Kramlinger, Anne; Strecker Neufeld, Peggy; Berg, Christine
Service-learning experiences immerse students in authentic situations and build partnerships with community agencies to support the health of those we serve in practice. Most occupational therapy curriculum evaluations do not systematically capture community agency benefits. Through the use of qualitative interviews and Q Methodology, the Community Agency Capacity Questionnaire (CACQ) was developed to capture the agency experience in these partnerships. This paper describes the iterative analytic process that resulted in the CACQ with 29 statements covering 6 domains: programming, evaluation, partnership, staff, funding, and marketing. The CACQ offers a means to identify outcomes from the service-learning partners' perspective.
Bond, Meg A.; Keys, Christopher B.
In this comparative study of the boards of three community agencies, the forces that influence the quality of parent-community member relations are examined. Results indicate that an organization's ability to manage intergroup tension is influenced by organizational history of intergroup relations, group identification, and organizational…
Pyhältö, Kirsi; Keskinen, Jenni
The literature emphasizes the importance of integrating doctoral students into scholarly communities and practices at the very beginning of their studies. Although the importance of student participation in a scholarly community has been recognized empirical evidence concerning the quality of participation that promotes such engagement is scarce.…
YMCA of Metropolitan Chicago, IL. Career Options Research and Development (CORD).
In this report, community control is examined at it relates to social and human service organizations. Community is defined at the agency which is the target of control. Community control is a major issue for non-white Americans who are increasingly concerned with owning and controlling those institutions that exist within the boundaries of their…
Saunders, Ruth P.; Moody, Jamie
School and community agency collaboration can potentially increase physical activity opportunities for youth. Few studies have examined the role of community agencies in promoting physical activity, much less in collaboration with schools. This article describes formative research data collection from community agencies to inform the development of the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention to provide out-of-school physical activity programs for girls. The community agency survey is designed to assess agency capacity to provide physical activity programs for girls, including resources, programs, and partnerships. Most agency respondents (n = 138) report operations during after-school hours, adequate facilities, and program options for girls, although most are sport oriented. Agency resources and programming vary considerably across the six TAAG field sites. Many agencies report partnerships, some involving schools, although not necessarily related to physical activity. Implications for the TAAG intervention are presented. PMID:16397156
EPA Region 9 will host a Community Involvement Plan presentation in the Western Agency chapter to discuss EPA’s outreach plans with community members in uranium impacted areas and answer questions about mine cleanup progress.
Herrscher, Barton R.; Hatfield, Thomas M.
Several aspects of college-community relations were discussed in this review. In the avocational realm, as well as the vocational, the 2-year college can serve the special needs and interests of the community. Short courses, lecture series, concerts, leisure activities and services, and community use of campus facilities help the community college…
Gartner, Alan; Jones, Nina
A system for career advancement in the community action agency must be based on the fundamental principle that it is the responsibility of the community action agency to develop the full potential of the nonprofessional staff. The agency must take the initiative on several aspects of its policy and program. Nonprofessional employees must be able…
Ahles, Catherine B.
Based on the premise that effective community relations planning must include an assessment of local needs, a response to these needs, evaluation of program effectiveness, and reports back to the public, this community relations plan for Michigan's Macomb Community College (MCC) recognizes and records ongoing activities and suggests appropriate…
Reed, Diane; Lally, J. Ronald; Quiett, Douglas
Community-based social service agencies working in low-income communities increasingly function with inadequate support and encounter numerous oppressive external and internal conditions that compromise organizational and staff well-being. Working with many such agencies, WestEd identified stressors that included funding problems, unrealistic…
Ringers, Joseph, Jr.
Conservation of energy and resources, recycling and reprogramming of excess school space, coordination and co-programming of human service agencies, and efficiency and economy are among the reasons why interagency programs share space, staff, and other resources. Citizens, professionals, agency executives, and elected officials are recognizing…
Wyoming Community Coll. Commission, Cheyenne.
This paper reports on outcomes of community college programs monitored by the Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC). The document covers the following WCCC objectives: (1) Study of tuition rates for the community colleges; (2) Negotiation of contracts and provision of financial support for administrative computing system components and…
Hobbs, Beverly B.
A multiple-case study examined how schools and community human-services agencies collaborate to meet the needs of at-risk youth in two rural Oregon counties. Four youth services teams (YST) were composed of approximately 10 members each, representing local public schools, county social and health services agencies, and local law enforcement units.…
Presents eight winners of School Planning & Management's Community Relations Contest that produced ideas that other school districts can use to strengthen community/school coexistence. Papers cover such topics as improving communication between stakeholders, connecting with parents, and keeping the community informed during construction projects.…
This serial issue summarizes findings from a survey of 20 state mental retardation and developmental disabilities agencies and 93 community based providers on developing and financing community services. The survey queried respondents concerning: (1) which models or strategies for financing community services have been most effective; (2) what…
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Community Drill Day Registration AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS....
French, Helene; Bryan, Jean
Rio Hondo College's community relations report provides a review and evaluation of activities for 1977-78, and compares them with activities in the prior two years. These activities have been aimed at keeping the community, the college staff, and students informed and supportive of college programs, classes, and activities and aware of…
Loughran, E.; Reed, H. B.
School and community relations in North America reflect creative tensions between the conserving forces of schooling and the changing forces of community. During crisis periods community development needs may modify the school's focus on individual learner growth, but generally schools use the community to extend and enrich the traditional modes. School and community interactions are chiefly characterized by such settings as community schools, community education, adult education, home and school (PTA) associations, work-study programs, curriculum-community resource programs. Recent social forces are creating heightened tensions: cultural pluralism, reduced resources, Third World influences, international conflicts, personal alienation, population concerns, energy problems, community power issues. These forces are gradually shifting school and community concepts towards ones of education and community. Education goes well beyond schooling, including all agencies having an organized influence on community development: libraries, voluntary groups, unions, business, human service agencies, government units, as well as schools. This shift requires research to develop nonformal concepts and practices, along with formal pedagogy, to increase the positive impacts of educational networks on community, as well as individual, development. These new directions have not yet significantly modified the traditional meaning of school and community relations.
Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J
Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth.
... Review: Community Policing Self-Assessment (CP-SAT). The Department of Justice (DOJ) Office of Community...: Community Policing Self- Assessment (CP-SAT). (3) Agency form number, if any, and the applicable...
...; Comment Request: Community Preparedness and Participation Survey AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management... FEMA Community Preparedness and Participation Survey used to identify progress and gaps in citizen and...-Management@dhs.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Community Preparedness and Participation Survey...
Bowles, B. Dean; Oinonen, Charlotte
This bibliography features an extensive collection of articles and books on the subject of school-community relations. Topics covered include school-community relations (general); program, organization, and administration; school-community relations activities; school-community relations processes; specific publics; political aspects; research;…
Secker, Jenny; Hill, Kathryn
Emphasis has long been placed in UK national policy on providing 'seamless' mental health services to meet both the health and social care needs of service users. While attention has been paid to the training required by specialist mental health and primary care staff in order to achieve this, the needs of other community agency staff have received less attention. The present article describes a study designed to identify the training needs of staff working within a broad range of agencies. Focus group discussions were used to explore participants' experiences of mental health problems amongst clients, their confidence in dealing with these, current sources of support and perceived training needs. The results indicate that participants in all agencies routinely encountered a range of problems. Colleagues were the main source of support, followed by line managers, but supervision structures and wider organisational support were lacking in some cases. Joint working with specialist mental health services was almost universally problematic and all groups identified a range of training needs. On the basis of the results, the present authors put forward suggestions as to how these needs might be met.
Kane, Gerald C; Fichman, Robert G; Gallaugher, John; Glaser, John
Before the Internet, organizations had far more time to monitor and respond to community activity, but that luxury is long gone, leaving them in dire need of a coherent outreach strategy, fresh skills, and adaptive tactics. Drawing on the authors' study of more than two dozen firms, this article describes the changes wrought by social media in particular and shows managers how to take advantage of them--lessons that Kaiser Permanente, Domino's, and others learned the hard way. Social media platforms enhance the power of communities by promoting deep relationships, facilitating rapid organization, improving the creation and synthesis of knowledge, and enabling robust filtering of information. The authors cite many examples from the health care industry, where social media participation is vigorous and influential. For instance, members of Sermo, an online network exclusively for doctors, used the site to call attention to and organize against insurers' proposed reimbursement cuts. And on PatientsLikeMe, where people share details about their chronic diseases and the treatments they've pursued, charts and progress curves help members visualize their own complex histories and allow comparisons and feedback among peers. As you modernize your company's approach to community outreach, you'll need to assemble a social media team equipped to identify new opportunities for engagement and prevent brand damage. In the most successful firms the authors studied, community management was a dedicated function, combining marketing, public relations, and information technology skills.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Community Rating System (CRS) Program-- Application Worksheets and...
This article covers the importance of creating and developing agency in community partners when engaging in community-based learning. Often when faculty incorporate service- or community-based learning into their classes, we measure the "learning" part but not the "service" or "community." Focusing more on the latter involves working "with"…
Bagin, Don; Gallagher, Donald R.
This book recognizes that publicity is required for interpreting the school to the community and the community to the school. Well-designed community-relations programs can create a sense of friendliness and good will toward faculties, provide adequate financial support for schools, and develop a sense of responsibility in the community for the…
Lane, Sandra D; Cashman, Donna M; Keefe, Robert H; Narine, Lutchmie; Ducre, Bradford; Chesna, Sharon; Hall, Meghan; Oliver, David
The Affordable Care Act mandates that public health data be made available for community agency use. Having access to such data allows community agencies to tailor interventions, evaluations, and funding requests more effectively. This study, jointly undertaken by Syracuse University faculty and students with the New York State Perinatal Association, sought to understand community agencies' access to requests for governmental data, as well as to identify areas for improving data access. Results from this survey of administrators from 43 agencies in New York State found that only one-half of their requests for data were successful. Difficulties in obtaining access to needed data included fiscal and staffing constraints of the state-level agencies that house the data, as well as possible overinterpretation of confidentiality policies. In addition, some of community agency respondents reported that their staff lacked skills in data analysis and would benefit from training in epidemiology and quantitative evaluation.
Wasylenki, D A; Cohen, C A; McRobb, B R
PROGRAM OBJECTIVE: To provide first- and second-year medical students with stimulating learning experiences in the community. SETTING: Three hundred placements representing a broad array of urban community agencies providing both general and specialized health care services. PARTICIPANTS: All first- and second-year medical students at the University of Toronto (n = 354). Other participants include staff of community agencies and tutors from the Faculty of Medicine and from the community. PROGRAM: The Health, illness and the Community course is mandatory and consists of 3 components. The first, in the first semester of first year, emphasizes the provision of health care in the community for individuals and populations. The second, in the second semester of first year, introduces a health promotion paradigm. The third component, throughout second year, allows students to engage in an in-depth study of the interconnection between a health problem and a social issue in a community agency setting. OUTCOMES: Students have expressed high levels of satisfaction with the community agency placements. The feedback from agencies has also been enthusiastic. Patients in the home care program have reported that visits by medical students are a positive experience. CONCLUSION: It is possible to recruit and maintain large numbers of urban community agencies as learning sites for medical students. It is hoped that this approach will help to produce socially responsive medical practitioners. PMID:9033420
Tice, Carol H.
With passage of the National and Community Service Trust Act of 1993, national service volunteers will be joining forces with community-based organizations to work with underserved populations, creating many challenges. The community agency perspective on some anticipated challenges, possible responses, and application of principles of good…
Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. University for Man.
During 1982-83, University for Man (UFM) focused on three areas: the Manhattan, Kansas, community where over 1,000 course programs and community service projects, led by more than 1,000 volunteers ranging in age from 8 to 80, involved over 10,000 participants; the state of Kansas where UFM served 46 communities with rural development/community…
The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has applied to the California Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC), for renewal of its Hazardous Waste Handling Facility Permit. A permit is required under Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations. The permit will allow LBL to continue using its current hazardous waste handling facility, upgrade the existing facility, and construct a replacement facility. The new facility is scheduled for completion in 1995. The existing facility will be closed under RCRA guidelines by 1996. As part of the permitting process, LBL is required to investigate areas of soil and groundwater contamination at its main site in the Berkeley Hills. The investigations are being conducted by LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program and are overseen by a number of regulatory agencies. The regulatory agencies working with LBL include the California Environmental Protection Agency`s Department of Toxic Substances Control, the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, the Bay Area Air Quality Management District, the East Bay Municipal Utilities District, and the Berkeley Department of Environmental Health. RCRA requires that the public be informed of LBL`s investigations and site cleanup, and that opportunities be available for the public to participate in making decisions about how LBL will address contamination issues. LBL has prepared this Community Relations Plan (CRP) to describe activities that LBL will use to keep the community informed of environmental restoration progress and to provide for an open dialogue with the public on issues of importance. The CRP documents the community`s current concerns about LBL`s Environmental Restoration Program. Interviews conducted between February and April 1993 with elected officials, agency staff, environmental organizations, businesses, site neighbors, and LBL employees form the basis for the information contained in this document.
Miller, Martin G., Comp.
A reflection of concerns of social scientists and of those involved in law enforcement, this extensive bibliography on police and community relations covers general material (including historical reviews); problems and approaches in police administration; the police image and community relations; the impact of the civil rights movement and civil…
...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Community Eligibility Option Evaluation AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS..., Office of Research and Analysis, Food and Nutrition Service, USDA, 3101 Park Center Drive, Room...
National Committee on Employment of Youth, New York, NY.
One of a pair of publications prepared under contract with the Office of Economic Opportunity, this guide is designed to help trainers, administrators, and other Community Action Agency staff prepare themselves and their agencies for the recruitment, selection, training, and supervision of neighborhood workers. Topics covered include developing an…
Wu, Greg Chung-Hsien; Chao, Yu-Chuan Joni
Agency, defined by Gao (2013) as learners' "dynamic strategic behavior" (p. 29) in response to contextual realities, has been central to educational undertakings. While the affordances of social networking sites like Facebook have been extensively examined in a number of educational studies, there has been a scarcity of research on…
public health needs that require attention (such as poor prenatal health, teen pregnancy , and sexually transmitted diseases) it is not difficult to...such as maternal and child health care or family planning education. One primary educational responsibility best accomplished with state and local...transformation in law enforcement is the concept of community policing. Community policing broadens the nature of police functions and makes better use
Dewhurst, Frank W.; Navarro, Juan G. Cegarra
External communities of practice are groups formed by company clients and employees based on common interests, commitment, mutual trust and collaboration whose members regularly share knowledge and learning. This paper examines how external communities of practice contribute to the creation of relational capital through an empirical investigation…
Pyhältö, Kirsi; Pietarinen, Janne; Soini, Tiina
The aim of this study was to examine teacher learning in terms of teachers' professional agency in the professional community of the school. Altogether 2310 Finnish comprehensive school teachers completed a survey. Results showed that teachers' active efforts to learn in the professional community and to promote school development cannot be…
Hallam, Rena A.; Rous, Beth; Grove, Jaime
Data from a statewide survey were used to examine the relationship between the professional backgrounds of early intervention service coordinators and their reported knowledge of and interaction with community resources relevant to early intervention services. Early intervention service coordinators with human service backgrounds were more likely…
Lande, Elaine; Mesa, Vilma
We investigate the rationale for instructional decisions proposed by two groups of community college mathematics faculty (full-time and part-time), as they discussed animations of trigonometry classes that breached several classroom norms. Although both groups of faculty justify their decisions in similar ways, the way in which they talk differs.…
Woodress, Fred A.
This monograph is a practical manual on public relations (PR) for community and junior colleges, containing numerous suggestions and recommendations for establishing and operating an effective public relations effort while avoiding PR pitfalls. An overview of the history of public relations in academe, the rationale underlying today's PR programs…
Zweig, Janine M; Burt, Martha R
The goals of the current study are (a) to understand the community and state context in which STOP(Services* Training* Officers* Prosecutors)-funded victim service (VS) programs operate, (b) to assess the degree to which receipt of STOP funding for VS programs and the degree of state-level STOP agency support for collaboration among community agencies have led to improved program services and community interaction, and (c) to assess the degree to which improved interaction between community agencies leads to improvements for VS programs. The results show that community interaction between VS programs and other community agencies can improve VS program services as reported by service providers. In addition, the higher the pre-STOP levels of activity around violence against women issues in communities, the more agencies can enhance their service system with STOP funding. Also, STOP funding has facilitated greater levels of change for communities whose pre-STOP attention to violence against women was lower.
Bagin, Don; And Others
Updating the 1990 edition, this book emphasizes the importance of designing public relations programs around the needs and problems of the school and its special publics. The book approaches the subject from the perspective that increased interest and importance is being placed on community relations skills and schools, suggesting that two…
This is the penultimate article developed from a series of masterclasses organised and funded by the Department of Health for community matrons during summer 2006. The articles synthesise the masterclass content in order to describe the areas of practice that are common to the community matron role and which have to be practiced with high levels of knowledge and skill if community matrons are to deliver the expected benefits to patients and to the NHS. It uses a case study to explore the fundamental concepts of accountability, teamwork; knowing the system; assertiveness; advocacy and empowerment which community matrons identified consistently as being significant in ensuring successful interprofessional and inter-agency working.
Garvin, Theresa; McGee, Tara K; Smoyer-Tomic, Karen E; Aubynn, Emmanuel Ato
As a result of Structural Adjustment Programme from the 1980s, many developing countries have experienced an increase in resource extraction activities by international and transnational corporations. The work reported here examines the perceived impacts of gold mining at the community level in the Wassa West District of Ghana, Africa and discusses those perceived impacts in the context of globalization processes and growing multinational corporate interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Interview data compared community members' perceptions with those of company representatives in three communities. The results indicate that communities held companies responsible for a series of economic, social, and environmental changes. While recognizing some of the benefits brought by the mines, communities felt that the companies did not live up to their responsibility to support local development. Companies responded by denying, dismissing concerns, or shifting blame. Findings from this work show that lack of engagement and action by government agencies at all levels resulted in companies acting in a surrogate governmental capacity. In such situations, managing expectations is key to community-company relations.
Liaschenko, Joan; Peter, Elizabeth
It may be the case that the most challenging moral problem of the twenty-first century will be the relationship between the individual moral agent and the practices and institutions in which the moral agent is embedded. In this paper, we continue the efforts that one of us, Joan Liaschenko, first called for in 1993, that of using feminist ethics as a lens for viewing the relationship between individual nurses as moral agents and the highly complex institutions in which they do the work of nursing. Feminist ethics, with its emphasis on the inextricable relationship between ethics and politics, provides a useful lens to understand the work of nurses in context. Using Margaret Urban Walker's and Hilde Lindemann's concepts of identity, relationships, values, and moral agency, we argue that health care institutions can be moral communities and profoundly affect the work and identity and, therefore, the moral agency of all who work within those structures, including nurses. Nurses are not only shaped by these organizations but also have the power to shape them. Because moral agency is intimately connected to one's identity, moral identity work is essential for nurses to exercise their moral agency and to foster moral community in health care organizations. We first provide a brief history of nursing's morally problematic relationship with institutions and examine the impact institutional master narratives and corporatism exert today on nurses' moral identities and agency. We close by emphasizing the significance of ongoing dialogue in creating and sustaining moral communities, repairing moral identities, and strengthening moral agency.
Lawrance, Frances P; Damron-Rodriguez, Joann; Rosenfeld, Peri; Sisco, Sarah; Volland, Patricia J
The Practicum Partnership Program (PPP), an innovative field education model developed and implemented by six demonstration sites over four years (2000-2004), uses a structured university-community partnership, or consortium, as the foundation for designing, implementing, and evaluating internships for graduate social work students specializing in aging. This paper describes the site consortia and PPP programs, presents evaluation findings, and identifies future directions for the PPP. Student learning outcomes were positive and both students and consortia agencies reported positive PPP experiences. The PPP model underscores the value of the community agencies as equal partners in educating future geriatric social workers.
Young, C L; Hall, W T; Collins, J
Proposals for dealing with illegeal migration from Mexico to the United States generally do not recognize it as an international social problem. The proposals also present contradictory solutions. Amnesty, a humanitarian policy, is being suggested as well as increased restrictions and punishments, a policing policy. However, in the absence of a comprehensive national policy, community social and health care programs must provide services to illegal aliens. This article attempts to document some of the issues that illegal immigration presents for community agencies.
Moate, Josephine; Ruohotie-Lyhty, Maria
This article presents a model for teacher education based on an ongoing action research project at a Finnish university. This model draws on the educational theory of Dewey and the pedagogical sensibility of Bakhtin to critically consider the concepts of teacher identity and agency and to highlight the role of community in teacher development. Our…
Christoph, Gabriela; Gniewosz, Burkhard; Reinders, Heinz
This study examines community service effects on adolescents' prosocial behaviors as mediated through experiences made during service. Based on theoretical assumptions by Youniss and Yates, we suggest that personal agency experiences and being confronted with situations that can challenge the own world views (ideology experiences) serve as…
... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies. 431.610 Section 431.610 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.610 Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies....
... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies. 431.610 Section 431.610 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.610 Relations with standard-setting and survey agencies....
Bowles, B. Dean
Summaries of four studies on school community relations, student achievement and community support are provided in this report. The studies abstracted are: (1) "School-Community Relations, Student Achievement, and Conflict Resolution," by John E. Ingram, Jr.; (2) "School-Community Relations and Student Achievement in Communities of Differing…
Hilbert, Harvey C.
To recapture the spirit of Thoreau's "uncommon schools," a South Carolina county Department of Social Services (DSS) sought to create a "university" of the community which would provide experiences in the field for students, feed-back to DSS workers from the community and to the local college, and would utilize the resources of…
Araújo, Maria Rizoneide Negreiros; Assunção, Raquel Silva
This article discusses practices developed by the community health agency in the Family Health Program of Divinópolis--MG reporting on practices in the fields of Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, taking as main reference the principles established at the 1st International Health Promotion Conference, which took place in Canada in 1986. Field research was carried out by questionnaire, direct observation of work and open interviews with community health agencies. A qualitative approach was chosen in which the concepts and statements of the subjects were dealt with in the light of historical and dialectical materialism, and the organization and analysis of the discourses according to the Discourse of the Collective Subject. We conclude that the community health agency performs actions recommended by the Ministry of Health, and that its health promoting actions are confined to the creation of environments favorable to health, actions in the home. It works more widely in disease prevention, in individual actions, health education for the community and for groups at risk, and controlling infectious disease and parasites such as dengue and worms. Its focus of attention is predominantly the individual and not the family.
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Relation to regulations of other agencies. 120.5 Section 120.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.5 Relation to regulations of other agencies. If an article or service...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Relation to regulations of other agencies. 120.5 Section 120.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.5 Relation to regulations of other agencies. If an article or service...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relation to regulations of other agencies. 120.5 Section 120.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.5 Relation to regulations of other agencies. If an article or service...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Relation to regulations of other agencies. 120.5 Section 120.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS PURPOSE AND DEFINITIONS § 120.5 Relation to regulations of other agencies. If an article or service...
Duhn, Iris; Fleer, Marilyn; Harrison, Linda
This article focuses on the "Relational Agency Framework" (RAF), an analytical tool developed for an Australian review and evaluation study of an early years' policy initiative. We explore Anne Edward's concepts of "relational expertise", "building common knowledge" and "relational agency" to explore how…
Maso, J.; Díaz, P.; Pons, X.; Serral, I.; Belda, F.
Currently, 86 countries are Group on Earth Observations (GEO) members. Mainly, GEO points are relevant national agencies that ensure the national participation in the GEOSS implementation efforts. AEMet (the Spanish Meteorological Office) is the direct responsible for GEOSS in Spain and they participate in GEO Committees and tasks. Also, the European Commission is actively funding European research projects to develop GEOSS using innovative conceptual frameworks and technologies. The success of GEO strongly depends on the contributions from science communities. Unfortunately, difficulties in the development and use of GEOSS resources have been identified in these communities including the earth observation one. Furthermore, up to now, these activities resemble a bottom-up approach, and depend on the initiative of national groups and individuals. There is a lack of a comprehensive outreach and engagement program, to which these activities could be linked, and there is a lack of top-down activities. The 7th framework program project "Coordinating Earth and Environmental cross-disciplinary projects to promote GEOSS" (EGIDA) will coordinate and cooperate with national agencies and existing research projects and will provide network methodologies. CREAF is EGIDA partner and will facilitate the implementation of the EGIDA methodology in Spain. Official Spanish representatives in GEOSS were contacted to explore the possibility of creating a permanent GEOSS-Spain network formed by both national administration bodies and relevant research initiatives. Also to assess the situation, CREAF prepared a questionnaire based on 5 simple questions that are conceived to start a dialog. 14 interviews were done so far by phone to public, private organizations and universities from 9 different European funded projects (EARLINETASOS, EuroSITES, ENVIROGRIDS, EuroGEOSS, ECOOP, GeoViQua, GFG2, HEREPLUS, and HERMIONE) and will be extended to other relevant communities in the near future
... community relations. (a) When an incident occurs, it is imperative to give the public prompt, accurate... community relations personnel should ensure that all appropriate public and private interests are kept... available public affairs/community relations resources to carry out this responsibility by establishing,...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community relations program. 638.543 Section... PROGRAM UNDER TITLE IV-B OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.543 Community relations program. Each center operator shall establish a community relations program, which shall...
Project FIND has been providing innovative supportive housing, nutrition, and social support to homeless and low- and moderate-income seniors on New York City's West Side since 1967. This article profiles this nonprofit, community-based agency, which was established to meet the needs of the frail and isolated elderly, and has continued to grow and evolve in response to changing demographics, neighborhood gentrification, and needs of both the homeless as well as the active "younger old." The article describes creative programming that has distinguished Project FIND's response to seniors' needs beyond basic housing and nutrition. It also explores what it takes to successfully provide senior services using limited resources and examines challenges for the future both nationally and for the agency.
The article develops an earlier account of relational agency ("IJER" 2005). Its starting point is a view of practices as knowledge-laden and emotionally freighted sites of purposeful and expert activity. Arguments therefore draw on cultural historical analyses of activities, practices and the institutions that shape them. Relational agency in…
... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee... Information Collection Under Review: Form I- 730, Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition; OMB Control No. 1615-0037.... (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee/Asylee Relative Petition. (3) Agency form number, if...
Namrata, Raylu; Oei, Tian P. S.
Factors (demographics, gambling behaviors and comorbid problems) that may be related to the severity of gambling problems were investigated among 440 problem gamblers seeking treatment in an Australian outpatient treatment agency. The participants were divided into sub-threshold pathological gamblers (SPGs; N = 104) and pathological gamblers (PGs;…
Parsons, Marsha B; Reid, Dennis H; Crow, Robert E
Supervisors in community agencies were surveyed regarding the best and worst ways to motivate staff to work diligently and enjoy work. Most respondents (88%) reported that it was very or extremely important for supervisors to motivate their staff, although only 53% reported that supervisors performed well in this regard. Concerning the best way to motivate staff, the most common response category was interacting positively and providing positive feedback for work performance. Regarding the worst way to motivate, the most common response category was interacting negatively with staff and providing negative feedback. Results are discussed in terms of emphasizing positive interaction styles and feedback by supervisors to help ensure that community support staff experience a motivating work environment.
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Doorways II was designed for community counselors to prevent and respond to…
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways II: Community Counselor Reference Materials on…
Sandman, P.M. ); Miller, P.M. ); Johnson, B.B. ); Weinstein, N.D. )
Three experimental studies were conducted employing hypothetical news stories to compare the effects on reader risk perceptions of two situations: when agency communication behavior was reported to be responsive to citizens' risk concerns, vs. when the agency was reported to be unresponsive. In the first two experiments, news stories of public meeting filled with distrust and controversy led to ratings indicating greater perceived risk than news stories reporting no distrust or controversy led to ratings indicating greater perceived risk than news stories reporting no distrust or controversy, even though the risk information was held constant. This effect appeared clearly when the differences in meeting tone were extreme and subjects made their ratings from their recall of the stores, but it was much weaker when the differences were moderate and subjects were allowed to go back over the news stories to help separate risk information from conflict information. In the third experiment, news stories about a spill cleanup systematically varied the seriousness of the spill, the amount of technical information provided in the story, and the agency behavior and resulting community outrage. The outrage manipulation significantly affected affective and cognitive components of perceived risk, but not hypothetical behavioral intentions. Seriousness and technical detail had very little effect on perceived risk. 42 refs., 4 tabs.
poverty and aiding the poor . At the 12 community action agencies reviewed, GAO found that over $11 million of such funds was being mis- managed or misused...action programs to encourage inno- vative approaches to attacking the causes of poverty and to stimu- late communities to use available resources more...effectively to help the poor become self-sufficient. The Community Services Ad- ministration (CSA) is responsible for administering these programs at
Bauer, Scott R; Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W
Geographic location is an important factor in understanding disparities in access to health-care and social services. The objective of this cross-sectional study is to evaluate disparities in the geographic distribution of income-related social service agencies relative to populations in need within Boston. Agency locations were obtained from a comprehensive database of social services in Boston. Geographic information systems mapped the spatial relationship of the agencies to the population using point density estimation and was compared to census population data. A multivariate logistic regression was conducted to evaluate factors associated with categories of income-related agency density. Median agency density within census block groups ranged from 0 to 8 agencies per square mile per 100 population below the federal poverty level (FPL). Thirty percent (n = 31,810) of persons living below the FPL have no access to income-related social services within 0.5 miles, and 77 % of persons living below FPL (n = 83,022) have access to 2 or fewer agencies. 27.0 % of Blacks, 30.1 % of Hispanics, and 41.0 % of non-Hispanic Whites with incomes below FPL have zero access. In conclusion, some neighborhoods in Boston with a high concentration of low-income populations have limited access to income-related social service agencies.
Stegehuis, Clara; van der Hofstad, Remco; van Leeuwaarden, Johan S H
Most random graph models are locally tree-like-do not contain short cycles-rendering them unfit for modeling networks with a community structure. We introduce the hierarchical configuration model (HCM), a generalization of the configuration model that includes community structures, while properties such as the size of the giant component, and the size of the giant percolating cluster under bond percolation can still be derived analytically. Viewing real-world networks as realizations of HCM, we observe two previously undiscovered power-law relations: between the number of edges inside a community and the community sizes, and between the number of edges going out of a community and the community sizes. We also relate the power-law exponent τ of the degree distribution with the power-law exponent of the community-size distribution γ. In the case of extremely dense communities (e.g., complete graphs), this relation takes the simple form τ=γ-1.
executive branch agencies’ expenditures of appropriated funds on public relations activities, some of which have been characterized as propagandistic...Congress may ask the Government Accountability Office (GAO) to examine an agency’s expenditures on public relations activities with a view to their...7 Tracking Expenditures
Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John
Many health scholars find that Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice leaves too little room for individual agency. We contend that, by virtue of its relational, field-theoretic underpinnings, the idea of leaving room for agency in Bourdieu's theory of practice is misguided. With agency manifested in interactions and social structures consisting of relations built upon relations, the stark distinction between agency and structure inherent to substantialist thinking is undermined, even dissolved, in a relational field-theoretic context. We also contend that, when treated as relationally bound phenomena, Bourdieu's notions of habitus, doxa, capital and field illuminate creative, adaptive and future-looking practices. We conclude by discussing difficulties inherent to implementing a relational theory of practice in health promotion and public health.
... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Regulations Relating to Recordation and Enforcement of Trademarks and Copyrights AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... existing information collection: 1651-0123. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of...
... Management and Budget. Comments should be addressed to the OMB Desk Officer for U.S. Customs and Border... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Regulations Relating to Recordation and Enforcement of Trademarks and Copyrights AGENCY: U.S. Customs and...
Hanson, Philip G.; O'Connell, Walter E.
One of the sources of conflict in our urban centers today is the distrust that exists between the community and the police. In an effort to improve relations between community members and the police, so that both groups might work together more effectively in solving community problems, the Houston Cooperative Crime Prevention Program was…
Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Green, Eric P; Franco, Margarita M
Sense of community (SOC) is one of the most widely used and studied constructs in community psychology. As proposed by Sarason in (The Psychological sense of community: prospects for a community psychology, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, 1974), SOC represents the strength of bonding among community members. It is a valuable component of community life, and it has been linked to positive mental health outcomes, citizen participation, and community connectedness. However, promotion of SOC can become problematic in community psychology praxis when it conflicts with other core values proposed to define the field, namely values of human diversity, cultural relativity, and heterogeneity of experience and perspective. Several commentators have noted that promotion of SOC can conflict with multicultural diversity because it tends to emphasize group member similarity and appears to be higher in homogeneous communities. In this paper, we introduce the idea of a community-diversity dialectic as part of praxis and research in community psychology. We argue that systematic consideration of cultural psychology perspectives can guide efforts to address a community-diversity dialectic and revise SOC formulations that ultimately will invigorate community research and action. We provide a working agenda for addressing this dialectic, proposing that systematic consideration of the creative tension between SOC and diversity can be beneficial to community psychology.
Erickson, Ken C.
Describes the organization and operation of an immigration social service agency in Garden City, Kansas, with attention to relations among the staff and between the staff and the Asian-American and Hispanic-American clientele. (DM)
Smith, Justin D.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Kavanagh, Katherine
This study reports the results of a pragmatic effectiveness–implementation hybrid trial of the Family Check-Up (FCU) conducted in 3 community mental health agencies with 40 participating therapists. Seventy-one families with children between 5 and 17 years of age participated. Intervention fidelity and level of adoption were acceptable; families reported high service satisfaction; and therapists reported high acceptability. Families in the FCU condition experienced significantly reduced youth conduct problems in comparison to usual care and completion of the FCU resulted in larger effects. This study provides promising evidence that implementing the FCU in community mental health agencies has the potential to improve youth behavior outcomes. PMID:24927926
Guttman, Robert C.
Five winning guideposts that facilitate development and maintenance of a strong community relations program are climate building, confidence building, team building, image building, and commitment building. The influence of community relations on public education support bases depends immensely on personal and group interrelationships and the…
... private-sector programs to enhance national resilience.'' FEMA intends to conduct one or more Community... Community Preparedness Division, to help achieve greater community resiliency nationwide. Collection...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Relation to regulations of other agencies. 120.5 Section 120.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS... General collectively comprise the U.S. Munitions List under the Arms Export Control Act (AECA). As...
Yamamoto, Naoaki; Yokoyama, Jun; Kawata, Masakado
Ecologists have long been intrigued by the factors that control the pattern of biodiversity, i.e., the distribution and abundance of species. Previous studies have demonstrated that coexisting species partition their resources and/or that the compositional similarity between communities is determined by environmental factors, lending support to the niche-assembly model. However, no attempt has been made to test whether the relative amount of resources that reflects relative niche space controls relative species abundance in communities. Here, we demonstrate that the relative abundance of butterfly species in island communities is significantly related to the relative biomasses of their host plants but not to the geographic distance between communities. In the studied communities, the biomass of particular host plant species positively affected the abundance of the butterfly species that used them, and consequently, influenced the relative abundance of the butterfly communities. This indicated that the niche space of butterflies (i.e., the amount of resources) strongly influences butterfly biodiversity patterns. We present this field evidence of the niche-apportionment model that propose that the relative amount of niche space explains the pattern of the relative abundance of the species in communities.
Racino, Julie Ann
This report is based on a site visit to a private, for-profit agency that provides community support services to people with severe disabilities in six counties in Minnesota. The organization supports 25 families in its in-home program and 35 people in supportive and semi-independent living services. Services offered include minor physical…
... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Rules Relating to Regulation of Domestic Exchange-Traded..., correction. SUMMARY: This document corrects language in the Extension of an Existing Collection published in... extension of the collection. The collection covers rules related to risk disclosure concerning...
This article examines how principals describe the nature of relationships and presence (or absence) of relational trust among teachers, and between the teachers and the principal in the discourse of professional learning communities. Participants were 12 school principals from urban, suburban, and rural communities in Manitoba. In the discourse of…
If readers want to improve ties with their local community, government, town, or civic groups, then this is the handbook to read. This guide focuses on how to conduct a community relations audit, develop a CR strategy, build a CR team, communicate more effectively with neighbors, and handle crises well. The handbook also includes a sample economic…
Taugher, C. David
Guidelines and suggestions for obtaining a professional position in the corporate community are presented. Although the focus is on communications-related positions, the suggestions are general enough to be useful to anyone seeking a corporate job. The paper begins by discussing basic philosophies and realities of the corporate community with an…
Bodison, Stefanie C; Sankaré, Ibrahima; Anaya, Henry; Booker-Vaughns, Juanita; Miller, Aria; Williams, Pluscedia; Norris, Keith
To help maximize the real-world applicability of available interventions in clinical and community healthcare practice, there has been greater emphasis over the past two decades on engaging local communities in health-related research. While there have been numerous successful community-academic partnered collaborations, there continues to be a need to articulate the common barriers experienced during the evolution of these partnerships, and to provide a roadmap for best practices that engage healthcare providers, patients, families, caregivers, community leaders, healthcare systems, public agencies and academic medical centers. To this end, this paper presents a summary of a forum discussion from the 2014 Southern California Dissemination, Implementation and Improvement (DII) Science Symposium, sponsored by the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Clinical Translational Science Institute (CTSI), University of Southern California (USC) CTSI, and Kaiser Permanente. During this forum, a diverse group of individuals representing multiple constituencies identified four key barriers to success in community-partnered participatory research (CPPR) and discussed consensus recommendations to enhance the development, implementation, and dissemination of community health-related research. In addition, this group identified several ways in which the over 60 NIH funded Clinical and Translational Science Institutes across the country could engage communities and researchers to advance DII science.
Bodison, Stefanie; Sankaré, Ibrahima; Anaya, Henry; Booker-Vaughns, Juanita; Miller, Aria; Williams, Pluscedia; Norris, Keith
To help maximize the real-world applicability of available interventions in clinical and community healthcare practice, there has been greater emphasis over the last two decades on engaging local communities in health-related research. While there have been numerous successful community-academic partnered collaborations, there continues to be a need to articulate the common barriers experienced during the evolution of these partnerships, and to provide a roadmap for best practices that engage health care providers, patients, families, caregivers, community leaders, healthcare systems, public agencies and academic medical centers. To this end, this article presents a summary of a forum discussion from the 2014 Southern California Dissemination, Implementation and Improvement (DII) Science Symposium, sponsored by the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Clinical Translational Science Institute (CTSI), University of Southern California (USC) CTSI, and Kaiser Permanente. During this forum, a diverse group of individuals representing multiple constituencies identified four key barriers to success in community-partnered participatory research (CPPR) and discussed consensus recommendations to enhance the development, implementation, and dissemination of community health-related research. In addition, this group identified several ways in which the over 60 NIH funded Clinical and Translational Science Institutes across the country could engage communities and researchers to advance DII science. PMID:26546337
Sullivan, Catherine H
Refugees' cultural beliefs, communication barriers, and low health literacy may lead to health disparities within the Western health care system. This article describes a teaching-learning strategy emphasizing the community partnership between a baccalaureate school of nursing, an immigrant-refugee program, and a community literacy program in a rural state. Senior community health nursing students partnered with an immigrant-refugee program and a community literacy program to provide health promotion and prevention services to recently immigrated Hmong and Russian refugees. Priority health needs were identified and culturally appropriate health promotion and prevention education modules were designed and implemented by students. Students collaborated with community agencies and businesses to increase access to health resources for these vulnerable populations. Outcomes were the provision of cultural awareness experiences for nursing students and access to health care with increased knowledge of Western health care practices and beliefs for refugees.
Kirigia, J M; Muthuri, L K; Kirigia, D G
The aim of this paper is to stimulate debate on the agency (principal-agent) in health-related biotechnology research. It attempts to answer the following questions: What is health-related biotechnology and biotechnology research? What is an agency? What factors are likely to undermine the principal's capacity to exercise informed consent? When might the principal-agency problem arise? How could the agency in biotechnology transfer be strengthened in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)? The transfer of health-related biotechnology to SSA ought to be preceded by research to ascertain the effectiveness of such technologies on population health. In that process, the national ethical review committee (REC), as an agent of every human research subject (principal), ought to ensure that international principles (e.g. beneficence, non-malfeasance, autonomy, justice, dignity, truthfulness and honesty) for human experimentation are observed by biotechnology researchers in order to satisfy moral, ethical and legal requirements. The key factors that undermine principals' sovereignty in exercising their right to informed consent to participate in biotechnology trials are discussed. The paper ends with a list of activities that can strengthen the agency, e.g. legislative requirement that all health-related biotechnology transfer should be preceded by rigorous evaluation; continuous update of the agents knowledge of the contents of the international ethical guidelines; and education of potential and actual principals on their human rights; among others.
Gallagher, Donald R.; Bagin, Don; Kindred, Leslie W.
Ways in which educators can communicate well, and subsequently gain support for programs, curriculum, and discipline, are presented. The book is divided into four parts: "Essential Considerations,""Relations with Special Publics,""Communication Tools," and "Evaluation." In part 1, some of the topics discussed include the importance of public…
JONASSEN, CHRISTEN T.
NORMATIVE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL FACTORS RELATING TO THE PROCESS OF SCHOOL REDISTRICTING AND CONSOLIDATION WERE IDENTIFIED AND DESCRIBED, AND SOME OF THE INTERRELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THESE FACTORS DETERMINED. SUCH DATA COULD BE USED DURING A SCHOOL DISTRICT REORGANIZATION PROCESS BY BOTH EDUCATORS AND ADMINISTRATORS TO MINIMIZE TENSION AND MITIGATE THE…
Green, Terrance L.
In recent years, research on urban school-community relations has emerged with renewed vigor and a myriad of suggestions for how to best approach the topic. While most of these suggestions are anchored in positivist and interpretive epistemologies, a growing number of scholars are applying more critical approaches to school-community relations…
This paper reports from the first phase of a study of the inter-professional work of hospital play specialists (HPSs). In this phase, the author aimed to test the utility of Edwards' concept of "relational agency" in inter-professional work in hospital settings. Individual HPSs in two London hospitals were observed for half-day periods,…
... infringing goods at the borders and determine if such goods infringe on intellectual property rights for... to Recordation and Enforcement of Trademarks and Copyrights AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... collection requirement concerning the: Regulations Relating to Recordation and Enforcement of Trademarks...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agency responsibility relative to exceptions to Federal product descriptions. 101-29.403-2 Section 101-29.403-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY...
Rep. Dicks, Norman D. [D-WA-6
10/30/2009 Became Public Law No: 111-88. (PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Division A is the Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010. Division B is the Further Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010, continuing appropriations through 12/18/2009. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Rep. Dicks, Norman D. [D-WA-6
10/30/2009 Became Public Law No: 111-88. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Division A is the Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010. Division B is the Further Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010, continuing appropriations through 12/18/2009. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Lin, Blossom Yen-Ju; Lin, Yung-Kai; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Lin, Tien-Tse
It has been debated that employees in a government or public ownership agency may perceive less need for growth opportunities or high-powered incentives than is the case for employees in private organizations. This study examined employees' job autonomy in government-run community health centers, its predispositions and its relation to their work outcomes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Taiwan. From 230 responding community health centers, 1380 staff members responded to the self-completed, structured questionnaire. Structural equation modeling revealed that employees' job autonomy has positive work outcomes: greater work satisfaction, and less intent to transfer and intentions to leave. In addition, job autonomy was related to employees' higher education levels, medical profession, permanent employment and serving smaller populations. Moreover, employees' age, educational levels, medical profession and employment status were found to be related to their work satisfaction, intent to transfer and intent to leave.
This workbook is part of a series devoted to all areas of charter-school development. Fifth in the series, this volume focuses on community relations and how school founders can handle public relations, market their school, and deal with controversy. The text is divided into three sections. Section one examines why schools should engage in public…
Snow, L; Hefty, L V; Kenyon, V; Bell, M L; Martaus, T
Community health nurse managers require tested orientation methods to fit new employees into the rapidly changing conditions of professional practice, increase nursing productivity, and reduce turnover. The clinical competencies for community health nursing provide a workable framework for applying orientation principles to the special demands of community health nursing.
The British Bangladeshi community is one of the youngest and fastest growing ethnic minority groups in the UK. Many report poor socio-economic and health profiles with the existence of substantial health inequalities, particularly in relation to type 2 diabetes. Although there is compelling evidence for the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, there is little understanding of how best to tailor treatments to the needs of minority ethnic groups. Little is known about nutrition related lifestyle choices in the Bangladeshi community or the factors influencing such decisions. Only by exploring these factors will it be possible to design and tailor interventions appropriately. The Bangladeshi Initiative for the Prevention of Diabetes study explored lay beliefs and attitudes, religious teachings and professional perspectives in relation to diabetes prevention in the Bangladeshi community in Tower Hamlets, London. Contrary to the views of health professionals and previous research, poor knowledge was not the main barrier to healthy lifestyle choices. Rather the desire to comply with cultural norms, particularly those relating to hospitality, conflicted with efforts to implement healthy behaviours. Considerable support from Islamic teachings for diabetes prevention messages was provided by religious leaders, and faith may have an important role in supporting health promotion in this community. Some health professionals expressed outdated views on community attitudes and were concerned about their own limited cultural understanding. The potential for collaborative working between health educators and religious leaders should be explored further, and the cultural competence of health professionals addressed.
.... USCIS did receive 1 comment in connection with the 60-day notice. The one comment USCIS received was regarding the extension of H-2 Petitioner's Employment Related or Fee Related Notification. The comment...
... as a brief abstract: Under the Violent Crime and Control Act of 1994, the U.S. Department of Justice... ensure that these agencies are planning on implementing their COPS grant program and/or project that...
Rep. Dicks, Norman D. [D-WA-6
10/30/2009 Became Public Law No: 111-88. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Division A is the Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2010. Division B is the Further Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010, continuing appropriations through 12/18/2009. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
Nickerson, Neal; Mook, Amy
Offers some easy-to-implement suggestions for community relations programs, including parent conferences, senior citizen days, work experience programs, performing groups, luncheons with civic organizations, displays of student works, and bulletin board message centers. Communication continues to be the best source of positive reinforcement. (MLH)
... planning by local Civil Defense officials. ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Relations with community groups. 705.22 Section 705.22 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES...
... planning by local Civil Defense officials. ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Relations with community groups. 705.22 Section 705.22 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES...
... planning by local Civil Defense officials. ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Relations with community groups. 705.22 Section 705.22 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES...
... planning by local Civil Defense officials. ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Relations with community groups. 705.22 Section 705.22 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES...
Blaha, Karen Lytle, Ed.; Vincent, Susan, Ed.; Schwendiman, Jed, Ed.
This annotated video transcript follows the discussion of six experts in community relations and charter schools. The panel was convened as part of an initiative to identify the specific needs of charter-school founders and to develop a leadership-training program designed to address those needs. Each member of the panel shared his or her insights…
Conners, Annette J.
Presents strategies for promoting school community relations with a district-wide communications program. Suggests working with news media at the district level, focusing on the journalistic values of proximity, timeliness, prominence, consequence, human interest, and conflict. Discusses the roles and responsibilities of the information officer,…
Christ, Tanya; Arya, Poonam; Chiu, Ming Ming
This study focused on two professional learning communities (PLCs) situated in literacy education practica courses. How four PLC resources (colleagues, facilitators, readings, and videos) were related to outcomes, including teachers' learning, teachers' application of this learning, and subsequent students' learning, was examined. Participants…
EPA News Release: EPA, the Mayor’s Office of Sustainability in Atlanta, Atlanta Workforce Development Agency and Local Partners Announce the Proctor Creek Trash Free Waters Community Workforce Program
Jones, Jessica; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Vilela, Tania; Brown, Hilary
In many countries, the shift in policy surrounding intellectual disabilities (ID) from segregation to inclusion has resulted in the closure of large-scale institutions in favor of integrated community programs and living accommodations. Because the success of the community inclusion movement lies in the hands of the staff who implement these…
Community Partnership School (CPS) serves 90 to 95 students annually in preK-5th grade. Of these, 100 percent are African American or multiracial, and all qualify for free or reduced-price lunch. Community Partnership School began as a collaboration between Germantown Academy, which had trouble recruiting low-income students to its suburban…
National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.
In the past few years, there has been a groundswell of community partnerships to prevent crime and drug abuse. This compilation presents prevention strategies, rather than programs, to help communities focus on adapting and tailoring program ideas and crime prevention techniques to local needs and circumstances. The strategies described are…
Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Borrell, Carme; Urbanos, Rosa; Pasarín, M Isabel; Rico, Ana; Fraile, Marta; Ramos, Xavier; Navarro, Vicente
This trends ecological study analyzes, across 17 autonomous communities of Spain from 1989 to 1998, the relationship between mortality (total and by main causes of death) and power relations (type of government: social democratic (SDP), conservative (CDP), and others), labor market variables, welfare state variables, income inequality, absolute income, poverty, and number of civil associations. The authors conducted a descriptive analysis; a bivariate analysis (Pearson correlation coefficients) between mortality and each of the independent variables; and a multivariate analysis, adjusting multilevel linear regression models. All dimensions of the conceptual power relations model were related to premature mortality in the direction hypothesized. The cross-pooled multilevel regression models show that total premature mortality in males, male and female cerebrovascular mortality, male and female cirrhosis mortality, and male lung cancer mortality decreased somewhat more in communities where primary health care reform was implemented more quickly. Premature mortality decreased somewhat more in SDP than in CDP communities for male and female total premature mortality, cerebrovascular mortality, and cirrhosis mortality, and male lung cancer mortality. These results are in accord with earlier studies that found a relationship among health indicators and variables related to labor market, welfare state, income inequalities, civil associations, and power relations.
Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Central ...
Multi-agency partnerships can be a key element in sustaining growth and outreach in higher education, and the literature clearly indicates the increasing number and diversity of collaborative structures occurring on today's college campuses. However, partnership construction is a complex endeavor and attempts often fail for many reasons, including…
Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (ųg/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Central ...
... Governor's Authorized Representative to the FEMA Regional Administrator prior to the expiration date of the... full three fiscal year period following the disaster are insufficient to meet the local government's... information shall have practical utility; (b) evaluate the accuracy of the agency's estimate of the burden...
Bergeron, Natasha; Welsh, Paul
Illustrates the contribution that the Student Case Competition of the Canadian Evaluation Society can make to agencies with evaluation needs by describing the experience of an addiction and family services program whose gambling addiction treatment program used as the case in the qualifying round of the 1998 competition. (SLD)
Reilly, Janet Resop; Collier, Jill; Edelstein, Janice; Vandenhouten, Chris; Hovarter, Rebecca; Hansen, Judith M; Stewart, Stephanie; Turner, Mary Jo
Evaluation of students in community and public health (C/PH) nursing clinical practica is a challenge, especially when preceptors are expected to evaluate students from different academic nursing programs. The need for a standardized student evaluation tool was identified during federally funded collaborative meetings held between C/PH academic and practice partners in Northeastern Wisconsin. This article focuses on the development and appraisal of the standardized Agency Feedback Form (AFF) for Student Practicum Experience in Community/Public Health Nursing, which was designed to meet the identified need. Four baccalaureate nursing programs implemented the AFF for 3 purposes: (1) to provide a consistent and easy evaluation form for preceptors to complete; (2) to communicate useful information about students' individual professional behaviors observed during practicum; and (3) to increase students' and preceptors' understanding of the population-based nursing interventions, using the Public Health Intervention Wheel. Future uses and implications of the AFF are also discussed.
Purpose Urban youths' agency to represent their realities through media has been largely unexplored in the youth development literature. In this qualitative case study of an after-school youth media program in the Bay Area, expressions of youth agency and the role of audiences are explored during the process of producing videos for public consumption. Methodology As participant observer of 14 ethnically diverse youth participants aged between 15 and 18 years over 18 months, I documented (a) the kind of agencies participants engaged in and (b) the impact of live and imagined future audiences on youths' creative processes. Analyses of field notes, semi-structured interviews, and media projects were conducted using thematic analysis to inductively generate emerging categories. Findings Themes included an agentive sense of self-efficacy, commitment, and responsibility, as well as perceived contributions to local audiences and an emerging collective identity. The youth demonstrated their increased sense of a social or civic duty to realistically represent youth of color to familiar and unfamiliar audiences. Implications This case study demonstrated how one youth media organization fostered agency through youth authorship, production, distribution, and local community dialogue. By documenting the impact of audiences from conception to public reception, this study provides valuable insight into the agentive process of publicly “performing” a commitment to complete a social change video project. Contribution This chapter underscores the value of performance within youth development programs and the critical component of audiences as one form of authentic assessment in order to foster individual and collective agency. PMID:20671812
Bottoms, Bette L; Goodman, Gail S; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Diviak, Kathleen R; Shaver, Phillip R
Religion can foster, facilitate, and be used to justify child maltreatment. Yet religion-related child abuse and neglect have received little attention from social scientists. We examined 249 cases of religion-related child maltreatment reported to social service agencies, police departments, and prosecutors' offices nationwide. We focused on cases involving maltreatment perpetrated by persons with religious authority, such as ministers and priests; the withholding of medical care for religious reasons; and abusive attempts to rid a child of supposed evil. By providing a descriptive statistical profile of the major features of these cases, we illustrate how these varieties of religion-related child maltreatment occur, who the victims and perpetrators are, and how religion-related child abuse and neglect are reported and processed by the social service and criminal justice systems. We end with a call for greater research attention to these important offenses against children.
Castellini, Federica; Colombo, Monica; Maffeis, Daniele; Montali, Lorenzo
This study investigates the sense of community and interethnic relations in two different metropolitan areas that vary in ethnic heterogeneity. The study was conducted in Milan, Italy using a sample of 318 participants living in different city districts that vary in ethnic heterogeneity (low vs. high). The participants completed a questionnaire…
Rappa, Natasha Anne; Tang, Kok-Sing
Agency is a construct facilitating our examination of when and how young people extend their own learning across contexts. However, little is known about the role played by adolescent learners' sense of agency. This paper reports two cases of students' agentively employing and developing science literacy practices—one in Singapore and the other in the USA. The paper illustrates how these two adolescent learners in different ways creatively accessed, navigated and integrated in-school and out-of-school discourses to support and nurture their learning of physics. Data were gleaned from students' work and interviews with students participating in a physics curricular programme in which they made linkages between their chosen out-of-school texts and several physics concepts learnt in school. The students' agentive moves were identified by means of situational mapping, which involved a relational analysis of the students' chosen artefacts and discourses across time and space. This relational analysis enabled us to address questions of student agency—how it can be effected, realised, construed and examined. It highlights possible ways to intervene in these networked relations to facilitate adolescents' agentive moves in their learning endeavours.
Farrell, Nicholas R; Deacon, Brett J
Although client preferences are an integral component of evidence-based practice in psychology (American Psychological Association, 2006), relatively little research has examined what potential mental health consumers value in the psychotherapy they may receive. The present study was conducted to examine community members' preferences for the scientific and relational aspects of psychotherapy for different types of presenting problems, and how accurately therapists perceive these preferences. Community members (n = 200) were surveyed about the importance of scientific (e.g., demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials) and relational (e.g., therapist empathy) characteristics of psychotherapy both for anxiety disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder) and disorder-nonspecific issues (e.g., relationship difficulties). Therapists (n = 199) completed the same survey and responded how they expected the average mental health consumer would. Results showed that although community members valued relational characteristics significantly more than scientific characteristics, the gap between these two was large for disorder-nonspecific issues (d = 1.24) but small for anxiety disorders (d = .27). Community members rated scientific credibility as important across problem types. Therapists significantly underestimated the importance of scientific characteristics to community members, particularly in the treatment of disorder-nonspecific issues (d = .74). Therapists who valued research less in their own practice were more likely to underestimate the importance of scientific credibility to community members. The implications of the present findings for understanding the nature of client preferences in evidence-based psychological practice are discussed.
Eichler, Hans-Georg; Bloechl-Daum, Brigitte; Abadie, Eric; Barnett, David; König, Franz; Pearson, Steven
Drug regulatory agencies have traditionally assessed the quality, safety and efficacy of drugs, and the current paradigm dictates that a new drug should be licensed when the benefits outweigh the risks. By contrast, third-party payers base their reimbursement decisions predominantly on the health benefits of the drug relative to existing treatment options (termed relative efficacy; RE). Over the past decade, the role of payers has become more prominent, and time-to-market no longer means time-to-licensing but time-to-reimbursement. Companies now have to satisfy the sometimes divergent needs of both regulators and payers, and to address RE during the pre-marketing stages. This article describes the current political background to the RE debate and presents the scientific and methodological challenges as they relate to RE assessment. In addition, we explain the impact of RE on drug development, and speculate on future developments and actions that are likely to be required from key players.
... Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency Verification Procedures AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... NRTE meat or poultry product with an outbreak would make subsequently-produced like product adulterated. In addition, FSIS is expanding its Salmonella Verification Sampling Program for Raw Meat and...
... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 417 HACCP Plan Reassessment for Not-Ready-To-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products... for Not-Ready-to-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency Verification Procedures'' until... prevalence of Salmonella in NRTE comminuted poultry product announced in the document. The Agency is...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Which agencies have right of access... agencies have right of access to the recipient's records relating to activities carried out under NAHASDA..., shall have the right of access to any pertinent books, documents, papers, or other records of...
... S. Hrg. 111-859 Senate Hearings Before the Committee on Appropriations Department of the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Fiscal Year 2011 111th CONGRESS, SECOND SESSION DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY NONDEPARTMENTAL WITNESSES S. Hrg. 111-859 DEPARTMENT OF...
Hartwell, W.T.; Tappen, J.; Karr, L.
evolved into a program that currently includes 28 environmental and radiation monitoring stations located in communities around the NTS. Although the capabilities of the off-site monitoring program at NTS have and will continue to evolve, the fundamental keystone of the program continues to be positive community relations, expressed through operation of stations by local residents, dissemination of near-real time monitoring data through on-site displays and a CEMP web site, annual training of station operators, public outreach programs and, most importantly, the maintenance of personal relationships. (authors)
Sobota, D. J.; Hubler, S.; Paul, M. J.; Labiosa, R.
Excessive algal growth in streams and rivers from nutrient enrichment can cause costly human health and environmental problems. As part of the US Environmental Protection Agency's Nutrient Scientific Technical Exchange Partnership and Support (N-STEPS) program, we have been developing stressor-response (S-R) models relating nutrients to attached algal (periphyton) communities to help prioritize monitoring for water quality impairments in Oregon (Pacific Northwest, USA) streams and rivers. Existing data from the state and neighboring states were compiled and standardized from the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, US Environmental Protection Agency, and the US Geological Survey. To develop S-R models, algal community and biomass metrics were compared with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentration data, including total, dissolved, and inorganic forms of these nutrients. In total, 928 paired algal-nutrient samples were compiled from the 8 Level-III Ecoregions occurring in Oregon. Relationships between algal biomass metrics and nutrient concentrations were weak, with only ash-free dry mass and standing stock of chlorophyll a showing slight positive relationships across gradients of total N and soluble reactive P concentrations, respectively. In contrast, metrics describing algal community composition, including percent diatoms and abundance of nutrient-sensitive species, showed very strong nonlinear relationships with total N or P concentrations. This suggests that data describing algal community composition can help identify specific nutrient stressors across environmentally-diverse streams and rivers in the Pacific Northwest. Future analyses will examine if nutrient-algal S-R models vary across different hydrological, physiographical, and ecological settings in the region.
Latino immigrant parents were interviewed in a transnational urban community in California after passage of a law intended to abolish bilingual education (BE). Approximately half had English learner children in bilingual classes; the others in English-only classes. Guided by a macrocultural psychological interpretive framework, the study used a…
Riveros, Augusto; Newton, Paul; Burgess, David
We propose a practice-based focus for professional learning communities in schools. We start with a brief historical review of the approaches that have deemed peer collaboration as crucial for school improvement and explore how teachers' practices have been characterised in past reform initiatives. Second, we highlight the importance of "teacher…
Gau, Wen-Bing; Wen, Chen-Hao
In a turbulent time, communities of practice (CoPs) have become an important mechanism to develop organizational learning. Because of the rapid changes of global market and population structure, organizations in the private sector keep examining their leaning processes to adjust themselves to different challenges. However, few studies try to…
This article explores the establishment of schools set up by Muslim communities in Cape Town, South Africa, after 1994. Twelve schools have been set up across the city: four primary schools, three high schools, four schools that have grades 1-12, and one school that has grades 1-3 and 8-10. They are registered with the Western Cape Education…
Ferrari, Joseph R.; Worrall, Laurie
Surveyed supervisors from 30 community-based organizations about their perceptions of each service-learning student located at their site at the end of an academic term. Factor analyses yielded two reliable factors explaining over 74 percent of the common variance: students demonstrated service skills (e.g., constructive relationship with others,…
Denning, Janice; Gibbons, Jacque
Interviews with 74 rural community professionals assessed family preservation services available during a 2-year pilot project in 3 rural areas of Kansas and compared family preservation services to traditional child welfare services. Respondents viewed family preservation projects as highly valued services, focusing on the projects' informality,…
Everett, Joyce E.; Homstead, Kerry; Drisko, James
Although many in the social work profession have written about empowerment, few have offered a description of the empowerment process from the perspective of clients and workers in high-risk communities. This qualitative study presents a model of empowerment practice from the perspective of frontline workers, the challenges they faced, and the…
...: Community Partnership Grants Management System (GMS) ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under... following information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and... information, please contact: Maria Swineford, (202) 616-0109, Office of Audit, Assessment, and...
The Energy Policy Act of 1992 calls for a program to further the commercialization of renewable energy and energy efficient technologies for the industrial sector.. The primary objective of the Office of Industrial Technologies Chemical Industry Team is to work in partnership with the US chemical industry to maximize economic, energy, and environmental benefits through research and development of innovative technologies. This document was developed to inventory organizations within the federal government on current chemical industry-related research and development. While an amount of funding or number of projects specifically relating to chemical industry research and development was not defined in all organizations, identified were about 60 distinct organizations representing 7 cabinet-level departments and 4 independent agencies, with research efforts exceeding $3.5 billion in fiscal year 1995. Effort were found to range from less than $500 thousand per year at the Departments of Agriculture and the Interior to over $100 million per year at the Departments of Commerce, Defense, Energy, and Health and Human Services and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The total number of projects in these programs exceeded 10,000. This document is complete to the extent that agencies volunteered information. Additions, corrections, and changes are encouraged and will be incorporated in future revisions.
Trent, Richard L., Ed.
This nine-chapter manual provides a practical guide to community college public relations (PR) for PR officers with expanding responsibilities. Chapter I explores the philosophy of community college public relations, considering the issue of community, the role of the PR director, and potential problem areas. Chapters II and III provide guidelines…
Bertos-Fortis, Mireia; Farnelid, Hanna M.; Lindh, Markus V.; Casini, Michele; Andersson, Agneta; Pinhassi, Jarone; Legrand, Catherine
Future climate scenarios in the Baltic Sea project an increase of cyanobacterial bloom frequency and duration, attributed to eutrophication and climate change. Some cyanobacteria can be toxic and their impact on ecosystem services is relevant for a sustainable sea. Yet, there is limited understanding of the mechanisms regulating cyanobacterial diversity and biogeography. Here we unravel successional patterns and changes in cyanobacterial community structure using a 2-year monthly time- series during the productive season in a 100 km coastal-offshore transect using microscopy and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments. A total of 565 cyanobacterial OTUs were found, of which 231 where filamentous/colonial and 334 picocyanobacterial. Spatial differences in community structure between coastal and offshore waters were minor. An “epidemic population structure” (dominance of asingle cluster) was found for Aphanizomenon/Dolichospermum within the filamentous/colonial cyanobacterial community. In summer, this clusters imultaneously occurred with opportunistic clusters/OTUs, e.g., Nodularia spumigena and Pseudanabaena. Picocyanobacteria, Synechococcus/Cyanobium, formeda consistent but highly diverse group. Overall, the potential drivers structuring summer cyanobacterial communities were temperature and salinity. However, the different responses to environmental factors among and within genera suggest high niche specificity for individual OTUs. The recruitment and occurrence of potentially toxic filamentous/colonial clusters was likely related to disturbance such as mixing events and short-term shifts in salinity, and not solely dependent on increasing temperature and nitrogen-limiting conditions. Nutrients did not explain further the changes in cyanobacterial community composition. Novel occurrence patterns were identified as a strong seasonal succession revealing a tight coupling between the emergence of opportunistic picocynobacteria and the bloom
Atwood, J R; Haase, J; Rees-McGee, S; Blackwell, G; Giordano, L; Earnest, D; Alberts, D; Sheehan, E; Benedict, J; Aickin, M
This study identified participants' reasons for good, marginal or poor adherence, or withdrawing from community-based clinical studies using a dietary and/or drug intervention. Adults aged 48-75 years participated in one of three studies related to decreasing colon polyp recurrence. Qualitative data from progress notes (N = 675) and end-of-study evaluations (N = 87) were coded using constant comparative analysis with 100% content validity panel agreement. Most common reasons for non-adherence were barriers such as side-effects, interference with vacation plans, unrelated illness, forgetting and competing outside stressors. Participation motivators were benefits such as altruism, medical benefits, free service and staff rapport. Findings supported the Health Behavior in Cancer Prevention model-based approach to adherence interventions and provided directions for adherence promotion in future community-based clinical studies.
Balch, David; Taylor, Carl; Rosenthal, David; Bausch, Chris; Warner, Dave; Morris, Ray
This paper describes a model for homeland security, community readiness, and medical response that was applied during an operational exercise around Super Bowl XXXVII. In addition, it describes the products provided by private companies involved in the exercise and how they would have contributed to a medical disaster had one occurred. The purpose of Shadow Bowl was to demonstrate community readiness and medical response to a mass casualty event. The goals of the project were to: (1) provide enhanced public safety using an advanced communication network and sensor grid; (2) develop mass casualty surge capabilities through medical reach-back; and (3) build a collaboration model between civilian, military, public, and private partners. The results of the Shadow Bowl Exercise accentuated the value of new telehealth and disaster medicine tools in treating large numbers of patients when infrastructure overload occurs.
Kim, Mijung; Roth, Wolff-Michael
In (science) education, primacy is given to agency, the human capability to act and, in this, to learn. However, phenomenological philosophers and societal-historical psychologists point out that agency, the purposeful (intentional) engagement with the world, is only the effect of a much more profound capacity: passibility, the capacity to be affected. In this study, we begin with what has been recognized as a fundamental condition of learning: learners cannot intentionally orient to the learning outcome because they inherently do not know it so that that knowledge cannot be the object of intention. In this study, we provide evidence for three empirically grounded assertions: (a) children do not intend new knowledge and understanding, which instead give themselves in and through materials and material configurations; (b) knowing-how is received (as unintended gifts) because our bodies are endowed with passibility, the capability to be affected; and (c) the new knowledge and understanding exists as and in social relation first. We suggest implications for engineering design in science classrooms.
Liu, Xin; Murata, Tsuyoshi; Wakita, Ken
In network science, assortativity refers to the tendency of links to exist between nodes with similar attributes. In social networks, for example, links tend to exist between individuals of similar age, nationality, location, race, income, educational level, religious belief, and language. Thus, various attributes jointly affect the network topology. An interesting problem is to detect community structure beyond some specific assortativity-related attributes ρ, i.e., to take out the effect of ρ on network topology and reveal the hidden community structures which are due to other attributes. An approach to this problem is to redefine the null model of the modularity measure, so as to simulate the effect of ρ on network topology. However, a challenge is that we do not know to what extent the network topology is affected by ρ and by other attributes. In this paper, we propose a distance modularity, which allows us to freely choose any suitable function to simulate the effect of ρ. Such freedom can help us probe the effect of ρ and detect the hidden communities which are due to other attributes. We test the effectiveness of distance modularity on synthetic benchmarks and two real-world networks.
Northridge, Mary E; Scott, Gwendolyn; Swaner, Rachel; Northridge, Jennifer L; Jean-Louis, Betina; Klihr-Beall, Sandra; Vaughn, Rubiahna L; Pradier, Yvonne J; Vaughan, Roger D; Hayes, Roger; Caraballo, Ralph S
The aim of this collaborative public health study was to engage families, agencies, and programs in reducing secondhand smoke exposure in Central Harlem, New York City. Baseline interviews (n=657) and focus groups (n=4) were conducted with adult members of households with children who had asthma and asthma-like symptoms in the Harlem Children's Zone Asthma Initiative. The interviews concerned the prevalence and determinants of exposure of enrolled children to secondhand smoke. Key findings were that participants: (1) were generally aware of the hazards of secondhand smoke; (2) used strategies to reduce exposure to secondhand smoke in their homes; (3) believed that outdoor pollutants are sometimes just as bad for the health of their children as secondhand smoke; and (4) used smoking to provide stress relief and help diffuse otherwise volatile situations in their homes. The Harlem Smoke-Free Home Campaign was launched in October 2007 based in part on these findings.
Jaycox, Lisa H; Stein, Bradley D; Wong, Marleen
Schools are well positioned to facilitate recovery for students exposed to community or school violence or other traumatic life events affecting populations of youth. This article describes how schools can circumvent several key barriers to mental health service provision, outcomes that school interventions target, and the role of the family in school-based services. It includes a description of the history of schools in facilitating recovery for students exposed to traumatic events, particularly related to crisis intervention, and the current status of early intervention and strategies for long-term recovery in the school setting. Challenges and future directions are also discussed.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.
Jankowska, Marta M.; Stoler, Justin; Ofiesh, Caetlin; Rain, David; Weeks, John R.
Background Social and environmental factors are increasingly recognized for their ability to influence health outcomes at both individual and neighborhood scales in the developing urban world. Yet issues of spatial heterogeneity in these complex environments may obscure unique elements of neighborhood life that may be protective or harmful to human health. Resident perceptions of neighborhood effects on health may help to fill gaps in our interpretation of household survey results and better inform how to plan and execute neighborhood-level health interventions. Objective We evaluate differences in housing and socioeconomic indicators and health, environment, and neighborhood perceptions derived from the analysis of a household survey and a series of focus groups in Accra, Ghana. We then explore how neighborhood perceptions can inform survey results and ultimately neighborhood-level health interventions. Design Eleven focus groups were conducted across a socioeconomically stratified sample of neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. General inductive themes from the focus groups were analyzed in tandem with data collected in a 2009 household survey of 2,814 women. In-depth vignettes expand upon the three most salient emergent themes. Results Household and socioeconomic characteristics derived from the focus groups corroborated findings from the survey data. Focus group and survey results diverged for three complex health issues: malaria, health-care access, and sense of personal agency in promoting good health. Conclusion Three vignettes reflecting community views about malaria, health-care access, and sense of personal agency in promoting good health highlight the challenges facing community health interventions in Accra and exemplify how qualitatively derived neighborhood-level health effects can help shape health interventions. PMID:25997424
Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Norr, Kathleen F.; McCreary, Linda; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Bernales, Margarita; Miner, Sarah
Purpose When healthcare workers have stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV it may lead to discriminatory behavior that interferes with prevention, treatment, and care. This research examined the HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes reported by health workers in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study used focus group data from the first phase of a larger study to develop and test a HIV prevention intervention for Chilean health workers. Ten focus groups were conducted with Health workers in two communities in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Two central themes emerged: Societal stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV and healthcare system’s policies related to HIV. Both inaccurate fears of transmission among the general public and Chilean Health workers and societal prejudices against homosexuals contributed to stigmatization and discrimination. Conclusions Health workers did not recognize their own stigmatizing attitudes or discriminatory behaviors, but their discussion indicated that these behaviors and attitudes did exist. Healthcare system issues identified included problems with confidentiality due to the desire to inform other health workers about client HIV status. Health workers must be sensitized to the current stigmatization and misinformation associated with HIV and its negative impacts on persons living with HIV and the general community. Implications All clinical and non-clinical workers at community clinics need mandatory education for HIV prevention that focuses on changing attitudes as well as sharing knowledge. Also, the Chilean law protecting people living with HIV and the confidentiality of their medical care needs to be publicized, along with guidelines for its enactment in clinics and other health facilities. PMID:21687824
Grauer, Kit, Ed.
Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…
Martin, A. M.; Chambers, L. H.; Pippin, M. R.; Spruill, K.
Ann Martin, Lin Chambers, Margaret Pippin, & Kate Spruill, NASA The NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) project at Langley Research Center in Hampton, VA, has funded 71 climate education initiatives since 2008. An evaluator was added to the team in mid-2011 to undertake an evaluation of the portfolio. The funded initiatives span across the nation and contribute to the development of a climate-literate public and the preparation of a climate-related STEM workforce through research experiences, professional development opportunities, development of data access and modeling tools, and educational opportunities in both K-12 and higher education. The portfolio of projects also represents a wide range of evaluation questions, approaches, and methodologies. The evaluation of the NICE portfolio has encountered context-specific challenges, including the breadth of the portfolio, the need to build up capacity for electronic project monitoring, and government-wide initiatives to align evaluations across Federal agencies. Additionally, we have contended with the difficulties of maintaining compliance with the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA), which constrains the ability of NICE to gather data and approach interesting evaluative questions. We will discuss these challenges and our approaches to overcoming them. First, we have committed to fostering communication and partnerships among our awardees and evaluators, facilitating the sharing of expertise, resources, lessons learned and practices across the individual project evaluations. Additionally, NICE has worked in collaboration with NOAA's Environmental Literacy Grants (ELG) and NSF's Climate Change Education Partnerships (CCEP) programs to foster synergy, leverage resources, and facilitate communication. NICE projects, and their evaluators, have had the opportunity to work with and benefit from colleagues on projects funded by other agencies, and to orient their work within the context of the broader tri-agency goals
Palmer, David D.; And Others
Examines the patterns of contracts between academic marine scientists and two kinds of federal funding agencies. Discusses the quality of working relationships, quality of academic marine scientific work, and dilemma of conflicting value systems. Finds that the scientists rate science-oriented agencies more favorably than society-oriented ones.…
Chindgren, Tina M.
The communities of practice model for knowledge sharing is examined in this conceptual paper. Key themes reflected in the literature--the linkage between knowledge and activity and the importance of relationships--are explored within the context of programs and practices within the National Aeronautics and Aerospace Agency (NASA) learning…
..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...
..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...
..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.7 Mission of the State agency. (a) The Older Americans Act intends that the State agency on aging shall be the leader relative to...
Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness C; Jooste, Sean; Cherry, Chauncey; Cain, Demetria
Community stress associated with poverty is related to health risks and poor health outcomes. Perceived community stress is specifically related to HIV transmission risk behaviors in the United States, but research has not examined these relationships in southern Africa, the region of the world with the highest rates of HIV infection and among the greatest poverty. Men (N=464) and women (N=531) living in impoverished adjacent communities distinguished by race (e.g., indigenous African and Coloured) completed anonymous surveys of perceptions of 10 poverty-related community stressors and measures of HIV risk-related behaviors. Indigenous African and Coloured communities differed in their perceptions of stressors, with Africans consistently viewing the 10 community stressors as more serious problems. In addition, perceived seriousness of lacking basic living resources was related to higher risk for HIV among Africans. Perceived community stress was also related to alcohol and drug use, but substance use did not mediate the association between perceived community stress and HIV risks. In the Coloured community, perceived community stressors were related to drug use, but perceived community stressors were not associated with HIV risks. These findings extend the findings of previous research to show that poverty-related stressors are associated with HIV transmission risks in some poverty-stricken communities and that these associations are not mediated by substance use.
Paradise, Andrew; Heaton, Paul
In 2011, CASE founded the Center for Community College Advancement to provide training and resources to help community colleges build and sustain effective fundraising, alumni relations and communications and marketing programs. This white paper summarizes the results of a groundbreaking survey on alumni relations programs at community colleges…
Hasford, Julian; Loomis, Colleen; Nelson, Geoffrey; Pancer, S. Mark
This comparative study examined how participation in an early childhood development (ECD) program, "Better Beginnings, Better Futures," for children (ages 4-8) relates to sense of community (SOC) in later adolescence (ages 18-19). Youths' stories (N = 96) about community experiences, collected by semistructured, open-ended interviews,…
van Amsterdam, Peter; Companjen, Arjen; Brudny-Kloeppel, Margarete; Golob, Michaela; Luedtke, Silke; Timmerman, Philip
The European Medicines Agency's (EMA) 2011 guideline on bioanalytical method validation (BMV) was evaluated and subsequently intensely discussed by the European Bioanalysis Forum (EBF) during a 2-day workshop (EBF Workshop on the implementation of the EMA guideline on BMV, Château de Limelette, Limelette, Belgium, 15-16 March 2012). The goal of the evaluation and discussions was to come to a uniform interpretation of the guideline and thus to help facilitate a smooth implementation at our laboratories. Up front preparations for the workshop by dedicated teams concentrated on challenges on implementation: ambiguities, technical or operational challenges and issues in general. In addition, common understandings were identified as well as main differences to the 2011 US FDA guideline. The guideline was perceived as being well written with a clear structure, separating method validation from sample analysis and treating all relevant aspects one-by-one in a logical order. It is the first BMV guideline clearly addressing the specifics for ligand binding assays and it shows a good match with current scientific thinking. The EBF community considers the EMA BMV guideline an excellent basis for countries that are in the process of developing or updating their own BMV guideline.
David, Nicole; Skoruppa, Stefan; Gulberti, Alessandro
The sense of agency describes the ability to experience oneself as the agent of one's own actions. Previous studies of the sense of agency manipulated the predicted sensory feedback related either to movement execution or to the movement’s outcome, for example by delaying the movement of a virtual hand or the onset of a tone that resulted from a button press. Such temporal sensorimotor discrepancies reduce the sense of agency. It remains unclear whether movement-related feedback is processed differently than outcome-related feedback in terms of agency experience, especially if these types of feedback differ with respect to sensory modality. We employed a mixed-reality setup, in which participants tracked their finger movements by means of a virtual hand. They performed a single tap, which elicited a sound. The temporal contingency between the participants’ finger movements and (i) the movement of the virtual hand or (ii) the expected auditory outcome was systematically varied. In a visual control experiment, the tap elicited a visual outcome. For each feedback type and participant, changes in the sense of agency were quantified using a forced-choice paradigm and the Method of Constant Stimuli. Participants were more sensitive to delays of outcome than to delays of movement execution. This effect was very similar for visual or auditory outcome delays. Our results indicate different contributions of movement- versus outcome-related sensory feedback to the sense of agency, irrespective of the modality of the outcome. We propose that this differential sensitivity reflects the behavioral importance of assessing authorship of the outcome of an action. PMID:27536948
Background The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. Methods We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects’ contributions to health system strengthening. Results The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Conclusions Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas. PMID:24053583
Sink, Robert Corey
There are few issues in education that get as much attention as the need for improvement of parental and community involvement in and support for local schools. School faculties want to know how to improve the way they work with families and community members to better meet the needs of their students and parents want to find how to best…
Lin, Yu-Ru; Sundaram, Hari; Kelliher, Aisling
The emergence of the mediated social web - a distributed network of participants creating rich media content and engaging in interactive conversations through Internet-based communication technologies - has contributed to the evolution of powerful social, economic and cultural change. Online social network sites and blogs, such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr and LiveJournal, thrive due to their fundamental sense of "community". The growth of online communities offers both opportunities and challenges for researchers and practitioners. Participation in online communities has been observed to influence people's behavior in diverse ways ranging from financial decision-making to political choices, suggesting the rich potential for diverse applications. However, although studies on the social web have been extensive, discovering communities from online social media remains challenging, due to the interdisciplinary nature of this subject. In this article, we present our recent work on characterization of communities in online social media using computational approaches grounded on the observations from social science.
Venkiteshwaran, Kaushik; Bocher, Benjamin; Maki, James; Zitomer, Daniel
Anaerobic digestion (AD) involves a consortium of microorganisms that convert substrates into biogas containing methane for renewable energy. The technology has suffered from the perception of being periodically unstable due to limited understanding of the relationship between microbial community structure and function. The emphasis of this review is to describe microbial communities in digesters and quantitative and qualitative relationships between community structure and digester function. Progress has been made in the past few decades to identify key microorganisms influencing AD. Yet, more work is required to realize robust, quantitative relationships between microbial community structure and functions such as methane production rate and resilience after perturbations. Other promising areas of research for improved AD may include methods to increase/control (1) hydrolysis rate, (2) direct interspecies electron transfer to methanogens, (3) community structure–function relationships of methanogens, (4) methanogenesis via acetate oxidation, and (5) bioaugmentation to study community–activity relationships or improve engineered bioprocesses. PMID:27127410
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Statement of Person Claiming To Have Stood in Relation of a Parent.... 2900-0059.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Statement of Person Claiming to Have Stood in...
Schoedinger, S. E.; McDougall, C.; Karsten, J. L.; Campbell, D.; Pippin, M. R.; Chambers, L. H.
The effort needed for comprehensive climate change education is far greater than any one institution, education sector, or even federal agency can handle. Recognizing a need to synergistically combine efforts, NSF, NASA, and NOAA have created a collaborative community of their climate change education principal investigators (PIs) through tri-agency coordination. The goals of this tri-agency collaboration are to leverage existing resources, minimize duplicate efforts, and facilitate communication among this emergent community of scientists and educators. NASA, NOAA, and NSF work together to strategically coordinate and support a portfolio of projects focused on climate literacy and education in formal and informal learning environments. The activities of the tri-agency collaboration, including annual meetings for PIs, a catalog of the agencies collective investments in climate change education and the ongoing development of a nascent common evaluation framework, have created a strong national network for effectively engaging diverse audiences with the principles of climate literacy (see Eos Vol. 92, No. 24, 14 June 2011). Last year, after 3 years of active collaboration, similar programs underway at other U.S. Global Change Research Program agencies: the EPA, National Institutes for Environmental Health Sciences, and USDA, were engaged in the collaboration. And, in an attempt to understand the interests of the private sector in this arena, conversations have begun with private philanthropic organizations. This year, as many of the funded projects are maturing, the PI meeting will have a focus on bringing this community together to create a science-theme based tangible outcome that can move the field of climate change education forward. Additional outcomes from this PI meeting will be presented as well as the challenges that were encountered in bringing together institutions with diverse missions, and approaches developed to ensure all parties feel they
Thiere, Geraldine; Schulz, Ralf
A field study at the Lourens River, South Africa, was undertaken during the pesticide application period between November 2001 and January 2002 in order to investigate the potential relation of agricultural pollution to the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna. The upper regions of the Lourens River were free of contamination (LR1), whereas subsequent stretches flowing through a 400-ha orchard area (LR2) received transient insecticide peaks. Continuously operating suspended-particle samplers as well as flood samplers operating during runoff events were used to measure pesticide contamination. In addition, various physicochemical and morphological parameters were examined. A survey of the macroinvertebrate communities associated with the rocky substrates was carried out every three weeks. Community indices were calculated using the South African Scoring System (SASS 5) for bioassessment of water quality in rivers. The two sites differed in pesticide pollution as well as in average turbidity levels (LR1 5.5 mg/L; LR2 64.3 mg/L), but were similar in bottom substrate composition and most other abiotic factors. At the downstream site (LR2), pesticide values of 0.05 microg/L azinphos-methyl in water as well as 49 microg/kg azinphos-methyl, 94 microg/kg chlorpyrifos and 122 microg/kg total endosulfan in suspended particles were found during runoff conditions. The macroinvertebrate communities of the two sampling sites were similar in terms of number of total individuals, but differed significantly (ANOVA) in average number of taxa (LR1 11.7, LR2 8.9). Seven out of 17 investigated taxa occurred in significantly reduced numbers or were even absent at the downstream site LR2. The community characteristics determined by SASS 5 showed a significantly less sensitive community structure at the downstream site (TS 41; ASPT 4.6), indicating continuously lower water quality compared to site LR1 (TS 80; ASPT 6.9). It is concluded that the Lourens River macroinvertebrate communities are
Ports support and benefit local, regional and national economies through their role in creating jobs and transporting goods. The relationship between ports and near-port communities can be complex, as illustrated by case studies.
Bottcher, Robert W
Air quality affects everyone. Some people are affected by air quality impacts, regulations, and technological developments in several ways. Stakeholders include the medical community, ecologists, government regulators, industries, technology providers, academic professionals, concerned citizens, the news media, and elected officials. Each of these groups may perceive problems and opportunities differently, but all need access to information as it is developed. The diversity and complexity of air quality problems contribute to the challenges faced by extension and outreach professionals who must communicate with stakeholders having diverse backgrounds. Gases, particulates, biological aerosols, pathogens, and odors all require expensive and relatively complex technology to measure and control. Economic constraints affect the ability of regulators and others to measure air quality, and industry and others to control it. To address these challenges, while communicating air quality research results and concepts to stakeholders, three areas of information needs are evident. (1) A basic understanding of the fundamental concepts regarding air pollutants and their measurement and control is needed by all stakeholders; the Extension Specialist, to be effective, must help people move some distance up the learning curve. (2) Each problem or set of problems must be reasonably well defined since comprehensive solution of all problems simultaneously may not be feasible; for instance, the solution of an odor problem associated with animal production may not address atmospheric effects due to ammonia emissions. (3) The integrity of the communication process must be preserved by avoiding prejudice and protectionism; although stakeholders may seek to modify information to enhance their interests, extension and outreach professionals must be willing to present unwelcome information or admit to a lack of information. A solid grounding in fundamental concepts, careful and fair problem
... information to be collected; and Minimize the burden of collection of information on those who are to respond... utilize technology and systems for the purposes of collecting, validating, and verifying information... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Part 41,...
... such goods infringe on ] intellectual property rights for which federal law provides import protection... to Recordation and Enforcement of Trademarks and Copyrights AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Trademarks and Copyrights (Part 133 of the CBP Regulations). This request for comment is being made...
Engbert, Kai; Wohlschlager, Andreas; Haggard, Patrick
The sense of agency ("I did that") is a basic feature of our subjective experience. Experimental studies usually focus on either its attributional aspects (the "I" of "I did that") or on its motoric aspects (the "did" aspect of "I did that"). Here, we combine both aspects and focus on the subjective experience of the time between action and…
... SECURITY U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services Agency Information Collection Activities: Refugee/Asylee... time required to complete this benefit request. (2) Title of the Form/Collection: Refugee/Asylee... abstract: Primary: Individuals or households. Form I- 730 will be used by an asylee or refugee to file...
... Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995..., DHS FORM 0700-04 AGENCY: Office of Chief Procurement Officer, Acquisition Policy and Legislation...: The Department of Homeland Security, Office of Chief Procurement Officer, Acquisition Policy...
The Benchmarking Alumni Relations in Community Colleges white paper features key data on alumni relations programs at community colleges across the United States. The paper compares results from 2015 and 2012 across such areas as the structure, operations and budget for alumni relations, alumni data collection and management, alumni communications…
Welsh, Wayne N; Knudsen, Hannah K; Knight, Kevin; Ducharme, Lori; Pankow, Jennifer; Urbine, Terry; Lindsey, Adrienne; Abdel-Salam, Sami; Wood, Jennifer; Monico, Laura; Link, Nathan; Albizu-Garcia, Carmen; Friedmann, Peter D
Weak coordination between community correctional agencies and community-based treatment providers is a major barrier to diffusion of medication-assisted treatment (MAT)--the inclusion of medications (e.g., methadone and buprenorphine) in combination with traditional counseling and behavioral therapies to treat substance use disorders. In a multisite cluster randomized trial, experimental sites (j = 10) received a 3-h MAT training plus a 12-month linkage intervention; control sites (j = 10) received the 3-h training alone. Hierarchical linear models showed that the intervention resulted in significant improvements in perceptions of interagency coordination among treatment providers, but not probation/parole agents. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
Mak, Winnie W S; Cheung, Rebecca Y M; Law, Lawrence S C
Sense of community (SOC) has been one of the most studied topics in community psychology. However, no empirical study to date has investigated SOC in Hong Kong and its relations with community characteristics and residents' psychological well-being. A representative sample of 941 Hong Kong Chinese based on a randomized household survey was conducted in all 18 districts in Hong Kong. Results of hierarchical linear modeling indicated that SOC was not associated with sociodemographic indicators on both the individual-level (i.e., gender, age, family income, education level, type of residence, and area-to-capita ratio of residence) and the community-level (i.e., proportion of individuals with tertiary education, median family income, ownership of residence, population density, and resident stability). SOC was negatively related to daily hassles and positively with social support and quality of life. Conceptualization of SOC in Hong Kong was discussed.
Bai, Yingjiu; Kaneko, Ikuyo; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Kurihara, Kazuo; Sasaki, Hidetaka; Murata, Akihiko; Takayabu, Izuru
Climate change is leading to more frequent and intense heat waves. Recently, epidemiologic findings on heat-related health impacts have reinforced our understanding of the mortality impacts of extreme heat. This research has several aims: 1) to promote climate prediction services with spatial and temporal information on heat-related risks, using GIS (Geographical Information System), and digital mapping techniques; 2) to propose a visualization approach to articulating the evolution of local heat-health responses over time and the evaluation of new interventions for the implementation of valid community-based adaptation strategies and reliable actionable planning; and 3) to provide an appropriate and simple method of adjusting bias and quantifying the uncertainty in future outcomes, so that regional climate projections may be transcribed into useful forms for a wide variety of different users. Following the 2003 European heat wave, climatologists, medical specialists, and social scientists expedited efforts to revise and integrate risk governance frameworks for communities to take appropriate and effective actions themselves. Recently, the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) methodology has made projections possible for anyone wanting to openly access state-of-the-art climate model outputs and climate data to provide the backbone for decisions. Furthermore, the latest high-solution regional climate model (RCM) has been a huge increase in the volumes of data available. In this study, we used high-quality hourly projections (5-km resolution) from the Non-Hydrostatic Regional Climate Model (NHRCM-5km), following the SRES-A1B scenario developed by the Meteorological Research Institute (MRI) and observational data from the Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System, Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA). The NHRCM-5km is a dynamic downscaling of results from the MRI-AGCM3.2S (20-km resolution), an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) driven by the
Balch, G I; Sutton, S M
The risk communication practitioner in a government agency has two essential, interdependent tasks. One is to help develop and monitor effective communication programs with various external public audiences. The other task is to do the same thing for the senior government managers whose support is a prerequisite to addressing the first audience. Hence, the second audience--the manager--is really the first. This paper addresses ways in which communication practitioners can satisfy this crucial audience. A profile of these managers suggests that they would find it highly beneficial to have more control over the public problems they encounter, especially in view of the growing pressures to do more with less and demonstrate "customer satisfaction." They would rather avoid crises than manage them. And they would rather have their bosses praise their successes than challenge their budgets or punish their perceived difficulties or failures. Communication practitioners who can help them attain such benefits will find their efforts in great demand. They would be helpful team members who provide timely insights that can make and show agency success. We offer ten ways for communication practitioners to be more useful which focus their current strengths on satisfying senior managers' needs by becoming more valuable members of the program team. By becoming more useful to the senior manager they serve both the agency and its publics.
Gorman, Jim; And Others
Jim Gorman, a high school counselor; Charles A. Green, a two-year college president; Stephen Maier, a two-year college dean of instruction; and John L. Porter, a high school principal, offer examples of ways in which community colleges can improve articulation and communication with high schools. (AVC)
Farisi, Mohammad Imam
So far, the existence of a virtual community forum has become a reality and social necessity in an era cybertech. It was also viewed as the electronic frontier of 21st century society that was undoubtedly for reorganizing and redefining to awareness of human being, that ways of their perceptions and explorations no longer limited by time, space,…
Bocher, B T W; Cherukuri, K; Maki, J S; Johnson, M; Zitomer, D H
Much remains unknown about the relationships between microbial community structure and anaerobic digester function. However, knowledge of links between community structure and function, such as specific methanogenic activity (SMA) and COD removal rate, are valuable to improve anaerobic bioprocesses. In this work, quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) were developed using multiple linear regression (MLR) to predict SMA using methanogen community structure descriptors for 49 cultures. Community descriptors were DGGE demeaned standardized band intensities for amplicons of a methanogen functional gene (mcrA). First, predictive accuracy of MLR QSARs was assessed using cross validation with training (n = 30) and test sets (n = 19) for glucose and propionate SMA data. MLR equations correlating band intensities and SMA demonstrated good predictability for glucose (q(2) = 0.54) and propionate (q(2) = 0.53). Subsequently, data from all 49 cultures were used to develop QSARs to predict SMA values. Higher intensities of two bands were correlated with higher SMA values; high abundance of methanogens associated with these two bands should be encouraged to attain high SMA values. QSARs are helpful tools to identify key microorganisms or to study and improve many bioprocesses. Development of new, more robust QSARs is encouraged for anaerobic digestion or other bioprocesses, including nitrification, nitritation, denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation, and enhanced biological phosphorus removal.
Sigurdardottir, Anna Kristin
This is a study of schools as professional learning communities, defined by nine characteristics and their relationship with the schools' level of effectiveness. The study was conducted within three schools in Iceland. It was designed as a mixed methods study, conducted in two phases: a correlational study of survey data on schools as professional…
Craig, Alfred J.; Ward, Cynthia V. L.
Public community colleges were established to improve access to higher education. However, access for all often results in low student retention and in the loss of effort, time, and money for students and institutions. This institutional specific retention study, which examined student factors, both demographic and academic, and institutional…
Pope, Myron L.; Miller, Michael T.
The objective of this study was to investigate the concept of stress in the community college faculty governance unit. While research has found that most faculty experience stress as a result of workload, publishing pressures, and insufficient salaries, this study asserts that some faculty experience an additional dimension of stress as a result…
Henriksen, Dorothy, Ed.; Larsen, Judy, Ed.
A project is reported that has been in effect for two years in the Roseville, Minnesota, Area Public Schools to provide interested school staff and community people a chance to exchange career roles for varying periods of time, ranging from one day to several weeks. The report contains all memos, application forms, announcements, and…
Kerr, Kirstin; Dyson, Alan; Gallannaugh, Frances
Background: The field of school-community relations is well established in the scholarly literature. However, its largely descriptive and fragmented nature has served to disguise its conceptual complexity. To date, the sets of assumptions about school-community relations which underpin the literature, and the opportunities, tensions and…
Building on the inaugural survey conducted three years prior, the 2015 CASE Community College Alumni Relations survey collected additional insightful data on staffing, structure, communications, engagement, and fundraising. This white paper features key data on alumni relations programs at community colleges across the United States. The paper…
Feinberg, Mark E; Jones, Damon E; Cleveland, Michael J; Greenberg, Mark T
To test the assumption embedded in state-of-the-art, community assessment and decision-making regarding prevention of underage drinking: that there is minimal variation in the way that risk and protective factors (RPF) are associated with underage drinking across communities. Three large datasets provided the same measures of adolescent alcohol use and RPFs. Multilevel ordered-logistic regression models were carried out separately for each dataset and separately for males and females in 8th and 10th grades, testing random slopes for each RPF index. Predicted school-level coefficients were derived from these models, representing the association between RPFs and alcohol use. The variation in associations between RPFs and alcohol use across schools was greatest for antisocial peer risk and community protection; the lowest variation across schools was found for family cohesion and individual antisocial behavior. Ranges in predicted coefficients indicate large differences across schools for many RPFs. Bivariate correlations indicated that school-level associations vary across RPFs in expected directions. Policy makers should recognize that the magnitude of associations between RPFs and adolescent alcohol use vary considerably across communities, and that such variability is greater for certain RPFs than others. These findings have implications for policies regarding how prevention resources are targeted within and across communities.
... agency abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property in lieu of donating it to a... DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment and Destruction § 102-75.1025 When can a Federal agency abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property in...
manufacturers. The Navy has a major in- house design capability for ships; the government does not possess such a capability for aircraft or other weapon systems...the Coast Guard, government agencies acquire a wide variety of ships, ranging from sophisticated submarines and nuclear aircraft carriers to much...the initial phase a review was made of written material relating to government procedures in U.S. Government agencies for acquiring vessels, aircraft
Studies teacher-community relations in a community where teachers are becoming more involved in indigenous community issues. Argues that formal teacher education tends to emphasize modernity and consumer culture at the expense of distinct local customs. Draws connections between the case study and low-income minority communities in the United…
Collins, Michael T.
The purpose of this study is to develop a costing model for maintenance and operations expenditures among 16 single-campus California community college districts and assess the impact of a variety of variables including size of student enrollment, physical plant age, acreage, gross square footage, and general obligation facility bonds on district…
Canadian Broadcasting Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).
Results are presented of a survey of 20 community radio organizations operating in Canada. For each of the 20 agencies, information is provided relating to: (1) the name and address of the organization; (2) the name and population of the community served; (3) the station's call letters, frequency, and power; (4) the date of the station's license;…
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 210.645 Section 210.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 210.645 Section 210.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...
Butler, Deborah L.; Schnellert, Leyton; MacNeil, Kimberley
Teacher professional development has been identified as essential to educational reform. Moreover, research suggests the power of inquiry communities in spurring teacher professional learning and shifts in classroom practice. However, not enough is known about what conditions within a community of inquiry might be necessary to inspire, support,…
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a detrimental impact on women and children's emotional, physical and social well-being and has been identified as one of the most common contributors to women's experiences of housing instabilities and homelessness. Women affected by IPV often experience a great level of uncertainty around housing solutions when trying to leave an abusive partner. This study explores women's responses to IPV and the related risk of homelessness through women's narratives (n = 22) in Queensland, Australia. Of particular interest are women's decisions and actions to minimise the impact of IPV as well as homelessness on their and their children's safety and well-being. Findings reveal that women's agency in relation to harm minimisation can take various forms, including the decision to stay with, leave or return to an abusive partner. The data offer insights into women's strategic attempts to manage IPV and the related risk of homeless while trying to minimise the harm associated with one and the other. Implications for understanding women's agency in managing IPV and the related risk of homelessness and providing adequate support mechanisms to improve women and children's social, emotional and physical well-being are discussed.
The goal of this study was to describe how activists engaged in campaigns to change alcohol policies in inner city areas framed alcohol problems, and whether or not their frameworks reflected major models used in the field, such as the alcoholism as a disease model, an alcohol problems perspective, or a public health approach to alcohol problems. The findings showed that activists’ models shared some aspects with dominant approaches which tend to focus on individuals and to a lesser extent on regulating alcohol marketing and sales. However, activists’ models differed in significant ways by focusing on community level problems with alcohol; on problems with social norms regarding alcohol use; and on the relationship of alcohol use to illicit drugs. PMID:20617029
Lawson, Jennifer E.
This qualitative study explores the experiences of women administrators in high-poverty community schools, investigating four women's perspectives on work demands and the impact on their families. Their work demands are related to the characteristics of impoverished communities, whereas their work resources are based on intrinsic rewards and…
Holtzman, Rochelle J.; Roberts, Michael C.
The current study examined the role of family conflict as a mediator in the relation between exposure to community violence and depressive symptoms. Two hundred thirty-two early adolescents (aged 11-16 years) completed a demographics questionnaire, the Survey of Exposure to Community Violence, the 9-item conflict subscale of the Family Environment…
Hillman, Nicholas W.; Orians, Erica Lee
This study uses fixed-effects panel data techniques to estimate the elasticity of community college enrollment demand relative to local unemployment rates. The findings suggest that community college enrollment demand is counter-cyclical to changes in the labor market, as enrollments rise during periods of weak economic conditions. Using national…
Often considered harmonious places, rural communities are in reality spaces often fragmented along class lines, with political factions promoting competing values and interests regarding the purpose of schooling. Using an exemplar case, this study affords us a new interpretation of rural school-community relations in times of conflict. It…
Griessman, B. Eugene; Bertrand, Alvin L.
Two rural Louisiana communities were selected to evaluate the effectiveness of certain types of communication in preventing man-caused forest fires. The communities were selected on the basis of differences in fire occurrence rates and other factors related to conservation. Questionnaires and personal interviews were utilized to determine views of…
Goff, Susan L.
The appointment of interim community college presidents, the topic of this study, is a little understood phenomenon. A growing shortage of community college presidents coupled with a lack of replacements suggests the appointment of interims will continue well into the future. This study, with a purpose of looking at the factors related to the…
Examines the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) public relations efforts concerning the Hubble telescope. Proposes that NASA's poor public relations exacerbated problems: NASA oversold the telescope before it was deployed, failed to develop a plan for release of images, provided misleading flight reports, and reported…
Edwards-Groves, Christine; Kemmis, Roslin Brennan; Hardy, Ian; Ponte, Petra
This article will explore education, pedagogy and praxis (morally informed and committed action oriented by tradition, and "history-making action") through the lens of the "relational". The article brings together empirical investigations of professional development and classroom teaching to explicate the role of this relational dimension, via the…
Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (ug/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Cen...
Schneider, Kimberly T; DeSouza, Eros R; Durst, Renee N
We examined perceptions of spirituality and meaning among 192 employees (77% female) from a non-profit organization in a mid-sized Midwestern city in the United States. We hypothesized that employees' values related to workplace spirituality would be positively related to various measures of job satisfaction and general meaning in life. We also examined employees' perceptions of the fit of their co-workers' values with the agency mission and predicted that these perceptions would act as a moderator of the relationship between employees' workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. Our hypotheses were generally supported. Spirituality predicted work contributing to the meaning of life and various facets of job satisfaction. Implications of the importance of employees' perceptions of organizational fit related to spirituality and the perceived fit of co-workers' values with the organizational mission are discussed.
Knudsen, Hannah K.; Knight, Kevin; Ducharme, Lori; Pankow, Jennifer; Urbine, Terry; Lindsey, Adrienne; Abdel-Salam, Sami; Wood, Jennifer; Monico, Laura; Link, Nathan; Albizu-Garcia, Carmen; Friedmann, Peter D.
Weak coordination between community correctional agencies and community-based treatment providers is a major barrier to diffusion of medication-assisted treatment (MAT)—the inclusion of medications (e.g., methadone and buprenorphine) in combination with traditional counseling and behavioral therapies to treat substance use disorders. In a multisite cluster randomized trial, experimental sites (j = 10) received a 3-h MAT training plus a 12-month linkage intervention; control sites (j = 10) received the 3-h training alone. Hierarchical linear models showed that the intervention resulted in significant improvements in perceptions of interagency coordination among treatment providers, but not probation/parole agents. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:25559124
The purpose of this document is to provide a suggested approach, based on input from pediatric stakeholders, to communicating pediatric-related information on pandemic influenza at the community level in a step-by-step manner.
National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.
One of the most effective ways to raise awareness about a problem and generate support for solutions is through the media. This guide describes the basic principles of media relations that can help organizations develop an effective media strategy for underage drinking prevention. The tools that are necessary for this strategy, including news…
Ellis, David; Oldridge, Rachel; Vasconcelos, Ana
Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to virtual communities: (1) information and virtual community; (2) virtual communities and communities of practice; (3) virtual communities and virtual arenas, including virtual community networks; and (4) networked virtual communities. (Contains 175 references.) (MES)
... intellectual property rights for which federal law provides import protection. Respondents may submit their... Collection Activities: Regulations Relating to Recordation and Enforcement of Trademarks and Copyrights... Recordation and Enforcement of Trademarks and Copyrights (Part 133 of the CBP Regulations). This request...
Based on fieldwork material from Lao People's Democratic Republic, this paper introduces an analytical framework that transcends compartmentalized approaches towards migration involving young people. The notions of fluid and institutionalized forms of migration illuminate key differences and commonalities in the relational fabric underpinning…
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to agency records. 1211.1-9 Section 1211.1-9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-9 Access to agency records. (a) A volunteer is entitled to review any material in his or...
Weight-related problems, including eating disorders, disordered eating, and obesity, are prevalent among adolescents. School and community-based educators and health care providers have an important role to play in the prevention of weight-related problems in youth. This article includes: 1) a brief overview of weight-related problems in…
Bates, Sarah J.; Trostle, James; Cevallos, William T.; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N. S.
Social networks and geographic structures of communities are important predictors of infectious disease transmission. To examine their joint effects on diarrheal disease and how these effects might develop, the authors analyzed social network and geographic data from northern coastal Ecuador and examined associations with diarrhea prevalence. Between July 2003 and May 2005, 113 cases of diarrhea were identified in nine communities. Concurrently, sociometric surveys were conducted, and households were mapped with geographic information systems. Spatial distribution metrics of households within communities and of communities with respect to roads were developed that predict social network degree in casual contact (“contact”) and food-sharing (“food”) networks. The mean degree is 25-40% lower in communities with versus without road access and 66-94% lower in communities with lowest versus highest housing density. Associations with diarrheal disease were found for housing density (comparing dense with dispersed communities: risk ratio = 3.3, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1, 10.0) and social connectedness (comparing lowest with highest degree communities: risk ratio = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 10.1 in the contact network and risk ratio = 4.9, 95% CI: 1.1, 21.9 in the food network). Some of these differences may be related to more new residents, lower housing density, and less social connectedness in road communities. PMID:17690221
Morrison-Whittle, Peter; Goddard, Matthew R
We have a limited understanding of the relative contributions of different processes that regulate microbial communities, which are crucial components of both natural and agricultural ecosystems. The contributions of selective and neutral processes in defining community composition are often confounded in field studies because as one moves through space, environments also change. Managed ecosystems provide an excellent opportunity to control for this and evaluate the relative strength of these processes by minimising differences between comparable niches separated at different geographic scales. We use next-generation sequencing to characterize the variance in fungal communities inhabiting adjacent fruit, soil and bark in comparable vineyards across 1000 kms in New Zealand. By compartmentalizing community variation, we reveal that niche explains at least four times more community variance than geographic location. We go beyond merely demonstrating that different communities are found in both different niches and locations by quantifying the forces that define these patterns. Overall, selection unsurprisingly predominantly shapes these microbial communities, but we show the balance of neutral processes also have a significant role in defining community assemblage in eukaryotic microbes. PMID:25756681
Roberts, Eric; McCleary, Rachael; Buttorff, Christine; Gaskin, Darrell J.
Objectives. We compared the strength of association between average 5-year county-level mortality rates and area-level measures, including air quality, sociodemographic characteristics, violence, and economic distress. Methods. We obtained mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System and linked it to socioeconomic and demographic data from the Census Bureau, air quality data, violent crime statistics, and loan delinquency data. We modeled 5-year average mortality rates (1998–2002) for all-cause, cancer, heart disease, stroke, and respiratory diseases as a function of county-level characteristics using ordinary least squares regression models. We limited analyses to counties with population of 100 000 or greater (n = 458). Results. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, particularly the percentage older than 65 years and near poor, were top predictors of all-cause and condition-specific mortality, as were a high concentration of construction and service workers. We found weaker associations for air quality, mortgage delinquencies, and violent crimes. Protective characteristics included the percentage of Hispanics, Asians, and married residents. Conclusions. Multiple factors influence county-level mortality. Although county demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are important, there are independent, although weaker, associations of other environmental characteristics. Future studies should investigate these factors to better understand community mortality risk. PMID:25033152
Clover, Darlene; Harris, Carol E.
How does one effectively and ethically conduct research with community members who are steeped in histories of economic and social dependency, so that the people themselves take charge of their futures? This question is explored in a Canadian context as the authors study the potential of new technologies to bring hope to traditional coastal…
Bosma, Linda M.; Sieving, Renee E.; Ericson, Annie; Russ, Pamela; Cavender, Laura; Bonine, Mark
Background: Researchers, schools, and community organizations are increasingly interested in forming partnerships to improve health and learning outcomes for adolescents. School-based service learning programs with young adolescents have been shown to improve students' health and educational outcomes. Quality school-based service learning practice…
Lu, Yingjie; Zhang, Pengzhu; Liu, Jingfang; Li, Jia; Deng, Shasha
Recently, health-related social media services, especially online health communities, have rapidly emerged. Patients with various health conditions participate in online health communities to share their experiences and exchange healthcare knowledge. Exploring hot topics in online health communities helps us better understand patients' needs and interest in health-related knowledge. However, the statistical topic analysis employed in previous studies is becoming impractical for processing the rapidly increasing amount of online data. Automatic topic detection based on document clustering is an alternative approach for extracting health-related hot topics in online communities. In addition to the keyword-based features used in traditional text clustering, we integrate medical domain-specific features to represent the messages posted in online health communities. Three disease discussion boards, including boards devoted to lung cancer, breast cancer and diabetes, from an online health community are used to test the effectiveness of topic detection. Experiment results demonstrate that health-related hot topics primarily include symptoms, examinations, drugs, procedures and complications. Further analysis reveals that there also exist some significant differences among the hot topics discussed on different types of disease discussion boards.
Yergeau, Etienne; Vujanovic, Vladimir; St-Arnaud, Marc
Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a high-value perennial vegetable crop that has shown a marked decline in productivity after many years of continuous harvesting. This decline is caused by an increase in both abiotic (autotoxicity, harvesting pressure) and biotic stresses [fungal infections, mainly Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR)]. To gain insight into disease development and possible mitigation strategies, we studied the effects of harvesting, time in the growing season, and field age on FCRR development, Fusarium species composition, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities in both a controlled field experiment and an ecological survey of commercial fields. In one experiment, a 3-year-old asparagus field was subdivided into plots that were harvested or not and sampled throughout the growing season to assess short-term dominant Fusarium species shifts. In addition, diseased and healthy asparagus plants sampled from six commercial fields in the same geographical region were used to assess Fusarium and AMF communities in relation to different parameters. Fusarium and AMF communities were described by using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach, and results were analyzed by mainly correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Results showed that dominant Fusarium taxa assemblages changed throughout the growing season. Harvested plots had significantly more FCRR symptomatic plants at the end of the growing season, but this effect was not related with any trend in Fusarium community structure. Sampling site and plant age significantly influenced AMF community structure, whereas only sampling site consistently influenced the Fusarium community. Diseased and healthy plants harbored similar Fusarium and AMF communities. Shifts in Fusarium community might not be responsible for different disease incidence because they are ubiquitous regardless of plant health status or harvesting regime
Goodkind, Jessica R.; Ross-Toledo, Kimberly; John, Susie; Lee Hall, Janie; Ross, Lucille; Freeland, Lance; Colleta, Ernest; Becenti-Fundark, Twila
American Indian/Alaska Native youth represent the strength and survival of many Nations and Tribes. However, the aftermath of colonialism has resulted in numerous health disparities and challenges for Native youth, including the highest rate of suicide in the United States. With the aims of elucidating the causes of behavioral health disparities, eliminating them, and improving behavioral health care for Native youth, a partnership of providers, community members, and university faculty and staff completed a comprehensive literature review; conducted advisory meetings with 71 American Indian youth, parents, and elders; surveyed 25 service providers; and engaged in ongoing consultation with traditional practitioners. Results from the multiple sources were synthesized and are reported with 20 policy, provider, and research recommendations that recognize the importance of moving beyond exclusive reliance on western models of care and that seek to foster transformation of individuals, families, communities, behavioral health service systems of care, and social structures. PMID:25076801
Damerow, M. W.
The purpose of the Community Relations Plan is to fully inform the community about the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) and provide opportunities for public input. A sound approach to community relations is essential to the creation and maintenance of public awareness and community support. The WVDP is a matter of considerable public interest because it deals with nuclear waste. The mission of the WVDP is to solve an existing environmental concern by solidifying high-level radioactive waste and transporting the solidified waste to a federal repository for permanent disposal. The public requires evidence of the continued commitment and demonstrated progress of the industry and government in carrying out the mission in order to sustain confidence that the WVDP is being managed well and will be discussed successfully completed. For this reason, a comprehensive communication plan is essential for the successful completion of the WVDP.
Esposito, Fabiana; Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Tyteca, Daniel
While it is generally acknowledged that orchid species rely on mycorrhizal fungi for completion of their life cycle, little is yet known about how mycorrhizal fungal diversity and community composition vary within and between closely related orchid taxa. In this study, we used 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to investigate variation in mycorrhizal communities between pure (allopatric) and mixed (sympatric) populations of two closely related Platanthera species (Platanthera bifolia and P. chlorantha) and putative hybrids. Consistent with previous research, the two species primarily associated primarily with members of the Ceratobasidiaceae and, to a lesser extent, with members of the Sebacinales and Tulasnellaceae. In addition, a large number of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to various families were observed. Although a considerable number of mycorrhizal fungi were common to both species, the fungal communities were significantly different between the two species. Individuals with intermediate morphology showed communities similar to P. bifolia, confirming previous results based on the genetic architecture and fragrance composition that putative hybrids essentially belonged to one of the parental species (P. bifolia). Differences in mycorrhizal communities between species were smaller in mixed populations than between pure populations, suggesting that variation in mycorrhizal communities was largely controlled by local environmental conditions. The small differences in mycorrhizal communities in mixed populations suggests that mycorrhizal fungi are most likely not directly involved in maintaining species boundaries between the two Platanthera species. However, seed germination experiments are needed to unambiguously assess the contribution of mycorrhizal divergence to reproductive isolation.
Castro, R; Orozco, E; Eroza, E; Manca, M C; Hernández, J J; Aggleton, P
This paper describes findings from a recent study examining how people affected directly and indirectly by the HIV/AIDS epidemic cope with HIV-related illness in Mexico. One-hundred-and-thirteen in-depth interviews were conducted with key informants in two contrasting communities: Ciudad Netzahualcóyotl (an economically marginalized community) and the gay community in Mexico City (a sexually marginalized community). This paper describes the AIDS-related wellness/illness careers or trajectories followed by individuals in both communities, and identifies critical points for material and emotional intervention. This career comprises four stages: (1) life before infection; (2) life surrounding the discovery of seropositivity; (3) living as an HIV-positive person; and (4) facing death. Comparisons are drawn between the processes of adjustment and coping found in both communities. In Ciudad Netzahualcóyotl, wellness/illness careers are closely linked to prevailing poverty and oppression, as well as the sense of urgency in which local people live their lives. In the case of the gay community, wellness/illness careers are associated with the intolerance and social repression faced by homosexual men. The paper concludes by suggesting possible interventions to improve the lives of people with HIV/AIDS in Mexico today.
Esposito, Fabiana; Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Tyteca, Daniel
While it is generally acknowledged that orchid species rely on mycorrhizal fungi for completion of their life cycle, little is yet known about how mycorrhizal fungal diversity and community composition vary within and between closely related orchid taxa. In this study, we used 454 amplicon pyrosequencing to investigate variation in mycorrhizal communities between pure (allopatric) and mixed (sympatric) populations of two closely related Platanthera species (Platanthera bifolia and P. chlorantha) and putative hybrids. Consistent with previous research, the two species primarily associated primarily with members of the Ceratobasidiaceae and, to a lesser extent, with members of the Sebacinales and Tulasnellaceae. In addition, a large number of ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to various families were observed. Although a considerable number of mycorrhizal fungi were common to both species, the fungal communities were significantly different between the two species. Individuals with intermediate morphology showed communities similar to P. bifolia, confirming previous results based on the genetic architecture and fragrance composition that putative hybrids essentially belonged to one of the parental species (P. bifolia). Differences in mycorrhizal communities between species were smaller in mixed populations than between pure populations, suggesting that variation in mycorrhizal communities was largely controlled by local environmental conditions. The small differences in mycorrhizal communities in mixed populations suggests that mycorrhizal fungi are most likely not directly involved in maintaining species boundaries between the two Platanthera species. However, seed germination experiments are needed to unambiguously assess the contribution of mycorrhizal divergence to reproductive isolation. PMID:27695108
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...
Maschi, Tina; Morrisey, Mary Beth; Leigey, Margaret
This study profiled 2,913 adults aged 50 and older sentenced to a statewide correctional system and their parole eligibility status with implications for community reintegration, resettlement, and recovery needs. The research team developed the Correctional Tracking Data Extraction Tool to gather official data and personal and legal characteristics from a state department of corrections website. The majority of older prisoners were men from racial/ethnic minorities between the ages of 50 and 59 with a range of minor to serious offenses. Time served in prison ranged from 1 month to 45 years; more than 40% were eligible for parole within 5 years. These findings underscore the need for an intervention that can address the differing typologies and individual-level and systemic issues that gave rise to the aging prisoner population. Promising practices that address elements of a conceptual model in prison and community reintegration and recovery for older adult prisoners are reviewed.
Hunuk, Deniz; Ince, Mustafa Levent; Tannehill, Deborah
The purposes of this study were twofold: to examine the effects of a community of practice (CoP) on (1) physical educators' and their students' health-related fitness content knowledge and (2) the physical educators' health-related fitness pedagogical content knowledge construction process. Twelve experienced physical education teachers (six in…
Leviten-Reid, Catherine; Hoyt, Ann
In the province of Québec, services focusing on the instrumental activities of daily living are delivered to seniors by a combination of non-profit organizations and cooperatives. But do these organizations perform differently? This study asks whether home support cooperatives deliver higher-quality care than non-profit home support agencies. The specific effects of consumer and worker participation on the board of directors are also tested. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 from 831 individuals receiving home support services from nine cooperatives and nine non-profits. Two consumer-centered measures of quality were used: a summated, 39-point satisfaction score and a 4-point overall quality score. Data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. Results show that although organizational type was not a predictor of the two quality outcomes, worker involvement in governance was positively associated with the satisfaction score, while consumer involvement was positively associated with the overall quality score.
Rilov, Gil; Schiel, David R.
Predicting the strength and context-dependency of species interactions across multiple scales is a core area in ecology. This is especially challenging in the marine environment, where populations of most predators and prey are generally open, because of their pelagic larval phase, and recruitment of both is highly variable. In this study we use a comparative-experimental approach on small and large spatial scales to test the relationship between predation intensity and prey recruitment and their relative importance in shaping populations of a dominant rocky intertidal space occupier, mussels, in the context of seascape (availability of nearby subtidal reef habitat). Predation intensity on transplanted mussels was tested inside and outside cages and recruitment was measured with standard larval settlement collectors. We found that on intertidal rocky benches with contiguous subtidal reefs in New Zealand, mussel larval recruitment is usually low but predation on recruits by subtidal consumers (fish, crabs) is intense during high tide. On nearby intertidal rocky benches with adjacent sandy subtidal habitats, larval recruitment is usually greater but subtidal predators are typically rare and predation is weaker. Multiple regression analysis showed that predation intensity accounts for most of the variability in the abundance of adult mussels compared to recruitment. This seascape-dependent, predation-recruitment relationship could scale up to explain regional community variability. We argue that community ecology models should include seascape context-dependency and its effects on recruitment and species interactions for better predictions of coastal community dynamics and structure. PMID:21887351
Weiss, Mitchell G.; Rao, Shobha; Ali, Firdaus; Prentice, Tracey
Stigma is a recognized barrier to early detection of HIV and causes great suffering for those affected. This paper examines HIV-related stigma in rural and tribal communities of Maharashtra, an area of relatively high HIV prevalence in India. The study used a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to compare adult women and adolescents in a rural area, women in a rural area, and women in a tribal area. The respondents included 494 married women and 186 adolescents in a rural community and 49 married women in six tribal villages. HIV-related stigma was prevalent in all communities and was the highest among tribal and older respondents. High-risk behaviour was reported in both areas, accompanied with denial of personal risk. Our findings suggest that HIV may be spreading silently in these communities. To our knowledge, this is the first community-based study to make an in-depth assessment of HIV-related stigma in rural and tribal areas of India. By situating our findings within the broader discourse on stigma in the national and state-level data, this study helps explain the nature and persistence of stigma and how to address it more effectively among subcultural groups in India. PMID:23304905
Zarkasi, Kamarul Zaman; Taylor, Richard S; Abell, Guy C J; Tamplin, Mark L; Glencross, Brett D; Bowman, John P
To better understand salmon GI tract microbial community dynamics in relation to diet, a feeding trial was performed utilising diets with different proportions of fish meal, protein, lipid and energy levels. Salmon gut dysfunction has been associated with the occurrence of casts, or an empty hind gut. A categorical scoring system describing expressed digesta consistency was evaluated in relation to GI tract community structure. Faster growing fish generally had lower faecal scores while the diet cohorts showed minor differences in faecal score though the overall lowest scores were observed with a low protein, low energy diet. The GI tract bacterial communities were highly dynamic over time with the low protein, low energy diet associated with the most divergent community structure. This included transiently increased abundance of anaerobic (Bacteroidia and Clostridia) during January and February, and facultatively anaerobic (lactic acid bacteria) taxa from February onwards. The digesta had enriched populations of these groups in relation to faecal cast samples. The majority of samples (60-86 %) across all diet cohorts were eventually dominated by the genus Aliivibrio. The results suggest that an interaction between time of sampling and diet is most strongly related to community structure. Digesta categorization revealed microbes involved with metabolism of diet components change progressively over time and could be a useful system to assess feeding responses.
Hantman, Irene; Crosse, Scott
Although school districts are critical to the operation of the Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act (SDFSCA) Program, relatively little is known about how they plan, implement, and evaluate their SDFSCA-funded prevention activities. The U.S. Department of Education initiated this study to provide a more complete description of the ways…
Friman, Ville-Petri; Dupont, Alessandra; Bass, David; Murrell, David J; Bell, Thomas
Community dynamics are often studied in subsets of pairwise interactions. Scaling pairwise interactions back to the community level is, however, problematic because one given interaction might not reflect ecological and evolutionary outcomes of other functionally similar species interactions or capture the emergent eco-evolutionary dynamics arising only in more complex communities. Here we studied this experimentally by exposing Pseudomonas fluorescens SBW25 prey bacterium to four different protist predators (Tetrahymena pyriformis, Tetrahymena vorax, Chilomonas paramecium and Acanthamoeba polyphaga) in all possible single-predator, two-predator and four-predator communities for hundreds of prey generations covering both ecological and evolutionary timescales. We found that only T. pyriformis selected for prey defence in single-predator communities. Although T. pyriformis selection was constrained in the presence of the intraguild predator, T. vorax, T. pyriformis selection led to evolution of specialised prey defence strategies in the presence of C. paramecium or A. polyphaga. At the ecological level, adapted prey populations were phenotypically more diverse, less stable and less productive compared with non-adapted prey populations. These results suggest that predator community composition affects the relative importance of ecological and evolutionary processes and can crucially determine when rapid evolution has the potential to change ecological properties of microbial communities.
Forsyth, Alasdair J M; Davidson, Neil
This paper investigates the relationship between community off-sales premises and alcohol-related detritus (litter/remains) in residential neighbourhoods. This was accomplished by photographing all brand-identifiable alcohol product detritus (glass, packaging, etc.) where they lay and mapping these against the presence of off-sales outlets (licensed convenience stores) in the community. It was hypothesised that alcohol-related detritus would be greatest near to such alcohol outlets. However, although there was some evidence of a "broken bottles effect", accumulations of alcohol-related detritus near some off-sales premises, it is concluded that local area deprivation is a better predictor of such alcohol-related incivility than is outlet provision. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to current social responsibility policy developments which are designed to make the alcohol industry liable for alcohol-related incivilities.
Cramer, Robert J; Colbourn, Scholar L; Gemberling, Tess M; Graham, James; Stroud, Caroline H
HIV-positive status poses a unique set of social stressors, especially among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. Among these difficulties are the internalization of HIV-related stigma and poor mental health. Unfortunately, substance use as a coping mechanism is also common, dependent on other demographic factors, among HIV-positive and LGB samples. The present study integrates these bodies of literature by examining main and interactive effects of HIV-related experiences (i.e., disclosure of HIV-positive status, fear of disclosure, HIV-related victimization, and internalized HIV-related stigma) and substance-related coping with discrimination as they impact mental health (i.e., stress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and suicide and self-injury proneness). Participants were 216 HIV-positive LGB community members from an urban community medical clinic. Prominent results included: (1) robust negative effects of internalized HIV-related stigma on all mental health indicators when controlling for other HIV-related experiences and (2) a significant interaction in which substance-related coping significantly increases suicide proneness, only for those who have disclosed HIV-positive status to family or friends. Results are discussed with respect to theoretical perspectives of internalized stigma, implications for clinical work with LGB persons of HIV-positive status, and future research.
Bellwinkel, Michael; Schreiner-Kürten, Karin; Melzer, Kathrin
The Federal Employment Agency and the Statutory Health Insurance (GKV) have put the link between the promotion of employment and of health to the test by making a joint approach aiming to reach unemployed persons with preventive health services and to maintain or improve their employability. Specialist case workers (Integrationsfachkräfte) of the job centres conducted health consultations, motivating unemployed persons and raising their awareness of their own health as well as enabling them to access health promotion services of health insurance funds on a voluntary basis. Three different approaches were tested: consultations either being offered by specialist case workers of the job centres, by contracted educational institutions or by the federal employment agency's own special services (Fachdienste). The pilot project was implemented locally in the community setting. The steering groups set up in the 6 pilot locations, consisting of representatives of the job centres and the health insurance funds as well as of further local players, were the key element of this project. The offers implemented were a success: The unemployed persons welcomed the consultations offered by job centres; the preventive health services specifically directed at unemployed persons that were provided by health insurance funds have proven successful, especially in terms of reducing stress and maintaining employability. Inclusion of the key points of this approach into the basic recommendations at federal level (Bundesrahmenempfehlungen) of the National Conference on Prevention of 19 February 2016 has created a basis for further advances and dissemination.
Malanson, George P.; Zimmerman, Dale L.; Kinney, Mitch; Fagre, Daniel B.
Alpine plant communities vary, and their environmental covariates could influence their response to climate change. A single multilevel model of how alpine plant community composition is determined by hierarchical relations is compared to a separate examination of those relations at different scales. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of species cover for plots in four regions across the Rocky Mountains created dependent variables. Climate variables are derived for the four regions from interpolated data. Plot environmental variables are measured directly and the presence of thirty-seven site characteristics is recorded and used to create additional independent variables. Multilevel and best subsets regressions are used to determine the strength of the hypothesized relations. The ordinations indicate structure in the assembly of plant communities. The multilevel analyses, although revealing significant relations, provide little explanation; of the site variables, those related to site microclimate are most important. In multiscale analyses (whole and separate regions), different variables are better explanations within the different regions. This result indicates weak environmental niche control of community composition. The weak relations of the structure in the patterns of species association to the environment indicates that either alpine vegetation represents a case of the neutral theory of biogeography being a valid explanation or that it represents disequilibrium conditions. The implications of neutral theory and disequilibrium explanations are similar: Response to climate change will be difficult to quantify above equilibrium background turnover.
Yang, Kyeongra; Woomer, Gail Ratliff; Agbemenu, Kafuli; Williams, Lynne
The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a poverty simulation in increasing understanding of and attitudes toward poverty and resulting in changes in clinical practice among nursing seniors. A poverty simulation was conducted using a diverse group of nursing professors and staff from local community agencies assuming the role of community resource providers. Students were assigned roles as members of low-income families and were required to complete tasks during a simulated month. A debriefing was held after the simulation to explore students' experiences in a simulated poverty environment. Students' understanding of and attitude toward poverty pre- and post-simulation were examined. Changes in the students' clinical experiences following the simulation were summarized into identified categories and themes. The poverty simulation led to a greater empathy for the possible experiences of low income individuals and families, understanding of barriers to health care, change in attitudes towards poverty and to those living in poverty, and changes in the students' nursing practice. Use of poverty simulation is an effective means to teach nursing students about the experience of living in poverty. The simulation experience changed nursing students' clinical practice, with students providing community referrals and initiating inter-professional collaborations.
Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; McLees, James M.; Niemela, Scott L.
The relative importance of agricultural land retirement on water quality and aquatic-community health was investigated in the Minnesota River Basin. Eighty-two sites, with drainage areas ranging from 4.3 to 2200 km2, were examined for nutrient concentrations, measures of aquatic-community health (e.g., fish index of biotic integrity [IBI] scores), and environmental factors (e.g., drainage area and amount of agricultural land retirement). The relation of proximity of agricultural land retirement to the stream was determined by calculating the land retirement percent in various riparian zones. Spearman's rho results indicated that IBI score was not correlated to the percentage of agricultural land retirement at the basin scale (p = 0.070); however, IBI score was correlated to retired land percentage in the 50- to 400-m riparian zones surrounding the streams (p < 0.05), indicating that riparian agricultural land retirement may have more influence on aquatic-community health than does agricultural land retirement in upland areas. Multivariate analysis of covariance and analysis of covariance models indicated that other environmental factors (such as drainage area and lacustrine and palustrine features) commonly were correlated to aquatic-community health measures, as were in-stream factors (standard deviation of water depth and substrate type). These results indicate that although agricultural land retirement is significantly related to fish communities as measured by the IBI scores, a combination of basin, riparian, and in-stream factors act together to influence IBI scores.
The level of macroinvertebrate community impairment was statistically related to selected basin and water-quality characteristics in New Jersey streams. More than 700 ambient biomonitoring stations were chosen to evaluate potential and known anthropogenic effects. Macroinvertebrate communities were assessed with a modified rapid-bioassessment approach using three impairment ratings (nonimpaired, moderately impaired, and severely impaired). Maximum-likelihood multiple logistic-regression analysis was used to develop equations defining the probability of community impairment above predetermined impairment levels. Seven of the original 140 explanatory variables were highly related to the level of community impairment. Explanatory variables found to be most useful for predicting severe macroinvertebrate community impairment were the amount of urban land and total flow of municipal effluent. Area underlain by the Reading Prong physiographic region and amount of forested land were inversely related to severe impairment. Nonparametric analysis of variance on rank-transformed bioassessment scores was used to evaluate differences in level of impairment among physiographic regions and major drainage areas simultaneously. Rejection of the null hypothesis indicated that the levels of impairment among all six physiographic regions and five major drainage areas were not equal. Physiographic regions located in the less urbanized northwest portion of New Jersey were not significantly different from each other and had the lowest occurrence of severely impaired macroinvertebrate communities. Physiographic regions containing urban centers had a higher probability of exhibiting a severely impaired macroinvertebrate community. Analysis of major drainage areas indicates that levels of impairment in the Atlantic Coastal Rivers drainage area differed significantly from those in the Lower Delaware River drainage area.
Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina
Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.
... Federal agency, such as a Treasury note, Treasury bond, Treasury bill, savings bond, or similar instrument... best of such official's knowledge and belief, a compilation of agency records maintained in the normal... maintained in the normal course of business for the purpose of making a true, correct, and complete return...
Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.
Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087
... as GSA, as allowed by 31 U.S.C. 1535 (the Economy Act), so that they can remain focused on their core... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How can Federal agencies... Disposal Services § 102-75.20 How can Federal agencies with independent disposal authority obtain...
... as GSA, as allowed by 31 U.S.C. 1535 (the Economy Act), so that they can remain focused on their core... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How can Federal agencies... Disposal Services § 102-75.20 How can Federal agencies with independent disposal authority obtain...
Ayala, George; Chión, Miguel; Díaz, Rafael M; Heckert, Andrea L; Nuño, Monica; del Pino, Homero E; Rodríguez, Claudia; Schroeder, Kurt; Smith, Terry
Culturally appropriate, theory-based capacity-building assistance can serve a vital role in helping HIV prevention providers remain up-to-date, effective, and responsive to those they serve. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), AIDS Project Los Angeles, in collaboration with San Francisco State University's César E. Chávez Institute, conducted full-day site visits and qualitative interviews in 2005 with mid-level management staff of CDC-funded community-based organizations delivering HIV prevention services to Latino communities in the western region of the United States. We found that agencies we visited (1) had not yet adapted the evidence-based interventions they were using at the time of our visit and (2) requested technical assistance and training in the areas of program development, evaluation, group facilitation techniques, consumer recruitment, client retention, intervention adaptation, and materials development. Findings from this needs assessment were used to inform our seven-pronged approach to delivering capacity-building assistance entitled "Acción Mutua" (Shared Action). The approach emphasizes strategic partnerships, stakeholder involvement, organizational self-assessment, culturally appropriate materials development, interactive training, tailored onsite technical assistance, and professional networking opportunities. This article describes our approach in detail, the assessment process we used to develop it, and its implications for capacity-building practice.
Alvarez-Góngora, Cynthia; Herrera-Silveira, Jorge A
Phytoplankton community structure in coastal areas is a result of various environmental factors such as nutrients, light, grazing, temperature, and salinity. The Yucatan Peninsula is a karstic tropical region that is strongly influenced by submerged groundwater discharge (SGD) into the coastal zone. Phytoplankton community structure and its relationship with regional and local water quality variables were studied in four ports of the northwestern Yucatan Peninsula. Water quality was strongly related to SGD, and variations in phytoplankton community structure were related to local nutrient loading and hydrographic conditions, turbulence, and human impacts. Our study provides an ecological baseline for the Yucatan Peninsula and serves as a basis for establishing monitoring programs to predict changes at sites with high hydrological variation and in developing an early alert system for harmful toxic algal blooms.
The West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) Community Relations Plan establishes a framework of community outreach activities through which to provide the public current, accurate WVDP information, respond to public inquiries, and to receive comments from interested individuals and organizations. An open, effective community relations program is essential to developing public understanding of WVDP goals and direction. The mission of the WVDP is to solve an existing environmental concern by solidifying high-level nuclear waste, transporting the solidified waste to a federal repository for permanent disposal, and effectively closing the facilities used. As an environmental restoration and radioactive waste management project, being conducted at the site of a former nuclear fuel reprocessing facility, the WVDP is a matter of considerable public interest. Safe, effective site operations and the development of technology to meet WVDP goals are both focal points for interested individuals, technical organizations and societies, and environmental and educational groups.
Salles, Joana Falcão; Le Roux, Xavier; Poly, Franck
Genetic diversity of phylogenetic or functional markers is widely used as a proxy of microbial diversity. However, it remains unclear to what extent functional diversity (FD), gene sequence diversity and community functioning are linked. For a range of denitrifying bacteria, we analyzed the relationships between (i) the similarity of functional traits evaluated from metabolic profiles (BIOLOG plates) or from N(2)O accumulation patterns on different carbon sources and (ii) the similarity of phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene) or functional (nir gene) markers. We also calculated different proxies for the diversity of denitrifier community based on taxa richness, phylogenetic (16S rRNA gene) or functional similarities (based either on metabolic profiles or N(2)O accumulation patterns), and evaluated their performance in inferring the functioning of assembled denitrifying communities. For individual strains, the variation in the 16S rRNA gene sequence was weakly correlated with the variation in metabolic patterns (ρ = 0.35) and was not related to N(2)O accumulation. The latter was correlated with the similarity of nitrite reductase residues. When nir genes were analyzed separately, the similarity in amino acids coded by the nirS genes was highly correlated with the observed patterns of N(2)O accumulation (ρ = 0.62), whereas nirK amino acid residues were unrelated to N(2)O accumulation. For bacterial assemblages, phylogenetic diversity (average similarity among species in a community) and mean community dissimilarity (average distance between species) calculated using 16S rRNA gene sequences, and FD measures associated with metabolic profiles, poorly predicted the variation in the functioning of assembled communities (≤15%). In contrast, the proxies of FD based on N(2)O accumulation patterns performed better and explained from 23 to 42% of the variation in denitrification. Amongst those, community niche was the best metric, indicating the importance of
Yang, Ching-Hong; Crowley, David E.
Root exudate composition and quantity vary in relation to plant nutritional status, but the impact of the differences on rhizosphere microbial communities is not known. To examine this question, we performed an experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants under iron-limiting and iron-sufficient growth conditions. Plants were grown in an iron-limiting soil in root box microcosms. One-half of the plants were treated with foliar iron every day to inhibit phytosiderophore production and to alter root exudate composition. After 30 days, the bacterial communities associated with different root zones, including the primary root tips, nonelongating secondary root tips, sites of lateral root emergence, and older roots distal from the tip, were characterized by using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fingerprints generated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results showed that the microbial communities associated with the different root locations produced many common 16S rDNA bands but that the communities could be distinguished by using correspondence analysis. Approximately 40% of the variation between communities could be attributed to plant iron nutritional status. A sequence analysis of clones generated from a single 16S rDNA band obtained at all of the root locations revealed that there were taxonomically different species in the same band, suggesting that the resolving power of DGGE for characterization of community structure at the species level is limited. Our results suggest that the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are substantially different in different root zones and that a rhizosphere community may be altered by changes in root exudate composition caused by changes in plant iron nutritional status. PMID:10618246
Yang, C H; Crowley, D E
Root exudate composition and quantity vary in relation to plant nutritional status, but the impact of the differences on rhizosphere microbial communities is not known. To examine this question, we performed an experiment with barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants under iron-limiting and iron-sufficient growth conditions. Plants were grown in an iron-limiting soil in root box microcosms. One-half of the plants were treated with foliar iron every day to inhibit phytosiderophore production and to alter root exudate composition. After 30 days, the bacterial communities associated with different root zones, including the primary root tips, nonelongating secondary root tips, sites of lateral root emergence, and older roots distal from the tip, were characterized by using 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) fingerprints generated by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results showed that the microbial communities associated with the different root locations produced many common 16S rDNA bands but that the communities could be distinguished by using correspondence analysis. Approximately 40% of the variation between communities could be attributed to plant iron nutritional status. A sequence analysis of clones generated from a single 16S rDNA band obtained at all of the root locations revealed that there were taxonomically different species in the same band, suggesting that the resolving power of DGGE for characterization of community structure at the species level is limited. Our results suggest that the bacterial communities in the rhizosphere are substantially different in different root zones and that a rhizosphere community may be altered by changes in root exudate composition caused by changes in plant iron nutritional status.
Sokołowski, A.; Wołowicz, M.; Asmus, H.; Asmus, R.; Carlier, A.; Gasiunaité, Z.; Grémare, A.; Hummel, H.; Lesutiené, J.; Razinkovas, A.; Renaud, P. E.; Richard, P.; Kędra, M.
Numerical structure and the organisation of food webs within macrozoobenthic communities has been assessed in the European waters (Svalbard, Barents Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea) to address the interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Abundance and classical species diversity indices (S, H', J) of macrofaunal communities were related to principal attributes of food webs (relative trophic level and food chain length, FCL) that were determined from carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values. Structure of marine macrobenthos varies substantially at a geographical scale; total abundance ranges from 63 ind. m-2 to 34,517 ind. m-2, species richness varies from 3 to 166 and the Shannon-Weaver diversity index from 0.26 to 3.26 while Pielou's evenness index is below 0.73. The major source of energy for macrobenthic communities is suspended particulate organic matter, consisting of phytoplankton and detrital particles, sediment particulate organic matter, and microphytobenthos in varying proportions. These food sources support the presence of suspension- and deposit-feeding communities, which dominate numerically on the sea floor. Benthic food webs include usually four to five trophic levels (FCL varies from 3.08 to 4.86). Most species are assigned to the second trophic level (primary consumers), fewer species are grouped in the third trophic level (secondary consumers), and benthic top predators are the least numerous. Most species cluster primarily at the lowest trophic level that is consistent with the typical organization of pyramidal food webs. Food chain length increases with biodiversity, highlighting a positive effect of more complex community structure on food web organisation. In more diverse benthic communities, energy is transferred through more trophic levels while species-poor communities sustain a shorter food chain.
Dumlao, Rebecca J.; Janke, Emily M.
Community and campus partners face inherent differences due to their distinct cultures, assumptions, practices, and constituencies. How partners handle the resulting tensions can impact how well the partnership functions. This article introduces relational dialectics as a framework to think about recurring tensions as natural and normal when…
CARTER, RICHARD F.; CHAFFEE, STEVEN H.
FROM A 1964 NATIONAL QUOTA-PROBABILITY SAMPLE OF INTERVIEWS WITH 1,500 CITIZENS 21 YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, MAJOR VARIABLES WERE DEFINED RELATING TO COMMUNICATION BETWEEN PUBLIC SCHOOLS AND THEIR COMMUNITIES. PRIMARY CONTENT OF THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS STUDIED WAS FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR SCHOOLS. FOR PURPOSES OF CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS, RESPONDENTS…
Jones, M. Gail; Carter, Glenda; Rua, Melissa J.
Examines the relationships and development of communities of concepts related to heat and convection among fifth grade students. Discusses the influence of familial and cultural experiences on conceptual development as well as the extent to which competing phenomena affect the development of new conceptual understandings. (Contains 49 references.)…
Institute for Development of Educational Activities, Dayton, OH.
Questions aimed at better school-community relations through identification of problems and courses of positive action were pursued at a seminar. Positive statements were presented by a citizen, a businessman, and an educator; and discussions were launched from the propositions, problems, and points raised in these papers. This report consists of…
New York State Legislative Commission on Rural Resources, Albany.
Trends, strengths and assets, weaknesses and problem areas, goals, and public policy questions in the area of human relations and community life in rural New York state are presented with supporting statistics. Trends considered include rural and elderly rural population increases; suicide, homicide, and domestic violence rate increases; demands…
Weinrib, Aliza Z.; Rothrock, Nan E.; Johnsen, Erica L.; Lutgendorf, Susan K.
In an investigation of the assessment and construct validity of stress-related growth, community-dwelling women (N = 163) wrote essays about the impact of a stressful life event that had occurred in the previous few years and completed the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). Independent ratings of growth in the essays were positively correlated…
Montgomery, Alison; McGlynn, Claire
This paper reflects upon student teachers' conceptions of inter-community relations and the preparation they receive to address issues of diversity and mutual understanding. The study in Northern Ireland is set against a backdrop of political, social and educational change, where a shared, peaceful future appears possible. Student teachers at a…
Conklin, Karen A.
This report contains employment, salary, and placement information related to career programs at Johnson County Community College (JCCC, Kansas) as of December 1998. Employment and salary projections for the greater Kansas City area, the state of Kansas, and the nation, as well as salary and placement information for JCCC program completers, are…
Social relations and their influence on various phenomena are one of the key issues not only in sociology. The crucial problem, however, is how to measure the social relations and their implications in society. We try to adapt a physical perspective to the ``typical'' sociological analysis and to measure the qualitative nature of human community adapting the category of social distance. This category is used to explore the properties of social relations in the structure and the communication system of prison community. The issues that are discussed: the specific properties of social relations as the constitutive factors for different type of group structure and type of communication. How the elementary social networks (short-range group structures) form the dynamics of prison community? What is the role of the numerical force of the group for prison community? Is there the interplay between the microstructures and macrostructures? The work is based on our research carried out in 17 prisons in Poland in 2003, 2004 and 2005. There were about 2000 prisoners in the sample.
Wessel, Stacy; Godshalk, Veronica M.
This article focuses on providing a convincing argument for incorporating social entrepreneurship into the business professor's classroom. The outreach provided by social entrepreneurship enhances learning and promotes university-community relations. Service-learning engagement activities, in the form of social entrepreneurship, create a three-way…
Witherspoon, Gary Jay
The primary concern of this research was with community-school relations in American Indian education, particularly Navajo education. Major data on which this study was based came from interviews with 223 parents whose children attended various types of schools in Arizona during 1967-68: Nazlini (Bureau of Indian Affairs), Many Farms (BIA and…
Oravec, Jo Ann
Violent computer games, hate group Web sites, and related Internet activities deliver hostile materials to youth. The Internet is becoming a vehicle for conveying negative messages. Teacher educators can equip future teachers to handle these issues. This paper examines what some schools and communities are doing and proposes ways to integrate…
Cruise, James; Lyson, Thomas A.
In two marginal dairy communities with similar physical environment, ethnic composition, and farm structure, a significant difference in productivity (milk yield per cow) was related to differences in educational attainment of farmers, proximity to an urban area, and availability of marketing outlets and agricultural information sources. Contains…
Scott, James Calvert
As the British business community becomes increasingly internationalized, it should show more interest in language-related matters. After a review of the literature, this paper reports on a study of the 100 largest British industrial companies. The conclusions are as follows: (1) a wide variety of British employees are involved in international…
Freedman, Darcy A; Blake, Christine E; Liese, Angela D
Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial-temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of nutritious food access were identified. The conceptual model provides practical guidance to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working to improve nutritious food access in communities.
FREEDMAN, DARCY A.; BLAKE, CHRISTINE E.; LIESE, ANGELA D.
Access to nutritious foods is limited in disenfranchised communities in the United States. Policies are beginning to focus on improving nutritious food access in these contexts; yet, few theories are available to guide this work. We developed a conceptual model of nutritious food access based on the qualitative responses of food consumers in 2 different regions of the American South. Five domains (economic, service delivery, spatial–temporal, social, and personal) and related dimensions of nutritious food access were identified. The conceptual model provides practical guidance to researchers, policy makers, and practitioners working to improve nutritious food access in communities. PMID:24563605
Moore, Simon; Shepherd, Jonathan
This article describes the methodology and observational data from a project that sought to, first, investigate the prevalence of alcohol related harm and alcohol misuse in Cardiff's night-time economy and, second, deliver a targeted server training intervention to premises identified as at risk of misselling alcohol. The bulk of the work is…
Dean, Courtney; Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J
Little is known about the microbial communities native to surface-deposited pyritic oil sands tailings, an environment where acid rock drainage (ARD) could occur. The goal of this study was to enrich sulfur-oxidizing organisms from these tailings and determine whether different populations exist at pH levels 7, 4.5, and 2.5. Using growth-based methods provides model organisms for use in the future to predict potential activities and limitations of these organisms and to develop possible control methods. Thiosulfate-fed enrichment cultures were monitored for approximately 1 year. The results showed that the enrichments at pH 4.5 and 7 were established quicker than at pH 2.5. Different microbial community structures were found among the 3 pH environments. The sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms identified were most closely related to Halothiobacillus neapolitanus, Achromobacter spp., and Curtobacterium spp. While microorganisms related to Chitinophagaceae and Acidocella spp. were identified as the only possible iron-oxidizing and -reducing microbes. These results contribute to the general knowledge of the relatively understudied microbial communities that exist in pyritic oil sands tailings and indicate these communities may have a potential role in ARD generation, which may have implications for future tailings management.
Smit, Peter J.; Brady, Michael; Carter, Michael; Fernandes, Ricardo; Lamore, Lance; Meulbroek, Michael; Ohayon, Michel; Platteau, Tom; Rehberg, Peter; Rockstroh, Jürgen K.; Thompson, Marc
While stigma associated with HIV infection is well recognised, there is limited information on the impact of HIV-related stigma between men who have sex with men and within communities of gay men. The consequences of HIV-related stigma can be personal and community-wide, including impacts on mood and emotional well-being, prevention, testing behaviour, and mental and general health. This review of the literature reports a growing division between HIV-positive and HIV-negative gay men, and a fragmentation of gay communities based along lines of perceived or actual HIV status. The literature includes multiple references to HIV stigma and discrimination between gay men, men who have sex with men, and among and between many gay communities. This HIV stigma takes diverse forms and can incorporate aspects of social exclusion, ageism, discrimination based on physical appearance and health status, rejection and violence. By compiling the available information on this understudied form of HIV-related discrimination, we hope to better understand and target research and countermeasures aimed at reducing its impact at multiple levels. PMID:22117138
van Ingen, Daniel J.; Moore, Linda L.; Zaja, Rebecca H.; Rojahn, Johannes
Reliability and concurrent validity of the Behavior Problems Inventory (BPI-01; Rojahn et al., 2001) was examined in a sample of 130 community residing adults with mild to profound intellectual disabilities with high rates of behavior problems and concurrent mental health problems. The BPI-01 and the Inventory for Client and Agency Planning (ICAP;…
Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Lee, Iwa; Verweij, Rudo A; Morais, Paula V; Van Velzen, Martin J M; Sousa, José Paulo; Van Gestel, Cornelis A M
Earthworms may promote the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, but the mechanism through which they exert such influence is still unknown. To determine if the stimulation of PAH degradation by earthworms is related to changes in microbial communities, a microcosm experiment was conducted consisting of columns with natural uncontaminated soil covered with PAH-contaminated dredge sediment. Columns without and with low and high Eisenia andrei densities were prepared. Organic matter and PAH content, microbial biomass, and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) were measured in soil and sediment over time. Biolog Ecoplate™ and polymerase chain reaction using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis were used to evaluate changes in metabolic and structural diversity of the microbial community, respectively. Earthworm activity promoted PAH degradation in soil, which was significant for biphenyl, benzo[a]pyrene, and benzo[e]pyrene. Microbial biomass and DHA activity generally did not change over the experiment. Earthworm activity did change microbial community structure, but this did not affect its functioning in terms of carbon substrate consumption. Results suggest no relationship between changes in the microbial community by earthworm activity and increased PAH disappearance. The role of shifts in soil microbial community structure induced by earthworms in PAH removal needs further investigation.
This paper focuses on the notion of the learning space at work and discusses the extent to which its different configurations allow employees to exercise personal agency within a range of learning spaces. Although the learning space at work is already the subject of extensive research, the continuous development of the learning society and the development of new types of working spaces calls for further research to advance our knowledge and understanding of the ways that individuals exercise agency and learn in the workplace. Research findings suggest that the current perception of workplace learning is strongly related to the notion of the learning space, in which individuals and teams work, learn and develop their skills. The perception of the workplace as a site only for work-specific training is gradually changing, as workplaces are now acknowledged as sites for learning in various configurations, and as contributing to the personal development and social engagement of employees. This paper argues that personal agency is constructed in the workplace, and this process involves active interrelations between agency and three dimensions of the workplace (individual, spatial and organisational), identified through both empirical and theoretical research. The discussion is supported by data from two research projects on workplace learning in the United Kingdom. This paper thus considers how different configurations of the learning space and the boundaries between a range of work-related spaces facilitate the achievement of personal agency.
Cooter, William S
During the 1970s the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) devised a multiscale system of basin planning and regional implementation that encouraged a balanced mixture of monitoring and modeling-based assessments. By the 1980s, this goal had not been achieved. Modeling and monitoring assessment approaches became largely decoupled. To a significant degree, modeling was viewed as too inaccurate to handle issues such as setting permit limits involving toxics. During the 1980s, EPA also encouraged the idea that monitoring approaches were adequate to document water quality problems, guide the development of management plans, and demonstrate the achievement of management goals. By the late 1990s, large numbers of waters listed under the Clean Water Act's Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) provisions showed the widespread nature of pollutant concerns, but the uneven nature of the listing information also revealed fundamental problems in the ability of state monitoring programs to achieve credible and comprehensive assessments. Statistics are presented from the 1998 and the most current publicly available 2000 baseline periods showing the limitations in the scope of state assessments. There are significant opportunities for the increased use of relatively simple modeling systems that can be flexibly implemented over a variety of spatial scales. In addition to conventional modeling frameworks, the value of bioassessment monitoring techniques is stressed. Bioassessment indicators can often be combined with landscape modeling methods, as well as analyses from conventional modeling outputs, to help target small area monitoring by use of tiered approaches. These findings underscore the value of integrated monitoring and modeling approaches to build properly balanced assessment systems.
Martinez, Alexander S.; Faist, Akasha M.
Background Understanding patterns of biodiversity is a longstanding challenge in ecology. Similar to other biotic groups, arthropod community structure can be shaped by deterministic and stochastic processes, with limited understanding of what moderates the relative influence of these processes. Disturbances have been noted to alter the relative influence of deterministic and stochastic processes on community assembly in various study systems, implicating ecological disturbances as a potential moderator of these forces. Methods Using a disturbance gradient along a 5-year chronosequence of insect-induced tree mortality in a subalpine forest of the southern Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA, we examined changes in community structure and relative influences of deterministic and stochastic processes in the assembly of aboveground (surface and litter-active species) and belowground (species active in organic and mineral soil layers) arthropod communities. Arthropods were sampled for all years of the chronosequence via pitfall traps (aboveground community) and modified Winkler funnels (belowground community) and sorted to morphospecies. Community structure of both communities were assessed via comparisons of morphospecies abundance, diversity, and composition. Assembly processes were inferred from a mixture of linear models and matrix correlations testing for community associations with environmental properties, and from null-deviation models comparing observed vs. expected levels of species turnover (Beta diversity) among samples. Results Tree mortality altered community structure in both aboveground and belowground arthropod communities, but null models suggested that aboveground communities experienced greater relative influences of deterministic processes, while the relative influence of stochastic processes increased for belowground communities. Additionally, Mantel tests and linear regression models revealed significant associations between the aboveground arthropod
Verma, Santosh K.; Willetts, Joanna L.; Corns, Helen L.; Marucci-Wellman, Helen R.; Lombardi, David A.; Courtney, Theodore K.
Introduction Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries in the U.S.; however, national estimates for all community-dwelling adults are lacking. This study estimated the national incidence of falls and fall-related injuries among community-dwelling U.S. adults by age and gender and the trends in fall-related injuries across the adult life span. Methods Nationally representative data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2008 Balance and Dizziness supplement was used to develop national estimates of falls, and pooled data from the NHIS was used to calculate estimates of fall-related injuries in the U.S. and related trends from 2004–2013. Costs of unintentional fall-related injuries were extracted from the CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. Results Twelve percent of community-dwelling U.S. adults reported falling in the previous year for a total estimate of 80 million falls at a rate of 37.2 falls per 100 person-years. On average, 9.9 million fall-related injuries occurred each year with a rate of 4.38 fall-related injuries per 100 person-years. In the previous three months, 2.0% of older adults (65+), 1.1% of middle-aged adults (45–64) and 0.7% of young adults (18–44) reported a fall-related injury. Of all fall-related injuries among community-dwelling adults, 32.3% occurred among older adults, 35.3% among middle-aged adults and 32.3% among younger adults. The age-adjusted rate of fall-related injuries increased 4% per year among older women (95% CI 1%–7%) from 2004 to 2013. Among U.S. adults, the total lifetime cost of annual unintentional fall-related injuries that resulted in a fatality, hospitalization or treatment in an emergency department was 111 billion U.S. dollars in 2010. Conclusions Falls and fall-related injuries represent a significant health and safety problem for adults of all ages. The findings suggest that adult fall prevention efforts should consider the entire adult lifespan to ensure a
Novotna, Gabriela; Dobbins, Maureen; Jack, Susan M.; Sword, Wendy; Niccols, Alison; Brooks, Sandy; Henderson, Joanna
Aims: The study objectives were to: (1) understand the value attributed to the lived experience of addiction and recovery among professionals working in addiction agencies serving women in Canada and (2) describe how lived experience influence practice-related decision-making. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted with a…
In view of the opportunities made possible by the Framework Agreement between the European Space Agency and the Soviet Union, this article examines the linguistic aspects of the agreement and its implementation. Many communication problems are related to Western concepts of project management and control that are difficult to translate into…
Uhalde, Raymond J.
On April 7, 2011, Jobs for the Future (JFF) Policy Vice President Raymond Uhalde testified before the U.S. House Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies about the success of workforce development projects for youth and adults funded by the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) and the importance of sustaining…
Sinsabaugh, Robert L; Van Horn, David J; Shah, Jennifer J Follstad; Findlay, Stuart
The degradation of detrital organic matter and assimilation of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) by heterotrophic microbial communities is mediated by enzymes released into the environment (ecoenzymes). For the attached microbial communities of soils and freshwater sediments, the activities of β-glucosidase, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, leucine aminopeptidase, and phosphatase show consistent stoichiometric patterns. To determine whether similar constraints apply to planktonic communities, we assembled data from nine studies that include measurements of these enzyme activities along with microbial productivity. By normalizing enzyme activity to productivity, we directly compared the ecoenzymatic stoichiometry of aquatic biofilm and bacterioplankton communities. The relationships between β-glucosidase and α-glucosidase and β-glucosidase and β-N-acetylglucosaminidase were statistically indistinguishable for the two community types, while the relationships between β-glucosidase and phosphatase and β-glucosidase and leucine aminopeptidase significantly differed. For β-glucosidase vs. phosphatase, the differences in slope (biofilm 0.65, plankton 1.05) corresponded with differences in the mean elemental C:P ratio of microbial biomass (60 and 106, respectively). For β-glucosidase vs. leucine aminopeptidase, differences in slope (0.80 and 1.02) did not correspond to differences in the mean elemental C:N of biomass (8.6 and 6.6). β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase activity in biofilms was significantly greater than that of plankton, suggesting that aminosaccharides were a relatively more important N source for biofilms, perhaps because fungi are more abundant. The slopes of β-glucosidase vs. (β-N-acetylglucosaminidase + leucine aminopeptidase) regressions (biofilm 1.07, plankton 0.94) corresponded more closely to the estimated difference in mean biomass C:N. Despite major differences in physical structure and trophic organization, biofilm and plankton
Zhang, Stacy Y; Speare, Kelly E; Long, Zachary T; McKeever, Kimberly A; Gyoerkoe, Megan; Ramus, Aaron P; Mohorn, Zach; Akins, Kelsey L; Hambridge, Sarah M; Graham, Nicholas A J; Nash, Kirsty L; Selig, Elizabeth R; Bruno, John F
More diverse communities are thought to be more stable-the diversity-stability hypothesis-due to increased resistance to and recovery from disturbances. For example, high diversity can make the presence of resilient or fast growing species and key facilitations among species more likely. How natural, geographic biodiversity patterns and changes in biodiversity due to human activities mediate community-level disturbance dynamics is largely unknown, especially in diverse systems. For example, few studies have explored the role of diversity in tropical marine communities, especially at large scales. We tested the diversity-stability hypothesis by asking whether coral richness is related to resistance to and recovery from disturbances including storms, predator outbreaks, and coral bleaching on tropical coral reefs. We synthesized the results of 41 field studies conducted on 82 reefs, documenting changes in coral cover due to disturbance, across a global gradient of coral richness. Our results indicate that coral reefs in more species-rich regions were marginally less resistant to disturbance and did not recover more quickly. Coral community resistance was also highly dependent on pre-disturbance coral cover, probably due in part to the sensitivity of fast-growing and often dominant plating acroporid corals to disturbance. Our results suggest that coral communities in biodiverse regions, such as the western Pacific, may not be more resistant and resilient to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Further analyses controlling for disturbance intensity and other drivers of coral loss and recovery could improve our understanding of the influence of diversity on community stability in coral reef ecosystems.
Lizée, Marie-Hélène; Bonardo, Rémi; Mauffrey, Jean-François; Bertaudière-Montes, Valérie; Tatoni, Thierry; Deschamps-Cottin, Magali
Agricultural decline and urbanization entail rapid alterations of the patterns of organization of rural landscapes in Europe. The spread of the urban footprint to the adjacent countryside contributes to the development of new anthropogenic ecosystems in formerly rural hinterlands. In this study, butterflies are considered as biological indicators of these rapid environmental changes. Our purpose is to better understand changes in biodiversity related to the evolution of available habitats in a mutating landscape. In this study, we investigate butterfly communities of four land-use types (fallow lands, gardens, vineyards, woodlands) within different landscape contexts. Our results reveal that variations in structure and functional composition of these communities are related to different levels of human disturbance at both landscape scale and habitat scale.
Rampant levels of AIDS and poverty have made many children in sub-Saharan Africa the primary caregivers of their ageing or ailing guardians. This paper reports on a social action fund initiative that brought caregiving children together to set-up and run income generating activities as a group with the aim of strengthening their coping capabilities. To further our understanding of child-led microfinance activities, this paper explores how intra-community relations can both facilitate and undermine child-led activities, and how these activities in turn can further strengthen some intra-community relations. Twenty-one children (aged 12-17) and six guardians participated in this study. Data included draw-and-write compositions (n=21), essays (n=16), workshop notes and proposals (n=8) and in-depth interviews (n=16). A thematic analysis revealed that the children actively drew on the expertise and involvement of some guardians in the project as well as on each other, developing supportive peer relations that helped strengthen their coping capabilities. However, the children's disenfranchised position in the community meant that some adults took advantage of the child-led activities for their own personal gain. Some children also showed a lack of commitment to collective work, undermining the morale of their more active peers. Nevertheless, both guardians and the children themselves began to look at caregiving children differently as their engagement in the project began to earn them respect from the community - changing guardian/child relations. The paper concludes that microfinance interventions targeting children and young people must consider children's relationships with each other and with adults as key determinants of Project success.
Auber, Arnaud; Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Villanueva, Maria Ching; Ernande, Bruno
Identifying the various drivers of marine ecosystem regime shifts and disentangling their respective influence are critical tasks for understanding biodiversity dynamics and properly managing exploited living resources such as marine fish communities. Unfortunately, the mechanisms and forcing factors underlying regime shifts in marine fish communities are still largely unknown although climate forcing and anthropogenic pressures such as fishing have been suggested as key determinants. Based on a 24-year-long time-series of scientific surveys monitoring 55 fish and cephalopods species, we report here a rapid and persistent structural change in the exploited fish community of the eastern English Channel from strong to moderate dominance of small-bodied forage fish species with low temperature preferendum that occurred in the mid-1990s. This shift was related to a concomitant warming of the North Atlantic Ocean as attested by a switch of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation from a cold to a warm phase. Interestingly, observed changes in the fish community structure were opposite to those classically induced by exploitation as larger fish species of higher trophic level increased in abundance. Despite not playing a direct role in the regime shift, fishing still appeared as a forcing factor affecting community structure. Moreover, although related to climate, the regime shift may have been facilitated by strong historic exploitation that certainly primed the system by favoring the large dominance of small-bodied fish species that are particularly sensitive to climatic variations. These results emphasize that particular attention should be paid to multidecadal natural climate variability and its interactions with both fishing and climate warming when aiming at sustainable exploitation and ecosystem conservation. PMID:26132268
Auber, Arnaud; Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Villanueva, Maria Ching; Ernande, Bruno
Identifying the various drivers of marine ecosystem regime shifts and disentangling their respective influence are critical tasks for understanding biodiversity dynamics and properly managing exploited living resources such as marine fish communities. Unfortunately, the mechanisms and forcing factors underlying regime shifts in marine fish communities are still largely unknown although climate forcing and anthropogenic pressures such as fishing have been suggested as key determinants. Based on a 24-year-long time-series of scientific surveys monitoring 55 fish and cephalopods species, we report here a rapid and persistent structural change in the exploited fish community of the eastern English Channel from strong to moderate dominance of small-bodied forage fish species with low temperature preferendum that occurred in the mid-1990s. This shift was related to a concomitant warming of the North Atlantic Ocean as attested by a switch of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation from a cold to a warm phase. Interestingly, observed changes in the fish community structure were opposite to those classically induced by exploitation as larger fish species of higher trophic level increased in abundance. Despite not playing a direct role in the regime shift, fishing still appeared as a forcing factor affecting community structure. Moreover, although related to climate, the regime shift may have been facilitated by strong historic exploitation that certainly primed the system by favoring the large dominance of small-bodied fish species that are particularly sensitive to climatic variations. These results emphasize that particular attention should be paid to multidecadal natural climate variability and its interactions with both fishing and climate warming when aiming at sustainable exploitation and ecosystem conservation.
This study considered the relationships among five variables of school-community relations (access, communication, involvement, participation, and conflict resolution); measured the general relationship between parents' perceptions of school-community relations and their children's academic achievement; measured the contribution of each of the…
Petersen, James C.; Femmer, Suzanne R.
During August through September of 1993-95, 83 periphyton samples were collected at 51 stream sites in the Ozark Plateaus. These sites were categorized into six land-use categories (20 forest, 18 agriculture, 10 mining, 1 urban, 1 urban/mining, and 1 mix), based on land-use percentages in the basin upstream from the site. Results indicate that periphyton communities of riffles of Ozark streams are affected by natural and land-use related factors. These factors include nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, alkalinity, canopy shading, suspended sediment, embeddedness, stream morphometry, and velocity. For several measures of periphyton communities, statistically significant (p<0.05) differences were found among sites assigned to agriculture, forest, and mining categories. Blue-green algae biovolume, relative abundance of blue-green algae, relative biovolume of diatoms, relative abundance of oligotrophic algae, relative abundance of tolerant taxa, and condition index values were among the measures that differed among land-use categories. Although no environmental factors were significantly correlated with total biovolume, several factors were significantly correlated with biovolume of blue-green algae or biovolume of diatoms. Biovolume of blue-green algae was correlated with percent agriculture land use. Biovolume of diatoms was correlated with orthophosphate, total phosphorus, alkalinity, velocity, embeddedness, and dissolved organic carbon.Diatoms often composed the largest percentage of the biovolume (relative biovolume). Diatom relative biovolume was much higher at mining sites (generally 75 to 90 percent of the total biovolume) than at forest or agriculture sites (generally 15 to 80 percent) and was correlated with several factors, including many land-use related factors. The diatoms Cymbella affinis and Cymbella delicatula and the blue-green algae Calothrix often were the most common (relative abundance and relative biovolume) algae in samples
WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the availability of $13.5 million in grant funding to help governments and nonprofit organizations switch to cleaner diesel engines. Local governments, tribal agencies and no
Lasimbang, Helen Benedict; Shoesmith, Wendy; Mohd Daud, Mohd Nazri Bin; Kaur, Nirmal; Jin, Margaret Chin Pau; Singh, Jaswant; John, Wilfred; Salumbi, Edna; Amir, Lidwina
Alcohol is the number three contributor to the burden of disease worldwide so must remain a priority health promotion issue internationally. Malaysia is a Muslim country and alcohol-related harm was not seen as a priority until recently, because it only affects a minority of the population. Sabah has more than 30 different ethnic groups, and alcohol has a traditional role in the cultural practices of many of these groups. In 2009, the Intervention Group for Alcohol Misuse (IGAM) was formed, under the umbrella of Mercy Malaysia by a group of healthcare workers, academics, members of the Clergy and people who were previously alcohol-dependent concerned about the harmful effects of excessive alcohol consumption. IGAM in collaboration with other bodies have organized public seminars, visited villages and schools, encouraged the formation of a support group and trained healthcare professionals in health promotion intervention. The focus later changed to empowering communities to find solutions to alcohol-related harm in their community in a way which is sensitive to their culture. A standard tool-kit was developed using WHO materials as a guide. Village committees were formed and adapted the toolkit according to their needs. This strategy has been shown to be effective, in that 90% of the 20 committees formed are actively and successfully involved in health promotion to reduce alcohol-related harm in their communities.
Bari, R.; Rosenbloom, S.; O'Brien, J.
In the Department of Energy (DOE) Implementation Plan (IP) for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board's Recommendation 2009-1, the DOE committed to studying the use of quantitative risk assessment methodologies at government agencies and industry. This study consisted of document reviews and interviews of senior management and risk assessment staff at six organizations. Data were collected and analyzed on risk assessment applications, risk assessment tools, and controls and infrastructure supporting the correct usage of risk assessment and risk management tools. The study found that the agencies were in different degrees of maturity in the use of risk assessment to support the analysis of high hazard operations and to support decisions related to these operations. Agencies did not share a simple, 'one size fits all' approach to tools, controls, and infrastructure needs. The agencies recognized that flexibility was warranted to allow use of risk assessment tools in a manner that is commensurate with the complexity of the application. The study also found that, even with the lack of some data, agencies application of the risk analysis structured approach could provide useful insights such as potential system vulnerabilities. This study, in combination with a companion study of risk assessment programs in the DOE Offices involved in high hazard operations, is being used to determine the nature and type of controls and infrastructure needed to support risk assessments at the DOE.
Saha, Budhaditya; Nguyen, Thin; Phung, Dinh; Venkatesh, Svetha
Mental illness has a deep impact on individuals, families, and by extension, society as a whole. Social networks allow individuals with mental disorders to communicate with others sufferers via online communities, providing an invaluable resource for studies on textual signs of psychological health problems. Mental disorders often occur in combinations, e.g., a patient with an anxiety disorder may also develop depression. This co-occurring mental health condition provides the focus for our work on classifying online communities with an interest in depression. For this, we have crawled a large body of 620 000 posts made by 80 000 users in 247 online communities. We have extracted the topics and psycholinguistic features expressed in the posts, using these as inputs to our model. Following a machine learning technique, we have formulated a joint modeling framework in order to classify mental health-related co-occurring online communities from these features. Finally, we performed empirical validation of the model on the crawled dataset where our model outperforms recent state-of-the-art baselines.
Saha, Budhaditya; Nguyen, Thin; Phung, Dinh; Venkatesh, Svetha
Mental illness has a deep impact on individuals, families, and by extension, society as a whole. Social networks allow individuals with mental disorders to communicate with others sufferers via online communities, providing an invaluable resource for studies on textual signs of psychological health problems. Mental disorders often occur in combinations, e.g., a patient with an anxiety disorder may also develop depression. This co-occurring mental health condition provides the focus for our work on classifying online communities with an interest in depression. For this, we have crawled a large body of 620,000 posts made by 80,000 users in 247 online communities. We have extracted the topics and psycho-linguistic features expressed in the posts, using these as inputs to our model. Following a machine learning technique, we have formulated a joint modelling framework in order to classify mental health-related co-occurring online communities from these features. Finally, we performed empirical validation of the model on the crawled dataset where our model outperforms recent state-of-the-art baselines.
Cleary, Daniel F R; Becking, Leontine E; de Voogd, Nicole J; Pires, Ana C C; Polónia, Ana R M; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Newton C M
Marine lakes are unique ecosystems that contain isolated populations of marine organisms. Isolated from the surrounding marine habitat, many lakes house numerous endemic species. In this study, microbial communities of sponges inhabiting these lakes were investigated for the first time using barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Our main goals were to compare the bacterial richness and composition of two sponge species (Suberites diversicolor and Cinachyrella australiensis) inhabiting both marine lakes and adjacent open coastal systems. Host species and habitat explained almost 59% of the variation in bacterial composition. There was a significant difference in composition between both host species. Within S. diversicolor, there was little discernible difference between bacterial communities inside and outside lakes. The bacterial community of this species was, furthermore, dominated (63% of all sequences) by three very closely related alphaproteobacterial taxa identified as belonging to the recently described order Kiloniellales. Cinachyrella australiensis, in contrast, hosted markedly different bacterial communities inside and outside lakes with very few shared abundant taxa. Cinachyrella australiensis in open habitat only shared 9.4% of OTUs with C. australiensis in lake habitat. Bacteria were thus both highly species specific and, in the case of C. australiensis, habitat specific.
Soliman, Maha F M; Ibrahim, Mohamed M
The community structure of monogenean parasites of Oreochromis niloticus and its relation to the variations of heavy metal concentrations in water and the host reproductive cycle (gonadosomatic index, GSI) was studied. Fish were collected from Fishermen Lake, Ismailia. Monogenea community consisted of seven species, Cichlidogyrus halli typicus (57.8%), C. thurstonae (35.3%), C. ergensi (13.8 %), C. tiberianus (16.4%), C. arthracanthus (13.8%), Scutogyrus longicornis (22.4%) and Gyrodadtylus cicchlidarum (18.9 %). The overall mean species richness per host was 4.45 +/- 0.34. Responses of monogenea regarding their prevalence, abundance and intensity to the host sex and seasonal variations varied according to the species. Monogenean community showed different responses to the heavy metal concentrations and GSI. Positive correlations were found between species richness and both gonadosomatic index (rs = 0.2, P = 0.03) and Cd concentrations (rs = 0.89, P=0.04). Prevalence of C. halli typicus and C. thurstonae showed significant negative and positive correlations, respectively with the levels of Cu and Pb. G. cicchlidarus showed significant positive correlation with Cd level. The abundance and intensity of those species showed also correlations with the metal concentrations. Other monogenean species did not show any response to the metal levels such as C. tiberianus. Zn did not show any effect on the infection parameters of any species of monogenean community. The possibility of using some monogenean species to act as indicators for environmental pollution was discussed.
...) Form of reporting—(i) General rule concerning magnetic media. The information returns required by this... as provided in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section, the required returns shall be made on magnetic... 6050M. (ii) Magnetic media exception for low-volume filers. Any Federal executive agency that on...
...) Form of reporting—(i) General rule concerning magnetic media. The information returns required by this... as provided in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section, the required returns shall be made on magnetic... 6050M. (ii) Magnetic media exception for low-volume filers. Any Federal executive agency that on...
This article examines children's (8-9 years) and young people's (14-15 years) views about their own participation in decision-making processes with adults, within the context of home and school in Norway. A difference-centred theoretical perspective is used to identify children's participation as expressions of agency embedded in intricate…
Hingson, R; Zakocs, R; Heeren, T; Winter, M; Rosenbloom, D; DeJong, W
Objective: This analysis tested whether comprehensive community interventions that focus on reducing alcohol availability and increasing substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. Intervention: Five of 14 communities awarded Fighting Back grants by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to reduce substance abuse and related problems attempted to reduce availability of alcohol and expand substance abuse treatment programs (FBAT communities). Program implementation began on 1 January 1992. Design: A quasi-experimental design matched each program community to two or three other communities of similar demographic composition in the same state. Main outcome measures: The ratio of fatal crashes involving a driver or pedestrian with a blood alcohol concentration of 0.01% or higher, 0.08% or higher, or 0.15% or higher were examined relative to fatal crashes where no alcohol was involved for 10 years preceding and 10 years following program initiation. Results: Relative to their comparison communities, the five FBAT communities experienced significant declines of 22% in alcohol related fatal crashes at 0.01% BAC or higher, 20% at 0.08% or higher, and 17% at 0.15% or higher relative to fatal crashes not involving alcohol. Conclusions: Community interventions to reduce alcohol availability and increase substance abuse treatment can reduce alcohol related fatal traffic crashes. PMID:15805436
Yang, Gui-jun; He, Qi; Wang, Xin-pu
From March to October 2009, a field survey was conducted on the darkling beetle community structure and related environmental factors in the desert grasslands with different vegetation cover and human disturbance intensity in Sidunzi of Yanchi, Ningxia, China. By using diversity index and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) , the relationships between the beetle community structure and related environmental factors were analyzed. A total of 5431 individuals were collected, belonging to 20 species and 10 genera. Blaps femoralis femoralis, Microdera kraatzi kraatzi, and Platyope mongolica were the dominant species, accounting for 47.30%, 39.90%, and 3.59% of the total, respectively. CCA explained 100% of the correlations between the beetle species and related environmental factors, suggesting that the occurrence of the beetle species had close relations to the changes of related environmental factors. Among the environmental factors, the Shannon diversity index of plant community (HP), plant biomass (BP), and soil water content (SW) affected the beetle species occurrence most. The occurrence frequency of Mantichorula semenowi, Anatolica amoenula, A. sternalis, and A. gravidula was negatively correlated with BP and plant coverage (CP), and that of B. gobiensis, Cyphogenia chinensis, Gonocephalum reticuluatum, and Crypticus rufipes was positively correlated with plant density (DP) and SW. The distribution of P. mongolica, M. kraatzi kraatzi, Scytosoma pygmaeum, and B. kiritshenkoi showed a positive correlation to HP, and that of Eumylada oberbergeri, B. femoralis femoralis, and B. davidea showed a positive correlation to BP and CP. There was a significant positive correlation (r = 0.943, P = 0.005) between the beetle activity density and SW. The CCA ordination showed that the darkling beetles had different demands for multidimensional ecological resources in desert and semi-desert ecosystems.
Val, Jonatan; Muñiz, Selene; Gomà, Joan; Navarro, Enrique
The climatic-change related increase of temperatures, are expected to alter the distribution and survival of freshwater species, ecosystem functions, and also the effects of toxicants to aquatic biota. This study has thus assessed, as a first time, the modulating effect of climate-change drivers on the mercury (Hg) toxicity of freshwater algal photosynthesis. Natural benthic algal communities (periphyton) have been exposed to Hg under present and future temperature scenarios (rise of 5 °C). The modulating effect of other factors (also altered by global change), as the quality and amount of suspended and dissolved materials in the rivers, has been also assessed, exposing algae to Hg in natural river water or a synthetic medium. The EC50 values ranged from the 0.15-0.74 ppm for the most sensitive communities, to the 24-40 ppm for the most tolerant. The higher tolerance shown by communities exposed to higher Hg concentrations, as Jabarrella was in agreement with the Pollution Induced Community Tolerance concept. In other cases, the dominance of the invasive diatom Didymosphenia geminata explained the tolerance or sensitivity of the community to the Hg toxicity. Results shown that while increases in the suspended solids reduced Hg bioavailability, changes in the dissolved materials - such as organic carbon - may increase it and thus its toxic effects on biota. The impacts of the increase of temperatures on the toxicological behaviour of periphyton (combining both changes at species composition and physiological acclimation) would be certainly modulated by other effects at the land level (i.e., alterations in the amount and quality of dissolved and particulate substances arriving to the rivers).
Frenzel, S.A.; Swanson, R.B.
Nine sites on streams in the Platte River Basin in central Nebraska were sampled as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment Program during 1993-1994. A combination of canonical correspondence analysis and an index of biotic integrity determined from fish community data produced complementary evaluations of water quality conditions. Results of the canonical correspondence analysis were useful in showing which environmental variables were significant in differentiating fish communities at the nine sites. Five environmental variables were statistically significant in the analysis. Median specific conductance of water samples collected at a site accounted for the largest amount of variability in the species data. Although the percentage of the basin as cropland was not the first variable chosen in a forward selection process, it was the most strongly correlated with the first ordination axis. A rangeland- dominated site was distinguished from all others along that axis. Median orthophosphate concentration of samples collected in the year up to the time of fish sampling was most strongly correlated with the second ordination axis. The index of biotic integrity produced results that could be interpreted in terms of the relative water quality between sites. Sites draining nearly 100% cropland had the lowest scores for two individual metrics of the index of biotic integrity that were related to species tolerance. Effective monitoring of water quality could be achieved by coupling methods that address both the ecological components of fish communities and their statistical relationships to environmental factors.
Bohn, K.; Dyke, J. G.; Pavlick, R.; Reineking, B.; Reu, B.; Kleidon, A.
While the regional climate is the primary selection pressure for whether a plant strategy can survive, however, competitive interactions strongly affect the relative abundances of plant strategies within communities. Here, we investigate the relative importance of competition and perturbations on the development of vegetation community structure. To do so, we develop DIVE (Dynamics and Interactions of VEgetation), a simple general model that links plant strategies to their competitive dynamics, using growth and reproduction characteristics that emerge from climatic constraints. The model calculates population dynamics based on establishment, mortality, invasion and exclusion in the presence of different strengths of perturbations, seed and resource competition. The highest levels of diversity were found in simulations without competition as long as mortality is not too high. However, reasonable successional dynamics were only achieved when resource competition is considered. Under high levels of competition, intermediate levels of perturbations were required to obtain coexistence. Since succession and coexistence are observed in plant communities, we conclude that the DIVE model with competition and intermediate levels of perturbation represents an adequate way to model population dynamics. Because of the simplicity and generality of DIVE, it could be used to understand vegetation structure and functioning at the global scale and the response of vegetation to global change.
Donadel, Letícia; Cardoso, Luciana de S; Torgan, Lezilda C
Changes of the plankton community in a shallow, subtropical lagoonal system and its relation to environmental conditions were investigated during an annual cycle to provide information on its spatial and seasonal variation pattern. The study carried out at four sites (three in the Peixe lagoon and one in the Ruivo lagoon), which are located in the Lagoa do Peixe National Park, southern Brazil. The system has a temporary connection to the Atlantic Ocean by a narrow channel. The phytoplankton density was higher in the Peixe lagoon whereas the specific richness was higher in the Ruivo lagoon which is also a site with the lower salinity. The phytoplankton biomass near the channel showed seasonal variation with the highest value in fall and lowest in winter. Zooplankton richness was inversely correlated with salinity, and had the highest values in the Ruivo lagoon. Ordination analysis indicated seasonal and spatial patterns in plankton community in this lagoonal system, related to variation in salinity. In addition, the wind action and precipitation were important factors on the spatial and seasonal salinity changes in the lagoon with direct influence on the plankton community dynamics.
Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Shirlow, Peter; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cairns, Ed
Although relations between political violence and child adjustment are well-documented, long-term longitudinal research is needed to adequately address the many questions remaining about the contexts and developmental trajectories underlying the effects on children in areas of political violence. The present study examined relations between sectarian and non-sectarian community violence and adolescent adjustment problems over four consecutive years for mother-child dyads (total N = 1015, 485 boys, 517 girls) living in socially deprived neighborhoods in a context of historical and ongoing political violence, that is, Belfast, Northern Ireland. Both sectarian and non-sectarian community violence predicted youth adjustment across four years, consistent with the hypothesis that both of these elements of the social ecology merit consideration with regard to children's well-being in contexts of political violence. The impact of sectarian community violence on adolescent adjustment was further accentuated in neighborhoods characterized by higher crime rates. Discussion considers the implications for evaluating social ecologies pertinent to the impact of political violence on children. PMID:23880380
Jackson, D. A.
An area in northern Ontario, Wawa, was severely damaged by a century of iron mining and smelting with exceptional acidification (pH 3-4) and the accumulation of arsenic and other toxins. No formal restoration occurred following cessation of operations in 1998, but natural recovery began. In May 2004 we sampled the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of 20 stream riffles within and around the former fume kill area with the goal of estimating the state of community recovery. Despite watercourse colonization routes being blocked by waterfalls and the short time available for recovery, the macroinvertebrate communities showed remarkable recovery with both taxon richness and abundances being well within the range found in nearby reference streams belonging to the same watershed. Even relatively slow colonizers such as Pisidium bivalve mollusks and Orconectes crayfish, were found in the fume kill area streams. The biological recovery has been matched only by the chemical recovery of the systems. We attribute the rapid recovery firstly to the underlying calcium-rich geology, which apparently led to a quick decrease of acidity, thus facilitating re-colonization of the streams. Secondly, stream orientation relative to the acidic deposition zone facilitated rapid re-colonization from upstream areas.
Karagozoglu, Serife; Arikan, Ayse; Eraydin, Sahizer
This study was carried out to determine the fatigue and self-care levels of the elderly and the relation between these two conditions. One hundred forty-two individuals at the age of 65 or over were included in the descriptive-analytic study. Data were collected using Personal Information Forms to determine socio-demographic features and social relationships, and the Visual Analog Scale for Fatigue (VAS-F) to determine the fatigue status and Exercise of Self-Care Agency Scale (ESCA) to measure the self-care agency. The mean age of the elders who participated in the survey was 76.15±8.61 and their fatigue and energy level scores from VAS-F were 5.08±2.20 and 3.70±1.51 respectively. The value obtained from ESCA was 82.68±16.39. There is, statistically, a weak negative correlation (r=-0.459; p=0.00) between fatigue and energy levels, a weak positive correlation (r=0.284; p=0.01) between self-care agency and energy levels, a weak negative correlation (r=-0.258; p=0.02) between self-care agency and fatigue levels. According to the survey findings, it can be hypothesized that as elders living in rest homes, their energy level falls down, they experience moderate fatigue and have self-care agency a little more than moderate level, and the lack of energy and fatigue they experience affect their self-care agency.
Maldonado-Contreras, Ana; Goldfarb, Kate C; Godoy-Vitorino, Filipa; Karaoz, Ulas; Contreras, Mónica; Blaser, Martin J; Brodie, Eoin L; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G
The human stomach is naturally colonized by Helicobacter pylori, which, when present, dominates the gastric bacterial community. In this study, we aimed to characterize the structure of the bacterial community in the stomach of patients of differing H. pylori status. We used a high-density 16S rRNA gene microarray (PhyloChip, Affymetrix, Inc.) to hybridize 16S rRNA gene amplicons from gastric biopsy DNA of 10 rural Amerindian patients from Amazonas, Venezuela, and of two immigrants to the United States (from South Asia and Africa, respectively). H. pylori status was determined by PCR amplification of H. pylori glmM from gastric biopsy samples. Of the 12 patients, 8 (6 of the 10 Amerindians and the 2 non-Amerindians) were H. pylori glmM positive. Regardless of H. pylori status, the PhyloChip detected Helicobacteriaceae DNA in all patients, although with lower relative abundance in patients who were glmM negative. The G2-chip taxonomy analysis of PhyloChip data indicated the presence of 44 bacterial phyla (of which 16 are unclassified by the Taxonomic Outline of the Bacteria and Archaea taxonomy) in a highly uneven community dominated by only four phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Positive H. pylori status was associated with increased relative abundance of non-Helicobacter bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Spirochetes and Acidobacteria, and with decreased abundance of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. The PhyloChip detected richness of low abundance phyla, and showed marked differences in the structure of the gastric bacterial community according to H. pylori status. PMID:20927139
Egondi, Thaddaeus; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ng, Nawi; Muindi, Kanyiva; Oti, Samuel; van de Vijver, Steven; Ettarh, Remare; Rocklöv, Joacim
Air pollution is among the leading global risks for mortality and responsible for increasing risk for chronic diseases. Community perceptions on exposure are critical in determining people’s response and acceptance of related policies. Therefore, understanding people’ perception is critical in informing the design of appropriate intervention measures. The aim of this paper was to establish levels and associations between perceived pollution and health risk perception among slum residents. A cross-sectional study of 5,317 individuals aged 35+ years was conducted in two slums of Nairobi. Association of perceived score and individual characteristics was assessed using linear regression. Spatial variation in the perceived levels was determined through hot spot analysis using ArcGIS. The average perceived air pollution level was higher among residents in Viwandani compared to those in Korogocho. Perceived air pollution level was positively associated with perceived health risks. The majority of respondents were exposed to air pollution in their place of work with 66% exposed to at least two sources of air pollution. Less than 20% of the respondents in both areas mentioned sources related to indoor pollution. The perceived air pollution level and related health risks in the study community were lowamong the residents indicating the need for promoting awareness on air pollution sources and related health risks. PMID:24157509
This article comments on the new recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of adult patients with community-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs), issued in 2008 by the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS). The terms uncomplicated and complicated UTIs have been retained ; complicated UTIs are those with risk factor for complication (rather than with established complications). In women, age (>or= 65 years) is no longer considered itself a risk factor for complications. In men, cystitis must be treated as prostatitis. The bacterial levels defining UTIs have been revised, but levels below the threshold cannot be used to rule out UTI in the presence of symptoms. For uncomplicated cystitis, only fosfomycin-trometamol is recommended as a first-line treatment, essentially because of its ecological advantages (resistance uncommon, no cross resistance with other antibiotic classes, specific class, sparing others). For recurrent cystitis, prophylactic antibiotic treatment must be limited to cases when other preventive measures are impossible. For complicated cystitis, the principle is to delay antibiotic therapy until the resistance profile results are available, when possible (because of the high risk of resistance). Delay must be avoided during pregnancy, however, because of maternal-fetal risks. The strategy for uncomplicated pyelonephritis has been simplified : no plain abdominal radiography, antibiotic therapy shortened to 10-14 days (even 7 days for regimen or relay including fluoroquinolone), and no routine verification by urine culture. For prostatitis, PSA testing is not recommended during the acute phase of prostatitis, and a 14-day antibiotic regimen is enough for the easiest-to-treat infections.
Moeseneder, M. M.; Smith, K. L.; Ruhl, H. A.; Jones, D. O. B.; Witte, U.; Prosser, J. I.
Particulate organic carbon (POC) flux is hypothesized to be the most important parameter influencing activity and biomass of prokaryotic and faunal communities in the abyssal seafloor, but there is little evidence of POC-related changes in community composition of prokaryotes. This hypothesis was tested by 16S rRNA-gene-based analysis of prokaryotic DNA and RNA extracted from abyssal seafloor sediments during periods of low and high POC flux. Fingerprint analysis of prokaryotic communities indicated that approximately 50% of the phylotypes were identical at each sediment horizon, regardless of the temporal variations in POC flux. However, phylotypes were also detected that represented a relatively dynamic component of these communities and were probably strongly influenced by the prevalent POC flux regime. These patterns were also detected in deeper sediment horizons. DNA- and RNA-based community profiles differed, although both approaches had similar community dynamics. Crenarchaeota showed the strongest shift in community composition in response to availability of labile POC, indicating that POC flux may have a more pronounced impact on crenarchaeal communities than on bacterial communities. The high number of phylotypes common to each sample time suggests that both standing stock and active prokaryotic communities are stable.
Practical, detailed steps for producing a slide/tape show are presented in this paper directed to rural social agencies wishing to communicate more effectively with the communities they serve. The paper begins with background information about advertising in relation to the needs and characteristics of rural social agencies and concludes that a…
Ye, Y; Carlsson, G; Agholme, M Barr; Wilson, J A L; Roos, A; Henriques-Normark, B; Engstrand, L; Modéer, T; Pütsep, K; Raoult, D
The role of oral bacteria in the development of chemotherapy-related oral mucositis has not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate oral bacterial community diversity and dynamics in paediatric patients with malignancies in relation to the occurrence of oral mucositis. Patients with malignancies (n = 37) and reference individuals without known systemic disorders (n = 38) were recruited. For patients, oral bacterial samples were taken from mucosal surfaces both at the time of malignancy diagnosis and during chemotherapy. If oral mucositis occurred, samples were taken from the surface of the mucositis lesions. Oral mucosal bacterial samples were also taken from reference individuals. All samples were assessed using a 16S ribosomal RNA gene 454 pyrosequencing method. A lower microbial diversity (p < 0.01) and a higher intersubject variability (p < 0.001) were found in patients as compared with reference individuals. At the time of malignancy diagnosis (i.e. before chemotherapy) patients that later developed mucositis showed a higher microbial diversity (p < 0.05) and a higher intersubject variability (p < 0.001) compared with those without mucositis. The change of bacterial composition during chemotherapy was more pronounced in patients who later developed mucositis than those without mucositis (p < 0.01). In conclusion, we found a higher microbial diversity at the time of malignancy diagnosis in patients who later develop oral mucositis and that these patients had a more significant modification of the bacterial community by chemotherapy before the occurrence of mucositis. These findings may possibly be of clinical importance in developing better strategies for personalized preventive management. PMID:23829394
Milchunas; Schulz; Shaw
/ Mechanized military maneuvers are an intensive form of disturbance to plant communities in large areas throughout the world. Tracking by heavy vehicles can cause direct mortality and indirectly affect plant communities through soil compaction and by altering competitive relationships. We assessed the long-term condition of structural attributes of open woodland, grassland, and shrubland communities at Fort Carson, Colorado, in relation to levels of disturbance and soil texture. Covariate analyses were used to help separate the directional forcings by the chronic disturbance from the regenerative capacities in order to assess the relative resistance and resilience of the communities and to determine whether the continual disturbance-recovery processes balanced under current levels of utilization. All three communities responded differently to disturbance. In open woodlands, altered understory/overstory relationships were suggested by increased grass, forb, shrub, and total vegetation cover and smaller decreases in shorter than taller woody species with increasing levels of disturbance. Grassland communities generally displayed greater responses to disturbance than other communities, but temporal dynamics were often similar, indicating relatively less resistance but greater resilience of this community. Weed and exotic species increased both temporally and in relation to levels of disturbance in all three community types. Temporal trends in community-level indices of dissimilarity and diversity also indicate that rates of disturbance were greater than rates of recovery. Few variables were related to within-community differences in soil texture. While total aerial cover was temporally stable, changes in species composition and in basal cover in grasslands and shrublands suggest increasing erosion potential.
... Forest Service National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Council will meet... input related to urban and community forestry. DATES: The meeting will be held on January 25 and...
Sullivan, Daniel J.
Several indexes of biotic integrity (IBI) based on fish community were applied to the dataand results were generally comparable. In general, the IBIs indicate higher biotic integrity at the stream sites than the large-river sites. Based on IBI classifications, fish communities at most sites were degraded compared to reference conditions. The fish communities at the 12 study sites appear to be related to a number of environmental factors. Obvious differences in fish communities occur between the stream sites and the large-river sites, the result of differences in both physical and chemical characteristics of the streams. Important physical factors related to fish communities included several directly related to stream size as well as human population density and percent of rowcrops in the watershed. Chemical factors that were important included median total phosphorus, suspended-sediment, and dissolved organic carbon concentrations.
Thomas, Gregory D; Smith, Stephen M; Turcotte, Joseph A
The Hanford Community Health Project (HCHP) addressed health concerns among "downwinders" exposed to releases of radioactive iodine (I-131) from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in the 1940s and 1950s. After developing educational materials and conducting initial outreach, HCHP had to decide whether to apply its limited resources to an advertising or public relations approach. The decision to apply public relations strategies was effective in driving awareness of the risk communication message at the community level, reinvigorating the affected community, and ultimately increasing the number of people who sought information about their risk of exposure and related health issues. HCHP used a series of communication tools to reach out to local and regional media, medical and health professionals, and community organizations. The campaign was successful in increasing the number of unique visitors to HCHP Web site and educating and activating the medical community around the releases of I-131 and patient care choices.
MacCoy, Dorene E.
Within the last century, the lower Boise River has been transformed from a meandering, braided, gravel-bed river that supported large runs of salmon to a channelized, regulated, urban river that provides flood control and irrigation water to more than 1,200 square miles of land. An understanding of the current status of the river's fish communities and related environmental conditions is important to support the ongoing management of the Boise River. Therefore, fish community data from the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Fish and Game collected since 1974 were analyzed to describe the status of fish communities in the lower Boise River. Each set of data was collected to address different study objectives, but is combined here to provide an overall distribution of fish in the lower Boise River over the last 30 years. Twenty-two species of fish in 7 families have been identified in the lower Boise River-3 salmonidae, trout and whitefish; 2 cottidae, sculpins; 3 catostomidae, suckers; 7 cyprinidae, minnows; 4 centrarchidae, sunfish; 2 ictaluridae, catfish; and 1 cobitidae, loach. Analysis of fish community data using an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) for Northwest rivers shows a decrease in the biotic integrity in a downstream direction, with the lowest IBI near the mouth of the Boise River. The number of tolerant and introduced fish were greater in the lower reaches of the river. Changes in land use, habitat, and water quality, as well as regulated streamflow have affected the lower Boise River fish community. IBI scores were negatively correlated with maximum instantaneous water temperature, specific conductance, and suspended sediment; as well as the basin land-use metrics, area of developed land, impervious surface area, and the number of major diversions upstream of a site. Fish communities in the upstream reaches were dominated by piscivorous fish, whereas the downstream reaches were dominated by tolerant, omnivorous fish. The percentage of
Zhu, T; Zhang, S S; Chen, D Y; Yang, H; Zheng, T; Zheng, L M; Li, J
Objective: To investigate job burnout and related influencing factors in community medical staff in Nanchong, China. Methods: From June to July, 2015, cluster random sampling was performed to select 181 medical staff members in Nanchong Community Health Service Center as study subjects. The Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI) was used to measure the level of job burnout. Results: The overall detection rate of job burnout in community medical staff in Nanchong was 95.0%, and among these staff members with job burnout, 119 (65.7%) had mild job burnout, 44 (24.3%) had moderate job burnout, and 9 (5.0%) had severe job burnout. There were significant differences in the scores of emotional exhaustion and reduced sense of personal accomplishmentbetween the medical staff members with different ages (F=5.820 and 3.180, both P<0.05) . There was a significant difference in the score of emotional exhaustion between the medical staff members with different working years (F=2.909, P<0.05) . There was also a significant difference in the score of reduced sense of personal accomplishment between the medical staff members with different types of work (F=5.797, P<0.05) , and the nurses had the lowest score. Conclusion: The medical staff members in Nanchong have a high incidence rate of job burnout, with the feature of reduced sense of personal accomplishment. An old age, long working years, and nursing occupation are major risk factors for job burnout.
Diekmann, Nina; Burghartz, Melanie; Remus, Lars; Kaufholz, Anna-Lena; Nawrath, Thorben; Rohde, Manfred; Schulz, Stefan; Roselius, Louisa; Schaper, Jörg; Mamber, Oliver; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina
During operation of mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in automobiles, malodours can occur. We studied the microbial communities found on contaminated heat exchanger fins of 45 evaporators from car MAC systems which were operated in seven different regions of the world and identified corresponding volatile organic compounds. Collected biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The detected bacteria were loosely attached to the metal surface. Further analyses of the bacteria using PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of isolated 16S rRNA gene fragments identified highly divergent microbial communities with multiple members of the Alphaproteobacteriales, Methylobacteria were the prevalent bacteria. In addition, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Bacillales, Alcanivorax spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. were found among many others depending on the location the evaporators were operated. Interestingly, typical pathogenic bacteria related to air conditioning systems including Legionella spp. were not found. In order to determine the nature of the chemical compounds produced by the bacteria, the volatile organic compounds were examined by closed loop stripping analysis and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sulphur compounds, i.e. di-, tri- and multiple sulphides, acetylthiazole, aromatic compounds and diverse substituted pyrazines were detected. Mathematical clustering of the determined microbial community structures against their origin identified a European/American/Arabic cluster versus two mainly tropical Asian clusters. Interestingly, clustering of the determined volatiles against the origin of the corresponding MAC revealed a highly similar pattern. A close relationship of microbial community structure and resulting malodours to the climate and air quality at the location of MAC operation was concluded.
Wattenbarger, James L.; Hansen, Dean M.
Most states have separate agencies to deal with vocational education, adult education, and community colleges. Because current procedures for interagency cooperation are inadequate and often nonproductive, there is a need for a national or extra-state catalyst to encourage cooperation in a positive way. Five strategies for cooperation are…
Cohen, Seth M; Lee, Hui-Jie; Roy, Nelson; Misono, Stephanie
Objectives To examine voice-related health care utilization of patients in the general medical community without otolaryngology evaluation and explore factors associated with prolonged voice-related health care. Study Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting Large, national administrative US claims database. Subjects and Methods Patients with voice disorders per International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification ( ICD-9-CM) codes from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012, seen by a general medical physician, and who did not see an otolaryngologist in the subsequent year were included. Voice-related health care utilization, patient demographics, comorbid conditions, and index laryngeal diagnosis were collected. Logistic regression with variable selection was performed to evaluate the association between predictors and ≥30 days of voice-related health care use. Results In total, 46,205 unique voice-disordered patients met inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 8.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5% had voice-related health care use of ≥90, ≥60, and ≥30 days, respectively. Of the ≥30-day subset, 80.3% and 68.5%, respectively, had ≥60 and ≥90 days of voice-related health care utilization. The ≥30-day subset had more general medicine and nonotolaryngology specialty physician visits, more prescriptions and procedures, and 4 times the voice-related health care costs compared with those in the <30-day subset. Age, sex, employment status, initial voice disorder diagnosis, and comorbid conditions were related to ≥30 days of voice-related health care utilization. Conclusions Thirty days of nonotolaryngology-based care for a voice disorder may represent a threshold beyond which patients are more likely to experience prolonged voice-related health care utilization. Specific factors were associated with extended voice-related health care.
Rieck, Allison Margaret
To improve collaboration in Australian primary health care, there is a need to understand aspects of the general practitioner (GP)/community pharmacist relationship, its influence on collaborative chronic disease management (CDM) and if this influence can be explained by a pre-existing theory or concept. Adopting a grounded theory approach, 22 GP and 22 community pharmacist semi-structured interviews were undertaken. Analysis of the transcripts identified common themes regarding the GP/community pharmacist relationship. Trustworthiness of the themes identified was tested through negative case analysis and member checking. Hofstede's (in 1980) phenomenon of power distance was employed to illuminate the nature of GP/community pharmacist relations. The majority of GPs and community pharmacists described the characteristics of this phenomenon. The power distance was based on knowledge and expertise and was shown to be a barrier to collaboration between GPs and community pharmacists because GPs perceived that community pharmacists did not have the required expertise to improve CDM above what the GP could deliver alone. Power distance exists within the GP/community pharmacist relationship and has a negative influence on GP/community pharmacist collaborative CDM. Understanding and improving GP awareness of community pharmacist expertise has important implications for the future success of collaborative CDM.
Munford, Luke A; Sidaway, Mark; Blakemore, Amy; Sutton, Matt; Bower, Pete
Background Community assets are promoted as a way to improve quality of life and reduce healthcare usage. However, the quantitative impact of participation in community assets on these outcomes is not known. Methods We examined the association between participation in community assets and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (EuroQol-5D-5L) and healthcare usage in 3686 individuals aged ≥65 years. We estimated the unadjusted differences in EuroQol-5D-5L scores and healthcare usage between participants and non-participants in community assets and then used multivariate regression to examine scores adjusted for sociodemographic and limiting long-term health conditions. We derived the net benefits of participation using a range of threshold values for a quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Results 50% of individuals reported participation in community assets. Their EuroQol-5D-5L scores were 0.094 (95% CI 0.077 to 0.111) points higher than non-participants. Controlling for sociodemographic characteristics reduced this differential to 0.081 (95% CI 0.064 to 0.098). Further controlling for limiting long-term conditions reduced this effect to 0.039 (95% CI 0.025 to 0.052). Once we adjusted for sociodemographic and limiting long-term conditions, the reductions in healthcare usage and costs associated with community asset participation were not statistically significant. Based on a threshold value of £20 000 per QALY, the net benefits of participation in community assets were £763 (95% CI £478 to £1048) per participant per year. Conclusions Participation in community assets is associated with substantially higher HRQoL but is not associated with lower healthcare costs. The social value of developing community assets is potentially substantial. PMID:28183807
05/07/15- ATLANTA -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is announcing the availability of $13.5 million in grant funding to help governments and nonprofit organizations switch to cleaner diesel engines. Local governments, tribal agencies and n
The transition of Latina community college students warrants further interest from the research community and this study aims to fill a gap in the research by examining the transition experiences from the voices of Latina community college students. The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand Latina community college students'…
Mberu, Blessing U.; Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Ezeh, Alex C.
Background It is generally assumed that urban slum residents have worse health status when compared with other urban populations, but better health status than their rural counterparts. This belief/assumption is often because of their physical proximity and assumed better access to health care services in urban areas. However, a few recent studies have cast doubt on this belief. Whether slum dwellers are better off, similar to, or worse off as compared with rural and other urban populations remain poorly understood as indicators for slum dwellers are generally hidden in urban averages. Objective The aim of this study was to compare health and health-related indicators among slum, rural, and other urban populations in four countries where specific efforts have been made to generate health indicators specific to slum populations. Design We conducted a comparative analysis of health indicators among slums, non-slums, and all urban and rural populations as well as national averages in Bangladesh, Kenya, Egypt, and India. We triangulated data from demographic and health surveys, urban health surveys, and special cross-sectional slum surveys in these countries to assess differences in health indicators across the residential domains. We focused the comparisons on child health, maternal health, reproductive health, access to health services, and HIV/AIDS indicators. Within each country, we compared indicators for slums with non-slum, city/urban averages, rural, and national indicators. Between-country differences were also highlighted. Results In all the countries, except India, slum children had much poorer health outcomes than children in all other residential domains, including those in rural areas. Childhood illnesses and malnutrition were higher among children living in slum communities compared to those living elsewhere. Although treatment seeking was better among slum children as compared with those in rural areas, this did not translate to better mortality
The community of practice includes agencies from across the federal government who convene to discuss ideas, activities, barriers, and ethics related to citizen science and crowdsourcing including scientific research, data management, and open innovation.
New York State Public Employment Relations Board, Albany.
Comparative information on faculty salaries, fringe benefits, and related practices, reported in tabular form, comprises this report which covers all New York state community colleges including those where employees have not organized into formal negotiating units. Most items presented deal with contractual provisions, although some represent…
Swap, R. J.; Wayland, K.
Field-based, STEM-related service learning / community engagement projects present an opportunity for undergraduate students to demonstrate proficiencies related to the process of inquiry. These proficiencies include: appreciation of the larger project context, articulation of an informed question/hypothesis, project proposal development, interdisciplinary collaboration, project management (including planning, implementation reconfiguration and synthesis) and lastly the generation and handing off of acquired knowledge. Calls for these types of proficiencies have been expressed by governmental, non-governmental as well as the private sector. Accordingly, institutions of higher learning have viewed such activities as opportunities for enriching the learning experience for undergraduate students and for making such students more marketable, especially those from STEM-related fields. This institutional interest has provided an opportunity to support and expand field-based learning. Here we present examples of student-led/faculty-mentored international service learning and community engagement projects along the arc of preparation, implementation and post-field process. Representative examples that draw upon environmental science and engineering knowledge have been selected from more than 20 international undergraduate student projects over past decade and include: slow-sand water filtration, rainwater harvesting, methane biodigesters, water reticulation schemes and development and implementation of rocket stoves for communal cooking. We discuss these efforts in terms of the development of the aforementioned proficiencies, the utility of such proficiencies to the larger enterprise of STEM and the potential for transformative student learning outcomes. We share these experiences and lessons learned with the hope that others may intelligently borrow from our approach in a manner appropriate for their particular context.
Gaffney, Shannon H; Curriero, Frank C; Strickland, Paul T; Glass, Gregory E; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Breysse, Patrick N
In this study we evaluated residential location as a potential determinant for exposure to organochlorine compounds. We investigated the geographic distribution characteristics of organochlorine levels in approximately 1,374 blood samples collected in 1974 from residents of a community with a potential organochlorine source. Street addresses of Washington County, Maryland, residents were obtained and geocoded in a geographic information system. We used multivariate linear regression models to characterize the blood organochlorine levels of these residents that had been analyzed as part of previous studies using both environmental- and individual-level covariates. This was done to evaluate if the geographic distribution of blood levels in participants was related to the environmental source in the community. Model inference was based on generalized least squares to account for residual spatial variation. A significant inverse relationship was found between blood dieldrin levels and residential distance from the potential source. For every mile of distance from the source, blood dieldrin levels decreased 1.6 ng/g in study participants (p-value = 0.042), adjusting for age, sex, education level, smoking status, and drinking water source. 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) levels in the blood did not change significantly based on residential distance from the source, taking the same covariates into account. However, these results are limited by the inability to account for several potential confounders. This study demonstrates that spatially distributed covariates may play an important role in individual exposure patterns. Spatial information may enable researchers to detect a potential exposure pattern that may not be revealed with only nonspatial variables.
Aguilera, Adrian; Leykin, Yan; Adler, Nancy; Muñoz, Ricardo F
We tested two competing hypotheses-relative social position and community resources-in regards to their effect on two co-occurring health problems (depression, and obesity) in a sample of smokers participating in an online smoking cessation intervention. Income and education data at the zip code level from the 2000 Census was linked with individual level data. Logistic regression models were used for each co-occurring problem to determine how each SES variable (individually and interactively) was associated with the presence of co-occurring health problems. We found that lower individual education was related to poorer health for all outcomes (Depression: OR = 1.25; Obesity: OR = 1.24; Both: OR = 1.46), lower community education was only related to obesity (OR = 1.20). Lower individual income was related to higher rates of depressive symptoms (OR = 1.64) and both health problems (OR = 1.55); a significant interaction of individual and community income (Wald = 6.13, p < .05) revealed that high income individuals were less likely to be depressed if they lived in lower-income communities and became more likely to be so as community income increased. Relative social position was confirmed for depression, whereas community resources were prominent only for obesity. Higher individual education most consistently predicted positive health outcomes, making it a potentially powerful target to reduce health disparities.
Soski, Jessica J.; Roosenburg, Willem M.
Reservoirs possess gradients in conditions and resources along their long (deep-shallow) axis, but the response of littoral vertebrates (fish and turtles) to these gradients is poorly understood. We have quantified the littoral vertebrate communities throughout a small reservoir in Southeastern Ohio during July and August using traps, and related community composition to environmental variables using NMDS ordination. Ordination revealed that fish and turtles were broadly separated in ordination space, and three distinctly different environmental gradients were significantly associated with the underlying observed species abundances. Observed turtle abundance was explained by measurements of bathymetry, turbidity, and benthic resources, but none of these environmental variables were a reliable predictor of observed fish abundance. Temperature was a poor predictor of observed abundance for both fish and turtles independently, but when fish and turtles were considered together, it became apparent that there were cold areas of the reservoir where observed fish and turtle abundances were different than in other areas of the reservoir. These results suggest that the predictor (environmental) variables we used were appropriate for investigating turtle ecology in reservoirs, but that observed fish abundance is mediated by factors that were not modeled. The efficacy of using traps, the ecological implications of considering fish and turtles together as sympatric and potentially competing species, and directions for future study are discussed. PMID:25538870
Lee, K.E.; Goldstein, R.M.; Hanson, P.E.
The relation offish community composition to riparian cover at two spatial scales was compared at 18 streams in the agricultural Minnesota River Basin. The two spatial scales were: (1) local riparian zone (a 200 meter wide buffer extending 2 to 3 kilometers upstream of the sampling reach); and (2) the upstream riparian zone (a 200 m wide buffer on the mainstem and all perennial tributaries upstream of the sampling reach). Analysis of variance indicated that streams with wooded-local riparian zones had greater fish species richness (means = 20 and 15, respectively) and Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) scores (means = 40 and 26, respectively) than streams with open-local riparian zones. Streams with wooded-upstream riparian zones tended (were not statistically significant) to have greater numbers of species (means = 19 and 15, respectively) and IBI scores (means = 33 and 28, respectively) than streams with open-upstream riparian zones. There was no significant interaction between the riparian zone conditions at the two scales. This study suggests that maintenance of wooded riparian cover along streams could be effective in maintaining or improving fish community composition in streams draining heavily agricultural areas.
Bundy, D A; Cooper, E S; Thompson, D E; Anderson, R M; Didier, J M
Age-related changes in the average worm burden and the prevalence of Trichuris trichiura infection, in a village community in St. Lucia, were examined by field studies based on worm expulsion techniques. Horizontal age-intensity profiles were convex in form with peak parasite loads occurring in the 2 to 15-year-old children. Prevalence is shown to be a poor indicator of changes in average worm load with age. Faecal egg counts (epg and epd) provide a qualitative measure of worm burdens since fecundity is shown to be approximately independent of worm load. The parasites were highly aggregated within the study community, with most people harbouring low burdens while a few individuals harboured very heavy burdens. Of the total parasite populations in the study sample, 84% were harboured by the 2 to 15-year-old children. Of those individuals harbouring 100 worms or more, 87% were in the 2 to 10-year-old age range. Crude estimates of population parameters (basic reproductive rate, 4-5; rate of reinfection, 90 year-1) suggest that the rate of reinfection is higher than for other helminth parasites of man. The control of morbidity and parasite transmission is discussed in the context of targeting drug treatment at the child segment of the study population.
Jiang, Nan; Wei, Kai; Chen, Lijun; Chen, Rui
Archaea substantially contribute to global geochemical cycling and energy cycling and are impacted by land-use change. However, the response of archaeal communities to a change from upland field to paddy field has been poorly characterized. Here, soil samples were collected at two depths (0-20 cm and 20-40 cm) from one upland field and six paddy fields that were established on former upland fields at different times (1, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 years before the study). Barcoded pyrosequencing was employed to assess the archaeal communities from the samples at taxonomic resolutions from phylum to genus levels. The total archaeal operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness showed a significant positive correlation with the land-use change duration. Two phyla, Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota, were recorded throughout the study. Both the relative abundance and OTU richness of Euryarchaeota increased at both depths but increased more steadily at the subsurface rather than at the surface. However, these data of Crenarchaeota were the opposite. Additionally, the archaeal composition exhibited a significant relationship with C/N ratios, total phosphorus, soil pH, Olsen phosphorus, and the land-use change duration at several taxonomic resolutions. Our results emphasize that after a change from upland fields to paddy fields, the archaeal diversity and composition changed, and the duration is an important factor in addition to the soil chemical properties.
Elhamri, Hecham; Idrissi, Larbi; Coquery, Marina; Azemard, Sabine; El Abidi, Abdellah; Benlemlih, Mohamed; Saghi, Mohamed; Cubadda, Francesco
Coastal populations with high seafood consumption in the Mediterranean have a significant exposure to dietary methylmercury, and areas where environmental mercury pollution is an issue due to industrial activities are of special concern. The study was undertaken with the aim of assessing methylmercury exposure through fish consumption in a community of north Morocco and characterizing the relevant health risk. Concentrations of total mercury were determined in human hair, a biomarker of methylmercury exposure, and in locally consumed fish by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Based on consumption frequencies reported by the 108 subjects included in the study the weekly intake of methylmercury was estimated and biomarker data were evaluated in relation to the estimated intake and the sociodemographic characteristics of the population. Multiple regression analysis was employed for the interpretation of hair mercury data in relation to fish consumption frequency, gender and the age of individuals. Mercury concentrations in hair ranged from 0.22 to 9.56 microg g(-1) (geometric mean = 1.79 microg g(-1)) and were closely related to fish intake. Fisherman and their families consumed fish three to five times per week and were the most exposed population subgroup. A high proportion of women of child-bearing age (50%) had relatively high levels of mercury in their hair (3.08-7.88 microg g(-1)).
Meador, M.R.; Goldstein, R.M.
Data collected from 172 sites in 20 major river basins between 1993 and 1995 as part of the US Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program were analyzed to assess relations among basinwide land use (agriculture, forest, urban, range), water physicochemistry, riparian condition, and fish community structure. A multimetric approach was used to develop regionally referenced indices of fish community and riparian condition. Across large geographic areas, decreased riparian condition was associated with water-quality constituents indicative of nonpoint source inputs-total nitrogen and suspended sediment and basin-wide urban land use. Decreased fish community condition was associated with increases in total dissolved solids and rangeland use and decreases in riparian condition and agricultural land use. Fish community condition was relatively high even in areas where agricultural land use was relatively high (>50% of the basin). Although agricultural land use can have deleterious effects on fish communities, the results of this study suggest that other factors also may be important, including practices that regulate the delivery of nutrients, suspended sediments, and total dissolved solids into streams. Across large geographic scales, measures of water physicochemistry may be better indicators of fish community condition than basinwide land use. Whereas numerous studies have indicated that riparian restorations are successful in specific cases, this analysis suggests the universal importance of riparian zones to the maintenance and restoration of diverse fish communities in streams.
Hutchens, Jenny G; Caputo, Jennifer L; Colson, Janet M; Farley, Richard S; Renfrow, Matthew S; Seguin, Eric P
The purpose of this study was to pilot a 5-week community-based intervention on improving measures of health-related fitness in overweight children. Data were obtained from 8 overweight and obese 8- to 14-year-old children. Measurements included muscular fitness (curl-ups and modified pull-ups), aerobic capacity (20 meter progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run [PACER] test), body composition (triceps and calf skinfolds), body mass index (BMI), and flexibility (back saver sit-and-reach). A significant reduction in BMI was observed at post-test compared to baseline (P=0.03). There was a significant decrease in body fat at post-test for boys (P=0.013).
Edgar, Graham J.
The abundance and the distribution of trophic resources available for consumers influence the productivity and the diversity of natural communities. Nevertheless, assessment of the actual abundance of food items available for individual trophic groups has been constrained by differences in methods and metrics used by various authors. Here we develop an index of food abundance, the framework of which can be adapted for different ecosystems. The relative available food index (RAFI) is computed by considering standard resource conditions of a habitat and the influence of various generalized anthropogenic and natural factors. RAFI was developed using published literature on food abundance and validated by comparison of predictions versus observed trophic resources across various marine sites. RAFI tables here proposed can be applied to a range of marine ecosystems for predictions of the potential abundance of food available for each trophic group, hence permitting exploration of ecological theories by focusing on the deviation from the observed to the expected. PMID:28386417
Robinson, S A; Larsen, D E
A central component of the primary health care approach in developing countries has been the development and utilization of community-based health workers (CHWs) within the national health system. While the use of these front line workers has the potential to positively influence health behavior and health status in rural communities, there continues to be challenges to effective implementation of CHW programs. Reports of high turnover rates, absenteeism, poor quality of work, and low morale among CHWs have often been associated with weak organizational and managerial capacity of government health systems. However, no systematic research has examined the contribution of work-related factors to CHW job performance. The research reported in this paper examines the relative influence of reward and feedback factors associated with the community compared to those associated with the health system on the performance of CHWs. The data are drawn from a broader study of health promoters (CHWs) conducted in two departments (provinces) in Colombia in 1986. The research was based on a theoretical model of worker performance that focuses on job related sources of rewards and feedback. A survey research design was employed to obtain information from a random sample of rural health promoters (N = 179) and their auxiliary nurse supervisors about CHW performance and contributing factors. The findings indicate that feedback and rewards from the community have a greater influence on work performance (defined as degree of perceived goal attainment on job tasks) than do those stemming from the health system.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Purpose This study investigated the relationship between height and psychopathology in community children with relatively short stature according to the parents' reports. Also, the matter of parental concern about child's height was explored. Methods The child behavior checklist (CBCL), the Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument (BEPSI), and the child-health questionnaire-parent form 50 (CHQ-PF50) were administered to 423 parents (from elementary and middle school children's) in Gangnam, South Korea. Subjects were divided into three groups; (1) relatively short (n=30), (2) average stature (n=131), (3) relatively tall (n=153). CBCL, BEPSI, and CHQ-PF50 scores were compared among three groups. Results There were no significant differences in psychosocial burden associated with relatively short stature measured by Korean version of the BEPSI and Korean version of the CBCL scores among three groups. But general health perception score of relatively short was significantly lower than that of nonshort on the CHQ-PF50. Also, they were more used complementary medicines, milk and growth hormone compared to the nonshort. The parents' expected height of their children was 180.6±3.5 cm for boys and 166.7±3.5 cm for girls. This is respectively 90 percentile and 75-90 percentile for the Korean standard adult height. Conclusion Our study shows that in Korea, Parents tended to regard relatively short children as having health problems. Also, the parental expectation for their child's attainable height is unrealistically tall, mostly due to lack of correct medical information. PMID:26191511
... Attachment 3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC.... Attachment 3—Offices Within Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies for Information Regarding...
Kullberg, Agneta; Karlsson, Nadine; Timpka, Toomas; Lindqvist, Kent
Background Crime in a neighbourhood has been recognized as a key stressor in the residential environment. Fear of crime is related to risk assessment, which depends on the concentration of objective risk in time and space, and on the presence of subjective perceived early signs of imminent hazard. The aim of the study was to examine environmental, socio-demographic, and personal correlates of safety-related concerns at the local level in urban communities. The specific aim was to investigate such correlates in contiguous neighbourhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Methods A cross-sectional study design was used to investigate three neighbourhood settings with two pair-wise conterminous but socially contrasting areas within each setting. Crime data were retrieved from police records. Study data were collected through a postal questionnaire distributed to adult residents (n = 2476) (response rate 56%). Composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were derived through a factor analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between high-level scores of the three safety-related dimensions and area-level crime rate, being a victim of crime, area reputation, gender, age, education, country of birth, household civil status and type of housing. Results Three composite dimensions of perceived residential safety were identified: (I) structural indicators of social disorder; (II) contact with disorderly behavior; and (III) existential insecurity. We found that area-level crime rates and individual-level variables were associated with the dimensions structural indicators of social disorder and existential insecurity, but only individual-level variables were associated with the dimension contact with disorderly behavior. Self-assessed less favorable area reputation was found to be strongly associated with all three factors. Being female accorded existential insecurity more than being a victim of crime. Conclusion We have identified
Koehoorn, Mieke; Tamburic, Lillian; Davies, Hugh W.; Brauer, Michael
Background: The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with living near traffic; however, there is evidence suggesting that air pollution may not be responsible for this association. Noise, another traffic-generated exposure, has not been studied as a risk factor for RA. Objectives: We investigated proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community noise in relation to RA in the Vancouver and Victoria regions of British Columbia, Canada. Methods: Cases and controls were identified in a cohort of adults that was assembled using health insurance registration records. Incident RA cases from 1999 through 2002 were identified by diagnostic codes in combination with prescriptions and type of physician (e.g., rheumatologist). Controls were matched to RA cases by age and sex. Environmental exposures were assigned to each member of the study population by their residential postal code(s). We estimated relative risks using conditional logistic regression, with additional adjustment for median income at the postal code. Results: RA incidence was increased with proximity to traffic, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.68) for residence ≤ 50 m from a highway compared with residence > 150 m away. We found no association with traffic-related exposures such as PM2.5, nitrogen oxides, or noise. Ground-level ozone, which was highest in suburban areas, was associated with an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36 per interquartile range increase). Conclusions: Our study confirms a previously observed association of RA risk with proximity to traffic and suggests that neither noise levels nor traffic-related air pollutants are responsible for this relationship. Additional investigation of neighborhood and individual correlates of residence near roadways may provide new insight into risk factors for RA. Citation: De Roos AJ, Koehoorn M, Tamburic L, Davies HW, Brauer M. 2014. Proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community
Frey, Jeffrey W.; Caskey, Brian J.
An analysis of existing nutrient, habitat, basin-characteristics, and biological-community (fish and invertebrate) data assessed significant relations between nutrients and biological data. Data from 1998 through 2000 for 58 sites in the Upper Wabash River Basin, Lower Wabash River Basin, and tributaries to the Great Lakes and Ohio River Basins were analyzed. Correspondence analysis was used to assess significant relations among nutrients, habitat, basin-characteristics, and biological-community data. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to identify which environmental parameters most influenced the biological communities. When all 58 sites were assessed, six biological-community attributes, metric scores, or site scores were statistically sigificant but weak. When a subset of data was analyzed for eight headwater streams in one ecoregion to minimize the naturally occurring variability associated with the 58 sites, the strength of the relations increased and 24 attributes, metric scores, or site scores were significantly related. Fish-community composition in the 58 sites was most influenced by habitat and land use but not by nutrients. The invertebrate-community composition in the 58 sites was most influenced by habitat, land use, soils, and one nutrient (total Kjeldahl nitrogen [TKN]).
Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P
Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.
Olivera, Javier; Benabarre, Sergio; Lorente, Teófilo; Rodriguez, Mariano; Barros, Alfonso; Quintana, Carmen; Pelegrina, Virtudes; Aldea, Carmen
Objective The aim was to determine the relationship and influence of different variables on the psychiatric symptomatology of older people who reside in the community, as detected by family practitioners.Design A cross-sectional and multi-centre study.Setting Twenty-eight general practices and two psychiatric practices in Huesca, Spain, from 19 primary care health centres.Subjects A sample of 324 patients aged over 65 years, representative of the older people who reside in the community in the province of Huesca.Main outcome measures Symptoms of depression (Yesavage GDS), cognitive impairment (MMSE), anxiety (GADS), psychotic symptoms, obsessive symptoms and hypochondriacal ideas (GMS) were measured by family practitioner and were detected following specific questions from the Geriatric Mental State (GMS-B) examination, following DSM-IV criteria, being defined as 'concern and fear of suffering, or the idea of having a serious disease based on the interpretation of somatic symptoms'. Sociodemographic, physical and somatic, functional and social data were evaluated. Analysis was carried out in three phases: univariate, bivariate and multivariate with logistic regression.Results At the time of the study, 46.1% of the older people studied suffered from some psychiatric symptom; 16.4% had cognitive impairment, 15.7% anxiety, 14.3% depression, 6.1% hallucinations and delusions, 7.2% hypochondriacal ideas and 4.4% obsessive symptoms. Female gender was significantly associated with depression (prevalence ration (PR) 3.3) and anxiety (PR 3.9). Age was a factor associated with cognitive impairment (PR 4.4). Depression was significantly related to severity of the physical illness (PR 61.7 in extremely severe impairment). Isolation (PR 16.3) and being single (PR 13.4) were factors which were strongly associated with anxiety; living in a nursing home was associated with psychotic symptoms (PR 7.6).Conclusions Severity of physical illness, isolation, living in a nursing home and
Anderson-Butcher, Dawn; Lawson, Hal A.; Iachini, Aidyn; Bean, Gerald; Flaspohler, Paul D.; Zullig, Keith
A new genus of district and school improvement models entails partnerships with other organizations and new working relationships with families, community leaders, and youths. The Ohio Community Collaboration Model for School Improvement (OCCMSI) is one such model. It enables partners to leverage family and community resources for learning,…
Wells, Twyla Casey
Community colleges continue to be challenged to achieve the same level of philanthropic support as private and public colleges and universities. While nearly 50 percent of all undergraduates are educated at community colleges, only two percent of the nearly $8 billion donated annually by higher education alumni is contributed to community colleges…
Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Taylor, Laura K; Shirlow, Peter; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Cairns, Ed
Although relations between political violence and child adjustment are well documented, longitudinal research is needed to adequately address the many questions remaining about the contexts and developmental trajectories underlying the effects on children in areas of political violence. The study examined the relations between sectarian and nonsectarian community violence and adolescent adjustment problems over 4 consecutive years. Participants included 999 mother-child dyads (482 boys, 517 girls), M ages = 12.18 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 (SD = 1.96) years, respectively, living in socially deprived neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland, a context of historical and ongoing political violence. In examining trajectories of adjustment problems, including youth experience with both sectarian and nonsectarian antisocial behaviors, sectarian antisocial behavior significantly predicted more adjustment problems across the 4 years of the study. Experiencing sectarian antisocial behavior was related to increased adolescent adjustment problems, and this relationship was accentuated in neighborhoods characterized by higher crime rates. The discussion considers the implications for further validating the distinction between sectarian and nonsectarian violence, including consideration of neighborhood crime levels, from the child's perspective in a setting of political violence.
Takahashi, Noriko; Nakao, Rieko; Ueda, Kayo; Ono, Masaji; Kondo, Masahide; Honda, Yasushi; Hashizume, Masahiro
This study aims to explore whether broadcasting heat health warnings (HHWs), to every household and whether the additional home delivery of bottled water labeled with messages will be effective in improving the behaviors and knowledge of elderly people to prevent heat-related illness. A community trial on heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors and knowledge for people aged between 65 and 84 years was conducted in Nagasaki, Japan. Five hundred eight subjects were selected randomly from three groups: heat health warning (HHW), HHW and water delivery (HHW+W), and control groups. Baseline and follow-up questionnaires were conducted in June and September 2012, respectively. Of the 1524 selected subjects, the 1072 that completed both questionnaires were analyzed. The HHW+W group showed improvements in nighttime AC use (p = 0.047), water intake (p = 0.003), cooling body (p = 0.002) and reduced activities in heat (p = 0.047) compared with the control, while the HHW group improved hat or parasol use (p = 0.008). An additional effect of household water delivery was observed in water intake (p = 0.067) and cooling body (p = 0.095) behaviors. HHW and household bottled water delivery improved heat-related-illness-prevention behaviors. The results indicate that home water delivery in addition to a HHW may be needed to raise awareness of the elderly. PMID:25789456
This paper seeks to explore midwives' experiences of pregnancy and childbirth. It draws on interviews with nine midwives who completed their midwifery training prior to becoming mothers, to discuss how midwives use their professional knowledge to exercise agency (the choices made about their own care), and assume autonomy (the control and responsibility in relation to their own care), in pregnancy and childbirth. It illustrates that a reliance on professional knowledge may create opportunities for choice and increased autonomy in some situations, although the need for intervention during childbirth, for example, may challenge the degree of autonomy exercised by midwives and the choices available to them. As knowledgeable experts, midwives demonstrate a very different understanding of risk and safety in relation to their own experiences of childbirth. Professional knowledge may increase their anxieties which may not be addressed appropriately by caregivers due to their professional status. The use of knowledge in this way highlights potential conflict between their position as midwives and their experience as mothers, illustrating that midwives' ability to exercise agency and autonomy in relation to their pregnancy and childbirth experiences is potentially problematic.
Godoy, B S; Queiroz, L L; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G
The aquatic insect community is an important element for stream functionality and diversity, but the effects of altitude and conservation areas on the aquatic insect community have been poorly explored in neotropical ecozone. The lack of studies about the relative importance of space and environment on community structure is another obstacle within aquatic insect ecology, which precludes the inclusion of these studies in more current frameworks, like the metacommunity dynamics. We evaluated the relationship between the aquatic insect community structure at 19 streams in the Brazilian Cerrado and spatial and environmental variables, namely geographical distance among sites, stream altitude, chemical variables, and environmental protection areas. We partitioned the variance explained by spatial and environmental components using a partial redundancy analysis. The environment exhibited a strong spatial structure for abundance and number of genera, increasing these community parameters with elevated water conductivity. Only community composition had a large unexplained portion of variance, with a small portion constrained by environmental (altitude and conductivity) and spatial factors. A relevant point in the result was the streams with high conductivity were located outside of the conservation areas. These results suggest that the relationship between number of genera and abundance with environmental conditions is always associated with spatial configuration of streams. Our study shows that altitude is an important determinant of community structure, as it exerts indirect influences, and electrical conductivity directly determines community composition, and that some national parks may be inefficient in maintaining the diversity of aquatic insects in the Cerrado region.
Hamilton, Allana R.
The purpose of the study was to identify factors that were positively associated with persistence to graduation by students who were admitted to Health-Related Programs leading to the degree associate of applied science at Northeast State Community College. The criterion variable in this study was persistence, which was categorized into two groups the persister group (program completers) and the nonpersister (program noncompleters) group. The predictor variables included gender, ethnic origin, first- (or nonfirst-) generation-student status, age, specific major program of study, number of remedial and/or developmental courses taken, grades in selected courses (human anatomy and physiology I and II, microbiology, probability and statistics, composition I, clinical I, clinical II), and number of mathematics and science credit hours earned prior to program admission. The data for this ex post facto nonexperimental design were located in Northeast State's student records database, Banner Information System. The subjects of the study were students who had been admitted into Health-Related Programs of study at a 2-year public community college between the years of 1999 and 2008. The population size was 761. Health-Related Programs of study included Dental Assisting, Cardiovascular Technology, Emergency Medical Technology -- Paramedic, Medical Laboratory Technology, Nursing, and Surgical Technology. A combination of descriptive and inferential statistics was used in the analysis of the data. Descriptive statistics included measures of central tendency, standard deviations, and percentages, as appropriate. Independent samples t-tests were used to determine if the mean of a variable on one group of subjects was different from the mean of the same variable with a different group of subjects. It was found that gender, ethnic origin, first-generation status, and age were not significantly associated with persistence to graduation. However, findings did reveal a statistically
Raphael, D; Renwick, R; Brown, I; Steinmetz, B; Sehdev, H; Phillips, S
An inquiry into community quality of life was carried out within a framework that recognizes the complex relationship between community structures and individual well-being. Through use of focus groups and key informant interviews, community members, service providers, and elected representatives in a Toronto community considered aspects of their community that affected quality of life. Community members identified strengths of access to amenities, caring and concerned people, community agencies, low-cost housing, and public transportation. Service providers and elected representatives recognized diversity, community agencies and resources, and presence of culturally relevant food stores and services as strengths. At one level, findings were consistent with emerging concepts of social capital. At another level, threats to the community were considered in relation to the hypothesized role neo-liberalism plays in weakening the welfare state.
Schultz, Bradley D.; Barzyk, Timothy M.; Smuts, MaryBeth; Hammond, Davyda M.; Medina-Vera, Myriam; Geller, Andrew M.
Objectives. Our primary objective was to provide higher quality, more accessible science to address challenges of characterizing local-scale exposures and risks for enhanced community-based assessments and environmental decision-making. Methods. After identifying community needs, priority environmental issues, and current tools, we designed and populated the Community-Focused Exposure and Risk Screening Tool (C-FERST) in collaboration with stakeholders, following a set of defined principles, and considered it in the context of environmental justice. Results. C-FERST is a geographic information system and resource access Web tool under development for supporting multimedia community assessments. Community-level exposure and risk research is being conducted to address specific local issues through case studies. Conclusions. C-FERST can be applied to support environmental justice efforts. It incorporates research to develop community-level data and modeled estimates for priority environmental issues, and other relevant information identified by communities. Initial case studies are under way to refine and test the tool to expand its applicability and transferability. Opportunities exist for scientists to address the many research needs in characterizing local cumulative exposures and risks and for community partners to apply and refine C-FERST. PMID:22021316
Arnold, Jenny; Clarke, David John
The contemporary interest in researching student agency in science education reflects concerns about the relevance of schooling and a shift in science education towards understanding learning in science as a complex social activity. The purpose of this article is to identify problems confronting the science education community in the development of this new research agenda and to argue that there is a need for research in science education that attends to agency as a social practice. Despite increasing interest in student agency in educational research, the term 'agency' has lacked explicit operationalisation and, across the varied approaches, such as critical ethnography, ethnographies of communication, discourse analysis and symbolic interactionism, there has been a lack of coherence in its research usage. There has also been argument concerning the validity of the use of the term 'agency' in science education research. This article attempts to structure the variety of definitions of 'student agency' in science education research, identifies problems in the research related to assigning intentionality to research participants and argues that agency is a kind of discursive practice. The article also draws attention to the need for researchers to be explicit in the assumptions they rely upon in their interpretations of social worlds. Drawing upon the discursive turn in the social sciences, a definition of agency is provided, that accommodates the discursive practices of both individuals and the various functional social groups from whose activities classroom practice is constituted. The article contributes to building a focused research agenda concerned with understanding and promoting student agency in science.
Doggette, John R.
This study was conducted to provide a basis for planning for needed energy-related occupational technology programs in two-year educational institutions. A questionnaire was sent to 1,152 junior, community, and technical colleges in fall 1975; 774 (67%) responded. The survey identified 62 existing one- and two-year energy-related programs and 132…
Gerwing, Travis G; Drolet, David; Hamilton, Diana J; Barbeau, Myriam A
Top-down, bottom-up, middle-out and abiotic factors are usually viewed as main forces structuring biological communities, although assessment of their relative importance, in a single study, is rarely done. We quantified, using multivariate methods, associations between abiotic and biotic (top-down, bottom-up and middle-out) variables and infaunal population/community variation on intertidal mudflats in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, over two years. Our analysis indicated that spatial structural factors like site and plot accounted for most of the community and population variation. Although we observed a significant relationship between the community/populations and the biotic and abiotic variables, most were of minor importance relative to the structural factors. We suggest that community and population structure were relatively uncoupled from the structuring influences of biotic and abiotic factors in this system because of high concentrations of resources that sustain high densities of infauna and limit exploitative competition. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the infaunal community primarily reflects stochastic spatial events, namely a "first come, first served" process.
Barbeau, Myriam A.
Top-down, bottom-up, middle-out and abiotic factors are usually viewed as main forces structuring biological communities, although assessment of their relative importance, in a single study, is rarely done. We quantified, using multivariate methods, associations between abiotic and biotic (top-down, bottom-up and middle-out) variables and infaunal population/community variation on intertidal mudflats in the Bay of Fundy, Canada, over two years. Our analysis indicated that spatial structural factors like site and plot accounted for most of the community and population variation. Although we observed a significant relationship between the community/populations and the biotic and abiotic variables, most were of minor importance relative to the structural factors. We suggest that community and population structure were relatively uncoupled from the structuring influences of biotic and abiotic factors in this system because of high concentrations of resources that sustain high densities of infauna and limit exploitative competition. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the infaunal community primarily reflects stochastic spatial events, namely a “first come, first served” process. PMID:26790098
Objectives. I incorporated qualitative methods to explore how HIV-related stigma functions in New York City’s House and Ball Community (HBC). Methods. From January through March 2009, I conducted 20 in-depth 1-on-1 interviews with a diverse sample of New York City HBC members. Interviews addressed perceptions of HIV-related stigma, the treatment of HIV-positive members in the community, and the potential impact of HIV-related stigma on risk behaviors. Results. HIV-related stigma contributes to a loss of moral experience for HBC members. Moral experience (i.e., threats to what really matters in a community) disrupts established social connections and hinders the attainment of “ball status” (i.e., amassing social recognition) in the local world of these individuals. Conclusions. My recommendations address HIV-related stigma in the New York City HBC from the vantage of moral experience and highlight the need for longitudinal studies of individual house members and for the implementation of stigma-focused interventions in the community that utilize the unique ball status hierarchy and HBC network to influence social norms surrounding the treatment of HIV-positive community members. PMID:23237182
Halaweh, Hadeel; Willen, Carin; Grimby-Ekman, Anna; Svantesson, Ulla
Background Physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are important factors for optimal health in the elderly. Studying the association between PA and HRQoL is becoming more essential as the number of elderly people increases worldwide. This study assesses the association between PA and HRQoL among community dwelling elderly above 60 years old. Methods The study included 115 women and 61 men (mean age: 68.15 ± 6.74 years) recruited from the community and from public centers for the elderly. Data were collected using a background characteristics questionnaire (BCQ), a physical activity socio-cultural adapted questionnaire (PA-SCAQ), and the EuroQuol-5Dimensions-5Levels (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire. Between groups, comparisons were based on the PA-SCAQ by dividing the participants into three PA groups: low (n = 74), moderate (n = 85), and high (n = 17). Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed on the ordinal variables of the three PA groups to determine differences between the groups according to categorical variables such as gender, body mass index (BMI), and the prevalence of comorbid conditions. Mann-Whitney U tests were performed on the ordinal variables of the EuroQuol-5Dimensions (EQ-5D), and the independent sample t-test was performed on the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS). Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between the EQ-5D and level of PA. Results Values in all dimensions of HRQoL were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the moderate and high PA groups compared with the low PA group. Significant correlations were recorded between the five dimensions of HRQoL and the level of PA (P < 0.001). The low PA group showed higher prevalence of hypertension (64%, P < 0.001) and diabetes (50%, P < 0.001). Conclusion There were strong associations between higher levels of PA and all dimensions of HRQoL. Therefore, adopting a PA lifestyle may contribute to better HRQoL among community dwelling elderly above 60
Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Nielsen, Jens B; Christensen, Mark S
In the present study we tested whether sense of agency (SoA) is reflected by changes in coupling between right medio-frontal/supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior parietal cortex (IPC). Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. They performed a variation of a line-drawing task (Nielsen, 1963; Fourneret and Jeannerod, 1998), in which they moved a cursor on a digital tablet with their right hand without seeing the hand. Visual feedback displayed on a computer monitor was either in correspondence with or deviated from the actual movement. This made participants uncertain as to the agent of the movement and they reported SoA in approximately 50% of trials when the movement was computer-generated. We tested whether IPC-preSMA coupling was associated with SoA, using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for induced responses (Chen et al., 2008; Herz et al., 2012). Nine different DCMs were constructed for the early and late phases of the task, respectively. All models included two regions: a superior medial gyrus (preSMA) region and a right supramarginal gyrus (IPC) region. Bayesian models selection (Stephan et al., 2009) favored a model with input to IPC and modulation of the forward connection to SMA in the late task phase, and a model with input to preSMA and modulation of the backward connection was favored for the early task phase. The analysis shows that IPC source activity in the 50-60 Hz range modulated preSMA source activity in the 40-70 Hz range in the presence of SoA compared with no SoA in the late task phase, but the test of the early task phase did not reveal any differences between presence and absence of SoA. We show that SoA is associated with a directionally specific between frequencies coupling from IPC to preSMA in the higher gamma (ɣ) band in the late task phase. This suggests that SoA is a retrospective perception, which is highly dependent on interpretation of the outcome of the performed action.
Heaney, Christopher D.; Wing, Steve; Campbell, Robert L.; Caldwell, David; Hopkins, Barbara; Richardson, David; Yeatts, Karin
Background Municipal solid waste landfills are sources of air pollution that may affect the health and quality of life of neighboring communities. Objectives To investigate health and quality of life concerns of neighbors related to landfill air pollution. Methods Landfill neighbors were enrolled and kept twice-daily diaries for 14 d about odor intensity, alteration of daily activities, mood states, and irritant and other physical symptoms between Jan–Nov, 2009. Concurrently, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) air measurements were recorded every 15-min. Relationships between H2S, odor, and health outcomes were evaluated using conditional fixed effects regression models. Results Twenty-three participants enrolled and completed 878 twice-daily diary entries. H2S measurements were recorded over a period of 80 d and 1-hr average H2S = 0.22 ppb (SD = 0.27; range: 0–2.30 ppb). Landfill odor increased 0.63 points (on 5-point Likert-type scale) for every 1 ppb increase in hourly average H2S when the wind was blowing from the landfill towards the community (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29, 0.91). Odor was strongly associated with reports of alteration of daily activities (odds ratio (OR) = 9.0; 95% CI: 3.5, 23.5), negative mood states (OR = 5.2; 95% CI: 2.8, 9.6), mucosal irritation (OR = 3.7; 95% CI = 2.0, 7.1) and upper respiratory symptoms (OR = 3.9; 95% CI: 2.2, 7.0), but not positive mood states (OR = 0.6; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.5) and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (OR = 1.0; 95% CI: 0.4, 2.6). Conclusions Results suggest air pollutants from a regional landfill negatively impact the health and quality of life of neighbors. PMID:21679938
Williamson, Cait M.; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P.
Laboratory studies of social behavior have typically focused on dyadic interactions occurring within a limited spatiotemporal context. However, this strategy prevents analyses of the dynamics of group social behavior and constrains identification of the biological pathways mediating individual differences in behavior. In the current study, we aimed to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics and hierarchical organization of a large social network of male mice. We also sought to determine if standard assays of social and exploratory behavior are predictive of social behavior in this social network and whether individual network position was associated with the mRNA expression of two plasticity-related genes, DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3a. Mice were observed to form a hierarchically organized social network and self-organized into two separate social network communities. Members of both communities exhibited distinct patterns of socio-spatial organization within the vivaria that was not limited to only agonistic interactions. We further established that exploratory and social behaviors in standard behavioral assays conducted prior to placing the mice into the large group was predictive of initial network position and behavior but were not associated with final social network position. Finally, we determined that social network position is associated with variation in mRNA levels of two neural plasticity genes, DNMT1 and DNMT3a, in the hippocampus but not the mPOA. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the role of social context and complex social dynamics in determining the relationship between individual differences in social behavior and brain gene expression. PMID:27540359
Williamson, Cait M; Franks, Becca; Curley, James P
Laboratory studies of social behavior have typically focused on dyadic interactions occurring within a limited spatiotemporal context. However, this strategy prevents analyses of the dynamics of group social behavior and constrains identification of the biological pathways mediating individual differences in behavior. In the current study, we aimed to identify the spatiotemporal dynamics and hierarchical organization of a large social network of male mice. We also sought to determine if standard assays of social and exploratory behavior are predictive of social behavior in this social network and whether individual network position was associated with the mRNA expression of two plasticity-related genes, DNA methyltransferase 1 and 3a. Mice were observed to form a hierarchically organized social network and self-organized into two separate social network communities. Members of both communities exhibited distinct patterns of socio-spatial organization within the vivaria that was not limited to only agonistic interactions. We further established that exploratory and social behaviors in standard behavioral assays conducted prior to placing the mice into the large group was predictive of initial network position and behavior but were not associated with final social network position. Finally, we determined that social network position is associated with variation in mRNA levels of two neural plasticity genes, DNMT1 and DNMT3a, in the hippocampus but not the mPOA. This work demonstrates the importance of understanding the role of social context and complex social dynamics in determining the relationship between individual differences in social behavior and brain gene expression.
Schnabel, Renate B.; Yin, Xiaoyan; Larson, Martin G.; Yamamoto, Jennifer F.; Fontes, João D.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Rong, Jian; Levy, Daniel; Keaney, John F.; Wang, Thomas J.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Benjamin, Emelia J.
Objective Evidence suggests that chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress are related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. Approach and Results We examined 11 established and novel biomarkers representing inflammation and oxidative stress (C-reactive protein [CRP], fibrinogen, interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (mass and activity), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, myeloperoxidase, CD40 ligand, P-selectin, tumor necrosis factor receptor II [TNFRII]) in relation to incident major CVD and mortality in the community. We studied 3035 participants (mean age 61±9 years, 53% women). During follow-up (median 8.9 years), 253 participants experienced a CVD event and 343 died. CRP (hazard ratios [HR] reported per standard deviation ln-transformed biomarker, 1.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-1.35; nominal P=0.02) and TNFRII (HR 1.15, 95% CI; 1.01-1.32; nominal P=0.04) were retained in multivariable-adjusted models for major CVD, but were not significant after adjustment for multiple testing. The biomarkers related to mortality were TNFRII (HR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.19-1.49; P<0.0001); ICAM-1 (HR 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12-1.37; P<0.0001), and interleukin-6 (HR 1.25, 95% CI: 1.12-1.39; P<0.0001). The addition of these markers to the model including traditional risk factors increased discrimination and reclassification for risk of death (P<0.0001), but not for CVD. Conclusions Of 11 biomarkers, TNFRII was associated nominally with incident major CVD, and significantly with all-cause mortality, which renders it an interesting target for future research. The combination of TNFRII with CRP in relation to CVD and with interleukin-6 to mortality increased the predictive ability in addition to CVD risk factors for total mortality but not for incident CVD. PMID:23640499
Boardman, D.R. . School of Geology); Mapes, R.H. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)
Paleoecological analysis is essential for accurate Carboniferous-Permian sequence-stratigraphic modeling. Employing depth-related community replacement paleoecological models (such as proposed by Boardman and others, 1984) is crucial for delineation of transgressive, highstand, and regressive deposits; locating and calibrating highstands and determination of degree of accommodation space utilization within the cycle succession. Early transgressive deposits are often exceedingly thin or absent in middle to inner shelf regions, and are commonly associated with mixed biofacies representing rapid sea-level rise accompanied by excessively slow net sedimentation rate. Because of the highly discontinuous and poorly developed nature of transgressive deposits, maximum highstand deposits as determined by the onshore-offshore paleoecological model, are shown to commonly be in direct contact with non-marine or marginal marine deposits, the result of facies dislocation. The amount of accommodation space utilized during a particular transgressive and regressive sedimentary sequence is directly related to the rates of sea-level rise, duration of stillstand, as well as the rates of sea-level fall. The author's work suggests that the rates of sea-level rises and falls have varied significantly during the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian. Sea-Level fluctuation curves have thusfar aided in interbasinal correlations of upper Desmoinesian-lower Virgilian strata from the Midcontinent to the Eastern Shelf of the Midland Basin, Pedregosa Basin of Arizona, the Illinois Basin, and the Appalachian Basin.
Brizay, Ulrike; Golob, Lina; Globerman, Jason; Gogolishvili, David; Bird, Mara; Rios-Ellis, Britt; Rourke, Sean B; Heidari, Shirin
Introduction Community involvement in HIV research has increased over recent years, enhancing community-academic partnerships. Several terms have been used to describe community participation in research. Clarification is needed to determine whether these terms are synonymous or actually describe different research processes. In addition, it remains unclear if the role that communities play in the actual research process follows the recommendations given in theoretical frameworks of community-academia research. Objectives The objective of this study is to review the existing terms and definitions regarding community-academic partnerships and assess how studies are implementing these in relation to conceptual definitions. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Two reviewers independently assessed each article, applying the following inclusion criteria: the article must be published in English before 2013; it must provide an explicit definition and/or defining methodology for a term describing research with a community component; and it has to refer to HIV or AIDS, reproductive health and/or STDs. When disagreements about the relevance of an article emerged, a third reviewer was involved until concordance was reached. Data were extracted by one reviewer and independently verified by a second. Qualitative data were analyzed using MaxQDA for content and thematic analyses while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Community feedback on data analysis and presentation of results was also incorporated. Results In total, 246 articles were retrieved, 159 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The number of studies that included community participation in the field of HIV research increased between 1991 and 2012, and the terms used to describe these activities have changed, moving away from action research (AR) to participatory action research (PAR), community-based research (CBR) and community-based participatory research
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authority to make law enforcement... Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 2003.7 Authority...
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What real estate... REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 73-REAL ESTATE ACQUISITION General Provisions § 102-73.15 What real estate... provide real estate acquisition and related services, including leasing (with or without purchase...
... abandon or destroy improvements on land or related personal property before public notice is given of such proposed abandonment or destruction? 102-75.1040 Section 102-75.1040 Public Contracts and Property... PROPERTY 75-REAL PROPERTY DISPOSAL Abandonment, Destruction, or Donation to Public Bodies Abandonment...
Pasupathi, Monisha; Wainryb, Cecilia
This paper poses the following question: When, in spite of knowing that it is wrong, people go on to hurt others, what does this mean for the development of moral agency? We begin by defining moral agency and briefly sketching relations between moral agency and other concepts. We then outline what three extant literatures suggest about this…
(New York, N.Y.) Officials from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today marked the completion of a water line extension that will provide a safe source of drinking water to 73 homes and businesses threatened by contaminated groundwater from the Comb
Nicholl, Patricia; Devine, Patricia; Sheldon, John; Best, Sarah
Research in the area of working with ethnic minorities in the care system remains limited. The primary objective of this study was to consider the volume of cases referred to the Northern Ireland Guardian Ad Litem Agency (NIGALA) from ethnic minority families in 2013/14 and to generate knowledge from the cases about cultural competency in the…
Giwa, Sulaimon; Greensmith, Cameron
This article explores race relations and racism within the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) community of Toronto, Ontario, from the perspective of seven gay/queer social service providers of color. Social constructions of race, race relations, and racism were placed at the centre of analysis. Employing interpretive phenomenological analysis, findings indicated that intergroup and broader systemic racism infiltrates the LGBTQ community, rendering invisible the lived experiences of many LGBTQ people of color. The study contributes to a growing body of research concerning our understanding of factors underpinning social discrimination in a contemporary Canadian LGBTQ context.
Wright, Claudia R.; And Others
Two samples of 177 and 125 community college students were administered two different RAM Scale formats, then responded to three dichotomous school related criterion variables. Evidence supports the concurrent validity of RAM Scale classifications with student preferences for instructors with views similar to or different from the student's.…
McInnes, David; Murphy, Dean
This paper seeks to make a theoretical and analytic intervention into the field of HIV-related education and prevention by applying the pedagogy framework of Basil Bernstein to a series of pedagogical devices developed and used in community-based programmes targeting gay men in Australia. The paper begins by outlining why it is such an…
Kajner, Tania; Fletcher, Fay; Makokis, Pat
In this article we introduce a "head and heart" approach to community-engaged scholarship. Through the literatures of Aboriginal scholarship and engaged scholarship we reflect on a community-university research and program development project undertaken in response to health and education concerns of Aboriginal people in Canada. We…
Designed to provide the Washington State Legislature with information for use in making future legislative determinations concerning selected community college issues, this report presents information on the state's community colleges including policies on annual leave, allocation of resources, and salary increments. Part I outlines the scope and…
Warren, Mark R.; Hong, Soo; Rubin, Carolyn Heang; Uy, Phitsamay Sychitkokhong
Background/Context: Parent involvement in education is widely recognized as important, yet it remains weak in many communities. One important reason for this weakness is that urban schools have grown increasingly isolated from the families and communities they serve. Many of the same neighborhoods with families who are disconnected from public…
Beerbower, John David
An effective school leader explores better ways to communicate with the community stakeholder their district serves. Often, some of the strongest groups in a community are the faith-based organizations (FBOs). A qualitative, action research design was used to explore three primary questions. The study provided an example for exploring perceptions…
Katsinas, Stephen G.; D'Amico, Mark M.; Friedel, Janice N.
This article presents results from the 2012 National Survey of Access and Finance Issues conducted by the National Council of State Directors of Community Colleges (NCSDCC), an affiliated council of the American Association of Community Colleges, and includes a comparison of survey results from previous years dating back to 2003, with the…
Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Cooperative Extension Service.
The Community Pride program is a 4-H activity in conservation and beautification. Instructions for selecting and carrying out a Community Pride activity are presented: planning, organizing, and doing the project. Suggestions for possible activities are offered, and instructions for reporting the activity to the county extension office are given.…
This article explores poverty from the perspective of the intergenerational transmission. That is, it suggests that communities, and specifically a post-industrial community in South Wales, had developed coping strategies to manage the precarious character of employment associated with the mining and steel industries. These post-industrial…
Scheerder, Gert; Reynders, Alexandre; Andriessen, Karl; Van Audenhove, Chantal
Health and community professionals have considerable exposure to suicidal people and need to be well skilled to deal with them. We assessed suicide intervention skills with a Dutch version of the SIRI in 980 health and community professionals and psychology students. Suicide intervention skills clearly differed among professional groups and were…
Salka, Ivette; Cuperová, Zuzana; Mašín, Michal; Koblížek, Michal; Grossart, Hans-Peter
The presence of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAPs) has been repeatedly reported from various marine environments, but their distribution in freshwater lakes was neglected until recently. We investigated the phylogenetic composition of AAP communities in 10 lakes in Northeastern Germany with different trophic status including oligotrophic Lake Stechlin and humic matter rich Lake Grosse Fuchskuhle. The AAP community was composed by members of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, but their contribution varied largely among the studied lakes. Our results show that AAP community composition in the studied lakes was affected mostly by pH and humic matter content. While alkaline lakes were mostly composed of Betaproteobacteria, the acidic and humic matter rich south-west (SW) basin of Lake Grosse Fuchskule was dominated (87%) by Alphaproteobacteria. The most frequent group within Betaproteobacteria was a cluster of pufM genes which was phylogenetically related to Rhodoferax representing 38.5% of all retrieved sequences. Alphaproteobacteria-related sequences had a broader phylogenetic diversity including six different taxa dominated by Sphingomonas- and Rhodobacter-like bacteria in lakes with alkaline to neutral pH. In the acidic and humic matter-rich SW basin of Lake Grosse Fuchskuhle, however, Methylobacterium-related sequences dominated the AAP community. We suggest that the variable AAP community structure might reflect the potential of these bacteria to cope with the contrasting conditions in freshwater environments.
Moskalev, Alexey; Zhikrivetskaya, Svetlana; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail; Dobrovolskaya, Evgenia; Gurinovich, Roman; Kuryan, Oleg; Pashuk, Aleksandr; Jellen, Leslie C.; Aliper, Alex; Peregudov, Alex; Zhavoronkov, Alex
Aging research is a multi-disciplinary field encompassing knowledge from many areas of basic, applied and clinical research. Age-related processes occur on molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organismal and even psychological levels, trigger the onset of multiple debilitating diseases and lead to a loss of function, and there is a need for a unified knowledge repository designed to track, analyze and visualize the cause and effect relationships and interactions between the many elements and processes on all levels. Aging Chart (http://agingchart.org/) is a new, community-curated collection of aging pathways and knowledge that provides a platform for rapid exploratory analysis. Building on an initial content base constructed by a team of experts from peer-reviewed literature, users can integrate new data into biological pathway diagrams for a visible, intuitive, top-down framework of aging processes that fosters knowledge-building and collaboration. As the body of knowledge in aging research is rapidly increasing, an open visual encyclopedia of aging processes will be useful to both the new entrants and experts in the field. PMID:26602690
Brežná, Barbara; Zenišová, Katarína; Chovanová, Katarína; Chebeňová, Viera; Kraková, Lucia; Kuchta, Tomáš; Pangallo, Domenico
Since the yeast flora of Slovakian enology has not previously been investigated by culture-independent methods, this approach was applied to two most common cultivars Frankovka (red wine) and Veltlin (white wine), and complemented by cultivation. Model samples included grapes, initial must, middle fermenting must and must in the end-fermentation phase. The cultured isolates were characterized by length polymorphism of rDNA spacer two region using fluorescence PCR and capillary electrophoresis (f-ITS PCR), and some were identified by sequencing. The microbial DNA extracted directly from the samples without cultivation was analysed by f-ITS PCR, amplicons were cloned and sequenced. The use of universal fungal primers led to detection of both yeasts and filamentous fungi. The amplicon of highest intensity and present in all the samples corresponded to Hanseniaspora uvarum. Other species demonstrated by both approaches included Saccharomyces sp., Metschnikowia pulcherrima or M. chrysoperlae, Candida zemplinina, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Botryotinia fuckeliana, Pichia anomala, Candida railenensis, Cryptococcus magnus, Metschnikowia viticola or Candida kofuensis, Pichia kluyveri or Pichia fermentas, Pichia membranifaciens, Aureobasidium pullulans, Alternaria alternata, Erysiphe necator, Rhodotorula glutinis, Issatchenkia terricola and Debaryomyces hansenii. Endemism of Slovakian enological yeasts was suggested on the level of minor genetic variations of the known species and probably not accounting for novel species. The prevalence of H. uvarum over Saccharomyces sp. in the samples was indicated. This is the first culture-independent study of Slovakian enology and the first time f-ITS PCR profiling was used on wine-related microbial communities.
Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P.
Background The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Methods Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Results Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Conclusions Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness. PMID:27493901
Zu, Jian; Mimura, Masayasu; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro
In this paper, with the method of adaptive dynamics and geometric technique, we investigate the adaptive evolution of foraging-related phenotypic traits in a predator-prey community with trade-off structure. Specialization on one prey type is assumed to go at the expense of specialization on another. First, we identify the ecological and evolutionary conditions that allow for evolutionary branching in predator phenotype. Generally, if there is a small switching cost near the singular strategy, then this singular strategy is an evolutionary branching point, in which predator population will change from monomorphism to dimorphism. Second, we find that if the trade-off curve is globally convex, predator population eventually branches into two extreme specialists, each completely specializing on a particular prey species. However, if the trade-off curve is concave-convex-concave, after branching in predator phenotype, the two predator species will evolve to an evolutionarily stable dimorphism at which they can continue to coexist. The analysis reveals that an attractive dimorphism will always be evolutionarily stable and that no further branching is possible under this model.
Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P.; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M.; Durant, John L.; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig
The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200–400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning. PMID:27413416
Welles, Seth L; Patel, Falguni; Chilton, Mariana
Depression is a barrier to employment among low-income caregivers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and exposure to community violence (ECV) are often associated with depression. Using baseline data of 103 TANF caregivers of young children of the Building Wealth and Health Network Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot, this study investigated associations of two forms of employment-related resilience-self-efficacy and employment hope-with exposure to adversity/violence and depression, measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) short form. Using contingency table analysis and regression analysis, we identified associations between ACEs and depression [OR = 1.70 (1.25-2.32), p = 0.0008] and having high levels of ECV with a 6.9-fold increased risk for depression when compared with those without ECV [OR = 6.86 (1.43-33.01), p = 0.02]. While self-efficacy and employment hope were significantly associated with depression, neither resilience factor impacted the association of ACE level and depression, whereas self-efficacy and employment hope modestly reduced the associations between ECV and depression, 13 and 16%, respectively. Results suggest that self-efficacy and employment hope may not have an impact on the strong associations between adversity, violence, and depression.
Brugge, Doug; Patton, Allison P; Bob, Alex; Reisner, Ellin; Lowe, Lydia; Bright, Oliver-John M; Durant, John L; Newman, Jim; Zamore, Wig
The literature consistently shows associations of adverse cardiovascular and pulmonary outcomes with residential proximity to highways and major roadways. Air monitoring shows that traffic-related pollutants (TRAP) are elevated within 200-400 m of these roads. Community-level tactics for reducing exposure include the following: 1) HEPA filtration; 2) Appropriate air-intake locations; 3) Sound proofing, insulation and other features; 4) Land-use buffers; 5) Vegetation or wall barriers; 6) Street-side trees, hedges and vegetation; 7) Decking over highways; 8) Urban design including placement of buildings; 9) Garden and park locations; and 10) Active travel locations, including bicycling and walking paths. A multidisciplinary design charrette was held to test the feasibility of incorporating these tactics into near-highway housing and school developments that were in the planning stages. The resulting designs successfully utilized many of the protective tactics and also led to engagement with the designers and developers of the sites. There is a need to increase awareness of TRAP in terms of building design and urban planning.
Fang, Shona C; Schwartz, Joel; Yang, May; Yaggi, H Klar; Bliwise, Donald L; Araujo, Andre B
Little is known about environmental determinants of sleep. We investigated the association between black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, and sleep measures among participants of the Boston Area Community Health Survey. We also sought to assess the impact of sociodemographic factors, health conditions, and season on associations. Residential 24-h BC was estimated from a validated land-use regression model for 3821 participants and averaged over 1-6 months and 1 year. Sleep measures included questionnaire-assessed sleep duration, sleep latency, and sleep apnea. Linear and logistic regression models controlling for confounders estimated the association between sleep measures and BC. Effect modification was tested with interaction terms. Main effects were not observed between BC and sleep measures. However, in stratified models, males experienced 0.23 h less sleep (95% CI: -0.42, -0.03) and those with low SES 0.25 h less sleep (95% CI: -0.48, -0.01) per IQR increase in annual BC (0.21 μg/m(3)). In blacks, sleep duration increased with annual BC (β=0.34 per IQR; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.57). Similar findings were observed for short sleep (≤5 h). BC was not associated with sleep apnea or sleep latency, however, long-term exposure may be associated with shorter sleep duration, particularly in men and those with low SES, and longer sleep duration in blacks.
Moskowitz, David A.; Seal, David W.; Rintamaki, Lance; Rieger, Gerulf
There exist many subcultures of men who have sex with men (MSM), all with differing values and health behaviors. The Leathermen comprise one such subculture, which is characterized by a heightened valuation of hypersexuality and adherence to sexual control dynamics (i.e., submission and dominance). No previous research has specifically examined this community for differences in sexual health (e.g., HIV rates) and sexual health behaviors (e.g., condom use). We conducted a large survey of men (N = 1,554) at one leather and non-leather event, collecting data from 655 Submissives, Dominants, Switches, and non-orienting Leathermen. Leathermen were 61% more likely to be HIV-positive than non-Leathermen. Decreased condom use found in HIV-positive Leathermen (relative to HIV-positive non-Leathermen) was a potential factor contributing to heightened HIV rates. Universal low condom use in Submissives engaging in receptive, and Dominants engaging in insertive, anal intercourse was an additional trend that potentially contributed to increased numbers of HIV-positive Leathermen. Our recommendation is for heightened awareness of the risks associated with sex among Leathermen, especially unprotected anal intercourse with sero-uncertain Submissives. PMID:19904599
Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina; Żelazna-Wieczorek, Joanna
Ambient springs are often cited as an example of an ecosystem with stable environmental conditions. A static biotope fosters the development of constant communities with a stable qualitative and relatively stable quantitative structure. Two years of studying cyanobacteria in different microhabitats of the rheocrenic and limnocrenic ambient springs located in urban areas showed that there is a high degree of cyanobacterial diversity and spatial and seasonal dynamics in communities. Spatial heterogeneity in relation to the type of spring and the type of microhabitat is reflected not only by a change in the quantitative structure (the number of species and their biomass), but also by a change in the composition of species. Seasonal changes depended on the type of spring and the type of microhabitat, where weather conditions influenced the communities by different degrees. Cyanobacterial communities of limnocrenes were more diverse in terms of composition and biomass, but they revealed a low seasonal dynamic in contrast to the communities of rheocrenes. The classification of springs based on their environmental conditions revealed that some springs were similar. The resemblance stemmed from the origin of human impact, which was reflected to a high degree in changes in the natural hydrochemical conditions of the springs. For the purpose of understanding which environmental factors had the greatest influence on cyanobacterial communities, a BIO-ENV procedure was performed. The procedure revealed that of most importance was a group of ions not related to the nature of the spring environment - NH4(+), NO2(-), NO3(-), and PO4(3-). The presence of these ions in groundwater was a result of direct and indirect human activity in the area of aquifers. The dynamics in communities in the studied springs were accelerated by human impact and weather conditions.
Wood, Tamara M.; Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Morace, Jennifer L.
Based on the analysis of data that they have been collecting for several years, the Klamath Tribes recently recommended that the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) modify the operating plan for the dam to make the minimum lake levels for the June-August period more closely resemble pre-dam conditions (Jacob Kann, written commun., 1995). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to analyze the available data for the lake and to assess whether the evidence exists to conclude that year-to-year differences in certain lake water-quality variables are related to year-to-year differences in lake level. The results of the analysis will be used as scientific input in the process of developing an operating plan for the Link River Dam.
Pfefferbaum, Rose L.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Zhao, Yan D.; Van Horn, Richard L.; McCarter, Grady S. “Mack”; Leonard, Michael B.
ABSTRACT This article describes an application of the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) Assessment Survey which has been recognized as an important community tool to assist communities in their resilience-building efforts. Developed to assist communities in assessing their resilience to disasters and other adversities, the CART survey can be used to obtain baseline information about a community, to identify relative community strengths and challenges, and to re-examine a community after a disaster or post intervention. This article, which describes an application of the survey in a community of 5 poverty neighborhoods, illustrates the use of the instrument, explicates aspects of community resilience, and provides possible explanations for the results. The paper also demonstrates how a community agency that serves many of the functions of a broker organization can enhance community resilience. Survey results suggest various dimensions of community resilience (as represented by core CART community resilience items and CART domains) and potential predictors. Correlates included homeownership, engagement with local entities/activities, prior experience with a personal emergency or crisis while living in the neighborhood, and involvement with a community organization that focuses on building safe and caring communities through personal relationships. In addition to influencing residents' perceptions of their community, it is likely that the community organization, which served as a sponsor for this application, contributes directly to community resilience through programs and initiatives that enhance social capital and resource acquisition and mobilization. PMID:28229014
Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Zhao, Yan D; Van Horn, Richard L; McCarter, Grady S Mack; Leonard, Michael B
This article describes an application of the Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) Assessment Survey which has been recognized as an important community tool to assist communities in their resilience-building efforts. Developed to assist communities in assessing their resilience to disasters and other adversities, the CART survey can be used to obtain baseline information about a community, to identify relative community strengths and challenges, and to re-examine a community after a disaster or post intervention. This article, which describes an application of the survey in a community of 5 poverty neighborhoods, illustrates the use of the instrument, explicates aspects of community resilience, and provides possible explanations for the results. The paper also demonstrates how a community agency that serves many of the functions of a broker organization can enhance community resilience. Survey results suggest various dimensions of community resilience (as represented by core CART community resilience items and CART domains) and potential predictors. Correlates included homeownership, engagement with local entities/activities, prior experience with a personal emergency or crisis while living in the neighborhood, and involvement with a community organization that focuses on building safe and caring communities through personal relationships. In addition to influencing residents' perceptions of their community, it is likely that the community organization, which served as a sponsor for this application, contributes directly to community resilience through programs and initiatives that enhance social capital and resource acquisition and mobilization.
Morton, D P; Richards, D; Callister, R
A questionnaire was administered to 848 participants (76% runners, 24% walkers) at the conclusion of the 14 km City to Surf community run in order to investigate their experience of exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP). Twenty-seven percent of respondents reported experiencing ETAP during the event, with the condition reported more frequently (p< 0.01) by runners (30%) than walkers (16%). ETAP was mostly described as well-localised (88%) and of an aching (25%), sharp (22%) or cramping (22%) sensation. The most commonly-reported sites of the pain were the right (46%) and left lumbar (23%) regions of the abdomen. Forty-two percent of the respondents who experienced ETAP reported that the pain was detrimental to their performance. Reports of ETAP decreased with age (r= -0.23, p< 0.01) but were unrelated to gender, body mass index or the time taken to complete the event. Among respondents who ran, those who consumed a large mass of food relative to body weight in the time interval 1-2 hr before the event were more likely to develop symptoms of ETAP (p < 0.05). The nutritional content of the pre-event meal did not influence the experience of ETAP. Sufferers of ETAP were more likely to experience nausea (r = 0.12, p< 0.01) and report shoulder tip pain (r= 0.14, p< 0.01). The results indicate that ETAP is a commonly experienced problem and provide insights into the cause of the complaint.
Andrajati, Retnosari; Tilaqza, Andri; Supardi, Sudibyo
Irrational antibiotic prescription is common in developing countries, including in Indonesia. The aims of this study were to evaluate antibiotic prescription patterns and the factors related to the rationale for antibiotic prescriptions in community health centers in Depok City, Indonesia. The study employed a cross-sectional design in eleven primary health centers in Depok City, Indonesia. The sample consisted of 28 physicians and 788 oral antibiotic prescriptions, 392 of which were evaluated for rationality according to local guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health Republic of Indonesia from October to December 2012. Data were analyzed with chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis. The most widely prescribed antibiotics were amoxicillin (73.5%) and co-trimoxazole (17.4%). The most frequent diseases were acute pharyngitis (40.2%) and non-specific respiratory infection (25.4%). Approximately 220 of the 392 prescriptions did not meet the criteria for rational antibiotic prescriptions with regard to antibiotic selection (22.7%), duration of administration (72.3%), frequency of administration (3.2%), or duration and frequency of administration (1.8%). Physicians who had attended training for rational drug use were 2.01 times more rational than physicians who had never attended training. Physicians with a short working period (i.e., <7 years) were 3.95 times more rational in prescribing antibiotics than physicians who had been working for longer periods (i.e., >7 years). Most antibiotics were prescribed irrationally. Training for rational drug use and length of practice were factors related to the rationality of antibiotic prescriptions. Suitable interventions are urgently required to encourage the rational prescription of antibiotics in the PHCs.
Maniar, Swapnil; Zaff, Jonathan F
In this chapter, the authors extend the ideas around the development of self-regulation and its impact on development by proposing a life-span, relational, public health model. They propose that the role of self-regulation should be understood across transitions from childhood to adulthood and through an individual and community perspective, including the relational process between the individual, the community, and contextual factors, such as the social determinants of health. These contextual factors may mediate or moderate the development of self-regulatory capacity across one's life span, influencing both individual and community health. Therefore, to ensure proper self-regulatory development, we must address the myriad external factors that undermine the development of self-regulation across the life span.
Davis, Heather A.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Andrzejewski, Carey E.; Poirier, Ryan R.
The purpose of this project was to examine the impact of Smaller Learning Community reform on students' behavioral, relational, and cognitive engagement in a suburban school district experiencing urbanization. We describe a project in which we evaluated the engagement of a cohort of 8th grade students as they transitioned to high school (n = 605).…
Cervantes, Richard C.; Goldbach, Jeremy; Yeung, Albert; Rey, Antonio
Recently, evidence-based community policy approaches to preventing substance use and alcohol abuse, called environmental strategies, have gained in popularity. The environmental survey instrument (ESI) was developed to evaluate perceptions around drinking and related problems. Specifically, the authors were interested in assessing community…
Amelink, Catherine T.; Artis, Sharnnia; King Liu, Tsu-Jae
Despite the awareness of the importance of self-efficacy, this concept has been studied in a limited sense among community college students (Collins & Bissell, 2004), but it has been shown to be significantly related to career decisions among enrollees (Kelly & Hatcher, 2013). The literature does not address what types of experiences can…
Newcomb, Michael D.; Rickards, Shannae
Used community samples to determine the effects of childhood family support or dysfunction and the extent of parent drug-use problems on adult intimacy issues, such as sexual satisfaction. Results showed that parent drug-use predicted poor family support; family support correlated strongly with good adult intimate relations. (RJM)
Groundwater supplies for drinking water are frequently contaminated with low-levels of human enteric virus genomes, yet evidence for waterborne disease transmission is lacking. We related qPCR-measured enteric viruses in the tap water of 14 non-chlorinating communities in the U.S. to acute gastroint...
DeSousa, Diogo Araujo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahao; Isolan, Luciano Rassier; Manfro, Gisele Gus
The aim of this cross-sectional community-based study was to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) to the diagnosis of anxiety disorders (AD). Participants were 119 students aged 9-18. Psychiatric diagnoses were assessed by a psychiatrist throughout a structural clinical…
Glade, William P.; Baldwin, Emily
These three self-contained units of study will help community college students learn about the economics, international relations, and politics of Latin America. Each unit can be used independently and contains introductory notes for instructors, student materials, and a bibliography. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading…
Examines school-community relations in a Botswana settlement of Basarwa, remote rural nomads with a minority language and culture. Surveys of parents and students in grades 5-7 indicate that all held positive educational attitudes and believed schooling would help children to find future employment, but that schools were authoritarian and operated…
Carle, Adam C.; Chassin, Laurie
Data from an ongoing longitudinal study examined resilience (competent performance under adverse conditions) in a community sample of children of alcoholics (COAs n=216) and matched controls (n=201). The study examined the prevalence of competence and whether the relation of competence to internalizing and positive affect differed for COAs and…
The report presents a composite analysis of documents relating to school-community relationships which were produced from 1971-77 under the auspices of the Council of Europe. Intended as an educational policy planning aid, the study inventories theoretical approaches and practical problems as they have appeared in recent research documents and…
Barr, Sean; Smith, Ron
This paper focuses on the socially constructed ideas that have come to be given the status of taken-for-granted knowledge within not one, but two, fields of professional practice in Northern Irish schools; community relations and special needs education. Dominant discourses were viewed as constructing norms around which educational professionals…
Karges, Marjorie L.
One of the objectives of this study was to implement the school-community relations model of interaction to determine whether the specified patterns and processes were viable. Implementation began with a needs assessment, followed by an operational process involving four approaches: (1) a schoolwide focus on reporting pupil progress; (2) a…
Murphy, Kerri Anne
This study explored the relationship between community college students' working lives and student engagement. Student engagement has been used as a proxy for student persistence based on its strong association with student persistence and its powerful negative association with school drop-out. Work has been studied extensively as related to…
important part of the community biomass due to their larger size. Some common genera include Daphnia, Bosmina, Diaphanasoma, and Ceriodaphnia (Pennak 1989). 8...organism that was identified but not measured 26 mainly of five genera, Daphnia, Bosmina, Alona, Diaphanosoma, and Ceriodaphnia . The copepod community...paddlefish in the reservoir. Zooplankton are sensitive to different levels of certain physiochemical parameters as well. The reproductive rates of rotifers
Mustelin, Linda; Bulik, Cynthia M; Kaprio, Jaakko; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna
Binge eating disorder (BED) is associated with high levels of obesity and psychological suffering, but little is known about 1) the distribution of features of BED in the general population and 2) their consequences for weight development and psychological distress in young adulthood. We investigated the prevalence of features of BED and their association with body mass index (BMI) and psychological distress among men (n = 2423) and women (n = 2825) from the longitudinal community-based FinnTwin16 cohort (born 1975-1979). Seven eating-related cognitions and behaviors similar to the defining features of BED were extracted from the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and were assessed at a mean age of 24. BMI and psychological distress, measured with the General Health Questionnaire, were assessed at ages 24 and 34. We assessed prevalence of the features and their association with BMI and psychological distress cross-sectionally and prospectively. More than half of our participants reported at least one feature of BED; clustering of several features in one individual was less common, particularly among men. The most frequently reported feature was 'stuffing oneself with food', whereas the least common was 'eating or drinking in secrecy'. All individual features of BED and their clustering particularly were associated with higher BMI and more psychological distress cross-sectionally. Prospectively, the clustering of features of BED predicted increase in psychological distress but not additional weight gain when baseline BMI was accounted for. In summary, although some features of BED were common, the clustering of several features in one individual was not. The features were cumulatively associated with BMI and psychological distress and predicted further increase in psychological distress over ten years of follow-up.
Branch, Helen M.; Evans, Dale
The community served by Towns Elementary School has changed from a black neighborhood of upper middle class homeowners to a neighborhood where the majority of the houses are now rented to lower socioeconomic status residents. Pupils now, possibly because of their environmental circumstances, exhibit behaviors which indicate needs for remediation…
Bell, Terrence H; El-Din Hassan, Saad; Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Al-Otaibi, Fahad; Hijri, Mohamed; Yergeau, Etienne; St-Arnaud, Marc
Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to excavating and chemically treating contaminated soils. Certain plants can directly bioremediate by sequestering and/or transforming pollutants, but plants may also enhance bioremediation by promoting contaminant-degrading microorganisms in soils. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region to compare the community composition of 66 soil samples from the rhizosphere of planted willows (Salix spp.) and six unplanted control samples at the site of a former petrochemical plant. The Bray–Curtis distance between bacterial communities across willow cultivars was significantly correlated with the distance between fungal communities in uncontaminated and moderately contaminated soils but not in highly contaminated (HC) soils (>2000 mg kg−1 hydrocarbons). The mean dissimilarity between fungal, but not bacterial, communities from the rhizosphere of different cultivars increased substantially in the HC blocks. This divergence was partly related to high fungal sensitivity to hydrocarbon contaminants, as demonstrated by reduced Shannon diversity, but also to a stronger influence of willows on fungal communities. Abundance of the fungal class Pezizomycetes in HC soils was directly related to willow phylogeny, with Pezizomycetes dominating the rhizosphere of a monophyletic cluster of cultivars, while remaining in low relative abundance in other soils. This has implications for plant selection in phytoremediation, as fungal associations may affect the health of introduced plants and the success of co-inoculated microbial strains. An integrated understanding of the relationships between fungi, bacteria and plants will enable the design of treatments that specifically promote effective bioremediating communities. PMID:23985744
Rico, Andreu; Van den Brink, Paul J; Leitner, Patrick; Graf, Wolfram; Focks, Andreas
A key challenge for the ecological risk assessment of chemicals has been to evaluate the relative contribution of chemical pollution to the variability observed in biological communities, as well as to identify multiple stressor groups. In this study we evaluated the toxic pressure exerted by >200 contaminants to benthic macroinvertebrates in the Danube River using the Toxic Unit approach. Furthermore, we evaluated correlations between several stressors (chemical and non-chemical) and biological indices commonly used for the ecological status assessment of aquatic ecosystems. We also performed several variation partitioning analyses to evaluate the relative contribution of contaminants and other abiotic parameters (i.e. habitat characteristics, hydromorphological alterations, water quality parameters) to the structural and biological trait variation of the invertebrate community. The results of this study show that most biological indices significantly correlate to parameters related to habitat and physico-chemical conditions, but showed limited correlation with the calculated toxic pressure. The calculated toxic pressure, however, showed little variation between sampling sites, which complicates the identification of pollution-induced effects. The results of this study show that the variation in the structure and trait composition of the invertebrate community are mainly explained by habitat and water quality parameters, whereas hydromorphological alterations play a less important role. Among the water quality parameters, physico-chemical parameters such as suspended solids, nutrients or dissolved oxygen explained a larger part of the variation in the invertebrate community as compared to metals or organic contaminants. Significant correlations exist between some physico-chemical measurements (e.g. nutrients) and some chemical classes (i.e. pharmaceuticals, chemicals related to human presence) which constitute important multiple stressor groups. This study
TAYLOR, KANARDY L.
THE ANNOATATED BIBLIOGRAPHY IS PREPARED ESPECIALLY FOR STATE AND LOCAL PUBLIC WELFARE AGENCIES RESPONSIBLE FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING. IT MAY ALSO BE OF ASSISTANCE TO OTHERS INTERESTED IN HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE. THE SELECTED REFERENCES ON BASIC CONCEPTS AND APPROACHES IN COMMUNITY PLANNING AND RELATED SUBJECTS ARE GENERALLY AVAILABLE IN PUBLIC…
Ramirez, Manuel; Argueta, Nanci L.; Castro, Yessenia; Perez, Ricardo; Dawson, Darius B.
This paper reports the findings of research investigating the relationship of spill-over fears related to drug trafficking and of cultural identity to Mexican Americans’ attitudes toward recent immigrants from Mexico in five non-metropolitan communities in the US–Mexico borderlands of South Texas. A mixed methods design was used to collect data from 91 participants (30 intact families with two parents and at least one young adult). Quantitative findings showed that the majority of participants expressed the view that most people in their communities believed that newcomers were involved in drug trafficking and in defrauding welfare programs. A significant interaction indicated that Mexican cultural identity buffered the negative effects of drug trafficking fears as related to the view that the newcomers were creating problems in the communities and region. Qualitative data yielded positive and negative themes, with those that were negative being significantly more numerous. The findings have implications for intra-ethnic relations in borderlands communities as well as for immigration policy. PMID:27672240
Parker, Edith A.; Israel, Barbara A.; Robins, Thomas G.; Mentz, Graciela; Lin, Xihong; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma; Ramirez, Erminia; Edgren, Katherine K.; Salinas, Maria; Lewis, Toby C.
This article describes the evaluation of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) community health worker (CHW) intervention to improve children’s asthma-related health by reducing household environmental triggers for asthma. After randomization to an intervention or control group, 298 households in Detroit, Michigan, with a child, aged 7 to 11, with persistent asthma symptoms participated. The intervention was effective in increasing some of the measures of lung function (daily nadir Forced Expiratory Volume at one second [p = .03] and daily nadir Peak Flow [p = .02]), reducing the frequency of two symptoms (“cough that won’t go away,” “coughing with exercise”), reducing the proportion of children requiring unscheduled medical visits and reporting inadequate use of asthma controller medication, reducing caregiver report of depressive symptoms, reducing concentrations of dog allergen in the dust, and increasing some behaviors related to reducing indoor environmental triggers. The results suggest a CHW environmental intervention can improve children’s asthma-related health, although the pathway for improvement is complex. PMID:17761540
Kondrat, Mary Ellen; Greene, Gilbert J; Winbush, Greta B
Using a collective case study design with benchmarking features, research reported here sought to locate differences in agency practices between public mental health agencies in which African American clients were doing comparatively better on specific proxy outcomes related to community tenure, and agencies with less success on those same variables. A panel of experts from the Ohio Department of Mental Health matched four agencies on per capita spending, percentage of African American clients, and urban-intensive setting. The panel also differentiated agencies on the basis of racial group comparisons for a number of proxy variables related to successful community tenure. Two agencies had a record of success with this client group (benchmark agencies); and two were less successful based on the selected criteria (comparison agencies). Findings indicated that when service elements explicitly related to culture were similar across study sites, the characteristics that did appear to make a difference were aspects of organizational culture. Implications for administration practice and further research are discussed.
Burnes, Theodore R; Rojas, Elizabeth M; Delgado, Irena; Watkins, Tianna E
Using a participatory action research (PAR) paradigm, this study investigated how 35 individuals involved in the sex work industry exemplified aspects of agency and intentional well-being under harsh work environments. Using PAR and qualitative research, sex workers were asked to identify research questions and help to design a study investigating the relationship between well-being and sex worker agency. Participants in the study each completed one semi-structured individual interview to share their experiences in the sex work industry. Data from these interviews were analyzed using constructivist phenomenology; standards of trustworthiness were accounted for using multiple tools. Four themes emerged from the data that described how the participants understood their own resilience and areas of needed attention with respect to their mental health: (1) validating sex work and eliminating whorephobic oppression; (2) safety and mobility within practice environments; (3) sexual boundary setting; and (4) social support for sex workers. Implications of the findings on theory, research, practice, and advocacy are discussed.
Zuellig, Robert E.; Bruce, James F.; Evans, Erin E.; Stogner, Robert W.
In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs City Engineering, began a study to evaluate the influence of urbanization on stream ecosystems. To accomplish this task, invertebrate, fish, stream discharge, habitat, water-chemistry, and land-use data were collected from 13 sites in the Fountain Creek basin from 2003 to 2005. The Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate hydrologic indices known to be related to urbanization. Response of stream hydrology to urbanization was evident among hydrologic variables that described stormflow. These indices included one measurement of high-flow magnitude, two measurements of high-flow frequency, and one measurement of stream flashiness. Habitat and selected nonstormflow water chemistry were characterized at each site. Land-use data were converted to estimates of impervious surface cover and used as the measure of urbanization annually. Correlation analysis (Spearman?s rho) was used to identify a suite of nonredundant streamflow, habitat, and water-chemistry variables that were strongly associated (rho > 0.6) with impervious surface cover but not strongly related to elevation (rho < 0.60). An exploratory multivariate analysis (BIO-ENV, PRIMER ver 6.1, Plymouth, UK) was used to create subsets of eight urban-related environmental variables that described patterns in biological community structure. The strongest and most parsimonious subset of variables describing patterns in invertebrate community structure included high flood pulse count, lower bank capacity, and nutrients. Several other combinations of environmental variables resulted in competing subsets, but these subsets always included the three variables found in the most parsimonious list. This study found that patterns in invertebrate community structure from 2003 to 2005 in the Fountain Creek basin were associated with a variety of environmental characteristics influenced by urbanization. These patterns were explained by a combination of
Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Yuji
Decomposition of plant residues is largely mediated by soil-dwelling microorganisms whose activities are influenced by both climate conditions and properties of the soil. However, a comprehensive understanding of their relative importance remains elusive, mainly because traditional methods, such as soil incubation and environmental surveys, have a limited ability to differentiate between the combined effects of climate and soil. Here, we performed a large-scale reciprocal soil transplantation experiment, whereby microbial communities associated with straw decomposition were examined in three initially identical soils placed in parallel in three climate regions of China (red soil, Chao soil, and black soil, located in midsubtropical, warm-temperate, and cold-temperate zones). Maize straws buried in mesh bags were sampled at 0.5, 1, and 2 years after the burial and subjected to chemical, physical, and microbiological analyses, e.g., phospholipid fatty acid analysis for microbial abundance, community-level physiological profiling, and 16S rRNA gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, respectively, for functional and phylogenic diversity. Results of aggregated boosted tree analysis show that location rather soil is the primary determining factor for the rate of straw decomposition and structures of the associated microbial communities. Principal component analysis indicates that the straw communities are primarily grouped by location at any of the three time points. In contrast, microbial communities in bulk soil remained closely related to one another for each soil. Together, our data suggest that climate (specifically, geographic location) has stronger effects than soil on straw decomposition; moreover, the successive process of microbial communities in soils is slower than those in straw residues in response to climate changes. PMID:23524671
VAN DER Mescht, Luther; Krasnov, Boris R; Matthee, Conrad A; Matthee, Sonja
We studied nestedness and its relationships with beta-diversity in flea communities harboured by three closely related rodent species (Rhabdomys pumilio, Rhabdomys intermedius, Rhabdomys dilectus) at two spatial scales (within and among host populations) in South Africa and asked (a) whether variation in species composition of flea communities within and among host populations follows a non-random pattern; if yes, (b) what are the contributions of nestedness and species turnover to dissimilarity (= beta-diversity) among flea communities at the two scales; and (c) do the degree of nestedness and its contribution to beta-diversity differ among host species (social vs solitary) and between scales. We found that nestedness in flea assemblages was more pronounced (a) in social than solitary host species and (b) at lower (among host individuals within populations) than at higher scale (among host populations). We also found that higher degree of nestedness was associated with its higher contribution to beta-diversity. Our findings support earlier ideas that parasite community structure results from the processes of parasite accumulation by hosts rather than from the processes acting within parasite communities.
National Environmental Policy Act NJDEPE-New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy NPL-- National Priorities List OCLL-Office of...concern because of its addition to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) National Priorities List (NPL) in July 1987. Additional goals...CFR, 1500-1508. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan . 40 CFR 300. Code of Federal
Fielding, Kelly S.; Newton, Fiona J.
Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0–15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives. PMID:27428372
Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Tundisi, J G; Souza-Soares, F; Tundisi, J E M
The zooplankton community of the lower Xingu River shows strong fluctuations in species richness and number of organisms during periods of water level fluctuation. Pulses of density and species richness are adapted to the pulses in water flows and water level. This is conected with reproductive strategies of some zooplankton groups. The spatial heterogeneity of the lower Xingu River consisting of braided channels, bedrocks, macrophyte stands, is probably a relevant factor for the species richness of the zooplankton communities, and may be a fundamental factor for the overall aquatic biodiversity of the lower Xingu River.
Doherty, Liz; Wilson, Iseult M; McKeown, Laura
Playing-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs) as they affect the Irish traditional music community is a topic which, to date, has received scant attention. This paper draws on data generated through a series of four focus group interview studies conducted at the Universities of Ulster and Limerick and involving 22 musicians. Specifically, this paper looks at the wider issue of identity within the Irish traditional music community and at how the complexities inherent in this have, perhaps, affected musicians in recognizing, relating to, and dealing with PRMDs. Whether or not the injuries affecting Irish traditional musicians are similar to or different from what other musicians experience, what this study shows is that the sense of self and discrete identity among the Irish traditional music community is so very strong that merely a "one size fits all" approach to addressing these issues is not likely to yield positive results. Health professionals therefore need to be sensitive to such factors when considering their management of PRMDs and to develop approaches along with the traditional music community that are cognisant of their identity as well as their needs.
Wilson, Shaun K; Babcock, Russ C; Fisher, Rebecca; Holmes, Thomas H; Moore, James A Y; Thomson, Damian P
Habitat degradation and fishing are major drivers of temporal and spatial changes in fish communities. The independent effects of these drivers are well documented, but the relative importance and interaction between fishing and habitat shifts is poorly understood, particularly in complex systems such as coral reefs. To assess the combined and relative effects of fishing and habitat we examined the composition of fish communities on patch reefs across a gradient of high to low structural complexity in fished and unfished areas of the Ningaloo Marine Park, Western Australia. Biomass and species richness of fish were positively correlated with structural complexity of reefs and negatively related to macroalgal cover. Total abundance of fish was also positively related to structural complexity, however this relationship was stronger on fished reefs than those where fishing is prohibited. The interaction between habitat condition and fishing pressure is primarily due to the high abundance of small bodied planktivorous fish on fished reefs. However, the influence of management zones on the abundance and biomass of predators and target species is small, implying spatial differences in fishing pressure are low and unlikely to be driving this interaction. Our results emphasise the importance of habitat in structuring reef fish communities on coral reefs especially when gradients in fishing pressure are low. The influence of fishing effort on this relationship may however become more important as fishing pressure increases.
Canning, Ryan M.; Lefebvre, Eric
A growing number of Public Safety agencies have begun leveraging wireless data communication technology to improve tactical response capabilities as well as overall productivity. For years police departments subscribed to CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) services to provide officers with basic dispatch data and criminal database access. Now as cellular carriers have deactivated CDPD and shifted to 2.5G and 3G data services such as 1xRTT, GPRS and EDGE, police departments are scrambling to fill the void. Not surprisingly, the extraordinary investments cellular carriers made to upgrade their infrastructures have been transferred to the customer, with monthly fees running as high as $80 a month per user. It's no wonder public safety agencies have been reluctant to adopt these services. Lost in the fray are those smaller police departments which account for nearly 90% of the nation's total. This group has increasingly sought out alternative data communication solutions that are not predicated on budget-busting monthly access fees. One such example is the Marco Island Police Department (MIPD) in Southwestern Florida that received a Federal grant to augment its existing voice communications with data. After evaluating several different technologies and vendors, MIPD chose a 900 MHz ad hoc mesh network solution based on its ability to provide reliable, high-speed and secure IP-based data communications over extensive distances. This paper will discuss technical details of Marco Island's mobile mesh network implementation; including: coverage area with 900 MHz spread spectrum radios, strategic repeater tower placement, interference, throughput performance, and the necessity for application-persistence software.
Yang, Liang-Jie; Yu, Peng-Fei; Zhu, Jun-Quan; Xu, Zhen; Lü, Guang-Han; Jin, Chun-Hua
In order to reveal the community structure characteristics of phytoplankton and the relationships with environmental factors in Hengshan Reservoir, the phytoplankton species composition, abundance, biomass and 12 environmental factors at 4 sampling sites were analyzed from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of 246 phytoplankton species were identified, which belong to 78 genera and 7 phyla. The dominant species were Melosira varians, M. granulate, Cyclotella meneghiniana, Asterianella formosa, Synedra acus, Achnanthes exigua, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Oscillatoria lacustris, Cryptomonas erosa, Chroomonas acuta, Phormidium tenue and Microcystis aeruginosa, etc. Seasonal variations of species were obvious. The annual abundance and biomass of the phytoplankton were 0.51 x 10(5)-14.22 x 10(5) ind x L(-1) and 0.07-1.27 mg x L(-1), respectively. The values of the Margelef index, Pielou index and Shannon index of the phytoplankton community were 1.10-3.33, 0.26-0.81 and 0.51-2.38, respectively. The phytoplankton community structure was of Bacillariophyta-Cryptophyta type in spring and winter, of Chlorophyta-Cyanophyta type in summer, and of Bacillariophyta type in autumn. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) showed that temperature, transparency, chemical oxygen demand and pH had the closest relationships with the phytoplankton community structure in the reservoir. Water quality evaluation showed that Hengshan Reservoir was in a secondary pollution with a meso-trophic level.
Conklin, Karen A.
Johnson County Community College (JCCC), in Kansas, offers formal career programs for 12 of the 20 fastest growing occupations requiring postsecondary training, and for 13 of the 30 occupations projected to be the fastest growing between 1990 and 2005. Following an introduction to general trends and data sources, this guide presents profiles of…
Silas-Casillas, Juan Carlos; Perales-Franco, Cristina
Even in marginalized towns it is possible to find school communities that have developed relationships that encourage the construction of institutional cultures and management structures prone to superior academic performance compared to others within the same context. This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project conducted in…
Babalola, Stella; Sakolsky, Natasha; Vondrasek, Claudia; Mounlom, Damaris; Brown, Jane; Tchupo, Jean-Paul
Evaluated the impact of a reproductive health community mobilization initiative in Cameroon. Baseline and followup survey data indicated that at a rural site, the intervention positively influenced family planning knowledge and practices, HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted disease knowledge and attitudes, and use of health services. At an urban…
To be effective in dealing with minority constituencies, the community college administrator needs special personality traits and communication skills: he/she must be tough-minded, articulate, aware of different life-styles, and empathetic; he/she should be able to withstand criticism, confront problems directly, accept compromise, and tolerate…
Mesa, Vilma; Celis, Sergio; Lande, Elaine
We report on a qualitative investigation of the ways in which 14 faculty members in the mathematics department at a community college described their approaches to teaching and contrasted those with analyses of their mathematics lessons. We characterized instructors' teaching approaches as traditional, meaning-making, or student-support and…
Mitchell, Glenn, II; Salmon, Jennifer R.; Polivka, Larry; Soberon-Ferrer, Horacio
Purpose: We compared inpatient days, nursing home days, and total Medicaid claims for five Medicaid-funded home- and community-based services (HCBS) programs for in-home and assisted living services in Florida. Design and Methods: We studied a single cohort of Medicaid enrollees in Florida aged 60 and older, who were enrolled for the first time in…
Carcedo, M. Cecilia; Fiori, Sandra M.; Piccolo, M. Cintia; López Abbate, M. Celeste; Bremec, Claudia S.
This study describes for the first time the intertidal macrobenthic community of exposed sandy beaches located near the Bahía Blanca Estuary (38°S) and reports the physical characterization of this coastal fringe. The main objective of the study was to link environmental variables to biotic information, analyzing the results in the context of the Swash Exclusion Hypothesis (SEH) and possible estuarine influence. Four beaches were sampled seasonally at different distances from the mouth of the Bahía Blanca Estuary. To characterize the morphodynamic state of the beaches, the Dean parameter (Ω) was calculated. Multivariate analyses were used to assess benthic community structures and their relationships with physical variables. The two beaches located closest to the Bahía Blanca Estuary were classified as intermediate and those located further from the estuary as dissipative. Richness, diversity and biomass of intertidal macrobenthic communities varied with the SEH, increasing towards the dissipative beaches. However, total density was higher on intermediate beaches, possibly because of nutrient-rich silt-clay sediment input from the estuary, enabling them to maintain a higher density of organisms than dissipative beaches. The estuary acts as a moderator of habitat hardness, which together with the morphodynamic state of the beaches is an important factor in the structuring of the macrobenthic community along this coastal fringe.
Ehlers, Diane K.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Beseler, Cheryl L.
The purpose of this study was to determine: (i) the effect of schools' baseline community readiness (CR) on youth physical activity (PA) at recess prior to the Ready for Recess intervention; (ii) if changes in PA due to the intervention were explained by baseline CR and (iii) if specific components of the intervention altered an association…
Schinke, Robert J.; Hanrahan, Stephanie J.; Eys, Mark A.; Blodgett, Amy; Peltier, Duke; Ritchie, Stephen Douglas; Pheasant, Chris; Enosse, Lawrence
When sport psychology researchers from the mainstream work with people from marginalized cultures, they can be challenged by cultural differences as well as mistrust. For this article, researchers born in mainstream North America partnered with Canadian Aboriginal community members. The coauthors have worked together for 5 years. What follows is…
To explore families as networks and communities from an evolutionary perspective, two studies were conducted with rural elders in West Virginia. In the first study, examining the social factors that influenced the use of public transportation, 28 elderly individuals, divided into three groups by transportation styles (users of public…
Ramsey, Kristie G.
Student enrollment in online classes has witnessed a significant growth over the past decade. Higher education institutions, in particular, rural community colleges recognize both the need and demand for online classes and have taken great strides to incorporate them into their course curriculum. However, with the growth of online courses there…
Roccato, Michele; Russo, Silvia; Vieno, Alessio
In a representative sample of the Italian population (N=2,002), surveyed in January 2008, we studied the direct and interactive effects exerted on fear of crime by direct and indirect victimization, on the one hand, and perceived level of disorder of participants' community, on the other hand. Indirect victimization fostered fear of crime among…
This pilot study investigates whether requiring participation in community-based learning can motivate intermediate level Spanish learners to engage in more frequent interaction in Spanish outside of the classroom and course requirements. Using the theoretical framework of willingness to communicate in a second language, this study combines both…
The research fellow worked in the field of community mental health for one year learning the theory and practice through specific course work, field experiences, selected reading, and the development of several research designs. One field experience involved a 1-day-per-week assignment over an 8-month period during which a survey was made of the…
Plice, Robert K.; Reinig, Bruce A.
A recent Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (2006) task force called for increased interaction between business schools and the business community to identify essential skill sets and help with the curriculum-management process. An information systems curriculum-assessment study solicited input from recent alumni working in the…
CARTER, RICHARD F.; AND OTHERS
FROM AN ANALYSIS OF OVER 2,000 RECONSTRUCTED CONVERSATIONS HELD BY 50 ADULTS IN EACH OF FIVE SCHOOL DISTRICTS, QUESTIONNAIRE RESPONSE DATA WERE OBTAINED TO MEASURE FLOWS OF INFORMATION AND INFLUENCE FROM THE SCHOOL TO THE COMMUNITY FOR OBTAINING PUBLIC SUPPORT. THE STUDY ATTEMPTED TO DESCRIBE (1) PERSONS WHO TALK ABOUT SCHOOLS, (2) THE KINDS OF…
Haines, Dana Lee
The fourfold purpose of this study was to determine if student attitudes toward community service, student attitudes toward civic involvement, student attitudes about life skills, and student attitudes toward civic engagement and service learning differed based on enrollment in a course with a service learning component or enrollment in a course…
George, Daniel R.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Dillon, Judy; Snyder, Gail
Academic Health Centers and nonprofit hospitals are exploring strategies to meet Affordable Care Act mandates requiring tax-exempt institutions to address community health needs, which commonly include major chronic illnesses. We explore the implications of this regulatory landscape, describing methods that nonprofit health care institutions are…
Denner, Jill; Werner, Linda; O'Connor, Lisa
Community colleges (CC) are obvious places to recruit more women into computer science. Enrollment at CCs has grown in response to a struggling economy, and students are more likely to be from underrepresented groups than students enrolled in 4-year universities (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008). However, we know little about why so…
Jones, Jeffrey N.; Bench, Joshua H.; Warnaar, Bethany L.; Stroup, John T.
Educators, policymakers, and other concerned adults share an interest in promoting lifelong patterns of community service in youth. Practitioners and researchers alike highlight the importance of youth participation in afterschool service activities so the author's focus in this paper is on youth involved in PeaceJam, an innovative…
Nash, Philip C.; And Others
Information is provided in five separate sections on California community college energy programs for students interested in selecting a program and for college personnel interested in beginning or improving a program. Contents of most sections are arranged alphabetically according to the name of the college, project, or organization. Section I…
Bailey, Beth Nordstrom; Hannigan, John H.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Covington, Chandice; Sokol, Robert J.
Children in the United States are exposed to considerable community violence that has been linked to child functioning. However, not all those exposed, experience negative outcomes. Recent research has focused on factors that "buffer" or protect children from negative consequences of violence exposure. The purpose of this investigation…
Despite a successfully negotiated peace agreement in Belfast in 1998, tensions between different community groups continue to exist in Northern Ireland. This situation creates a governmental need to find solutions to problems such as segregation, inter- and intra-group violence and other forms of sectarian antagonisms. On the one hand, this is…
van der Kaay, Christopher D.; Young, William H.
This study focused on technology usage among community college faculty. Overall technology use among older faculty was slightly less than younger faculty; older faculty were no less likely than younger respondents to use technology. Both age groups used similar technologies and reported equivalent degrees of perceived skill with those…
Gregory, James Brent
The purpose of the study was to examine relationships which existed between selected demographics and college grade point averages "GPAs" for dislocated workers and non dislocated workers enrolled in career-technical courses at a rural community college. The variables included in the study are age, gender, and marital status. The study…
Kalvelage, Thomas A.
NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990's. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990's changed as each community had its say -- first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC -- particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) -- are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.
Kalvelage, T.A.; ,
NASA developed the Earth Observing System (EOS) during the 1990'S. At the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LP DAAC), located at the USGS EROS Data Center, the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is required to support heritage missions as well as Landsat 7, Terra, and Aqua. The original system concept of the early 1990'S changed as each community had its say - first the managers, then engineers, scientists, developers, operators, and then finally the general public. The systems at the LP DAAC - particularly the largest single system, the EOSDIS Core System (ECS) - are changing as experience accumulates, technology changes, and each user group gains influence. The LP DAAC has adapted as contingencies were planned for, requirements and therefore plans were modified, and expectations changed faster than requirements could hope to be satisfied. Although not responsible for Quality Assurance of the science data, the LP DAAC works to ensure the data are accessible and useable by influencing systems, capabilities, and data formats where possible, and providing tools and user support as necessary. While supporting multiple missions and instruments, the LP DAAC also works with and learns from multiple management and oversight groups as they review mission requirements, system capabilities, and the overall operation of the LP DAAC. Stakeholders, including the Land Science community, are consulted regularly to ensure that the LP DAAC remains cognizant and responsive to the evolving needs of the user community. Today, the systems do not look or function as originally planned, but they do work, and they allow customers to search and order of an impressive amount of diverse data.
FRIEDMAN, BURTON DEAN; AND OTHERS
THIS DOCUMENT IS THE SECOND PART OF A REPORT, PROGRAM-ORIENTED INFORMATION--A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX FOR STATE EDUCATION AGENCIES. PART 1, EA 001 170, SUBTITLED "ANALYSIS AND PROPOSALS," CONTAINS AN OUTLINE OF THE NEED FOR A MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS COMPLEX WITHIN EACH STATE EDUCATION AGENCY. THIS DOCUMENT IS A MANUAL PRESENTING THE…
Flynn, Andrea; Wells, Samantha
Community indicators are used to assess the impact of alcohol on communities. This article reviews the main data sources for community indicators, discusses their strengths and limitations, and discusses indicators used in reference to four main topics relating to alcohol use and problems at the community level: alcohol use, patterns, and problems; alcohol availability; alcohol-related health outcomes/trauma; and alcohol-related crime and enforcement. It also reviews the challenges associated with collecting community indicator data, along with important innovations in the field that have contributed to better knowledge of how to collect and analyze community-level data on the impact of alcohol. PMID:24881322
Corring, Deborah J; Gibson, Deborah; MustinPowell, Jill
Individuals living with serious mental illness who require acute and/or tertiary mental healthcare services represent one of the most complex patient groups in the healthcare service delivery system. Provincial mental health policy has been committed to providing services closer to home and in the community rather than an institution wherever possible for some time. This paper articulates the strategies used by one organization to ensure the successful transfer of beds and related ambulatory services to four separate communities. In addition a case study is also provided to describe in more detail the complex changes that took place in order to accomplish the divestments of beds and related ambulatory services to one of the partner hospitals.
This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…
Davies, G M; Bakker, J D; Dettweiler-Robinson, E; Dunwiddie, P W; Hall, S A; Downs, J; Evans, J
Repeated perturbations, both biotic and abiotic, can lead to fundamental changes in the nature of ecosystems, including changes in state. Sagebrush steppe communities provide important habitat for wildlife and grazing for livestock. Fire is an integral part of these systems, but there is concern that increased ignition frequencies and invasive species are fundamentally altering them. Despite these issues, the majority of studies of fire effects in systems dominated by Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis have focused on the effects of single burns. The Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), in south-central Washington (U.S.A.), was one of the largest contiguous areas of sagebrush steppe habitat in the state until large wildfires burned the majority of it in 2000 and 2007. We analyzed data from permanent vegetation transects established in 1996 and resampled in 2002 and 2009. Our objective was to describe how the fires, and subsequent postfire restoration efforts, affected communities' successional pathways. Plant communities differed in response to repeated fire and restoration; these differences could largely be ascribed to the functional traits of the dominant species. Low-elevation communities, previously dominated by obligate seeders, moved furthest from their initial composition and were dominated by weedy, early-successional species in 2009. Higher-elevation sites with resprouting shrubs, native bunchgrasses, and few invasive species were generally more resilient to the effects of repeated disturbances. Shrub cover has been almost entirely removed from ALE, although there was some recovery where communities were dominated by resprouters. Bromus tectorum dominance was reduced by herbicide application in areas where it was previously abundant, but it increased significantly in untreated areas. Several resprouting species, notably Phlox longifolia and Poa secunda, expanded remarkably following competitive release from shrub canopies and/or abundant B. tectorum. Our
Davies, G. M.; Bakker, J. D.; Dettweiler-Robinson, E.; Dunwiddie, Peter W.; Hall, S. A.; Downs, Janelle L.; Evans, J.
Repeated perturbations, both biotic and abiotic, can lead to fundamental changes in the nature of ecosystems including changes in state. Sagebrush-steppe communities provide important habitat for wildlife and grazing for livestock. Fire is an integral part of these systems, but there is concern that increased ignition frequencies and invasive species are fundamentally altering these systems. Despite these issues, the majority of studies of fire effects in Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis-dominated systems have focused on the effects of single burns. The Arid Lands Ecology Reserve (ALE), in south-central Washington (U.S.A.), was one of the largest areas of continuous shrub-steppe habitat in the state until large wildfires burnt the majority of it in 2000 and 2007. We analysed data from permanent vegetation transects established in 1996 and resampled in 2002 and 2009. Our objective was to describe how the fires, and subsequent post-fire restoration efforts, affected communities successional pathways. Plant communities differed in response to repeated fire and restoration; these differences could largely be ascribed to the functional traits of the dominant species. Low elevation communities, previously dominated by obligate seeders, moved farthest from their initial composition and were dominated by weedy, early successional species in 2009. Higher elevation sites with resprouting shrubs, native bunchgrasses and few invasive species were generally more resilient to the effects of repeated disturbances. Shrub cover has been almost entirely removed from ALE, though there is evidence of recovery where communities were dominated by re-sprouters. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominance was reduced by herbicide application in areas where it was previously abundant but increased significantly in untreated areas. Several re-sprouting species, notably Phlox longifolia and Poa secunda, expanded remarkably following competitive release from shrub canopies and/or abundant
Kraberg, A. C.; Druzhkova, E.; Heim, B.; Loeder, M. J. G.; Wiltshire, K. H.
The Lena Delta in Northern Siberia is one of the largest river deltas in the world. During peak discharge, after the ice melt in spring, it delivers between 60-8000 m3s-1 of water and sediment into the Arctic Ocean. The Lena Delta and the Laptev Sea coast also constitute a~continuous permafrost region. Ongoing climate change, which is particularly pronounced in the Arctic, is leading to increased rates of permafrost thaw. This is likely to profoundly change the discharge rates of the Lena River and the chemistry of the river waters which are discharged into the coastal Laptev Sea, e.g. by increasing concentrations of inorganic nutrients, DOC and importantly methane. These physical and chemical changes will also affect the composition of and interactions between phytoplankton and zooplankton communities, forming the basis of the food web. However, before potential consequences of climate change for coastal arctic plankton communities can be judged, the inherent status of the diversity and linked foodweb interactions within the delta need to be established. As part of the AWI Lena Delta Programme in 2010 the phyto- and microzooplankton community in three river channels as well as four coastal transects were investigated to capture the typical river phytoplankton communities and the transitional zone of brackish/marine conditions. Most CTD profiles from 23 coastal stations showed very strong stratification. The only exception to this was a small a shallow and mixed area running from the outflow of Bykovskaya channel in a northerly direction parallel to the shore (transect 3). Of the five stations in this area three had a salinity of close to zero. Two further stations had salinities of around 2 and 5 throughout the water column. In the remaining transects on the other hand salinities varied between 5-30 with depth. Phytoplankton counts from the outflow from the Lena were dominated by diatoms (Aulacoseira species) cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon, Pseudanabaena) and
Tack, Ayco J M; Roslin, Tomas
Recent studies suggest that intraspecific genetic diversity in one species may leave a substantial imprint on the surrounding community and ecosystem. Here, we test the hypothesis that genetic diversity within host-plant patches translates into consistent and ecologically important changes in the associated herbivore community. More specifically, we use potted, grafted oak saplings to construct 41 patches of four saplings each, with one, two, or four tree genotypes represented among the host plants. These patches were divided among two common gardens. Focusing first at the level of individual trees, we assess how tree-specific genotypic identity, patch-level genetic diversity, garden-level environmental variation, and their interactions affect the structure of the herbivore community. At the level of host-plant patches, we analyze whether the joint responses of herbivore species to environmental variation and genetic diversity result in differences in species diversity among tree quartets. Strikingly, both species-specific abundances and species diversity varied substantially among host-tree genotypes, among common gardens, and among specific locations within individual gardens. In contrast, the genetic diversity of the patch left a detectable imprint on local abundances of only two herbivore taxa. In both cases, the effect of genetic diversity was inconsistent among gardens and among host-plant genotypes. While the insect community differed significantly among individual host-plant genotypes, there were no interactive effects of the number of different genotypes within the patch. Overall, additive effects of intraspecific genetic diversity of the host plant explained a similar or lower proportion (7-10%) of variation in herbivore species diversity than did variation among common gardens. Combined with the few previous studies published to date, our study suggests that the impact of host-plant genetic diversity on the herbivore community can range from none to