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Sample records for agencies irrigation districts

  1. 76 FR 20971 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2011. d. Submitted By: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of Project... Regulatory Affairs, Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, California 95381, 209-883-8241...

  2. 77 FR 4291 - Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed... any Order issuing a license. Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, as the..., Turlock Irrigation District, P.O. Box 949, Turlock, CA 95381. Greg Dias or Representative,...

  3. 78 FR 3892 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice Clarifying Party Status On January 9, 2013, the Modesto Irrigation District (Modesto) filed a motion...

  4. 77 FR 16828 - Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Dispute Resolution Process...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District, & Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of... relicensing proceeding for the Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project No. 2299-075.\\1\\ Turlock Irrigation District and the Modesto Irrigation District (collectively, the Districts), are co-licensees for the Don...

  5. 75 FR 43958 - Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Application for Amendment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of...: May 24, 2010. d. Applicant: Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District. e. Name of.... g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 USC 791a-825r. h. Applicant Contact: Turlock...

  6. 75 FR 35778 - Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications June 16, 2010. On February 1, 2010, Modesto Irrigation District and Turlock Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the...

  7. 78 FR 37538 - Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Idaho Irrigation District; New Sweden Irrigation District; Notice of... Competing Applications On April 19, 2013, the Idaho and New Sweden Irrigation Districts, filed a joint... maintaining irrigation flows; (4) a powerhouse containing a 1.2- megawatt (MW) Kaplan turbine; (5) a...

  8. 77 FR 21556 - Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Don Pedro Hydroelectric Project: Turlock Irrigation District; Modesto Irrigation District; Supplement to Notice of Study Dispute Resolution Technical Conference On March 16,...

  9. 77 FR 13585 - Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... COMMISSION Three Sisters Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting..., 2012. d. Applicant: Three Sisters Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Three Sisters Irrigation District Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Three Sisters Irrigation District...

  10. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  11. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal full) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  12. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and crossing - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  13. 68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 75 FR 30012 - Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Friant Power Authority Orange Cove Irrigation District; Notice of..., 2010. d. Applicant: Friant Power Authority and Orange Cove Irrigation District. e. Name of Project.... Fergus Morrissey, Orange Cove Irrigation District, 1130 Park Boulevard, Orange Cove, CA 93646;...

  15. 77 FR 28872 - Willwood Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Willwood Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, the Willwood Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to... Hydropower Project (Deer Creek Project or project) to be ] located on the Willwood Irrigation District's...

  16. 2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PLAN, SHEET 5 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  17. 4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROPOSED SECTION OF DIVERSION DAM ACROSS SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 1 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  18. 3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROFILE AND ALIGNMENT OF DAM ACROSS WEST CHANNEL OF SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 3 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  19. A Real-time Irrigation Forecasting System in Jiefangzha Irrigation District, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the irrigation efficiency, we need to know when and how much to irrigate in real time. If we know the soil moisture content at this time, we can forecast the soil moisture content in the next days based on the rainfall forecasting and the crop evapotranspiration forecasting. Then the irrigation should be considered when the forecasting soil moisture content reaches to a threshold. Jiefangzha Irrigation District, a part of Hetao Irrigation District, is located in Inner Mongolia, China. The irrigated area of this irrigation district is about 140,000 ha mainly planting wheat, maize and sunflower. The annual precipitation is below 200mm, so the irrigation is necessary and the irrigation water comes from the Yellow river. We set up 10 sites with 4 TDR sensors at each site (20cm, 40cm, 60cm and 80cm depth) to monitor the soil moisture content. The weather forecasting data are downloaded from the website of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The reference evapotranspiration is estimated based on FAO-Blaney-Criddle equation with only the air temperature from ECMWF. Then the crop water requirement is forecasted by the crop coefficient multiplying the reference evapotranspiration. Finally, the soil moisture content is forecasted based on soil water balance with the initial condition is set as the monitoring soil moisture content. When the soil moisture content reaches to a threshold, the irrigation warning will be announced. The irrigation mount can be estimated through three ways: (1) making the soil moisture content be equal to the field capacity; (2) making the soil moisture saturated; or (3) according to the irrigation quota. The forecasting period is 10 days. The system is developed according to B2C model with Java language. All the databases and the data analysis are carried out in the server. The customers can log in the website with their own username and password then get the information about the irrigation forecasting

  20. 75 FR 74697 - Central Oregon Irrigation District; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Central Oregon Irrigation District; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit..., 2010, Central Oregon Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant...

  1. 77 FR 27768 - Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit... February 1, 2012, the Greybull Valley Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary...

  2. 77 FR 27769 - Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit... February 1, 2012, the Greybull Valley Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary...

  3. 77 FR 27768 - Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Greybull Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit... February 1, 2012, Greybull Valley Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary...

  4. 77 FR 3756 - Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing..., 2011. d. Applicant: Nevada Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Yuba-Bear Hydroelectric Project. f... Nelson, General Manager, Nevada Irrigation District, 1036 West Main Street, Grass Valley, CA 95945,...

  5. 78 FR 25067 - Warmsprings Irrigation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Warmsprings Irrigation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing.... Project No.: 13570-002. c. Date filed: April 15, 2013. d. Applicant: Warmsprings Irrigation District. e...). h. Applicant Contact: Mr. Randy Kinney, Warmsprings Irrigation District, 334 Main Street North,...

  6. 76 FR 5585 - Idaho Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Idaho Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted.... On November 12, 2010, the Idaho Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit... Irrigation District Hydroelectric Project (project) to be located on the Idaho Canal, a tributary of...

  7. 76 FR 24015 - Warmsprings Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Warmsprings Irrigation District; Notice of Intent To File License...: Warmsprings Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Warmsprings Dam Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: On... Kinney, Warmsprings Irrigation District, 334 Main Street North, Vale, OR 97918; (541) 473- 3951. i....

  8. 75 FR 2128 - North Unit Irrigation District; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission North Unit Irrigation District; Notice of Competing Preliminary Permit... Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4(f) of the Federal.... Applicant Contact: Mike Britton, North Unit Irrigation District, 2024 NW. Beech Street, Madras, OR...

  9. 78 FR 48666 - Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Declaration of Intention and... Irrigation District e. Name of Project: Tennessee Ditch Hydropower Development Project f. Location: The.... Applicant Contact: Walter Cotter, General Manager, Browns Valley Irrigation District, P.O. Box 6,...

  10. 76 FR 24466 - Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With.... Date Filed: April 15, 2011. d. Applicant: Nevada Irrigation District. e. Name of Project: Yuba-Bear... Contact: Ron Nelson, General Manager, Nevada Irrigation District, 1036 West Main Street, Grass Valley,...

  11. 75 FR 50752 - El Dorado Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission El Dorado Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and...-000. c. Date filed: April 19, 2010. d. Applicant: El Dorado Irrigation District. e. Name of Project... Irrigation District, 9050, 2890 Mosquito Road, Placerville, CA 95762, phone (530) 622-4512. i. FERC...

  12. 76 FR 12719 - City of Escondido, California, and Vista Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Escondido, California, and Vista Irrigation District; Notice of... Escondido, California, (Escondido) and Vista Irrigation District (Vista). e. Name of Project: Bear Valley..., (619) 544-0123; and Don A. Smith, Director of Water Resources, Vista Irrigation District, 1391...

  13. 78 FR 29365 - Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On April 15, 2011, the Nevada Irrigation District, licensee for the Yuba-Bear Hydroelectric... hereby given that the licensee, Nevada Irrigation District, is authorized to continue operation of...

  14. Scheme of water saving irrigation in autumn based on SHAW model in Inner Mongolia Hetao Irrigation District

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In accordance with the prevention of soil salination and water-saving irrigation in autumn in Inner Mongolia Hetao irrigation district, the reasonable water-saving irrigation scheme in autumn was quantified by using SHAW model for the different salinized soils. For slightly salinized soils, autumn i...

  15. 76 FR 23321 - New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Sweden Irrigation District, ID; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, New Sweden Irrigation District filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section.... The estimated annual generation of the New Sweden Irrigation Project would be 5.6...

  16. 78 FR 69662 - Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Browns Valley Irrigation District; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a..., Browns Valley Irrigation District (BVID) filed a notice of intent to construct a qualifying conduit... to Tennessee Creek for downstream irrigation purposes. The project would be located in Yuba...

  17. 76 FR 33751 - Central Nebraska Public Power and Irrigation District; Notice of Availability of Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47879), the Office of Energy Projects has reviewed Central Nebraska Public Power and Irrigation District's... Energy Regulatory Commission Central Nebraska Public Power and Irrigation District; Notice...

  18. 76 FR 35208 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Environmental Site Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of... Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) and Nevada Irrigation District (NID) (applicants) will conduct...

  19. Simulation of freezing and thawing soilsin Inner Mongolia Hetao irrigation district, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inner Mongolia Hetao Irrigation District, in north of China, is typical of seasonal frozen soil areas in the region. Irrigation in autumn is required to leach soil salt and to provide a reserve of soil water for the next year’s crop. However, improper autumn irrigation results in the secondary salin...

  20. 76 FR 35886 - Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Orange Cove Irrigation District, and Friant Power Authority; Notice of... Office of Energy Projects has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) regarding Orange Cove...

  1. 76 FR 12720 - City of Escondido, CA, and Vista Irrigation District; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission City of Escondido, CA, and Vista Irrigation District; Notice of Application... Filed: December 3, 2010. d. Applicant: City of Escondido, California (Escondido) and Vista Irrigation... ] Water Resources, Vista Irrigation District, 1391 Engineer Street, Vista, CA 92081, (207) 945-5621....

  2. Application of Canal Automation at the Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Central Arizona Irrigation and Drainage District (CAIDD) began delivering water to users in 1987. Although designed for automatic control, the system was run manually until a homemade SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system was developed by a district employee. In 2002, problem...

  3. Assessment of water use and its productivity in the Spanish irrigation district "Río Adaja"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Naroua, Iliassou; Sánchez-Calvo, Raúl

    2015-04-01

    A study of the assessment of the irrigation water use has been carried out in the Spanish irrigation District "Río Adaja" that has analyzed the water use efficiency and the water productivity indicators for the main crops during the first three years of operation (2010/2011, 2011/2012 and 2012/2013). A soil water balance model was applied taking into account climatic data for the nearby weather station and soil properties. Crop water requirements were calculated by the FAO Penman-Monteith with the application of the dual crop coefficient and by considering the readily available soil water content (RAW) concept. Likewise, productivity was measured by the indexes: annual relative irrigation supply (ARIS), annual relative water supply (ARWS), relative rainfall supply (RRS), the water productivity (WP), the evapotranspiration water productivity (ETWP), and the irrigation water productivity (IWP). The results show that the irrigation district applied deficit irrigation in most crops (ARIS<1), and also improved water productivity. This was higher in 2010/2011 which showed the highest effective precipitation Pe. The IWP (€/m3) index varied among crops with the highest values for onion (4.14), potato (2.79), carrot (1.37) and barley (1.21) for the first year and, onion (1.98), potato (1.69), carrot (1.70) and barley (1.16) in the second year. Thus, these crops would be a proper cropping pattern to maximize the gross income in the irrigation district.

  4. Restructuration of the water tariff system for irrigation districts in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olaiz, P. A.

    1981-05-01

    The tariffs charged for irrigation and drainage services in irrigation districts in Mexico are lower than the actual costs, and as a result a subsidy is required to allow the systems to operate. This subsidy has increased rapidly since 1971, and the tariffs do not offer sufficient economic incentives to promote efficiency in the use of water for irrigation. This paper deals with the prevailing tariff structure, in an attempt to understand the economic causes for the increasing subsidy; it describes a tentative methodology for restructuration of the system based on technical, economic and social components, and presents the expected results of a first application trial of the methodology in one of Mexico's major irrigation districts.

  5. Assessment of water use in the Spanish irrigation district "Río Adaja"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naroua, Illiassou; Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Sánchez Calvo, Raúl

    2013-04-01

    Intensive agricultural practices combined with the increasing pressure of urbanization and the changing lifestyles, have strengthened the problems of competing users over limited water resources in a fragile and already stressed environment. Sustainable irrigated agriculture is prescribed as a policy approach that maximizes economic benefits while maintaining environmental quality. Within this framework a proper management of irrigation systems saving water is required. On the other hand, crops with high tolerance to water stress and deficit irrigation are recommended. However, crop yield, among other factors, is very sensitive to water Thus, studies addressing the relations among crop water requirements, irrigation depth and crop yield are necessary. This type of study has been carried out in the Spanish irrigation District "Río Adaja" in the year 2010-2011 with the crops: wheat, barley, sugarbeet, corn, onion, potato, sunflower, clover and carrot. A soil hydrology balance model was applied taking into account climatic data for the nearby weather station and soil characteristics. Effective precipitation was calculated by the index curve number. Crop water requirements were calculated by the FAO Penman-Monteith with the application of the dual crop coefficient. Likewise, productivity was measured by the following indexes: annual relative irrigation supply (ARIS), relative water supply (RWS), relative rainfall supply (RS) and water productivity (WP). Results show that water applied with the irrigation of clover, sugarbeet, corn and onion was less than their water requirements There was a 35 % difference between the amount of water simulated with the model and the gross amount applied during the irrigation period by the irrigation district. WP values differed among crops depending, mainly, on the crop`s market price and the amount of irrigation water. The highest values corresponded to potato and onion crops.

  6. Drainage water quality and end-member identification in La Violada irrigation district (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidoro, D.; Quílez, D.; Aragüés, R.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryThe identification of the different components in a water course is required to individualize and assess the actual contribution of irrigated agriculture to the pollution of the water course. This paper aimed at identifying and assessing the composition of the end-members in La Violada irrigation district (VID) and establishing a statistical procedure to reduce the sampling effort needed to establish drainage water quality. The quality of irrigation water, groundwater, and irrigated-land drainage water in VID was monitored during three hydrologic years to identify the components of flow in La Violada Gully, the natural exit course of VID. A network of sampling points in the secondary ditches and main drains of VID allowed identifying and separating those collecting irrigated-land drainage waters from those conveying high proportions of irrigation waters. Three end-member flows were identified in La Violada Gully during the irrigation season: (a) irrigation water arising from tail-waters, leakages and spills from the irrigation canals, very low in salts; (b) groundwater originating from the non-irrigated upper reaches of La Violada Gully watershed, high in Cl - and Na +; and (c) VID drainage water, high in SO42- and Ca 2+. The overall VID drainage water quality was accurately assessed through a simplified sampling scheme of only four sampling points that produced low errors of 0.1 dS/m for EC and 0.1 mmol c/L for Cl -. The separation of La Violada Gully flow in these three components is essential for estimating the actual contribution of irrigation in VID to the salt and nitrogen loads in La Violada Gully.

  7. 78 FR 66354 - Warm Springs Irrigation District; Notice of Technical Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Warm Springs Irrigation District; Notice of Technical Meeting a. Project Name and Number: Warm Springs Dam Hydroelectric Project No. 13570 b. Date and Time of...

  8. 78 FR 58534 - Warm Springs Irrigation District; Notice of Technical Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Warm Springs Irrigation District; Notice of Technical Meeting a. Project Name and Number: Warm Springs Dam Hydroelectric Project No. 13570 b. Date and Time of Meeting:...

  9. SCADA OPERATOR TRAINING TOOL APPLIED TO THE CENTRAL ARIZONA IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE DISTRICT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many irrigation districts use Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) software to manage their canal systems. Whether homegrown or commercial, these programs require a significant amount of training for new operators. While some SCADA operators are hired with extensive field experience, o...

  10. 78 FR 42516 - Nevada Irrigation District; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Public Meetings Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2266-102; Project No. 2310-193; Project No. 14530-000; Project No. 14531-000] Nevada Irrigation District; Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Public...

  11. 77 FR 33212 - Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Availability of Navigability Report for the Tuolumne River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Turlock Irrigation District; Notice of Availability of Navigability Report for the Tuolumne River, Request for Comments, and Notice of Pending Jurisdictional Inquiry On June...

  12. 76 FR 74782 - City of Escondido Vista Irrigation District; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-01

    ... Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380 (Order No. 486, 52 FR 47897), the Office of Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission City of Escondido Vista Irrigation District; Notice of Availability...

  13. Success Stories: Data Collection And Ground Truth For The Portuguese Case Study (Caia Irrigation District)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdigão, A.; Oliveira, P.; Chinita, A.; Chinita, S.; Maia, J.; Nunes, J.

    2006-08-01

    A Field Campaign has been carried on the Caia Irrigation District area pilot zone, in order to obtain ground truth for EO calibration and for an improved Irrigation Advisory System, owing to supply a more reliable and quick information to the water board district and to the farmer. These ground truth observations included weekly data on crop phenology and vegetation fraction for Maize, Sugar Beet and Tomato. The aim of the operation was to provide maps based on GIS technology of crop phenological parameters, based on methods (models and algorithms) in order to derive them from EO (for each pixel) and to obtain DEMETER products (which may involve spatial aggregation or separation). Irrigation Advisory Services using Earth Observation Technologies are important management tools, owing to improve monitoring and water management, supplying farmers with important information concerning water use in order to be in accordance with the eco-compatibility principles

  14. Measurement of flows for two irrigation districts in the lower Colorado River basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplin, L.S.; Liscum, Fred; East, J.W.; Goldstein, L.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Lower Colorado River Authority sells and distributes water for irrigation of rice farms in two irrigation districts, the Lakeside district and the Gulf Coast district, in the lower Colorado River Basin of Texas. In 1993, the Lower Colorado River Authority implemented a water-measurement program to account for the water delivered to rice farms and to promote water conservation. During the rice-irrigation season (summer and fall) of 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey measured flows at 30 sites in the Lakeside district and 24 sites in the Gulf Coast district coincident with Lower Colorado River Authority measuring sites. In each district, the Survey made essentially simultaneous flow measurements with different types of meters twice a day once in the morning and once in the afternoon at each site on selected days for comparison with Lower Colorado River Authority measurements. One-hundred pairs of corresponding (same site, same date) Lower Colorado River Authority and U.S. Geological Survey measurements from the Lakeside district and 104 measurement pairs from the Gulf Coast district are compared statistically and graphically. For comparison, the measurement pairs are grouped by irrigation district and further subdivided by the time difference between corresponding measurements less than or equal to 1 hour or more than 1 hour. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests (to indicate whether two groups of paired observations are statistically different) on Lakeside district measurement pairs with 1 hour or less between measurements indicate that the Lower Colorado River Authority and U.S. Geological Survey measurements are not statistically different. The median absolute percent difference between the flow measurements is 5.9 percent; and 33 percent of the flow measurements differ by more than 10 percent. Similar statistical tests on Gulf Coast district measurement pairs with 1 hour or less between measurements indicate that the Lower Colorado River Authority and U.S. Geological

  15. An economic framework for valuing information in water scarce irrigation districts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaune, Alexander; Werner, Micha; Karimi, Poolad; de Fraiture, Charlotte

    2015-04-01

    Data and information plays a crucial role in quantifying the abundance of the available water resource and the demand placed on it in water scarce regions, and is central to decision making. This is particularly so for water allocation decisions in large irrigation districts. However, in most irrigation schemes data collection is normally limited due to the economic investments required. As a result, water allocation decisions are normally taken based on incomplete or uncertain data on the current or forecast situation, leading to less optimal decisions being taken in system planning and operation. Wrong water allocation decisions can lead to economic loss in agricultural production, implying low performance of the system and possible impact on the users' livelihoods. The objective of this research is to assess available frameworks in valuing information and to adapt these to support water allocation decisions in irrigation districts. Water allocation decisions made in the planning of irrigation districts as well as in their operation will be evaluated through a decision framework that considers a discrete set of options, each generating different agricultural production loss scenarios relative to uncertain water scarcity conditions. Additional information obtained from improved data can support better decision making and thus constitutes added value. This added value can be interpreted as the marginal benefit of the improved data. The marginal benefit of information will be determined following an economic framework based on the Relative Economic Value theory that is applied in making decisions in a Bayesian setting. Through this framework it is expected to provide economic values of information in support of water allocation decisions in vulnerable irrigation districts. This is an essential step to provide insight on the value of information in water allocation decisions in planning and operation, and ultimately to reduce agricultural production loss.

  16. Socio-economic impacts of irrigated agriculture in Mbarali District of south west Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwakalila, Shadrack

    Irrigation has been found to be central in curbing food scarcity not only in Tanzania but also in many other developing countries. It has been proved that continued reliability on rainfall in agriculture cannot sustain the increase in population. This study examines the impacts of smallholder irrigated agriculture in improving social and economic benefits in Igurusi Ward of Mbarali District which is located in the southern-western part of Tanzania. The study applies the Participatory Rural Appraisal Framework for data collection. The study was confined to five villages in Igurusi ward which are Majenje, Igurusi, Chamoto, Uhambule and Mahango. The study examined critically paddy production for smallholder farmers that practice irrigation and those who cultivates rain-fed paddy. The study examined both existing traditional and modern irrigation systems. It was found that, most of the respondents (79%) practice irrigated agriculture in paddy production while the remaining 21% practice rain-fed agriculture. Forty percent of households that practice irrigated agriculture harvest paddy two seasons per year. The return to labour in paddy production for smallholder farmers who irrigate their paddy fields is about US 2.5/manday which is above the poverty line of US 1.0/day. The smallest return to labour (US $ 0.85/manday) is obtained by an average smallholder farmer who cultivates rain-fed paddy using hand hoe and family labour. The potential implication of the current irrigation systems is that if irrigation is managed properly it may lead to sustainable increases in small farmer’s productivity and income, thus alleviating rural poverty.

  17. 77 FR 13591 - Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Extension of Time for Filing of Motions To Intervene and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Extension of Time for Filing of Motions To Intervene and Protests, Comments, Recommendations, Preliminary Terms and...

  18. Hydrochemical assessment of groundwater used for irrigation in Rumphi and Karonga districts, Northern Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Gulula, Lewis C.; Phiri, Ambrose

    Irrigation water quality is an essential component of sustainable agriculture. Irrigation water quality concerns have often been neglected over concerns of quantity in most irrigation projects in Malawi. In this study, a hydrochemical assessment of groundwater was carried out to characterize, classify groundwater and evaluate its suitability for irrigation use in Karonga and Rumphi districts, Northern Malawi. Groundwater samples were collected during wet (January-April 2011) and dry (July-September 2011) seasons from 107 shallow wells and boreholes drilled for rural water supply using standard sampling procedures. The water samples were analysed for pH, major ions, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity (EC), using standard methods. Multivariate chemometric (such as Kruskal Wallis test), hydrographical methods (i.e. Piper diagram) and PHREEQC geochemical modelling program were used to characterise the groundwater quality. Electrical conductivity, percentage sodium ion (% Na+), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), Kelly’s ratio (KR) and permeability index (PI) were used to evaluate the suitability of water for irrigation. It was established that groundwater is neutral to alkaline and mostly freshwater (TDS < 1000 mg/l) of Ca-HCO3- type. Groundwater is of low mineralisation which did not show statistically significant variations with respect to depth of shallow wells and boreholes, location and seasonality at 5% significance level. Groundwater from Karonga District was largely oversaturated with respect to both calcite and dolomite, where as that from Rumphi District was undersaturated with respect to both calcite and dolomite. However, the calculated PCO2 values suggested that the groundwater system was open to soil CO2 and that there was possibility of degassing of CO2 during flow, which could increase the pH and subsequently result in the oversaturation of calcite in both districts. Groundwater

  19. Assessment of Groundwater Quality for Irrigation in Coimbatore South Taluk, Coimbatore District, Tamil Nadu.

    PubMed

    Murali, K; Kumar, R D Swasthik; Elangovan, R

    2014-07-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of ground water for irrigation purpose at twenty seven locations in Coimbatore South Taluk, Coimbatore District. The analytical result shows that Na and Cl are the dominant cation and anions respectively in the groundwater. The values of TDS and EC exceed the permissible limits at some locations due to increase in ionic concentrations. Based on SAR, RSC, US Salinity diagram and Wilcox diagram it is observed that the water ranges from excellent to good quality in most of the places and can be used for irrigation without any hazard. Gibbs variation diagram indicates that lithology is main controlling factor for water chemistry. However, the high SAR and RSC values at few locations restrict suitability for irrigation purpose. PMID:26563079

  20. Trematode infections in cattle in Arumeru District, Tanzania are associated with irrigation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between the environment and infection of cattle with trematodes was studied at Arumeru District, Arusha Region, northern Tanzania. Randomly selected villages were grouped into three cattle management strata, (i) zero-grazing (ZZ) (ii) communal grazing without irrigation (ZC) and (iii) communal grazing with irrigation (ZCI). Methods Faecal samples were collected from 241 cattle, and processed using the Flukefinder® method. Snail intermediate hosts were collected with a snail scoop from the water bodies in the study villages and identified morphologically. Results The overall prevalence of F. gigantica, paramphistomes and S. bovis were 33%, 37% and 2% respectively. Prevalence for F. gigantica, paramphistomes, and S. bovis for each stratum were, zero-grazing (ZZ) (29.7%, 36.0% and 0%), communal grazing without irrigation (ZC) (6.3%, 15.0% and 3.8%) and communal grazing with irrigation (ZCI) (57.7%, 56.7% and 1.0%) respectively. The differences between strata were significant for F. gigantica (p < 0.001) and paramphistomes (p < 0.05) but not for S. bovis. Irrigation could account for the high prevalence of F. gigantica and paramphistomes in the ZCI stratum as compared to the ZZ and ZC strata. The higher prevalences of F. gigantica and paramphistomes in the ZZ stratum compared with the ZC stratum were unexpected and attributed to the practice of farmers in some ZZ stratum villages buying fodder for their cattle obtained from pastures in ZCI villages. Conclusion Trematode infections in cattle are prevalent in Arumeru District. Fasciola gigantica and paramphistomes are associated with grazing in areas with irrigation of crops. Zero-grazing of cattle does not necessarily prevent the risk of infection. PMID:24650420

  1. Water balance in irrigation districts. Uncertainty in on-demand pressurized networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Calvo, Raúl; Rodríguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Juana, Luis; Laguna, Francisco Vicente

    2015-04-01

    In on-demand pressurized irrigation distribution networks, applied water volume is usually controlled opening a valve during a calculated time interval, and assuming constant flow rate. In general, pressure regulating devices for controlling the discharged flow rate by irrigation units are needed due to the variability of pressure conditions. A pressure regulating valve PRV is the commonly used pressure regulating device in a hydrant, which, also, executes the open and close function. A hydrant feeds several irrigation units, requiring a wide range in flow rate. In addition, some flow meters are also available, one as a component of the hydrant and the rest are placed downstream. Every land owner has one flow meter for each group of field plots downstream the hydrant. Ideal PRV performance would maintain a constant downstream pressure. However, the true performance depends on both upstream pressure and the discharged flow rate. Theoretical flow rates values have been introduced into a PRV behavioral model, validated in laboratory, coupled with an on-demand irrigation district waterworks, composed by a distribution network and a multi-pump station. Variations on flow rate are simulated by taking into account the consequences of variations on climate conditions and also decisions in irrigation operation, such us duration and frequency application. The model comprises continuity, dynamic and energy equations of the components of both the PRV and the water distribution network. In this work the estimation of water balance terms during the irrigation events in an irrigation campaign has been simulated. The effect of demand concentration peaks has been estimated.

  2. Land use dynamics and landscape change pattern in Hetao irrigation district, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinhui; Luo, Yi; Zhao, Wenwu

    2010-11-01

    This study analyzed spatial and temporal changes in land use in an irrigation district covering an area of 1.7 million ha in Northern China by GIS analyses and also investigated changes in landscape pattern using the landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS over the study period from 1986 to 2000. The decreases in farmland and the increases in grassland area mainly resulted from the policy of grain for green and converting slope farmland into pasture from China government. In spite of the efforts to conserve the fragile ecosystem, the land degradation, including soil salinization and grassland degradation, was spreading rapidly. The area of alkali-saline land increased by 22493 ha and about 50555 ha of dense grassland degraded into mid-density grassland. In terms of landscape fragmentation, both farmland and dense grassland showed the tendency of increased fragmentation. Both adverse natural conditions and human activities are responsible for the land degradation expansion in Hetao irrigation district, but the root causes are increasing population pressure and irrational human activities, such as flooding irrigation method and over-grazing. To prevent land degradation from spreading, population control and improvement of the management are prerequisite approaches.

  3. Land use dynamics and landscape change pattern in Hetao irrigation district, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yinhui; Luo, Yi; Zhao, Wenwu

    2009-09-01

    This study analyzed spatial and temporal changes in land use in an irrigation district covering an area of 1.7 million ha in Northern China by GIS analyses and also investigated changes in landscape pattern using the landscape structure analysis program FRAGSTATS over the study period from 1986 to 2000. The decreases in farmland and the increases in grassland area mainly resulted from the policy of grain for green and converting slope farmland into pasture from China government. In spite of the efforts to conserve the fragile ecosystem, the land degradation, including soil salinization and grassland degradation, was spreading rapidly. The area of alkali-saline land increased by 22493 ha and about 50555 ha of dense grassland degraded into mid-density grassland. In terms of landscape fragmentation, both farmland and dense grassland showed the tendency of increased fragmentation. Both adverse natural conditions and human activities are responsible for the land degradation expansion in Hetao irrigation district, but the root causes are increasing population pressure and irrational human activities, such as flooding irrigation method and over-grazing. To prevent land degradation from spreading, population control and improvement of the management are prerequisite approaches.

  4. Effects of irrigation practices on water use in the groundwater management districts within the Kansas high plains, 1991-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    Data compiled for the High Plains region of Kansas that includes five Groundwater Management Districts (GMDs) were analyzed for trends in irrigation water use, acres irrigated, precipitation, irrigation system types, and irrigated crop types to determine the effects of irrigation practices on water use over time. For the study period 1991 through 2003, precipitation decreased significantly (with 95-percent confidence) in northwestern and west-central Kansas but not in the southwestern and south-central parts of the State. Irrigation water use had no statistically significant trend during this period. There was a good (R= -0.77) relation between average regional precipitation and total GMD irrigation water use. When irrigation water use was adjusted for this relation, there was a positive trend (90-percent confidence level) in the adjusted irrigation water use. Another adjustment to water use was made using the ratio of annual precipitation to 1991-2005 average precipitation, which resulted in a negative trend (95-percent confidence level) in irrigation water use. This demonstrated the contradictory nature of precipitation adjustments to water use, making their utility somewhat suspect. GMD 3 in southwestern Kansas used 63 percent of the total acre-feet of irrigation water within all the GMDs. When all GMDs are considered, the number of irrigated acres for flood and center pivot systems without drop nozzles decreased significantly during the study period. At the same time the number of drop nozzle irrigated acres increased significantly. The number of irrigated acres of water-intensive crops (corn, alfalfa, and soybeans) also increased significantly, whereas the number of less- or non-water-intensive crops (grain sorghum and wheat), and multiple crop type acres decreased. Drop nozzle irrigation systems used approximately 2 percent less water in a year-by-year comparison than center pivot systems and 8 to 11 percent less water than flood irrigation. The best

  5. Agricultural irrigated land-use inventory for the counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District in Florida, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.; Dixon, Joann F.; Berry, Darbi R.

    2016-01-01

    The irrigated acreage that was field verified in 2015 for the 13 counties in the Suwannee River Water Management District (113,134 acres) is about 6 percent higher than the estimated acreage published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (107,217 acres) for 2012; however, this 2012 value represents acreage for the entire portion of all 13 counties, not just the Suwannee River Water Management District portion. Differences between the 2015 field-verified acreage totals and those published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for 2012 may occur because (1) irrigated acreage for some specific crops increased or decreased substantially during the 3-year interval due to commodity prices or economic changes, (2) calculated field-verified irrigated acreage may be an overestimate because irrigation was assumed if an irrigation system was present and therefore the acreage was counted as irrigated, when in fact that may not have been the case as some farmers may not have used their irrigation systems during this growing period even if they had a crop in the field, or (3) the amount of irrigated acreages published by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for selected crops may be underestimated in some cases.

  6. Linking rainfall and irrigation to clinically reported malaria cases in some villages in Chikhwawa District, Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinga-Chirwa, Ruth; Ngongondo, Cosmo; Kalanda-Joshua, Miriam; Kazembe, Lawrence; Pemba, Dylo; Kululanga, Elina

    Irrigation is a major coping strategy in many areas experiencing unreliable rainfall distribution and pattern for rain fed agriculture. The benefits of irrigation may however be challenged by its potential to increase malaria incidences through creating breeding grounds for malaria vectors. This study compared malaria trends from archived malaria records in the rainy season and the dry season in Mbewe Extension Planning Area (EPA) in Chikhwawa District, Malawi. This is an area where irrigation has been intensified as a means of coping with floods and drought effects, which often result in crop destruction and failure. Data of monthly incidences of malaria from 2002 to 2009 from Ndakwera Health Centre in the area were used. Rainfall data for the area from 1971 to 2008 were also used. Mwanza River discharge from 1951 to 1992 was considered. Rainfall data were lagged to four months taking into consideration the breeding period of malaria vectors and the incubation period for malaria in human host. We assessed correlation between rainfall and malaria using data of 2004-2009, by fitting a generalised linear model to the data via an over-dispersed Poisson model. The highest malaria cases corresponded with the rain season. Malaria cases in the dry season, when irrigation is implemented, were low. The Pearson correlation coefficient for the monthly rainfall and discharge was not statistically significant at 0.34 ( p > 0.05). The results suggest that direct contribution of the rainfall to flooding in the area is minimal and the floods experienced are generated in the upstream areas. Further, the malaria pattern was mainly associated with the rain season flooding and not irrigation.

  7. Simulating Crop Evapotranspiration Response under Different Planting Scenarios by Modified SWAT Model in an Irrigation District, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Sufen; Xue, Han; Singh, Vijay P

    2015-01-01

    Modelling crop evapotranspiration (ET) response to different planting scenarios in an irrigation district plays a significant role in optimizing crop planting patterns, resolving agricultural water scarcity and facilitating the sustainable use of water resources. In this study, the SWAT model was improved by transforming the evapotranspiration module. Then, the improved model was applied in Qingyuan Irrigation District of northwest China as a case study. Land use, soil, meteorology, irrigation scheduling and crop coefficient were considered as input data, and the irrigation district was divided into subdivisions based on the DEM and local canal systems. On the basis of model calibration and verification, the improved model showed better simulation efficiency than did the original model. Therefore, the improved model was used to simulate the crop evapotranspiration response under different planting scenarios in the irrigation district. Results indicated that crop evapotranspiration decreased by 2.94% and 6.01% under the scenarios of reducing the planting proportion of spring wheat (scenario 1) and summer maize (scenario 2) by keeping the total cultivated area unchanged. However, the total net output values presented an opposite trend under different scenarios. The values decreased by 3.28% under scenario 1, while it increased by 7.79% under scenario 2, compared with the current situation. This study presents a novel method to estimate crop evapotranspiration response under different planting scenarios using the SWAT model, and makes recommendations for strategic agricultural water management planning for the rational utilization of water resources and development of local economy by studying the impact of planting scenario changes on crop evapotranspiration and output values in the irrigation district of northwest China. PMID:26439928

  8. Simulating Crop Evapotranspiration Response under Different Planting Scenarios by Modified SWAT Model in an Irrigation District, Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Sufen; Xue, Han; Singh, Vijay P.

    2015-01-01

    Modelling crop evapotranspiration (ET) response to different planting scenarios in an irrigation district plays a significant role in optimizing crop planting patterns, resolving agricultural water scarcity and facilitating the sustainable use of water resources. In this study, the SWAT model was improved by transforming the evapotranspiration module. Then, the improved model was applied in Qingyuan Irrigation District of northwest China as a case study. Land use, soil, meteorology, irrigation scheduling and crop coefficient were considered as input data, and the irrigation district was divided into subdivisions based on the DEM and local canal systems. On the basis of model calibration and verification, the improved model showed better simulation efficiency than did the original model. Therefore, the improved model was used to simulate the crop evapotranspiration response under different planting scenarios in the irrigation district. Results indicated that crop evapotranspiration decreased by 2.94% and 6.01% under the scenarios of reducing the planting proportion of spring wheat (scenario 1) and summer maize (scenario 2) by keeping the total cultivated area unchanged. However, the total net output values presented an opposite trend under different scenarios. The values decreased by 3.28% under scenario 1, while it increased by 7.79% under scenario 2, compared with the current situation. This study presents a novel method to estimate crop evapotranspiration response under different planting scenarios using the SWAT model, and makes recommendations for strategic agricultural water management planning for the rational utilization of water resources and development of local economy by studying the impact of planting scenario changes on crop evapotranspiration and output values in the irrigation district of northwest China. PMID:26439928

  9. District Readiness to Support School Turnaround: A Users' Guide to Inform the Work of State Education Agencies and Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Player, Daniel; Hambrick Hitt, Dallas; Robinson, William

    2014-01-01

    This guide provides state education agencies (SEAs) and districts (LEAs) with guidance about how to assess the district's readiness to support school turnaround initiatives. Often, school turnaround efforts focus only on the school's structure and leadership. Rarely do policymakers or practitioners think about school turnaround as a system-level…

  10. 78 FR 30915 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Availability of the Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Drum-Spaulding and Yuba-Bear...

  11. EVALUATION OF BASIN INFLOW CUTOFF CRITERION IN THE IRRIGATION DISTRICTS OF SOUTHWEST ARIZONA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low irrigation efficiencies persist in irrigated areas near Yuma, Arizona due to poorly designed irrigation systems, poor condition of existing systems, inaccurate delivery of flow rates, and inadequate criteria for determining irrigation cutoff. In farms where growers lack adequate control over the...

  12. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram, Palakkad District Kerala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish Kumar, V.; Amarender, B.; Dhakate, Ratnakar; Sankaran, S.; Raj Kumar, K.

    2014-06-01

    Groundwater samples were collected for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons based on the variation in the geomorphological, geological, and hydrogeological factors for assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in a shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram area, Palakkad district, Kerala. The samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters and major ion chemistry. Based on analytical results, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox plots were plotted and groundwater quality has been distinguished for drinking and irrigation use. Gibbs diagram shows that the samples are rock dominance and controlling the mechanism for groundwater chemistry in the study area, while Wilcox plot suggest that most of the samples are within the permissible limit of drinking and irrigation use. Further, the suitability of water for irrigation was determined by analyzing sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent (%Na), Kelly's ratio, residual sodium carbonate, soluble sodium percentage, permeability index, and water quality index. It has been concluded that, the water from the study area is good for drinking and irrigation use, apart few samples which are exceeding the limits due to anthropogenic activities and those samples were indisposed for irrigation.

  13. Assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram, Palakkad District Kerala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satish Kumar, V.; Amarender, B.; Dhakate, Ratnakar; Sankaran, S.; Raj Kumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater samples were collected for pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons based on the variation in the geomorphological, geological, and hydrogeological factors for assessment of groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation use in a shallow hard rock aquifer of Pudunagaram area, Palakkad district, Kerala. The samples were analyzed for various physico-chemical parameters and major ion chemistry. Based on analytical results, Gibbs diagram and Wilcox plots were plotted and groundwater quality has been distinguished for drinking and irrigation use. Gibbs diagram shows that the samples are rock dominance and controlling the mechanism for groundwater chemistry in the study area, while Wilcox plot suggest that most of the samples are within the permissible limit of drinking and irrigation use. Further, the suitability of water for irrigation was determined by analyzing sodium adsorption ratio, residual sodium carbonate, sodium percent (%Na), Kelly's ratio, residual sodium carbonate, soluble sodium percentage, permeability index, and water quality index. It has been concluded that, the water from the study area is good for drinking and irrigation use, apart few samples which are exceeding the limits due to anthropogenic activities and those samples were indisposed for irrigation.

  14. Water Demands with Two Adaptation Responses to Climate Change in a Mexican Irrigation District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojeda, W.; Iñiguez-Covarrubias, M.; Rojano, A.

    2012-12-01

    It is well documented that climate change is inevitable and that farmers need to adapt to changes in projected climate. Changes in water demands for a Mexican irrigation district were assessed using an irrigation scheduling model. The impact of two adaptations actions on water demands were estimated and compared with a baseline scenario. Wet and dry cropping plans were selected from the last 15 water years with actual climatology (1961-1990) taken as reference and three A1B climate change projection periods P1, P2 and P3 (2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2098). Projected precipitation and air temperature (medium, maximum and minimum) data were obtained through weighted averages of the best CGCM projections for Mexico, available at the IPCC data distribution center, using the Reliability Ensemble Averaging method (REA). Two adaptation farmers' responses were analyzed: use of longer season varieties and reduction of planting dates toward colder season as warming intensifies in the future. An annual accumulated ETo value of 1554 mm was estimated for the base period P0. Cumulative and Daily irrigations demands were generated for each agricultural season using the four climate projection series and considering adaptations actions. Figure 1 integrates in a unique net flow curve for the Fall-Winter season under selected adaptations actions. The simulation results indicated that for mid century (Period P2), the use of longer-season cultivars (AV) will have more pronounced effect in daily net flow based than the reduction of planting season (APS) as climate change intensifies during present century. Without adaptation (WA), the increase in temperature will shorten the growing season of all annual crops, generating a peak shift with respect to reference case (WA-P0). Combined adoptions of adaptation actions (AP+V) can generate higher, peak and cumulative, crop water requirements than actual values as Figure 1 shows. There are clear trends that without adaptations, water

  15. Kent Intermediate School District: From Invisible Agency to Power Player

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehler, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Michigan's intermediate school districts were created by constitutional convention in 1962. Between their inception and 2000, few units of government were less visible and less understood. This article chronicles the emergence of one intermediate school district as an aggressive force for change in education and a locus of activity for community…

  16. 78 FR 65302 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Evaluation of a District Wide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Evaluation of a District Wide Implementation... contributing to increased student achievement. The study will survey (online) a population of...

  17. 78 FR 77109 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Race to the Top-District Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Race to the Top--District Annual Performance... in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Race to the Top..., the Secretary announced the Race to the Top District program, which is designed to build on...

  18. Organochlorine insecticide residues are found in surface, irrigated water samples from several districts in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Alamgir Zaman; Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua; Alam, Md Khorshed

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of organochlorines such as aldrin, dieldrin, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), endrin, lindane and heptachlor insecticide residues in irrigated surface water samples collected from 22 districts in Bangladesh. The concentrations of the pesticides were determined using gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry. Water samples from five locations (Feni, Nawabganj, Putia, Burichang and Chatak) were contaminated with DDT; the highest DDT concentration detected was 8.29 μg/L, and its metabolite, DDE, was detected at 4.06 μg/L. Water samples from four other locations (Natore, Sikderpara, Chatak and Rajoir) were contaminated with heptachlor residues, and the highest level detected was 5.24 μg/L, which is the above the maximum contaminant level recommended by the World Health Organisation. A water sample collected from Chatak, Sunamganj, was contaminated with both DDT and heptachlor pesticide residues. None of the water samples were contaminated with aldrin, DDD, dieldrin, endrin or lindane. It is concluded that continuous, long-term monitoring and essential steps to limit the use of the pesticides in Bangladesh are needed. PMID:23212886

  19. 76 FR 33361 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Madera Irrigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... the release of the Draft EIS was published in the Federal Register on July 27, 2009 (74 FR 37051). The... Irrigation District Water Supply Enhancement Project located in Madera County, California AGENCY: Bureau of... prepared a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Madera Irrigation District Water...

  20. Ground-water availability in the Hayes-Red Willow, Frenchman, and Meeker-Driftwood irrigation districts, Southwest Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lappala, E.G.; Hemphill, P.F.; Booker, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are diminishing in the Hayes-Red Willow and Frenchman Irrigation Districts in soutwest Nebraska. Stream depletions due to ground-water withdrawals upstream from Enders Reservoir have resulted in a shortage of about 8,700 acre-feet per year. The availability of ground water in two surficial aquifers was examined as a possible supplemental supply. The most productive aquifer comprises alluvial deposits in the valleys of the Republican River and Frenchman Creek. The Ogallala Formation, which underlies the remainder of the area is a less productive aquifer except locally. Water levels have risen as much as 20 feet north of the Republican River and as much as 40 feet south of the river. Ground water inflow to the Republican River has increased about 3 percent. A digital model of the aquifer system was used to assess the potential for providing supplemental supplies from two well configurations and from existing irrigation wells. The first well configuration could sustain a maximum of 25 percent of the 1976 deficit with maximum stream depletions of 11 percent to Frenchman Creek and 60 percent to Blackwood Creek. The second well configuration could sustain 25 percent of the 1976 deficit with stream depeletions of less than 5 percent at the end of 19 years. Existing wells are adequate to irrigate district lands on which they are located for at least 19 years.

  1. Cumberland Valley School District's "High School Diploma Program for Adults." How This Program Can Be Modeled by Local School Districts and Educational Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Samuel C.

    Since 1976, the Cumberland Valley School District (Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania) has offered an external high school diploma program for adults that combines academic achievement with life skill competencies. In 1995-1996, the Cumberland Valley School District received funds to recruit three educational agencies/school districts willing to…

  2. Dilemmas Presented by State Agency Takeovers of Local School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steffy, Betty E.

    During the 1988-89 school year, two local school districts were placed into "Phase III" of the Kentucky Educational Improvement Act (1978), a category of state receivership in which much local decision-making power was transferred to Kentucky Department of Education officials. When state education department intervention occurs, major issues arise…

  3. Geospatial Techniques for Efficient Conservation and Management of Surface Water for Irrigation in Joganbedi Village, Khargone District, Madhya Pradesh, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A. M.; Chauhan, A. S.; Aggarwal, D.

    2014-11-01

    The study aimed at developing improved methods based on remote sensing and GIS techniques to increase cultivated area under irrigation. Landuse / landcover mapping was considered as the key component to prioritize locations for constructing appropriate recharge structures. Joganbedi scheme was proposed for this study. Joganbedi is situated 13 km. from Khargone, district Khargone, Madhya Pradesh, India. Command area of the proposed scheme lies in Beda sub-basin which is a tributary of the Narmada River. This area is of hard rock terrain and is occupied by the Deccan basalt. The main objective of the study was surface water conservation and management via multi-spectral information resulting from remotely sensed data to increase irrigation. High resolution GeoEye1 stereo images were used for generation of DEM, contour, landuse/landcover mapping, lineaments and drainage mapping. DEM was used for canal alignment. and further, contours were used to determine catchment, submergence /FRL, and command areas. Landuse/landcover statistics of submergence area helped to identify different land classes within the study area. These parameters are required for scheme planning. Additionally, rainfall data, maximum drawdown level, and dam height were collected as supporting parameters. The study concludes that landuse/landcover mapping is useful in identification of surface water conservation and management plan for irrigation purpose. It also proves that implementation of Joganbedi scheme will increase the cultivated area under irrigation, facilitate the farmers for multi season cropping and help in improving their economic condition.

  4. Evaluating the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes in some selected districts of the Upper West region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salifu, Musah; Aidoo, Felix; Hayford, Michael Saah; Adomako, Dickson; Asare, Enoch

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater is a very important asset to the people of the Upper West region of the Ghana where majority of them are farmers. Groundwater serves as the most reliable source of water for their domestic and agricultural activities. This study was aimed at assessing the suitability of groundwater for irrigational purposes in some selected communities of five districts where farming activities are very intensive. Twenty-three groundwater samples were collected and analysed for major anions and cations. Physicochemical parameters such as electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) were also measured. From the results of the analyses and measurements, the suitability of the groundwater for irrigation were evaluated based on the TDS, EC, percentage sodium (%Na), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), permeability index (PI), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), Kelly's ratio (KR) and chloro-alkaline Indices (CAI). US salinity laboratory diagram and Wilcox diagrams were also applied. The EC results show that the groundwater in the study area can be classified as none and slight to moderate. According to the US salinity diagram, groundwater in the study area falls within the low salinity-low sodium hazard and medium salinity-low sodium hazard class. The %Na and the resulting Wilcox diagram also classify the groundwater as excellent to good and good to permissible. The groundwater in the study area is generally good for irrigation purposes. However, there are few instances which are problematic and would require special irrigation methods.

  5. Evaluation of the groundwater quality feasibility zones for irrigational purposes through GIS in Omalur Taluk, Salem District, South India.

    PubMed

    Karunanidhi, D; Vennila, G; Suresh, M; Subramanian, S K

    2013-10-01

    The present work is employed in Omalur Taluk (study area 538.10 km(2)), Salem District, Tamil Nadu, India. Eighty-nine groundwater samples were collected during pre-monsoon (May) 2011 and were analyzed for major cations and anions. The irrigational parameters like; EC, Kelley's ratio, sodium absorption ratio (SAR) values, Mg(2+) hazards, HCO3 (-) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) have been worked out to know the suitability of the groundwater for irrigational purpose. Wilcox diagram indicates that out of 89 samples, 39 samples belong to good permissible category and Doneen diagram revealed that 98.88 % of the groundwater samples fall in Class I. The plotting of SAR values in USSL diagram indicates that all the samples have low SAR value. Out of 89 samples, 44 samples were in C3-S1 field. This implies that no alkali hazard is anticipated to the crops. In 44 locations (49.44 %), samples fall within C3-S1 category. This category is suitable for irrigation purpose. However, the concentration of bicarbonate was in significant amount showing 82 % of sites under "increasing problem" and the 4 % sites under "Severe Problem" zones. Finally, the above-said results are taken into a Geographic Information System (GIS) platform. To understand the spatial distribution of unsuitable zones, ArcGIS was employed. The present work reveals that groundwater in the Omalur Taluk is of good quality and is suitable for all uses including interbrain water transfer in the region. PMID:23636597

  6. Estimating irrigation demand using satellite remote sensing: a case study of Paphos District area in Cyprus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Papadavid, Giorgos; Themistokleous, Kyriacos; Kounoudes, Anastasis; Toulios, Leonidas

    2008-10-01

    The monitoring of agricultural areas in Cyprus provides important data for efficient water supply plans and for avoiding unnecessary water lost due to inefficient irrigation. In this context, satellite remote sensing techniques may be useful as an efficient tool for monitoring agricultural areas. The objective of this study is to present the overall methodology for monitoring agricultural areas and estimating the irrigation demand in Cyprus using satellite remote sensing, irrigation models and other auxiliary data. Field spectro-radiometric measurements using SVC-HR 1024 and GER 1500 were undertaken to determine the spectral signature of different types of crops so as to assist our classification techniques. Final crop maps using Landsat TM and ETM+ can be produced and the optimal amount of irrigation demand required for certain types of crops can be determined in order to avoid any non-effective water management. This paper presents the overall methodology of the proposed research study designed to enable the implementation of an integrated approach by combining satellite remote sensing, irrigation models, micro-sensor technology and in-situ spectroradiometric measurements to determine the irrigation demand and finally to validate our results.

  7. Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate irrigation system performance in Sirsa district, India II: Impact of viable water management scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Jhorar, R. K.; van Dam, J. C.; Feddes, R. A.

    2006-10-01

    SummaryThis study focuses on the identification of appropriate strategies to improve water management and productivity in an irrigated area of 4270 km 2 in India (Sirsa district). The field scale ecohydrological model SWAP in combination with field experiments, remote sensing and GIS has been applied in a distributed manner generating the required hydrological and biophysical variables to evaluate alternative water management scenarios at different spatial and temporal scales. Simulation results for the period 1991-2001 show that the water and salt limited crop production is 1.2-2.0 times higher than the actual recorded crop production. Improved crop husbandry in terms of improved crop varieties, timely sowing, better nutrient supply and more effective weed, pest and disease control, will increase crop yields and water productivity in Sirsa district. The scenario results further showed that reduction of seepage losses to 25-30% of the total canal inflow and reallocation of 15% canal water inflow from the northern to the central canal commands will improve significantly the long term water productivity, halt the rising and declining groundwater levels, and decrease the salinization in Sirsa district.

  8. Plan for Progress in the Media Center; District and AEA. Guidelines for the Establishment of Flexible Parameters for District and Area Education Agency Media Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Public Instruction, Des Moines. Educational Media Section.

    To support school media centers and services in Iowa, guidelines for the development of district and Area Education Agency (AEA) media programs are proposed. The complementary roles and functional responsibilities of the school districts, the regional AEA's, the State Department of Public Instruction Media Program, and higher education in Iowa are…

  9. Assessing the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids to climate change in an irrigated district of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Eugenia; Bonfante, Antonello; De Mascellis, Roberto; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Menenti, Massimo; De Lorenzi, Francesca

    2013-04-01

    Climate change will cause significant changes in water distribution and availability; as a consequence the water resources in some areas (like Mediterranean regions) will be limiting factors to the cultivation of some species, included cereals. So the perspective of climate change requires an analysis of the adaptation possibilities of food and fiber species currently cultivated. A powerful tool for adaptation is the relevant intra-specific biodiversity of crops. The knowledge, for different crop cultivars, of the responses to different environmental conditions (e.g. yield response functions to water regime) can be a tool to identify adaptation options to future climate. Moreover, simulation models of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system can be coupled with future climate scenarios to predict the soil water regime also accounting for different irrigation scheduling options. In this work the adaptive capacity of maize hybrids (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in an irrigated district of Southern Italy (the "Destra Sele" plain, an area of about 18.000 ha), where maize is extensively grown for water buffalo feeding. Horticultural crops (tomato, fennel, artichoke) are grown, as well. The methodology applied is based on two complementary elements: - a database on climatic requirements of 30 maize hybrids: the yield response functions to water availability were determined from experimental data derived both from scientific literature and from field trials carried out by ISAFOM-CNR. These functions were applied to describe the behaviour of the hybrids with respect to the relative evapotranspiration deficit; - the simulation performed by the agro-hydrological model SWAP (soil-water-plant and atmosphere), to determine the future soil water regime at landscape scale. Two climate scenarios were studied: "past" (1961-1990) and "future" (2021-2050). Future climate scenarios were generated within the Italian National Project AGROSCENARI. Climate scenarios at low spatial

  10. Risk screening for exposure to groundwater pollution in a wastewater irrigation district of the Mexico City region.

    PubMed Central

    Downs, T J; Cifuentes-García, E; Suffet, I M

    1999-01-01

    Untreated wastewater from the Mexico City basin has been used for decades to irrigate cropland in the Mezquital Valley, State of Hidalgo, Mexico. Excess irrigation water recharges the near-surface aquifer that is used as a domestic water supply source. We assessed the groundwater quality of three key groundwater sources of domestic water by analyzing for 24 trace metals, 67 target base/neutral/acid (BNA) organic compounds, nontarget BNA organics, 23 chlorinated pesticides, 20 polychlorinated biphenyls, and nitrate, as well as microbiological contaminants--coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, and Salmonella. Study participants answered a questionnaire that estimated ingestion and dermal exposure to groundwater; 10% of the sample reported frequent diarrhea and 9% reported persistent skin irritations. Detection of V. cholerae non-01 in surface waters at all sites suggested a potential risk (surrogate indicator present) of diarrheal disease for canal and river bathers by accidental ingestion, as well as potential Vibrio contamination of near-surface groundwater and potential cholera risk, magnified by lapses in disinfection. High total coliform levels in surface water and lower levels in groundwater at all sites indicated fecal contamination and a potential risk of gastrointestinal disease in populations exposed to inadequately disinfected groundwater. Using chemical criteria, no significant risk from ingestion or dermal contact was identified at the method detection limits at any site, except from nitrate exposure: infants and young children are at risk from methemoglobinemia at all sites. Results suggest that pathogen risk interventions are a priority, whereas nitrate risk needs further characterization to determine if formal treatment is needed. The risks exist inside and outside the irrigation district. The method was highly cost-effective. Images Figure 1 PMID:10398590

  11. Reconnaissance on the suitability of the available water resources for irrigation in Thakurgaon District of northwestern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad Amir Hossain; Ganyaglo, Samuel; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2015-09-01

    Reconnaissance on the suitability of the available groundwater resources for irrigation in Thakurgaon District of northwestern Bangladesh was done by determining pH, TDS, EC, hardness, alkalinity, major cations and anions. The pH values suggest that the water is slightly acidic to strongly basic. The dominant cation and anion in the study area are Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3 -, respectively. Calcium bicarbonate, calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate and calcium carbonate are the dominant hydrochemical facies among the water samples. The groundwater system in the study area may be recharged through infiltration of rain. The above statement is further supported by Gibbs plot where most of the samples fall within the rock-dominance zone. The evolution of these waters may be controlled by precipitation and dissolution of carbonate minerals. The USSL, SAR-EC classification schemes and Wilcox plot confirm that the groundwater samples are good to excellent as irrigation water. However, the groundwater evolution in this study is mainly the result of weathering of carbonate minerals and cation exchange within the aquifer materials, confirming the shallow porous groundwater hydrochemistry characteristics.

  12. Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation: a case study from Bandalamottu lead mining area, Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraju, A.; Sunil Kumar, K.; Thejaswi, A.

    2014-12-01

    Quality of water resources in the Bandalamottu area of Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh in South India is facing a serious challenge due to Pb mining. Therefore, 40 groundwater samples were collected from this area to assess their hydrogeochemistry and suitability for irrigation purposes. The groundwater samples were analyzed for distribution of chemical elements Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, HCO3 -, CO3 2-, F-, Cl-, and SO4 2-. It also includes pH, electrical conductivity, total hardness, non-carbonate hardness and total alkalinity. The parameters, such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), adjusted SAR, sodium percentage, potential salinity, residual sodium carbonate, non-carbonate hardness, Kelly's ratio, magnesium ratio, permeability index, indices of base exchange (IBE) and Gibbs ratio were also calculated. The major hydrochemical facieses were Ca-HCO3, Ca-Na-HCO3 and Ca-Mg-Cl types. The result of saturation index calculated by Visual MINTEQ software combined with Gibbs diagram and IBE findings indicate that, dolomite and calcite dissolution and reverse ion exchange can be a major process controlling the water chemistry in the study area. The results also showed that the salinity (85 %, C3 class) and alkalinity due to high concentration of HCO3 - and CO3 - and low Ca:Mg molar ratio (97.5 %, <1), are the major problems with water for irrigation usage. As a result, the quality of the groundwater is not suitable for sustainable crop production and soil health without appropriate remediation.

  13. Groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational use in the Southern Tiruchirappalli district, Tamil Nadu, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvakumar, S.; Ramkumar, K.; Chandrasekar, N.; Magesh, N. S.; Kaliraj, S.

    2014-12-01

    A total of 20 groundwater samples were collected from both dug and bore wells of southern Tiruchirappalli district and analyzed for various hydrogeochemical parameters. The analyzed physicochemical parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and fluoride are used to characterize the groundwater quality and its suitability for drinking and irrigational uses. The results of the chemical analysis indicates that the groundwater in the study area is slightly alkaline and mainly contains Na+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ cations as well as HCO3 2-, Cl-, SO4 2-and NO3 - anions. The total dissolved solids mainly depend on the concentration of major ions such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, HCO3, Cl, and SO4. Based on TDS, 55 % of the samples are suitable for drinking and rest of the samples are unsuitable for drinking. The total hardness indicates that majority of the groundwater samples are found within the permissible limit of WHO. The dominant hydrochemical facies for groundwater are Ca-Mg-Cl, Ca-HCO3, and Ca-Cl type. The USSL graphical geochemical representation of groundwater quality suggests that majority of the water samples belongs to high medium salinity with low alkali hazards. The Gibb's plot indicates that the groundwater chemistry of the study area is mainly controlled by evaporation and rock-water interaction. Spearman's correlation and factor analysis were used to distinguish the statistical relation between different ions and contamination source in the study area.

  14. Evaluation of crop production, trade, and consumption from the perspective of water resources: a case study of the Hetao irrigation district, China, for 1960-2010.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Sun, Shikun; Wu, Pute; Wang, Yubao; Zhao, Xining

    2015-02-01

    The integration of water footprints and virtual water flows allows the mapping of the links between production, trade, and consumption and could potentially help to alleviate water scarcity and improve water management. We evaluated the water footprints and virtual water flows of crop production, consumption, and trade and their influencing factors in the Hetao irrigation district in China for 1960-2010. The water footprint of crop production and the export of virtual water fluctuated but tended to increase during this period and were influenced mainly by agricultural factors such as crop yield, irrigation efficiency, and area sown. The water footprint of crop consumption and the import of virtual water increased during 1960-1979 and decreased during 1980-2010 and were influenced by socio-economic factors such as total population, the retail-price index, and the proportion of the population in urban areas. Most of the water footprint of production was exported to other areas, which added to the pressure on local water systems. The import of virtual water led to a saving of water for the Hetao irrigation district, while its share of the water footprint of consumption has decreased significantly since 1977. An increase in irrigation efficiency can alleviate water scarcity, and its application should be coupled with measures that constrain the continued expansion of agriculture. Full-cost pricing of irrigation water was an effective policy tool for its management. Re-shaping regional water-production and water-trade nexuses by changing crop structures could provide alternative opportunities for addressing the problems of local water scarcity, but the trade-offs involved should first be assessed. PMID:25461115

  15. Case studies of the legal and institutional obstacles and incentives to the development of small-scale hydroelectric power: South Columbia Basin Irrigation District, Pasco, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, L.

    1980-05-01

    The case study concerns two modern human uses of the Columbia River - irrigation aimed at agricultural land reclamation and hydroelectric power. The Grand Coulee Dam has become synonomous with large-scale generation of hydroelectric power providing the Pacific Northwest with some of the least-expensive electricity in the United States. The Columbia Basin Project has created a half-million acres of farmland in Washington out of a spectacular and vast desert. The South Columbia River Basin Irrigation District is seeking to harness the energy present in the water which already runs through its canals, drains, and wasteways. The South District's development strategy is aimed toward reducing the costs its farmers pay for irrigation and raising the capital required to serve the remaining 550,000 acres originally planned as part of the Columbia Basin Project. The economic, institutional, and regulatory problems of harnessing the energy at site PEC 22.7, one of six sites proposed for development, are examined in this case study.

  16. Water balance and flow rate discharge on a receiving water body: Application to the B-XII Irrigation District in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Maria C.; Tornos, Lucia; Juana, Luis

    2015-08-01

    The quantification of the main water balance components becomes necessary to diminish the pollutants load from drainage, and its harmful effect on the environment, aggravated within a context of increasing water scarcity. As a first approach to the hydrological study of the 15,000 ha B-XII Irrigation District in Spain, a conceptual lumped model entitled WATEN has been developed, aiming to calculate the monthly flow rate discharge to the Guadalquivir River over the period 2002-2012. The model requires as inputs, irrigation, precipitation and potential crop evapotranspiration. Main model parameters are the total and readily available moisture in the soil, the effective rainfall and the irrigation efficiency. Energy consumption for drainage discharge was used for calibration. Both classical optimization and a robust approach based on Monte Carlo were performed. In order to diminish computational requirements, Monte Carlo was not haphazardly applied, but conducted on a similar manner to genetic algorithms, entitled Parameters Estimation on Driven Trials (PEDT). The model attained an average Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient e2 ≅ 0.90 between observed and estimated drainage discharge. It was detected a significant crop evapotranspiration reduction compared to potential values. The volume of water discharged to the river might be sufficient for leaching irrigation water salts.

  17. Real-time implementation of model predictive control on Maricopa-Stanfield irrigation and drainage district's WM canal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water resources are limited in many agricultural areas. One method to improve the effective use of water is to improve delivery service from irrigation canals. This can be done by applying automatic control methods that control the gates in an irrigation canal. The model predictive control MPC is ...

  18. Irrigation management transfer in Mexico: Process and progress. World Bank technical paper

    SciTech Connect

    Gorriz, C.M.; Subramanian, A.; Simas, J.

    1995-12-31

    Considerable literature is available on irrigation management transfer from government agencies to Water User Organizations (WUOs) worldwide. Since 1989, the Mexican government has implemented a radical program of reconstructing the irrigation sector. An important element of this program has been the transfer of irrigation district management to WUOs. However, there is inadequate documentation of the transfer process in English. This paper is an initial effort to fill the gap. Elements of irrigation management transfer in Mexico presented in this paper include the status of the program, the legal and institutional frameworks, the financial arrangements, and the training and communication programs. This paper is not intended as an evaluation of the program.

  19. Hydrochemistry and evaluation of groundwater suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes in the Markandeya River basin, Belgaum District, Karnataka State, India.

    PubMed

    Ravikumar, P; Somashekar, R K; Angami, Mhasizonuo

    2011-02-01

    Markandeya River basin stretches geographically from 15°56' to 16°08' N latitude and 74°37' to 74°58' E longitude, positioned in the midst of Belgaum district, in the northern part of Karnataka. Since the quantity and quality of water available for irrigation in India is variable from place to place, groundwater quality in the Markandeya River basin was evaluated for its suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes by collecting 47 open and bore-well samples during the post-monsoon period of 2008. The quality assessment was made by estimating pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardness, and alkalinity besides major cations (Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+) and anions (HCO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-), PO4(3-), F-, and NO3-). Based on these analyses, irrigation quality parameters like, sodium absorption ratio, %Na, residual sodium carbonate, residual sodium bicarbonate, chlorinity index, soluble sodium percentage, non-carbonate hardness, potential salinity, permeability index, Kelley's ratio, magnesium hazard/ratio, index of base exchange, and exchangeable sodium ratio were calculated. According to Gibbs' ratio, majority of water samples fall in the rock dominance field. The groundwater samples were categorized as normal chloride (95.75%), normal sulfate (95.75%), and normal bicarbonate (61.70%) water types based on Cl, SO4, and HCO3 concentrations. Based on the permeability index, majority of the samples belongs to classes 1 and 2, suggesting the suitability of groundwater for irrigation. The negative index of base exchange indicates the existence of chloro-alkaline disequilibrium (indirect base exchange reaction) existing in majority of the samples (68.08%) from the study area. PMID:20237840

  20. Final Report: Baseline Selenium Monitoring of Agricultural Drains Operated by the Imperial Irrigation District in the Salton Sea Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes comprehensive findings from a 4-year-long field investigation to document baseline environmental conditions in 29 agricultural drains and ponds operated by the Imperial Irrigation District along the southern border of the Salton Sea. Routine water-quality collections and fish community assessments were conducted on as many as 16 sampling dates at roughly quarterly intervals from July 2005 to April 2009. The water-quality measurements included total suspended solids and total (particulate plus dissolved) selenium. With one exception, fish were surveyed with baited minnow traps at quarterly intervals during the same time period. However, in July 2007, fish surveys were not conducted because we lacked permission from the California Department of Fish and Game for incidental take of desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), an endangered species. During April and October 2006-08, water samples also were collected from seven intensively monitored drains (which were selected from the 29 total drains) for measurement of particulate and dissolved selenium, including inorganic and organic fractions. In addition, sediment, aquatic food chain matrices [particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge (chironomid) larvae], and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis; and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna) were sampled from the seven drains for measurement of total selenium concentrations. The mosquitofish and mollies were intended to serve as surrogates for pupfish, which we were not permitted to sacrifice for selenium determinations. Water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and turbidity) values were typical of surface waters in a hot, arid climate. A few drains exhibited brackish, near-anoxic conditions, especially during summer and fall when water temperatures occasionally exceeded 30 degrees Celsius. Total selenium concentrations in water were directly correlated with salinity and

  1. Landsat sattelite multi-spectral image classification of land cover and land use changes for GIS-based urbanization analysis in irrigation districts of lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lower Rio Grande Valley in the south of Texas is experiencing rapid increase of population to bring up urban growth that continues influencing on the irrigation districts in the region. This study evaluated the Landsat satellite multi-spectral imagery to provide information for GIS-based urbaniz...

  2. Decision Support Systems To Manage Water Resources At Irrigation District Level In Southern Italy Using Remote Sensing Information. An Integrated Project (AQUATER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinaldi, M.; Castrignanò, A.; Mastrorilli, M.; Rana, G.; Ventrella, D.; Acutis, M.; D'Urso, G.; Mattia, F.

    2006-08-01

    An efficient management of water resources is crucial point for Italy and in particular for southern areas characterized by Mediterranean climate in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. A three-year Project (2005-2008) has been funded by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Policies; it involves four Italian research institutions: the Agricultural Research Council (ISA, Bari), the National Research Council (ISSIA, Bari) and two Universities (Federico II-Naples and Milan). It is focused on the remote sensing, the plant and the climate and, for interdisciplinary relationships, the project working group consists of agronomists, engineers and physicists. The aims of the Project are: a) to produce a Decision Support System (DSS) combining remote sensing information, spatial data and simulation models to manage water resources in irrigation districts; b) to simulate irrigation scenarios to evaluate the effects of water stress on crop yield using agro-ecological indicators; c) to identify the most sensitive areas to drought risk in Southern Italy. The tools used in this Project will be: 1. Remote sensing images, topographic maps, soil and land use maps; 2. Geographic Information Systems; 3. Geostatistic methodologies; 4. Ground truth measurements (land use, canopy and soil temperatures, soil and plant water status, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Crop Water Stress Index, Leaf Area Index, actual evapotranspiration, crop coefficients, crop yield, agro-ecological indicators); 5. Crop simulation models. The Project is structured in four work packages with specific objectives, high degree of interaction and information exchange: 1) Remote Sensing and Image Analysis; 2) Cropping Systems; 3) Modelling and Softwares Development; 4) Stakeholders. The final product will be a DSS with the purpose of integrating remote sensing images, to estimate crop and soil variables related to drought, to assimilate

  3. [Community participation in health agencies in an urban health district of Bukavu (Democratic Republic of the Congo)].

    PubMed

    Munyanshongore, Cyprien; Milabyo Kyamusugulwa, Patrick; Witumbula Katambwe, Vincent

    2005-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the level of community participation in health agencies in the Bukavu urban health district, an alternative approach to assessing primary health care that can be especially useful in combating poverty. Accordingly we conducted a transversal survey of a population including 113 members of 12 functional health committees and the chief of the Bukavu Urban Health District, a physician. Subjects were most often 35 to 65 years of age, male, salaried employees, married, and Roman Catholic, and had not completed secondary school. Means were compared with Anova (analysis of variance). The level of participation by these health committee members is poor (29.0%), and very similar regardless of the health sector: Bagira (26.5%), Ibanda (25.9%), and Kadutu (32.6%). Relevant factors include the weak commitment of district health authorities, the poor participation by committee members in performing their roles, and their low level of motivation to participate. The results showed no significant difference between the three health sectors in the motivating power of roles and attributions. The authors recommend that health district authorities commit themselves to the selection, training and supervision of health committees. PMID:16478702

  4. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant County not..., plus the area of Adams County not included in either of the South or Quincy Irrigation Districts. (b) District No. 2—The counties of Kittitas, Douglas, Chelan, and Okanogan, plus the Quincy Irrigation...

  5. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant County not..., plus the area of Adams County not included in either of the South or Quincy Irrigation Districts. (b) District No. 2—The counties of Kittitas, Douglas, Chelan, and Okanogan, plus the Quincy Irrigation...

  6. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant County not..., plus the area of Adams County not included in either of the South or Quincy Irrigation Districts. (b) District No. 2—The counties of Kittitas, Douglas, Chelan, and Okanogan, plus the Quincy Irrigation...

  7. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant County not..., plus the area of Adams County not included in either of the South or Quincy Irrigation Districts. (b) District No. 2—The counties of Kittitas, Douglas, Chelan, and Okanogan, plus the Quincy Irrigation...

  8. How Eight State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Identify and Support Low-Performing Schools and Districts. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 068

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergert, Leslie F.; Gleason, Sonia Caus; Urbano, Carole

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the report, "How Eight State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Identify and Support Low-Performing Schools and Districts." This larger report describes and analyzes how eight state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New…

  9. Changing District Priorities for School-Business Collaboration: Superintendent Agency and Capacity for Institutionalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Jeffrey V.; Thompson, Hugh C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: School district superintendents continue to favor collaborative relationships with their local business communities amid concerns over free-market competition, maintaining public legitimacy, and scarce financial resources. Prior research is inadequate regarding the development, implementation, and institutionalization of school and…

  10. Assessment of crop growth and soil water modules in SWAT2000 using extensive field experiment data in an irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yi; He, Chansheng; Sophocleous, Marios; Yin, Zhifang; Hongrui, Ren; Ouyang, Zhu

    2008-04-01

    SummarySWAT, a physically-based, hydrological model simulates crop growth, soil water and groundwater movement, and transport of sediment and nutrients at both the process and watershed scales. While the different versions of SWAT have been widely used throughout the world for agricultural and water resources applications, little has been done to test the performance, variability, and transferability of the parameters in the crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in an integrated way with multiple sets of field experimental data at the process scale. Using an multiple years of field experimental data of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) in the irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin, this paper assesses the performance of the plant-soil-groundwater modules and the variability and transferability of SWAT2000. Comparison of the simulated results by SWAT to the observations showed that SWAT performed quite unsatisfactorily in LAI predictions during the senescence stage, in yield predictions, and in soil-water estimation under dry soil-profile conditions. The unsatisfactory performance in LAI prediction might be attributed to over-simplified senescence modeling; in yield prediction to the improper computation of the harvest index; and in soil water under dry conditions to the exclusion of groundwater evaporation from the soil water balance in SWAT. In this paper, improvements in crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in SWAT were implemented. The saturated soil profile was coupled to the oscillating groundwater table. A variable evaporation coefficient taking into account soil water deficit index, groundwater depth, and crop root depth was used to replace the fixed coefficient in computing groundwater evaporation. The soil water balance included the groundwater evaporation. The modifications improved simulations of crop evapotranspiration and biomass as well as soil water dynamics under dry soil-profile conditions. The evaluation shows that

  11. Assessment of crop growth and soil water modules in SWAT2000 using extensive field experiment data in an irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; He, C.; Sophocleous, M.; Yin, Z.; Hongrui, R.; Ouyang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    SWAT, a physically-based, hydrological model simulates crop growth, soil water and groundwater movement, and transport of sediment and nutrients at both the process and watershed scales. While the different versions of SWAT have been widely used throughout the world for agricultural and water resources applications, little has been done to test the performance, variability, and transferability of the parameters in the crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in an integrated way with multiple sets of field experimental data at the process scale. Using an multiple years of field experimental data of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the irrigation district of the Yellow River Basin, this paper assesses the performance of the plant-soil-groundwater modules and the variability and transferability of SWAT2000. Comparison of the simulated results by SWAT to the observations showed that SWAT performed quite unsatisfactorily in LAI predictions during the senescence stage, in yield predictions, and in soil-water estimation under dry soil-profile conditions. The unsatisfactory performance in LAI prediction might be attributed to over-simplified senescence modeling; in yield prediction to the improper computation of the harvest index; and in soil water under dry conditions to the exclusion of groundwater evaporation from the soil water balance in SWAT. In this paper, improvements in crop growth, soil water, and groundwater modules in SWAT were implemented. The saturated soil profile was coupled to the oscillating groundwater table. A variable evaporation coefficient taking into account soil water deficit index, groundwater depth, and crop root depth was used to replace the fixed coefficient in computing groundwater evaporation. The soil water balance included the groundwater evaporation. The modifications improved simulations of crop evapotranspiration and biomass as well as soil water dynamics under dry soil-profile conditions. The evaluation shows that the

  12. How Eight State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Identify and Support Low-Performing Schools and Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 068

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hergert, Leslie F.; Gleason, Sonia Caus; Urbano, Carole

    2009-01-01

    This report describes and analyzes how eight state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, and Vermont) identify and support low-performing schools and districts under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Data collection for the report…

  13. Key Elements of a Successful Multi-System Collaboration for School-Based Mental Health: In-Depth Interviews with District and Agency Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Joelle D.; Edwards, Jeffrey D.; Blackman, Kate F.; Wegmann, Kate M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming number of youth with unmet mental health needs in the US is a significant social problem. The pilot school-based mental health project described here established an innovative multi-system partnership between an urban school district, a public mental health agency, and a local university to better meet the mental health needs of youth…

  14. How State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Support Data-Driven Decisionmaking in Districts and Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 072. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle A.; Brett, Jessica; Kagle, Melissa; Midouhas, Emily; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The report examines the initiatives of state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New York, Rhode Island, Vermont, and the Virgin Islands) to support data-driven decisionmaking in districts and schools and describes the service providers hired to support this work. Four…

  15. How State Education Agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region Support Data-Driven Decisionmaking in Districts and Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 072

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle A.; Brett, Jessica; Kagle, Melissa; Midouhas, Emily; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2009-01-01

    The report examines the initiatives of state education agencies in the Northeast and Islands Region to support data-driven decisionmaking in districts and schools and describes the service providers hired to support this work. Four components of data-driven decisionmaking initiatives are identified: (1) Centralized data system/warehouse; (2) Tools…

  16. Deciphering groundwater quality for irrigation and domestic purposes - a case study in Suri I and II blocks, Birbhum District, West Bengal, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Shreya; Nag, S. K.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of the hydrochemical characteristics of water and aquifer hydraulic properties is important for groundwater planning and management in the study area. It is not only the basic need for human existence but also a vital input for all development activities. The present hydro-geochemical study of groundwater samples from the Suri I and II blocks of Birbhum district, West Bengal (23.76 ∘-23.99 ∘N; 87.42 ∘-87.64 ∘E) was carried out to assess their suitability for agricultural, domestic and drinking purposes. For this study, samples were collected from 26 locations during the post-monsoon and pre-monsoon sessions spanning over 2012 and 2013. Groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. Physical and chemical parameters of groundwater such as pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cl, HCO3, SO4 and F were determined. Various water quality indices like SAR, SSP, PI, RSC, MAR and KR have been calculated for each water sample to identify the irrigational suitability standard. According to most of these parameters, the groundwater has been found to be well to moderately suitable for irrigation. In the post-monsoon session exceptionally high RSC values for around 80% samples indicate an alkaline hazard to the soil. The ion balance histogram for post-monsoon indicates undesirable ion balance values according to fresh water standards whereas in pre-monsoon, the samples show good ion balance in water. For determination of the drinking suitability standard of groundwater, three parameters have been considered - total hardness (TH), Piper's trilinear diagram and water quality index study. Groundwater of the present study area has been found to be moderately-hard to hard during both sampling sessions and hence poses no health risk which could arise due to excess consumption of calcium or magnesium. Hydrogeochemical facies in the form of Piper's trilinear diagram plot

  17. Irrigation: Erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation is essential for global food production. However, irrigation erosion can limit the ability of irrigation systems to reliably produce food and fiber in the future. The factors affecting soil erosion from irrigation are the same as rainfall—water detaches and transports sediment. However, t...

  18. Year 3 Summary Report: Baseline Selenium Monitoring of Agricultural Drains Operated by the Imperial Irrigation District in the Salton Sea Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saiki, Michael K.; Martin, Barbara A.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the third year of a 4-year-long field investigation to document selected baseline environmental conditions in 29 agricultural drains and ponds operated by the Imperial Irrigation District along the southern border of the Salton Sea. Routine water quality and fish species were measured at roughly quarterly intervals from April 2007 to January 2008. The water quality measurements included total suspended solids and total (particulate plus dissolved) selenium. In addition, during April and October 2007, water samples were collected from seven intensively monitored drains for measurement of particulate and dissolved selenium, including inorganic and organic fractions. In addition, sediment, aquatic food chain matrices (particulate organic detritus, filamentous algae, net plankton, and midge [chironomid] larvae), and two fish species (western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis; and sailfin molly, Poecilia latipinna) were sampled from the seven drains for measurement of total selenium concentrations. The mosquitofish and mollies were intended to serve as surrogates for desert pupfish (Cyprinodon macularius), an endangered species that we were not permitted to take for selenium determinations. Water quality values were typical of surface waters in a hot desert climate. A few drains exhibited brackish, near anoxic conditions especially during the summer and fall when water temperatures occasionally exceeded 30 degrees C. In general, total selenium concentrations in water varied directly with conductivity and inversely with pH. Although desert pupfish were found in several drains, sometimes in relatively high numbers, the fish faunas of most drains and ponds were dominated by nonnative species, especially red shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis), mosquitofish, and mollies. Dissolved selenium in water samples from the seven intensively monitored drains ranged from 0.700 to 24.1 ug/L, with selenate as the major constituent in all samples. Selenium

  19. Impact and sustainability of low-head drip irrigation kits, in the semi-arid Gwanda and Beitbridge Districts, Mzingwane Catchment, Limpopo Basin, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyo, Richard; Love, David; Mul, Marloes; Mupangwa, Walter; Twomlow, Steve

    Resource-poor smallholder farmers in the semi-arid Gwanda and Beitbridge districts face food insecurity on an annual basis due to a combination of poor and erratic rainfall (average 500 mm/a and 345 mm/a, respectively, for the period 1970-2003) and technologies inappropriate to their resource status. This impacts on both household livelihoods and food security. In an attempt to improve food security in the catchment a number of drip kit distribution programmes have been initiated since 2003 as part of an on-going global initiative aimed at 2 million poor households per year. A number of recent studies have assessed the technical performance of the drip kits in-lab and in-field. In early 2005 a study was undertaken to assess the impacts and sustainability of the drip kit programme. Representatives of the NGOs, local government, traditional leadership and agricultural extension officers were interviewed. Focus group discussions with beneficiaries and other villagers were held at village level. A survey of 114 households was then conducted in two districts, using a questionnaire developed from the output of the interviews and focus group discussions. The results from the study showed that the NGOs did not specifically target the distribution of the drip kits to poor members of the community (defined for the purpose of the study as those not owning cattle). Poor households made up 54% of the beneficiaries. This poor targeting of vulnerable households could have been a result of conditions set by some implementing NGOs that beneficiaries must have an assured water source. On the other hand, only 2% of the beneficiaries had used the kit to produce the expected 5 harvests over the 2 years, owing to problems related to water shortage, access to water and also pests and diseases. About 51% of the respondents had produced at least 3 harvests and 86% produced at least 2 harvests. Due to water shortages during the dry season 61% of production with the drip kit occurred during

  20. Environmental Kuznets Curve Analysis of the Economic Development and Nonpoint Source Pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Districts in China

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Chunlan; Zhai, Ningning; Yang, Jingchao; Feng, Yongzhong; Cao, Yanchun; Han, Xinhui; Ren, Guangxin; Yang, Gaihe; Meng, Qing-xiang

    2013-01-01

    This study applies the environmental Kuznets curve to test the relationship between the regional economic growth and the different types of agricultural nonpoint source pollution loads in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area by using the Johnes export coefficient method. Results show that the pollution load generated by crop cultivation and livestock-breeding industries in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area shows an inverted U-shaped feature; however, this feature is absent in living-sewage pollution load. Crop pollution has shown a decreasing trend since 1997 because of the increased per capita income of farmers. Livestock-breeding pollution load reached its turning point when the per capita income of farmers reached 8386.74 RMB. Therefore, an increase in the per capita income of farmers corresponds to an increase in the livestock-breeding pollution load in the Ningxia Yellow River irrigation area. PMID:24171160

  1. Relation between irrigation engineering and bilharziasis*

    PubMed Central

    Lanoix, Joseph N.

    1958-01-01

    The author discusses the relation between irrigation systems and the transmission of bilharziasis, with special reference to the important part the irrigation engineer can play in checking the spread of the disease. He points out that, in the past, there has been little co-operation between health departments and public works agencies in respect of the setting-up of irrigation systems, and stresses the advantages to be gained from an active collaboration between malacologists, epidemiologists and irrigation engineers at the planning stage of irrigation schemes. The author also puts forward some suggestions for research on irrigation-system design and outlines the role of WHO in bilharziasis control. PMID:13573123

  2. The evaluation of the climate change effects on maize and fennel cultivation by means of an hydrological physically based model: the case study of an irrigated district of southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfante, A.; Alfieri, M. S.; Basile, A.; De Lorenzi, F.; Fiorentino, N.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of climate change on irrigated agricultural systems will be different from area to area depending on some factors as: (i) water availability, (ii) crop water demand (iii) soil hydrological behavior and (iv) irrigation management strategy. The adaptation of irrigated crop systems to future climate change can be supported by physically based model which simulate the water and heat fluxes in the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of climate change on the heat and water balance of a maize-fennel rotation. This was applied to a on-demand irrigation district of Southern Italy ("Destra Sele", Campania Region, 22.645 ha). Two climate scenarios were considered, current climate (1961-1990) and future climate (2021-2050), the latter constructed by applying statistical downscaling to GCMs scenarios. For each climate scenario the soil moisture regime of the selected study area was calculated by means of a simulation model of the soil-water-atmosphere system (SWAP). Synthetic indicators of the soil water regimes (e.g., crop water stress index - CWSI, available water content) have been calculated and impacts evaluated taking into account the yield response functions to water availability of different cultivars. Different irrigation delivering strategies were also simulated. The hydrological model SWAP was applied to the representative soils of the whole area (20 soil units) for which the soil hydraulic properties were derived by means of pedo-transfer function (HYPRES) tested and validated on the typical soils in the study area. Upper boundary conditions were derived from two climate scenarios, i.e. current and future. Unit gradient in soil water potential was set as lower boundary condition. Crop-specific input data and model parameters were derived from field experiments, in the same area, where the SWAP model was calibrated and validated. The results obtained have shown a significant increase of CWSI in the future

  3. 7 CFR 946.31 - Districts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS..., plus the East Irrigation District of the Columbia Basin Project, plus the area of Grant County not included in either the Quincy or South Irrigation Districts which lies east of township vertical line...

  4. 43 CFR 426.19 - District responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... district that delivers irrigation water to nonexempt land under a contract with the United States must: (a... director; (h) Withhold deliveries of irrigation water to any landholder not eligible to receive irrigation... from each landholder based on the landholder's acreage limitation status, landholdings,...

  5. Local Education Agency Planning Analyst's Procedures. A Vocational Education Planning System for Local School Districts. Volume III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Charles I.

    The manual is part of a series to assist in planning procedures for local and State vocational agencies. It details steps required to process a local education agency's data after the data have been coded onto keypunch forms. Program, course, and overhead data are input into a computer data base and error checks are performed. A computer model is…

  6. Irrigation customer survey procedures and results: Detailed analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, B.J.; Hattrup, M.P.; Weijo, R.O.

    1987-08-01

    This report presents the results of analyses of data obtained from telephone and in-person survey of irrigators in the Pacific Northwest region. The telephone survey involved approximately 1250 completed responses from irrigators selected from throughout the Northwest. The in-person survey, which is documented in this report, involved approximately 250 completed responses from irrigators within public utility districts that obtain electricity for serving irrigation loads from Bonneville.

  7. The optimal joint provision of water for irrigation and hydropower

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, B.; Howitt, R.E.; Sexton, R.J.

    1998-11-01

    This study develops a dynamic optimization model to analyze the intertemporal allocation of surface water for irrigation and for hydropower production in the western United States. The issue arises because peak irrigation demands may not coincide with periods of peak demand for power. Water released for irrigation in the spring reduces the reservoir head and diminishes the capacity to generate power during summer peak demands. The optimization model is applied to irrigation districts in central California. Results show considerable deviation between the actual and the optimal allocations. Suboptimal behavior is linked to the districts` failure to articulate clear property rights to the scarce water resources.

  8. Irrigation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Under contract with Marshall Space Flight Center, Midwest Research Institute compiled a Lubrication Handbook intended as a reference source for designers and manufacturers of aerospace hardware and crews responsible for maintenance of such equipment. Engineers of Lindsay Manufacturing Company learned of this handbook through NASA Tech Briefs and used it for supplemental information in redesigning gear boxes for their center pivot agricultural irrigation system.

  9. 75 FR 53332 - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Arizona

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Bureau of Reclamation San Carlos Irrigation Project, Arizona AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior... of San Carlos Irrigation Project (SCIP) water delivery facilities near the communities of Casa Grande... and Central Arizona Project (CAP) to agricultural lands in the San Carlos Irrigation and...

  10. 77 FR 10767 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... Federal Register on September 20, 2011 (76 FR 58293) to propose adjustments to the irrigation assessment... (76 FR 26759). In addition, a Construction Water Rate Schedule for the San Carlos Irrigation Project... Bureau of Indian Affairs Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...

  11. Anatomy of a public health agency turnaround: the case of the general health district in Mahoning County.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Stefanak, Matthew; Dessens, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A turnaround describes an organization's ability to recover from successive periods of decline. Current and projected declines in US economic conditions continue to place local public health departments at risk of fiscal exigency. This examination focused on turnaround methodologies used by a local public health department to reverse successive periods of operational and financial declines. Illustrations are provided on the value added by implementing financial ratio and trend analysis in addition to using evidence-based private sector turnaround strategies of retrenchment, repositioning, and reorganization. Evidence has shown how the financial analysis and strategies aided in identifying operational weakness and set in motion corrective measures. The Public Health Uniform Data System is introduced along with a list of standards offered for mainstreaming these and other routine stewardship practices to diagnose, predict, and prevent agency declines. PMID:22635191

  12. Child Abuse Prevention: Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Labor, Social Services, and the International Community of the Committee on the District of Columbia, House of Representatives, 93rd Congress, Second Session on H.R. 15779 and H.R. 15918 to Establish an Agency for the Prevention of Child Abuse in the District of Columbia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the District of Columbia.

    Presented is the text of the hearing held in Aug 1974 on two house bills (H.R. 15779 and H.R. 15918) to establish an agency for the prevention of child abuse in the District of Columbia. Included are the full texts of the two bills and statements by persons representing such groups as the Children's Hospital National Medical Center, the Community…

  13. Irrigation, plant disease and crop water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 1N Agricultural Reporting District is composed of 23 counties in the northern Texas Panhandle. This region is one of the most agriculturally productive regions in the state because a large percentage of the arable land is irrigated with groundwater from the Ogallala Aquifer. However, irrigated p...

  14. 77 FR 31344 - Grand Valley Irrigation Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Grand Valley Irrigation Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... Date filed: March 26, 2012. d. Applicant: Grand Valley Irrigation District. e. Name of Project... on the Grand Valley Irrigation Canal where the Mainline canal splits into the Highline and the...

  15. 25 CFR 162.611 - Payment of fees and drainage and irrigation charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payment of fees and drainage and irrigation charges. 162... AND PERMITS Non-Agricultural Leases § 162.611 Payment of fees and drainage and irrigation charges. (a) Any lease covering lands within an irrigation project or drainage district shall require the lessee...

  16. Irrigation-based livelihood trends in river basins: theory and policy implications for irrigation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankford, Bruce

    here might be useful for governments and other implementing and donor agencies in Sub-Sahara Africa (where irrigation has greater potential than it currently enjoys) that are considering irrigation as policy instrument for improving rural livelihoods.

  17. Application of remote sensing techniques for identification of irrigated crop lands in Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    Satellite imagery was used in a project developed to demonstrate remote sensing methods of determining irrigated acreage in Arizona. The Maricopa water district, west of Phoenix, was chosen as the test area. Band rationing and unsupervised categorization were used to perform the inventory. For both techniques the irrigation district boundaries and section lines were digitized and calculated and displayed by section. Both estimation techniques were quite accurate in estimating irrigated acreage in the 1979 growing season.

  18. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in irrigated and non-irrigated fields of southern Karnataka, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, C P Sunil; Garampalli, Rajkumar H

    2013-03-01

    The two different agro-ecosystems were selected to study the spore density, species abundance, and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in irrigated (Mandya district) and non-irrigated (Hassan district) agricultural fields in southern Karnataka region, India. A total of 22 AMF species were recorded during the study. Out of which 13 sp. were of Glomus, 4 sp. of Acaulospora, 1 sp. of Cetraspora, 1 sp. of Dentiscutata and 3 sp. of Gigaspora. The difference in species richness of AMF species in irrigated fields ranged from 5-12 sp. as compared to non-irrigated fields (5-11 sp.) and the difference may be attributed to the nutritional status of the soil. We also assumed that lower AMF colonization and abundance would be affected by water stress. Highest spore number and percent colonization of AM fungi were recorded in irrigated sites, showing 356-748 spore density and 70-92% colonization. Whereas, in non-irrigated sites, 174-341 spore density and 40-72% colonization was recorded. Different agro-climatic conditions like irrigation, soil pH, soil organic carbon, phosphorous correlated with the abundance and colonization of AM fungi. PMID:24620573

  19. Largest irrigated district in the world

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-02

    The geothermal administration report includes the following: status of transfer of Imperial Valley Environmental Project, status of data cataloging and storage, findings of geothermal field inspections, status of cooperative efforts between industry and the County for commercialization, problems in local geothermal commercialization and recommendations for action, and the status of geothermal exploration development and production in the County. The number and types of applications for geothermal energy received, results of hearings on applications, permits issued, and EIR prepared are discussed. Other geothermal activities include the Department of Energy Region 9 meeting in April, the Department of Energy Direct Heat Developers meeting held in El Centro in April, and a new drilling company in the County. These are followed by the summary of events. (MHR)

  20. Nitrate contamination and its relationship with flood irrigation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Garizábal, I.; Causapé, J.; Abrahao, R.

    2012-06-01

    SummaryNitrate contamination is a significant unresolved environmental issue for agriculture in the 21st century, with longstanding challenges in its control and allocation to a specified territory. In order to address these challenges, real-world meticulous irrigation area studies are required. The objective of this investigation is to analyze the evolution of nitrate contamination in relation to agronomic and management changes within a traditionally irrigated land. Specifically, the impact of changes in irrigation allowance assignment, changes in irrigation method from rotation to on-demand flood irrigation, and creation of water consumption accounts were analyzed. To this end, nitrogen monitoring and annual balances were carried out in a small irrigated hydrological basin (95 ha) located in Northeastern Spain throughout the years of 2001 and 2005-2008. The evolution of the nitrate contamination index was also analyzed, which relates the mass of nitrates exported to the fertilization necessities of a specific irrigated area. The results demonstrated that although changes in crop pattern caused a 33% reduction in the nitrogen required through fertilization, the fertilization rates applied are still double the necessities. Changes in irrigation management decreased the mass of nitrates exported by half and the nitrate contamination index by 24%, but the nitrate levels present are still approximately double of those registered in modern irrigation areas. The changes implemented by the Irrigation District in the irrigation management were effective. However, this study confirms that a greater effort is still required to achieve adequate nitrogen fertilization matching the crop necessities.

  1. A multisector analysis of urban irrigation and water savings potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijoor, N.; Kim, H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Urban irrigation strains limited water supplies in semi-arid areas such as Orange County, CA, yet the quantity and controlling factors of urban irrigation are not well understood. The goals of this research are to (1) quantify and compare landscape irrigation applied by residential and commercial sectors in various retail agencies at a parcel scale (2) determine over- and under-irrigation compared to theoretical need (3) determine the climatic and socioeconomic controls on landscape irrigation. A research partnership was established between six water retail agencies in Orange County, CA representing a wide range of climatic and economic conditions. These agencies contributed between 3 and 13 years of water use data on a monthly/bimonthly basis. Irrigation depth (mm) was estimated using the "minimum month method," and landscape evapotranspiration was calculated using the Hargreaves equation for 122,345 parcels. Multiple regressions of water use were conducted with climatic and socioeconomic variables as possible explanatory variables. Single family residences accounted for the majority of urban water use. Findings from 112,192 single family residences (SFRs) show that total and indoor water use declined, though irrigation did not significantly change. Average irrigation for SFRs was 94 L/day, and a large proportion (42%) of irrigation was applied in excess to landscapes. Air temperature was found to be the primary driver of irrigation. We mapped over-irrigation relative to plant water demand to highlight areas that can be targeted for water conservation efforts. We also show the water savings that would be gained by improving the efficiency of irrigation systems. The information gained in this study would be useful for developing water use efficiency policies and/or educational programs to promote sustainable irrigation practices at the individual parcel scale.

  2. Assessment of drainage water quality in pre- and post-irrigation seasons for supplemental irrigation use.

    PubMed

    Alexakis, Dimitris; Gotsis, Dimitris; Giakoumakis, Spyros

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge on hydrochemistry is very important to assess the quality of water for effective management of water resources or drainage water reuse. On this basis, an assessment of water quality was conducted in the Agoulinitsa district in Peloponnese (western Greece). Both drainage and irrigation channel water samples have been collected, treated, and subjected to chemical analysis. A characterization has been carried out using the Piper-trilinear diagram. Assessment of the water samples from the point of view of sodium adsorption ratio, Na(+)%, and residual sodium carbonate indicated that 60.0% and 83.3% of the drainage water samples during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples, are chemically suitable for irrigation use. Moreover, assessment of the water samples by comparing quality parameters with the Food and Agriculture Organization guidelines indicated that 20.0% and 44.4% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, as well as the irrigation channel water samples could cause slight to moderate problems to the plants. On the other hand, 80.0% and 55.6% of the drainage water samples collected during pre- and post-irrigation season, respectively, could cause immediate development of severe problems to the plants growth. PMID:21915601

  3. Irrigation strategies using subsurface drip irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is practiced on approximately 60,000 ha in the Texas High Plains region of the USA. Adoption of SDI continues to increase in the region. This has been attributed to record drought in Texas and the US Southwest in recent years, declining irrigation well yields, and ev...

  4. Improving irrigation management in L'Horta Nord (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, Jose Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    L'Horta Nord is an important irrigation district in Valencia (Spain), especially for vegetable crops. The traditional cropping pattern in the region consists of a rotation of chufa with crops such as potato, onion, lettuce, escarole and red cabbage, being all these crops furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of the water used is acceptable, water is not expensive and there are no limitations on supply. Consequently, growers are not aware of the volumes of water used, application efficiencies, nor water productivity for any of the crops cited. The European Framework Directive 2000/60, based on the precautionary principle, considers preventive action for measures to be taken; moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. Thus, water use is an issue to improve. In this sense, the current situation of the irrigation in the area is analysed using chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.) as representative of the crops, since most of the crops in the area have shallow root systems, as chufa, which are irrigated in similar patterns. In order to analyse the irrigation performance of the traditional chufa crop as well as to achieve more sustainable results, different studies have been carried out, during the last decade. Efforts have been directed to increase water productivity, increasing yield and minimising the volumes of water applied. Different planting configurations and different irrigation thresholds, not only in furrow irrigation but also in drip irrigation, are examples of how the irrigation performance could be improved. Herein is presented a two-year study, comparing, in both furrow and drip irrigation, two irrigation schedules based on the volumetric soil water content, which was continuously monitored using capacitance sensors. Yield was significantly affected by the growing season, the irrigation system and by the irrigation schedule, and by the second order interactions of the

  5. WATER REQUIREMENT OF IRRIGATED GARLIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  6. Water Requirements Of Irrigated Garlic

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  7. ESTIMATING IRRIGATION COSTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Having accurate estimates of the cost of irrigation is important when making irrigation decisions. Estimates of fixed costs are critical for investment decisions. Operating cost estimates can assist in decisions regarding additional irrigations. This fact sheet examines the costs associated with ...

  8. Surface drip irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For many years, surface drip irrigation has been used to irrigation high value vegetable crops. In recent years, surface drip of row crops has been increasing throughout the United States. Surface drip irrigation can precisely deliver water and nutrients to the crop root zone. This article provides ...

  9. Irrigation Systems Operation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective operation of an irrigation system requires matching the operational characteristics of a system to the soil, crop, field, and water supply. Each of these components will affect the quality of the irrigation system performance. The performance measures used to characterize the irrigation sy...

  10. Irrigation Monitoring Project Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrie, Gregory; Berglund, Judith; Ryan, Robert; Harrington, Gary; Stewart, Randy; Spiering, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate remote sensing requirements for irrigation scheduling to define future systems. Temperature-based crop stress indicators have been developed that could be used for irrigation management. This viewgraph presentation describes an experiment to use airborne and satellite thermal imagery to evaulate the water requirements of irrigated crops.

  11. Planning for deficit irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigators with limited water supplies that lead to deficit irrigation management need to make decisions about crop selection, water allocations to each crop, and irrigation schedules. Many of these decisions need to occur before the crop is planted and depend on yield-evapotranspiration (ET) and yi...

  12. Predicting deep percolation with eddy covariance under mulch drip irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Guanghui; Tian, Fuqiang; Hu, Hongchang

    2016-04-01

    Water is essential for the agricultural development and ecological sustainability of the arid and semi-arid oasis with rare precipitation input and high evaporation demand. Deep percolation (DP) defined as excess irrigation water percolating below the plant root zone will reduce irrigation water use efficiency (WUE). But the DP was often ignored in mulch drip irrigation (MDI) which has reached the area of 1.6 million hectares in Xinjiang, the northwest of China. In this study DP experiments were conducted at an agricultural experiment station located within an irrigation district in the Tarim River Basin for four cotton growing periods. First it was detected the irrigation water infiltrated into the soil layers below 100cm and the groundwater level responded to the irrigation events well. Then DP below 100cm soil layers was calculated using the soil water balance method with the aid of eddy covariance (with the energy balance closure of 0.72). The negative DP (groundwater contribution to the crop-water use through capillary rising) at the seedling and harvesting stages can reach 77mm and has a good negative correlation with the groundwater level and positive correlation with potential evaporation. During the drip irrigation stage approximately 45% of the irrigation became DP and resulted in the low irrigation WUE of 0.6. The DP can be 164mm to 270mm per year which was positive linearly correlated to irrigation depth and negative linear correlated to irrigation interval. It is better to establish the irrigation schedule with small irrigation depth and given frequently to reduce deep percolation and meet crop needs.

  13. Directory of State Arts Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Research Center of the Arts, Inc., New York,. NY.

    Information on 55 arts agencies in each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, and the Virgin Islands is listed alphabetically by state or district. Each listing provides name, address, and telephone number of each agency; names of chairman and director; and a brief historical introduction. The information…

  14. What will it take to get irrigators to use advisory programs? Lessons learned from the past 10 years and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research and Extension personnel have developed irrigation advisory programs for decades. With irrigation sources evermore becoming limited, recent conservation and management strategies among numerous water conscious agencies include the development or redevelopment and strong promotion of irrigati...

  15. 77 FR 5507 - Turlock Irrigation District, Modesto Irrigation District; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... Me-Wuk Indians, North Fork Mono Tribe, Southern Sierra Miwuk Nation, Chicken Ranch Rancheria of Me..., Chicken Ranch Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians, P.O. Box 1159, Jamestown, CA 95327. Silvia Burley...

  16. Developing A Modeling Tool for Flow Profiling in Irrigation Distribution Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts are underway to rehabilitate the irrigation districts, such as in the Rio Grande River Basin in Texas. Water distribution network models are needed to help prioritize and analyze various rehabilitation options, as well as to scientifically quantify irrigation water demands, usages, and losse...

  17. Charter Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Anne Turnbaugh

    2002-01-01

    Interviews with superintendents of eight charter-school districts in four states: California, Florida, Georgia, and New Mexico. Describes advantages and disadvantages. Includes a list (with website addresses) of all current charter-school districts. (PKP)

  18. Innovation to improve health care provision and health systems in sub-Saharan Africa - promoting agency in mid-level workers and district managers.

    PubMed

    Fonn, Sharon; Ray, Sunanda; Blaauw, Duane

    2011-01-01

    Initiatives to address the human resource crisis in African health systems have included expanded training of mid-level workers (MLWs). Currently, MLWs are the backbone of many health systems in Africa but they are often de-motivated and they often operate in circumstances in which providing high quality care is challenging. Therefore, assuming that introducing additional people will materially change health system performance is unrealistic. We briefly critique such unifocal interventions and review the literature to understand the factors that affect the motivation and performance of MLWs. Three themes emerge: the low status and inadequate recognition of MLWs, quality of care issues and working in poorly managed systems. In response we propose three interrelated interventions: a regional association of MLWs to enhance their status and recognition, a job enrichment and mentoring system to address quality and a district managers' association to improve health systems management. The professionalisation of MLWs and district managers to address confidence, self-esteem and value is considered. The paper describes the thinking behind these interventions, which are currently being tested in Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda for their acceptability and appropriateness. We offer the policy community a complementary repertoire to existing human resource strategies in order to effect real change in African health systems. PMID:20582782

  19. Characterization of Ground-Water Quality, Upper Republican Natural Resources District, Nebraska, 1998-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankforter, Jill D.; Chafin, Daniele T.

    2004-01-01

    Nearly all rural inhabitants and livestock in the Upper Republican Natural Resources District (URNRD) in southwestern Nebraska use ground water that can be affected by elevated nitrate concentrations. The development of ground-water irrigation in this area has increased the vulnerability of ground water to the introduction of fertilizers and other agricultural chemicals. In 1998, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Republican Natural Resources District, began a study to characterize the quality of ground water in the Upper Republican Natural Resources District area with respect to physical properties and concentrations of major ions, coliform bacteria, nitrate, and pesticides, and to assess the presence of nitrogen concentrations in the unsaturated zone. At selected well sites, the ground-water characterization also included tritium and nitrogen-isotope analyses to provide information about the approximate age of the ground water and potential sources of nitrogen detected in ground-water samples, respectively. In 1998, ground-water samples were collected from 101 randomly selected domestic-well sites. Of the 101 samples collected, 26 tested positive for total coliform bacteria, exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of zero colonies. In 1999, ground-water samples were collected from 31 of the 101 well sites, and 16 tested positive for coliform bacteria. Nitrates were detected in ground water from all domestic-well samples and from all but four of the irrigation-well samples collected from 1998 to 2001. Eight percent of the domestic-well samples and 3 percent of the irrigation-well samples had nitrate concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MCL for drinking water of 10 milligrams per liter. Areas with nitrate concentrations exceeding 6 milligrams per liter, the URNRD's ground-water management-plan action level, were found predominantly in north-central Chase, western and

  20. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2016-04-01

    irrigation water use can be reduced when adopting the SRI methodology in the future. The reducing of groundwater recharge could be supplemented by using 1,500 hectares of fallow paddy fields, located at proximal-fan region, as recharge pools in the wet season. The adoption of water-saving irrigation would be helpful for the relevant government agency to formulate the integral water resource management strategies in this region. Keywords:Groundwater recharge, SRI, FEMWATER, Field irrigation requirement

  1. Irrigation Systems. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by individuals preparing for a career in commercial and residential irrigation. The materials included are geared toward students who have had some experience in the irrigation business; they are intended to be presented in 10 six-hour sessions. The first two sections deal with using this guide and preparing for the…

  2. Irrigation Systems. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amarillo Coll., TX.

    This guide is intended for use by licensed irrigators who wish to teach others how to design and install residential and commercial irrigation systems. The materials included in the guide have been developed under the assumption that the instructors who use it have little or no formal training as teachers. The first section presents detailed…

  3. 'Smart' Irrigation Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Dieckmann, John; Brodrick, James

    2012-08-31

    The article discusses the ASHRAE Standard 189, with mandatory and optional provisions related to water use efficiency, then focuses on the use of water efficient irrigation systems and the use of recycled water such as air conditioner condensate for landscaping irrigation. Benefits of such practices include both water and energy savings.

  4. Improving Surface Irrigation Performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface irrigation systems often have a reputation for poor performance. One key feature of efficient surface irrigation systems is precision (e.g. laser-guided) land grading. Poor land grading can make other improvements ineffective. An important issue, related to land shaping, is developing the pr...

  5. Web based irrigation scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing use of water in the Mid-South has led to depletion of water levels in aquifers, with few guidelines in place for farmers as to when and how much to irrigate. Irrigation can increase crop yields when water is applied correctly. Wise water management requires knowledge of how much water the...

  6. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  7. Irrigation Without Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Kevin P.

    1975-01-01

    A new means of irrigation, called the drip or trickle system, has been proven more efficient and less wasteful than the current system of flood irrigation. As a result of this drip system, fertilizer-use efficiency is improved and crop yield, though never decreased, is sometimes increased in some crops. (MA)

  8. SDI versus MESA Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through planting, early growth and yield de...

  9. IRRIGATION SYSTEM COMPONENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The common components of a irrigation system are defined in terms of the diversion, delivery, distribution and drainage subsystems. Irrigation systems can be defined on at least three different levels: project, farm and field. Each level will have the same basic set of components regardless of sca...

  10. Root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

  11. Advances in sprinkler irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sprinkler irrigation is being increasingly adopted in the US and worldwide because it offers increased crop water productivity over what is possible with gravity irrigation. Most sprinkler irrigation is by center pivot, which is presently used on about 50 and 80 percent of land irrigated in the US a...

  12. Emergy Evaluation of a Production and Utilization Process of Irrigation Water in China

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Jing; Kong, Jun; She, Dong-Li

    2013-01-01

    Sustainability evaluation of the process of water abstraction, distribution, and use for irrigation can contribute to the policy of decision making in irrigation development. Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate a pumping irrigation district in China. A corresponding framework for its emergy evaluation is proposed. Its emergy evaluation shows that water is the major component of inputs into the irrigation water production and utilization systems (24.7% and 47.9% of the total inputs, resp.) and that the transformities of irrigation water and rice as the systems' products (1.72E + 05 sej/J and 1.42E + 05 sej/J, resp.; sej/J = solar emjoules per joule) represent their different emergy efficiencies. The irrigated agriculture production subsystem has a higher sustainability than the irrigation water production subsystem and the integrated production system, according to several emergy indices: renewability ratio (%R), emergy yield ratio (EYR), emergy investment ratio (EIR), environmental load ratio (ELR), and environmental sustainability index (ESI). The results show that the performance of this irrigation district could be further improved by increasing the utilization efficiencies of the main inputs in both the production and utilization process of irrigation water. PMID:24082852

  13. Irrigation on Topographic Maps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitz, Karl B.

    1979-01-01

    Describes how study of irrigation practices on topographic maps can help students in introductory high school and college geography courses understand man and land relationships to geography. (Author/DB)

  14. Assessing the changes of groundwater recharge / irrigation water use between SRI and traditional irrigation schemes in Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2015-04-01

    lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, saving 35% and 9% compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. The SRI methodology significantly improved water-saving benefit compared with the disadvantage of reducing groundwater recharge. The results could be used as a basis for the relevant government agency to formulate the integral water resource management strategies in this area. Keywords: SRI, Paddy field, Infiltration, Groundwater recharge

  15. Irrigated Agriculture, Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, center-pivot, swing-arm irrigated agriculture complexes such as the one imaged at Jabal Tuwayq (20.5N, 45.0 E) extract deep fossil water reserves to achieve food crop production self sufficiency in this desert environment. The significance of the Saudi expanded irrigated agriculture is that the depletion of this finite water resource is a short term solution to a long term need that will still exist when the water has been extracted.

  16. Advances in Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, W. R.

    This is the first volume of Advances in Irrigation, a new serial publication by the publishers of Advances in Agronomy and Advances in Hydroscience and designed to follow the same format. The editor is a well-known researcher and writer on irrigation and related subjects and has assembled a collection of highly regarded and respected authors for the initial volume. The readership for this volume will probably be mainly specialists and students interested in irrigation and an occasional design engineer.The seven contributions in this volume fall roughly into two classes: research and practice. Three papers (“Conjunctive Use of Rainfall and Irrigation in Semi-arid Regions,” by Stewart and Musik, “Irrigation Scheduling Using Soil Moisture Measurements: Theory and Practice,” by G. S. and M. D. Campbell, and “Use of Solute Transport Models to Estimate Salt Balance Below Irrigated Cropland,” by Jury) cover topics that have been the subject of a number of reviews. The contributions here provide brief, well-written, and authoritative summaries of the chosen topics and serve as good introductions or reviews. They should lend themselves well to classroom use in various ways. They also should be helpful to the nonspecialist interested in getting a sense of the subject without going into great detail.

  17. Irrigation efficiency and production energy efficiency of traditional and modern farms in the Al-Hassa Oasis, Saudi Arabia

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Taher, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Al-Hassa Oasis is located in eastern Saudi Arabia. The dry tropical climate requires irrigation throughout the year for agricultural crop production, which currently faces the following problems: declining groundwater tables, scarcity of surface water, high soil salinity in substantial parts of the districts serviced by the irrigation authority, low efficiency of irrigation water use in fields, rising costs for production inputs, and declining crop yields. The objectives of this research are to assess field irrigation efficiency under traditional, intermediate, and modern irrigation methods, to calculate energy efficiency under transitional, intermediate, and modern soil management practices, and to determine the relationship between irrigation efficiency and production energy efficiency within the current agricultural scenario of the Oasis. Analyses regarding the relationship between (1) food energy output and irrigation energy input, non-irrigation energy input and irrigation efficiency, (2) irrigation efficiency and total cultural energy input, (3) irrigation efficiency and irrigation energy input, (4) food energy output and cultural energy input, and (5) production energy efficiency and irrigation efficiency under tomatoes, cucumber, potatoes, other vegetables, alfalfa, wheat, dates, and rice indicate that the effect varies from one crop to another.

  18. Stirling Engines and Irrigation Pumping

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    This report was prepared in support of the Renewable Energy Applications and Training Project that is sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development for which ORNL provides technical assistance. It briefly outlines the performance that might be achievable from various kinds of Stirling-engine-driven irrigation pumps. Some emphasis is placed on the very simple liquid-piston engines that have been the subject of research in recent years and are suitable for manufacture in less well-developed countries. In addition to the results quoted here (possible limits on M4 and pumping head for different-size engines and various operating conditions), the method of calculation is described in sufficient detail for engineers to apply the techniques to other Stirling engine designs for comparison.

  19. Comparative Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality in Sri Lanka's Tank-Cascade and Mahaweli Irrigation Schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Two distinct irrigation systems dominate the landscape in the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The tank-cascade system, which originates from third century BC, is a small-scale system that has been the traditional method for communities to meet their farming water needs. The Mahaweli reservoir system, in contrast, is a large-scale irrigation scheme initiated in the 1970s that diverts water across hundreds of kilometers from the headwaters of the Mahaweli River to farmers. Although approximately equal amounts of paddy land are irrigated under these two systems, very little comparative analysis has been conducted on the spatial variation of irrigation water quality in Sri Lanka. An exploratory study was conducted in June 2013 in Anuradhapura district, an area that experiences the highest level of paddy production instability and has had long-standing irrigation water quality issues. A total of 30 water samples from both cascade systems and Mahaweli system H-7 were analyzed for pH, temperature, conductivity, turbidity, and chromatic dissolved organic matter using field instruments. A subset of these samples was further analyzed for nitrate and ammonia using colorimetric methods. While the sparse data from our study revealed some interesting trends, it is difficult to extrapolate in detail. Therefore, we compare inferences drawn about the Sri Lanka data to a more detailed analysis of chromatic dissolved organic matter in a Tennessee watershed. This comparison will provide insight into possible interpretations relative to the water quality data collected in Sri Lanka. As Sri Lanka continues to develop its irrigation resources, water quality assessments such as this one are critical for identifying factors limiting paddy production in the country.

  20. Irrigation Management Transfer and WUAs' dynamics: evidence from the South-Kazakhstan province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zinzani, andrea

    2014-05-01

    The importance of water resources management in the arid and semi-arid lands can not be overestimated being related with environmental, economical and socio-political issues. In Central Asia, due to the physical and climatic features, water control and irrigation have always played a strategic role in territorial and societal development. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in Kazakhstan, as in the other Central Asian republics, significant changes in both the water and agricultural sector have emerged; water management shifted from a purely technical issue to a sociopolitical and economic one leading to several institutional and organizational changes. To address this transitional water management context and the related governance and technical issues, since the 1990s several development organizations and donor agencies (such as the World Bank, United Nations, USAID, and others), according to the international water community, have sought to streamline the Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) and the establishment of the Water Users Associations (WUAs); this initiatives are sponsored and related to the IWRM framework, the water program globally supported by the Global Water Partnership and widely debated and questioned in the last years. This paper aims to discuss these transitional water management processes focusing on the meso-local level in the Arys valley, administratively included in the South-Kazakhstan province, ten years since the enactment of the law formalizing the WUAs. Three districts (Tyulkibas, Ordabasy and Otrar) were selected to analyse and understand the specific local transitional water institutional/organizational framework and to highlight the differences among them. The fieldwork was conducted in two different phases, April-May and November-December 2012. Within those periods, semi-structured interviews were carried out to the members of the state organizations (river basin agencies and district/province water departments) as well as the

  1. A Small District's Quest for Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salinas, Claudio

    In Texas, a financially troubled school district must submit a plan of action to the Texas Education Agency (TEA) for improving its financial situation without harming the quality of education delivered. If things get worse, TEA assigns a financial monitor to advise the district on overcoming its financial problems and to determine if further…

  2. Cases Studies of Irrigated Soil Degradation and Progradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, Anatoly; Kust, German; Rozov, Sergey; Stoma, Galina

    2013-04-01

    Waterlogging and salination, along with interaction with other degradation processes, have not only caused the collapse of irrigation-based societies in the past, but are indeed threatening the viability of irrigation at present. The problem is global in scope. Decimation of natural ecosystems, deterioration of soil productivity depletion and pollution of water resources, and conflicts over dwindling supplies have become international problems closely linked with extension of irrigation development to large scale and associated impact to soil fertility and surrounding environment. Practical experience and scientific research done in the frame of FP6 DESIRE project provided an affirmative answer to the question - can irrigated agriculture be sustained for long time. In present contribution two case studies will be discussed and analysed in scope to compare different irrigation practises used for about 35 years and their impact to soil fertility. Investigated areas of both case studies are situated in the same Saratov Region of Russia at the left bank of middle part of Volga River with distance between about 100 km. First case study was developed during 2009-2010 by field trials at irrigated and surrounded areas of agricultural farms situated at Privolghskaya Irrigation System (Marksovsky District). Second case study was developed during summer of 2011 by field trial at experimental farm of research institute called VolgNIIGiM (Enghelsky District). During fields trail soil maps of both case studies were developed and compared with soil maps of the same areas done at 1970th before irrigation projects at both areas were started. Results of soil map comparison are showing that in the territory of first case study considerable soil degradation is taken place, but in the territory of the second case study a substantial soil progradation is taken place. Thus is supported by the time series of ground water monitoring at both irrigated areas. Obtained results will be

  3. Investigating irrigation scheduling for rice using variable rate irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because almost all US rice is produced with continuous flood irrigation, little information addresses irrigation scheduling for rice; however, successful production of rice without a continuous flood will require scheduling, or timely irrigation. A field study conducted at the University of Missouri...

  4. A REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF THE ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS OF AN IRRIGATION SCHEDULING SERVICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Irrigation scheduling is a technique for systematically determining the proper date and quantity of each irrigation in individual fields. This technique is presently being used by government agencies and private companies in the western United States to assist farmers in planning...

  5. Ensuring equal opportunity sprinkler irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equal opportunity for plants to sprinkler irrigation water must be carefully considered by crop producers, irrigation consultants, and the industry that supplies the irrigation equipment. Equal opportunity can be negated by improper marketing, design, and installation, as well as through improper f...

  6. Planning for an Irrigation System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, J. Howard; Anderson, Carl L.

    The publication, with the aid of tables and colored illustrations and diagrams, presents information to help the farmer who is considering the installation of an irrigation system determine whether or not to irrigate, the type of system to use, and the irrigation cost and return on investment. Information is presented on the increase in yield to…

  7. 40 CFR 81.309 - District of Columbia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false District of Columbia. 81.309 Section 81.309 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.309 District of Columbia. District of...

  8. 77 FR 66182 - Race to the Top-District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-02

    ... Register (77 FR 49654) a notice inviting applications for the Race to the Top--District competition. That... to the Top--District AGENCY: Office of the Deputy Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice reopening the Race to the Top--District competition. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA)...

  9. Sustainability of irrigated crops under future climate: the interplay of irrigation strategies and cultivar responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzi, F.; Bonfante, A.; Alfieri, S.; Patanè, C.; Basile, A.; Di Tommasi, P.; Monaco, E.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Climate evolution will cause significant changes in the quality and availability of water resources, affecting many sectors including food production, where available water resources for irrigation play a crucial role. Strategies focused on managing and conserving water are one way to deal with the impact; moreover concurring adaptation measurements will be needed to cope with the foreseen decline of water resource. This work deals with i) the impacts of climate change on water requirements of an horticultural crop, determined in an irrigated district in Southern Italy, ii) the possible irrigation scheduling options and their sustainability in the future, iii) the adaptation measurements that can be undertaken to protect production, relying on intra-specific biodiversity of agricultural crops. Two climate scenarios were considered: present climate (1961-90) and future climate (2021-2050), the former from climatic statistics, and the latter from statistical downscaling of general circulation models (AOGCM). Climatic data set consists of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and rainfall on a grid with spatial resolution of 35 km. The analysis of climate scenarios showed that significant increases in summer maximum daily temperature could be expected in 2021-2050 period. Soil water regime was determined by means of a mechanistic model (SWAP) of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Twenty? soil units were identified in the district (in Sele Plain, Campania Region) and simulations were performed accounting for hydro-pedological properties of different soil units. Parameters of a generic tomato crop, in a rotation typical of the area, were used in simulations. Soil water balance was simulated in the present and future climate, both with optimal water availability and under constrains that irrigation schemes will pose. Indicators of soil water availability were calculated, in terms of soil water or evapotranspiration deficit. For several tomato

  10. Texas Irrigation Situation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The irrigation situation in Texas is an interaction between hydrology and water policies. In 2012, according to National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) four High Plains counties, Gainesville, Yoakum, Terry and Cochran, accounted for approximately 60% of the 150,000 acres of peanut productio...

  11. EROSION: IRRIGATION-INDUCED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling erosion on and soil loss from irrigated lands is critical to sustain agricultural production. Protecting and stabilizing the soil surface will minimize sediment detachment. Slowing or reducing overland flow will minimize sediment transport. Reducing or managing runoff is the key to co...

  12. Erosion: Irrigation-induced

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil can be eroded by sprinkler or surface irrigation. Once sprinkler droplet kinetic energy detaches soil, overland flow transports the sediment downslope and off-site. Protecting the soil surface, increasing sprinkler wetted diameters, and tilling to increase infiltration and thereby lessen overla...

  13. The Arkansas Irrigation Scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U.S. Mid-South, annual rainfall is generally sufficient for limited crop production, but periods of drought during the growing season make irrigation essential for optimum yields. However, factors such as cloudy weather, rainfall, and temperature swings caused by the movement of weather front...

  14. Evapotranspiration and irrigation algorithms in hydrologic modeling:Present Status and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrologic models are used extensively for predicting water availability and water quality responses to alternative irrigation, tillage, crop, and fertilizer management practices and global climate change. Modeling results have been frequently used by regulatory agencies for developing remedial meas...

  15. 76 FR 26759 - Rate Adjustments for Indian Irrigation Projects

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Federal Register on November 1, 2010 (75 FR 67095) to propose adjustments to the irrigation assessment... Street, Billings, Montana 59101, Telephone: (406) 247-7943 Project Name Agency/Project Contacts Blackfeet..., PH: (406) 653-1752 602 6th Avenue North Wolf Point, MT 59201 Wind River Ed Lone Fight,...

  16. Charter School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul T.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the difference between charter schools and charter districts (all schools in the district are chartered), why charter school districts are spreading, and how local school districts can become charter districts. Current laws in Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, New Mexico, Oregon, and Texas allow charter districts. (PKP)

  17. Geothermal district heating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budney, G. S.; Childs, F.

    1982-06-01

    Ten district heating demonstration projects and their present status are described. The projects are Klamath County YMCA, Susanville District Heating, Klamath Falls District Heating, Reno Salem Plaza Condominium, El Centro Community Center Heating/Cooling, Haakon School and Business District Heating, St. Mary's Hospital, Diamond Ring Ranch, Pagosa Springs District Heating, and Boise District Heating.

  18. Issues of sustainable irrigated agriculture in the San Joaquin Valley of California in a changing regulatory environment concerning water quality and protection of wildlife

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, N.W.T.; Delamore, M.L.

    1994-06-01

    Since the discovery of selenium toxicosis in the Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, California, public perception of irrigated agriculture as a benign competitor for California`s developed water supply has been changed irrevocably. Subsurface return flows from irrigated agriculture were implicated as the source of selenium which led to incidents of reproductive failure in waterfowl and threatened survival of other fish and wildlife species. Stringent water quality objectives were promulgated to protect rivers, tributaries, sloughs and other water bodies receiving agricultural discharges from selenium contamination. Achieving these objectives was left to the agricultural water districts, federal and state agencies responsible for drainage and water quality enforcement in the San Joaquin Basin. This paper describes some of the strategies to improve management of water resources and water quality in response to these new environmental objectives. Similar environmental objectives will likely be adopted by other developed and developing countries with large regions of arid zone agriculture and susceptible wildlife resources. A series of simulation models have been developed over the past four years to evaluate regional drainage management strategies such as: irrigation source control; drainage recycling; selective retirement of agricultural land; regional shallow ground water pumping; coordination of agricultural drainage, wetland and reservoir releases; and short-term ponding of drainage water. A new generation of Geographic Information Service-based software is under development to bridge the gap between planning and program implementation. Use of the decision support system will allow water districts and regulators to continuously monitor drainage discharges to the San Joaquin River in real-time and to assess impacts of management strategies that have been implemented to take advantage of the River`s assimilative capacity for trace elements and salts.

  19. Asian irrigation, African rain: Remote impacts of irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrese, Philipp; Hagemann, Stefan; Claussen, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation is not only vital for global food security but also constitutes an anthropogenic land use change, known to have strong effects on local hydrological and energy cycles. Using the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology's Earth System Model, we show that related impacts are not confined regionally but that possibly as much as 40% of the present-day precipitation in some of the arid regions in Eastern Africa are related to irrigation-based agriculture in Asia. Irrigation in South Asia also substantially influences the climate throughout Southeast Asia and China via the advection of water vapor and by altering the Asian monsoon. The simulated impact of irrigation on remote regions is sensitive to the magnitude of the irrigation-induced moisture flux. Therefore, it is likely that a future extension or decline of irrigated areas due to increasing food demand or declining fresh water resources will also affect precipitation and temperatures in remote regions.

  20. 75 FR 18519 - District of Columbia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Major Disaster and Related... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the District of Columbia (FEMA-1890-DR), dated March 24, 2010... District of Columbia have been designated as adversely affected by this major disaster. The District...

  1. 75 FR 6837 - Notice of Call for Nominations for Bureau of Land Management's California Desert District...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-11

    ... Desert District Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management's (BLM) California Desert District is soliciting nominations from the... be sent to the District Manager, Bureau of Land Management, California Desert District Office,...

  2. Reservoir storage and irrigation in Arequipa, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Swiech, Theoclea; Machicao Pererya, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    In countries such as Peru, irrigated agriculture is not only vital for the subsistence of many but can also be a factor of economic development and by extent social improvement. To answer the local demand and respond to the water scarcity in the sub-basin of Yarabamba, near city of Arequipa, the government decided the construction of a dam for irrigation. The irrigation systems are affected by the lack of water during the dry season for lack of storage and of water distribution between downstream and upstream sectors, among other issues. Water scarcity is the main issue in the basin, leading to poor yields and the inability of growing crops with a high commercial value. Rainfall is available only from November to April, the rest of the year being very dry. Furthermore, the lowest areas of Yarabamba, Sogay and Quequeña are disadvantaged compared to the highest area of Polobaya. By creating a large storage area to regulate the variations of water availability through the year, the dam would allow to at least palliate the lack of water in existing lands, and at best to extend agricultural lands. Farmers would then be able to shift toward higher value crops more easily than without this extra storage. The main focus of the research was the dam which was supposed to improve the water distribution and availability in the sub-basin. From the results of the study, it can be concluded that other factors, related to the irrigation system itself, are involved in the efficiency of the new structure. The farmers, the main stakeholders, believe that more could be done to improve the system and their standard of living. Most of all, the main issue that should be resolved is the fair distribution of water. However, this is not possible without a strong cooperation between sectors, and a potential change in diversion structures. The competition between the districts should be reduced, otherwise the benefits of the dam would not give the expected results. This example shows that

  3. Stirling engines and irrigation pumping

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1987-08-01

    This report was prepared in support of the Renewable Energy Applications and Training Project sponsored by the US Agency for International Development for which ORNL provides technical assistance. It briefly outlines the performance that might be achievable from various kinds of Stirling-engine-driven irrigation pumps. Some emphasis is placed on the very simple liquid-piston engines that have been the subject of research in recent years and are suitable for manufacture in less well-developed countries. In addition to the results quoted here (possible limits on M/sup 4/ and pumping head for different-size engines and various operating conditions), the method of calculation is described in sufficient detail for engineers to apply the techniques to other Stirling engine designs for comparison. The liquid-piston Fluidyne is a form of Stirling engine sharing many of the characteristics of conventional kinematic and free-piston Stirling machines. The use of liquid pistons, however, gives it some unique advantages as well as certain problems that are not encountered or are not important in engines with solid pistons. Because the output is naturally available in the form of an oscillating liquid flow or a fluctuating pressure, the Fluidyne is well suited to liquid pumping, but other applications have also been considered. 27 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Crop And Irrigation Water Management Using High Resolution Remote Sensing And Agrohydrological Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minacapilli, M.; Iovino, M.; D'Urso, G.

    2006-08-01

    A combined agrohydrological and remote sensing approach, called SIMODIS (Simulation and Management of On-Demand Irrigation Systems) (D'Urso, 2001), has been used in a Sicilian test area to simulate the operation of on-demand irrigation system. In SIMODIS the spatial distribution of crop factor, Kc, is directly calculated from canopy variables r (albedo), LAI (Leaf Area Index) and hc (crop height) derived from satellite-based canopy spectral reflectance. Coupling these canopy variables with a specific data set of soil properties, the SIMODIS procedure was setup to simulate, in a distributed way, the water balance and, therefore, the irrigation deliveries for a set of 136 grape fields. For the 2002 irrigation season a good agreement was found between measured and simulated irrigation deliveries both at district and secondary unit level. At these scales, the proposed approach is able to describe the behaviour of on-demand irrigation systems and can be a useful support to irrigation technicians who have to take decisions for improving the efficiency of irrigation systems.

  5. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix F: Irrigation, Municipal and Industrial/Water Supply.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operations Review; United States. Bonneville Power Administration; United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. North Pacific Division; United States. Bureau of Reclamation. Pacific Northwest Region.

    1995-11-01

    Since the 1930`s, the Columbia River has been harnessed for the benefit of the Northwest and the nation. Federal agencies have built 30 major dams on the river and its tributaries. Dozens of non-Federal projects have been developed as well. The dams provide flood control, irrigation, navigation, hydro-electric power generation, recreation, fish and wildlife, and streamflows for wildlife, anadromous fish, resident fish, and water quality. This is Appendix F of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System, focusing on irrigation issues and concerns arrising from the Irrigation and Mitigation of impacts (M&I) working Group of the SOR process. Major subheadings include the following: Scope and process of irrigation/M&I studies; Irrigation/M&I in the Columbia Basin Today including overview, irrigated acreage and water rights, Irrigation and M&I issues basin-wide and at specific locations; and the analysis of impacts and alternative for the Environmental Impact Statement.

  6. Remote sensing estimates of actual evapotranspiration in an irrigation district

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate estimates of the spatial distribution of actual evapotranspiration (AET) are useful in hydrology, but can be difficult to obtain. Remote sensing provides a potential capability for routinely monitoring AET by combining remotely sensed surface temperature and vegetation cover observations w...

  7. Irrigation Management with Remote Sensing Techniques. Crop Water Requirements and Biophysical Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toureiro, Célia; Serralheiro, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Saving water in irrigated agriculture is increasingly relevant, as the irrigation sector is in many regions the biggest water consumer, but must be a sustainable activity. Therefore, the need urges for water use control methods and water resources planning. In irrigated agriculture, the right way for saving water is constituted by the increase of efficiency in water management. This work validates procedures and methodologies with remote sensing to determine the water availability in the soil at each moment and therefore the opportunity for the application of the water volume strictly necessary to optimize crop growth (irrigation opportunity and irrigation amount). The analysis applied to the Irrigation District of Divor, Évora, having used 7 experiment plots, which are areas watered by center-pivot systems, cultivated to corn. Data were determined from multispectral and infrared images of the cultivated surface obtained by satellite or by flying unmanned platform and integrated with parameters of the atmosphere and of the crops for calculating biophysical indicators and indices of water stress in the vegetation (NDVI, Kc, Kcb, CWSI). Therefore, evapotranspiration (ETc) was estimated, with which crop water requirement was calculated, with the opportunity and the amount of irrigation water to allocate. As this information is geographic referenced, maps can be prepared with GIS technology, describing water situation and the opportunity for watering crops. If the remote images are available with enough high spatial and temporal resolution, the frequent availability of maps can serve as a basis for a farmers irrigation advice system and for the regional irrigation authority to make decisions on the irrigation management at the regional scale. This can be a significant contribute to an efficient water management technology and a sustainable irrigated agriculture. Key-Words: Remote Sensing, Vegetation Index, Crop Coefficients, Water Balance

  8. 28 CFR 800.5 - Agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA... Deputy Director). (2) Office of the General Counsel. (3) Community Supervision Services. (4) Office of.... (9) Office of Legislative, Intergovernmental, and Public Affairs. (10) Information...

  9. Irrigation Capacity Impact on limited irrigation management and cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation capacity in corn production is an increasingly important issue in the semi-arid Great Plains as irrigation well outputs decrease to the point where fully meeting crop water needs is not possible. Strategies need to be developed that will maximize yields under reduced water application amo...

  10. Irrigation capacity impact on limited irrigation management and cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation capacity in corn production is an increasingly important issue in the semi-arid Great Plains as irrigation well outputs decrease to the point where fully meeting crop water needs is not possible. Strategies need to be developed that will maximize yields under reduced water application amo...

  11. Integrating multiple irrigation technologies for overall improvement in irrigation.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are many tools, techniques, and/or schemes to assist producers in irrigation water management and specifically in irrigation scheduling. This paper will highlight several of those but emphasize that several methods should be used simultaneously as an improved or advanced procedure to avoid bia...

  12. 2010 North Plains Research Field 12-200 Limited Irrigation Corn Production Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North Plains Groundwater Conservation District (NPGCD) in the Texas High Plains embarked on a demonstration program to illustrate if the region could produce 200 bushels and acres of corn using just 12 inches of irrigation water (named the 12-200 Project). This report is a summary of the first y...

  13. Modern Endodontic Principles Part 4: Irrigation.

    PubMed

    Darcey, James; Jawad, Sarra; Taylor, Carly; Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Hunter, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The complex anatomy of the tooth limits the ability to eradicate pathogens by mechanical means alone. Irrigation is the key to solving this problem. This paper highlights the importance of irrigation, the key irrigants available and methods of improving the performance of irrigants within the canal. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: To provide advice on which irrigants to use, how to use them effectively and safely and what to do if irrigants are extruded beyond the apex. PMID:27024899

  14. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  15. Evapotranspiration of deficit irrigated sorghum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deficit irrigation is used commonly in regions with reduced or limited irrigation capacity to increase water use efficiency (WUE). This research measured sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) water use (ET) and yield so WUE could be determined. Two precision weighing lysimeters were used to accurate...

  16. Web-based irrigation scheduler

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, few web-based irrigation scheduling tools are available for the humid growing environments of the Mid-South. Common irrigation scheduling systems rely on soil or weather data to estimate crop water use, and are more commonly calibrated for dry growing environments. Increasing use of water...

  17. 77 FR 32483 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the...

  18. 75 FR 32353 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, South Coast Air Quality Management District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the...

  19. Desert landscape irrigation

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, R.

    1995-06-01

    Industrialization can take place in an arid environment if a long term, overall water management program is developed. The general rule to follow is that recharge must equal or exceed use. The main problem encountered in landscape projects is that everyone wants a lush jungle setting, tall shade trees, ferns, with a variety of floral arrangements mixed in. What we want, what we can afford, and what we get are not always the same. Vegetation that requires large quantities of water are not native to any desert. Surprisingly; there are various types of fruit trees, and vegetables that will thrive in the desert. Peaches, plums, nut trees, do well with drip irrigation as well as tomatoes. Shaded berry plans will also do well, the strawberry being one. In summary; if we match our landscape to our area, we can then design our irrigation system to maintain our landscape and grow a variety of vegetation in any arid or semiarid environment. The application of science and economics to landscaping has now come of age.

  20. Adaptive management of irrigation and crops' biodiversity: a case study on tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lorenzi, Francesca; Alfieri, Silvia Maria; Basile, Angelo; Bonfante, Antonello; Monaco, Eugenia; Riccardi, Maria; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    We have assessed the impacts of climate change and evaluated options to adapt irrigation management in the face of predicted changes of agricultural water demand. We have evaluated irrigation scheduling and its effectiveness (versus crop transpiration), and cultivars' adaptability. The spatial and temporal variations of effectiveness and adaptability were studied in an irrigated district of Southern Italy. Two climate scenarios were considered: reference (1961-90) and future (2021-2050) climate, the former from climatic statistics, and the latter from statistical downscaling of general circulation models (AOGCM). Climatic data consist of daily time series of maximum and minimum temperature, and daily rainfall on a grid with a spatial resolution of 35 km. The work was carried out in the Destra Sele irrigation scheme (18.000 ha. Twenty-five soil units were identified and their hydrological properties were determined (measured or estimated from texture through pedo-transfer functions). A tomato crop, in a rotation typical of the area, was considered. A mechanistic model of water flow in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SWAP) was used to study crop water requirements and water consumption. The model was calibrated and validated in the same area for many different crops. Tomato crop input data and model parameters were estimated on the basis of scientific literature and assumed to be generically representative of the species. Simulations were performed for reference and future climate, and for different irrigation scheduling options. In all soil units, six levels of irrigation volumes were applied: full irrigation (100%), deficit irrigation (80%, 60%, 40%, 20%), no irrigation. From simulation runs, indicators of soil water availability were calculated, moreover the marginal increases of transpiration per unit of irrigation volume, i.e. the effectiveness of irrigation (ΔT/I), were computed, in both climate scenarios. Indicators and marginal increases were used to

  1. Research and Evaluation in Regional Education Agencies: A Texas Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roecks, Alan L.; Noonan, Albert J.

    Texas is divided into 20 regions served by intermediate education agencies offering school districts the opportunity to receive specialized services normally beyond the reach of school systems. This report examines how one such regional educational agency in Region 20, which serves 50 districts in 14 counties, is organized to provide evaluation…

  2. District of Columbia Public Education: Agencies Have Enhanced Internal Controls over Federal Payments for School Improvement, but More Consistent Monitoring Needed. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-11-16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Between fiscal years 2004 and 2009, Congress appropriated nearly $190 million in federal payments for school improvement to the District of Columbia (D.C.). This includes $85 million to the state education office--currently the Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE)--to expand public charter schools and $105 million to D.C. Public…

  3. School District Mergers: What One District Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the planning process for a school district merger in a northwestern Pennsylvania school district, effective communication proved to be a challenge. Formed in 1932, this school district of approximately 1400 students was part of a utopian community; one established by a transportation system's corporation that was a major industrial…

  4. Soil management and conservation: Irrigation: Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation applies water to soil to improve crop production. The three main methods of irrigation are surface, sprinkler and micro. Surface irrigation is used on 85% of the irrigated land in the world. It generally requires lower capital investment because the soil conveys water within the field, ra...

  5. Drip irrigation research update at NPRL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drip irrigation research has been conducted since 1998 at NPRL. Systems include deep subsurface drip irrigation (SSDI), surface drip irrigation (SDI), and shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI). Results have shown that SDI and S3DI are more economical to install than SSDI. SDI systems have more r...

  6. Wireless sensor networks for irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustaining an adequate food supply for the world's population will require advancements in irrigation technology and improved irrigation management. Site-specific irrigation and automatic irrigation scheduling are examples of strategies to deal with declining arable land and limited fresh water reso...

  7. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  8. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  9. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  10. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  11. 36 CFR 28.3 - Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore District. 28.3 Section 28.3 Parks, Forests, and Public... General Provisions § 28.3 Boundaries: The Community Development District; The Dune District; The Seashore... Community Development District, the Seashore District, and the Dune District. (b) The Community...

  12. Does Place Influence Mathematics Achievement Outcomes? An Investigation of the Standing of Appalachian Ohio School Districts. Working Paper Series 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howley, Craig B.; Howley, Aimee A.; Hopkins, Terri

    2005-01-01

    In Appalachian Ohio, districts are 2.5 times more likely than other districts to earn "efficiency" ratings from the state education agency (SEA). District accountability performance is not adjusted for poverty or other structural threats, and affluent suburban districts are permitted to address the same standards as impoverished rural and urban…

  13. Integrating phytoremediation, wetlands, spray irrigation, and prairie restoration to treat carbon tetrachloride contamination in a rural community.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Negri, M. C.; Sedivy, R. A.; Yan, Y.E.; Steck, D.; Gilmore, S. M.; Kulakow, P.; Hutchinson, S.; Erickson, L.; USDA; Kansas State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    In a cooperative conservation effort, the U.S. Department of Agriculture is cleaning up a contaminated aquifer in a rural community and simultaneously improving the community's recreational and educational opportunities. While one component of the cleanup system irrigates school athletic fields that were parched and bare in previous summers, other components have created a nearby public recreational area. The USDA's other partners in this effort are the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Kansas State University, state regulators, local businesses, governmental units, and residents. The groundwater aquifer beneath Murdock, Nebraska, became contaminated with carbon tetrachloride as the result of fumigation of grain stored decades ago in a USDA facility. Contaminant levels in the groundwater (up to 7,800 {micro}g/L at one time) precluded use of the aquifer for drinking water, and discharge of contaminated groundwater to a nearby creek posed health risks. Concentrations of carbon tetrachloride as high as 361 {micro}g/kg in subsurface soil indicated the presence of a soil source. Model simulations of potential leaching indicated that the source would continue to release contaminant for at least 80 years, and migration to the creek would continue after that. The USDA, ANL, and EPA developed an innovative cleanup system that combines multiple technologies. Near the contamination source, pumps extract contaminated groundwater and pass it through a spray irrigation system that dissipates the carbon tetrachloride harmlessly into the air. The treated water irrigates the school's athletic field, nurturing a healthy grassy surface. Supplementing the spray irrigation technology are more than 2,000 trees planted downstream from where the groundwater enters the creek. The trees accomplish phytoremediation by taking up contaminated water and breaking down carbon tetrachloride naturally. Native prairie plants

  14. Malaria transmission in a rice-irrigation area in Mali, West Africa: Review of past work and new findings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touré, M. B.; Diuk-Wasser, M. A.; Lozano-Fuentes, S.; Traoré, S.; Taylor, C. E.

    2007-12-01

    The "Office du Niger" in the Niono District of Mali oversees irrigation from a dam on the Niger River -- the largest irrigation project in Mali. The facility was first built in 1932, and now irrigates more than 55,000 hectares for rice. A large reservoir in the center of the area provides water throughout the year through a water-control system. This water-control system enables a double cropping of rice. Nearly all residents located near the irrigated areas practice rice cultivation from that irrigation during the rainy season: some of them double crop. It has been well- established that malaria transmission occurs throughout the year in the irrigated area with two peaks --- one peak in the rainy season and the second peak corresponding to irrigated cultivation that occurs in the dry season due to double cropping. The Niono area has been the subject of several intensive studies during past years. Among the findings has been that the irrigated villages experience very large numbers of mosquitoes (often in excess of 550 bites per person per night), and neighboring non-irrigated villages experience far fewer bites (ca 70 bites per person per night). Paradoxically, the rates of malaria are very much lower in the irrigated villages than in the non-irrigated ones, in spite of the numbers of mosquitoes. We have been studying villages around Niono for the past 10 years, with the hope of understanding what is responsible for the level of malaria transmission and learning how that understanding can be used to control malaria elsewhere. Our work has involved remote sensing, GIS mapping, and collections and modeling of both adult and immature mosquitoes. Recently we have been conducting social surveys as well. In this talk we review our past work and present new results about spatial patterns of vector behavior within villages situated within the irrigated areas.

  15. Chlorhexidine as a canal irrigant: a review.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Steven

    2010-06-01

    The use of an irrigant during root canal therapy is an important factor in the cleaning and disinfecting of the root canal system. While sodium hypochlorite has been used for decades as a primary irrigant, other irrigants have been investigated as alternatives. This article reviews chlorhexidine as a canal irrigant, explores its different properties, and provides the dental practitioner with information to help make a more informed decision when choosing an irrigant. PMID:20583503

  16. Emerging Organizational Patterns of Educational Service Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harken, Dennis

    This paper discusses intergovernmental relationships between education service agencies (ESAs) in Pennsylvania and the agencies they serve, namely, the state department of education and local school districts. Some suggestions made are that ESA policies retain flexibility and that local control be retained in ESA programs, for example, through…

  17. State Library Agency Survey: Fiscal Year 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Everett; Manjarrez, C. Arturo; Miller, Kim A.; Dorinski, Suzanne; Freeman, Michael; Music, Christopher; O'Shea, Patricia; Sheckells, Cindy

    2008-01-01

    This report marks the second release of library statistics data from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS). It contains data on state library agencies in the 50 states and the District of Columbia for state fiscal year (FY) 2007. The data were collected through the State Library Agencies (StLA) Survey, the product of a cooperative…

  18. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2015-08-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are accounted for, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL after a large development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitude of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, being the increases most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (2 °C global warming combined with full CO2-fertilization effect, and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and

  19. Energy requirements in pressure irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, R.; Rodríguez-Sinobas, L.; Juana, L.; Laguna, F. V.; Castañón, G.; Gil, M.; Benítez, J.

    2012-04-01

    Modernization of irrigation schemes, generally understood as transformation of surface irrigation systems into pressure -sprinkler and trickle- irrigation systems, aims at, among others, improving irrigation efficiency and reduction of operation and maintenance efforts made by the irrigators. However, pressure irrigation systems, in contrast, carry a serious energy cost. Energy requirements depend on decisions taken on management strategies during the operation phase, which are conditioned by previous decisions taken on the design project of the different elements which compose the irrigation system. Most of the countries where irrigation activity is significant bear in mind that modernization irrigation must play a key role in the agricultural infrastructure policies. The objective of this study is to characterize and estimate the mean and variation of the energy consumed by common types of irrigation systems and their management possibilities. The work includes all processes involved from the diversion of water into irrigation specific infrastructure to water discharge by the emitters installed on the crop fields. Simulation taking into account all elements comprising the irrigation system has been used to estimate the energy requirements of typical irrigation systems of several crop production systems. It has been applied to extensive and intensive crop systems, such us extensive winter crops, summer crops and olive trees, fruit trees and vineyards and intensive horticulture in greenhouses. The simulation of various types of irrigation systems and management strategies, in the framework imposed by particular cropping systems, would help to develop criteria for improving the energy balance in relation to the irrigation water supply productivity.

  20. Cutaneous Melioidosis Cluster Caused by Contaminated Wound Irrigation Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Merritt, Adam J.; Peck, Mariani; Gayle, Dionne; Levy, Avram; Ler, Yi-Horng; Raby, Edward; Gibbs, Tristan M.

    2016-01-01

    Melioidosis usually occurs after environmental exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei in the tropics. A cluster of 5 cutaneous melioidosis cases occurred in suburban southwest Australia after an earlier case in January 2012. We collected environmental samples at the first patient’s home in January 2012 and from a nearby health center in December 2013 after 2 new cases occurred in the same postal district. We isolated genotypically identical B. pseudomallei from the first patient and 5 other patients in the district. Environmental sampling implicated an opened bottle of saline wound irrigation fluid containing >106 B. pseudomallei/mL. The bottle included instructions to discard within 24 hours of opening. No further cases of B. pseudomallei infection occurred after removing the contaminated bottle. This cutaneous melioidosis cluster demonstrates that B. pseudomallei can survive and disseminate in widely used medical fluids beyond its known geographic distribution, highlighting a need to use these products according to manufacturers’ instructions. PMID:27438887

  1. 76 FR 53329 - Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is updating and consolidating the list of marine events occurring annually within the Eleventh Coast Guard District. These...

  2. 77 FR 74907 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00006

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00006 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the District of Columbia (FEMA- 4096-DR), dated 12/05/2012. Incident: Hurricane Sandy....

  3. 75 FR 17791 - District of Columbia Disaster # DC-00002

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00002 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only... adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Disaster Area District of Columbia. The Interest Rates...

  4. 75 FR 11583 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00001

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00001 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for public assistance only... disaster: Primary Disaster Area: District of Columbia. The Interest Rates are: Percent For Physical...

  5. 76 FR 72021 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00004

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00004 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the District of Columbia (FEMA- 4044-DR), dated 11/08/2011. Incident: Earthquake. Incident...

  6. 76 FR 60852 - District of Columbia; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Emergency and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of an emergency for the District of Columbia (FEMA-3337-EM), dated August 28, 2011.... Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121-5208 (the Stafford Act), as...

  7. 77 FR 47907 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00005

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00005 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the District of Columbia (FEMA- 4073-DR), dated 07/31/2012. Incident: Severe Storms....

  8. 76 FR 62131 - District of Columbia Disaster #DC-00003

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION District of Columbia Disaster DC-00003 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance only for the District of Columbia (FEMA- 4036-DR), dated 09/28/2011. Incident: Hurricane Irene....

  9. 78 FR 60268 - Race to the Top-District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... Affected Counties. All other information in the August 6, 2013, Notice Inviting Applications (78 FR 48006... to the Top--District AGENCY: Office of the Deputy Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice extending the deadline of the fiscal year (FY) 2013 Race to the Top--District competition for certain...

  10. 76 FR 64990 - Houston District Office Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... ADMINISTRATION Houston District Office Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA... announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Houston District Office Advisory... Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Conference Room 12th Floor; located at 8701 South Gessner, Houston,...

  11. 76 FR 24080 - Houston District Office Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Houston District Office Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA... announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Houston District Office Advisory... Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Conference Room 453, 4th Floor; located at 8701 South Gessner, Houston,...

  12. 76 FR 2431 - Houston District Office Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Houston District Office Advisory Committee AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION... the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Houston District Office Advisory..., Houston, TX. 77074. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to section 10(a)(2) of the Federal...

  13. Apical Extrusion of Debris and Irrigants Using Different Irrigation Needles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula Barcellos; Krolow, Angélica Mohnsam; Pilownic, Katerine Jahnecke; Casarin, Renata Picanço; Lima, Regina Karla Pontes; Leonardo, Renato de Toledo; Pappen, Fernanda Geraldo

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of irrigation tip, root canal curvature and final apical diameter on periapical debris and irrigant extrusion during root canal instrumentation. After being classified as mildly or moderately curved, the mesiobuccal root canals of 90 human molars were instrumented. The teeth were allocated into three groups according to the used needle type: a flat open-end needle (Group 1), a side-vented needle (Group 2) or a double side-vented needle (Group 3). The amount of extruded material after instrumentation was calculated for each group. The differences in irrigant and debris extrusion between the experimental groups were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. Irrigation tips and final instrument diameter differences were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test. Multiple groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test with a Bonferroni correction at α=0.05. The amount of extruded material from the double side-vented needle was significantly less than the open-ended flat needle (p=0.008), but there was no difference compared to the side-vented needle (p=0.929). The results showed no effect of root curvature and final apical diameter on the amount of irrigant and debris extrusion (p>0.05). The double side-vented needles generated the least material extrusion to the periapical tissues. Irrigation needle type had the greatest influence on periapical irrigant and debris extrusion and the double side-vented needles may be safely used during endodontic therapy. PMID:27058383

  14. Hamilton County: A Rural School District Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harned, Catherine

    Using state education agency, census, industry employment and occupational information data, this paper provides a detailed picture of a rural school district in Southern Illinois. Mining and agriculture are the major industries in Hamilton County. The major mining employer closed in February 1988, and the drought of 1988 is likely to adversely…

  15. How School District Bonds Are Rated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchcock, David

    1992-01-01

    Bond ratings are an assessment by an independent rating agency of the credit worthiness of a bond issuer, such as a school district, on repayment of a particular bond issue. Describes the rating procedures Standard and Poor's Municipal Finance Department uses to assign bond ratings. (MLF)

  16. The Micropolitics of School District Decentralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.; Blase, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    This case study of school district educational reform in the United States adds to the knowledge base of macropolitics of federal, state and local governing bodies and private sector agencies in formulating educational policies: It also contributes to our understanding the microplitics of policy implementation. Middle managers' political…

  17. Assessment of irrigation performance: contribution to improve water management in a small catchment in the Brazilian savannas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Lineu; Marioti, Juliana; Steenhuis, Tammo; Wallender, Wesley

    2010-05-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the major consumer of surface water in Brazil using over 70% of the total supply. Due to the growing competition for water among different sectors of the economy, sustainable water use can only be achieved by decreasing the portion of water used by the irrigated agriculture. Thus, in order to maintain yield, farmers need to irrigate more efficiently. There is little known on irrigation efficiency in Brazil. Therefore a study was carried out in the Buriti Vermelho basin to assess the irrigation performance of existing system. The experimental basin has a drainage area of 940 hectares and is located in the eastern part of the Federal District, in the Brazilian savanna region. Agriculture is the main activity. There is a dominance of red latosols. Several types of land use and crop cover are encountered in the basin. Conflicts among farmers for water are increasing. As water, in quality and quantity, is crucial to maintain the livelihood of the population in the basin, concern about risk of water lack due to climatic and land use change is in place. Once irrigation is the main water user in the basin, to increase water availability and reduce conflicts a water resource management plan has to be established. For this purpose, irrigation system performance has to be understood. The objective of this work was to assess the performance and the management of irrigation (small and big) that has been carried out by farmers in the Buriti Vermelho experimental watershed. A survey undertaken in 2007 was used to identify the irrigation systems in the basin. It was verified that irrigation is practiced by both small (area up to 6 hectare) and big farmers. Small farmers usually crop limes and vegetables and use micro-irrigation, drip, sprinkler, guns or furrow to irrigate them. Big farmers plant annual crops and use center pivot as irrigation system. In this first assessment 13 irrigation systems were evaluated: five conventional sprinklers, four drip

  18. 76 FR 72965 - District of Columbia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Major Disaster and Related... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the District of Columbia (FEMA-4044-DR), dated November 8... such a major disaster exists in the District of Columbia. In order to provide Federal assistance,...

  19. 77 FR 73486 - District of Columbia; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Amendment No. 2 to Notice of an... amends the notice of an emergency declaration for the District of Columbia (FEMA-3352-EM), dated October... declaration for the District of Columbia is hereby amended to include the following areas among those...

  20. 76 FR 64959 - District of Columbia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Major Disaster and Related... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the District of Columbia (FEMA-4036-DR), dated September 28... declare that such a major disaster exists in the District of Columbia. In order to provide...

  1. 77 FR 20871 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... District Office, U.S. Small Business Administration, 540 Niagara Center, 130 S. Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo..., Buffalo District Office, U.S. Small Business Administration, 540 Niagara Center, 130 S. Elmwood...

  2. Developing, Managing, and Gaining Public Support for the School District Budget.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holly, William J.

    1987-01-01

    This bulletin focuses on four aspects of budget development and management in local school districts. Chapter 1 describes the general budget development process, highlighting variations some Oregon districts have found useful. The chapter outlines the responsibilities of educational agencies and district staff members at various levels and reviews…

  3. 75 FR 11557 - Meeting of the California Desert District Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Meeting of the California Desert District Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... accordance with Public Laws 92-463 and 94-579, that the California Desert District Advisory Council to the....html . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: All California Desert District Advisory Council meetings are open...

  4. 78 FR 18625 - Call for Nominations for the California Desert District Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for the California Desert District Advisory Council AGENCY...) California Desert District is soliciting nominations from the public for five members to serve 3-year terms on its Desert District Advisory Council. Council members provide advice and recommendations to...

  5. Radiological Evaluation of Penetration of the Irrigant according to Three Endodontic Irrigation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Benkiran, Imane; El Ouazzani, Amal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This experimental study is to compare radiographs based on the penetration depth of the irrigant following three final irrigation techniques. Material and Method. A sample of sixty teeth with single roots were prepared with stainless steel K files followed by mechanized Ni-Ti files iRace® under irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Radiopaque solution was utilized to measure the penetration depth of the irrigant. Three irrigation techniques were performed during this study: (i) passive irrigation, (ii) manually activated irrigation, and (iii) passive irrigation with an endodontic needle CANAL CLEAN®. Radiographs were performed to measure the length of irrigant penetration in each technique. Results. In comparison, passive irrigation with a conventional syringe showed infiltration of the irrigant by an average of 0.682 ± 0.105, whereas the manually activated irrigation technique indicated an average of 0.876 ± 0.066 infiltration. Irrigation with an endodontic syringe showed an average infiltration of 0.910 ± 0.043. The results revealed highly significant difference between the three irrigation techniques (α = 5%). Conclusion. Adding manual activation to the irrigant improved the result by 20%. This study indicates that passive irrigation with an endodontic needle has proved to be the most effective irrigation technique of the canal system. PMID:27433162

  6. Irrigation management with remote sensing. [Navajo Indian Irrigation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlan, C.; Heilman, J. L.; Moore, D.; Myers, V. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Two visible/near IR hand held radiometers and a hand held thermoradiometer were used along with soil moisture and lysimetric measurements in a study of soil moisture distribution in afalfa fields on the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project near farmington, New Mexico. Radiances from irrigated plots were measured and converted to reflectances. Surface soil water contents (o cm to 4 cm) were determined gravimetrically on samples collected at the same time as the spectral measurements. The relationship between the spectral measurements and the crop coefficient were evaluated to demonstrate potential for using spectral measurement to estimate crop coefficient.

  7. 76 FR 67396 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Placer County Air Pollution Control District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Sacramento... commercial boilers, stationary internal combustion engines and water heaters. We are proposing to...

  8. Irrigation and groundwater in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertsen, Maurits; Iftikhar Kazmi, Syed

    2010-05-01

    Introduction of large gravity irrigation system in the Indus Basin in late nineteenth century without a drainage system resulted in water table rise consequently giving rise to water logging and salinity problems over large areas. In order to cope with the salinity and water logging problem government initiated salinity control and reclamation project (SCARP) in 1960. Initially 10,000 tube wells were installed in different areas, which not only resulted in the lowering of water table, but also supplemented irrigation. Resulting benefits from the full irrigation motivated framers to install private tube wells. Present estimate of private tube wells in Punjab alone is around 0.6 million and 48 billion cubic meter of groundwater is used for irrigation, contributing is 1.3 billion to the economy. The Punjab meets 40% of its irrigation needs from groundwater abstraction. Today, farmers apply both surface water flows and groundwater from tubewells, creating a pattern of private and public water control. As the importance of groundwater in sustaining human life and ecology is evident so are the threats to its sustainability due to overexploitation, but sufficient information for its sustainable management especially in developing countries is still required. Sustainable use of groundwater needs proper quantification of the resource and information on processes involved in its recharge and discharge. Groundwater recharge is broadly defined as water that reaches the aquifer from any direction (Lerner 1997). Sustainability and proper management of groundwater resource requires reliable quantification of the resource. In order to protect the resource from contamination and over exploitation, identification of recharge sources and their contribution to resource is a basic requirement. Physiochemical properties of some pesticides and their behavior in soil and water can make them potential tracers of subsurface moisture movement. Pesticides are intensively used in the area to

  9. Study of State Arts Agencies: A Comprehensive Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Research Center of the Arts, Inc., New York,. NY.

    A comprehensive analysis of state arts agencies in the 50 states and in the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa is presented. Data were collected from interviews with agency directors and agency reports as of fiscal year 1974. The report is organized into eight chapters. Chapter 1 examines budget…

  10. 28 CFR Appendix A to Part 800 - Agency Addresses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency Addresses A Appendix A to Part 800 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Pt. 800, App. A Appendix A to Part 800—Agency Addresses I. Central Offices...

  11. 33 CFR 230.16 - Lead and cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., joint lead agency, and cooperating agency designation and responsibilities are covered in 40 CFR 1501.5... other agencies as required by 40 CFR 1501.5(c). District or division commanders will consult with HQUSACE (CECW-RE), WASH DC 20314-1000 prior to requesting resolution by CEQ as outlined by 40 CFR...

  12. 33 CFR 230.16 - Lead and cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., joint lead agency, and cooperating agency designation and responsibilities are covered in 40 CFR 1501.5... other agencies as required by 40 CFR 1501.5(c). District or division commanders will consult with HQUSACE (CECW-RE), WASH DC 20314-1000 prior to requesting resolution by CEQ as outlined by 40 CFR...

  13. 33 CFR 230.16 - Lead and cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., joint lead agency, and cooperating agency designation and responsibilities are covered in 40 CFR 1501.5... other agencies as required by 40 CFR 1501.5(c). District or division commanders will consult with HQUSACE (CECW-RE), WASH DC 20314-1000 prior to requesting resolution by CEQ as outlined by 40 CFR...

  14. 33 CFR 230.16 - Lead and cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., joint lead agency, and cooperating agency designation and responsibilities are covered in 40 CFR 1501.5... other agencies as required by 40 CFR 1501.5(c). District or division commanders will consult with HQUSACE (CECW-RE), WASH DC 20314-1000 prior to requesting resolution by CEQ as outlined by 40 CFR...

  15. 33 CFR 230.16 - Lead and cooperating agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., joint lead agency, and cooperating agency designation and responsibilities are covered in 40 CFR 1501.5... other agencies as required by 40 CFR 1501.5(c). District or division commanders will consult with HQUSACE (CECW-RE), WASH DC 20314-1000 prior to requesting resolution by CEQ as outlined by 40 CFR...

  16. Gender and power contestations over water use in irrigation schemes: Lessons from the lake Chilwa basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkhoma, Bryson; Kayira, Gift

    2016-04-01

    Over the past two decades, Malawi has been adversely hit by climatic variability and changes, and irrigation schemes which rely mostly on water from rivers have been negatively affected. In the face of dwindling quantities of water, distribution and sharing of water for irrigation has been a source of contestations and conflicts. Women who constitute a significant section of irrigation farmers in schemes have been major culprits. The study seeks to analyze gender contestations and conflicts over the use of water in the schemes developed in the Lake Chilwa basin, in southern Malawi. Using oral and written sources as well as drawing evidence from participatory and field observations conducted at Likangala and Domasi irrigation schemes, the largest schemes in the basin, the study observes that women are not passive victims of male domination over the use of dwindling waters for irrigation farming. They have often used existing political and traditional structures developed in the management of water in the schemes to competitively gain monopoly over water. They have sometimes expressed their agency by engaging in irrigation activities that fall beyond the control of formal rules and regulations of irrigation agriculture. Other than being losers, women are winning the battle for water and land resources in the basin.

  17. Cotton irrigation timing with variable seasonal irrigation capacities in the Texas south plains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the Ogallala Aquifer Region of Texas, the irrigation capacity (IC) for a given field often changes within a growing season due to seasonal depletion of the aquifer, in season changes in crop irrigation needs in dry years, or consequences of irrigation volume limits imposed by irrigation distr...

  18. Treatability/feasibility study for district water quality improvement

    SciTech Connect

    1986-04-01

    The South Adams County Water and Sanitation District`s most productive shallow alluvial wells are contaminated with a number of volatile organic chemicals. In addition, previous and ongoing studies by various agencies have detected several nonvolatile organic contaminants clearly associated with Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) operations in the northern portion of the existing District area and throughout the western half of the area north and west of RMA. This area is ultimately planned as an addition to the District`s present service area. The District retained the services of James M. Montgomery, Consulting Engineers, Inc. (JMM) to evaluate treatment alternatives for removal of organics contaminants and softening. The objectives of the study are outlined in the District`s request for proposals dated October 11, 1985. In general, the objectives are: to establish, through an analysis of cost and availability, potential sources of supply for the current and projected District water demands; based on requirements of the Colorado Department of Health and the Environmental Protection Agency, develop treated water quality goals; and select the most feasible treatment for organic contaminant removal with consideration of cost, constructability and reliability in meeting treated water quality goals.

  19. Variable-rate irrigation management for peanut using Irrigator Pro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable-rate irrigation has the potential to save water. These savings become more important as urban, industrial, and environmental sectors compete with agriculture for available water. To help save water, methodologies are needed to precision-apply water for maximum agronomic and economic efficac...

  20. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Samuelson, Lisa

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  1. Management of water for irrigation agriculture in semi-arid areas: Problems and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mvungi, A.; Mashauri, D.; Madulu, N. F.

    Most of the Mwanga district is classified as semi-arid with a rainfall range of 300 and 600 mm. Rainfall patterns in the district are unpredictable and are subject to great fluctuations. Like other semi-arid areas, the district is characterized with land degradation, unreliable rainfall, repeated water shortage, periodic famine, overgrazing, dry land cultivation in the marginal areas and heavy competition for limited biomass between farmers and cattle. Vulnerability here is high due to unreliability of weather. The people of Mwanga are dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. However agriculture is difficult in the area due to inadequate rainfall. For a very long time the people have been dependent on irrigation agriculture to ensure food security. Of late the traditional irrigation system is on the decline threatening food security in the area. This paper examines the state and status of the irrigation canal system in Mwanga district with the view of recommending ways in which it can be improved. The study used participatory, survey and in-depth interviews to obtain both quantitative and qualitative data. The major findings are that social, political, environmental and demographic bases that supported the traditional irrigation system have changed drastically. As a corollary to this, the cultural and religious belief systems that supported and guided the traditional canal system management have been replaced by mistrust and corruption in water allocation. In addition the ownership and management system of the water resources that was vested in the initiator clans has changed and now water user groups own the canals/furrows but they do not own the water sources. This has rendered the control of the water sources difficult if not impossible. Currently the system is faced by a number of problems including shortage of water and poor management as demand for water increases and this has led to serious conflicts among and between crop producers and pastoralists

  2. Climate Impacts on Irrigated Agriculture in California's Central Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, J.; Young, C. A.; Mehta, V. K.; Davitt, A. W. D.; Azarderakhsh, M.; Ruane, A. C.; Rosenzweig, C.

    2015-12-01

    Irrigated farms account for 80%-90% of consumptive water use in the United States and $118.5 billion of US agricultural production. Despite the vast water use and high yields of irrigated croplands, agriculture is typically the lowest value sector in a water resources system, and thus the first to face reductions when water becomes scarce. A major challenge for hydrologic and agricultural communities is assessing the effects of climate change on the sustainability of regional water resources and irrigated agriculture. To explore the interface of water and agriculture in California's Central Valley, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model was coupled to the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) water resources model, deployed over the service area of Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District, and forced using both historical and future climate scenarios. This coupling brings water supply constraints to DSSAT and sophisticated agricultural water use, management, and diagnostics to WEAP. Thirty year historical (1980-2009) simulations of WEAP-DSSAT for corn, wheat, and rice were run using a spatially interpolated observational dataset, and contrasted with future simulations using climate scenarios developed by adjusting the spatially interpolated observational dataset with North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program differences between future (2050-2069) and historical (1980-1999) regional climate model simulations of precipitation and temperature. Generally, within the Central Valley temperatures warm by approximately 2°C, precipitation remains constant, and crop water use efficiency increases. On average corn yields decrease, wheat yields increase, and rice yields remain unchanged. Potential adaptations, as well as implications for groundwater pumping, irrigation extent and method, and land use change including fallowing and switching crops, are examined.

  3. Advanced irrigation engineering: Precision and Precise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation advances in precision irrigation (PI) or site-specific irrigation (SSI) have been considerable in research; however commercialization lags. A primary necessity for it is variability in soil texture that affects soil water holding capacity and crop yield. Basically, SSI/PI uses variable ra...

  4. Soil water monitoring equipment for irrigation scheduling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equipment for monitoring soil water content and sometimes bulk electrical conductivity can be used for scheduling irrigations if the accuracy of the equipment is sufficient to avoid damanging plants and wasting water and fertilizer. Irrigation scheduling is the process of deciding when to irrigate a...

  5. Mississippi web-based irrigation scheduling tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing use of water in the Mid-South has begun to deplete water levels in aquifers, with few guidelines in place for farmers as to when and how much to irrigate. Irrigation can increase crop yields when water is applied correctly. Irrigation scheduling is a method of managing water to better mat...

  6. ON-FARM IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides a technical discussion of irrigation and drainage design and water management practices associated with irrigation in arid and semiarid areas. Surface irrigation being the principal method used in most arid areas is discussed in detail with the various types being outlined and...

  7. Advanced irrigation engineering: Precision and Precise

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation advances in precision irrigation (PI) or site specific irrigation (SSI) have been considerable in research; however commercialization lags. A primary necessity for PI/SSI is variability in soil texture that affects soil water holding capacity and crop yield. Basically, SSI/PI uses variabl...

  8. Crop water productivity and irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Modern irrigation systems offer large increases in crop water productivity compared with rainfed or gravity irrigation, but require different management approaches to achieve this. Flood, sprinkler, low-energy precision application, LEPA, and subsurface drip irrigation methods vary widely in water a...

  9. Stirling engines and irrigation pumping

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1988-01-01

    A brief outline is given of the performance that might be achievable from various kinds of Stirling engine driven irrigation pumps. Some emphasis is placed on the very simple liquid piston engines, suitable for low technology manufacture, that have been the recent subject of research. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. District cooling in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, B.

    1996-11-01

    This paper will present the status of the development of district cooling systems in Scandinavia over the last 5 years. It will describe the technologies used in the systems that have been constructed as well as the options considered in different locations. It will identify the drivers for the development of the cooling business to-date, and what future drivers for a continuing development of district cooling in Sweden. To-date, approximately 25 different cities of varying sizes have completed feasibility studies to determine if district cooling is an attractive option. In a survey, that was conducted by the Swedish District Heating Association, some 25 cities expected to have district cooling systems in place by the year 2000. In Sweden, district heating systems with hot water is very common. In many cases, it is simply an addition to the current service for the district heating company to also supply district cooling to the building owners. A parallel from this can be drawn to North America where district cooling systems now are developing rapidly. I am convinced that in these cities a district heating service will be added as a natural expansion of the district cooling company`s service.

  11. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2006-07 (Fiscal Year 2007). First Look. NCES 2009-338

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2006-07 (fiscal year 2007, or FY 07). The School District Finance Survey is a district-level survey that consists of data submitted annually to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) by state education agencies (SEAs) in the 50 states and the District of…

  12. Characteristics of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Effluent Load from a Paddy-field District Implementing Crop Rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hama, Takehide; Aoki, Takeru; Osuga, Katsuyuki; Nakamura, Kimihito; Sugiyama, Sho; Kawashima, Shigeto

    Implementation of collective crop rotation in a paddy-field district may increase nutrients effluent load. We have investigated a paddy-field district implementing collective crop rotation of wheat and soybeans, measured temporal variations in nutrients concentration of drainage water and the amount of discharged water for consecutive three years, and estimated nutrients effluent load from the district during the irrigation and non-irrigation periods. As a result, the highest concentration of nutrients was observed during the non-irrigation period in every investigation year. It was shown that high nutrients concentration of drainage water during the non-irrigation period was caused by runoff of fertilizer applied to wheat because the peaks of nutrients concentration of drainage water were seen in rainy days after fertilizer application in the crop-rotation field. The effluent load during the non-irrigation periods was 16.9-22.1 kgN ha-1 (nitrogen) and 0.84-1.42 kgP ha-1 (phosphorus), which respectively accounted for 46-66% and 27-54% of annual nutrients effluent load.

  13. Using Satellite-based Evapotranspiration Estimation to Characterize Agricultural Irrigation Water Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, B.; Myint, S. W.; Hendrickx, J. M. H.

    2014-12-01

    The satellite-based evapotranspiration (ET) model permits estimation of water consumption across space and time in a systematic way. Developing tools to monitor water availability and water use is critical to meet future water shortage challenges in the American West. This study applied METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution and with Internalized Calibration) to 2001 Landsat imagery to estimate ET of various crop types in Phoenix. The total annual ET estimates are correlated well with the actual water use at the irrigation district level (r=0.99). We further incorporated a crop type map to estimate annual ET for the major crop types in the region, and to examine variability in crop water use among different irrigation districts. Our results show that alfalfa and double crops consume more water than other crop types with mean annual ET estimations of 1300 to 1580 mm/year, and that cotton uses more water (1162 mm/year) than corn (838 mm/year) and sorghum (829 mm/year) as expected. Crop water use varies from one irrigation district to another due to differences in soil quality, water quality, and farming practices. Results from our study suggest that the ET maps derived from METRIC can be used to quantify the spatial distribution of ET and to characterize agricultural water use by crop types at different spatial scales.

  14. Minimum Irrigation Requirements for Cottonwood (Populus fremontii and P. deltoides) and Willow (Salix gooddingii) Grown in a Desert Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, E. P.; Hartwell, S.; Morino, K.; Nagler, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    Native tree plots have been established in riverine irrigation districts in the western U.S. to provide habitat for threatened and endangered birds. Information is needed on the minimum effective irrigation requirements of the target species. We summarize preliminary (or unpublished) findings of a study or cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix gooddingii) trees that were grown for seven years in an outdoor plot in a desert environment in Tucson, Arizona to determine plant water use. Plants were allowed to achieve a nearly complete canopy cover over the first four years, then were subjected to three summer irrigation schedules: 6.2 mm d-1; 8.26 mm d-1 and 15.7 mm d-1. The lowest irrigation rate was sufficient to maintain growth and high leaf area index for cottonwoods over three years, but willows suffered partial die-back on this rate, and required 8.26 mm d-1 to maintain growth. These irrigation rates were required April 15 - September 15, but only 0.88 mm d-1 was required during the dormant periods of the year. Expressed as a fraction of reference crop evapotranspiration (ET/ETo), annual water requirements were 0.83 ETo for cottonwood and 1.01 ETo for willow, which includes irrigation plus precipitation. Current practices tend to over-irrigate restoration plots, and this study can provide guidelines for more efficient water use.

  15. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  16. Growing more with less in the Westlands Water District in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water is a problem for irrigated agricultural throughout the world. In California the Westlands Water District in the San Joaquin Valley had its drainage service eliminated because of selenium contamination in the Kesterson Reservoir. A five-year study developed alternati...

  17. Spatial assessment of groundwater use potential for irrigation in Teesta Barrage Project in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahid, Shahriar M.; Babel, Mukand S.; Gupta, Ashim Das; Clemente, Roberto S.

    2007-03-01

    In Bangladesh, development of the groundwater resource for irrigation is a vital component of the government’s agricultural strategy to attain food self-sufficiency. Amidst reports of falling groundwater levels in many parts of Bangladesh, the potential of groundwater use has been investigated in the Teesta Barrage Project (TBP) in which large-scale groundwater development for dry-season irrigation has taken place in the recent past. Several techniques and tools have been applied such as the combination of analysis of groundwater hydrographs and mathematical modelling to derive key hydrogeological variables, calculation of net irrigation requirement and the use of geographical information systems. The results show that the economically attractive high-yielding variety (HYV) Boro (dry season) rice cultivation during the groundwater irrigation season may not be sustained in large parts of the project area if the current trends in abstraction are continued. However, due to spatial variation in abstraction, nine thanas (sub-districts)—out of a total of 21 in the project area—may still be able to expand groundwater-irrigated cropland and a groundwater-use potential of 40 mm/year may be created if deep-set shallow tubewells are used by the farmers to abstract groundwater. A structured approach, based on zoning of potential areas, is recommended for groundwater development and use.

  18. Spatial Variations of Soil Microbial Activities in Saline Groundwater-Irrigated Soil Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Li-Juan; Feng, Qi; Li, Chang-Sheng; Song, You-Xi; Liu, Wei; Si, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Bao-Gui

    2016-05-01

    Spatial variations of soil microbial activities and its relationship with environmental factors are very important for estimating regional soil ecosystem function. Based on field samplings in a typical saline groundwater-irrigated region, spatial variations of soil microbial metabolic activities were investigated. Combined with groundwater quality analysis, the relationship between microbial activities and water salinity was also studied. The results demonstrated that moderate spatial heterogeneity of soil microbial activities presented under the total dissolved solids (TDS) of groundwater ranging from 0.23 to 12.24 g L-1. Groundwater salinity and microbial activities had almost opposite distribution characteristics: slight saline water was mainly distributed in west Baqu and south Quanshan, while severe saline and briny water were dominant in east Baqu and west Huqu; however, total AWCD was higher in the east-center and southwest of Baqu and east Huqu, while it was lower in east Baqu and northwest Huqu. The results of correlation analyses demonstrated that high-salinity groundwater irrigation had significantly adverse effects on soil microbial activities. Major ions Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl_, and SO4 2- in groundwater decisively influenced the results. Three carbon sources, carbohydrates, amines, and phenols, which had minor utilization rates in all irrigation districts, were extremely significantly affected by high-salinity groundwater irrigation. The results presented here offer an approach for diagnosing regional soil ecosystem function changes under saline water irrigation.

  19. Spatial Variations of Soil Microbial Activities in Saline Groundwater-Irrigated Soil Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Juan; Feng, Qi; Li, Chang-Sheng; Song, You-Xi; Liu, Wei; Si, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Bao-Gui

    2016-05-01

    Spatial variations of soil microbial activities and its relationship with environmental factors are very important for estimating regional soil ecosystem function. Based on field samplings in a typical saline groundwater-irrigated region, spatial variations of soil microbial metabolic activities were investigated. Combined with groundwater quality analysis, the relationship between microbial activities and water salinity was also studied. The results demonstrated that moderate spatial heterogeneity of soil microbial activities presented under the total dissolved solids (TDS) of groundwater ranging from 0.23 to 12.24 g L(-1). Groundwater salinity and microbial activities had almost opposite distribution characteristics: slight saline water was mainly distributed in west Baqu and south Quanshan, while severe saline and briny water were dominant in east Baqu and west Huqu; however, total AWCD was higher in the east-center and southwest of Baqu and east Huqu, while it was lower in east Baqu and northwest Huqu. The results of correlation analyses demonstrated that high-salinity groundwater irrigation had significantly adverse effects on soil microbial activities. Major ions Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cl(_), and SO4 (2-) in groundwater decisively influenced the results. Three carbon sources, carbohydrates, amines, and phenols, which had minor utilization rates in all irrigation districts, were extremely significantly affected by high-salinity groundwater irrigation. The results presented here offer an approach for diagnosing regional soil ecosystem function changes under saline water irrigation. PMID:26872886

  20. Accurate Inventories Of Irrigated Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S.; Thomas, R.; Brown, C.

    1992-01-01

    System for taking land-use inventories overcomes two problems in estimating extent of irrigated land: only small portion of large state surveyed in given year, and aerial photographs made on 1 day out of year do not provide adequate picture of areas growing more than one crop per year. Developed for state of California as guide to controlling, protecting, conserving, and distributing water within state. Adapted to any large area in which large amounts of irrigation water needed for agriculture. Combination of satellite images, aerial photography, and ground surveys yields data for computer analysis. Analyst also consults agricultural statistics, current farm reports, weather reports, and maps. These information sources aid in interpreting patterns, colors, textures, and shapes on Landsat-images.

  1. Removal of surface bacteria by irrigation.

    PubMed

    Anglen, J; Apostoles, P S; Christensen, G; Gainor, B; Lane, J

    1996-03-01

    We examined the efficacy of various irrigation solutions delivered through a power irrigator to remove bacteria from three different surfaces. Titanium, stainless-steel, and cortical bone surfaces were coated with three different bacterial species: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. They were then irrigated with 1 L of fluid delivered by jet lavage. The fluids tested were normal saline and solutions of bacitracin, neomycin, and soap. One set of specimens was not irrigated, as a control. After irrigation, the specimens were sonicated to remove residual bacteria, and the sonicate was quantitatively cultured to allow evaluation of the amount of residual bacteria on the surface. The results showed that removal of bacteria reflects an interaction between bacterial species, surface characteristics, and irrigation solution. Fewer bacteria were present in all the irrigation groups than in the control. Soap solution was as good as or better than any other solution at removing all three types of bacteria from all three surfaces, although not all of the pairwise comparisons were statistically significant. There was a significant advantage to soap solution over antibiotic irrigant or saline alone in removing Staphylococcus epidermidis from metallic surfaces. The use of soap solution for irrigation seems to improve the removal of some bacteria from some surfaces in this experimental model and may represent a better type of irrigation additive. PMID:8648503

  2. Center Pivot Irrigated Agriculture, Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A view of the Faregh Agricultural Station in the Great Calanscio Sand Sea, Libya (26.5N, 22.0E) about 300 miles southeast of Benghazi. A pattern of water wells have been drilled several miles apart to support a quarter mile center-pivot-swing-arm agricultural irrigation system. The crop grown is alfalfa which is eaten on location by flocks of sheep following the swing arm as it rotates. At maturity, the sheep are flown to market throughout Libya.

  3. Interdisciplinary Irrigated Precision Farming Research

    SciTech Connect

    Heermann, D F.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Sandra ); Duke, H R.; Westfall, D G.; Buchleiter, G W.; Westra, P; Peairs, F B.; Fleming, K

    2001-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service and Colorado State University are conducting an inter-disciplinary study that focuses on developing a clearer scientific understanding of the causes of yield variability. Two years of data have been collected from two commercial center pivot irrigated fields (72 and 52 ha). Cooperating farmers manage all farming operations for crop production and provide maps of the maise grown on the fields.

  4. Managing Cooperation and Complexity in Education: The Case of Educational Service Agencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Janet A.; And Others

    Educational Service Agencies (ESA's) are public education agencies that provide specialized programs and services to a group of school districts in a specified geographical region and to the state department of education. Most states have encouraged the development of ESA's that have either evolved out of county districts or have been created to…

  5. Comparison of Irrigation versus No Irrigation during Burr Hole Evacuation of Chronic Subdural Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Iftikhar, Muzna; Siddiqui, Usman Tariq; Rauf, Mohammad Yaseen; Malik, Ali Osama; Javed, Gohar

    2016-09-01

    Objective To compare the results of the use of irrigation versus no irrigation during burr hole evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH). Methodology The study was a retrospective chart review of those patients who underwent burr hole evacuation of CSDH during a period of 5 years. Cases were divided into two groups based on the use of irrigation during surgery. A subdural drain was placed in all patients (i.e., in both the irrigation and no-irrigation groups) and removed 24 to 48 hours postoperatively. Results The total sample size was 56, of which 34 patients were in the irrigation group and 22 in the no-irrigation group. Recurrence rate was 17.6% in the irrigation group and 9.1% in the no-irrigation group (p = 0.46). Systemic complications were predominantly cardiac related in the no-irrigation group compared with respiratory complications in the irrigation group. The irrigation group had a mortality rate of 5.9% compared with 4.5% in the no-irrigation group (p = 0.66). Conclusion No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of recurrence or mortality. PMID:27123748

  6. 75 FR 59206 - Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District; Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Ketchikan-Misty Fiords...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District; Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District Outfitter/Guide Management Plan AGENCY: Forest Service... outfitter and guide use on the Ketchikan- Misty Fiords Ranger District. The decision on the EIS...

  7. 76 FR 16805 - Notice of Call for Nominations for the Bureau of Land Management's California Desert District...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Land Management's California Desert District Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Desert District is soliciting nominations from the public for six members of its California Desert... should be sent to Teresa Raml, District Manager, Bureau of Land Management, California Desert...

  8. Emergy evaluation of the contribution of irrigation water, and its utilization, in three agricultural systems in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dan; Luo, Zhaohui; Webber, Michael; Chen, Jing; Wang, Weiguang

    2014-09-01

    Emergy theory and method are used to evaluate the contribution of irrigation water, and the process of its utilization, in three agricultural systems. The agricultural systems evaluated in this study were rice, wheat, and oilseed rape productions in an irrigation pumping district of China. A corresponding framework for emergy evaluation and sensitivity analysis methods was proposed. Two new indices, the fraction of irrigation water ( FIW), and the irrigation intensity of agriculture ( IIA), were developed to depict the contribution of irrigation water. The calculated FIW indicated that irrigation water used for the rice production system (34.7%) contributed more than irrigation water used for wheat (5.3%) and oilseed rape (11.2%) production systems in a typical dry year. The wheat production with an IIA of 19.0 had the highest net benefit from irrigation compared to the rice (2.9) and oilseed rape (8.9) productions. The transformities of the systems' products represented different energy efficiencies for rice (2.50E + 05 sej·J-1), wheat (1.66E + 05 sej·J-1) and oilseed rape (2.14E + 05 sej·J-1) production systems. According to several emergy indices, of the three systems evaluated, the rice system had the greatest level of sustainability. However, all of them were less sustainable than the ecological agricultural systems. A sensitivity analysis showed that the emergy inputs of irrigation water and nitrogenous fertilizer were the highest sensitivity factors influencing the emergy ratios. Best Management Practices, and other agroecological strategies, could be implemented to make further improvements in the sustainability of the three systems.

  9. Holistic irrigation water management approach based on stochastic soil water dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, H.; Mousavi, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    Appreciating the essential gap between fundamental unsaturated zone transport processes and soil and water management due to low effectiveness of some of monitoring and modeling approaches, this study presents a mathematical programming model for irrigation management optimization based on stochastic soil water dynamics. The model is a nonlinear non-convex program with an economic objective function to address water productivity and profitability aspects in irrigation management through optimizing irrigation policy. Utilizing an optimization-simulation method, the model includes an eco-hydrological integrated simulation model consisting of an explicit stochastic module of soil moisture dynamics in the crop-root zone with shallow water table effects, a conceptual root-zone salt balance module, and the FAO crop yield module. Interdependent hydrology of soil unsaturated and saturated zones is treated in a semi-analytical approach in two steps. At first step analytical expressions are derived for the expected values of crop yield, total water requirement and soil water balance components assuming fixed level for shallow water table, while numerical Newton-Raphson procedure is employed at the second step to modify value of shallow water table level. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, combined with the eco-hydrological simulation model, has been used to solve the non-convex program. Benefiting from semi-analytical framework of the simulation model, the optimization-simulation method with significantly better computational performance compared to a numerical Mote-Carlo simulation-based technique has led to an effective irrigation management tool that can contribute to bridging the gap between vadose zone theory and water management practice. In addition to precisely assessing the most influential processes at a growing season time scale, one can use the developed model in large scale systems such as irrigation districts and agricultural catchments. Accordingly

  10. Deficit irrigation for reducing agricultural water use.

    PubMed

    Fereres, Elias; Soriano, María Auxiliadora

    2007-01-01

    At present and more so in the future, irrigated agriculture will take place under water scarcity. Insufficient water supply for irrigation will be the norm rather than the exception, and irrigation management will shift from emphasizing production per unit area towards maximizing the production per unit of water consumed, the water productivity. To cope with scarce supplies, deficit irrigation, defined as the application of water below full crop-water requirements (evapotranspiration), is an important tool to achieve the goal of reducing irrigation water use. While deficit irrigation is widely practised over millions of hectares for a number of reasons - from inadequate network design to excessive irrigation expansion relative to catchment supplies - it has not received sufficient attention in research. Its use in reducing water consumption for biomass production, and for irrigation of annual and perennial crops is reviewed here. There is potential for improving water productivity in many field crops and there is sufficient information for defining the best deficit irrigation strategy for many situations. One conclusion is that the level of irrigation supply under deficit irrigation should be relatively high in most cases, one that permits achieving 60-100% of full evapotranspiration. Several cases on the successful use of regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) in fruit trees and vines are reviewed, showing that RDI not only increases water productivity, but also farmers' profits. Research linking the physiological basis of these responses to the design of RDI strategies is likely to have a significant impact in increasing its adoption in water-limited areas. PMID:17088360

  11. School District Energy Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of School Business Officials International, Reston, VA.

    This manual serves as an energy conservation reference and management guide for school districts. The School District Energy Program (SDEP) is designed to provide information and/or assistance to school administrators planning to implement a comprehensive energy management program. The manual consists of 15 parts. Part 1 describes the SDEP; Parts…

  12. District, Know Thyself

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tupa, Megan; McFadden, Ledyard

    2009-01-01

    Finalists for the Broad Prize for Urban Education demonstrate that identifying strategies that fit the local context is essential in creating success for students. Long Beach Unified School District in California and Broward County Public Schools in Florida demonstrate how districts can use different strategies to achieve the same goals.

  13. Do School Districts Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehurst, Grover J.; Chingos, Matthew M.; Gallaher, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    School districts occupy center stage in education reform in the U.S. They manage nearly all public funding and are frequently the locus of federal and state reform initiatives, e.g., instituting meaningful teacher evaluation systems. Financial compensation for district leaders is high, with many being paid more than the chief state school officers…

  14. Subsurface agricultural irrigation drainage: the need for regulation.

    PubMed

    Lemly, A D

    1993-04-01

    Subsurface drainage resulting from irrigated agriculture is a toxic threat to fish and wildlife resources throughout the western United States. Studies by the U.S. Department of the Interior show that migratory waterfowl have been poisoned by drainwater contaminants on at least six national wildlife refuges. Allowing this poisoning to continue is a violation of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act under U.S. Federal law. Critical wetlands and waterfowl populations are threatened in both the Pacific and Central flyways. The public is also at risk and health warnings have been issued in some locations. Subsurface irrigation drainage is a complex effluent containing toxic concentrations of trace elements, salts, and nitrogenous compounds. Some of the contaminants are classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as priority pollutants and they can be present in concentrations that exceed EPA's criteria for toxic waste. The on-farm drainage systems used to collect and transport this wastewater provide point-source identification as well as a mechanism for toxics control through the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit process. A four-step approach is presented for dealing with irrigation drainage in an environmentally sound manner. This regulatory strategy is very similar to those commonly used for industrial discharges and includes site evaluation, contaminant reduction through NPDES, and compliance monitoring. The EPA must recognize subsurface irrigation drainage as a specific class of pollution subject to regulation under the NPDES process. Active involvement by EPA is necessary to ensure that adequate controls on this wastewater are implemented. PMID:8484025

  15. Analysis of treated wastewater reuse potential for irrigation in Sicily.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Salvatore; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Consoli, Simona; Licciardello, Feliciana; Marzo, Alessia; Toscano, Attilio

    2012-01-01

    In Mediterranean countries, water shortage is becoming a problem of high concern affecting the local economy, mostly based on agriculture. The problem is not only the scarcity of water in terms of average per capita, but the high cost to make water available at the right place, at the right time with the required quality. In these cases, an integrated approach for water resources management including wastewater is required. The management should also include treated wastewater (TWW) reclamation and reuse, especially for agricultural irrigation. In Italy, TWW reuse is regulated by a quite restrictive approach (Ministry Decree, M.D. 185/03), especially for some chemical compounds and microbiological parameters. The aim of the paper is the evaluation of TWW reuse potential in Sicily. A Geographic Information System (GIS) was built at regional level to quantify and locate the available TWW volumes. In particular, the characteristics of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were integrated, through the GIS, with data on irrigation district areas. Moreover, in order to evaluate the Italian approach for reuse practice in agriculture, the water quality of different TWW effluents was analysed on the basis of both the Italian standards and the WHO guidelines. PMID:22592474

  16. Surface and subsurface water quality appraisal for irrigation.

    PubMed

    Isaac, R K; Khura, T K; Wurmbrand, J R

    2009-12-01

    Use of irrigation water available from various sources in agriculture is justified on agronomic and economic grounds but care must be taken to minimize its adverse environmental and health impacts. During the study 44 water samples, available from the various resources viz., canal, sewage pipe line, tube wells in confined aquifers, tube wells in unconfined aquifers, and wells in the Chaka block district Allahabad, were chemically analyzed to check its suitability for irrigation and to classify it according to amount of salts present. The analysis reveals that most of the samples were within the lower alkalinity limit (pH 7.17-8.42), except sewage water (pH 7.34-9.04). The electrical conductivity of the samples ranged from 0.26 to 1.37 millimhos/cm. Potassium, sodium, calcium, and phosphorus are all found to be in permissible range except one sample in the village Kuria in which Na percentage was found in doubtful category. The other parameters like sodium adsorption ratio, SAR (1.17-2.74), residual sodium carbonate, RSC (-4.46 to -1.07), and soluble sodium percentage, SSP (63.97-28.15) were also found below the permissible limit. PMID:19101814

  17. Effect of biofilm in irrigation pipes on the microbial quality of irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aim: To test the hypothesis that microbial quality of irrigation water can be substantially altered by the association of E. coli with pipe lining in irrigation systems. Methods and Results: The sprinkler irrigation system was outfitted with coupons that were extracted before four 2-hour long irri...

  18. Managing diminished irrigation capacity with preseason irrigation and plant density for corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many of the irrigation systems today in the U.S. Central Great Plains no longer have the capacity to match peak irrigation needs during the summer and must rely on soil water reserves to buffer the crop from water stress. Considerable research was conducted on preseason irrigation in the U.S. Great ...

  19. Water use efficiency of irrigated cotton in Uzbekistan under drip and furrow irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton water use and water use efficiency as related to irrigation method and irrigation scheduling parameters are inadequately understood in the central Asian Republic of Uzbekistan. The main goal of this research was to measure cotton water use, and to determine irrigation water scheduling paramet...

  20. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  1. Integrating district cooling with cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Spurr, M.

    1996-11-01

    Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation in power plants using a steam cycle (steam turbine or gas turbine combined cycle plants). The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. Given a range of conditions for key variables (such as cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, cost of fuel, value of electricity, value of heat and temperature of heat recovered), how do technology alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration compare? This paper summarizes key findings from a report recently published by the International Energy Agency which examines the energy efficiency and economics of alternatives for combining cogeneration technology options (gas turbine simple cycle, diesel engine, steam turbine, gas turbine combined cycle) with chiller options (electric centrifugal, steam turbine centrifugal one-stage steam absorption, two-stage steam absorption, hot water absorption).

  2. Irrigation as an Historical Climate Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  3. Irrigation As an Historical Climate Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B.; Puma, M. J.; McDermid, S. P.; Nazarenko, L.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  4. Irrigation as an historical climate forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Shukla, Sonali P.; Puma, Michael J.; Nazarenko, Larissa S.

    2015-03-01

    Irrigation is the single largest anthropogenic water use, a modification of the land surface that significantly affects surface energy budgets, the water cycle, and climate. Irrigation, however, is typically not included in standard historical general circulation model (GCM) simulations along with other anthropogenic and natural forcings. To investigate the importance of irrigation as an anthropogenic climate forcing, we conduct two 5-member ensemble GCM experiments. Both are setup identical to the historical forced (anthropogenic plus natural) scenario used in version 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, but in one experiment we also add water to the land surface using a dataset of historically estimated irrigation rates. Irrigation has a negligible effect on the global average radiative balance at the top of the atmosphere, but causes significant cooling of global average surface air temperatures over land and dampens regional warming trends. This cooling is regionally focused and is especially strong in Western North America, the Mediterranean, the Middle East, and Asia. Irrigation enhances cloud cover and precipitation in these same regions, except for summer in parts of Monsoon Asia, where irrigation causes a reduction in monsoon season precipitation. Irrigation cools the surface, reducing upward fluxes of longwave radiation (increasing net longwave), and increases cloud cover, enhancing shortwave reflection (reducing net shortwave). The relative magnitude of these two processes causes regional increases (northern India) or decreases (Central Asia, China) in energy availability at the surface and top of the atmosphere. Despite these changes in net radiation, however, climate responses are due primarily to larger magnitude shifts in the Bowen ratio from sensible to latent heating. Irrigation impacts on temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables are regionally significant, even while other anthropogenic forcings (anthropogenic aerosols

  5. Spatio-temporal recharge patterns in a semi-arid alluvial basin with irrigated crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruud, N. C.; Harter, T.; Naugle, A. W.

    2001-12-01

    Recharge in semi-arid regions with irrigated crops is predominantly driven by irrigation technology and cropping patterns, but also by the seasonal distribution of rainfall and the availability of irrigation water. A significant amount of basin recharge occurs from ephemeral streams and unlined irrigation canals. A spatially distributed, GIS-based hydrologic model of water application and water use at the land-atmosphere interface was developed to estimate transient recharge to the deep vadose zone and into the unconfined alluvial aquifer. The spatial basis for the hydrologic model are individual landuse units (diffuse recharge) and a network of streams and canals with water seepage (lineal recharge). The land-atmosphere interface and unsaturated zone model component (LAIUZ) is coupled to a surface water supply model component (SWSM) that provides surface water deliveries by district or sub-district, depending on available information. Using LAIUZ and SWSM, we investigate the regional behavior and spatio-temporal variability of deep vadose zone recharge in the 3,800 square kilometer Tule groundwater basin of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Surface water management in the topographically flat basin is divided between two dozen irrigation and water districts. All surface water is imported or is natural discharge into the basin. Groundwater extractions are managed by landowners on a field-by-field basis. Monthly varying recharge and groundwater pumping rates are computed for the hydrologic years 1970 through 2000. The average size of the GIS landuse units is 0.4 sq. kilometers. The GIS coverage distinguishes over 60 landuse types. Applied and consumptive water use are computed based on actual evapotranspiration and known irrigation or water use efficiencies for each landuse unit. Seepage from streams is computed by mass balance. The resulting model estimates of groundwater recharge and pumping are in good agreement with measured groundwater level changes for the

  6. Investigation of remote sensing to detect near-surface groundwater on irrigated lands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryland, D. W.; Schmer, F. A.; Moore, D. G.

    1975-01-01

    The application of remote sensing techniques was studied for detecting areas with high water tables in irrigated agricultural lands. Aerial data were collected by the LANDSAT-1 satellite and aircraft over the Kansas/Bostwick Irrigation District in Republic and Jewell Counties, Kansas. LANDSAT-1 data for May 12 and August 10, 1973, and aircraft flights (midday and predawn) on August 10 and 11, 1973, and June 25 and 26, 1974, were obtained. Surface and water table contour maps and active observation well hydrographs were obtained from the Bureau of Reclamation for use in the analysis. Results of the study reveal that LANDSAT-1 data (May MSS band 6 and August MSS band 7) correlate significantly (0.01 level) with water table depth for 144 active observation wells located throughout the Kansas/Bostwick Irrigation District. However, a map of water table depths of less than 1.83 meters prepared from the LANDSAT-1 data did not compare favorably with a map of seeped lands of less than 1.22 m (4 feet) to the water table. Field evaluation of the map is necessary for a complete analysis. Analysis of three fields on a within or single-field basis for the 1973 LANDSAT-1 data also showed significant correlation results.

  7. Teacher Activist Organizations and the Development of Professional Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Rand; Carl, Nicole Mittenfelner

    2015-01-01

    Teacher professional agency refers to the ability of teachers to control their work within structural constraints. In this paper, we show how teacher activist organizations can assist in the development of professional agency. We focus on a teacher activist organization in a large urban district in the United States and identify three…

  8. Library Statistics Program: State Library Agency Report for FY 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Museum and Library Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report marks the first release of library statistics data from the Institute of Museum and Library Services. It contains data on state library agencies in the 50 states and the District of Columbia for state fiscal year (FY) 2006. The data were collected through the State Library Agencies (StLA) Survey, the product of a cooperative effort…

  9. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for fresh water. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET/Y). The management practices are: four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)); four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation); and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types; and three crops. The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is: 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD; 13 % when changing to OML; 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML; and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow is lower.

  10. Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukalla, A. D.; Krol, M. S.; Hoekstra, A. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Consumptive water footprint (WF) reduction in irrigated crop production is essential given the increasing competition for freshwater. This study explores the effect of three management practices on the soil water balance and plant growth, specifically on evapotranspiration (ET) and yield (Y) and thus the consumptive WF of crops (ET / Y). The management practices are four irrigation techniques (furrow, sprinkler, drip and subsurface drip (SSD)), four irrigation strategies (full (FI), deficit (DI), supplementary (SI) and no irrigation), and three mulching practices (no mulching, organic (OML) and synthetic (SML) mulching). Various cases were considered: arid, semi-arid, sub-humid and humid environments in Israel, Spain, Italy and the UK, respectively; wet, normal and dry years; three soil types (sand, sandy loam and silty clay loam); and three crops (maize, potato and tomato). The AquaCrop model and the global WF accounting standard were used to relate the management practices to effects on ET, Y and WF. For each management practice, the associated green, blue and total consumptive WF were compared to the reference case (furrow irrigation, full irrigation, no mulching). The average reduction in the consumptive WF is 8-10 % if we change from the reference to drip or SSD, 13 % when changing to OML, 17-18 % when moving to drip or SSD in combination with OML, and 28 % for drip or SSD in combination with SML. All before-mentioned reductions increase by one or a few per cent when moving from full to deficit irrigation. Reduction in overall consumptive WF always goes together with an increasing ratio of green to blue WF. The WF of growing a crop for a particular environment is smallest under DI, followed by FI, SI and rain-fed. Growing crops with sprinkler irrigation has the largest consumptive WF, followed by furrow, drip and SSD. Furrow irrigation has a smaller consumptive WF compared with sprinkler, even though the classical measure of "irrigation efficiency" for furrow

  11. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    PubMed Central

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  12. 21 CFR 880.6960 - Irrigating syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Irrigating syringe. 880.6960 Section 880.6960 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6960 Irrigating syringe....

  13. Reduced Tillage in an Irrigated Potato Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato production in irrigated regions typically occurs on soils low in organic matter that are highly susceptible to agri-chemical leaching under poor irrigation scheduling, and wind erosion when soils are left bare. Reduced tillage has had limited testing in potato production. The objective of thi...

  14. Evapotranspiration Estimates for Deficit Irrigated Corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water deficits must be imposed on crops during non-critical growth periods to maximize net economic output per unit of water consumed by the plant. The reference ET-crop coefficient procedure widely used for managing fully irrigated crops would be easiest to implement for irrigation management of d...

  15. Using Automation to Improve Surface Irrigation Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Lower Mississippi Water Resource Area (WRA 08), also called the Mid-South, 2 million ha of cropland (80% of the irrigated farmland) employ surface irrigation, almost equally divided between furrow (52%) and controlled flooding (48%). Because Mid-South farmers experience less-than-optimal surf...

  16. Initiating and terminating irrigation for the season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the arid west, the question about when to start irrigating was never asked because cotton did not start to grow until water was applied. In the Mid-South and Southeast, however, there is often residual soil moisture to get the crop started. In general, producers prefer to delay irrigation as long...

  17. Optimizing Irrigation Management for Humid Climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project includes studies led by both USDA-ARS and University of Missouri scientists, with a goal of optimizing irrigated crop production and protecting soil and water resources in the Mid-South. Our interdisciplinary team investigates ways to improve irrigation scheduling and mechanized irrigat...

  18. Soil-moisture sensors and irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This agricultural irrigation seminar will cover the major classes of soil-moisture sensors; their advantages and disadvantages; installing and reading soil-moisture sensors; and using their data for irrigation management. The soil water sensor classes include the resistance sensors (gypsum blocks, g...

  19. Optimizing irrigation management for humid climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project includes studies led by both USDA-ARS and University of Missouri scientists, with a goal of optimizing irrigated crop production and protecting soil and water resources in the Mid-South. Our interdisciplinary team investigates ways to improve irrigation scheduling and mechanized irrigat...

  20. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator....

  1. Integrated irrigation and drainage water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Results from several research projects conducted in the 1990's are summarized in this manuscript. The first projects are irrigation studies that evaluated the impact of pre-plant irrigation water on crop water use and deep percolation losses. The results showed significant losses with pre-plant ir...

  2. Practical implications of applied irrigation research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundwater is essential to irrigated agriculture in the semi-arid Texas High Plains. Concerns over groundwater depletion have led to increased emphasis on water conservation. Irrigation scheduling coupled with accurate crop water use (ET) estimation is one of the most effective means to both conser...

  3. Optimizing Irrigation Management for Humid Climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project includes studies led by both USDA-ARS and University of Missouri scientists, with a goal of optimizing irrigated crop production and protecting soil and water resources in the Mid-South. Our interdisciplinary team investigates ways to improve irrigation scheduling and mechanized-irrigat...

  4. Scheduling Irrigation on Non-Flooded Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While continuous-flood irrigation, the most common method for US rice production, can have a fairly high application efficiency, factors such as soil variability and the size of most Mid-South farming operations combine to reduce the efficiency in many cases. Center pivot irrigation is one potential...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5895 - Ostomy irrigator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ostomy irrigator. 876.5895 Section 876.5895 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5895 Ostomy irrigator....

  6. Scheduling for deficit irrigation, Crop Yield Predictor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigators in many countries with dwindling water supplies face the prospect that they will not be able to fully irrigate their crops. In these cases, they still need to schedule their water applications to make the best economic use of available water. Major scheduling questions for deficit irrigat...

  7. Ammonia emission during irrigation of dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of liquid manure through irrigation systems has become more common in recent years. Emission of NH3 from surface-applied manure has been well documented, but less is known about emission during the irrigation process itself. We carried out a series of 11 experiments over a two-year perio...

  8. Storage efficiency of off-season irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water levels in the Ogallala aquifer are declining, and with the resultant decrease in water capacity of wells, irrigators face difficulty in meeting crop water needs. Off-season irrigation is common in the region, although research has shown it is often inefficient. Storage efficiency of off-season...

  9. Erraticity of sprinkler irrigated corn in 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sprinkler non-uniformity effects on corn are accentuated in a drought. The lack of rainfall during the 2011 corn growing season in Colby, Kansas illustrated many fields irrigated by center pivot sprinklers that had poor crops due to non-uniform irrigation. Many of these effects were due to use of ...

  10. Estimation of infiltration parameters and the irrigation coefficients with the surface irrigation advance distance.

    PubMed

    Beibei, Zhou; Quanjiu, Wang; Shuai, Tan

    2014-01-01

    A theory based on Manning roughness equation, Philip equation and water balance equation was developed which only employed the advance distance in the calculation of the infiltration parameters and irrigation coefficients in both the border irrigation and the surge irrigation. The improved procedure was validated with both the border irrigation and surge irrigation experiments. The main results are shown as follows. Infiltration parameters of the Philip equation could be calculated accurately only using water advance distance in the irrigation process comparing to the experimental data. With the calculated parameters and the water balance equation, the irrigation coefficients were also estimated. The water advance velocity should be measured at about 0.5 m to 1.0 m far from the water advance in the experimental corn fields. PMID:25061664

  11. Impact of Soil Resistance to Penetration in the Irrigation Interval of Supplementary Irrigation Systems at the Humid Pampa, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández J., P.; Befani M., R.; Boschetti N., G.; Quintero C., E.; Díaz E., L.; Lado, M.; Paz-González, A.

    2015-04-01

    The Avellaneda District, located in northeastern of Santa Fe Province, Argentina, has an average annual rainfall of 1250 mm per year, but with a high variability in their seasonal distribution. Generally, the occurrence of precipitation in winter is low, while summer droughts are frequent. The yearly hydrological cycle shows a water deficit, given that the annual potential evapotranspiration is estimated at 1330 mm. Field crops such as soybean, corn, sunflower and cotton, which are affected by water stress during their critical growth periods, are dominant in this area. Therefore, a supplemental irrigation project has been developed in order to identify workable solutions. This project pumps water from Paraná River to provide a water supply to the target area under irrigation. A pressurized irrigation system operating on demand provides water to a network of channels, which in turn deliver water to farms. The scheduled surface of irrigation is 8800 hectares. The maximum flow rate was designed to be 8.25 m3/second. The soils have been classified as Aquic Argiudolls in areas of very gentle slopes, and Vertic Argiudolls in flat and concave reliefs; neither salinity nor excess sodium affect the soils of the study are. The objective of this study was to provide a quantitative data set to manage the irrigation project, through the determination of available water (AW), easily available water (EAw) and optimal water range (or interval) of the soil horizons. The study has been conducted in a text area of 1500 hectares in surface. Five soil profiles were sampled to determine physical properties (structure stability, effective root depth, infiltration, bulk density, penetration resistance and water holding capacity), chemical properties (pH, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, salinity, and sodium content ) and morphological characteristics of the successive horizons. Also several environmental characteristics were evaluated, including: climate, topographic

  12. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed. PMID:12956038

  13. Infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, William C.; Thiros, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of Panguitch Valley and adjacent areas, south-central Utah, was studied during 1988-90. One objective of the study was to measure ground-water recharge from infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water. Water-level and soil-moisture data were used to estimate travel times for water moving down through the soil profile, and to compare quantities of water reaching the water table after application of flood and sprinkler irrigation. During this study, estimates of travel times from land surface to the water table ranged from 11 days in June 1989 to 2 days in September 1989. Estimates of irrigation water recharging the ground-water system ranged from 25 to 75 percent of the water applied to the flood-irrigated field. Virtually no recharge was apparent for the sprinkler-irrigated field.

  14. A comparison of different irrigation systems and gravitational effect on final extrusion of the irrigant

    PubMed Central

    Görduysus, Melahat; Görduysus, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare manual needle irrigation (MNI), RinsEndo (RE), and passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and assess the effect of gravity on extrusion from the apex in vitro. Material and Methods The distobuccal roots of molars were used and the canals were instrumented up to F2. Teeth were mounted on models, which permitted visualization and manipulation of the apices for necessary procedures. The models were placed in articulator to simulate the jaw. Six groups (G) were formed as: G1, G2 and G3 represented mandibular positioning of teeth and were irrigated with MNI, RE, and PUI, respectively, while G4, G5, and G6 represented maxillary positioning of teeth and were also irrigated in same sequence. Prior to the final irrigation, 72 cube-shaped foam pieces covered with aluminum foil were weighed and the values were recorded as the initial weights. The cubes were then placed on the apical part of each sample. Final irrigation was performed with distilled water and the cubes were weighed again to determine their final weight. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U post-hoc test (p<0.05). Results Irrespective of the irrigation technique used, the amount of irrigant extruded from the apex showed a statistically significant difference related to the effect of gravity (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between irrigation methods (p>0.05). When the irrigation systems were compared to examine the effect of gravity, the significant difference was found between G2 and G5 (p<0.05). Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, MNI and PUI were found to be reliable irrigation systems. Caution should be exercised when using RinsEndo. Key words:Final irrigation, manual needle irrigation, passive ultrasonic irrigation, RinsEndo. PMID:26155336

  15. Historical influence of irrigation on climate extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Wim; Davin, Edouard L.; Lawrence, Dave; Hauser, Mathias; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    Land irrigation is an essential practice sustaining global food production and many regional economies. During the last decades, irrigation amounts have been growing rapidly. Emerging scientific evidence indicates that land irrigation substantially affects mean climate conditions in different regions of the world. However, a thorough understanding of the impact of irrigation on extreme climatic conditions, such as heat waves, droughts or intense precipitation, is currently still lacking. In this context, we aim to assess the historical influence of irrigation on the occurrence of climate extremes. To this end, two simulations are conducted over the period 1910-2010 with a state-of-the-art global climate model (the Community Earth System Model, CESM): a control simulation including all major anthropogenic and natural external forcings except for irrigation and a second experiment with transient irrigation enabled. The two simulations are evaluated for their ability to represent (i) hot, dry and wet extremes using the HadEX2 and ERA-Interim datasets as a reference, and (ii) latent heat fluxes using LandFlux-EVAL. Assuming a linear combination of climatic responses to different forcings, the difference between both experiments approximates the influence of irrigation. We will analyse the impact of irrigation on a number of climate indices reflecting the intensity and duration of heat waves. Thereby, particular attention is given to the role of soil moisture changes in modulating climate extremes. Furthermore, the contribution of individual biogeophysical processes to the total impact of irrigation on hot extremes is quantified by application of a surface energy balance decomposition technique to the 90th and 99th percentile surface temperature changes.

  16. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  17. Temporal change in land use by irrigation source in Tamil Nadu and management implications.

    PubMed

    Gumma, Murali Krishna; Kajisa, Kei; Mohammed, Irshad A; Whitbread, Anthony M; Nelson, Andrew; Rala, Arnel; Palanisami, K

    2015-01-01

    Interannual variation in rainfall throughout Tamil Nadu has been causing frequent and noticeable land use changes despite the rapid development in groundwater irrigation. Identifying periodically water-stressed areas is the first and crucial step to minimizing negative effects on crop production. Such analysis must be conducted at the basin level as it is an independent water accounting unit. This paper investigates the temporal variation in irrigated area between 2000-2001 and 2010-2011 due to rainfall variation at the state and sub-basin level by mapping and classifying Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 8-day composite satellite imagery using spectral matching techniques. A land use/land cover map was drawn with an overall classification accuracy of 87.2%. Area estimates between the MODIS-derived net irrigated area and district-level statistics (2000-2001 to 2007-2008) were in 95% agreement. A significant decrease in irrigated area (30-40%) was observed during the water-stressed years of 2002-2003, 2003-2004, and 2009-2010. Major land use changes occurred three times during 2000 to 2010. This study demonstrates how remote sensing can identify areas that are prone to repeated land use changes and pin-point key target areas for the promotion of drought-tolerant varieties, alternative water management practices, and new cropping patterns to ensure sustainable agriculture for food security and livelihoods. PMID:25481120

  18. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  19. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio Grande National Forest, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice...

  20. 25 CFR 215.23 - Cooperation between superintendent and district mining supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR chapter II. ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cooperation between superintendent and district mining... MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23 Cooperation...

  1. 25 CFR 215.23 - Cooperation between superintendent and district mining supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR chapter II. ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cooperation between superintendent and district mining... MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23 Cooperation...

  2. 25 CFR 215.23 - Cooperation between superintendent and district mining supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR chapter II. ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cooperation between superintendent and district mining... MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23 Cooperation...

  3. 25 CFR 215.23 - Cooperation between superintendent and district mining supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR chapter II. ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cooperation between superintendent and district mining... MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23 Cooperation...

  4. 25 CFR 215.23 - Cooperation between superintendent and district mining supervisor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR chapter II. ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cooperation between superintendent and district mining... MINERALS LEAD AND ZINC MINING OPERATIONS AND LEASES, QUAPAW AGENCY § 215.23 Cooperation...

  5. 75 FR 10483 - Filing Dates for the Pennsylvania Special Election in the 12th Congressional District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION Filing Dates for the Pennsylvania Special Election in the 12th Congressional District AGENCY: Federal Election Commission. ACTION: Notice of filing dates for special election. SUMMARY: Pennsylvania...

  6. 78 FR 39595 - Safety Zone, Fifth Coast Guard District Firework Display, Pagan River; Smithfield, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Fifth Coast Guard District Firework Display, Pagan River; Smithfield, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final Rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... the Fifth Coast Guard District. This regulation applies only to one recurring fireworks event, held...

  7. 76 FR 7131 - Safety Zones; Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Fireworks Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Fireworks Events AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... displays at various locations in the Eleventh Coast Guard District. These amendments will standardize...

  8. 76 FR 66239 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays Within the Fifth Coast Guard District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays Within the Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... locations within the geographic boundary of the Fifth Coast Guard District. This action is necessary...

  9. 77 FR 2629 - Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Recurring Marine Events in the Fifth Coast Guard District AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... locations within the geographic boundary of the Fifth Coast Guard District. This rule revises 33 CFR...

  10. 76 FR 30584 - Safety Zones; Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Fireworks Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...; Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Fireworks Events'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 7131). We did not... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Fireworks Events AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY:...

  11. 76 FR 13508 - Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 3 RIN 1625-ZA29 Ninth Coast Guard District Sector Realignment; Northern Lake Michigan and Lake Huron AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final Rule. SUMMARY: This rule makes..., call or e-mail Mr. Doug McCann, Ninth District Resources Planning Branch, U.S. Coast Guard,...

  12. 76 FR 56211 - District of Columbia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an... amends the notice of an emergency declaration for the District of Columbia (FEMA-3337-EM), dated August..., Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster...

  13. 77 FR 68799 - District of Columbia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of an... amends the notice of an emergency declaration for the District of Columbia (FEMA-3352-EM), dated October...) are to be used for reporting and drawing funds: 97.030, Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora...

  14. 77 FR 69644 - The District of Columbia; Emergency and Related Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency The District of Columbia; Emergency and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of an emergency for The District of Columbia (FEMA-3352-EM), dated October 28, 2012... T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, 42 U.S.C. 5121-5207 (the Stafford Act),...

  15. 77 FR 73486 - District of Columbia; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of an Emergency Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency District of Columbia; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of an... amends the notice of an emergency declaration for the District of Columbia (FEMA-3352-EM), dated October..., Community Disaster Loans; 97.031, Cora Brown Fund; 97.032, Crisis Counseling; 97.033, Disaster...

  16. 76 FR 47094 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air Quality Management District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... proposing to approve a revision to the South Coast Air Quality Management District portion of the California... following local rule: South Coast Air Quality Management District Rule 1175, Control of Emissions from the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan; South Coast Air...

  17. 77 FR 48168 - Call for Nominations for the Twin Falls District Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for the Twin Falls District Resource Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Call for Nominations, Twin Falls District Resource Advisory Council SUMMARY: This notice requests public nominations to fill one position on the Twin...

  18. How Do School Districts Mentor New Teachers? REL 2016-125

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeCesare, Dale; Workman, Simon; McClelland, Abby

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a snapshot of school district policies for mentoring new teachers in five Regional Educational Laboratory Central states (Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota). State education agencies collected survey data from school districts on who provides mentoring, how time spent mentoring changes after the first…

  19. 78 FR 62523 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; District of Columbia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; District of Columbia; Infrastructure Requirements for the 2008 Lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards and State Board Requirements... District'') pursuant to the Clean Air Act (CAA). Whenever new or revised national ambient air...

  20. A Model At-Risk Program for Large School Districts: A Two Year Collaborative Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkees-Wircenski, Michelle; Wircenski, Jerry L.

    1991-01-01

    A two-year collaborative effort between the Texas Education Agency, the University of North Texas, and the Garland Independent School District developed a model at-risk program for large school districts. The program's two phases were developing a core group of personnel and conducting train the trainer activities. (JOW)

  1. 28 CFR 811.1 - Purpose and scope; relation to District of Columbia regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Chapter 4 of Title... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose and scope; relation to District... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.1 Purpose and scope;...

  2. 28 CFR 811.1 - Purpose and scope; relation to District of Columbia regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.1 Purpose and scope; relation to District of Columbia regulations. (a) In accordance with its sex offender registration functions... Stat. 1530; D.C. Official Code secs. 24-133(c)(5)) and as further authorized by the Sex...

  3. 28 CFR 811.1 - Purpose and scope; relation to District of Columbia regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.1 Purpose and scope; relation to District of Columbia regulations. (a) In accordance with its sex offender registration functions... Stat. 1530; D.C. Official Code secs. 24-133(c)(5)) and as further authorized by the Sex...

  4. 28 CFR 811.1 - Purpose and scope; relation to District of Columbia regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Chapter 4 of Title... SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA SEX OFFENDER REGISTRATION § 811.1 Purpose and scope; relation to District of Columbia regulations. (a) In accordance with its sex offender registration...

  5. Evaluation Guidelines for School Personnel, 1986. Suggested Personnel Policy Guidelines for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This publication updates four earlier ones having similar titles, the last of which was written in 1979. These guidelines are intended to aid local school districts in Oregon in developing their own staff evaluation procedures and documents. The guide begins by citing the six administrative agencies outside the district that regulate most school…

  6. 78 FR 64004 - Notice of Public Meeting, Pecos District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Pecos District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In..., the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM), Pecos District Resource......

  7. 78 FR 65356 - Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In... of Land Management's (BLM) Las Cruces District Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as...

  8. 78 FR 64005 - Notice of Public Meeting, Farmington District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Farmington District Resource Advisory Council Meeting, New Mexico AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: In... of Land Management's (BLM) Farmington District Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as...

  9. 75 FR 16204 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...

  10. 76 FR 59480 - Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region II Buffalo District Advisory Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: U.S. Small Business... notice to announce the location, date, time, and agenda for the next meeting of the Region II Buffalo... Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), SBA announces the meeting of the Region II Buffalo District...

  11. Climate change impacts on irrigated rice and wheat production in Gomti River basin of India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abeysingha, N S; Singh, Man; Islam, Adlul; Sehgal, V K

    2016-01-01

    Potential future impacts of climate change on irrigated rice and wheat production and their evapotranspiration and irrigation requirements in the Gomti River basin were assessed by integrating a widely used hydrological model "Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)" and climate change scenario generated from MIROC (HiRes) global climate model. SWAT model was calibrated and validated using monthly streamflow data of four spatially distributed gauging stations and district wise wheat and rice yields data for the districts located within the basin. Simulation results showed an increase in mean annual rice yield in the range of 5.5-6.7, 16.6-20.2 and 26-33.4 % during 2020s, 2050s and 2080s, respectively. Similarly, mean annual wheat yield is also likely to increase by 13.9-15.4, 23.6-25.6 and 25.2-27.9 % for the same future time periods. Evapotranspiration for both wheat and rice is projected to increase in the range of 3-9.6 and 7.8-16.3 %, respectively. With increase in rainfall during rice growing season, irrigation water allocation for rice is likely to decrease (<5 %) in future periods, but irrigation water allocation for wheat is likely to increase by 17.0-45.3 % in future periods. PMID:27536533

  12. Utilizing Continuous Resistivity Profiling for Assessment and Characterization of Canal Seepage in El Paso's Lower Valley Irrigation Network System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. A.; Sheng, Z.

    2009-12-01

    Annually, billions of gallons of water are lost through seepage along sections of the irrigation network. To conserve water, El Paso County Water Improvement District has been assessing seepage losses and investigating measures for reducing such losses. Resistivity techniques were used to identify areas of high seepage and provide information on locations along canals that need to be structurally modified in an effort to curb water lost through seepage. Several half mile sections were selected along canals with varying seepage rates to conduct electric resistivity surveys in order generate soil profiles during the non-irrigation and irrigation seasons. Two different multiple channel resistivity meters (The“OhmMapper and the Super Sting R8”) were used, which both allow a vertical resistivity profile to be collected using a single current transmission. The results presented are preliminary and we believe that upon completion findings will serve multiple purposes. Firstly, a better understanding of seepage patterns, seepage rate and its spatial variation can be obtained. Secondly, our findings could be used to produce geological profiles associated with seepage areas which will enable the irrigation district to develop guidelines for improving delivery efficiency, especially during drought. And thirdly, our results will be transferable to other areas of the state and will have a positive impact on the environment and the overall quality of life.

  13. Utilizing geophysical methods for asessment and characterization of canal seepage in El Paso's lower valley irrigation delivery systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegon, Amanda Brooke

    El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 (EPCWID No.1) delivers the Rio Grande water for agricultural production and urban uses through numerous networked irrigation canals. Of the nearly 86 billion gallons of water released annually for irrigation uses in Texas, billions are lost due to evaporation and seepage in unlined canals with 56 million gallons of the billions are lost in Franklin Canal annually due to improper lining and sediment variation of the canals. To characterize seepage patterns and identify areas of high seepage, Electrical Resistivity, Ground Truthing via soil sample analysis were used along three, half-mile long sectioned canals during irrigation and non-irrigation seasons. The data lines acquired were processed in EARTHIMAGER 2D to create 2D vertical resistivity inversion profiles to locate potential areas of high seepage/high resistivity. The research results will help El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1 to develop management strategies to conserve water and improve the delivery efficiency systems which leads to economic growth in the Rio Grande Basin.

  14. Evaluation of Irrigation Water Use Efficiency and Water-saving in the Middle Oasis of Heihe River Basin Using a Distributed Agro-hydrological Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Huang, G., Sr.; Xu, X.; Huang, Q.; Huo, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Severe water scarcity and unreasonable allocation are threatening the eco-environment in the Heihe River basin (HRB), an arid and semi-arid watershed in Northwest China. The water use in the middle oasis accounts for about 70% of the total water use in the HRB, in which over 85% are consumed by irrigated agriculture. Thus the regional assessment and improvement of irrigation water use are quite essential for water-saving and eco-environmental sustainability. This paper applied a distributed agro-hydrological model (SWAP-EPIC) integrated with ArcGIS to investigate the irrigation water use efficiency (WUE) in the middle oasis. The detailed distributed data in 2012, including soil properties, irrigation schedules, crop pattern and calendar, were collected and used in the regional simulation. The spatial-temporal distribution of LAI and evapotranspiration (ETa) from remote sensing were used as observations to calibrate the model. Results showed that the simulation data was in a good agreement with the observation one. The relative WUE (i.e. divided by the mean value) ranged from 0.77 to 1.33 in different canal command areas. Large spatial variations of WUE were mainly caused by the non-uniform distribution of irrigation water. The present irrigation performance was poor, and only 50% of total irrigation amount was finally utilized through evapotranspiration in the whole district. While nearly 24% of the irrigation water were lost through field deep percolation and 26% were wasted in canal conveyance. Further analysis of water-saving scenarios was conducted through applying the improved irrigation schedule for each crop-soil unites and increasing the canal conveyance efficiency. Prediction showed that 15% of total irrigation amount can be saved without reduction of crop yield.

  15. Mediterranean irrigation under climate change: more efficient irrigation needed to compensate for increases in irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, M.; Shi, S.; von Bloh, W.; Bondeau, A.; Cramer, W.

    2016-03-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. This study systematically assesses how climate change and increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations may affect irrigation requirements in the Mediterranean region by 2080-2090. Future demographic change and technological improvements in irrigation systems are taken into account, as is the spread of climate forcing, warming levels and potential realization of the CO2-fertilization effect. Vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL (Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land) after an extensive development that comprised the improved representation of Mediterranean crops. At present the Mediterranean region could save 35 % of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries such as Syria, Egypt and Turkey have a higher savings potential than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume on average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops. Different crops show different magnitudes of changes in net irrigation requirements due to climate change, the increases being most pronounced in agricultural trees. The Mediterranean area as a whole may face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4 and 18 % from climate change alone if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved (4 and 18 % with 2 °C global warming combined with the full CO2-fertilization effect and 5 °C global warming combined with no CO2-fertilization effect, respectively). Population growth increases these numbers to 22 and 74 %, respectively, affecting mainly the southern and eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have a large water saving potential, especially in the eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to

  16. Quality assessment of irrigation water under a combination of rain and irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2015-04-01

    Complementary irrigation is one of the proposed management practices to increase the area under grain production mainly in the Humid Pampas. The most common source of irrigation water in the Humid Pampas comes from groundwater and is characterized by its high sodium bicarbonate content. However, the effect of the combination of irrigation and rain water on the chemical and physical properties of soils, especially when irrigation water comprises water with sodium bicarbonate, is still not well documented. The objective of the present study is to establish irrigation water suitability criteria under conditions of combined rain and irrigation. The trials were carried out on six irrigated plots and another five plots were chosen for validation purposes. Hydraulic conductivity and bulk density were measured in the field. Soil chemical analysis was performed on undisturbed soil samples. Supplementary irrigation using sodium bicarbonate water raises the soil electrical conductivity, the pH, exchangeable sodium percentage, soil sodium adsorption ratio and cation exchange capacity which produce an increase in bulk density, reducing the overall porosity of the soil. The effect of the soil sodium adsorption ratio on the soil hydraulic conductivity was evident when the soil sodium adsorption ratio levels were greater than 3.5. The dilution factor proposed in this study allows the classification of water for complementary irrigation linked to the management of irrigation.

  17. Nucleus management with irrigating vectis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Aravind

    2009-01-01

    The main objective in modern cataract surgery is to achieve a better unaided visual acuity with rapid post-surgical recovery and minimal surgery-related complications. Early visual rehabilitation and better unaided vision can be achieved only by reducing the incision size. In manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS), incision is between 5.5 to 7 mm. Once the nucleus is prolapsed into the anterior chamber, it can be extracted through the tunnel. Nucleus extraction with an irrigating vectis is a very simple technique, which combines mechanical and hydrostatic forces to express out the nucleus. This technique is time-tested with good results and more than 95% of nuclei in MSICS are extracted in this way offering all the merits of phacoemulsification with the added benefits of having wider applicability, better safety, shorter learning curve and lower cost. PMID:19075403

  18. The use of semi-structured interviews for the characterisation of farmer irrigation practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Mijic, Ana; Brozović, Nicholas; Sinha, Rajiv

    2016-05-01

    For the development of sustainable and realistic water security, generating information on the behaviours, characteristics, and drivers of users, as well as on the resource itself, is essential. In this paper we present a methodology for collecting qualitative and quantitative data on water use practices through semi-structured interviews. This approach facilitates the collection of detailed information on actors' decisions in a convenient and cost-effective manner. Semi-structured interviews are organised around a topic guide, which helps lead the conversation in a standardised way while allowing sufficient opportunity for relevant issues to emerge. In addition, they can be used to obtain certain types of quantitative data. While not as accurate as direct measurements, they can provide useful information on local practices and users' insights. We present an application of the methodology on farmer water use in two districts in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. By means of 100 farmer interviews, information was collected on various aspects of irrigation practices, including irrigation water volumes, irrigation cost, water source, and their spatial variability. Statistical analyses of the information, along with data visualisation, are also presented, indicating a significant variation in irrigation practices both within and between districts. Our application shows that semi-structured interviews are an effective and efficient method of collecting both qualitative and quantitative information for the assessment of drivers, behaviours, and their outcomes in a data-scarce region. The collection of this type of data could significantly improve insights on water resources, leading to more realistic management options and increased water security in the future.

  19. The use of semi-structured interviews for the characterisation of farmer irrigation practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.; Brozovic, N.; Sinha, R.

    2015-08-01

    Generating information on the behaviours, characteristics and drivers of users, as well on the resource itself, is vital in developing sustainable and realistic water security options. In this paper we present a methodology for collecting qualitative and quantitative data on water use practices through semi-structured interviews. This approach facilitates the collection of detailed information on actors' decisions in a convenient and cost-effective manner. The interview is organised around a topic guide, which helps lead the conversation in a standardised way while allowing sufficient opportunity to identify relevant issues previously unknown to the researcher. In addition, semi-structured interviews can be used to obtain certain types of quantitative data. While not as accurate as direct measurements, it can provide useful information on local practices and farmers' insights. We present an application of the methodology on two districts in the State of Uttar Pradesh in North India. By means of 100 farmer interviews, information was collected on various aspects of irrigation practices, including irrigation water volumes, irrigation cost, water source and their spatial variability. A statistical analysis of the information, along with some data visualisation is also presented, which highlights a significant variation in irrigation practices both within and between the districts. Our application shows that semi-structured interviews are an effective and efficient method of collecting both qualitative and quantitative information for the assessment of drivers, behaviours and their outcomes in a data scarce region. The collection of this type of data could significantly improve insight on water resources, leading to more realistic management options and increased water security in the future.

  20. Ancestral irrigation method by kanis in Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldán-Cañas, José; Chipana, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María

    2015-04-01

    Irrigation in the Andean region is an ancient practice. For centuries, farmers were able to use the waters of rivers, lakes and springs to complement or supplement the scarce rainfall regime. The inter-Andean valleys of the Department of La Paz are the best areas for the study of traditional irrigation systems. This work has been carried out in the community of Jatichulaya located in te town of Charazani, 300 km from the city of La Paz, which lies 3250 meters above sea level. The annual rainfall ranges around 450 mm distributed mainly between the months of December to March. Therefore, water is needed to achieve adequate crop yields. The traditional irrigation system is done by the method of Kanis, consisting of a surface irrigation already developed by traditional Andean cultures of the country, in harmony with the ecological and productive characteristics of the area. Water enters the irrigation plot through a main channel (mama kani) from which the secondary channels (juchuy kanis) are derived. The fundamental characteristic of this irrigation is that these channels are open at the same time the water enters into the plot. The system works properly, adapting to the topography of the area. The irrigation method practiced in this community does not cause water erosion of soils because water management within the plot is based on the ancient knowledge of farmers following the contour lines. This practice allows good irrigation development and soil protection without causing any problems. However, it was evident a high use of labor in irrigation practice. Irrigation scheduling is done according to requests made by the irrigators in a given period. Delivering of water to the farmers is made by the so-called Water Agent (Agente de Aguas) or person in charge of the distribution of water. The Water Agent is elected annually and its functions include the maintenance and care of all system waterworks. The period between August and January is the highest water demand and

  1. Nutrient uptake by cotton in relation to irrigation frequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The present work was aimed at examining the relationship between cotton seed content of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium irrigation frequency (i.e. interval of time between irrigation events). Fertilizer was applied at a constant rate across varying irrigation intervals. Irrigation volumes were eq...

  2. Does deficit irrigation of field crops increase water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deficit irrigation is often proposed as a method to stretch limited irrigation water supply and increase water use efficiency. A field study of field crops in the high plains shows that water use efficiency, in terms of irrigation water applied, often increases with deficit irrigation. However, in t...

  3. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  4. The Bureau of Reclamation's new mandate for irrigation water conservation: Purposes and policy alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, M.R. )

    1991-02-01

    Although the Bureau of Reclamation adopted a new mission as a water management agency, social purposes of the mission and methods of accomplishing the purposes remain undefined. A broad consensus agrees that a central feature of the agency's management program should be irrigation water conservation. This paper describes three purposes of irrigation water conservation: achieving economic efficiency of water allocation, improving environmental quality of western river systems, and satisfying outstanding Native American water claims. Five policy instruments are described as alternative methods of inducing conservation: quantity-based regulation, price-based regulation, transferable water use permits, conservation subsidies, and decentralization of ownership of Reclamation facilities. Two findings are: (1) price-based regulation may not produce water conservation and (2) conservation policy instruments should be chosen with reference to their ability to achieve the purposes of federal water conservation policy. An example illustrates quantitative effects on farm income of the alternative instruments.

  5. 76 FR 30575 - Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... regulated area. DATES: Comments and related material must be received by the Coast Guard on or before...

  6. 76 FR 7123 - Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Eleventh Coast Guard District Annual Marine Events AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes to update and consolidate the list of marine events occurring annually within the Eleventh Coast...

  7. School District (K-12) Pandemic Influenza Planning Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Local educational agencies (LEAs) play an integral role in protecting the health and safety of their district's staff, students and their families. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have developed this checklist to assist LEAs in developing and/or improving plans to prepare…

  8. Accountability Manual, 1996: The 1996-2000 Accountability Rating System for Texas Public Schools and School Districts. Part 2: Comparable Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Office of Policy Planning and Research.

    This manual is designed as a technical resource to explain the accountability system used by the Texas Education Agency (TEA) to evaluate the performance of public school districts and campuses. The system integrates district accreditation status; campus ratings; district and campus recognition for high performance and performance improvement; and…

  9. Effect of irrigation amounts applied with subsurface drip irrigation on corn evapotranspiration, yield, water use efficiency, and dry matter production in a semiarid climate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying the local crop response to irrigation is important for establishing adequate irrigation management strategies. This study evaluated the effect of irrigation applied with subsurface drip irrigation on field corn (Zea mays L.) evapotranspiration (ETc), yield, water use efficiencies (WUE = ...

  10. Effect of Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation on Apical Extrusion of Irrigating Solution

    PubMed Central

    Tasdemir, Tamer; Er, Kursat; Celik, Davut; Yildirim, Tahsin

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine the influence of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI) on apical extrusion of irrigating solution. Methods Twenty freshly extracted maxillary and mandibular incisors with single straight root canals were instrumented with ProTaper rotary files. During final irrigation, the root canals were filled with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution and PUI was performed with a piezoelectronic unit. A stainless steel instrument (size 15) was inserted into the root canal and the irrigant was ultrasonically activated for one minute. This sequence was repeated three times, resulting in a total PUI time of three minutes. The volume of extruded irrigant was measured by Pipetman pipettes. The data were statistically analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. Results The mean volume of apical extruded irrigant was 2.15 μL for the PUI group and 14 μL for the control group. The experimental group extruded significantly smaller amounts of irrigant than the control group (P<.05). Conclusions The PUI procedure as a final irrigation was associated with less apical extrusion of the irrigating solution. PMID:19212547

  11. Irrigation and fertigation scheduling under drip irrigation for maize crop in sandy soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud M.; El-Baroudy, Ahmed A.; Taha, Ahmed M.

    2016-01-01

    Field experiments was conducted to determine the best irrigation scheduling and the proper period for injecting fertilizers through drip irrigation water in a sandy soil to optimize maize yield and water productivity. Four irrigation levels (0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2) of the crop evapotranspiration and two fertigation periods (applying the recommended fertilizer dose in 60 and 80% of the irrigation time) were applied in a split-plot design, in addition to a control treatment which represented conventional irrigation and fertilization of maize in the studied area. The results showed that increasing the irrigation water amount and the fertilizer application period increased vegetative growth and yield. The highest grain yield and the lowest one were obtained under the treatment at 1.2 and of 0.6 crop evapotranspiration, respectively. The treatment at 0.8 crop evapotranspiration with fertilizer application in 80% of the irrigation time gave the highest water productivity (1.631 kg m-3) and saved 27% of the irrigation water compared to the control treatment. Therefore, this treatment is recommended to irrigate maize crops because of the water scarcity conditions of the studied area.

  12. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... available for review: Del Puerto Water District. Chowchilla Water District. Orange Cove Irrigation District. James Irrigation District. Tranquility Irrigation District. Kaweah Delta Water Conservation District....

  13. 75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... available for review: The Westside Irrigation District Maine Prairie Water District Solano Irrigation District Corning Water District Proberta Water District Lindsay-Strathmore Irrigation District To meet...

  14. Data File: State Library Agencies Survey: Fiscal Year 2003. NCES 2004-378.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroe, Elaine; O'Shea, Patricia; Dorinski, Suzanne; Freeman, Michael; Sheckells, Cindy

    2004-01-01

    This data file contains data on state library agencies in the 50 states and the District of Columbia for Fiscal Year 2003. The data were collected through the State Library Agencies Survey, a voluntary survey conducted annually by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). Data were collected on state library agency identification,…

  15. Water reuse and cost-benefit of pumping at different spatial levels in a rice irrigation system in UPRIIS, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafeez, M. M.; Bouman, B. A. M.; Van de Giesen, N.; Mushtaq, S.; Vlek, P.; Khan, S.

    As agricultural water resources in Asia become increasingly scarce, the irrigation efficiency of rice must be improved. However, in this region there is very limited information available about water use efficiency across spatial levels in irrigation systems. This study quantifies the volume of water reuse and its related cost-benefits at five different spatial levels, ranging from 1500 ha to 18,000 ha, under gravity-fed irrigation system in Upper Pumpanga River Integrated Irrigation System (UPRIIS), Philippines. The major sources of water reuse are considered, namely groundwater pumping, pumping from creeks, combined use and irrigation supplies from check dams. The volume of water available from all four sources of water reuse was quantified through extensive measurements. Production functions were developed to quantify water-yield relationships and to measure the economic value of water reuse. This study was conducted during the dry season of 2001, which existed from 19 November 2000 until 18 May 2001. The water reuse by pumping and check dams was 7% and 22% of the applied surface water at District 1 level. The reuse of surface water through check dams increased linearly with 4.6 Mm 3 per added 1000 ha. Similarly, the total amount of reused water from pumping is equivalent to 30% of the water lost through rice evapotranspiration during the dry season 2001. The results showed that water reuse plays a dominant role in growing a rice crop during the dry season. The result showed no difference in pumping costs between the creek (US0.011/m 3) and shallow pumps (US0.012/m 3). The marginal value of productivity (MVP) of water reuse from creek (US0.044/m 3) was slightly higher than the water reuse through the pumping ground water (US0.039/m 3). Results also indicated that the total volume pumped per ha (m 3/ha) was ranging from 0.39 to 6.93 m 3/ha during the dry season. The results clearly indicate that the quantification of amount of water reuse is very crucial for

  16. Impacts on irrigated agriculture of changes in electricity costs resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.K.; Flaim, S.J.; Howitt, R.E.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Irrigation is a major factor in the growth of US agricultural productivity, especially in western states, which account for more than 85% of the nation`s irrigated acreage. In some of these states, almost all cropland is irrigated, and nearly 50% of the irrigation is done with electrically powered pumps. Therefore, even small increases in the cost of electricity could have a disproportionate impact on irrigated agriculture. This technical memorandum examines the impacts that could result from proposed changes in the power marketing programs of the Western Area Power Administration`s Salt Lake City Area Office. The changes could increase the cost of power to all Western customers, including rural municipalities and irrigation districts that rely on inexpensive federal power to pump water. The impacts are assessed by translating changes in Western`s wholesale power rate into changes in the cost of pumping water as an input for agricultural production. Farmers can adapt to higher electricity prices in many ways, such as (1) using different pumping fuels, (2) adding workers and increasing management to irrigate more efficiently, and (3) growing more drought-tolerant crops. This study projects several responses, including using less groundwater and planting fewer waterintensive crops. The study finds that when dependence on Western`s power is high, the cost of power can have a major effect on energy use, agricultural practices, and the distribution of planted acreage. The biggest percentage changes in farm income would occur (1) in Nevada and Utah (however, all projected changes are less than 2% of the baseline) and (2) under the marketing alternatives that represent the lowest capacity and energy offer considered in Western`s Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement. The aggregate impact on farm incomes and the value of total farm production would be much smaller than that suggested by the changes in water use and planted acreage.

  17. Solar- and wind-powered irrigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enochian, R. V.

    1982-02-01

    Five different direct solar and wind energy systems are technically feasible for powering irrigation pumps. However, with projected rates of fossil fuel costs, only two may produce significant unsubsidied energy for irrigation pumping before the turn of the century. These are photovoltaic systems with nonconcentrating collectors (providing that projected costs of manufacturing solar cells prove correct); and wind systems, especially in remote areas where adequate wind is available.

  18. Forecasting irrigation demand by assimilating satellite images and numerical weather predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelosi, Anna; Medina, Hanoi; Villani, Paolo; Falanga Bolognesi, Salvatore; D'Urso, Guido; Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Forecasting irrigation water demand, with small predictive uncertainty in the short-medium term, is fundamental for an efficient planning of water resource allocation among multiple users and for decreasing water and energy consumptions. In this study we present an innovative system for forecasting irrigation water demand, applicable at different spatial scales: from the farm level to the irrigation district level. The forecast system is centred on a crop growth model assimilating data from satellite images and numerical weather forecasts, according to a stochastic ensemble-based approach. Different sources of uncertainty affecting model predictions are represented by an ensemble of model trajectories, each generated by a possible realization of the model components (model parameters, input weather data and model state variables). The crop growth model is based on a set of simplified analytical relations, with the aim to assess biomass, leaf area index (LAI) growth and evapotranspiration rate with a daily time step. Within the crop growth model, LAI dynamics is let be governed by temperature and leaf dry matter supply, according to the development stage of the crop. The model assimilates LAI data retrieved from VIS-NIR high-resolution multispectral satellite images. Numerical weather model outputs are those from the European limited area ensemble prediction system (COSMO-LEPS), which provides forecasts up to five days with a spatial resolution of seven kilometres. Weather forecasts are sequentially bias corrected based on data from ground weather stations. The forecasting system is evaluated in experimental areas of southern Italy during three irrigation seasons. The performance analysis shows very accurate irrigation water demand forecasts, which make the proposed system a valuable support for water planning and saving at farm level as well as for water management at larger spatial scales.

  19. Grower demand for sensor-controlled irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenberg, Erik; Majsztrik, John; Saavoss, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is likely to increase in the coming years, making improvements in irrigation efficiency increasingly important. An emerging technology that promises to increase irrigation efficiency substantially is a wireless irrigation sensor network that uploads sensor data into irrigation management software, creating an integrated system that allows real-time monitoring and control of moisture status that has been shown in experimental settings to reduce irrigation costs, lower plant loss rates, shorten production times, decrease pesticide application, and increase yield, quality, and profit. We use an original survey to investigate likely initial acceptance, ceiling adoption rates, and profitability of this new sensor network technology in the nursery and greenhouse industry. We find that adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are decreasing in price, as expected. The price elasticity of the probability of adoption suggests that sensor networks are likely to diffuse at a rate somewhat greater than that of drip irrigation. Adoption rates for a base system and demand for expansion components are increasing in specialization in ornamental production: growers earning greater shares of revenue from greenhouse and nursery operations are willing to pay more for a base system and are willing to purchase larger numbers of expansion components at any given price. We estimate that growers who are willing to purchase a sensor network expect investment in this technology to generate significant profit, consistent with findings from experimental studies.

  20. 78 FR 63491 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... available for review: Westside Water District Stone Corral Water District Dunnigan Irrigation District Montecito Water District Lindmore Water District Exeter Irrigation District Ivanhoe Irrigation District Saucelito Irrigation District Westlands Water District To meet the requirements of the Central...

  1. Mediterranean agriculture: More efficient irrigation needed to compensate increases in future irrigation water requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fader, Marianela; Shi, Sinan; von Bloh, Werner; Bondeau, Alberte; Cramer, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Irrigation in the Mediterranean is of vital importance for food security, employment and economic development. Our research shows that, at present, Mediterranean region could save 35% of water by implementing more efficient irrigation and conveyance systems. Some countries like Syria, Egypt and Turkey have higher saving potentials than others. Currently some crops, especially sugar cane and agricultural trees, consume in average more irrigation water per hectare than annual crops (1). Also under climate change, more efficient irrigation is of vital importance for counteracting increases in irrigation water requirements. The Mediterranean area as a whole might face an increase in gross irrigation requirements between 4% and 18% from climate change alone by the end of the century if irrigation systems and conveyance are not improved. Population growth increases these numbers to 22% and 74%, respectively, affecting mainly the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean. However, improved irrigation technologies and conveyance systems have large water saving potentials, especially in the Eastern Mediterranean, and may be able to compensate to some degree the increases due to climate change and population growth. Both subregions would need around 35% more water than today if they could afford some degree of modernization of irrigation and conveyance systems and benefit from the CO2-fertilization effect (1). However, in some scenarios (in this case as combinations of climate change, irrigation technology, influence of population growth and CO2-fertilization effect) water scarcity may constrain the supply of the irrigation water needed in future in Algeria, Libya, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Serbia, Morocco, Tunisia and Spain (1). In this study, vegetation growth, phenology, agricultural production and irrigation water requirements and withdrawal were simulated with the process-based ecohydrological and agro-ecosystem model LPJmL ("Lund-Potsdam-Jena managed Land") after a

  2. Competency: District Views from Southern California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyo, John

    1979-01-01

    Educators from Fullerton Union High School District, Newport-Mesa Unified School District, Capistrano Unified School District, and Huntington Beach Union High School District describe their efforts toward developing competency-based curriculum to meet state mandates. (SJL)

  3. Nitrate concentrations under irrigated agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaporozec, A.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, considerable interest has been expressed in the nitrate content of water supplies. The most notable toxic effect of nitrate is infant methemoglobinemia. The risk of this disease increases significantly at nitrate-nitrogen levels exceeding 10 mg/l. For this reason, this concentration has been established as a limit for drinking water in many countries. In natural waters, nitrate is a minor ionic constituent and seldom accounts for more than a few percent of the total anions. However, nitrate in a significant concentration may occur in the vicinity of some point sources such as septic tanks, manure pits, and waste-disposal sites. Non-point sources contributing to groundwater pollution are numerous and a majority of them are related to agricultural activities. The largest single anthropogenic input of nitrate into the groundwater is fertilizer. Even though it has not been proven that nitrogen fertilizers are responsible for much of nitrate pollution, they are generally recognized as the main threat to groundwater quality, especially when inefficiently applied to irrigated fields on sandy soils. The biggest challenge facing today's agriculture is to maintain the balance between the enhancement of crop productivity and the risk of groundwater pollution. ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  4. Modeling and assessing field irrigation water use in a canal system of Hetao, upper Yellow River basin: Application to maize, sunflower and watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Hao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Water saving in irrigation is a key issue in the upper Yellow River basin. Excessive irrigation leads to water waste, water table rising and increased salinity. Land fragmentation associated with a large dispersion of crops adds to the agro-hydrological complexity of the irrigation system. The model HYDRUS-1D, coupled with the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach (dualKc), was applied to simulate the water and salt movement processes. Field experiments were conducted for maize, sunflower and watermelon crops in the command area of a typical irrigation canal system in Hetao Irrigation District during 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated in three crop fields using two-year experimental data. Simulations of soil moisture, salinity concentration and crop yield fitted well with the observations. The irrigation water use was then evaluated and results showed that large amounts of irrigation water percolated due to over-irrigation but their reuse through capillary rise was also quite large. That reuse was facilitated by the dispersion of crops throughout largely fragmented field, thus with fields reusing water percolated from nearby areas due to the rapid lateral migration of groundwater. Beneficial water use could be improved when taking this aspect into account, which was not considered in previous researches. The non-beneficial evaporation and salt accumulation into the root zone were found to significantly increase during non-growth periods due to the shallow water tables. It could be concluded that when applying water saving measures, close attention should be paid to cropping pattern distribution and groundwater control in association with irrigation scheduling and technique improvement.

  5. Irrigation water supply and demand data for 1976, 1980, and 1984 for the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Templin, W.E.; Haltom, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the irrigation water supply and demand data for 1976, 1980, and 1984 for 32 water districts in the western San Joaquin Valley, California. Data are provided for each water district or each of the three years if the data were available. The complete data base is given by water district or each township, range, and section in the rectangular system for the subdivision of public lands. These data were complied for use in a ground- water-flow model, compilation of a water-budget, and use by the San Joaquin Valley Drainage Program in a study of water management in the western San Joaquin Valley, California. The data are presented in a computer-readable format to improve data utilization and to condense the information so that it can be more readily distributed to users.

  6. The Value of Weather Forecast in Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Wang, D.

    2007-12-01

    This paper studies irrigation scheduling (when and how much water to apply during the crop growth season) in the Havana Lowlands region, Illinois, using meteorological, agronomic and agricultural production data from 2002. Irrigation scheduling determines the timing and amount of water applied to an irrigated cropland during the crop growing season. In this study a hydrologic-agronomic simulation is coupled with an optimization algorithm to search for the optimal irrigation schedule under various weather forecast horizons. The economic profit of irrigated corn from an optimized scheduling is compared to that from and the actual schedule, which is adopted from a pervious study. Extended and reliable climate prediction and weather forecast are found to be significantly valuable. If a weather forecast horizon is long enough to include the critical crop growth stage, in which crop yield bears the maximum loss over all stages, much economic loss can be avoided. Climate predictions of one to two months, which can cover the critical period, might be even more beneficial during a dry year. The other purpose of this paper is to analyze farmers' behavior in irrigation scheduling by comparing the "actual" schedule to the "optimized" ones. The ultimate goal of irrigation schedule optimization is to provide information to farmers so that they may modify their behavior. In practice, farmers' decision may not follow an optimal irrigation schedule due to the impact of various factors such as natural conditions, policies, farmers' habits and empirical knowledge, and the uncertain or inexact information that they receive. In this study farmers' behavior in irrigation decision making is analyzed by comparing the "actual" schedule to the "optimized" ones. This study finds that the identification of the crop growth stage with the most severe water stress is critical for irrigation scheduling. For the case study site in the year of 2002, framers' response to water stress was found to be

  7. Districts Tackling Meal Debt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2012-01-01

    School districts have resorted to hiring debt collectors, employing constables, and swapping out standard meals for scaled-back versions to try to coerce parents to pay off school lunch debt that, in recent years, appears to have surged as the result of a faltering economy and better record-keeping. While the average school lunch costs just about…

  8. The Importance of Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tymms, Peter; Merrell, Christine; Heron, Tara; Jones, Paul; Albone, Stephen; Henderson, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Effectiveness studies have largely concentrated on the school as the unit of analysis, although an increasing number have directed their attention to the teacher as the main unit of interest. But policy is often directed through organisations at the district level or what is sometimes known as the Education Authority (EA). Few studies have…

  9. District-Level Downsizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schachter, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Draconian cuts have become the order of business for many school districts since the economic recession hit in 2008. But for the coming school year, "draconian" has taken on an even harsher meaning, as states from California and Texas to Illinois and New York wrestle with deficits in the tens of billions of dollars and make multi-billion-dollar…

  10. Districts Weigh Obesity Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Parents of children in most elementary grades in Minnesota's Independent School District 191 receive an annual notice with potentially life-altering data for their children--and they are not state test scores, attendance rates, or grades. The notice contains the child's body mass index (BMI) score, which estimates whether the student has excess…

  11. School District Spending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Office of the Legislative Auditor, St. Paul. Program Evaluation Div.

    Minnesota spends more for education than most states and has increased its financial commitment steadily over the past 15 years. Because of the state's dominant role in education funding, legislators have enacted measures requiring all local school districts to follow uniform financial accounting and reporting standards (UFARS). Since 1980, the…

  12. Modelling district nurse expertise.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    As changes in society and health provision mean that one in four people over the age of 75 will require nursing care at home, pre-registration adult nurse education increasingly prepares student nurses for a future career within the community. District nurses undertake complex, multidimensional health and social assessments and care in a non-clinical setting and work in partnership with patients and their significant others to promote practical and psychological coping mechanisms and self-care. The district nurse's first assessment visit is key to developing a therapeutic partnership and it is often during this visit that expertise in district nursing practice emerges. The holistic, contextual and dynamic aspects of nursing in the home setting can make district nursing expertise difficult to illustrate and demonstrate within the classroom setting. This article explores the ways in which an understanding of expertise development theory can enable the tacit expertise that occurs within the first assessment visit to be made visible to student nurses, using simulation and expert narrative as a pedagogical strategy. PMID:25475676

  13. Rightsizing a School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esselman, Mary; Lee-Gwin, Rebecca; Rounds, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of the Kansas City, Missouri Public Schools (KCMSD) has been long overdue. Multiple superintendents and administrations, using billions of dollars of desegregation funds ventured to transform the district by creating magnet schools, themed schools, and career-focused high schools. Missing from these initiatives, but included in…

  14. District Leadership Conference Planner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Coordinating Council for Occupational Education, Olympia.

    This manual provides usable guidelines and planning forms and materials for planning district leadership conferences, which were designed and initiated in Washington State to meet the problems in student enrollment and, consequently, Distributive Education Clubs of America membership. The conferences have become a useful means to increase…

  15. A District Level Planning Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHenry, W. E.; Achilles, C. M.

    This report examines school district planning models in South Carolina. It focuses on three questions: (1) Of those school districts conducting some type of systematic planning, how many are producing strategic plans? Long-range plans? Accountability reports? (2) In those same districts, how many are preparing adequate program-management…

  16. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  17. Problems of Affluent School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLoone, Eugene P.

    All school districts are affected by the stagnant economy, the growing needs of the public sector, the increased burden of transfer payments, and the limited growth of public revenues. Retrenchment is common to all school districts, but it may be more severe in affluent districts. By 1969-70, suburban school systems were the clear-cut expenditure…

  18. USACE DIVISION AND DISTRICT BOUNDARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USACE Division and District Boundary data contains the delination of Corps Division and District boundaries. District and Division Boundaries are based on the US political and watershed boundaries. In the mid 1990's, WES created the file by digitizing the 1984 Civil Wor...

  19. FACTORS IN FUTURE DISTRICT ORGANIZATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Citrus Junior Coll., Azusa, CA.

    CALIFORNIA HAS ACCEPTED THE CONCEPT THAT ALL SCHOOL DISTRICTS ARE TO BE INCLUDED IN JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICTS. THIS STUDY DETERMINED WHAT EFFECT ANY CHANGE IN THE TERRITORY NOW INCLUDED IN THE CITRUS JUNIOR COLLEGE DISTRICT WOULD HAVE UPON THE SCHOOL'S ENROLLMENTS, BUILDING PROGRAM, AND FINANCIAL STRUCTURE. TOTAL ENROLLMENT IN THE COLLEGE, 1963-64,…

  20. A District's Journey to Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Students learn best from well-designed instruction. To what extent can a school district design a curriculum that supports inquiry learning? How can a district implement consistent inquiry practices in forty schools? In this article, the author discusses Newport News Public School District's journey to inquiry which began in 2004 with a…

  1. Role of irrigation and irrigation automation in improving crop water use efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In arid climates, irrigation is required for significant agricultural production. In subhumid and semiarid climates, supplemental irrigation is recognized as both economically necessary (prevention of crop losses in periodic droughts) and as a means to improve overall crop water use effi...

  2. Sustaining Irrigated Agriculture In The Central High Plains With Limited Irrigation Water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands on limited water supplies will require maximizing crop production per unit water. Field studies are being carried out to develop water production functions for crops grown in the Great Plains. Irrigation water is applied through drip irrigation systems; precipitation and reference...

  3. Comparison of a subgingivally placed cannula oral irrigator tip with a supragingivally placed standard irrigator tip.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Hollander, B N; Eakle, W S

    1992-05-01

    This study compared the depth of irrigation of periodontal pockets achieved by a cannula subgingival irrigator tip and a standard oral irrigator tip. They were tested on periodontally involved teeth recommended for extraction from 17 patients. Before extraction, reference grooves were made circumferentially in each study tooth at the level of the gingival margin. In one group of 5 patients (29 teeth), a cannula was inserted halfway into the pocket at the facial, mesiofacial, distofacial, lingual, mesiolingual and distolingual surfaces and the surface irrigated for 5 s at 5 psi with a solution of plaque-staining dye from an oral irrigator. A 2nd group of 7 patients (29 teeth) was tested similarly with a standard irrigating tip at 80 psi. A 3rd (control) group of 5 patients (26 teeth) rinsed with the dye solution. Teeth were then extracted. The distance on each tooth from the reference notch to the apical extent of the stained plaque, and also to the coronal limit of the connective tissue attachment, was measured at 4 sites (mesial, distal, buccal, lingual) under a dissecting microscope to determine the extent of dye penetration. Mean linear penetration for the control group was only 0.1 mm. Irrigation with the cannula tip penetrated farther into both the medium (3.5-6 mm) and the deep (greater than 6 mm) periodontal pockets (p less than 0.01) than did irrigation with the standard tip.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1517479

  4. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) Response to Glyphosate Applied in Irrigated and Non-irrigated Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field experiments were conducted in Alabama during 1999 and 2000 to test the hypothesis that any glyphosate-induced yield suppression in glyphosate-tolerant cotton would be less with irrigation compared to without irrigation. This objective was best served by measuring for possible yield-compensati...

  5. Biofilms in irrigation pipes affect the microbial quality of irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation is an essential element in the production of many food crops. Irrigation water is often delivered to fields from surface or subsurface sources via pipe-based systems. Surface waters are known to contain pathogenic microorganisms. Disease outbreaks in crops that are eaten raw (i.e. leafy g...

  6. Adaptation of irrigation infrastructure on irrigation demands under future drought in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More severe droughts in the United States will bring great challenges to irrigation water supply. Here, the authors assessed the potential adaptive effects of irrigation infrastructure under present and more extensive droughts. Based on data over 1985–2005, this study established a statistical model...

  7. Irrigation Requirement Estimation Using Vegetation Indices and Inverse Biophysical Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, Lahouari; Imhoff, Marc L.; Franks, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    We explore an inverse biophysical modeling process forced by satellite and climatological data to quantify irrigation requirements in semi-arid agricultural areas. We constrain the carbon and water cycles modeled under both equilibrium, balance between vegetation and climate, and non-equilibrium, water added through irrigation. We postulate that the degree to which irrigated dry lands vary from equilibrium climate conditions is related to the amount of irrigation. The amount of water required over and above precipitation is considered as an irrigation requirement. For July, results show that spray irrigation resulted in an additional amount of water of 1.3 mm per occurrence with a frequency of 24.6 hours. In contrast, the drip irrigation required only 0.6 mm every 45.6 hours or 46% of that simulated by the spray irrigation. The modeled estimates account for 87% of the total reported irrigation water use, when soil salinity is not important and 66% in saline lands.

  8. Declining Groundwater Levels in North India: Understanding Sources of Irrigation Inefficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Mijic, A.; Brozovic, N.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last half century, the green revolution has transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country, into the world's third largest grain producer and one of the most intensely irrigated regions on the planet. This is in no small part due to the country's vast water resources along with an increase in tubewells and more advanced abstraction methods. While agricultural intensification has had undeniable benefits, it has, and continues to have a significant impact on water resources. Unless solutions which take into consideration the ever evolving socio-economic, hydrological and climatic conditions are found, India's agricultural future looks bleak.This research examines the irrigation behaviour of farmers, using data collected during field work in the State of Uttar Pradesh within the Ganges Basin of North India. Significant differences in farmer behaviour and irrigation practices are highlighted, not only between State districts but between individual farmers. This includes the volume of irrigation water applied and the price paid, as well as differences in the yields of crops produced. Analyses of results suggest that this is due to a number of factors, particularly the source of irrigation water. Study areas which had access to cheaper, but crucially less reliable, canal water were found to invest in more efficient water saving technologies in order to reduce the overall cost of irrigation during periods where less expensive canal water is not available. As a result, overall water use and irrigation cost is lower and yields are higher despite very similar climatic conditions. While cheap canal water is not an option for all farmers, the results show that the introduction of more efficient water saving technologies, despite the significant capital expenditure is a viable option for many farmers and costs can be recovered in a relatively short space of time. In addition, the reduction of declining water levels mean that water is abstracted from

  9. Decision Support system- DSS- for irrigation management in greenhouses: a case study in Campania Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, Eugenia; De Mascellis, Roberto; Riccardi, Maria; Basile, Angelo; D'Urso, Guido; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Tedeschi, Anna

    2016-04-01

    In Mediterranean Countries the proper management of water resources is important for the preservation of actual production systems. The possibility to manage water resources is possible especially in the greenhouses systems. The challenge to manage the soil in greenhouse farm can be a strategy to maintain both current production systems both soil conservation. In Campania region protected crops (greenhouses and tunnels) have a considerable economic importance both for their extension in terms of surface harvested and also for their production in terms of yields. Agricultural production in greenhouse is closely related to the micro-climatic condition but also to the physical and agronomic characteristics of the soil-crop system. The protected crops have an high level of technology compare to the other production systems, but the irrigation management is still carried out according to empirical criteria. The rational management of the production process requires an appropriate control of climatic parameters (temperature, humidity, wind) and agronomical inputs (irrigation, fertilization,). All these factors need to be monitored as well is possible, in order to identify the optimal irrigation schedule. The aim of this work is to implement a Decision Support system -DSS- for irrigation management in greenhouses focused on a smart irrigation control based on observation of the agro-climatic parameters monitored with an advanced wireless sensors network. The study is conducted in a greenhouse farm of 6 ha located in the district of Salerno were seven plots were cropped with rocket. Preliminary a study of soils proprieties was conducted in order to identify spatial variability of the soil in the farm. So undisturbed soil samples were collected to define chemical and physical proprieties; moreover soil hydraulic properties were determined for two soils profiles deemed representation of the farm. Then the wireless sensors, installed at different depth in the soils

  10. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  11. Irrigated areas of India derived using MODIS 500 m time series for the years 2001-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheeravath, V.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Chandrakantha, G.; Noojipady, P.; Reddy, G. P. O.; Biradar, C. M.; Gumma, M. K.; Velpuri, M.

    2010-01-01

    The overarching goal of this research was to develop methods and protocols for mapping irrigated areas using a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 500 m time series, to generate irrigated area statistics, and to compare these with ground- and census-based statistics. The primary mega-file data-cube (MFDC), comparable to a hyper-spectral data cube, used in this study consisted of 952 bands of data in a single file that were derived from MODIS 500 m, 7-band reflectance data acquired every 8-days during 2001-2003. The methods consisted of (a) segmenting the 952-band MFDC based not only on elevation-precipitation-temperature zones but on major and minor irrigated command area boundaries obtained from India's Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBIP), (b) developing a large ideal spectral data bank (ISDB) of irrigated areas for India, (c) adopting quantitative spectral matching techniques (SMTs) such as the spectral correlation similarity (SCS) R2-value, (d) establishing a comprehensive set of protocols for class identification and labeling, and (e) comparing the results with the National Census data of India and field-plot data gathered during this project for determining accuracies, uncertainties and errors. The study produced irrigated area maps and statistics of India at the national and the subnational (e.g., state, district) levels based on MODIS data from 2001-2003. The Total Area Available for Irrigation (TAAI) and Annualized Irrigated Areas (AIAs) were 113 and 147 million hectares (MHa), respectively. The TAAI does not consider the intensity of irrigation, and its nearest equivalent is the net irrigated areas in the Indian National Statistics. The AIA considers intensity of irrigation and is the equivalent of "irrigated potential utilized (IPU)" reported by India's Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR). The field-plot data collected during this project showed that the accuracy of TAAI classes was 88% with a 12% error of omission and 32% of

  12. Irrigated areas of India derived using MODIS 500 m time series for the years 2001-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dheeravath, V.; Thenkabail, P.S.; Chandrakantha, G.; Noojipady, P.; Reddy, G.P.O.; Biradar, C.M.; Gumma, M.K.; Velpuri, M.

    2010-01-01

    The overarching goal of this research was to develop methods and protocols for mapping irrigated areas using a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 500 m time series, to generate irrigated area statistics, and to compare these with ground- and census-based statistics. The primary mega-file data-cube (MFDC), comparable to a hyper-spectral data cube, used in this study consisted of 952 bands of data in a single file that were derived from MODIS 500 m, 7-band reflectance data acquired every 8-days during 2001-2003. The methods consisted of (a) segmenting the 952-band MFDC based not only on elevation-precipitation-temperature zones but on major and minor irrigated command area boundaries obtained from India's Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBIP), (b) developing a large ideal spectral data bank (ISDB) of irrigated areas for India, (c) adopting quantitative spectral matching techniques (SMTs) such as the spectral correlation similarity (SCS) R2-value, (d) establishing a comprehensive set of protocols for class identification and labeling, and (e) comparing the results with the National Census data of India and field-plot data gathered during this project for determining accuracies, uncertainties and errors. The study produced irrigated area maps and statistics of India at the national and the subnational (e.g., state, district) levels based on MODIS data from 2001-2003. The Total Area Available for Irrigation (TAAI) and Annualized Irrigated Areas (AIAs) were 113 and 147 million hectares (MHa), respectively. The TAAI does not consider the intensity of irrigation, and its nearest equivalent is the net irrigated areas in the Indian National Statistics. The AIA considers intensity of irrigation and is the equivalent of "irrigated potential utilized (IPU)" reported by India's Ministry of Water Resources (MoWR). The field-plot data collected during this project showed that the accuracy of TAAI classes was 88% with a 12% error of omission and 32% of

  13. Estimating the effects of a conversion from submerged to aerobic rice: a case study on a district basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rienzner, Michele; Facchi, Arianna; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    Several studies report that the water use efficiency of irrigated rice can greatly improve at the field scale if continuously submerged rice is replaced with aerobic rice. However, the effects of a massive conversion on the groundwater resources of larger domains are much less investigated, even though several authors agree that a consequent drop of the groundwater table may have repercussions on the potential gains. Therefore, a case study was developed in order to assess the effects of replacing all the flooded rice fields (status quo) with aerobic rice (scenario) on both the groundwater level and the irrigation requirements at the scale of an irrigation district. The investigated area is the San Giorgio di Lomellina-East district (Lombardia, Italy). Data available comprise: soil type (sandy soil according to the USDA classification), land cover of the status quo (200 ha of flooded rice, 105 ha of maize and 76 ha of non-irrigated crops), groundwater level measurements by a piezometer within the area, flow rates in the irrigation channels and meteorological data. First, the monthly percolations in the status quo were estimated by considering: i) percolations from flooded rice fields computed as the residual term of the district water balance, ii) percolations from fields with maize and non-irrigated crops obtained by parameterizing and running the model SWAP (boundary conditions given by the average groundwater level of the status quo), iii) percolation from the irrigation channels considering the efficiency of the irrigation network. Then, an autoregressive model with exogenous input was calibrated in order to relate the district percolations and the groundwater levels in the status quo (P-GWL model). Finally, a set of SWAP simulation with increasing groundwater levels was run for each land use (i.e. aerobic rice, maize and non-irrigated crops) so as to find, within the set, the combination percolation-groundwater level which best responds to the P-GWL model. The

  14. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Dorado Irrigation District Lower Tule River Irrigation District City of Roseville East Bay Municipal... Irrigation District Porterville Irrigation District To meet the requirements of the Central Valley...

  15. On the irrigation requirements of cottonwood (Populus fremontii and Populus deltoides var. wislizenii) and willow (Salix gooddingii) grown in a desert environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hartwell, S.; Morino, K.; Nagler, P.L.; Glenn, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    Native tree plots have been established in river irrigation districts in the western U.S. to provide habitat for threatened and endangered birds. Information is needed on the effective irrigation requirements of the target species. Cottonwood (Populus spp.) and willow (Salix gooddingii) trees were grown for seven years in an outdoor plot in a desert environment in Tucson, Arizona. Plants were allowed to achieve a nearly complete canopy cover over the first four years, then were subjected to three daily summer irrigation schedules of 6.20??mm??d-1; 8.26??mm??d-1 and 15.7??mm??d-1. The lowest irrigation rate was sufficient to maintain growth and high leaf area index for cottonwoods over three years, while willows suffered considerable die-back on this rate in years six and seven. These irrigation rates were applied April 15-September 15, but only 0.88??mm??d-1 was applied during the dormant period of the year. Expressed as a fraction of reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo), recommended annual water applications plus precipitation (and including some deep drainage) were 0.83 ETo for cottonwood and 1.01 ETo for willow. Current practices tend to over-irrigate restoration plots, and this study can provide guidelines for more efficient water use. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. How to perform irrigation of the eye.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Janet

    2016-02-01

    rationale and key points: This article aims to help nurses to understand the importance of performing irrigation immediately following chemical injury to the eye, and outlines the most effective technique. It is essential that irrigation of the eye is understood and performed correctly. Chemical injury to the eye is an ophthalmic emergency. It presents a serious risk to the patient's vision and may cause blindness. The length of time the chemical remains in contact with the eye determines the severity of the injury. Immediate irrigation of the eye is essential to minimise preventable loss of vision. REFLECTIVE ACTIVITY: Clinical skills articles can help update your practice and ensure it remains evidence based. Apply this article to your practice. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. How you would ensure immediate irrigation following chemical injury to the eye in your clinical area. 2. How you know when you have irrigated the eye for long enough, if you have previously performed this procedure, and how reading this article might influence your practice. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio . PMID:26838655

  17. Automatic restart of complex irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, H.D.; Alcock, R.; DeBoer, D.W.; Olson, D.I. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Automatic restart of irrigation systems under load management has the potential to maximize pumping time during off-peak hours. Existing automation technology ranges from time delay relays to more sophisticated control using computers together with weather data to optimize irrigation practices. Centrifugal pumps and water hammer concerns prevent automatic restart of common but often complex irrigation systems in South Dakota. The irrigator must manually prime the pump and control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Methods to prime centrifugal pumps and control water hammer facilitate automatic restart after load management is released. Seven priming methods and three water hammer control methods were investigated. A sump pump and small vacuum pump were used to test two automatic prime and restart systems in the laboratory. A variable frequency phase converter was also used to automatically control water hammer during pipeline pressurization. Economical methods to safely prime and restart centrifugal pumps were discussed. The water hammer control methods safely pressurize the pipeline but require a higher initial investment. The automatic restart systems can be used to safely restart centrifugal pumps and control water hammer after load management is released. Based upon laboratory research and a technical review of available restart components, a computer software program was developed. The program assists customers in evaluating various restart options for automatic restarting of electric irrigation pumps. For further information on the software program, contact the South Dakota State University, Department of Agricultural Engineering.

  18. Water rights of the head reach farmers in view of a water supply scenario at the extension area of the Babai Irrigation Project, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, B.; Verhoeven, R.; Troch, P.

    The farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS) represent those systems which are constructed and operated solely by the farmers applying their indigenous technology. The FMIS generally outperform the modern irrigation systems constructed and operated by the government agencies with regard to the water delivery effectiveness, agricultural productivity etc., and the presence of a sound organization responsible to run the FMIS, often referred to as the ‘social capital’, is the key to this success. This paper studies another important aspect residing in the FMIS: potentials to expand the irrigation area by means of their proper rehabilitation and modernization. Taking the case study of the Babai Irrigation Project in Nepal, it is demonstrated that the flow, which in the past was used to irrigate the 5400 ha area covered by three FMIS, can provide irrigation to an additional 8100 ha in the summer, 4180 ha vegetables in the winter and 1100 ha maize in the spring season after the FMIS rehabilitation. The “priority water rights” of the FMIS part have been evaluated based on relevant crop water requirement calculations and is found to be equal to 85.4 million m 3 per year. Consequently, the dry season irrigation strategy at the extension area could be worked out based on the remaining flow. By storing the surplus discharge of the monsoon and autumn in local ponds, and by consuming them in dry period combined with nominal partial irrigation practice, wheat and mustard can be cultivated over about 4000 ha of the extension area. Furthermore, storage and surface irrigation both contribute to the groundwater recharge. The conjunctive use of ground, surface and harvested water might be the mainstream in the future for a sustainable irrigation water management in the region.

  19. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    PubMed

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  20. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China’s food security

    PubMed Central

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant’s growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources. PMID:25873664

  1. Comparison of soil water sensing methods for irrigation management and research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As irrigation water resources decrease and deficit irrigation becomes more common across the Great Plains, greater accuracy in irrigation scheduling will be required. Researchers investigating deficit irrigation practices and developing management practices must also have accurate measures of soil w...

  2. Variable-rate irrigation management for peanut in the eastern Coastal Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable rate irrigation systems provide farmers with a tool to spatially allocate limited water resources while potentially increasing profits. To optimally management these variable rate irrigation systems, we conducted irrigation experiments on peanuts to compare spatial irrigation management usi...

  3. Development of a district information system for water management planning and strategic decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukas, A.; Tzabiras, J.; Spiliotopoulos, M.; Kokkinos, K.; Fafoutis, C.; Mylopoulos, N.

    2015-06-01

    The overall objective of this work is the development of a District Information System (DIS) which could be used by stakeholders for the purposes of a district day-to-day water management as well as for planning and strategic decisionmaking. The DIS was developed from a GIS-based modeling approach, which integrates a generic crop model and a hydraulic model of the transport/distribution system, using land use maps generated by Landsat TM imagery. The main sub-objectives are: (i) the development of an operational algorithm to retrieve crop evapotranspiration from remote sensing data, (ii) the development of an information system with friendly user interface for the data base, the crop module and the hydraulic module and (iii) the analysis and validation of management scenarios from model simulations predicting the respective behavior. The Lake Karla watershed is used in this study, but the overall methodology could be used as a basis for future analysis elsewhere. Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) was used to derive monthly actual evapotranspiration (ET) values from Landsat TM imagery. Meteorological data from the archives of the Institute for Research and Technology, Thessaly (I.RE.TE.TH) has also been used. The methodology was developed using high quality Landsat TM images during 2007 growing season. Monthly ET values are used as an input to CROPWAT model. Outputs of CROPWAT model are then used as input for WEAP model. The developed scenario is based on the actual situation of the surface irrigation network of the Local Administration of Land Reclamation (LALR) of Pinios for the year of 2007. The DIS is calibrated with observed data of this year and the district parameterization is conducted based on the actual operation of the network. The operation of the surface irrigation network of Pinios LALR is simulated using Technologismiki Works, while the operation of closed pipe irrigation network of Lake Karla LALR is simulated using Watercad. Four

  4. Alabama district flood plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedgecock, T. Scott; Pearman, J. Leroy; Stricklin, Victor E.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this flood plan is to outline and record advance planning for flood emergencies, so that all personnel will know the general plan and have a ready-reference for necessary information. This will ensure that during any flood event, regardless of the extent or magnitude, the resources of the District can be mobilized into a maximum data collection operation with a mimimum of effort.

  5. The occurrence of heavy metals in irrigated and non-irrigated arable soils, NW Albania.

    PubMed

    Kasa, Elian; Felix-Henningsen, Peter; Duering, Rolf-Alexander; Gjoka, Fran

    2014-06-01

    The study analysed the content of heavy metals in surface soil and sediment samples from the Bregu i Matit Plain in NW Albania in relation to irrigation in order to evaluate the soil pollution and the potential risk to human health. Evaluation of soil pollution was performed using the enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index. Contents of cadmium, chromium and nickel of irrigated soils were significantly higher than those of non-irrigated soil, while contents of lead (in three of the irrigated locations), zinc and arsenic (in one of the irrigated locations) were significantly lower. Correlation analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the primary source of the first three metals was irrigation, and the last three metals were originated from other anthropic sources, like the use of chemicals, etc. Enrichment factor (E f) calculation showed that irrigated soils were most enriched in cadmium, chromium, copper and nickel. Index of geo-accumulation (I geo) revealed that arable soils of Bregu i Matit are unpolluted to moderately polluted with cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc and moderately to strongly polluted with nickel and arsenic. The presence of heavy metals in the studied soils indicates a potential risk of transfer of these elements in the food chain. Therefore, further studies on the speciation of heavy metals in the studied soils in order to evaluate their mobility are needed. PMID:24519635

  6. Irrigation Dynamics and Tactics - Developing a Sustainable and Profitable Irrigation Strategy for Agricultural Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Opstal, J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Lecina, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation management is a dynamic process that adapts according to weather conditions and water availability, as well as socio-economic influences. The goal of water users is to adapt their management to achieve maximum profits. However, these decisions should take into account the environmental impact on the surroundings. Agricultural irrigation systems need to be viewed as a system that is an integral part of a watershed. Therefore changes in the infrastructure, operation and management of an irrigated area, has an impact on the water quantity and quality available for other water users. A strategy can be developed for decision-makers using an irrigation system modelling tool. Such a tool can simulate the impact of the infrastructure, operation and management of an irrigation area on its hydrology and agricultural productivity. This combination of factors is successfully simulated with the Ador model, which is able to reproduce on-farm irrigation and water delivery by a canal system. Model simulations for this study are supported with spatial analysis tools using GIS and remote sensing. Continuous measurements of drainage water will be added to indicate the water quality aspects. The Bear River Canal Company located in Northern Utah (U.S.A.) is used as a case study for this research. The irrigation area encompasses 26,000 ha and grows mainly alfalfa, grains, corn and onions. The model allows the simulation of different strategies related to water delivery, on-farm water use, crop rotations, and reservoirs and networks capacities under different weather and water availability conditions. Such changes in the irrigation area will have consequences for farmers in the study area regarding crop production, and for downstream users concerning both the quantity and quality of outflows. The findings from this study give insight to decision-makers and water users for changing irrigation water delivery strategies to improve the sustainability and profitability of

  7. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart K of... - Instructions for District Offices Regarding Their Responsibilities in the Administration of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... the proposed TSA service area. E. The District Director will forward the original and one copy of...

  8. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart K of... - Instructions for District Offices Regarding Their Responsibilities in the Administration of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... the proposed TSA service area. E. The District Director will forward the original and one copy of...

  9. 7 CFR Exhibit C to Subpart K of... - Instructions for District Offices Regarding Their Responsibilities in the Administration of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT... the proposed TSA service area. E. The District Director will forward the original and one copy of...

  10. 15. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL NEAR HILLTOP DRIVE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL NEAR HILLTOP DRIVE AND BARTON ROAD, SHOWING END OF SIPHON. CANAL FOLLOWS CONTOUR OF HILL UNDER DIRT ROAD - Gage Irrigation Canal, Running from Santa Ana River to Arlington Heights, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  11. 12. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF GAGE IRRIGATION CANAL AT HILLTOP DRIVE AND BARTON ROAD SHOWING BEGINNING OF SIPHON, DATED '1952' - Gage Irrigation Canal, Running from Santa Ana River to Arlington Heights, Riverside, Riverside County, CA

  12. Influence of local topography on precision irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision irrigation management is currently accomplished using spatial information about soil properties through soil series maps or electrical conductivity (EC measurements. Crop yield, however, is consistently influenced by local topography, both in rain-fed and irrigated environments. Utilizing ...

  13. Energy efficiency of Pacific Northwest agriculture irrigation pumping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.

    1987-03-01

    This document addresses the energy use and efficiency characteristics of pumping plants used to irrigate agricultural cropland in the Pacific Northwest. The principal focus of this document is on field information obtained from tests of irrigation pumping plants.

  14. Wireless sensor networks for canopy temperature sensing and irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For researchers, canopy temperature measurements have proven useful in characterizing crop water stress and developing protocols for irrigation management. Today, there is heightened interest in using remote canopy temperature measurements for real-time irrigation scheduling. However, without the us...

  15. 2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEASTERLY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION BRIDGE LOOKING SOUTHEASTERLY. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Irrigation Canal Bridge, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  16. 1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION CANAL BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWESTERLY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF THE IRRIGATION CANAL BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHWESTERLY. - Washington Water Power Company Post Falls Power Plant, Irrigation Canal Bridge, West of intersection of Spokane & Fourth Streets, Post Falls, Kootenai County, ID

  17. Reducing irrigation water demand with cotton production in West Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to declining water availability from the Ogallala Aquifer and increasing pumping costs, irrigation management options for cotton are analyzed. The study concludes that supplemental irrigation while meeting crop evapotranspiration (ET) requirements is the most profitable option. Switching from co...

  18. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  19. 78 FR 70959 - Gateway West Project Subcommittee of the Resource Advisory Council to the Boise District; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Bureau of Land Management Gateway West Project Subcommittee of the Resource Advisory Council to the Boise District; Public Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Department of the Interior. ACTION: Notice... Management (BLM) Gateway West Project Subcommittee of the Boise District Resource Advisory Council...

  20. 75 FR 14498 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National... District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2010 total... Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under authority of...

  1. 78 FR 14465 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National... District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2013 total... Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery Management Council under authority of...

  2. 76 FR 12883 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National... District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to prevent exceeding the 2011 total... and 2012 harvest specifications for groundfish of the GOA (76 FR 11111, March 1, 2011). In...

  3. 76 FR 17570 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National... Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2011 total... Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) prepared by the North Pacific Fishery...

  4. 78 FR 17885 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pollock in the West Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY: National... Yakutat District of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). This action is necessary to fully use the 2013 pollock total... (78 FR 14465, March 6, 2013). As of March 18, 2013, NMFS has determined that approximately...

  5. Strategy of Irrigation Branch in Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeyliger, A.; Ermolaeva, O.

    2012-04-01

    At this moment, at the starting time of the program on restoration of a large irrigation in Russia till 2020, the scientific and technical community of irrigation branch does not have clear vision on how to promote a development of irrigated agriculture and without repeating of mistakes having a place in the past. In many respects absence of a vision is connected to serious backlog of a scientific and technical and informational and technological level of development of domestic irrigation branch from advanced one. Namely such level of development is necessary for the resolving of new problems in new conditions of managing, and also for adequate answers to new challenges from climate and degradation of ground & water resources, as well as a rigorous requirement from an environment. In such important situation for irrigation branch when it is necessary quickly generate a scientific and technical politics for the current decade for maintenance of translation of irrigated agriculture in the Russian Federation on a new highly effective level of development, in our opinion, it is required to carry out open discussion of needs and requirements as well as a research for a adequate solutions. From political point of view a framework organized in FP6 DESIRE 037046 project is an example of good practice that can serve as methodical approach how to organize and develop such processes. From technical point of view a technology of operational management of irrigation at large scale presents a prospective alternative to the current type of management based on planning. From point of view ICT operational management demands creation of a new platform for the professional environment of activity. This platform should allow to perceive processes in real time, at their partial predictability on signals of a straight line and a feedback, within the framework of variability of decision making scenarious, at high resolution and the big ex-awning of sensor controls and the gauges

  6. Irrigated lands: Monitoring by remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epiphanio, J. C. N.; Vitorelli, I.

    1983-01-01

    The use of remote sensing for irrigated areas, especially in the region of Guaira, Brazil (state of Sao Paulo), is examined. Major principles of utilizing LANDSAT data for the detection and mapping of irrigated lands are discussed. In addition, initial results obtained by computer processing of digital data, use of MSS (Multispectral Scanner System)/LANDSAT products, and the availability of new remote sensing products are highlighted. Future activities include the launching of the TM (Thematic Mapper)/LANDSAT 4 with 30 meters of resolution and SPOT (Systeme Probatorie d'Observation de la Terre) with 10 to 20 meters of resolution, to be operational in 1984 and 1986 respectively.

  7. Irrigation survey in Sherburne County, Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beissel, D.; Woodward, D.

    1981-01-01

    Approximately 70% of Minnesota's irrigation is with center pivot distribution systems whose diagnostic appearance on remotely sensed imagery is a circular pattern which can be readily identified on LANDSAT MSS band imagery. Fields irrigated with traveling guns, laterals, booms, or cornering systems either result in angular field patterns or obscure the circular patterns normally visible on imagery. The IDMS system at Goddard was used to develop a LANDSAT digital classification of the Sherburne County area, which located fields regardless of shape, and was not dependent of visual interpretation. Ground truth collection and classification attempts are described in an effort to inventory all wells in the area.

  8. An Assessment of Global Net Irrigation Water Requirements from Various Water Supply Sources to Sustain Irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Cho, Jail; Yamada, Hannah; Khajuria, Anupam; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2014-05-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2050 using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° . The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR) with a storage capacity greater than 1.0 km3, medium-size reservoirs (MSR) with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 M m3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as the difference between NNBW in the 1990s and NNBW in the 2040s, because it was difficult to distinguish the types of future water supply sources except for RIV. The simulated results showed that RIV, MSR, and NNBW increased significantly through the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, RIV approached a critical limit due to the continued expansion of the irrigation area. Furthermore, MSR and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. After the 2020s, MSR could be expected to approach the critical limit without the construction of medium-size reservoirs. ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s. We found that an expansion of

  9. Estimating the Effects of Conversion of Agricultural Land to Urban Land on Deep Percolation of Irrigation Water in the Grand Valley, Western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The conversion of agricultural land to urban residential land is associated with rapid population growth in the Grand Valley of western Colorado. Information regarding the effects of this land-use conversion on deep percolation, irrigation-water application, and associated salt loading to the Colorado River is needed to support water-resource planning and conservation efforts. The Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) assessed deep percolation and estimated salt loading derived from irrigated agricultural lands in the Grand Valley in a 1985 to 2002 monitoring and evaluation study (NRCS M&E). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Salinity Control Forum and the Mesa Conservation District, quantified the current (2005-2006) deep percolation and irrigation-water application characteristics of 1/4-acre residential lots and 5-acre estates, urban parks, and urban orchard grass fields in the Grand Valley, and compared the results to NRCS M&E results from alfalfa-crop sites. In addition, pond seepage from three irrigation-water holding ponds was estimated. Salt loading was estimated for the urban study results and the NRCS M&E results by using standard salt-loading factors. A daily soil-moisture balance calculation technique was used at all urban study irrigated sites. Deep percolation was defined as any water infiltrating below the top 12 inches of soil. Deep percolation occurred when the soil-moisture balance in the first 12 inches of soil exceeded the field capacity for the soil type at each site. Results were reported separately for urban study bluegrass-only sites and for all-vegetation type (bluegrass, native plants, and orchard grass) sites. Deep percolation and irrigation-water application also were estimated for a complete irrigation season at three subdivisions by using mean site data from each subdivision. It was estimated that for the three subdivisions, 37 percent of the developed acreage was irrigated (the balance

  10. Mapping Irrigation Potential in the Upper East Region of Ghana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akomeah, E.; Odai, S. N.; Annor, F. O.; Adjei, K. A.; Barry, B.

    2009-04-01

    The Upper East Region together with the other two regions in Northern Ghana (Upper West and Northern Region) is seen as the locus of perennial food deficit (GPRS, 2003). Despite, the provision of over 200 small scale dams and various mechanisms aimed at poverty alleviation, the region is still plagued with poverty and yearly food shortages. To achieve food security and alleviate poverty in the region however, modernization of agriculture through irrigation is deemed inevitable. While it is true that considerable potential still exists for future expansion of irrigation, it cannot be refuted that water is becoming scarcer in the regions where the need for irrigation is most important, hence mapping the irrigation potential of the region will be the first step toward ensuring sound planning and sustainability of the irrigation developments. In this study, an attempt has been made to map out the irrigation potential of the Upper East Region. The river basin approach was used in assessing the irrigation potential. The catchments drained by The White Volta river, Red volta river, River Sissili and River Kulpawn were considered in the assessment. The irrigation potential for the sub basins was computed by combining information on gross irrigation water requirements for the selected cash crops, area of soil suitable for irrigation and available water resources. The capacity of 80%, 70%, 60% and 50% time of exceedance flow of the available surface water resources in the respective sub basins was estimated. The area that can be irrigated with this flow was computed with selected cropping pattern. Combining the results of the potential irrigable areas and the land use map of the respective sub basins, an irrigation potential map has been generated showing potential sites in the upper east region that can be brought under irrigation. Keywords: Irrigation potential, irrigation water requirement, land evaluation, dependable flow

  11. Identification of spatial and topographical metrics for micro hydropower applications in irrigation infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Brian

    A recent agreement between the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission and the State of Colorado seeks to streamline regulatory review of small, low-head hydropower (micro hydropower) projects located in constrained waterways, (Governor's Energy Office, 2010). This regulatory change will likely encourage the development of micro hydropower projects, primarily as upgrades to existing infrastructure. Previous studies of low-head hydropower projects have estimated the combined capacity of micro hydro projects in Colorado between 664 MW to 5,003 MW (Connor, A.M., et al. 1998; Hall, D.G., et al. 2004, 2006). However, these studies did not include existing hydraulic structures in irrigation canals as possible hydropower sites. A Colorado Department of Agriculture study (Applegate Group, 2011) identified existing infrastructure categories for low head hydropower development in irrigation systems, which included diversion structures, line chutes, vertical drops, pipelines, check structures and reservoir outlets. However, an accurate assessment of hydropower capacity from existing infrastructures could not be determined due to low survey responses from irrigation water districts. The current study represents the first step in a comprehensive field study to quantify the type and quantity of irrigation infrastructure for potential upgrade to support micro hydropower production. Field surveys were conducted at approximately 230 sites in 6 of Colorado's 7 hydrographic divisions at existing hydraulic control structures. The United States Bureau of Reclamation contributed approximately 330 additional sample sites from the 17 western states. The work presented here describes a novel method of identifying geospatial metrics to support an estimation of total site count and resource availability of potential micro hydropower. The proposed technique is general in nature and could be utilized to assess micro hydropower resources in any region.

  12. Managing runoff water quality from recently manured, furrow irrigated fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient losses in furrow irrigation runoff potentially increase when soils are amended with manure. We evaluated the effect of tillage, water soluble polyacrylamide (WSPAM) and irrigation management on runoff water quality during the first furrow irrigation on a calcareous silt loam soil, which had...

  13. Irrigation Management Methods to Manipulate Fruit Quality in Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A trial was initiated in 2004 to compare the effects of sprinkler, microspray, and drip irrigation on water use and production in blueberry. One of the primary goals was to identify the best irrigation practices for optimizing both yield and fruit quality. Irrigation was examined in both an early-...

  14. Guide to efficient irrigation of the wild blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation can significantly increase yield of wild blueberry, even in the relatively cool, humid Northeast U.S. However, growers need accurate information on how to optimize water use efficiency in their irrigation practices. Adding insufficient water or postponing irrigation until signs of crop s...

  15. Deep subsurface drip irrigation for cotton in the southeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) yield with various irrigation rates and crop rotations irrigated with subsurface drip irrigation (SSDI) is not known for the US Southeast. A SSDI system was installed in Southwest GA (1998) and maintained for 10 years. The soil was a Tifton loamy sand (Fine-lo...

  16. A review of irrigation termination practices in Northeastern Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation plays an important role in producing consistent and reliable cotton yields in the Midsouth. Of the approximately 600,000 acres of cotton planted in 2007 in Arkansas, over 90% was irrigated. Most cotton acreage is irrigated from the alluvial aquifer, which is being used at an unsustainab...

  17. Can variable frequency drives reduce irrigation costs for rice producers?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable Frequency Drives (VFD's) allow for variable speed operation of electrical motor drive irrigation pumps and are an emerging technology for agricultural irrigation, primarily for pressurized irrigation systems. They are considered an energy savings device, but less is known about their app...

  18. Is irrigation real or am I imagining it?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation is an ancient practice of applying water to crops and/or plants to sustain their life so they can be productive for their intended purpose. Through the years and into today's literature there are many terms such as "artificial irrigation" and "supplemental irrigation." We know irrigatio...

  19. Irrigation system management assisted by thermal imagery and spatial statistics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal imaging has the potential to assist with many aspects of irrigation management including scheduling water application, detecting leaky irrigation canals, and gauging the overall effectiveness of water distribution networks used in furrow irrigation. Many challenges exist for the use of therm...

  20. Nitrogen Effects on Onion Yield Under Drip and Furrow Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a high cash value crop with a very shallow root system that is frequently irrigated and fertilized with high N rates to maximize yield. Converting from furrow-irrigated to drip-irrigated onion production may reduce N fertilizer needs, water inputs, and NO3-N leaching poten...