. The pretreatment processes of the IR spectra were also elaborated, including baseline adjustment, noise Elimination, standard normalization and eliminating the main component of abnormal sample points. The authors selected great quantity of dry white wine samples of different grape regions including 511 Muscat Hamburg wine samples, 438 Italian Riesling wine samples, 307 Chardonnay wine samples, 29 Ugni Blanc wine samples, 44 Rkatsiteli wine samples, 31 longan wine samples and 79 ZeHong wine samples. According to different classification problems, 80% of IR spectra of the wine samples were used to establish discrimination models with SVM-based method, and the remaining 20% of IR spectra were used for the validation of the discrimination models. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is effective, since high classification accuracy, identification rate and rejecting rate were achieved: over 97% for the white wine samples of different grape varieties, meanwhile over 98% for the Muscat Hamburg wine samples produced in different regions. So the method developed in this paper played a good role in the qualitative classification and discrimination of Muscat Hamburg wines produced in Tianjin region. This novel method has a considerable potential and a rosy application future due to the expeditiousness, stability and easy-operation of FTIR method, as well as the veracity and credibility of SVM method.

  8. Yeast effects on Pinot noir wine phenolics, color, and tannin composition.

    PubMed

    Carew, Anna L; Smith, Paul; Close, Dugald C; Curtin, Chris; Dambergs, Robert G

    2013-10-16

    Extraction and stabilization of wine phenolics can be challenging for wine makers. This study examined how yeast choice affected phenolic outcomes in Pinot noir wine. Five yeast treatments were applied in replicated microvinification, and wines were analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry. At bottling, yeast treatment Saccharomyces cerevisiae RC212 wine had significantly higher concentrations of total pigment, free anthocyanin, nonbleachable pigment, and total tannin and showed high color density. Some phenolic effects were retained at 6 months' bottle age, and RC212 and S. cerevisae EC1118 wines showed increased mean nonbleachable pigment concentrations. Wine tannin composition analysis showed three treatments were associated with a higher percentage of trihydroxylated subunits (skin tannin indicator). A high degree of tannin polymerization was observed in wines made with RC212 and Torulaspora delbruekii , whereas tannin size by gel permeation chromatography was higher only in the RC212 wines. The results emphasize the importance of yeast strain choice for optimizing Pinot noir wine phenolics.

  9. Interplay among Gcn5, Sch9 and Mitochondria during Chronological Aging of Wine Yeast Is Dependent on Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Picazo, Cecilia; Orozco, Helena; Matallana, Emilia; Aranda, Agustín

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae chronological life span (CLS) is determined by a wide variety of environmental and genetic factors. Nutrient limitation without malnutrition, i.e. dietary restriction, expands CLS through the control of nutrient signaling pathways, of which TOR/Sch9 has proven to be the most relevant, particularly under nitrogen deprivation. The use of prototrophic wine yeast allows a better understanding of the role of nitrogen in longevity in natural and more demanding environments, such as grape juice fermentation. We previously showed that acetyltransferase Gcn5, a member of the SAGA complex, has opposite effects on CLS under laboratory and winemaking conditions, and is detrimental under the latter. Here we demonstrate that integrity of the SAGA complex is necessary for prolonged longevity, as its dismantling by SPT20 deletion causes a drop in CLS under both laboratory and winemaking conditions. The sch9Δ mutant is long-lived in synthetic SC medium, as expected, and the combined deletion of GCN5 partially suppresses this phenotype. However it is short-lived in grape juice, likely due to its low nitrogen/carbon ratio. Therefore, unbalance of nutrients can be more relevant for life span than total amounts of them. Deletion of RTG2, which codes for a protein associated with Gcn5 and is a component of the mitochondrial retrograde signal, and which communicates mitochondrial dysfunction to the nucleus, is detrimental under laboratory, but not under winemaking conditions, where respiration seems not so relevant for longevity. Transcription factor Rgm1 was found to be a novel CLS regulator Sch9-dependently. PMID:25658705

  10. Emergence of White-Lie Telling in Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2002-01-01

    Examined white-lie-telling behavior in 3- to 7-year-olds using task whereby the experimenter asked "Do I look OK for the photo?" with or without a visible mark on his nose. Found that most children in the experimental condition told white lies. Undergraduates viewing children's videotaped responses could not discriminate white-lie…

  11. White matter integrity supports BOLD signal variability and cognitive performance in the aging human brain.

    PubMed

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Voss, Michelle W; Cooke, Gillian E; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Decline in cognitive performance in old age is linked to both suboptimal neural processing in grey matter (GM) and reduced integrity of white matter (WM), but the whole-brain structure-function-cognition associations remain poorly understood. Here we apply a novel measure of GM processing-moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD)-to study the associations between GM function during resting state, performance on four main cognitive domains (i.e., fluid intelligence, perceptual speed, episodic memory, vocabulary), and WM microstructural integrity in 91 healthy older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relations between whole-GM SDBOLD with cognitive performance using multivariate partial least squares analysis. We found that greater SDBOLD was associated with better fluid abilities and memory. Most of regions showing behaviorally relevant SDBOLD (e.g., precuneus and insula) were localized to inter- or intra-network "hubs" that connect and integrate segregated functional domains in the brain. Our results suggest that optimal dynamic range of neural processing in hub regions may support cognitive operations that specifically rely on the most flexible neural processing and complex cross-talk between different brain networks. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater WM integrity in all major WM tracts had also greater SDBOLD and better performance on tests of memory and fluid abilities. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising functional neural correlate of individual differences in cognition in healthy older adults and is supported by overall WM integrity.

  12. White matter integrity of motor connections related to training gains in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Robert; Zimerman, Máximo; Timmermann, Jan E; Wessel, Maximilian J; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2014-06-01

    Impaired motor skill acquisition is a feature of older age. Acquisition of new motor skills requires the interplay between different cortical motor areas. Using diffusion tensor imaging we reconstructed cortico-cortical connections between the primary motor cortex (M1) and secondary motor areas in 11 older and 11 young participants who took part in a motor skill acquisition paradigm with the nondominant left hand. Examining the extent to which tract-related integrity correlated with training gains we found that white matter integrity of fibers connecting contralateral M1 with both contralateral (r = 0.85) and ipsilateral supplementary motor areas (r = 0.92) were positively associated in old participants. Also, fibers connecting contralateral M1 with ipsilateral dorsal premotor (r = 0.82) and fibers connecting ipsilateral dorsal premotor and supplementary motor area (r = 0.88) were positively related to skill acquisition (all p < 0.05). A similar structure-behavior relationship was not present in the young control subjects suggesting a critical role of brain structural integrity for motor learning in healthy aging.

  13. Failure to Modulate Attentional Control in Advanced Aging Linked to White Matter Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Van Dijk, Koene R. A.; Shire, Emily H.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Johnson, Keith A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced aging is associated with reduced attentional control and less flexible information processing. Here, the origins of these cognitive effects were explored using a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that systematically varied demands to shift attention and inhibit irrelevant information across task blocks. Prefrontal and parietal regions previously implicated in attentional control were recruited by the task and most so for the most demanding task configurations. A subset of older individuals did not modulate activity in frontal and parietal regions in response to changing task requirements. Older adults who did not dynamically modulate activity underperformed their peers and scored more poorly on neuropsychological measures of executive function and speed of processing. Examining 2 markers of preclinical pathology in older adults revealed that white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), but not high amyloid burden, were associated with failure to modulate activity in response to changing task demands. In contrast, high amyloid burden was associated with alterations in default network activity. These results suggest failure to modulate frontal and parietal activity reflects a disruptive process in advanced aging associated with specific neuropathologic processes. PMID:21765181

  14. The effect of polysaccharide-degrading wine yeast transformants on the efficiency of wine processing and wine flavour.

    PubMed

    Louw, C; La Grange, D; Pretorius, I S; van Rensburg, P

    2006-10-01

    Commercial polysaccharase preparations are applied to winemaking to improve wine processing and quality. Expression of polysaccharase-encoding genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae allows for the recombinant strains to degrade polysaccharides that traditional commercial yeast strains cannot. In this study, we constructed recombinant wine yeast strains that were able to degrade the problem-causing grape polysaccharides, glucan and xylan, by separately integrating the Trichoderma reesei XYN2 xylanase gene construct and the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens END1 glucanase gene cassette into the genome of the commercial wine yeast strain S. cerevisiae VIN13. These genes were also combined in S. cerevisiae VIN13 under the control of different promoters. The strains that were constructed were compared under winemaking conditions with each other and with a recombinant wine yeast strain expressing the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase gene cassette (END1) from B. fibrisolvens and the endo-beta-1,4-xylanase gene cassette (XYN4) from Aspergillus niger, a recombinant strain expressing the pectate lyase gene cassette (PEL5) from Erwinia chrysanthemi and the polygalacturonase-encoding gene cassette (PEH1) from Erwinia carotovora. Wine was made with the recombinant strains using different grape cultivars. Fermentations with the recombinant VIN13 strains resulted in significant increases in free-flow wine when Ruby Cabernet must was fermented. After 6 months of bottle ageing significant differences in colour intensity and colour stability could be detected in Pinot Noir and Ruby Cabernet wines fermented with different recombinant strains. After this period the volatile composition of Muscat d'Alexandria, Ruby Cabernet and Pinot Noir wines fermented with different recombinant strains also showed significant differences. The Pinot Noir wines were also sensorial evaluated and the tasting panel preferred the wines fermented with the recombinant strains.

  15. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Andrew H; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject's whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference.

  16. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Andrew H.; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R.; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-01-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject’s whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference. PMID:26948153

  17. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981: Health-Related and Medical Care Issues of the Elderly. Eighteen Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    This document contains the 18 papers on health-related and medical care issues of the elderly that were presented at the 1981 White House Conference on Aging. The materials focus on the following topics: physical mobility, death, heart disease, nutrition, injury, senile dementia, post-menopausaul women, gerontological nursing, learning and memory,…

  18. The Role of White Matter Hyperintensities and Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy in Age-Related Executive Dysfunctioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterman, Joukje M.; Vogels, Raymond L. C.; van Harten, Barbera; Gouw, Alida A.; Scheltens, Philip; Poggesi, Anna; Weinstein, Henry C.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2008-01-01

    Various studies support an association between white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and deficits in executive function in nondemented ageing. Studies examining executive functions and WMH have generally adopted executive function as a phrase including various functions such as flexibility, inhibition, and working memory. However, these functions…

  19. Genetics of white matter development: a DTI study of 705 twins and their siblings aged 12 to 29.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Ming-Chang; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Martin, Nicholas G; Hickie, Ian; Toga, Arthur W; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2011-02-01

    White matter microstructure is under strong genetic control, yet it is largely unknown how genetic influences change from childhood into adulthood. In one of the largest brain mapping studies ever performed, we determined whether the genetic control over white matter architecture depends on age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), and intelligence quotient (IQ). We assessed white matter integrity voxelwise using diffusion tensor imaging at high magnetic field (4-Tesla), in 705 twins and their siblings (age range 12-29; 290 M/415 F). White matter integrity was quantified using a widely accepted measure, fractional anisotropy (FA). We fitted gene-environment interaction models pointwise, to visualize brain regions where age, sex, SES and IQ modulate heritability of fiber integrity. We hypothesized that environmental factors would start to outweigh genetic factors during late childhood and adolescence. Genetic influences were greater in adolescence versus adulthood, and greater in males than in females. Socioeconomic status significantly interacted with genes that affect fiber integrity: heritability was higher in those with higher SES. In people with above-average IQ, genetic factors explained over 80% of the observed FA variability in the thalamus, genu, posterior internal capsule, and superior corona radiata. In those with below-average IQ, however, only around 40% FA variability in the same regions was attributable to genetic factors. Genes affect fiber integrity, but their effects vary with age, sex, SES and IQ. Gene-environment interactions are vital to consider in the search for specific genetic polymorphisms that affect brain integrity and connectivity.

  20. Incorporating harvest rates into the sex-age-kill model for white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, Andrew S.; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Rosenberry, Christopher S.; Wallingford, Bret D.

    2013-01-01

    Although monitoring population trends is an essential component of game species management, wildlife managers rarely have complete counts of abundance. Often, they rely on population models to monitor population trends. As imperfect representations of real-world populations, models must be rigorously evaluated to be applied appropriately. Previous research has evaluated population models for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus); however, the precision and reliability of these models when tested against empirical measures of variability and bias largely is untested. We were able to statistically evaluate the Pennsylvania sex-age-kill (PASAK) population model using realistic error measured using data from 1,131 radiocollared white-tailed deer in Pennsylvania from 2002 to 2008. We used these data and harvest data (number killed, age-sex structure, etc.) to estimate precision of abundance estimates, identify the most efficient harvest data collection with respect to precision of parameter estimates, and evaluate PASAK model robustness to violation of assumptions. Median coefficient of variation (CV) estimates by Wildlife Management Unit, 13.2% in the most recent year, were slightly above benchmarks recommended for managing game species populations. Doubling reporting rates by hunters or doubling the number of deer checked by personnel in the field reduced median CVs to recommended levels. The PASAK model was robust to errors in estimates for adult male harvest rates but was sensitive to errors in subadult male harvest rates, especially in populations with lower harvest rates. In particular, an error in subadult (1.5-yr-old) male harvest rates resulted in the opposite error in subadult male, adult female, and juvenile population estimates. Also, evidence of a greater harvest probability for subadult female deer when compared with adult (≥2.5-yr-old) female deer resulted in a 9.5% underestimate of the population using the PASAK model. Because obtaining

  1. Age and origin of the Gezira alluvial fan between the Blue and White Nile rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, martin

    2014-05-01

    The Gezira is a low-angle alluvial fan bounded by the Blue Nile to the east and the White Nile to the west. It is the main agricultural region of Sudan and produces high quality long-staple cotton for export. Dark cracking clays (vertisols) cover much of the Gezira and range in age from 50 kyr to Holocene. The Gezira is traversed by a series of defunct sandy channels that originate between Sennar and Wad Medani on the present-day Blue Nile. With a radius of 300 km and an area of 40,000 km2 the Gezira is a mega-fan. The younger channels range in age from early Holocene to 100 kyr, while near surface channels filled with rolled quartz and carbonate gravels have ages back to >250 kyr. Boreholes in the Gezira reveal coarse alluvial sands and gravels in now buried channels overlain by alluvial clays, forming a repetitive sequence of fining-upwards alluvial units. that probably extend back to Pliocene times. The fan is up to 180 m thick with a volume of ~1,800 km3. The sandy or gravelly bed-load channels coincide with colder drier climates and sparse vegetation in the Ethiopian headwaters of the Blue Nile and the alluvial clays denote widespread flooding during times of stronger summer monsoon. The early stages of such flood events were often accompanied by mass burial of Nile oyster (Etheria elliptica) beds, such as the 45-50 kyr floods that deposited up to 5 m of clay in the northern Gezira. A unique feature of the eastern Gezira is a former Blue Nile channel at least 80 km long running parallel to the present river and entirely filled with volcanic ash. The channel was only 3-4 m deep and 20-30 m wide. Very fine laminations and cross-beds, together with locally abundant phytoliths and sponge spicules, suggest slow-moving water, with flow dispersed across many distributary channels. The ash geochemistry is similar to that in the lower part of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo valley of southern Ethiopia and points to a minimum age of 100 kyr and a maximum age of

  2. Red wines and flavonoids diminish Staphylococcus aureus virulence with anti-biofilm and anti-hemolytic activities.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Seob; Lee, Jin-Hyung; Cho, Moo Hwan; Lee, Jintae

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus presents a worldwide problem that requires non-antibiotic strategies. This study investigated the anti-biofilm and anti-hemolytic activities of four red wines and two white wines against three S. aureus strains. All red wines at 0.5-2% significantly inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation and hemolysis by S. aureus, whereas the two white wines had no effect. Furthermore, at these concentrations, red wines did not affect bacterial growth. Analyses of hemolysis and active component identification in red wines revealed that the anti-biofilm compounds and anti-hemolytic compounds largely responsible were tannic acid, trans-resveratrol, and several flavonoids. In addition, red wines attenuated S. aureus virulence in vivo in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which is killed by S. aureus. These findings show that red wines and their compounds warrant further attention in antivirulence strategies against persistent S. aureus infection.

  3. Nogo receptor blockade overcomes remyelination failure after white matter stroke and stimulates functional recovery in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Sozmen, Elif G.; Rosenzweig, Shira; Llorente, Irene L.; DiTullio, David J.; Machnicki, Michal; Vinters, Harry V.; Havton, Lief A.; Giger, Roman J.; Hinman, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    White matter stroke is a distinct stroke subtype, accounting for up to 25% of stroke and constituting the second leading cause of dementia. The biology of possible tissue repair after white matter stroke has not been determined. In a mouse stroke model, white matter ischemia causes focal damage and adjacent areas of axonal myelin disruption and gliosis. In these areas of only partial damage, local white matter progenitors respond to injury, as oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) proliferate. However, OPCs fail to mature into oligodendrocytes (OLs) even in regions of demyelination with intact axons and instead divert into an astrocytic fate. Local axonal sprouting occurs, producing an increase in unmyelinated fibers in the corpus callosum. The OPC maturation block after white matter stroke is in part mediated via Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) signaling. In both aged and young adult mice, stroke induces NgR1 ligands and down-regulates NgR1 inhibitors during the peak OPC maturation block. Nogo ligands are also induced adjacent to human white matter stroke in humans. A Nogo signaling blockade with an NgR1 antagonist administered after stroke reduces the OPC astrocytic transformation and improves poststroke oligodendrogenesis in mice. Notably, increased white matter repair in aged mice is translated into significant poststroke motor recovery, even when NgR1 blockade is provided during the chronic time points of injury. These data provide a perspective on the role of NgR1 ligand function in OPC fate in the context of a specific and common type of stroke and show that it is amenable to systemic intervention to promote recovery. PMID:27956620

  4. Evolution of resveratrol and piceid contents during the industrial winemaking process of sherry wine.

    PubMed

    Roldán, Ana; Palacios, Victor; Caro, Ildefonso; Pérez, Luis

    2010-04-14

    In the Jerez region, the sherry winemaking process involves a stage of aging carried out in a dynamic system known as "soleras" and "criaderas". In the case of fino sherry, this aging takes place in the presence of a yeast film growing on the surface of the wine, which gives it a very specific character. In this work, the influence of the sherry elaboration process on resveratrol and piceid levels has been studied. With this purpose, the contents of resveratrol isomers and piceid during the main stages of the sherry wine production system, from maturation until bottling, were monitored during two vintages. The results showed that resveratrol contents of both the skin and juice, for Palomino fino grape, are very similar to those described for other white grape varieties. Sherry wine fermentation, clarification, cold stabilization, and filtration processes considerably affect resveratrol and piceid contents. However, biological aging has the most important influence, diminishing their contents by 80%. These results were confirmed in several tests performed in the laboratory, in which various factors that could affect the resveratrol contents during aging were taken into account (oxidative phenomena and a combination with acetaldehyde and "flor" biofilm growth).

  5. Classification of Sparkling Wine Style and Quality by MIR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Julie; Cozzolino, Daniel; Ristic, Renata; Wilkinson, Kerry

    2015-05-08

    In this study, the suitability of attenuated total reflection (ATR) mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy, combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression, was evaluated as a rapid analytical technique for the classification of sparkling wine style and quality. Australian sparkling wines (n = 139) comprising a range of styles (i.e., white, rosé, red, Prosecco and Moscato) were analyzed by ATR-MIR spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis. The MIR spectra of 50 sparkling white wines, produced according to four different production methods (i.e., Carbonation, Charmat, Transfer and Methodé Traditionelle) were also evaluated against: (i) quality ratings determined by an expert panel; and (ii) sensory attributes rated by a trained sensory panel. Wine pH, titratable acidity (TA), residual sugar (RS), alcohol and total phenolic content were also determined. The sparkling wine styles were separated on the PCA score plot based on their MIR spectral data; while the sparkling white wines showed separation based on production method, which strongly influenced the style and sensory properties of wine (i.e., the intensity of fruit versus yeast-derived characters). PLS calibrations of 0.73, 0.77, 0.82 and 0.86 were obtained for sweetness, tropical fruit, confectionary and toasty characters (on the palate), respectively.

  6. Effect of wine inhibitors on free pineapple stem bromelain activity in a model wine system.

    PubMed

    Esti, Marco; Benucci, Ilaria; Liburdi, Katia; Garzillo, Anna Maria Vittoria

    2011-04-13

    The influence of potential inhibitors, naturally present in wine, on the activity of stem bromelain was investigated in order to evaluate the applicability of this enzyme for protein stabilization in white wine. Bromelain proteolytic activity was tested against a synthetic substrate (Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-pNA) in a model wine system after adding ethanol, sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), skin, seed, and gallic and ellagic tannins at the average range of their concentration in wine. All the inhibitors of stem bromelain activity tested turned out to be reversible. Ethanol was a competitive inhibitor with a rather limited effect. Gallic and ellagic tannins have no inhibitory effect on stem bromelain activity, while both seed and skin tannins were uncompetitive inhibitors. The strongest inhibition effect was revealed for sulfur dioxide, which was a mixed-type inhibitor for the enzyme activity. This study provides useful information relative to a future biotechnological application of stem bromelain in winemaking.

  7. White matter lesions and the cholinergic deficit in aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Richter, Nils; Michel, Anne; Onur, Oezguer A; Kracht, Lutz; Dietlein, Markus; Tittgemeyer, Marc; Neumaier, Bernd; Fink, Gereon R; Kukolja, Juraj

    2017-01-18

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), white matter lesions (WMLs) are associated with an increased risk of progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia, while memory deficits have, at least in part, been linked to a cholinergic deficit. We investigated the relationship between WML load assessed with the Scheltens scale, cerebral acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity measured with [(11)C]N-methyl-4-piperidyl acetate PET, and neuropsychological performance in 17 patients with MCI due to AD and 18 cognitively normal older participants. Only periventricular, not nonperiventricular, WML load negatively correlated with AChE activity in both groups. Memory performance depended on periventricular and total WML load across groups. Crucially, AChE activity predicted memory function better than WML load, gray matter atrophy, or age. The effects of WML load on memory were fully mediated by AChE activity. Data suggest that the contribution of WML to the dysfunction of the cholinergic system in MCI due to AD depends on WML distribution. Pharmacologic studies are warranted to explore whether this influences the response to cholinergic treatment.

  8. Elder mistreatment: priorities for consideration by the white house conference on aging.

    PubMed

    Pillemer, Karl; Connolly, Marie-Therese; Breckman, Risa; Spreng, Nathan; Lachs, Mark S

    2015-04-01

    Elder mistreatment is recognized internationally as a prevalent and growing problem, meriting the attention of policymakers, practitioners, and the general public. Studies have demonstrated that elder mistreatment is sufficiently widespread to be a major public health concern and that it leads to a range of negative physical, psychological, and financial outcomes. This article provides an overview of key issues related to the prevention and treatment of elder mistreatment, focusing on initiatives that can be addressed by the White House Conference on Aging. We review research on the extent of mistreatment and its consequences. We then propose 3 challenges in preventing and treating elder mistreatment that relate to improving research knowledge, creating a comprehensive service system, and developing effective policy. Under each challenge, examples are provided of promising initiatives that can be taken to eliminate mistreatment. To inform the recommendations, we employed recent data from the Elder Justice Roadmap Project, in which 750 stakeholders in the field of elder mistreatment were surveyed regarding research and policy priorities.

  9. Correlates of Age Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Among Relatively Young Black and White Adults in a Community

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Xu, Ji-Hua; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The risk factors for middle-age onset of type 2 diabetes are well known. However, information is scant regarding the age onset of type 2 diabetes and its correlates in community-based black and white relatively young adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective cohort study consisted of normoglycemic (n = 2,459) and type 2 diabetic (n = 144) adults aged 18–50 years who were followed for an average of 16 years. RESULTS The incidence rate of the onset of type 2 diabetes was 1.6, 4.3, 3.9, and 3.4 per 1,000 person-years for age-groups 18–29, 30–39, and 40–50 and total sample, respectively. Incidences of diabetes increased with age by race and sex groups (P for trend ≤0.01); higher in black females versus white females and blacks versus whites in total sample (P < 0.05). In a multivariable Cox model, baseline parental diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 5.24) and plasma insulin were significantly associated with diabetes incidence at the youngest age (18–29 years); black race, BMI, and glucose at age 30–39 years; female sex, parental diabetes (HR 2.44), BMI, ratio of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio), and glucose at age 40–50 years; and black race, parental diabetes (HR 2.44), BMI, TG/HDL-C ratio, and glucose in whole cohort. Further, patients with diabetes, regardless of age onset, displayed a significantly higher prevalence of maternal history of diabetes at baseline (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In relatively young adults, predictability of baseline cardiometabolic risk factors along with race, sex, and parental history of diabetes for the onset of type 2 diabetes varied by age-group. These findings have implications for early prevention and intervention in relatively young adults. PMID:22399694

  10. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Janet; Bakshi, Vikas; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with either control or 40% CR diet. In addition, we determined the animals' memory and learning ability with behavioral assessments. Blood glucose, blood ketone bodies, and body weight were also measured. We found distinct patterns between normal aging and CR aging on brain functions - normal aging showed reductions in brain glucose metabolism, white matter integrity, and long-term memory, resembling human brain aging. CR aging, in contrast, displayed an early shift from glucose to ketone bodies metabolism, which was associated with preservations of brain energy production, white matter integrity, and long-term memory in aging mice. Among all the mice, we found a positive correlation between blood glucose level and body weight, but an inverse association between blood glucose level and lifespan. Our findings suggest that CR could slow down brain aging, in part due to the early shift of energy metabolism caused by lower caloric intake, and we were able to identify the age-dependent effects of CR non-invasively using neuroimaging. These results provide a rationale for CR-induced sustenance of brain health with extended longevity.

  11. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Janet; Bakshi, Vikas; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with either control or 40% CR diet. In addition, we determined the animals’ memory and learning ability with behavioral assessments. Blood glucose, blood ketone bodies, and body weight were also measured. We found distinct patterns between normal aging and CR aging on brain functions – normal aging showed reductions in brain glucose metabolism, white matter integrity, and long-term memory, resembling human brain aging. CR aging, in contrast, displayed an early shift from glucose to ketone bodies metabolism, which was associated with preservations of brain energy production, white matter integrity, and long-term memory in aging mice. Among all the mice, we found a positive correlation between blood glucose level and body weight, but an inverse association between blood glucose level and lifespan. Our findings suggest that CR could slow down brain aging, in part due to the early shift of energy metabolism caused by lower caloric intake, and we were able to identify the age-dependent effects of CR non-invasively using neuroimaging. These results provide a rationale for CR-induced sustenance of brain health with extended longevity. PMID:26617514

  12. White Matter Integrity Supports BOLD Signal Variability and Cognitive Performance in the Aging Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Decline in cognitive performance in old age is linked to both suboptimal neural processing in grey matter (GM) and reduced integrity of white matter (WM), but the whole-brain structure-function-cognition associations remain poorly understood. Here we apply a novel measure of GM processing–moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD)—to study the associations between GM function during resting state, performance on four main cognitive domains (i.e., fluid intelligence, perceptual speed, episodic memory, vocabulary), and WM microstructural integrity in 91 healthy older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relations between whole-GM SDBOLD with cognitive performance using multivariate partial least squares analysis. We found that greater SDBOLD was associated with better fluid abilities and memory. Most of regions showing behaviorally relevant SDBOLD (e.g., precuneus and insula) were localized to inter- or intra-network “hubs” that connect and integrate segregated functional domains in the brain. Our results suggest that optimal dynamic range of neural processing in hub regions may support cognitive operations that specifically rely on the most flexible neural processing and complex cross-talk between different brain networks. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater WM integrity in all major WM tracts had also greater SDBOLD and better performance on tests of memory and fluid abilities. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising functional neural correlate of individual differences in cognition in healthy older adults and is supported by overall WM integrity. PMID:25853882

  13. Occurrence and stability of inorganic and organic arsenic species in wines, rice wines and beers from Central European market.

    PubMed

    Huang, J-H; Hu, K-N; Ilgen, J; Ilgen, G

    2012-01-01

    We investigated in total 80 wine samples of different types and seven grape juice and 23 beer samples purchased from markets in Central Europe in order to understand the arsenic (As) speciation and help assess the potential As toxicity via intake of alcoholic beverages. Generally, total As concentrations in most samples investigated were below the drinking water limit 10 µg l(-1) published by the World Health Organization (WHO); ranging from 0.46 to 21.0 µg l(-1) As in red and white wines and from 0.75 to 13.4 µg l(-1) As in beers. In addition, concentrations of total As in rice wine and in rice beer were 0.63-6.07 and 3.69-8.23 µg l(-1) As, respectively. The total As concentrations in ice wine ranged from 7.94 to 18.8 µg l(-1) As, significantly higher than in white and red wine. Arsenite predominated as the As species in most of the wine samples, whereas arsenate was the dominant species in rice wine, beer and rice beer. Methyl As components were usually minor components in all wine and beer samples. Monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid and two additional unknown As species were frequently found in grape juice, late harvest and ice wine with higher sweetness. After air exposure, arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonic acid and dimethylarsinic acid were stable at 4°C for months, probably due to the acidic conditions of wine and beer samples. The presence of sulfite had little influence on As speciation in wine. Despite the predominance of more toxic arsenite and arsenate in wine and beer, the estimated weekly exposure to As (via consumption of beer, wine and rice wine) is low. The As intake per capita is 6.81 µg from beer, <1.93 µg from wine and 0.88 µg from rice wine, estimated using the median of total As concentration multiplied by the average consumption per capita of the corresponding beverage.

  14. White matter integrity and reaction time intraindividual variability in healthy aging and early-stage Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jonathan D; Balota, David A; Duchek, Janet M; Head, Denise

    2012-02-01

    Aging and early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) have been shown to be associated with increased RT intraindividual variability (IIV, as reflected by the coefficient of variation) and an exaggeration of the slow tail of the reaction time (RT) distribution in attentional control tasks, based on ex-Gaussian analyses. The current study examined associations between white matter volume, IIV, and ex-Gaussian RT distribution parameters in cognitively normal aging and early-stage AD. Three RT attention tasks (Stroop, Simon, and a consonant-vowel odd-even switching task) in conjunction with MRI-based measures of cerebral and regional white matter volume were obtained in 133 cognitively normal and 33 early-stage AD individuals. Larger volumes were associated with less IIV and less slowing in the tail of the RT distribution, and larger cerebral and inferior parietal white matter volumes were associated with faster modal reaction time. Collectively, these results support a role of white matter integrity in IIV and distributional skewing, and are consistent with the hypothesis that IIV and RT distributional skewing are sensitive to breakdowns in executive control processes in normal and pathological aging.

  15. The age-metallicity relation in the solar neighbourhood from a pilot sample of white dwarf-main sequence binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebassa-Mansergas, A.; Anguiano, B.; García-Berro, E.; Freeman, K. C.; Cojocaru, R.; Manser, C. J.; Pala, A. F.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Liu, X.-W.

    2016-12-01

    The age-metallicity relation (AMR) is a fundamental observational constraint for understanding how the Galactic disc formed and evolved chemically in time. However, there is not yet an agreement on the observational properties of the AMR for the solar neighbourhood, primarily due to the difficulty in obtaining accurate stellar ages for individual field stars. We have started an observational campaign for providing the much needed observational input by using wide white-dwarf-main-sequence (WDMS) binaries. White dwarfs are `natural' clocks and can be used to derive accurate ages. Metallicities can be obtained from the main-sequence companions. Since the progenitors of white dwarfs and the main-sequence stars were born at the same time, WDMS binaries provide a unique opportunity to observationally constrain in a robust way the properties of the AMR. In this work we present the AMR derived from analysing a pilot sample of 23 WDMS binaries and provide clear observational evidence for the lack of correlation between age and metallicity at young and intermediate ages (0-7 Gyr).

  16. Methionine requirements of male white Peking ducks from twenty-one to forty-nine days of age.

    PubMed

    Xie, M; Hou, S S; Huang, W

    2006-04-01

    A dose-response experiment with 6 dietary methionine levels (0.20, 0.275, 0.35, 0.425, 0.50, and 0.575%) was conducted with male White Peking ducklings to estimate the methionine requirement of growing ducks from 21 to 49 d of age. One-day-old male White Peking ducklings were fed common starter diets from hatching to 21 d of age and then fed the experimental diets from 21 to 49 d of age. Three hundred thirty-six 21-d-old birds were allotted to 24 pens with 14 birds per pen according to similar pen weight. There were 6 dietary treatments, each containing 4 replicate pens. At 49 d of age, weight gain, feed intake, and feed/gain of ducks from each pen were measured, and 2 ducks selected randomly from each pen were slaughtered to evaluate the yields of abdominal fat, breast meat (including pectoralis major and pectoralis minor), and leg meat (including thigh and drum stick). Significant effects of dietary methionine on weight gain, breast meat, and abdominal fat were observed. Both weight gain and breast meat yield showed significant quadratic response to increasing dietary methionine, and abdominal fat decreased linearly (P < 0.05). According to the quadratic model, the optimal methionine requirement of male White Peking ducks from 21 to 49 d of age for maximum weight gain and breast meat yield were 0.377 and 0.379%, respectively.

  17. Age-related changes in the topological organization of the white matter structural connectome across the human lifespan.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tengda; Cao, Miao; Niu, Haijing; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Evans, Alan; He, Yong; Dong, Qi; Shu, Ni

    2015-10-01

    Lifespan is a dynamic process with remarkable changes in brain structure and function. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated age-related microstructural changes in specific white matter tracts during development and aging. However, the age-related alterations in the topological architecture of the white matter structural connectome across the human lifespan remain largely unknown. Here, a cohort of 113 healthy individuals (ages 9-85) with both diffusion and structural MRI acquisitions were examined. For each participant, the high-resolution white matter structural networks were constructed by deterministic fiber tractography among 1024 parcellation units and were quantified with graph theoretical analyses. The global network properties, including network strength, cost, topological efficiency, and robustness, followed an inverted U-shaped trajectory with a peak age around the third decade. The brain areas with the most significantly nonlinear changes were located in the prefrontal and temporal cortices. Different brain regions exhibited heterogeneous trajectories: the posterior cingulate and lateral temporal cortices displayed prolonged maturation/degeneration compared with the prefrontal cortices. Rich-club organization was evident across the lifespan, whereas hub integration decreased linearly with age, especially accompanied by the loss of frontal hubs and their connections. Additionally, age-related changes in structural connections were predominantly located within and between the prefrontal and temporal modules. Finally, based on the graph metrics of structural connectome, accurate predictions of individual age were obtained (r = 0.77). Together, the data indicated a dynamic topological organization of the brain structural connectome across human lifespan, which may provide possible structural substrates underlying functional and cognitive changes with age.

  18. Physicochemical, antioxidant and sensory properties of peach wine made from redhaven cultivar.

    PubMed

    Davidović, Sonja M; Veljović, Mile S; Pantelić, Milica M; Baošić, Rada M; Natić, Maja M; Dabić, Dragana Č; Pecić, Sonja P; Vukosavljević, Predrag V

    2013-02-13

    Physicochemical, sensory, and health-related characteristics of peach wine produced from Redhaven variety and selected white wines produced from various grape varieties were determined and compared. The alcohol content, titratable acidity, and total extract of peach wine was significantly lower compared with that of white wines, while its pH value was higher. The content of total phenolics (TPC) and flavonoids (TFC) of peach wine (402.53 mg/L GAE and 332.67 mg CAE/L, respectively) have been found significantly higher in comparison with that of white wines (TPC range 243.67-319.00 mg/L GAE, TFC range 129.67-175.17 mg CAE/L). The main phenolic compounds found in peach wine were chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and catechin (3.59, 0.87, and 0.60 mg/L, respectively). Antioxidant capacities were strongly correlated with total phenolics with correlation coefficients over 0.99. The highest antioxidant capacity was ascribed to peach wine. The results of sensory analysis indicated that the peach wine was very well accepted by the regular consumers of wine and can be a very interesting product in the market.

  19. A tale of 10 plutons - Revisited: Age of granitic rocks in the White Mountains, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, E.H.; Conrad, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analysis and conventional K-Ar age determinations on plutonic rocks of the White Mountains define two stages of magmatic emplacement: Late Cretaceous, between ca. 90 Ma and 75 Ma, and Middle-Late Jurassic, between ca. 180 and 140 Ma. The Jurassic stage can be divided into two substages, 180-165 Ma and 150-140 Ma. Thermal effects of the younger plutons on the older granitoids partially to completely reset ages, making it difficult to determine the age of emplacement and cooling of several of the plutons even by 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analyses. New data together with published ages and regional geochronological synthesis of the Sierra Nevada batholith indicate that regions within the batholith have coherent periods or episodes of magmatic activity. In the White Mountains and Sierra Nevada directly to the west there was little or no activity in Early Jurassic and Early Cretaceous time; magmatism took place during relatively short intervals of 15 m.y. or less in the Middle and Late Jurassic and Late Cretaceous periods. The new K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar analyses of granitoids from the White Mountains help, but do not completely clarify the complex history of emplacement, cooling, and reheating of the batholith.

  20. A Comparative Study of Phenols in Apulian Italian Wines.

    PubMed

    Ragusa, Andrea; Centonze, Carla; Grasso, Maria E; Latronico, Maria F; Mastrangelo, Pier F; Sparascio, Federica; Fanizzi, Francesco P; Maffia, Michele

    2017-03-24

    Nutraceutics is a growing research field in which researchers study and attempt to improve the biological properties of metabolites in food. Wine is one of the most consumed products in the world and contains a plethora of molecules biologically relevant to human health. In this article, several polyphenols with potential antioxidant activity were measured in wines from Apulia, in Southeast Italy. Hydroxytyrosol, gallic and syringic acids, luteolin, quercetin, and trans-resveratrol were identified and quantified by HPLC. The amount of the analyzed metabolites in wines were largely dependent on their color, with red ones being the richest compared to white and rose wines. Gallic acid was the most abundant polyphenol, followed by syringic acid and luteolin. Nevertheless, significant amounts of hydroxytyrosol, quercetin, and trans-resveratrol were also found. The average concentration of polyphenols found in these wines could have potential health-promoting effects, especially if consumed in moderate quantities on a regular basis.

  1. Electroanalytical determination and fractionation of copper in wine.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Misiego, A; García-Moncó Carra, R M; Ambel Carracedo, M P; Guerra Sánchez-Simón, M T

    2004-08-25

    Eight different bottled wines (six red wines and two white ones) were studied for copper determination and fractionation. For this purpose, copper determination by square wave voltammetry (SWV) and potentiometry (PSA) stripping analysis using Hg electrodes (drop and film, respectively) were carried out. Two direct procedures for the determination of total copper in wine are proposed; in both cases, drastic treatment of samples is not necessary, the procedures are very fast (estimated time to carry out an analysis is <10 min) and require no deaeration. Fractionating treatment consists of various HCl additions followed by the addition of ethylenediamine. Precision (RSD < 3%) and accuracy (recovery > 98%) data justify that both methods proposed are valid for total copper determination in wine. The wines studied displayed similar behaviors regarding fractionation: the percentages of total copper fractionated in each step are statistically similar: differences are lower than 2 S.

  2. UHPLC/ESI-MS/MS Determination of 187 Pesticides in Wine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Cheung, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an ultra HPLC/electrospray ionization-tandem MS method to determine pesticides in wine. We adopted the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERs) method for extraction and used core-shell column to achieve ultra-HPLC to develop and validate a simple and fast method to analyze 187 pesticide residues in red and white wine samples. Pesticide residues were extracted from wine samples using QuEChERS. Ultra HPLC/electrospray ionization-tandem MS quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves with isotopically labeled standards or a chemical analogue as internal standards with an analytical range from 5.0 to 500.0 μg/L. The method performance characteristics that included overall recovery, intermediate precision, and measurement uncertainty were evaluated according to a nested experimental design. Generally, 98.4% (in red wine) and 96.8% (in white wine) of the pesticides had recoveries between 71 and 120%; 98.9% (in red wine) and 99.5% (in white wine) of the pesticides had the intermediate precision ≤20%; and 99.5% (in red wine) and 98.4% (in white wine) of the pesticides had measurement uncertainty ≤50%.

  3. Age-related cognitive gains are mediated by the effects of white matter development on brain network integration.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael C; Skudlarski, Pawel; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D

    2009-12-01

    A fundamental, yet rarely tested premise of developmental cognitive neuroscience is that changes in brain activity and improvements in behavioral control across adolescent development are related to brain maturational factors that shape a more efficient, highly-interconnected brain in adulthood. We present the first multimodal neuroimaging study to empirically demonstrate that maturation of executive cognitive ability is directly associated with the relationship of white matter development and age-related changes in neural network functional integration. In this study, we identified specific white matter regions whose maturation across adolescence appears to reduce reliance on local processing in brain regions recruited for conscious, deliberate cognitive control in favor of a more widely distributed profile of functionally-integrated brain activity. Greater white matter coherence with age was associated with both increases and decreases in functional connectivity within task-engaged functional circuits. Importantly, these associations between white matter development and brain system functional integration were related to behavioral performance on tests of response inhibition, demonstrating their importance in the maturation of optimal cognitive control.

  4. The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program in the Age of Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Sean R; Mayer, Kenneth H; Boswell, Stephen L

    2015-06-01

    Thanks to the Affordable Care Act, thousands of people living with HIV who have received Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program-funded care are now eligible for Medicaid or subsidized insurance. The protection against insurance discrimination on the basis of preexisting conditions is increasing health care access for many, but this does not mean that the Ryan White Program is no longer needed. Services essential to improving outcomes on the continuum of HIV care are not supported by any other source. Because of the growing number of people living with HIV, we must increase funding for the Ryan White Program and increase the number of HIV care providers.

  5. When flux standards go wild: white dwarfs in the age of Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermes, JJ

    2017-01-01

    White dwarfs have been used as flux standards for decades, thanks to their staid simplicity. We have tested their photometric stability by analyzing the light curves of several hundred spectroscopically confirmed white dwarfs, through K2 Campaign 8. We find that the vast majority (>90%) are <1% stable in the Kepler bandpass on 0.04-d to 10-d timescales, confirming that these stellar remnants are generally excellent flux standards. From the cases that do exhibit significant (several percent) variability, we caution that binarity and magnetism are two extremely important attributes to rule out when establishing a white dwarf as a photometric standard.

  6. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Méndez, María L.; De Saja, José A.; González-Antón, Rocio; García-Hernández, Celia; Medina-Plaza, Cristina; García-Cabezón, Cristina; Martín-Pedrosa, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses (e-noses) and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control, or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of e-noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments. PMID:27826547

  7. Leading Edges: Recent Research on Psychosocial Aging. Review Essays Prepared for the White House Conference on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Beth B., Ed.; Bond, Kathleen, Ed.

    The objectives of this book, a collection of papers about recent research on psychosocial aging, are to broaden scientific understanding of the psychosocial components of the aging process and the place of older people in society, and to call attention to a number of issues in aging research. The papers emphasize that aging does not occur in a…

  8. High precision mass measurements for wine metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Gougeon, Régis; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    An overview of the critical steps for the non-targeted Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) analysis of wine chemistry is given, ranging from the study design, data preprocessing and statistical analyses, to markers identification. UPLC-Q-ToF-MS data was enhanced by the alignment of exact mass data from FTICR-MS, and marker peaks were identified using UPLC-Q-ToF-MS². In combination with multivariate statistical tools and the annotation of peaks with metabolites from relevant databases, this analytical process provides a fine description of the chemical complexity of wines, as exemplified in the case of red (Pinot noir) and white (Chardonnay) wines from various geographic origins in Burgundy.

  9. High precision mass measurements for wine metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Roullier-Gall, Chloé; Witting, Michael; Gougeon, Régis D.; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    An overview of the critical steps for the non-targeted Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-ToF-MS) analysis of wine chemistry is given, ranging from the study design, data preprocessing and statistical analyses, to markers identification. UPLC-Q-ToF-MS data was enhanced by the alignment of exact mass data from FTICR-MS, and marker peaks were identified using UPLC-Q-ToF-MS2. In combination with multivariate statistical tools and the annotation of peaks with metabolites from relevant databases, this analytical process provides a fine description of the chemical complexity of wines, as exemplified in the case of red (Pinot noir) and white (Chardonnay) wines from various geographic origins in Burgundy. PMID:25431760

  10. Potential of a multiparametric optical sensor for determining in situ the maturity components of red and white Vitis vinifera wine grapes.

    PubMed

    Agati, Giovanni; D'Onofrio, Claudio; Ducci, Eleonora; Cuzzola, Angela; Remorini, Damiano; Tuccio, Lorenza; Lazzini, Francesca; Mattii, Giovanni

    2013-12-18

    A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture.

  11. Factors affecting the presence of ochratoxin A in wines.

    PubMed

    Blesa, J; Soriano, J M; Moltó, J C; Mañes, J

    2006-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) are synthesized mainly by different species of Aspergillus and Penicillium being its human toxicological effects reflected in different countries due to the consumption of different foods and beverages such as red, white, rose, and special wines. This review presents an overview of the direct (meteorological conditions, grape cultivation, and wine-making techniques) and indirect (latitude, year of production, use of pesticides, presence of spoilage microorganisms, conditions of storage of the harvested grapes, type of maceration, and conditions of fermentation), factors affecting the presence of OTA in wines.

  12. Enhancing the natural folate level in wine using bioengineering and stabilization strategies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yazheng; Walkey, Christopher J; Green, Timothy J; van Vuuren, Hennie J J; Kitts, David D

    2016-03-01

    Folate deficiency is linked to many diseases, some of which may have higher probability in individuals with alcohol-induced alterations in one-carbon metabolism. Our study shows that folate content in commercial wine is not related to white or red varieties, but associated with the yeast that is used to produce the wine. The stability of folate in these wines, once opened for consumption, did not correlate with total phenolic or sulfite content. In addition, we employed yeast bioengineering to fortify wine with folate. We confirmed by overexpression that FOL2 was the key gene encoding the rate-limiting step of folate biosynthesis in wine yeast. In this study, we also show that overexpression of other folate biosynthesis genes, including ABZ1, ABZ2, DFR1, FOL1 and FOL3, had no effect on folate levels in wine. Ensuring stability of the increased natural folate in all wines was achieved by the addition of ascorbate.

  13. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines: chromatic properties and global phenolic composition by means of UV-Vis spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-González, M; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2013-09-01

    Valdeorras (the N.W. corner of Spain) wants to promote the production and marketing of new sweet wines. The present work represents the first study on sweet wines manufactured with red grapes Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera, a teinturier cultivar. Two different red sweet wines were elaborated: the first one was made with dried grapes; Vitis vinifera L. Garnacha Tintorera has excellent potential to produce wines from raisined grapes; the second one, a fortified sweet wine aged in oak barrels. Different red Garnacha Tintorera-based wines (a dry base wine, GBW; a naturally sweet wine, GNSW; and a fortified sweet wine, GFSW) were characterized. Chromatic characteristics and phenolic compounds were established by spectrophotometric methods in order to assess the technology of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines. High molecular weight brown polymers, produced during the grape drying process and isolated from sweet wines by the dialysis process, were responsible for the brown colour of sweet wines. As a consequence, yellowness of sweet wines was also higher which was confirmed by colorimetric indexes. With respect to phenolic content, GFSW presented the lowest content because the maceration-alcoholic fermentation was stopped through the addition of alcohol before the diffusion of red pigments from skins to must was complete. GNSW presented the highest phenolic content due to the concentration effect resulting from evaporation of water from the grapes. Anthocyanins of sweet wines were polymerised in great extent. The percentage of polymerised tannins was sufficient to guarantee the aging process of sweet wines.

  14. Determination of Fluoride in Organic and Non-organic Wines.

    PubMed

    Paz, Soraya; Jaudenes, Juan Ramón; Gutiérrez, Angel José; Rubio, Carmen; Hardisson, Arturo; Revert, Consuelo

    2016-12-27

    Fluorine is an element of great importance to human health, as it is considered to be an essential element. However, both a deficiency and an excess, it can cause various problems. It is for this reason that values have been established regarding the recommended daily intake (RDI) and acceptable daily intake (ADI). The largest source of incorporation of fluoride is water, but it can be found in other foods and beverages, such as vegetables, tea, and wine. The aim of the study was to establish the fluoride concentration in organic and non-organic wines from different appellations of origin of the Canary Islands and mainland Spain, in order to assess the contribution of fluoride and toxic risk. A total of 53 samples of red, white, and rosé wines, both organic and non-organic, from different appellations of origin were analyzed. They were analyzed by potentiometric determination with ion-selective electrode for fluoride using the method of standard addition. The wines analyzed are within the recommended limits set by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine. RDI is not exceeded for adults, taking into account the data provided by the Spanish Agency for Consumer Affairs, Food Safety and Nutrition on the average consumption of "table wines" in Spain. Fluoride intake from wine poses no risk to the health of adults. The fluoride concentration of organic and non-organic wines is within the range of 0.03 to 0.70 mg/L.

  15. Release of ( sup 14 C)5-hydroxytryptamine from human platelets by red wine

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, J.; Glover, V.; Sandler, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Red wine, at a final dilution of 1/50, caused released of ({sup 14}C)5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) from preloaded platelets, an effect which was not observed with any white wines or beers tested. Since 5-HT, is probably released from body stores during migraine attacks and red wine is known to provoke migraine episodes in susceptible individuals, release of 5-HT, possibly from central stores, could represent a plausible mechanism for its mode of action.

  16. Black–White Disparity in Disability Among U.S. Older Adults: Age, Period, and Cohort Trends

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Audrey N.; Finch, Brian K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study delineates activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) black–white disparity trends by age, period, and cohort (APC) and explores sociodemographic contributors of cohort-based disparity trends. Method. We utilized multiple cross-sectional waves of National Health Interview Survey data (1982–2009) to describe APC trends of ADL and IADL disparities using a cross-classified random effect model. Further, we decomposed the cohort-based disparity trends using Fairlie’s decomposition method for nonlinear outcomes. Results. The crossover ADL and IADL disparities (whites > blacks) occurring at age 75 increased with age and reached a plateau at age of 80, whereas period-based ADL and IADL disparities remained constant for the past 3 decades. The cohort disparity trends for both disabilities showed a decline with each successive cohort except for ADL disparity among women. Discussion. We examined the role of aging on racial disparity in disability and found support for the racial crossover effect. Further, the racial disparity in disability will disappear should the observed pattern of declining cohort-based ADL and IADL disparities persist. Although education, income, and marital status are important sociodemographic contributors to cohort disparity trends, future studies should investigate individual behavioral health determinants and cohort-specific characteristics that explain the cohort-based racial difference in ADL and IADL disabilities. PMID:24986183

  17. Identification of Catechin, Syringic Acid, and Procyanidin B2 in Wine as Stimulants of Gastric Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Liszt, Kathrin Ingrid; Eder, Reinhard; Wendelin, Sylvia; Somoza, Veronika

    2015-09-09

    Organic acids of wine, in addition to ethanol, have been identified as stimulants of gastric acid secretion. This study characterized the influence of other wine compounds, particularly phenolic compounds, on proton secretion. Forty wine parameters were determined in four red wines and six white wines, including the contents of organic acids and phenolic compounds. The secretory activity of the wines was determined in a gastric cell culture model (HGT-1 cells) by means of a pH-sensitive fluorescent dye. Red wines stimulated proton secretion more than white wines. Lactic acid and the phenolic compounds syringic acid, catechin, and procyanidin B2 stimulated proton secretion and correlated with the pro-secretory effect of the wines. Addition of the phenolic compounds to the least active white wine sample enhanced its proton secretory effect by 65 ± 21% (p < 0.05). These results indicate that not only malic and lactic acid but also bitter and astringent tasting phenolic compounds in wine contribute to its stimulatory effect on gastric acid secretion.

  18. Age-related increases in right frontal activation during task switching are mediated by reaction time and white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Z; Hakun, J G; Johnson, N F; Gold, B T

    2014-10-10

    Age-related increases in right frontal cortex activation are a common finding in the neuroimaging literature. However, neurocognitive factors contributing to right frontal over-recruitment remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the influence of age-related reaction time (RT) slowing and white matter (WM) microstructure reductions as potential explanatory factors for age-related increases in right frontal activation during task switching. Groups of younger (N=32) and older (N=33) participants completed a task switching paradigm while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed, and rested while diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed. Two right frontal regions of interest (ROIs), the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and insula, were selected for further analyses from a common network of regions recruited by both age groups during task switching. Results demonstrated age-related activation increases in both ROIs. In addition, the older adult group showed longer RT and decreased fractional anisotropy in regions of the corpus callosum with direct connections to the fMRI ROIs. Subsequent mediation analyses indicated that age-related increases in right insula activation were mediated by RT slowing and age-related increases in right DLPFC activation were mediated by WM microstructure. Our results suggest that age-related RT slowing and WM microstructure declines contribute to age-related increases in right frontal activation during cognitive task performance.

  19. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J; Ndung'u, Michael N; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J L; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Allan, Louise M; Oakley, Arthur E; O'Brien, John T; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi; Kalaria, Raj N

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with

  20. Frontal white matter hyperintensities, clasmatodendrosis and gliovascular abnormalities in ageing and post-stroke dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aiqing; Akinyemi, Rufus O.; Hase, Yoshiki; Firbank, Michael J.; Ndung’u, Michael N.; Foster, Vincent; Craggs, Lucy J. L.; Washida, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoko; Thomas, Alan J.; Polvikoski, Tuomo M.; Allan, Louise M.; Oakley, Arthur E.; O’Brien, John T.; Horsburgh, Karen; Ihara, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities as seen on brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging are associated with varying degrees of cognitive dysfunction in stroke, cerebral small vessel disease and dementia. The pathophysiological mechanisms within the white matter accounting for cognitive dysfunction remain unclear. With the hypothesis that gliovascular interactions are impaired in subjects with high burdens of white matter hyperintensities, we performed clinicopathological studies in post-stroke survivors, who had exhibited greater frontal white matter hyperintensities volumes that predicted shorter time to dementia onset. Histopathological methods were used to identify substrates in the white matter that would distinguish post-stroke demented from post-stroke non-demented subjects. We focused on the reactive cell marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to study the incidence and location of clasmatodendrosis, a morphological attribute of irreversibly injured astrocytes. In contrast to normal appearing GFAP+ astrocytes, clasmatodendrocytes were swollen and had vacuolated cell bodies. Other markers such as aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDH1L1) showed cytoplasmic disintegration of the astrocytes. Total GFAP+ cells in both the frontal and temporal white matter were not greater in post-stroke demented versus post-stroke non-demented subjects. However, the percentage of clasmatodendrocytes was increased by >2-fold in subjects with post-stroke demented compared to post-stroke non-demented subjects (P = 0.026) and by 11-fold in older controls versus young controls (P < 0.023) in the frontal white matter. High ratios of clasmotodendrocytes to total astrocytes in the frontal white matter were consistent with lower Mini-Mental State Examination and the revised Cambridge Cognition Examination scores in post-stroke demented subjects. Double immunofluorescent staining showed aberrant co-localization of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in retracted GFAP+ astrocytes with

  1. Trends in wine microbiology.

    PubMed

    Ramón, D

    1997-12-01

    During the last few years many winemakers have started to use pure Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, frequently isolated from their own geographical regions, to produce wines of more reproductable quality. This microbiological simplification has opened the way for the genetic modification of wine yeast strains. This review concerns the application of molecular techniques in oenology, not only from the point of view of the construction of recombinant strains but also for the study of the population dynamics of wine fermentations.

  2. Growth hormone action predicts age-related white adipose tissue dysfunction and senescent cell burden in mice.

    PubMed

    Stout, Michael B; Tchkonia, Tamara; Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Palmer, Allyson K; List, Edward O; Berryman, Darlene E; Lubbers, Ellen R; Escande, Carlos; Spong, Adam; Masternak, Michal M; Oberg, Ann L; LeBrasseur, Nathan K; Miller, Richard A; Kopchick, John J; Bartke, Andrzej; Kirkland, James L

    2014-07-01

    The aging process is associated with the development of several chronic diseases. White adipose tissue (WAT) may play a central role in age-related disease onset and progression due to declines in adipogenesis with advancing age. Recent reports indicate that the accumulation of senescent progenitor cells may be involved in age-related WAT dysfunction. Growth hormone (GH) action has profound effects on adiposity and metabolism and is known to influence lifespan. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that GH activity would predict age-related WAT dysfunction and accumulation of senescent cells. We found that long-lived GH-deficient and -resistant mice have reduced age-related lipid redistribution. Primary preadipocytes from GH-resistant mice also were found to have greater differentiation capacity at 20 months of age when compared to controls. GH activity was also found to be positively associated with senescent cell accumulation in WAT. Our results demonstrate an association between GH activity, age-related WAT dysfunction, and WAT senescent cell accumulation in mice. Further studies are needed to determine if GH is directly inducing cellular senescence in WAT or if GH actions on other target organs or alternative downstream alterations in insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin or glucose levels are responsible.

  3. Growth hormone action predicts age-related white adipose tissue dysfunction and senescent cell burden in mice

    PubMed Central

    Pirtskhalava, Tamar; Palmer, Allyson K.; List, Edward O.; Berryman, Darlene E.; Lubbers, Ellen R.; Escande, Carlos; Spong, Adam; Masternak, Michal M.; Oberg, Ann L.; LeBrasseur, Nathan K.; Miller, Richard A.; Kopchick, John J.; Bartke, Andrzej; Kirkland, James L.

    2014-01-01

    The aging process is associated with the development of several chronic diseases. White adipose tissue (WAT) may play a central role in age-related disease onset and progression due to declines in adipogenesis with advancing age. Recent reports indicate that the accumulation of senescent progenitor cells may be involved in age-related WAT dysfunction. Growth hormone (GH) action has profound effects on adiposity and metabolism and is known to influence lifespan. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that GH activity would predict age-related WAT dysfunction and accumulation of senescent cells. We found that long-lived GH-deficient and -resistant mice have reduced age-related lipid redistribution. Primary preadipocytes from GH-resistant mice also were found to have greater differentiation capacity at 20 months of age when compared to controls. GH activity was also found to be positively associated with senescent cell accumulation in WAT. Our results demonstrate an association between GH activity, age-related WAT dysfunction, and WAT senescent cell accumulation in mice. Further studies are needed to determine if GH is directly inducing cellular senescence in WAT or if GH actions on other target organs or alternative downstream alterations in insulin-like growth factor-1, insulin or glucose levels are responsible. PMID:25063774

  4. Fears and Related Anxieties across Three Age Groups of Mexican American and White Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huijun; Prevatt, Frances

    2007-01-01

    The authors compared levels and types of fears and anxieties in a sample of Mexican American children and adolescents with disabilities to a group of White children and adolescents with similar disabilities. Students (N = 238), parents, and teachers completed the Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (T. H. Ollendick, 1983) and the Revised…

  5. Self-rated health among Hispanic vs non-Hispanic white adults: the San Luis Valley Health and Aging Study.

    PubMed Central

    Shetterly, S M; Baxter, J; Mason, L D; Hamman, R F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether objective health indicators explained lower self-rated health among Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic Whites. It also considered socioeconomic and cultural explanations. METHODS: Health ratings of 429 Hispanics and 583 non-Hispanic Whites aged 20 through 74 were analyzed with logistic regression. RESULTS: Illness indicators were found to be strongly correlated with self-rated health in both ethnic groups, but after such markers were controlled for, Hispanics remained 3.6 times more likely to report fair or poor health (95% confidence interval = 2.4, 5.3). Adjustment for socioeconomic factors accounted for a portion of Hispanics' lower health rating, but the strongest explanatory factor was acculturation. CONCLUSIONS: Because of cultural and economic influences on definitions of health, ethnic differences in self-assessed health may not accurately reflected patterns resulting from objective health measurements. PMID:9003141

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography of the white matter in normal aging: The rate-of-change differs between segments within tracts.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, J; Lätt, J; Åhs, F; Fredrikson, M; Söderlund, H; Schiöth, H B; Kok, J; Kremer, B; van Westen, Danielle; Larsson, E-M; Nilsson, M

    2017-03-27

    Knowledge concerning the normal aging of cerebral white matter will improve our understanding of abnormal changes in neurodegenerative diseases. The microstructural basis of white matter maturation and aging can be investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Generally, diffusion anisotropy increases during childhood and adolescence followed by a decline in middle age. However, this process is subject to spatial variations between tracts. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent age-related variations also occur within tracts. DTI parameters were compared between segments of two white matter tracts, the cingulate bundle (CB) and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO), in 257 healthy individuals between 13 and 84years of age. Segments of the CB and the IFO were extracted and parameters for each segment were averaged across the hemispheres. The data was analysed as a function of age. Results show that age-related changes differ both between and within individual tracts. Different age trajectories were observed in all segments of the analysed tracts for all DTI parameters. In conclusion, aging does not affect white matter tracts uniformly but is regionally specific; both between and within white matter tracts.

  7. Extraction of oak volatiles and ellagitannins compounds and sensory profile of wine aged with French winewoods subjected to different toasting methods: behaviour during storage.

    PubMed

    Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-09-01

    In Merlot wines the evolution of volatile and non-volatile (ellagitannins) compounds extracted from winewoods while being macerated for 12 months was studied. Seven types of winewoods subjected to different toasting methods were used. Different rates of extraction, depending mainly on wood compounds origin (toasting or naturally present in wood) and on the watering process during toasting, were observed, which were reflected in sensory differences. Globally, volatile phenols together with aldehydes, phenols and lactones showed an increase with increasing maceration time. Ellagitannins were extracted faster during the first 3 months; after 6 months an important decrease was observed. Wines with winewoods subjected to watering during toasting were lower in ellagitannins concentrations and demonstrated the greatest decrease of these compounds during maceration. Astringency and bitterness intensified with increasing ellagitannins. Lactones induced positive sweetness sensations, whereas furanic and guaiacol compounds influenced bitterness and astringency. Spicy and vanilla descriptors were related to eugenol, vanillin and other odorous chemicals.

  8. Shifts in climate suitability for wine production as a result of climate change in a temperate climate wine region of Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irimia, Liviu Mihai; Patriche, Cristian Valeriu; Quenol, Hervé; Sfîcă, Lucian; Foss, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is causing important shifts in the suitability of regions for wine production. Fine scale mapping of these shifts helps us to understand the evolution of vineyard climates, and to find solutions through viticultural adaptation. The aim of this study is to identify and map the structural and spatial shifts that occurred in the climatic suitability for wine production of the Cotnari wine growing region (Romania) between 1961 and 2013. Discontinuities in trends of temperature were identified, and the averages and trends of 13 climatic parameters for the 1961 to 1980 and 1981 to 2013 time periods were analysed. Using the averages of these climatic parameters, climate suitability for wine production was calculated at a resolution of 30 m and mapped for each time period, and the changes analysed. The results indicate shifts in the area's historic climatic profile, due to an increase of heliothermal resources and precipitation constancy. The area's climate suitability for wine production was modified by the loss of climate suitability for white table wines, sparkling wines and wine for distillates; shifts in suitability to higher altitudes by about 67 m, and a 48.6% decrease in the area suitable for quality white wines; and the occurrence of suitable climates for red wines at lower altitudes. The study showed that climate suitability for wine production has a multi-level spatial structure, with classes requiring a cooler climate being located at a higher altitude than those requiring a warmer climate. Climate change has therefore resulted in the shift of climate suitability classes for wine production to higher altitudes.

  9. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  10. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  11. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  12. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  13. 27 CFR 24.215 - Wine or wine products not for beverage use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wine or wine products not... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.215 Wine or wine products not for beverage use. (a) General. Wine, or wine products made from...

  14. “Weathering” and Age Patterns of Allostatic Load Scores Among Blacks and Whites in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, Arline T.; Hicken, Margaret; Keene, Danya; Bound, John

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. We considered whether US Blacks experience early health deterioration, as measured across biological indicators of repeated exposure and adaptation to stressors. Methods. Using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, we examined allostatic load scores for adults aged 18–64 years. We estimated probability of a high score by age, race, gender, and poverty status and Blacks’ odds of having a high score relative to Whites’ odds. Results. Blacks had higher scores than did Whites and had a greater probability of a high score at all ages, particularly at 35–64 years. Racial differences were not explained by poverty. Poor and nonpoor Black women had the highest and second highest probability of high allostatic load scores, respectively, and the highest excess scores compared with their male or White counterparts. Conclusions. We found evidence that racial inequalities in health exist across a range of biological systems among adults and are not explained by racial differences in poverty. The weathering effects of living in a race-conscious society may be greatest among those Blacks most likely to engage in high-effort coping. PMID:16380565

  15. Growing for wine style

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and wine, but more recen...

  16. Higher education is an age-independent predictor of white matter integrity and cognitive control in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect.

  17. Using CForest to Analyze Diffusion Tensor Imaging Data: A Study of White Matter Integrity in Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    McWhinney, Sean R; Tremblay, Antoine; Chevalier, Thérèse M; Lim, Vanessa K; Newman, Aaron J

    2016-12-01

    Healthy aging has been associated with a global reduction in white matter integrity, which is thought to reflect cognitive decline. The present study aimed to investigate this reduction over a broad range of the life span, using diffusion tensor imaging analyzed with conditional inference random forest modeling (CForest). This approach is sensitive to subtle and potentially nonlinear effects over the age continuum and was used to characterize the progression of decline in greater detail than has been possible in the past. Data were collected from 45 healthy individuals ranging in age from 19 to 67 years. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was estimated using probabilistic tractography for a number of major tracts across the brain. Age coincided with a nonlinear decrease in FA, with onset beginning at ∼30 years of age and the steepest declines occurring later in life. However, several tracts showed a transient increase before this decline. The progression of decline varied by tract, with steeper but later decline occurring in more anterior tracts. Finally, strongly right-handed individuals demonstrated relatively preserved FA until more than a decade following the onset of decline of others. These results demonstrate that using a novel, nonparametric analysis approach, previously reported reductions in FA with healthy aging were confirmed, while at the same time, new insight was provided into the onset and progression of decline, with evidence suggesting increases in integrity continuing into adulthood.

  18. 'Skin Trade': Genealogy of Anti-ageing 'Whiteness Therapy' in Colonial Medicine.

    PubMed

    Mire, Amina

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the extent to which the emerging trend of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products represents a re-articulation of Western colonial concerns with environmental pollution and racial degeneracy into concern with gendered vulnerability. This emerging market is a multibillion dollar industry anchored in the USA, but expanding globally. Do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening products purport to address the needs of those looking to fight the visible signs of ageing, often promising to remove hyper-pigmented age spots from women's skin, and replace it with ageless skin, free from pigmentation. In order to contextualize the investigation of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening practice and discourse, this article draws from the literature in colonial commodity culture, colonial tropical medicine, the contemporary anti-ageing discourse, and advertisements for anti-ageing skin-whitening products. First, it argues that the framing of the biomedicalization of ageing as a pigmentation problem caused by deteriorating environmental conditions and unhealthy lifestyle draws tacitly from European colonial concerns with the European body's susceptibility to tropical diseases, pigmentation disorders, and racial degeneration. Second, the article argues that the rise of do-it-yourself anti-ageing skin-whitening commodities that promise to whiten, brighten, and purify the ageing skin of women and frames the visible signs of ageing in terms of pigmentation pathology.

  19. The impact of moderate wine consumption on health.

    PubMed

    Artero, Ana; Artero, Arturo; Tarín, Juan J; Cano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Wine is a traditional beverage that has been associated with both healthy and harmful effects. Conceptions like the so-called "French paradox" or the beneficial impact of the Mediterranean diet suggest benefit. Wine has a complex composition, which is affected by whether it is red or white or by other variables, like the variety of grapes or others. Alcohol and phenolic compounds have been attributed a participation in the benefits ascribed to wine. The case of alcohol has been extensively studied, but the key question is whether wine offers additional benefits. Resveratrol, a non-flavonoid compound, and quercetin, a flavonol, have received particular attention. There is much experimental work confirming a beneficial balance for both substances, particularly resveratrol, in various organs and systems. The pharmacological dosages used in many of those experiments have shed doubt, however, on the clinical translation of those findings. Clinical studies are limited by their observational nature as well as for the difficulties to abstract the benefits of wine from other confounders. Notwithstanding the doubts, there is reasonable unanimity in beneficial effects of moderate wine consumption in cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, maybe neurological diseases, and longevity. Observations are less enthusiastic in what refers to cancer. While considering these limitations, clinicians may spread the message that the balance of moderate wine consumption seems beneficial.

  20. Age-related decline in task switching is linked to both global and tract-specific changes in white matter microstructure.

    PubMed

    Jolly, Todd A D; Cooper, Patrick S; Rennie, Jaime L; Levi, Christopher R; Lenroot, Rhoshel; Parsons, Mark W; Michie, Patricia T; Karayanidis, Frini

    2017-03-01

    Task-switching performance relies on a broadly distributed frontoparietal network and declines in older adults. In this study, they investigated whether this age-related decline in task switching performance was mediated by variability in global or regional white matter microstructural health. Seventy cognitively intact adults (43-87 years) completed a cued-trials task switching paradigm. Microstructural white matter measures were derived using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses on the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) sequence. Task switching performance decreased with increasing age and radial diffusivity (RaD), a measure of white matter microstructure that is sensitive to myelin structure. RaD mediated the relationship between age and task switching performance. However, the relationship between RaD and task switching performance remained significant when controlling for age and was stronger in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Variability in error and RT mixing cost were associated with RaD in global white matter and in frontoparietal white matter tracts, respectively. These findings suggest that age-related increase in mixing cost may result from both global and tract-specific disruption of cerebral white matter linked to the increased incidence of cardiovascular risks in older adults. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1588-1603, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Polyphenolic Compositions and Chromatic Characteristics of Bog Bilberry Syrup Wines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Xun; Yang, Hang-Yu; Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Jia-Yue; Li, Teng; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Zhang, Bo-Lin

    2015-11-04

    Phenolic compounds determine the color quality of fruit wines. In this study, the phenolic compound content and composition, color characteristics and changes during 6 months of bottle aging were studied in wines fermented with bog bilberry syrup under three different pHs. The total anthocyanins and total phenols were around 15.12-16.23 mg/L and 475.82 to 486.50 mg GAE/L in fresh wines and declined 22%-31% and about 11% in bottle aged wines, respectively. In fresh wines, eight anthocyanins, six phenolic aids and 14 flavonols, but no flavon-3-ols were identified; Malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinium-3-O-glucoside were the predominant pigments; Chlorogentic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside accounted for nearly 90% of the total flavonols. During 6 months of bottle storage, the amounts of all the monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids were reduced dramatically, while the glycosidyl flavonols remained constant or were less reduced and their corresponding aglycones increased a lot. The effects of aging on blueberry wine color were described as the loss of color intensity with a dramatic change in color hue, from initial red-purple up to final red-brick nuances, while the pH of the fermentation matrix was negatively related to the color stability of aged wine.

  2. [White House Conference on Aging, 1981. Research in Aging. Report and Executive Summary of the Technical Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birren, James E.; And Others

    This Technical Committee Report provides an overview and historical sketch of research in aging and proposes a need for new knowledge. An examination of key issues notes the difficulty in assigning priority to research topics, and identifies emerging issues of public concern including: (1) physical health (alcohol and drugs, falls and accidents,…

  3. [Influence of age on the presumed cause of syncope in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome].

    PubMed

    Chometon, F; Brembilla-Perrot, B

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the causes of syncope in patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) and to determine whether the age of the patients was a significant factor. Forty-seven patients with a WPW, aged 11 to 72 years, underwent electrophysiological study by the oesophageal approach because of an unexplained syncope. Nineteen patients were under 20 years of age (16 +/- 3 years: group I) and 28 were over 20 years of age (40 +/- 13 years: group II). Junctional tachycardia was induced in 8 patients of group I (42%) and in 13 of group II (46%) (NS); atrial fibrillation was induced in 8 patients of group I (42%) and in 9 of group II (35%) (NS). A potentially malignant form of WPW was identified in 8 patients of group I (42%) and in 11 of group II (39%) (NS); Syncope was directly attributed to the WPW in 14 patients of group I (74%) and in 19 of group II (78%), either after identification of a serious form or induction of junctional tachycardia (6 patients of group I and 8 of group II). The rest of the syncopal episodes had various causes. There were no deaths. The authors conclude that oesophageal electrophysiological investigations enable rapid identification of a high incidence of tachycardias probably responsible for syncope in WPW. The causes of syncope and incidence of potentially severe forms of WPW were not significantly influenced by the age of the patients.

  4. Ice-age endurance: DNA evidence of a white spruce refugium in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynn L; Hu, Feng Sheng; Nelson, David M; Petit, Rémy J; Paige, Ken N

    2006-08-15

    Paleorecords offer key information for evaluating model simulations of species migration in response to forecast climatic change. However, their utility can be greatly compromised by the existence of glacial refugia that are undetectable in fossil records (cryptic refugia). Despite several decades of investigation, it remains controversial whether Beringia, the largely unglaciated area extending from northeastern Siberia to the Yukon Territory, harbored small populations of certain boreal tree species during the last glaciation. Here, we present genetic evidence for the existence of a glacial refuge in Alaska that helps to resolve this long-standing controversy. We sequenced chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) of white spruce (Picea glauca), a dominant boreal tree species, in 24 forest stands across northwestern North America. The majority of cpDNA haplotypes are unique, and haplotype diversity is relatively high in Alaska, arguing against the possibility that this species migrated into the region from areas south of the Laurentide Ice Sheet after the end of the last glaciation. Thus, white spruce apparently survived long glacial episodes under climatic extremes in a heterogeneous landscape matrix. These results suggest that estimated rates of tree migration from fossil records may be too high and that the ability of trees to track anthropogenic warming may be more limited than previously thought.

  5. Characterisation of Australian Verdelho wines from the Queensland Granite Belt region.

    PubMed

    Sonni, Francesca; Moore, Evan G; Chinnici, Fabio; Riponi, Claudio; Smyth, Heather E

    2016-04-01

    Verdelho is a white-grape-vine, growing well in the Granite Belt region of Queensland. Despite its traditional use in Madeira wine production, there is scant literature on the flavour characteristics of this variety as a dry wine. In this work, for the first time, volatile compounds of Verdelho wines from the Granite Belt have been isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE), and analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A corresponding sensory characterisation of this distinctive wine style has also been investigated, using sensory descriptive analysis. Chemical compounds that mostly contribute to the flavour of these wines were related to fruity sweet notes (ethyl esters and acetates), grassy notes (3-hexenol), floral aromas (2-phenylethanol and β-linalool) and cheesy aromas (fatty acids). Sensory analysis confirmed that the Verdelho wines were characterised by fruity aroma attributes, especially "tree-fruit" and "rockmelon", together with "herbaceous", while significant differences in the other attributes were found.

  6. Could White Wine Boost Your Melanoma Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... She is an associate professor of dermatology and epidemiology at Brown University's Warren Alpert Medical School, in ... Health, appears in the December issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention . Timothy Rebbeck, the journal's editor in ...

  7. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in wine and beer samples from China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianwei; Tan, Yinfeng; Wang, Yuqi; Xu, Rong

    2011-01-01

    A total of 125 wine and beer samples, including 42 white, 63 red wine and 20 beer samples, originating from several areas of China were analyzed for ochratoxin A (OTA). An analytical method based on immunoaffinity column (IAC) for clean-up and high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) was used to determine OTA. Positive results were further confirmed by LC-MS-MS. OTA was detected in 22 (17.6%) samples at levels of 0.02-1.18 ng/ml, which were below the EU maximum limit. The mean OTA concentration in red wine was slightly higher than in white wine. This study showed that OTA occurs in wine and beer in China but at levels that pose no danger of significant human exposure to OTA from this source.

  8. Bactericidal effects of wine on Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengchu; Chen, Ruiying; Su, Yi-Cheng

    2006-08-01

    The bactericidal effects of wines on Vibrio parahaemolyticus in oysters were studied to evaluate potential inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus in contaminated oysters by wine consumption. Shucked whole oyster and oyster meat homogenate were inoculated with V. parahaemolyticus and mixed with red or white wine. Survivals of V. parahaemolyticus in inoculated oysters were determined at 7 and 25 degrees C. Populations of V. parahaemolyticus in inoculated whole oysters (5.52 log most probable number [MPN] per g) decreased slightly to 4.90 log MPN/g (a 0.62-log reduction) after 24 h at 7 degrees C but increased to 7.37 log MPN/g over the same period at 25 degrees C. However, the populations in wine-treated whole oysters decreased by >1.7 and >1.9 log MPN/g after 24 h at 7 and 25 degrees C, respectively. Both red and white wines were more effective in inactivating V. parahaemolyticus in oyster meat homogenate than in whole oyster. Populations of V. parahaemolyticus in oyster meat homogenate (7.8 x 10(3) MPN/g) decreased rapidly to nondetectable levels (< 3 MPN/g) after 30 min of mixing with wine at 25 degrees C (a 3.89-log MPN/g reduction). These results suggest that chewing oysters before swallowing when eating raw oysters may result in greater inactivation of V. parahaemolyticus if wine is consumed. More studies are needed to determine the bactericidal effects of wine on V. parahaemolyticus in the complicated stomach environment.

  9. Wine matrix compounds affect perception of wine aromas.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Remedios R; Ross, Carolyn F

    2013-01-01

    Wine is a complex alcoholic beverage. The wine matrix or the components that are present in the wine play an important role in the perceived aroma and flavor of the wine. The wine matrix is composed of two fractions, the nonvolatile fraction, which includes ethanol (in liquid phase), polyphenolic compounds, proteins, and carbohydrates, and the volatile fraction, which incorporates flavor and aroma compounds. Interactions among these compounds may arise through various mechanisms, thus affecting the sensory and chemical properties of the wine. The main focus of this review is to highlight recent research on wine component interactions and their effects on perceived aroma in the wine. An overview of the wine impact odorants and their determination using sensory and chemical methods is also provided in this paper.

  10. Laser treatment of port-wine stains

    PubMed Central

    Brightman, Lori A; Geronemus, Roy G; Reddy, Kavitha K

    2015-01-01

    Port-wine stains are a type of capillary malformation affecting 0.3% to 0.5% of the population. Port-wine stains present at birth as pink to erythematous patches on the skin and/or mucosa. Without treatment, the patches typically darken with age and may eventually develop nodular thickening or associated pyogenic granuloma. Laser and light treatments provide improvement through selective destruction of vasculature. A variety of vascular-selective lasers may be employed, with the pulsed dye laser being the most common and well studied. Early treatment produces more optimal results. Advances in imaging and laser treatment technologies demonstrate potential to further improve clinical outcomes. PMID:25624768

  11. Influence of fruit maturity at harvest on the intensity of smoke taint in wine.

    PubMed

    Ristic, Renata; Boss, Paul K; Wilkinson, Kerry L

    2015-05-18

    Bushfire smoke can affect the composition and sensory properties of grapes and wines, in some cases leading to wines which exhibit undesirable "smoky", "ashy" and "medicinal" characters. This study investigated the extent to which fruit maturity (i.e., ripeness) influences the perception of smoke taint in wine. Two white grape varieties (Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc) and two red grape varieties (Merlot and Shiraz) were exposed to smoke under experimental conditions, at approximately seven days post-veraison. Fruit was then harvested at two levels of maturity: Harvest A, when total soluble solids were 16-20 °Brix, i.e., the berry ripeness typically required for production of sparkling or light-bodied wines; and Harvest B, when total soluble solids were 22-25 °Brix, i.e., the berry ripeness typically required for production of full-bodied wines. The intensity of smoke taint in resulting wines was found to be influenced by fruit maturity, but differed between grape varieties. Smoke-related sensory attributes were apparent in Sauvignon Blanc wine made from early-harvested fruit and in Chardonnay wine made from late-harvested fruit, only; whereas Merlot and Shiraz wines exhibited smoke taint irrespective of fruit maturity. Smoke-derived volatile phenols, and various alcohols, esters and acids, were also quantified to determine the impact of smoke exposure and fruit maturity respectively, on wine composition.

  12. Patterns and Trends in Age-Specific Black-White Differences in Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality - United States, 1999-2014.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Lisa C; Henley, S Jane; Miller, Jacqueline W; Massetti, Greta; Thomas, Cheryll C

    2016-10-14

    Breast cancer continues to be the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among U.S. women (1). Compared with white women, black women historically have had lower rates of breast cancer incidence and, beginning in the 1980s, higher death rates (1). This report examines age-specific black-white disparities in breast cancer incidence during 1999-2013 and mortality during 2000-2014 in the United States using data from United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) (2). Overall rates of breast cancer incidence were similar, but death rates remained higher for black women compared with white women. During 1999-2013, breast cancer incidence decreased among white women but increased slightly among black women resulting in a similar average incidence at the end of the period. Breast cancer incidence trends differed by race and age, particularly from 1999 to 2004-2005, when rates decreased only among white women aged ≥50 years. Breast cancer death rates decreased significantly during 2000-2014, regardless of age with patterns varying by race. For women aged ≥50 years, death rates declined significantly faster among white women compared with black women; among women aged <50 years, breast cancer death rates decreased at the same rate among black and white women. Although some of molecular factors that lead to more aggressive breast cancer are known, a fuller understanding of the exact mechanisms might lead to more tailored interventions that could decrease mortality disparities. When combined with population-based approaches to increase knowledge of family history of cancer, increase physical activity, promote a healthy diet to maintain a healthy bodyweight, and increase screening for breast cancer, targeted treatment interventions could reduce racial disparities in breast cancer.

  13. Effect on gastric function and symptoms of drinking wine, black tea, or schnapps with a Swiss cheese fondue: randomised controlled crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Henriette; Goetze, Oliver; Menne, Dieter; Iten, Peter X; Fruehauf, Heiko; Vavricka, Stephan R; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of drinking white wine or black tea with Swiss cheese fondue followed by a shot of cherry schnapps on gastric emptying, appetite, and abdominal symptoms. Design Randomised controlled crossover study. Participants 20 healthy adults (14 men) aged 23-58. Interventions Cheese fondue (3260 kJ, 32% fat) labelled with 150 mg sodium 13Carbon-octanoate was consumed with 300 ml of white wine (13%, 40 g alcohol) or black tea in randomised order, followed by 20 ml schnapps (40%, 8 g alcohol) or water in randomised order. Main outcome measures Cumulative percentage dose of 13C substrate recovered over four hours (higher values indicate faster gastric emptying) and appetite and dyspeptic symptoms (visual analogue scales). Results Gastric emptying was significantly faster when fondue was consumed with tea or water than with wine or schnapps (cumulative percentage dose of 13C recovered 18.1%, 95% confidence interval 15.2% to 20.9% v 7.4%, 4.6% to 10.3%; P<0.001). An inverse dose-response relation between alcohol intake and gastric emptying was evident. Appetite was similar with consumption of wine or tea (difference 0.11, −0.12 to 0.34; P=0.35), but reduced if both wine and schnapps were consumed (difference −0.40, −0.01 to −0.79; P<0.046). No difference in dyspeptic symptoms was present. Conclusions Gastric emptying after a Swiss cheese fondue is noticeably slower and appetite suppressed if consumed with higher doses of alcohol. This effect was not associated with dyspeptic symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00943696. PMID:21156747

  14. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  15. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  16. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  17. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  18. 27 CFR 27.42 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Tax On Imported Distilled Spirits, Wines, and Beer Wines § 27.42 Wines. All wines (including imitation, substandard, or artificial wine, and... law; such tax to be determined at the time of removal from customs custody for consumption or...

  19. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  20. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  1. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  2. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  3. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  4. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  5. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  6. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  7. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  8. 27 CFR 24.218 - Other wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other wine. 24.218 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.218 Other wine. (a) General. Other than standard wine not included in other sections in this subpart are considered other wine....

  9. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of...

  10. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  11. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  12. 27 CFR 4.27 - Vintage wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vintage wine. 4.27 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Standards of Identity for Wine § 4.27 Vintage wine. (a) General. Vintage wine is wine labeled with the year of harvest of the grapes and made...

  13. On non-invasive 2D and 3D Chromatic White Light image sensors for age determination of latent fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Ronny; Gruhn, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Bräutigam, Anja

    2012-10-10

    The feasibility of 2D-intensity and 3D-topography images from a non-invasive Chromatic White Light (CWL) sensor for the age determination of latent fingerprints is investigated. The proposed method might provide the means to solve the so far unresolved issue of determining a fingerprints age in forensics. Conducting numerous experiments for an indoor crime scene using selected surfaces, different influences on the aging of fingerprints are investigated and the resulting aging variability is determined in terms of inter-person, intra-person, inter-finger and intra-finger variation. Main influence factors are shown to be the sweat composition, temperature, humidity, wind, UV-radiation, surface type, contamination of the finger with water-containing substances, resolution and measured area size, whereas contact time, contact pressure and smearing of the print seem to be of minor importance. Such influences lead to a certain experimental variability in inter-person and intra-person variation, which is higher than the inter-finger and intra-finger variation. Comparing the aging behavior of 17 different features using 1490 time series with a total of 41,520 fingerprint images, the great potential of the CWL technique in combination with the binary pixel feature from prior work is shown. Performing three different experiments for the classification of fingerprints into the two time classes [0, 5 h] and [5, 24 h], a maximum classification performance of 79.29% (kappa=0.46) is achieved for a general case, which is further improved for special cases. The statistical significance of the two best-performing features (both binary pixel versions based on 2D-intensity images) is manually shown and a feature fusion is performed, highlighting the strong dependency of the features on each other. It is concluded that such method might be combined with additional capturing devices, such as microscopes or spectroscopes, to a very promising age estimation scheme.

  14. Port-Wine Stains

    MedlinePlus

    ... in healing and help prevent infection. Helping Kids Cope As with any birthmark, port-wine stains (especially ... these situations and take cues about how to cope with others' reactions. Practice responses so your child ...

  15. Port-Wine Stains

    MedlinePlus

    ... their own, they can be treated. In fact, laser therapies can make many port-wine stains much ... mark might be. The good news is that lasers (highly concentrated light energy) can make many port- ...

  16. Three different targets for the genetic modification of wine yeast strains resulting in improved effectiveness of bentonite fining.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Ramos, Daniel; Quirós, Manuel; Gonzalez, Ramon

    2009-09-23

    Bentonite fining is used in the clarification of white wines to prevent protein haze. This treatment results in the loss of a significant portion of the wine itself, as well as aroma compounds important for the quality of white wines. Among other interesting effects on wine quality, yeast cell wall mannoproteins have been shown to stabilize wine against protein haze. A previous work showed that wine yeast strains engineered by deletion of KNR4 release increased amounts of mannoproteins and produce wines showing attenuated responses in protein haze tests. This paper describes the technological properties of several new recombinant wine yeast strains, deleted for genes involved in cell-wall biogenesis, as well as the regulatory gene KNR4. Stabilization of wines produced by three of the six recombinant strains analyzed required 20-40% less bentonite than those made with their nonrecombinant counterparts. The availability of multiple targets for genetically improving yeast mannoprotein release, as shown in this work, is relevant not only for genetic engineering of wine yeast but especially for the feasibility of genetically improving this character by classical methods of strain development such as random mutagenesis or sexual hybridization.

  17. The effect of thermal resetting and recrystallisation on white mica 40Ar/39Ar ages during retrograde metamorphism on Syros, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uunk, Bertram; Wijbrans, Jan; Brouwer, Fraukje

    2015-04-01

    White mica 40Ar/39Ar dating is a proven powerful tool for constraining timing of metamorphism, deformation and exhumation. However, in high-pressure metamorphic rocks, dating often results in wide age ranges which are not in agreement with constraints from other isotopic systems, indicating that geological and chemical processes complicate straightforward 40Ar/39Ar dating. In this research project, white mica ages from rocks of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit on Syros, Greece with contrasting rheology and strain mechanisms are compared, in order to better understand the role of deformation, recrystallization and fluid flow on 40Ar/39Ar ages of white mica during retrograde metamorphism. Resulting ages vary along different sections on the island, inconsistent with other isotopic constraints on eclogite-blueschist metamorphism (55-50 Ma) and greenschist overprinting (41-30 Ma). Two end-member models are possible: 1) Results represent continuous crystallization of white mica while moving from blueschist to greenschist conditions in the metamorphic P-T loop, or 2) white mica equilibrated in eclogite-blueschist conditions and their diffusion systematics were progressively perturbed during greenschist overprinting. The single grain fusion analyses yielded contrasting age distributions, which indicate contrasts in degree of re-equilibration during retrograde metamorphism. Step wise heating of larger grain populations resulted in flat plateau shapes, providing no evidence for partial resetting. Electron microprobe measurements of Si per formula unit, as a proxy for pressure during crystallisation, do not explain age variation within sections or on the island scale. The previously unreported north-south age trend and age ranges per sample, as shown only in the 40Ar/39Ar system of the metapelitic and marble lithologies, contains key information that will allow us to test between different scenarios for age formation. Excess argon infiltration at this stage seems to have been of

  18. Different age-dependent performance in Drosophila wild-type Canton-S and the white mutant w1118 flies.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shuang; Xiao, Chengfeng; Meldrum Robertson, R

    2017-04-01

    Aging has significant effects on the locomotor performance of insects including Drosophila. Using a protocol for the high-throughput analysis of fly locomotion in a circular arena, we examined age-dependent behavioral characteristics in adult flies. There are widely used wild-type and genetically engineered background lines including the Canton-S strain and the w1118 strain, which has a null mutation of the white gene. Under standard rearing conditions, we found similar survival and median lifespans in Canton-S (50days) and w1118 (54days) strains, however, w1118 flies maintained stable body mass for up to 43days, whereas Canton-S flies gained body mass at young age, followed by a gradual decline. We also tested the behavioral performance of young and old flies. Compared with young w1118 flies (5-10days), old w1118 flies (40-45days) had an increased boundary preference during locomotion in small circular arenas, and increased speed of locomotor recovery from anoxia. Old Canton-S files, however, exhibited unchanged boundary preference and reduced recovery speed from anoxia relative to young flies. In addition, old w1118 flies showed decreased path length per minute and reduced 0.2s path increment compared with young flies, whereas old Canton-S flies displayed the same path length per minute and the same 0.2s path increment compared with young flies. We conclude that age-dependent behavioral and physiological changes differ between Canton-S and w1118 flies. These results illustrate that phenotypic differences between strains can change qualitatively, as well as quantitatively, as the animals age.

  19. Decomposing Black-White Disparities in Heart Disease Mortality in the United States, 1973-2010: An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Michael R; Valderrama, Amy L; Casper, Michele L

    2015-08-15

    Against the backdrop of late 20th century declines in heart disease mortality in the United States, race-specific rates diverged because of slower declines among blacks compared with whites. To characterize the temporal dynamics of emerging black-white racial disparities in heart disease mortality, we decomposed race-sex-specific trends in an age-period-cohort (APC) analysis of US mortality data for all diseases of the heart among adults aged ≥35 years from 1973 to 2010. The black-white gap was largest among adults aged 35-59 years (rate ratios ranged from 1.2 to 2.7 for men and from 2.3 to 4.0 for women) and widened with successive birth cohorts, particularly for men. APC model estimates suggested strong independent trends across generations ("cohort effects") but only modest period changes. Among men, cohort-specific black-white racial differences emerged in the 1920-1960 birth cohorts. The apparent strength of the cohort trends raises questions about life-course inequalities in the social and health environments experienced by blacks and whites which could have affected their biomedical and behavioral risk factors for heart disease. The APC results suggest that the genesis of racial disparities is neither static nor restricted to a single time scale such as age or period, and they support the importance of equity in life-course exposures for reducing racial disparities in heart disease.

  20. [Functional morphology of the submandibular salivary glands of white rats during aging involution].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, M G

    1979-12-01

    Functional morphology of different zones of submandibular glands of albino rats was studied quantitatively with due regard for the stages of neuroendocrine system involution. It is shown that function of salivary glands during ageing is not altered; cyclic fluctuations with estral cycle phases are maintained similarly to those in young animals. But the basal level of proteins and mucopolysaccharides is reduced, their mean levels being equal to the minimal level in young animals. On the other hand, activation of enzymes responsible for energy and transport processes takes place and their relationships change. The data obtained prove the relationship between salivary and endocrine glands and confirm the viewpoint that in early age involution disintegration occurs between different parameters of the functional activity of salivary glands rather than there take place changes in their function.

  1. Plasma and serum lipidomics of healthy white adults shows characteristic profiles by subjects' gender and age.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Masaki; Maekawa, Keiko; Saito, Kosuke; Senoo, Yuya; Urata, Masayo; Murayama, Mayumi; Tajima, Yoko; Kumagai, Yuji; Saito, Yoshiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood is a commonly used biofluid for biomarker discovery. Although blood lipid metabolites are considered to be potential biomarker candidates, their fundamental properties are not well characterized. We aimed to (1) investigate the matrix type (serum vs. plasma) that may be preferable for lipid biomarker exploration, (2) elucidate age- and gender-associated differences in lipid metabolite levels, and (3) examine the stability of lipid metabolites in matrix samples subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed lipidomic analyses for fasting plasma and serum samples for four groups (15 subjects/group) of young and elderly (25-34 and 55-64 years old, respectively) males and females and for an additional aliquot of samples from young males, which were subjected to repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Lysophosphatidylcholine and diacylglycerol levels were higher in serum than in plasma samples, suggesting that the clotting process influences serum lipid metabolite levels. Gender-associated differences highlighted that the levels of many sphingomyelin species were significantly higher in females than in males, irrespective of age and matrix (plasma and serum). Age-associated differences were more prominent in females than in males, and in both matrices, levels of many triacylglycerols were significantly higher in elderly females than in young females. Plasma and serum levels of most lipid metabolites were reduced by freeze-thawing. Our results indicate that plasma is an optimal matrix for exploring lipid biomarkers because it represents the original properties of an individual's blood sample. In addition, the levels of some blood lipid species of healthy adults showed gender- and age-associated differences; thus, this should be considered during biomarker exploration and its application in diagnostics. Our fundamental findings on sample selection and handling procedures for measuring blood lipid metabolites is important

  2. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.

    PubMed

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-10-15

    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 μg/L) and acetoin (122 μg/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines).

  3. At the cutting-edge of grape and wine biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Borneman, Anthony R; Schmidt, Simon A; Pretorius, Isak S

    2013-04-01

    Wine is arguably the oldest biotechnological endeavor, with humans having been involved in wine production for at least 7000 years. Despite the artisan nature of its production, work by pioneering scientists such as Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier and Louis Pasteur placed wine research in a prominent position for the application of cutting-edge biological and chemical sciences, a position it still holds to this day. Technologies such as whole-genome sequencing and systems biology are now revolutionizing winemaking by combining the ability to engineer phenotypes rationally, with a precise understanding of the genetic makeup and key phenotypic drivers of the key organisms that contribute to this age-old industry.

  4. Adipogenic signaling in rat white adipose tissue: modulation by aging and calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Lee, Garrick D; Ding, Liusong; Hu, Jingping; Qiu, Guang; de Cabo, Rafa; Bernier, Michel; Ingram, Donald K; Zou, Sige

    2007-08-01

    Alterations in adipogenesis could have significant impact on several aging processes. We previously reported that calorie restriction (CR) in rats significantly increases the level of circulating adiponectin, a distinctive marker of differentiated adipocytes, leading to a concerted modulation in the expression of key transcription target genes and, as a result, to increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced deleterious lipid accumulation in other tissues. These findings led us to investigate further the effects of aging on adipocytes and to determine how CR modulates adipogenic signaling in vivo. CR for 2 and 25 months, significantly increased the expression of PPARgamma, C/EBPbeta and Cdk-4, and partially attenuated age-related decline in C/EBPalpha expression relative to rats fed ad libitum (AL). As a result, adiponectin was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels, resulting in activation of target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid synthesis, and greater responsiveness of adipose tissue to insulin. Moreover, CR significantly decreased the ratio of C/EBPbeta isoforms LAP/LIP, suggesting the suppression of gene transcription associated with terminal differentiation while facilitating preadipocytes proliferation. Morphometric analysis revealed a greater number of small adipocytes in CR relative to AL feeding. Immunostaining confirmed that small adipocytes were more strongly positive for adiponectin than the large ones. Overall these results suggest that CR increased the expression of adipogenic factors, and maintained the differentiated state of adipocytes, which is critically important for adiponectin biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity.

  5. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    PubMed

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market.

  6. Hypotheses on the effects of enological tannins and total red wine phenolic compounds on Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Chasseriaud, Laura; Krieger-Weber, Sibylle; Déléris-Bou, Magali; Sieczkowski, Nathalie; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre Louis; Claisse, Olivier; Lonvaud-Funel, Aline

    2015-12-01

    Lot of articles report on the impact of polyphenols on wine lactic acid bacteria, but it is clear that the results still remain confusing, because the system is complicated both in term of chemical composition and of diversity of strains. In addition, red wines polyphenols are multiple, complex and reactive molecules. Moreover, the final composition of wine varies according to grape variety and to extraction during winemaking. Therefore it is nearly impossible to deduce their effects on bacteria from experiments in oversimplified conditions. In the present work, effect of tannins preparations, currently considered as possible technological adjuvants, was assessed on growth and malolactic fermentation for two malolactic starters. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory medium and in a white wine. Likewise, impact of total polyphenolic extracts obtained from different grape variety red wines was evaluated in the white wine as culture medium. As expected growth and activity of both strains were affected whatever the additions. Results suggest some interpretations to the observed impacts on bacterial populations. Influence of tannins should be, at least partly, due to redox potential change. Results on wine extracts show the need for investigating the bacterial metabolism of some galloylated molecules. Indeed, they should play on bacterial physiology and probably affect the sensory qualities of wines.

  7. Inhibition of human lung cancer cell proliferation and survival by wine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Compounds of plant origin and food components have attracted scientific attention for use as agents for cancer prevention and treatment. Wine contains polyphenols that were shown to have anti-cancer and other health benefits. The survival pathways of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), and the tumor suppressor p53 are key modulators of cancer cell growth and survival. In this study, we examined the effects of wine on proliferation and survival of human Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and its effects on signaling events. Methods Human NSCLC adenocarcinoma A549 and H1299 cells were used. Cell proliferation was assessed by thymidine incorporation. Clonogenic assays were used to assess cell survival. Immunoblotting was used to examine total and phosphorylated levels of Akt, Erk and p53. Results In A549 cells red wine inhibited cell proliferation and reduced clonogenic survival at doses as low as 0.02%. Red wine significantly reduced basal and EGF-stimulated Akt and Erk phosphorylation while it increased the levels of total and phosphorylated p53 (Ser15). Control experiments indicated that the anti-proliferative effects of wine were not mediated by the associated contents of ethanol or the polyphenol resveratrol and were independent of glucose transport into cancer cells. White wine also inhibited clonogenic survival, albeit at a higher doses (0.5-2%), and reduced Akt phosphorylation. The effects of both red and white wine on Akt phosphorylation were also verified in H1299 cells. Conclusions Red wine inhibits proliferation of lung cancer cells and blocks clonogenic survival at low concentrations. This is associated with inhibition of basal and EGF-stimulated Akt and Erk signals and enhancement of total and phosphorylated levels of p53. White wine mediates similar effects albeit at higher concentrations. Our data suggest that wine may have considerable anti-tumour and chemoprevention properties in lung cancer and deserves further

  8. Cytofluorometric detection of wine lactic acid bacteria: application of malolactic fermentation to the monitoring.

    PubMed

    Salma, Mohammad; Rousseaux, Sandrine; Sequeira-Le Grand, Anabelle; Alexandre, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report for the first time a rapid, efficient and cost-effective method for the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in wine. Indeed, up to now, detection of LAB in wine, especially red wine, was not possible. Wines contain debris that cannot be separated from bacteria using flow cytometry (FCM). Furthermore, the dyes tested in previous reports did not allow an efficient staining of bacteria. Using FCM and a combination of BOX/PI dyes, we were able to count bacteria in wines. The study was performed in wine inoculated with Oenococcus oeni (10(6) CFU ml(-1)) stained with either FDA or BOX/PI and analyzed by FCM during the malolactic fermentation (MLF). The analysis show a strong correlation between the numbers of BOX/PI-stained cells determined by FCM and the cell numbers determined by plate counts (red wine: R (2) ≥ 0.97, white wine R (2) ≥ 0.965). On the other hand, we found that the enumeration of O. oeni labeled with FDA was only possible in white wine (R (2) ≥ 0.97). Viable yeast and LAB populations can be rapidly discriminated and quantified in simultaneous malolactic-alcoholic wine fermentations using BOX/PI and scatter parameters in a one single measurement. This rapid procedure is therefore a suitable method for monitoring O. oeni populations during winemaking, offers a detection limit of <10(4) CFU ml(-1) and can be considered a useful method for investigating the dynamics of microbial growth in wine and applied for microbiological quality control in wineries.

  9. Oxygen Consumption by Postfermentation Wine Yeast Lees: Factors Affecting Its Rate and Extent under Oenological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Jonas; Schmidt, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Summary Postfermentation wine yeast lees show antioxidant properties based on their ability to consume dissolved oxygen. The oxygen consumption capacity of suspended yeast lees obtained after fermentations with six commercial active dry yeast strains was investigated in model, white and red wines using fluorescence-based oxygen sensors operating in a nondestructive way. In model solution, the oxygen consumption rate of yeast lees was shown to depend on their amount, yeast strain, sulfur dioxide and temperature. It is slightly lower in red than in white wines. It is strongly decreased by current levels of free sulfur dioxide, thus excluding the complementary use of both as antioxidants in wine. However, in 25 randomly sampled white wines produced under commercial conditions, the rate and extent of oxygen consumption during the first six months of postfermentation had no significant correlation with any of these interacting factors, making it difficult to predict the actual antioxidant effect of yeast lees. In these wines, yeast lees consumed 0 to 47% of the dissolved oxygen. Although total oxygen consumption capacity of yeast lees is not a limiting factor under commercial winemaking conditions, their oxygen consumption proceeds at a limited rate that reduces but cannot totally prevent concomitant chemical oxidation of the wine. PMID:28115896

  10. Dietary factors and lung function in the general population: wine and resveratrol intake.

    PubMed

    Siedlinski, M; Boer, J M A; Smit, H A; Postma, D S; Boezen, H M

    2012-02-01

    Wine intake is associated with a better lung function in the general population, yet the source of this effect is unknown. Resveratrol, a polyphenol in wine, has anti-inflammatory properties in the lung, its effects being partially mediated via induction of Sirtuin (SIRT)1 activity. We assessed the impact of wine and resveratrol intake, and SIRT1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on lung function in the general population. Effects of red and white wine and resveratrol intake on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC were analysed in the population-based Doetinchem cohort (n=3,224). Associations of four tagging SIRT1 SNPs with lung function were analysed in the Doetinchem (n=1,152) and Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen (n=1,390) cohorts. Resveratrol intake was associated with higher FVC levels, and white wine intake with higher FEV(1) levels and lower risk of airway obstruction. SIRT1 SNPs were not significantly associated with level or course of lung function, either directly or indirectly via wine or resveratrol intake. This study shows a positive association of resveratrol intake with lung function in the general population, confirms the previously reported positive association of white wine intake with higher levels of FEV(1), and additionally shows an association with a higher FEV(1)/FVC ratio. These effects probably do not run via SNPs in SIRT1.

  11. Cellar-Associated Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure Revealed High-Level Diversity and Perennial Persistence at Sauternes Wine Estates

    PubMed Central

    Börlin, Marine; Venet, Pauline; Claisse, Olivier; Salin, Franck

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Three wine estates (designated A, B, and C) were sampled in Sauternes, a typical appellation of the Bordeaux wine area producing sweet white wine. From those wine estates, 551 yeast strains were collected between 2012 and 2014, added to 102 older strains from 1992 to 2011 from wine estate C. All the strains were analyzed through 15 microsatellite markers, resulting in 503 unique Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes, revealing high genetic diversity and a low presence of commercial yeast starters. Population analysis performed using Fst genetic distance or ancestry profiles revealed that the two closest wine estates, B and C, which have juxtaposed vineyard plots and common seasonal staff, share more related isolates with each other than with wine estate A, indicating exchange between estates. The characterization of isolates collected 23 years ago at wine estate C in relation to recent isolates obtained at wine estate B revealed the long-term persistence of isolates. Last, during the 2014 harvest period, a temporal succession of ancestral subpopulations related to the different batches associated with the selective picking of noble rotted grapes was highlighted. IMPORTANCE High genetic diversity of S. cerevisiae isolates from spontaneous fermentation on wine estates in the Sauternes appellation of Bordeaux was revealed. Only 7% of all Sauternes strains were considered genetically related to specific commercial strains. The long-term persistence (over 20 years) of S. cerevisiae profiles on a given wine estate is highlighted. PMID:26969698

  12. Preteen insulin levels interact with caloric intake to predict increases in obesity at ages 18 to 19 years: a 10-year prospective study of black and white girls.

    PubMed

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the associations of teenage insulin and adolescent diet with 10-year weight gain in an analysis sample of black and white girls matched for pubertal stage, body mass index (BMI) (or fat mass), and insulin at ages 9 to 10 years. We hypothesized that preteen insulin and insulin resistance would interact with dietary factors to positively predict increases in BMI. Furthermore, we hypothesized that increased insulin and insulin resistance, interacting with higher caloric intake during adolescence, would lead to greater increments in BMI in black girls than in white girls. Prospective 10-year follow-up was performed on 215 pairs of black and white schoolgirls matched at baseline by BMI (or fat mass), insulin, and pubertal stage, with repeated measures of body habitus, insulin, and dietary intake. When matched for BMI, black girls had higher fat-free mass and white girls had higher fat mass at ages 9 to 10 years. Black-white differences in caloric intake were not significant at ages 9 to 10 years, but black girls consumed more calories at age 19 years. Black girls consumed a greater percentage of calories from fat throughout. At age 19 years, black girls had higher BMI, fat mass index, and insulin. When matched at ages 9 to 10 years for fat mass, black girls were heavier, had higher BMI, and had greater fat-free mass. By ages 18 to 19 years, black girls continued to have higher BMI, but had accrued higher fat mass and a higher percentage of body fat. By stepwise multiple regression, 10-year increases in BMI were predicted by ages 9 to 10 years BMI, 10-year change in insulin, and a 3-way interaction between ages 9 to 10 years insulin, adolescent caloric intake, and race (higher in black girls) (all Ps < .0001). Insulin at ages 9 to 10 years interacts with caloric intake to increase BMI by age 19 years. There appear to be intrinsic black-white metabolic differences that lead to greater gains in fat during adolescence in black girls. Evaluating BMI and insulin

  13. An overview of ochratoxin A in beer and wine.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Rufino; Medina, Angel; Mateo, Eva M; Mateo, Fernando; Jiménez, Misericordia

    2007-10-20

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced mainly by several fungal species of the genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. This mycotoxin has been shown to be nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, teratogenic and carcinogenic to animals and has been classified as a possible carcinogen to humans. OTA occurs in a variety of foods, including beer and wine. Reports on OTA occurrence in beer indicate that this is a worldwide problem due to the widespread consumption of this beverage. At present, the European Union (EU) has not set a maximum allowable limit (MAL) for this mycotoxin in beer, although there is a limit in barley and malt. Studies carried out in different countries agree in the high proportion of samples contaminated with OTA although levels are, usually, below 0.2 ng/ml. OTA occurrence has been related to the contamination of malt barley with ochratoxigenic species, particularly Penicillium verrucosum. OTA produced in grains is carried to wort and, although fermentation decreases the concentration, the toxin is not eliminated. Reducing the fungal contamination of malt barley is the most promising strategy for reducing OTA in beer. With regard to wine, surveys on the presence of OTA have been conducted worldwide. The proportion of wines in which OTA is detected is very high (above 50%) in some countries (especially in the Mediterranean basin) although only a few wines contained concentrations exceeding the MAL laid down by the EU (2.0 ng/ml). A gradient of concentration is usually recognized; OTA levels decrease in the order red, rose, and white wine but also with increasing latitude of the producing countries. OTA presence in wines is due to the black aspergilli, mainly A. carbonarius, which can grow on grapes in the vineyards and produce the toxin. At grape crushing, the juice can be contaminated with the toxin which is carried over into wine, where it persists due to its stability. Pre- and post-harvest treatments are being investigated to diminish contamination of wines

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Red Wine on Lipid Oxidation in Fish Oil Emulsion and Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryo.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haiyan; Zhang, Yulin; Shen, Yixiao; Zhu, Yongchao; Wang, Hua; Xu, Zhimin

    2017-03-01

    The capabilities of red wine against lipid oxidation and angiogenesis were evaluated by using a fish oil emulsion system and an in vivo zebrafish embryos model, respectively. The red wine contained 12 different antioxidant phenolics which levels were led by anthocyanins (140.46 mg/L), catechin (55.08 mg/L), and gallic acid (46.76 mg/L). The diversity of the phenolics in red wine was greater than the tea, coffee, or white wine selected as a peer control in this study. The total phenolics concentration of red wine was 305.53 mg/L, although the levels of tea, coffee, and white wine were 85.59, 76.85, and 26.57 mg/L, respectively. The activity of red wine in scavenging DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radicals was approximately 4 times higher than the tea and 8 times than the coffee or white wine. The red wine showed the highest capability in preventing long chain PUFA oxidation in the fish oil emulsion. Because of the outstanding antioxidant activity of red wine, the red wine dried extract was used to monitor its inhibitory effect against angiogenesis by using transgenic zebrafish embryos (Tg[fli1:egfp](y1) ) with fluorescent blood vessels. After incubated in 100 μg/mL of the extract solution for 26 h pf, each of the embryos had a lower number of intersegmental vessel than the control embryo. The inhibition rate of red wine extract against growing of angiogenic blood vessel reached 100%.

  15. Cortical Grey Matter and Subcortical White Matter Brain Microstructural Changes in Schizophrenia Are Localised and Age Independent: A Case-Control Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    It is still unknown whether the structural brain impairments that characterize schizophrenia (SZ) worsen during the lifetime. Here, we aimed to describe age-related microstructural brain changes in cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter of patients affected by SZ. In this diffusion tensor imaging study, we included 69 patients diagnosed with SZ and 69 healthy control (HC) subjects, age and gender matched. We carried out analyses of covariance, with diagnosis as fixed factor and brain diffusion-related parameters as dependent variables, and controlled for the effect of education. White matter fractional anisotropy decreased in the entire age range spanned (18–65 years) in both SZ and HC and was significantly lower in younger patients with SZ, with no interaction (age by diagnosis) effect in fiber tracts including corpus callosum, corona radiata, thalamic radiations and external capsule. Also, grey matter mean diffusivity increased in the entire age range in both SZ and HC and was significantly higher in younger patients, with no age by diagnosis interaction in the left frontal operculum cortex, left insula and left planum polare and in the right temporal pole and right intracalcarine cortex. In individuals with SZ we found that localized brain cortical and white matter subcortical microstructural impairments appear early in life but do not worsen in the 18–65 year age range. PMID:24124469

  16. Cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter brain microstructural changes in schizophrenia are localised and age independent: a case-control diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chiapponi, Chiara; Piras, Fabrizio; Piras, Federica; Fagioli, Sabrina; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    It is still unknown whether the structural brain impairments that characterize schizophrenia (SZ) worsen during the lifetime. Here, we aimed to describe age-related microstructural brain changes in cortical grey matter and subcortical white matter of patients affected by SZ. In this diffusion tensor imaging study, we included 69 patients diagnosed with SZ and 69 healthy control (HC) subjects, age and gender matched. We carried out analyses of covariance, with diagnosis as fixed factor and brain diffusion-related parameters as dependent variables, and controlled for the effect of education. White matter fractional anisotropy decreased in the entire age range spanned (18-65 years) in both SZ and HC and was significantly lower in younger patients with SZ, with no interaction (age by diagnosis) effect in fiber tracts including corpus callosum, corona radiata, thalamic radiations and external capsule. Also, grey matter mean diffusivity increased in the entire age range in both SZ and HC and was significantly higher in younger patients, with no age by diagnosis interaction in the left frontal operculum cortex, left insula and left planum polare and in the right temporal pole and right intracalcarine cortex. In individuals with SZ we found that localized brain cortical and white matter subcortical microstructural impairments appear early in life but do not worsen in the 18-65 year age range.

  17. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano, J.; Santos, J. P.; Horrillo, M. C.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.

    2009-05-01

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  18. Electronic Nose For Measuring Wine Evolution In Wine Cellars

    SciTech Connect

    Lozano, J.

    2009-05-23

    An electronic nose installed in a wine cellar for measuring the wine evolution is presented in this paper. The system extract the aroma directly from the tanks where wine is stored and carry the volatile compounds to the sensors cell. A tin oxide multisensor, prepared with RF sputtering onto an alumina substrate and doped with chromium and indium, is used. The whole system is fully automated and controlled by computer and can be supervised by internet. Linear techniques like principal component analysis (PCA) and nonlinear ones like probabilistic neural networks (PNN) are used for pattern recognition. Results show that system can detect the evolution of two different wines along 9 months stored in tanks. This system could be trained to detect off-odours of wine and warn the wine expert to correct it as soon as possible, improving the final quality of wine.

  19. Age-effects in white matter using associated diffusion tensor imaging and magnetization transfer ratio during late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Kempton, Matthew; Barker, Gareth; Salum, Giovanni; Gadelha, Ary; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo; Del Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Anés, Mauricio; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Amaro, Edson; Rohde, Luis Augusto; McGuire, Philip; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Sato, João Ricardo; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, several studies have described the typical brain white matter maturation in children and adolescents. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is the most frequent MRI technique used to investigate the structural changes across development. However, few previous studies have used the magnetization transfer ratio (MTR), which gives a closer measure of myelin content. Here, we employed both techniques for the same sample of 176 typically developing children from 7 to 14years of age. We investigated the associations between DTI parameters and MTR measure, to assess the myelination in the brain in development. Secondly, we investigated age-effects on DTI parameters (fractional anisotropy, axial, radial and mean diffusivities) and MTR. No significant correlations between MTR and DTI parameters were observed. In addition, a significant age-effect was detected for DTI data but was not visible for MTR data. Thereby, changes in white matter at this age might be primarily correlated with microstructural changes.

  20. Angel's share combats wine fraud: (14)C dating of wine without opening the bottle.

    PubMed

    Fahrni, Simon M; Fuller, Benjamin T; Southon, John R

    2015-09-01

    The problem of fraud continues to plague the wine industry, and detecting cases where the original bottle has been refilled with an inferior vintage is especially difficult. A novel noninvasive procedure presented here relies on radiocarbon dating the so-called angel's share: the trace amounts of ethanol and other gases that diffuse into and through the cork as bottled wine ages and matures. These are collected by applying a vacuum to the top of the bottle and cryo-trapping the extracted gas, leaving the liquid contents untouched. Vintage verification is therefore possible without exposing the liquid contents to the atmosphere, which may render a bottle costing tens of thousands of dollars worthless for later resale and consumption. The method also has a potential for stable isotope ratio as well as chemical analysis to find indications for fraud or spoilage of fine and rare wines as well as other liquids with cork stoppers.

  1. Why are grape/fresh wine anthocyanins so simple and why is it that red wine color lasts so long?

    PubMed

    Brouillard, R; Chassaing, S; Fougerousse, A

    2003-12-01

    Vitis vinifera red berries are characterized by anthocyanins whose chemical structures are among the simplest encountered in higher plants. On the contrary, many plants, including orchids, petunias, red cabbage, elderberries, potatoes for instance, have developed very complicated anthocyanins featuring side-chains at the available positions of the aglycone skeleton. Such pigments were shown to possess bio-physico-chemical properties not to be seen with the grape common anthocyanins. Among beverages (water, tea, beer, wine, coffee, juices, milk), red wine is the only one whose organoleptic properties improve with time and this is called ageing. The grape/fresh red wine pigments, after a few months, disappear from the wine giving birth to new pigments resulting from the wine spontaneous chemistry allowing it to remain red for many years. What are the wine pigments and why are they so stable is the purpose of this mini-review. The structural simplicity of grape anthocyanins and the long lasting colour of red wine is another French paradox; we call it French paradox II.

  2. Abalation of ghrelin receptor reduces adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity during aging by regulating fat metabolism in white and brown adipose tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with increased adiposity in white adipose tissues and impaired thermogenesis in brown adipose tissues; both contribute to increased incidences of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes adiposity. In this study, we show ...

  3. Three-year changes in leisure activities are associated with concurrent changes in white matter microstructure and perceptual speed in individuals aged 80 years and older.

    PubMed

    Köhncke, Ylva; Laukka, Erika J; Brehmer, Yvonne; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Li, Tie-Qiang; Fratiglioni, Laura; Bäckman, Lars; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that engagement in leisure activities is associated with favorable trajectories of cognitive aging, but little is known about brain changes related to both activities and cognition. White matter microstructure shows experience-dependent plasticity and declines in aging. Therefore, we investigated the role of change in white matter microstructure in the activities-cognition link. We used repeated assessments of engagement, perceptual speed, and white matter microstructure (probed with diffusion tensor imaging) in a population-based sample of individuals over 80 years without dementia (n = 442, Mage = 85.1; n = 70 for diffusion tensor imaging; 2 occasions 3 years apart). Using multivariate latent change modeling, we observed positive correlations among changes in predominantly social activities, white matter microstructure, and perceptual speed. Interindividual differences in change in white matter microstructure statistically accounted for the association between change in leisure activities and change in perceptual speed. However, as analyses are based on observational data from 2 measurement occasions, causality remains unclear.

  4. 17β-estradiol replacement therapy protects myelin sheaths in the white matter of middle-aged female ovariectomized rats: a stereological study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yanmin; Xiao, Qian; Chao, Fenglei; He, Qi; Lv, Fulin; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Yuan; Qiu, Xuan; Huang, Chunxia; Li, Yongde; Wang, Sanrong; Jiang, Rong; Gu, Hengwei; Tang, Yong

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have shown that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) can improve cognitive function and affect the structure of the brain, including the white matter, in postmenopausal women. However, it is unclear whether ERT plays an important role in white matter remodeling in postmenopausal women. In the present study, middle-aged (9-12-month-old) female Sprague-Dawley rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) and randomly allocated to the vehicle treatment (OVX+Veh) group or the 17β-estradiol replacement (OVX+E) group. After 1 month of treatment, spatial learning and memory capacities were assessed using the Morris water maze task. Then, stereological methods were used to quantitatively evaluate white matter volume and myelinated fiber parameters of the white matter in the 2 groups of rats. The results revealed that the mean escape latency of the OVX+E rats in the Morris water maze task was significantly shorter than that of the OVX+Veh rats. The volume density of the myelinated fibers and the volume density and total volume of the myelin sheaths were significantly greater in the OVX+E rats than in the OVX+Veh rats. However, there were no significant differences in white matter volume or in the total length or volume of myelinated fibers in white matter between the 2 groups of rats. Our results showed that 1 month of ERT had significant beneficial effects on spatial learning capacity and on the myelin sheaths and myelinated fibers in the white matter of middle-aged OVX rats.

  5. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  6. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  7. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  8. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  9. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY ALCOHOL IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  10. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  11. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  12. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  13. 27 CFR 27.59 - Wines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wines. 27.59 Section 27.59... TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Marking and Labeling of Wines and Beer § 27.59 Wines. All imported wines containing not less than 7 percent and...

  14. 27 CFR 24.203 - Honey wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Honey wine. 24.203 Section... THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.203 Honey wine. (a) Subject to paragraph (b) of this section, a winemaker, in the production of wine from honey, may add the following:...

  15. A Laboratory Classroom Where ?Wining? Is Encouraged

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Hope

    2004-01-01

    A wine analysis for most is: take a sip, and either like it or don't. Not so for the students taking wine analysis courses at California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo, California. In the college's new Wine Analysis Laboratory, students learn how to run chemical analyses of wines and compare chemical profiles of wines. Professor…

  16. 27 CFR 24.292 - Exported wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exported wine. 24.292....292 Exported wine. (a) General. Wine may be removed from a bonded wine premises without payment of tax... wine for export will be in accordance with the procedures in part 28 of this chapter. (b) Return...

  17. Earthy off-flavour in wine: evaluation of remedial treatments for geosmin contamination.

    PubMed

    Lisanti, Maria Tiziana; Gambuti, Angelita; Genovese, Alessandro; Piombino, Paola; Moio, Luigi

    2014-07-01

    Seven treatments (activated charcoal, bentonite, PVPP, yeast cell walls, potassium caseinate, zeolite and grape seed oil) were evaluated for their efficacy in decreasing the concentration of geosmin, responsible for earthy off-flavour in wine. In the red wine the potassium caseinate and grape seed oil treatments decreased the concentration of geosmin by 14% and 83%, respectively, while in the white wine, the activated charcoal and the grape seed oil were able to decrease the concentration of geosmin by 23% and 81%, respectively. The effective treatments in decreasing geosmin also decreased aroma volatile compounds, most of all esters, responsible for fruity notes. Considering the OAVs (concentration/odour threshold) only the treatment with grape seed oil was able to decrease the relative contribution of geosmin to the profile of the odour active compounds, both in red and in white wine. Sensory analysis confirmed the efficacy of the grape seed oil as a remedial treatment.

  18. Effect of wine addition on microbiological characteristics, volatile molecule profiles and biogenic amine contents in fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Coloretti, Fabio; Tabanelli, Giulia; Chiavari, Cristiana; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Grazia, Luigi; Gardini, Fausto; Montanari, Chiara

    2014-03-01

    The aim was to evaluate the effect of wine addition during manufacturing of dry fermented sausages, in terms of safety aspects (biogenic amine accumulation), aroma profile and sensory characteristics. Three batches of salami were produced: without wine addition and with 7.5% or 15% (v/w) of white wine. The fermented sausages showed characteristics that can increase product diversification. Some of the sensory features (i.e. increased salty perception) can represent an important strategy because of the trend to reduce salt intake for health reasons. The presence of wine immediately reduced the pH and is a source of ethanol, which can have an inhibitory effect against undesirable microflora. The microbiological results observed regarding Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were encouraging. The addition of wine did not negatively affect the ripening time or increase the presence of biogenic amines. The samples containing wine showed reduced concentrations of putrescine.

  19. Indexing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons in an impoundment of the lower Columbia River from highly skewed trawling data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Parsley, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The development of recruitment monitoring programs for age-0 white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus is complicated by the statistical properties of catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) data. We found that age-0 CPUE distributions from bottom trawl surveys violated assumptions of statistical procedures based on normal probability theory. Further, no single data transformation uniformly satisfied these assumptions because CPUE distribution properties varied with the sample mean (??(CPUE)). Given these analytic problems, we propose that an additional index of age-0 white sturgeon relative abundance, the proportion of positive tows (Ep), be used to estimate sample sizes before conducting age-0 recruitment surveys and to evaluate statistical hypothesis tests comparing the relative abundance of age-0 white sturgeons among years. Monte Carlo simulations indicated that Ep was consistently more precise than ??(CPUE), and because Ep is binomially rather than normally distributed, surveys can be planned and analyzed without violating the assumptions of procedures based on normal probability theory. However, we show that Ep may underestimate changes in relative abundance at high levels and confound our ability to quantify responses to management actions if relative abundance is consistently high. If data suggest that most samples will contain age-0 white sturgeons, estimators of relative abundance other than Ep should be considered. Because Ep may also obscure correlations to climatic and hydrologic variables if high abundance levels are present in time series data, we recommend ??(CPUE) be used to describe relations to environmental variables. The use of both Ep and ??(CPUE) will facilitate the evaluation of hypothesis tests comparing relative abundance levels and correlations to variables affecting age-0 recruitment. Estimated sample sizes for surveys should therefore be based on detecting predetermined differences in Ep, but data necessary to calculate ??(CPUE) should also be

  20. Volatile phenols depletion in red wine using molecular imprinted polymers.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Rafaela; Dopico-García, Sonia; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; López-Vilariño, José M; González-Rodríguez, Victoria; Cela-Pérez, Concepción; Silva, Luís R

    2015-12-01

    Wines can be modified by microorganisms during the ageing process, by producing off-flavours like volatile phenols (VP), leading to their deterioration, with great economic losses. The development of methods to recover wines affected by unwanted VP became an important target. Molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) are synthetic materials with artificially-generated recognition sites for selective extraction of organic compounds from different matrices. In this work, two MIPs to remove unwanted VP from wines were developed and their effects were evaluated. Volatile compounds were determined by GC-FID and GC-IT/MS and phenolic compounds (non-coloured and anthocyanins) by HPLC-DAD. The treatment with MIP-4EG and MIP-4EP significantly reduced the content of 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol, respectively. Nevertheless, the changes observed in wine non-coloured and coloured phenolics and sensorial analysis indicate that their specificity and selectivity regarding off-flavours still needs to be improved.

  1. Glycoproteomic profile in wine: a 'sweet' molecular renaissance.

    PubMed

    Palmisano, Giuseppe; Antonacci, Donato; Larsen, Martin R

    2010-12-03

    Glycoproteins are believed to be important in several technological, oenological and allergological processes due to their physicochemical properties. The knowledge of the protein glycosylation status in wine will aid in the understanding of these processes. A multiplexed glycopeptide enrichment strategy in combination with tandem mass spectrometry was performed in order to analyze the glycoproteome of white wine. A total of 28 glycoproteins and 44 glycosylation sites were identified. The identified glycoproteins were from grape and yeast origin. In particular, several glycoproteins derived from grape, like invertase and pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, and from the yeast, were found after the vinification process. Bioinformatic analysis revealed sequence similarity between the identified grape glycoproteins and known plant allergens. This study is an important step forward in order to investigate the implication of glycoproteins in several processes, like protein stabilization and potential allergenic cross-reactivity in wine.

  2. Wine protein haze: mechanisms of formation and advances in prevention.

    PubMed

    Van Sluyter, Steven C; McRae, Jacqui M; Falconer, Robert J; Smith, Paul A; Bacic, Antony; Waters, Elizabeth J; Marangon, Matteo

    2015-04-29

    Protein haze is an aesthetic problem in white wines that can be prevented by removing the grape proteins that have survived the winemaking process. The haze-forming proteins are grape pathogenesis-related proteins that are highly stable during winemaking, but some of them precipitate over time and with elevated temperatures. Protein removal is currently achieved by bentonite addition, an inefficient process that can lead to higher costs and quality losses in winemaking. The development of more efficient processes for protein removal and haze prevention requires understanding the mechanisms such as the main drivers of protein instability and the impacts of various wine matrix components on haze formation. This review covers recent developments in wine protein instability and removal and proposes a revised mechanism of protein haze formation.

  3. White spruce response to co-composted hydrocarbon-contaminated drilling waste: effects of compost age and nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo-Jung; Chang, Scott X; Hao, Xiying

    2005-01-01

    There are growing interests to use co-composted drilling wastes contaminated with hydrocarbons as growth media for planting in land reclamation. However, such use of the compost may have potential problems such as inherent toxicity of residual hydrocarbon and microbial N immobilization due to high compost C to N ratios. We investigated the growth, biomass production, N uptake, and foliar delta13C of white spruce (Picea glauca [Moench] Voss) seedlings in a pot experiment using 1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-yr-old composts (with different hydrocarbon concentrations and C to N ratios) and a local noncontaminated soil with (200 kg N ha(-1)) or without N fertilization. Growth and N content of seedlings (particularly N content in roots) were lower when grown in the compost media as compared with those grown in the soil. Within the compost treatments seedling growth was affected by compost age, but the magnitude of growth reduction was not linearly proportional to hydrocarbon concentrations. Plant N uptake increased with compost age, which corresponds with an increase in indigenous mineral N concentration. Effects of N fertilization on N uptake were curtailed by the presence of indigenous mineral N (e.g., in the 4-yr-old compost) and by fertilization-induced stimulation of microbial activities (e.g., in the 1-yr-old compost). The differences in foliar delta13C values between seedlings grown in compost and soil (P < 0.05) suggest that limitations on water uptake caused by the residual hydrocarbon might have been the predominant factor limiting seedling growth in the compost media. This study suggests that water stress caused by residual hydrocarbons may be a critical factor for the successful use of co-composted drilling wastes as a growth medium.

  4. A useful approach for the differentiation of wines according to geographical origin based on global volatile patterns.

    PubMed

    Perestrelo, Rosa; Silva, Catarina; Câmara, José S

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the feasibility of solid-phase extraction combined with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry in tandem with partial least squares discriminant analysis was evaluated as a useful strategy to differentiate wines according to geographical origin (Azores, Canary and Madeira Islands) and types (white, red and fortified wine) based on their global volatile patterns. For this purpose, 34 monovarietal wines from these three wine grape-growing regions were investigated, combining the high throughput extraction efficiency of the solid-phase extraction procedure with the separation and identification ability. The partial least squares discriminant analysis results suggested that Madeira wines could be clearly discriminated from Azores and Canary wines. Madeira wines are mainly characterized by 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, 3,5,5-trimethylhexan-1-ol, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl dl-2-hydroxycaproate, decanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, and (E)-whiskey lactone, whereas 3-ethoxypropan-1-ol, 1-octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl butanoate, 4-(methylthio)-1-butanol, ethyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, isoamyl lactate, 4-methylphenol, γ-octalactone and 4-(methylthio)-1-butanol, are mainly associated with Azores and Canary wines. The data obtained in this study revealed that solid-phase extraction combined with gas chromatography and quadrupole mass spectrometry data and partial least squares discriminant analysis provides a suitable tool to discriminate wines, both in terms of geographical origin as well as wine type and vintage.

  5. Analysis of phenolics in wine by high performance thin-layer chromatography with gradient elution and high resolution plate imaging.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Hettiarachchi, Chandima G; Morton, David W; Razic, Slavica

    2015-01-01

    Health benefits of wine, especially with red wine, have been linked to the presence of a wide range of phenolic antioxidants. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a simple, high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method combined with high resolution digital plate images to visually compare multiple wine samples simultaneously on a single chromatographic plate and to quantify levels of gallic acid, caffeic acid, resveratrol and rutin, as representatives of the four different classes of phenolics found in wines. We also wanted to investigate the contribution of the investigated phenolic compounds to the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the wine samples. The average concentrations of caffeic acid, gallic acid, resveratrol, and rutin in the red wines were 2.15, 30.17, 0.59 and 2.47 mg/L respectively with their concentration below limit of quantification in the white wine samples. The highest concentration of resveratrol and rutin is found in the Cabernet and Shiraz wine samples. The amounts of gallic acid are correlated with TPC (r=0.58). Italian wines have the highest correlation between TPC and TAC (r=0.99) although they do not contain detectable amounts of resveratrol, they contain significant amount of rutin. Therefore, antioxidant properties might be associated with the presence of flavanols in these wines.

  6. Effects of low frequency ultrasonic treatment on the maturation of steeped greengage wine.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xinhua; Zhang, Min; Fang, Zhongxiang; Liu, Yaping

    2014-11-01

    To accelerate wine maturation, low frequency ultrasonic waves of 28 kHz and 45 kHz were used to treat the steeped greengage wine. The contents of total acid, total ester, fusel oils and the wine chromaticity were determined before and after the ultrasonic treatment. The volatile compounds were analysed by GC-MS method, and the sensory quality was evaluated by panelist. The results indicated that ultrasonic treatment of the steeped greengage wine at 45 kHz 360 W for 30 min was effective to accelerate the aging process, where the fusel oils and alcohol compounds were significantly reduced and acid and ester compounds were significantly increased.

  7. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required.

  8. Wine Consumption and 20-Year Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; North, Rebecca J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined level of wine consumption and total mortality among 802 older adults ages 55–65 at baseline, controlling for key sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors. Despite a growing consensus that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced total mortality, whether wine consumption provides an additional, unique protective effect is unresolved. Method: Participants were categorized in three subsamples: abstainers, high-wine-consumption moderate drinkers, and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health problems were assessed at baseline; total mortality was indexed across an ensuing 20-year period. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, both high-wine-consumption and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers showed reduced mortality risks compared with abstainers. Further, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine were older, were more likely to be male, reported more health problems, were more likely to be tobacco smokers, scored lower on socioeconomic status, and (statistical trend) reported engaging in less physical activity. Controlling only for overall ethanol consumption, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine showed a substantially increased 20-year mortality risk of 85%. However, after controlling for all covariates, the initial mortality difference associated with wine consumption was no longer significant. Conclusions: Among older adults who are moderate drinkers, the apparent unique effects of wine on longevity may be explained by confounding factors correlated with wine consumption. PMID:22152665

  9. Further Highlighting on the Prevention of Oxidative Damage by Polyphenol-Rich Wine Extracts.

    PubMed

    Salucci, Sara; Burattini, Sabrina; Giordano, Francesco Maria; Lucarini, Simone; Diamantini, Giuseppe; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2017-02-06

    Wine contains various polyphenols such as flavonoids, anthocyanins, and tannins. These molecules are responsible for the quality of wines, influencing their astringency, bitterness, and color and they are considered to have antioxidant activity. Polyphenols, extracted from grapes during the processes of vinification, could protect the body cells against reactive oxygen species level increase and could be useful to rescue several pathologies where oxidative stress represents the main cause. For that, in this study, red and white wine, provided by an Italian vinery (Marche region), have been analyzed. Chromatographic and morphofunctional analyses have been carried out for polyphenol extraction and to evaluate their protective effect on human myeloid U937 cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide. Both types of wines contained a mix of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties and their content decreased, as expected, in white wine. Ultrastructural observations evidenced that wines, in particular red wine, strongly prevent mitochondrial damage and apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the considered extracts show a relevant polyphenol content with strong antioxidant properties and abilities to prevent apoptosis. These findings suggest, for these compounds, a potential role in all pathological conditions where the body antioxidant system is overwhelmed.

  10. Structural and ultrastructural changes in yeast cells during autolysis in a model wine system and in sparkling wines.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, A J; Polo, M C; Carrascosa, A V

    2001-12-04

    This study shows the changes that occur during the autolysis of yeast in a model wine medium and in a sparkling wine after 12 months of aging, using Nomarsky Light Microscopy and Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscopy (LTSEM). The size of the yeasts after 24 h of autolysis in a model medium is much smaller than when they are in the growth stage. With LTSEM. a large number of folds can be observed on the surface of the yeast and practically empty cells. Greater morphological changes, both structural and ultrastructural, can be observed in the yeast after 12 months of aging in wine than in the yeast after 24 h of induced autolysis. However, less of the cytoplasmic content of the yeast that has undergone autolysis in the wine was solubilized than that of the yeast after 24 h of autolysis in the model wine system. These findings indicate that autolysis of yeast in wine is a long-lasting process, which continues for at least 12 months.

  11. Port-wine stain

    MedlinePlus

    Early-stage port-wine stains are usually flat and pink. As the child gets older, the color may deepen to a dark red or purplish color. They occur most often on the face, but can appear anywhere on the body. Over time, ...

  12. Growing for wine style

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    My talk will present an overview of grape metabolites from anabolism and catabolism during berry development, and their significance to different wine styles. For example, grape secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, have long been valuable for the organoleptic properties they impart to fruit and...

  13. Assisting Wine Growers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This video documents efforts at NASA Ames Research Center to assist wine growers in the Napa valley in their fight against a root parasite which is destroying millions of dollars worth of grape crops. NASA researchers are using airborne scanners and remote sensing equipment to detect the parasite before it becomes entrenched, so that growers can treat the harvest to resist infestation.

  14. Butyltin compounds in Portuguese wines.

    PubMed

    Azenha, Manuel; Vasconcelos, Maria Teresa

    2002-04-24

    Butyltin compounds are widespread contaminants that have also been found in some wines. The purpose of the present work was to make a survey of butyltin compounds in Portuguese wines. Forty-three table wines and 14 Port wines were analyzed for butyltin contents by using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In 14% of the analyzed wine samples, measurable dibutyltin (DBT) was found at concentrations ranging between 0.05 and 0.15 microg/L as Sn. Monobutyltin (MBT) was also observed (0.05 microg/L as Sn) in just a single wine. A search for the possible sources of DBT residues found in the wines was carried out. Therefore, some plastics and oak wood used in the process of wine-making, which have been directly in contact with the musts or the wines, were studied to check their possible release of butyltins. The eventual presence of DBT was also tested directly along the vinification process, from the must to the finished product. The results suggest that high-density polyethylene containers used in the transfer of wine in an early stage of the vinification process may be the main sources of these contaminants. Therefore, it is recommendable that plastic materials to be used in wineries be previously tested for the release of butyltin compounds.