Science.gov

Sample records for agencies private sector

  1. Three methods of interfacing with the private sector by mental health agencies.

    PubMed

    McRae, J A

    1989-01-01

    This article outlines three methods of mental health marketing--formal, intermediary, and interactive. It discusses advantages and disadvantages of each method. These approaches are particularly good for public, non-profit agencies and individuals in contacting the private sector. The need for flexibility and marketing mix is emphasized.

  2. Collaboration, Competition, and Co-opetition: Interorganizational Dynamics Between Private Child Welfare Agencies and Child Serving Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline; Perez-Jolles, Monica; Wells, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Human service agencies are encouraged to collaborate with other public and private agencies in providing services to children and families. However, they also often compete with these same partners for funding, qualified staff, and clientele. Although little is known about complex interagency dynamics of competition and collaboration in the child-serving sector, evidence suggests that competition can undermine collaboration unless managed strategically. This study explores the interrelationship between competition and collaboration, sometimes referred to as “co-opetition.” Using a national dataset of private child and family serving agencies, we examine their relationships with other child serving sectors (N=4460 pair-wise relationships), and explore how variations in patterns of collaboration and competition are associated with several organizational, environmental and relational factors. Results suggest that most relationships between private child welfare agencies and other child serving agencies are characterized by both competition and collaboration (i.e. “co-opetition”), and is most frequently reported with other local private child welfare agencies. Logistic regression analyses indicate that co-opetition is likely to occur when private child welfare agencies have a good perceived relationship or a sub-contract with their partner. Findings have implications for how agency leaders manage partner relationships, and how public child welfare administrators structure contracts. PMID:25267868

  3. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program (PSCP) sponsors clearances for private sector partners who are responsible for critical...

  4. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    PubMed

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  5. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... comments concerning Reinstatement, with change, of a previously approved ICR for the Critical... sector partners who are responsible for critical infrastructure protection but would not otherwise...

  6. 77 FR 36566 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY 2013 Arrangement AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Each year, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is required...

  7. 78 FR 52780 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY 2014 Arrangement AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Each year, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is required...

  8. 76 FR 45281 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY2012 Arrangement AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Each year, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is required...

  9. 75 FR 42766 - National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP); Assistance to Private Sector Property Insurers, Availability of FY2011 Arrangement AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Each year the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is required...

  10. Private Sector Contracting and Democratic Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Catherine; Scott, Janelle

    2013-01-01

    Public officials are increasingly contracting with the private sector for a range of educational services. With much of the focus on private sector accountability on cost-effectiveness and student performance, less attention has been given to shifts in democratic accountability. Drawing on data from the state of New York, one of the most active…

  11. Acid deposition research in the private sector

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsman, J.D.; Wisniewski, J.; Nelson, J.

    1984-02-01

    Acid deposition research funded by the private sector since 1980 is reviewed. Types of studies (e.g., atmospheric processes, emissions and monitoring, environmental effects) supported by the private sector during this period are overviewed. The specific industries/organizations (e.g., electric utility industry, environmental interest groups) funding reserach during 1980-1982 are discussed, with relation to the number of studies supported and funds (by year) provided by each. Finally, 13 research projects supported by the private sector and initiated by December 1983, each at greater than $1 million, are described.

  12. Motivating the Private vs. Public Sector Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khojasteh, Mak

    1993-01-01

    A questionnaire on intrinsic/extrinsic rewards received 362 responses from 380 managers. Pay and security were greater motivators for private than for public sector managers. Recognition had higher motivating potential in the public sector. Both groups were motivated by achievement and advancement. (SK)

  13. Dynamics of Private Sector Support for Education: Experiences in Latin America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Kristin; Galisson, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the diversity of models and strategies for private sector participation in education that have emerged in Latin America, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) requested the Academy for Educational Development (AED) to conduct research with leaders in the public and private sectors in several countries. While…

  14. Obstacles to Private Sector Activities in Africa,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Finance Corporation (IFC), a World Bank affiliate, has declared its intention to step up its programs to assist the private sector in Africa. Many...and much of it is financed by I the rue Monsieur [the aid Ministry]. In many ways, therefore, France’s "progressive" approach to North-South relations...and the BCEAO together provide a unique and efficient financial system that offers external financing , French-style banking practices, and guarantees

  15. 75 FR 60773 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of PS-Prep Small Business...: Office of Chief Counsel, Federal Emergency Management Agency, 500 C Street, SW., Room 840, Washington,...

  16. 75 FR 80082 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration. ACTION: Notice of Establishment of a NARA Advisory Committee,...

  17. 77 FR 76076 - Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration, Information.... ADDRESSES: National Archives and Records Administration, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Jefferson...

  18. 76 FR 41826 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records Administration....

  19. Public-Private Partnerships in China's Urban Water Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lijin; Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-06-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China.

  20. The private sector, international development and NCDs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011. PMID:21798001

  1. The private sector, international development and NCDs.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Christine; Kingo, Lise; Raynaud, Olivier

    2011-07-28

    This article addresses an area that has been largely underserved by the development community, and one in which there is a particularly good opportunity for the private sector to take a lead in making a difference to employees, customers and local communities: chronic, non-communicable diseases (NCDs). It highlights the extent of the epidemic of NCDs in developing countries, sets out the 'business case' for the private sector to act on NCDs, and gives examples of initiatives by business to ensure that the healthy choice really is an easier choice for employees, consumers and local communities. It makes the case that, to be genuinely sustainable, businesses should be addressing health as a core part of what they do and, by working in partnership - as called for by the Millennium Development Goals - they can make a real difference and become part of the solution. Identifying ways in which this can be done should form a key part both of planning for, and action after, the UN High-level Meeting on NCDs, to be held in September 2011.

  2. Lessons from the private sector on performance-based management

    SciTech Connect

    Stoeckle, K.E.; Kolster, W.G.; Shangraw, R.F.

    1996-03-01

    Implementation of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA) has provided a unique challenge for Federal Agencies, such as the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Waste Management (OWM). While performance measurement, as required by GPRA, is new to Federal Agencies, private industry has applied it at all organizational levels to better manage their operations for some time. There has been significant discussion about how the private sector uses performance measures, but there have been very few empirical studies systematically examining their use. To gather information on comparable private industry practices, waste management industry firms were surveyed through questionnaires and follow-on interviews. Questionnaires were sent to 75 waste management firms throughout the United States and Canada. Twenty-four percent of the firms responded to the questionnaire and participated in the follow-on interviews. The questionnaires were typically completed by vice-presidents or senior financial officers. Information collected from the questionnaire and follow-on interviews provided valuable insight into industry practices in the area of performance measurement. This paper discusses the study results and how they can be incorporated in the DOE OWM performance measures and influence the character of the ``critical few`` metrics used by senior DOE managers.

  3. Guidelines for public transportation contracting with the private sector in California: Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-30

    The manual provides practical assistance to public transit agencies in California in contracting for goods and services with the private sector. It also assists private firms seeking to provide goods and services to public transit agencies. The manual provides an overview of each of the processes involved in procurement from preparation of procurement documents to contract management and evaluation. It also provides detailed, practical guidance on each of these processes.

  4. Roundtable discussion: what is the future role of the private sector in health?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role for the private sector in health remains subject to much debate, especially within the context of achieving universal health coverage. This roundtable discussion offers diverse perspectives from a range of stakeholders – a health funder, a representative from an implementing organization, a national-level policy-maker, and an expert working in a large multi-national company – on what the future may hold for the private sector in health. Discussion The first perspective comes from a health funder, who argues that the discussion about the future role of the private sector has been bogged down in language. He argues for a ‘both/and’ approach rather than an ‘either/or’ when it comes to talking about health service provision in low- and middle-income countries. The second perspective is offered by an implementer of health insurance in sub-Saharan Africa. The piece examines the comparative roles of public sector actors, private sector actors and funding agencies, suggesting that they must work together to mobilize domestic resources to fund and deliver health services in the longer term. Thirdly, a special advisor working in the federal government of Nigeria considers the situation in that country. He notes that the private sector plays a significant role in funding and delivering health services there, and that the government must engage the private sector or forever be left behind. Finally, a representative from a multi-national pharmaceutical corporation gives an overview of global shifts that are creating opportunities for the private sector in health markets. Summary Overall, the roundtable discussants agree that the private sector will play an important role in future health systems. But we must agree a common language, work together, and identify key issues and gaps that might be more effectively filled by the private sector. PMID:24961806

  5. Employment of Geoscientists in the Private Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. L.

    2001-05-01

    In the private sector, major employers of geoscientists engage in diverse activities ranging from resource exploration and extraction, assessment of geologic hazards, and determination of environmental impacts. These firms actively recruit, from the breadth of geoscience disciplines, technically qualified individuals with the ability to make pragmatic decisions in the context of multidisciplinary teams that commonly include non-scientists. Moreover, they expect applicants to communicate effectively verbally and in writing, as well as demonstrate skills and experience in integrating field investigations, conducting laboratory studies, and accomplishing computer modeling. These applicants should be capable of simultaneously working in multiple projects which are rapidly evolving. Successful recruiting and employment requires interactions between the job applicant and potential employer conducted with honesty and integrity. Resumes and associated transmittal letters should be directed to specific employers based on the applicant's review of information on the firm from the Internet and other sources. "Shotgun" or blanket approaches are seldom productive. Participation in pertinent professional societies, internships, and summer employment can provide valuable experiences and opportunities for networking with potential employers.

  6. Privatizing responsibility: public sector reform under neoliberal government.

    PubMed

    Ilcan, Suzan

    2009-08-01

    In light of public sector reforms in Canada and elsewhere, this paper focuses on the shift of emphasis from social to private responsibilities and raises new questions about the forces of private enterprise and market-based partnerships. Under neoliberal governmental agendas, privatizing responsibility links to three main developments: the reconsideration of the relations of public and private; the mobilization of responsible citizenship; and the formation of a cultural mentality of rule that works alongside these developments. The research for this article is based on extensive analysis of policy documents and public sector reform initiatives, as well as interviews with Canadian federal public service employees.

  7. Metric conversion: Future progress depends upon private sector and public support. Report to Congressional requesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-01-01

    In reviewing federal metric conversion (metrication) activities, the General Accounting Office (GAO) evaluated federal agency activities in (1) establishing metric guidelines and preparing reports on the transition, (2) using the metric system in procurements, (3) using the metric system in grants and other business activities, and (4) dealing with private sector and public attitudes toward conversion. Since 1990, federal preparations for metric conversion have advanced dramatically, with more than 30 agencies having developed some combination of guidelines, transition plans, and progress reports that indicate a substantially greater commitment to metrication. However, they are still facing serious difficulties in putting their plans into practice. These difficulties include a procurement environment in which most products are nonmetric and in which federal agencies represent too small a share of the total market to stimulate private sector conversion. Mixed progress has been made toward metric conversion in the areas of federal grants and other business activities. Grants for research require the use of the metric system, but such a commitment has not been made for grants in other areas, such as housing and education. Agencies that undertake other business-related activities, such as federal programs involving farmers or highway signs, are concerned about private sector and public resistance to conversion. Now that most agencies have made significant progress in preparing for metric conversion, a broader national dialogue between the government, the private sector, and the public is needed to discuss the next steps in decision-making about metric conversion.

  8. Exploring Ohio's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Exploring Ohio's Private Education Sector is the second entry in the Friedman Foundation for Educational Choice's "School Survey Series." This report synthesizes information on Ohio's private schools collected by the U.S. Department of Education and the Ohio Department of Education (ODE). Two appendices provide supplementary tables and…

  9. School Effectiveness within the Public and Private Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willms, J. Douglas

    1984-01-01

    gh School and Beyond data are examined using an approach to multilevel data analysis that shows the diversity in school effectiveness within the public and private sectors and provides estimates of private schooling effects for different types of students in schools serving different demographic populations. (PN)

  10. Private Sector Involvement in Urban School Reform. Emerging Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research for Action, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document presents findings on the impact of privatization to date at a meeting at the Ford Foundation co hosted by the William Penn Foundation, Carnegie Corporation of New York, and Ford. Increasingly, the private sector (both for-profit and non-profit) is providing resources and alternative delivery models for urban public schools. Beyond…

  11. Cyclical absenteeism among private sector, public sector and self-employed workers.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Christian

    2013-03-01

    This research note analyzes differences in the number of absent working days and doctor visits and in their cyclicality between private sector, public sector and self-employed workers. For this purpose, I used large-scale German survey data for the years 1995 to 2007 to estimate random effects negative binomial (count data) models. The main findings are as follows. (i) Public sector workers have on average more absent working days than private sector and self-employed workers. Self-employed workers have fewer absent working days and doctor visits than dependent employed workers. (ii) The regional unemployment rate is on average negatively correlated with the number of absent working days among private and public sector workers as well as among self-employed men. The correlations between regional unemployment rate and doctor visits are only significantly negative among private sector workers.

  12. Sector Distinctions and the Privatization of Public Education Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Current trends indicate declining distinctions between "public" and "private" sectors in education. Reformers see sector barriers as unnecessary impediments to innovation, distracting attention and effort from "what works". This analysis questions whether trends in education policy are simply a natural evolution away…

  13. Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    OAK-A258 Private Sector Initiative Between the U.S. and Japan. This report for calendar years 1993 through September 1998 describes efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract. The development of a pyrochemical process, called TRUMP-S, for partitioning actinides from PUREX waste, is described in this report. This effort is funded by the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), KHI, the United States Department of Energy, and Boeing.

  14. 5 CFR 300.503 - Conditions for using private sector temporaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... help service firm for the brief or intermittent use of the skills of private sector temporaries, when... displaced Federal employee as required by 5 CFR part 330, subpart F (Agency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees) and subpart G (Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan...

  15. The private sector invades medicare's home town

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C

    1998-01-01

    If Canada's medicare system has a home town it is probably Ottawa, where the system was first welded together 30 years ago. Charlotte Gray reports that there is a certain irony now that examples of private health care are sprouting up in the nations's capital. PMID:9700332

  16. Expanding the partnership. The private sector's role in HIV / AIDS prevention.

    PubMed

    Lamptey, P

    1996-07-01

    The public sector supports most HIV/AIDS prevention and care activities in developing countries, with significant funding provided by the US Agency for International Development, the Overseas Development Authority, the European Community, and international banking institutions such as the World Bank. Local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and international private voluntary organizations (PVOs) implement many of the grassroots prevention and care efforts in developing countries, but often require support from donor agencies. While the private commercial sector has played a minor role in supporting HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, a number of local and multinational companies are beginning to recognize the importance of protecting their workers from HIV infection. These companies are motivated by a sense of moral obligation and/or view HIV/AIDS prevention as a cost-effective investment. Mainly affecting the most economically productive age groups, the HIV/AIDS epidemic will have a significant impact upon private industry. Workplace-based prevention programs and policies, private sector resources for HIV/AIDS prevention and care, how HIV/AIDS programs can benefit from the private sector's experience in commercial service delivery, research and development, and corporate direct cash and in-kind contributions to government and NGO HIV/AIDS prevention activities are discussed. The AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's Businesses Managing AIDS Project helps owners and managers understand the potential impact of HIV/AIDS upon their businesses and the benefits of HIV/AIDS prevention.

  17. Development of health biotechnology in developing countries: can private-sector players be the prime movers?

    PubMed

    Abuduxike, Gulifeiya; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Health biotechnology has rapidly become vital in helping healthcare systems meet the needs of the poor in developing countries. This key industry also generates revenue and creates employment opportunities in these countries. To successfully develop biotechnology industries in developing nations, it is critical to understand and improve the system of health innovation, as well as the role of each innovative sector and the linkages between the sectors. Countries' science and technology capacities can be strengthened only if there are non-linear linkages and strong interrelations among players throughout the innovation process; these relationships generate and transfer knowledge related to commercialization of the innovative health products. The private sector is one of the main actors in healthcare innovation, contributing significantly to the development of health biotechnology via knowledge, expertise, resources and relationships to translate basic research and development into new commercial products and innovative processes. The role of the private sector has been increasingly recognized and emphasized by governments, agencies and international organizations. Many partnerships between the public and private sector have been established to leverage the potential of the private sector to produce more affordable healthcare products. Several developing countries that have been actively involved in health biotechnology are becoming the main players in this industry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of the private sector in health biotechnology development and to study its impact on health and economic growth through case studies in South Korea, India and Brazil. The paper also discussed the approaches by which the private sector can improve the health and economic status of the poor.

  18. Development of Private Higher Education in Macau: Exploring the Relationship between Government and Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, Cheng Man Diana; Yuen, Pong Kau

    2010-01-01

    The development of private higher education in Macau has experienced rapid growth in the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to understand this trend by investigating the facts and figures supplied by official sources and to analyze the role between the Government and the private sector. This paper shows that the attitude of the Macau…

  19. Full employment maintenance in the private sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operationally, full employment can be accomplished by applying modern computer capabilities, game and decision concepts, and communication feedback possibilities, rather than accepted economic tools, to the problem of assuring invariant full employment. The government must provide positive direction to individual firms concerning the net number of employees that each firm must hire or refrain from hiring to assure national full employment. To preserve free enterprise and the decision making power of the individual manager, this direction must be based on each private firm's own numerical employment projections.

  20. An Information System in the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Arlene R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The article describes how the New York Association for the Blind (The Lighthouse) studied its information needs and further systematized information collection, retrieval, and use for internal case management and external information exchange with human service agencies by means of a computerized client information system. (Author)

  1. University-Private Sector Research Partnerships in the Innovation Ecosystem

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    researches with the flexibility to engage in sabbaticals and career transitions between academia, government, and the private sector. The Federal government...to support these career paths among their faculty. These practices can also be integrated into the structure of Federally funded university research... careers in this sector. However, it is difficult to imagine how this workforce expansion and overall increase in research capacity can be maintained by

  2. Public and private sector interactions: an economic perspective.

    PubMed

    Maynard, A

    1986-01-01

    The debate about the public-private mix for health care has been dominated by rhetoric and the failure to evaluate the characteristics of the outcomes of public and private health care systems and to relate these to policy targets. After a brief analysis of the competing, liberal (conservative) and collectivist (socialist), objectives, the nature of the private health care sector in Britain is described and it is shown that growth has faltered due to cost containment problems. This outcome is the product of characteristics of the private health care system, paralleled precisely in the NHS: asymmetry information, monopoly power, moral hazard and third party pays. The final section discusses briefly some remedies for the inefficient and inequitable outcomes which are seen in all health care markets and it is argued that competition within public and private health care systems may enable each system type to achieve its own particular objectives more efficiently.

  3. Women Using Physics: Alternate Career Paths, The Private Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tams, Jessica

    2006-12-01

    For those who have spent their careers inside the safe walls of academia, the word is a little scary. Can I compete? Will I fit in? What do I need to know? Am I prepared? Will I succeed? While many would say: Yes! You are ready to excel! This isn’t actually the case. The private sector comes with many unanticipated shocks to many of us, especially women. This isn’t a group project. This session will discuss entering a quickly growing and competitive technical field and what one can do to prepare for continued success. Preparing and Entering the Private Sector * Women with technical skills are a desired part of the private workforcein general women posses stronger people skills, are more reliable and often more well rounded than their male counterparts. Key factors we will discuss to landing that first job: · Expand your knowledge base with current applications of technology · Preparing a solid employment pitch to highlight strengths: Overcoming stereotypes · Don’t show them your bad side: Why some student projects may hurt you · The private sector attitude toward performance and entry level expectations Excelling in the Private Sector * Now that we have landed a job * for better or worse we are now all about making money and exerting control. What to keep in mind while working in the private sector: · The formative first years: focus on your weaknesses and practice, practice, practice · Men & Women in the workplace: what women subconsciously do to hurt their careers · Politics: Working in a team environment · Polish & Detail & Reliabilit

  4. The AIDS threat and the private sector.

    PubMed

    Moore, D

    1999-01-01

    While commercial sector managers throughout southern Africa have invested considerable funds to ensure that reaching the year 2000 does not disrupt the routine functioning of their computer systems, they are failing to address the considerable damage which HIV/AIDS will likely inflict upon companies' human resources. How these managers address AIDS in the workplace will determine whether their companies survive the first decade of the 21st century. Based upon the most recently available statistics, the Metropolitan-Doyle model, developed in 1988 to produce estimates of the progression of HIV/AIDS in South Africa, projects that as of 1999, 11% of South Africa's work force is infected with HIV and an estimated 0.6% are sick with AIDS. The percentages of the country's work force projected to have HIV and to be sick due to AIDS in 2010 are 21% and 2.9%, respectively. The direct costs of AIDS will be felt through rising employee benefit and medical insurance costs, and there will also be numerous indirect costs in the workplace. Management and labor need to work together to find a proactive, holistic solution to the AIDS crisis facing South Africa. The indirect costs of HIV/AIDS to the commercial sector and the elements of a holistic solution to the AIDS problem are discussed.

  5. Evaluation of Private Sector Roles in Space Resource Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamassoure, Elisabeth S.; Blair, Brad R.; Diaz, Javier; Oderman, Mark; Duke, Michael B.; Vaucher, Marc; Manvi, Ramachandra; Easter, Robert W.

    2003-01-01

    An integrated engineering and financial modeling approach has been developed and used to evaluate the potential for private sector investment in space resource development, and to assess possible roles of the public sector in fostering private interest. This paper presents the modeling approach and its results for a transportation service using propellant extracted from lunar regolith. The analysis starts with careful case study definition, including an analysis of the customer base and market requirements, which are the basis for design of a modular, scalable space architecture. The derived non-recurring, recurring and operations costs become inputs for a `standard' financial model, as used in any commercial business plan. This model generates pro forma financial statements, calculates the amount of capitalization required, and generates return on equity calculations using two valuation metrics of direct interest to private investors: market enterprise value and multiples of key financial measures. Use of this model on an architecture to sell transportation services in Earth orbit based on lunar propellants shows how to rapidly test various assumptions and identify interesting architectural options, key areas for investment in exploration and technology, or innovative business approaches that could produce an economically viable industry. The same approach can be used to evaluate any other possible private ventures in space, and conclude on the respective roles of NASA and the private sector in space resource development and solar system exploration.

  6. Rehabilitation Counseling in the Private Sector: Implications for Graduate Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos

    1979-01-01

    There are specific skill areas which are not addressed in present masters degree programs which could be addressed in terms of developing an effective specialty area in rehabilitation counseling in the private sector. These areas include knowledge of workers compensation, basic concepts in insurance, and understanding of law. (CT)

  7. Private Sector Views of Vocational Education: A Statewide Employer Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, Thomas R.; Monthey, Wanda

    A study examined the views of private sector employers in Oregon on vocational education. During the study, researchers mailed questionnaires to a stratified random sample of 1,500 employers throughout Oregon. In addition, they surveyed another 140 employers who were identified as hiring the largest numbers of vocational education completers in…

  8. Information Technology Training: Practices of Leading Private Sector Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The General Accounting Office (GAO) examined private-sector workforce training practices for information technology (IT) and non-IT professionals. Data were collected from the following sources: a literature review; discussions with academic and professional authorities; interviews with executives and managers at leading companies regarding their…

  9. Evaluating NASA Technology Programs in Terms of Private Sector Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    NASA is currently developing spacecraft technology for application to NASA scientific missions, military missions and commercial missions which are part of or form the basis of private sector business ventures. The justification of R&D programs that lead to spacecraft technology improvements encompasses the establishment of the benefits in terms of improved scientific knowledge that may result from new and/or improved NASA science missions, improved cost effectiveness of NASA and DOD missions and new or improved services that may be offered by the private sector (for example communications satellite services). It is with the latter of these areas that attention will be focused upon. In particular, it is of interest to establish the economic value of spacecraft technology improvements to private sector communications satellite business ventures. It is proposed to assess the value of spacecraft technology improvements in terms of the changes in cash flow and present value of cash flows, that may result from the use of new and/or improved spacecraft technology for specific types of private sector communications satellite missions (for example domestic point-to-point communication or direct broadcasting). To accomplish this it is necessary to place the new and/or improved technology within typical business scenarios and estimate the impacts of technical performance upon business and financial performance.

  10. Wage Differentials Between Federal Government and Private Sector Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon Patricia

    This study examined the earnings and wage rate differentials between Federal government and private sector workers in 1960 and 1970 to consider the comparability of these workers and the application of the Comparability Doctrine in Federal pay policy during that period. Two types of earnings and wage rate equations were estimated by ordinary least…

  11. Online Tutoring and Emotional Labour in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: What happens when computer software is designed to replace the teacher and the human role is to service the relationship between the software and the learner? Specifically, this paper aims to consider whether or not emotional labour is performed in contexts mediated by technology in the private sector. Design/methodology/approach: The…

  12. Staffing Practices in the Private Sector in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present and discuss the findings of a study of staffing practices in the Sri Lankan private sector with particular reference to junior level managerial jobs. The scope of staffing practices consisted of six major areas, namely the usage of information from job analysis in staffing, the sources of labour, selection…

  13. Corporate Governance: Can Universities Learn from the Private Sector?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henze, Raphaela

    2010-01-01

    Corporate governance has several objectives: growth, transparency, leadership, social responsibility and trust, as well as the protection of shareholders and company assets. It also plays a key role in determining a company's control environment. In this article, the author takes a closer look at corporate governance in the private sector,…

  14. Trends in Private Sector Development in World Bank Education Projects. Policy Research Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosale, Shobhana

    The private sector is playing an increasingly important role in financing and providing educational services in many countries. (Often the term "private sector" encompasses households' out-of-pocket expenses rather than describing for-profit or not-for-profit sectors.) Private sector development has not arisen primarily through public…

  15. 6 CFR 11.7 - Private collection agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Private collection agencies. 11.7 Section 11.7 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLAIMS § 11.7 Private collection agencies. DHS will transfer delinquent DHS debts to the Treasury Department's Financial Management...

  16. The private sector's role in public sector genetically engineered crop projects.

    PubMed

    Potrykus, Ingo

    2010-11-30

    There is widespread interest within academia to work on public good genetically engineered (GE) projects to the benefit of the poor, especially to use GE-technology to contribute to food security. Not a single product from this work has reached the market. The major cause is GE-regulation, which prevents use of the technology for public good beyond proof-of-concept (Potrykus, I. (2010) Lessons from the Humanitarian Golden Rice project: Regulation prevents development of public good GE-products (these Proceedings)). There is, however, another key problem responsible for the lack of deployment of public good GE-plants: the public sector is incompetent and disinterested for work beyond proof-of-concept, and has neither capability nor funding to develop GE-plant products and introduce them to growers and consumers. The private sector has the expertise for both and in the right circumstances can be ready to support the public sector in public good enterprises. Public-private-partnerships are the best solution so far, to advance exploitation of GE-technology to the benefit of the poor. Public-private-partnerships are viable, however, only, if there is mutual interest from the private sector and initiative and funding from the public sector.

  17. How Old Is Old? Employing Elderly Teachers in the Private Sector Schools in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madhuwanthi, L. A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore why private sector schools in Sri Lanka employ elderly teachers (ETs). This paper used semi-structured in-depth interviews with 9 employers/principals in the private sector schools in Sri Lanka. The study found that the reasons for employing ETs in the private sector schools were shortfall of English medium…

  18. Privatization and management development in the healthcare sector of Georgia.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel J; Costello, Michael; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    Healthcare reforms in Georgia parallel some of the major changes made by other Central and Eastern European countries. This is especially true of efforts to privatize the health sector and secure capital investments from Western Europe. Privatization of Georgian healthcare requires an understanding of the Soviet-era healthcare system and ideological orientation. Many of the issues and problems of privatization in Georgia require new knowledge to enhance equity outcomes, improve financial performance, increase access to care and encourage healthcare competition. Training existing and future healthcare leaders in modern management theory and practice is paramount. A university based health-management education partnership model was developed and implemented between several universities in the United States and Europe, along with two Georgian universities, to address workforce demands, changing market conditions, management knowledge and leadership competencies. Health-management education concentrations were developed and implemented along with several short courses to meet market demand for trained leaders and managers.

  19. The needs of having a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector on funding digitizing management work of historical buildings in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamarudin, M. K.; Yahya, Z.; Harun, R.; Jaapar, A.

    2014-02-01

    In Malaysia, the government agencies that handle the management of historical buildings are finding themselves facing a shortage of funds to provide the necessary work on digitalising management works. Due to the rising cost of management, which also covers maintenance and infrastructure works, there is a need for a paradigm shift from public sector to private sector provision on infrastructure and management works. Therefore the government agencies need to find the suitable mechanism to encourage private sector especially the private property and developers to take part in it. This scenario has encouraged the authorities to look new ways of entering into partnership and collaboration with the private sector to secure the continuity of provision and funding. The paper first reviews the different approach to facilitate off-site local management system of historical buildings and then examines options for both private and public funding in digitalising the historical buildings management works by interviewing government officer, conservator and member of nongovernment agencies. It then explores how the current system of management may adopt the shift to avoid any vulnerability and threat to the existing historical buildings. This paper concludes with a short summary of key issues in management works of historical buildings and recommendations.

  20. Harnessing Private-Sector Innovation to Improve Health Insurance Exchanges

    PubMed Central

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Hoch, Emily; Eibner, Christine; Rudin, Robert S.; Mattke, Soeren

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Overhauling the individual health insurance market—including through the creation of health insurance exchanges—was a key component of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's multidimensional approach to addressing the long-standing problem of the uninsured in the United States. Despite succeeding in enrolling millions of Americans, the exchanges still face several challenges, including poor consumer experience, high operational and development costs, and incomplete market penetration. In light of these challenges, analysts considered a different model for the exchanges—privately facilitated exchanges—which could address these challenges and deepen the Affordable Care Act's impact. In this model, the government retains control over sovereign exchange functions but allows the private sector to assume responsibility for more-peripheral exchange functions, such as developing and sustaining exchange websites. Although private-sector entities have already undertaken exchange-related functions on a limited basis, privately facilitated exchanges could conceivably relieve the government of its responsibility for front-end website operations and consumer decision-support functions entirely. A shift to privately facilitated exchanges could improve the consumer experience, increase enrollment, and lower costs for state and federal governments. A move to such a model requires, nonetheless, managing its risks, such as reduced consumer protection, increased consumer confusion, and the possible lack of a viable revenue base for privately facilitated exchanges, especially in less populous states. On net, the benefits are large enough and the risks sufficiently manageable to seriously consider such a shift. This paper provides background information and more detail on the analysts' assessment. PMID:28083414

  1. Harnessing Private-Sector Innovation to Improve Health Insurance Exchanges.

    PubMed

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Hoch, Emily; Eibner, Christine; Rudin, Robert S; Mattke, Soeren

    2016-05-09

    Overhauling the individual health insurance market-including through the creation of health insurance exchanges-was a key component of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act's multidimensional approach to addressing the long-standing problem of the uninsured in the United States. Despite succeeding in enrolling millions of Americans, the exchanges still face several challenges, including poor consumer experience, high operational and development costs, and incomplete market penetration. In light of these challenges, analysts considered a different model for the exchanges-privately facilitated exchanges-which could address these challenges and deepen the Affordable Care Act's impact. In this model, the government retains control over sovereign exchange functions but allows the private sector to assume responsibility for more-peripheral exchange functions, such as developing and sustaining exchange websites. Although private-sector entities have already undertaken exchange-related functions on a limited basis, privately facilitated exchanges could conceivably relieve the government of its responsibility for front-end website operations and consumer decision-support functions entirely. A shift to privately facilitated exchanges could improve the consumer experience, increase enrollment, and lower costs for state and federal governments. A move to such a model requires, nonetheless, managing its risks, such as reduced consumer protection, increased consumer confusion, and the possible lack of a viable revenue base for privately facilitated exchanges, especially in less populous states. On net, the benefits are large enough and the risks sufficiently manageable to seriously consider such a shift. This paper provides background information and more detail on the analysts' assessment.

  2. Public-Private Partnerships in China’s Urban Water Sector

    PubMed Central

    Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

  3. Job Satisfaction and Burnout among Greek Early Educators: A Comparison between Public and Private Sector Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Zachopoulou, Evridiki; Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine perceived levels of burnout and job satisfaction of Greek early educators, across public and private sector. One hundred and seventy eight childhood educators participated in the study. 108 were working in the public sector, 67 in private sector, whereas three did not respond. Participants were…

  4. [Making census data accessible to local users in the public and private sectors].

    PubMed

    Conning, A; Silva, A

    1993-06-01

    The authors outline ways in which government statistical offices can make census data available to local public- and private-sector users. Several computer programs, including REDATAM-Plus and Geographical Information Systems, are discussed. "The successful implementation of the use of the census data at the local level will require that...national agencies facilitate the institutionalization of technology transfer by providing, among other things, technical support, training at a distance, data and cartography standards, and solutions to data protection issues." The geographical focus is on Latin America and the Caribbean. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  5. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1990 - December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    1993-07-01

    OAK A271 This annual report for calendar year 1990 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  6. Technical progress report. Private sector initiatives between the United States and Japan. January 1989 - December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-01

    This annual report for calendar year 1989 describes the efforts performed under the Private Sector Initiatives contract. The report also describes those efforts that have continued with private funding after being initiated under this contract.

  7. 77 FR 41204 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... the committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss the matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private...

  8. An empirical typology of private child and family serving agencies

    PubMed Central

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen; Wells, Rebecca; Bunger, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Differences in how services are organized and delivered can contribute significantly to variation in outcomes experienced by children and families. However, few comparative studies identify the strengths and limitations of alternative delivery system configurations. The current study provides the first empirical typology of private agencies involved with the formal child welfare system. Data collected in 2011 from a national sample of private agencies were used to classify agencies into five distinct groups based on internal management capacity, service diversification, integration, and policy advocacy. Findings reveal considerable heterogeneity in the population of private child and family serving agencies. Cross-group comparisons suggest that differences in agencies’ strategic and structural characteristics correlated with agency directors’ perceptions of different pressures in their external environment. Future research can use this typology to better understand local service systems and the extent to which different agency strategies affect performance and other outcomes. Such information has implications for public agency contracting decisions and could inform system-level assessment and planning of services for children and families. PMID:24648603

  9. Private health care sector investment in Brazil: opportunities and obstacles.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Reynaldo

    2003-01-01

    The Brazilian health system is based upon the constitutional right formulated in 1988, according to which health is the peoples' right and duty of the State. So being, it is essentially the government's responsibility, expressed in the so-called Sistema Unico de Saúde--SUS (single health system) Since its creation, however, it admits the existence of a supplementary health system, left to the private sector. In general terms, the public system is considered unsatisfactory in the services it renders. Its resources are distributed heterogeneously, favoring centers of advanced medical practice, to the detriment of basic health care. The supplementary system is considered of better quality, however with great variations and frequent accusations of being essentially profit driven, instead of being driven to the needs of the assisted population. The growing search for health plans is a direct consequence of the image perceived by the population regarding the quality and accessibility of the public services, as well as of the peoples' growing consciousness of their needs, rights and duties as citizens. The need for continuous quality improvement and cost reduction offers numberless opportunities for actions and investments. Initiatives to identify and implement the best medical practices, medical guidelines and actions are essential regarding those illnesses which are most frequent, of higher cost and of greater risk. Health plans and healthcare providers will necessarily have to focus on their common client. Therefore, organizations must be created in order to develop initiatives aimed to the quality of patient care, as well as to the collection and dissemination of data regarding the production and results of the main service providers. Consequently, immense opportunities are being opened for investments in the area of Information Technology, collection, analysis, and data dissemination. This paper analyses the main trends in the Brazilian health sector and from the

  10. System Expertise Training Courses in Private Sector: Can They Be Given Online?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balci Demirci, Birim

    2014-01-01

    It is widely known that there are many schools in the private sector offering courses in Computer Technology, Computer Engineering, Information Systems and similar disciplines in addition to Universities presenting such courses. The private sector programs are extremely popular with students already studying at university as well as being of great…

  11. Are PhDs Winners or Losers? Wage Premiums for Doctoral Degrees in Private Sector Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Heidi Skovgaard

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers expect increasing numbers of PhDs to find employment in the private sector. However, the incentive structure for completing a PhD and subsequently seeking private sector employment has not been adequately assessed in the literature. This paper investigates the financial incentives for this career choice of recent Danish PhD…

  12. Preparing Rehabilitation Counselors for Private Sector Practice within a CORE Accredited Generalist Educational Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanskas, Stephen; Leahy, Michael

    2007-01-01

    As private sector rehabilitation has matured as a field of practice, the issue of how rehabilitation counselor educators can effectively prepare rehabilitation counselors for practice in this setting remains. This article reviews the literature regarding the training needs of rehabilitation counselors entering private sector practice, and proposes…

  13. An Investigation of Conflict Management in Public and Private Sector Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Din, Siraj ud; Khan, Bakhtiar; Rehman, Rashid; Bibi, Zainab

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to gain an insight into the conflict management in public and private sector universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. To achieve the earlier mentioned purpose, survey method was used with the help of questionnaire. In this research, impact of university type (public and private sector) was examined on the conflict…

  14. Stereosat: A proposed private sector/government joint venture in remote sensing from space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    Stereosat, a free flying Sun synchronous satellite whose purpose is to obtain worldwide cloud-free stereoscopic images of the Earth's land masses, is proposed as a joint private sector/government venture. A number of potential organization models are identified. The legal, economic, and institutional issues which could impact the continuum of potential joint private sector/government institutional structures are examined.

  15. Gender Differences in Pay among Recent Graduates: Private Sector Employees in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Helen; Smyth, Emer; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we seek to investigate the role of different factors in accounting for the differences in earnings among recent graduates working in the private sector in Ireland. Three years after graduation there is a pay gap of 8 per cent in hourly wages between male and female graduates in the private sector and a 4 per cent non-significant gap…

  16. Evaluating the benefits of government funded R & D aimed at the private sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Federal funding of technological research and development is discussed with regard to the procedures for an economic analysis with the goals of (1) determining when the public sector should invest in a research and development program, (2) evaluating the likelihood of private sector participation in terms of public sector participation, and (3) considering the major factors in the formulation of a research and development program in terms of defining initiatives. Public sector investments are evaluated, noting procedures for determining whether benefits exceed costs. The role of the public sector research and development planning is described, considering the procedure for private sector implementation decisions and a methodology for evaluating the possibility of private sector commercialization. The economic value of the public sector research and development program is presented with attention given to a specific case of NASA-sponsored research and development aimed toward the commercialization of new public communications services.

  17. Creating conditions for greater private sector participation in achieving contraceptive security.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Suneeta; Dayaratna, Varuni

    2005-03-01

    The growing gap between donor/government funding and the expected need for contraceptives is an issue of great concern for most developing countries. Addressing this resource shortfall, and meeting the goals of contraceptive security requires that countries mobilize the full and active participation of the private sector in the contraceptive market. Private sector involvement will not only increase the resource base available for contraceptives, it can also free up scarce donor and government resources to serve those who have the greatest need for public subsidies. This paper provides an overview of policy processes, strategies, and tools that can be used in developing countries to create an enabling environment for greater private sector participation, foster complementary public-private sector roles, and enhance the contribution of the private sector to contraceptive security.

  18. A Directory of Training and Employment Programs in the Private Sector Emphasis: Disadvantaged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburg, Adina

    This directory lists 117 programs sponsored by the private sector for the training and employment of disadvantaged youth. (It is the first in a series of program guides to be issued regularly by the Public/Private Ventures' Resource Center.) Programs had to meet two criteria to be included: (1) they involved participation of the private sector…

  19. Private sector participation in water supply and sanitation in latin America. World Bank directions in development

    SciTech Connect

    Idelovitch, E.; Ringskog, K.

    1995-12-31

    Private sector participation in water and sanitation has been a topic of discussion among various countries in Latin America. This publication is aimed at assisting the decisionmaking process that many countries face. It consists of two chapters. In the first--Options for Private Sector Participation--the main problems of the public sector are analyzed, the rationale for private sector participation (PSP) is explained, and the array of options for PSP is reviewed. In the second chapter--Case study: The Buenos Aires Concession--the large concession for the Greater Buenos Aires water supply and sewerage services awarded by the government of Argentina to a private consortium of foreign operators and local investors is presented and analyzed, because it provides an excellent example of the planning and implementation stages that are needed to ensure a successful transition from public to private management.

  20. Can developing countries achieve adequate improvements in child health outcomes without engaging the private sector?

    PubMed Central

    Bustreo, Flavia; Harding, April; Axelsson, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The private sector exerts a significant and critical influence on child health outcomes in developing countries, including the health of poor children. This article reviews the available evidence on private sector utilization and quality of care. It provides a framework for analysing the private sector's influence on child health outcomes. This influence goes beyond service provision by private providers and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Pharmacies, drug sellers, private suppliers, and food producers also have an impact on the health of children. Many governments are experimenting with strategies to engage the private sector to improve child health. The article analyses some of the most promising strategies, and suggests that a number of constraints make it hard for policy-makers to emulate these approaches. Few experiences are clearly described, monitored, and evaluated. The article suggests that improving the impact of child health programmes in developing countries requires a more systematic analysis of how to engage the private sector most effectively. The starting point should include the evaluation of the presence and potential of the private sector, including actors such as professional associations, producer organizations, community groups, and patients' organizations. PMID:14997241

  1. Exploring Arkansas's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    This report synthesizes information about Arkansas's private schools from two separate surveys conducted by the Friedman Foundation and the U.S. Department of Education (USDOE). If the Friedman Foundation survey data are representative of the state's private schools, then Arkansas's private schools have enough empty seats to increase current…

  2. A compendium of options for government policy to encourage private sector responses to potential climate changes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The possibility of anthropogenic climate change is rapidly becoming an issue of significant public concern. Recent scientific research results combined with a very warm decade have led to growing apprehension that we may be on the brink of global warming inadvertently induced by human activity. As one manifestation of increasing concern, several Congressional Committee hearings on issues deriving from potential climate change have been held. Additionally, in 1986 Congress requested two studies by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the effects of climate change and on policy options to stabilize the atmosphere. Those reports currently are being reviewed by Federal agencies prior to submission to Congress. In the report language accompanying the Energy and Water Appropriations Act, 1989, the Senate Committee on Appropriations and the Conference Committee also requested four studies on climate change from the Department of Energy (DOE). The four reports are Alternative Energy R D -- to assess the state and direction of Federal R D on alternative energy sources, including conservation; Greenhouse Gas Data Collection -- to assess how greenhouse gas emission and climate trends data are coordinated, archived, and made available to scientists, both within and outside of government, Carbon Dioxide Inventory and Policy -- to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 5-10 years and a 50% reduction in 15-20 years as well as provide an inventory of emission sources; and Study of Options to Mobilize the Private Sector -- to assess policy options for encouraging the private sector to cooperate in mitigating, adapting, and preventing global climate change. 286 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Health care markets in Australia: ownership of the private hospital sector.

    PubMed

    White, K; Collyer, F

    1998-01-01

    Over the past decade, the Australian hospital sector has undergone a massive economic and administrative reorganization with ramifications for both the private and the public sectors. Changes such as privatization, deregulation, and the entry of foreign capital into the hospital sector are occurring in the hospital systems of many countries, including Australia, the United States, and the United Kingdom. These developments are radically transforming the hospital sector, altering established relationships between the state, the medical profession, the consumer, and the corporate investor, and raising important questions about the future of hospital services in regard to equity, accessibility, and quality.

  4. Health sector reform agenda in the Philippines--its effect on private hospitals.

    PubMed

    Priela, J O

    2001-01-01

    Despite the gains that Philippines posted towards improving the health of the Filipinos, more challenges need to be hurdled to further improve the country's health status i.e. high threat from infectious diseases, increasing degenerative conditions, emerging health problems due to environmental and work-related factors, etc. The development and implementation of the Health Sector Reform Agenda (HSRA) is expected to address these problems through organization/policy changes and financing structure needed to improve health care delivery, regulation and financing: 1. Provide fiscal autonomy to government hospitals; 2. Secure funding for priority public health programs; 3. Promote development of local health systems; 4. Strengthen health regulatory agencies' capacities; 5. Expand the coverage of the National Health Insurance Program. There is a need however to evaluate the implications of the HSRA implementation in the private hospital system as this sector accounts for 67.91% of the total number of hospitals, servicing 48.35% of the country's total bed requirements. Major effects are: 1. Increased competition for patient market; and consequently; 2. for funding/payments; 3. Lesser capital and financing access for service/facility improvement; versus; 4. pressure from consumers/patients to render better quality, high-technology service at a lower cost. Certainly, any adverse effect on their operation will affect the access of a large percentage of the population currently using their services. This paper will provide an in-depth analysis of the implications of the HSRA implementation on private hospitals, major initiatives being undertaken to minimize adverse effect and innovations that can be capitalized to survive/grow in the new health environment. The authors' active participation in the National Health Planning Committee convened to oversee the HSRA implementation, the dialogues and conferences held with hospital sector for the Philippine Hospital Association, and

  5. Prohibit, constrain, encourage, or purchase: how should we engage with the private health-care sector?

    PubMed

    Montagu, Dominic; Goodman, Catherine

    2016-08-06

    The private for-profit sector's prominence in health-care delivery, and concern about its failures to deliver social benefit, has driven a search for interventions to improve the sector's functioning. We review evidence for the effectiveness and limitations of such private sector interventions in low-income and middle-income countries. Few robust assessments are available, but some conclusions are possible. Prohibiting the private sector is very unlikely to succeed, and regulatory approaches face persistent challenges in many low-income and middle-income countries. Attention is therefore turning to interventions that encourage private providers to improve quality and coverage (while advancing their financial interests) such as social marketing, social franchising, vouchers, and contracting. However, evidence about the effect on clinical quality, coverage, equity, and cost-effectiveness is inadequate. Other challenges concern scalability and scope, indicating the limitations of such interventions as a basis for universal health coverage, though interventions can address focused problems on a restricted scale.

  6. 75 FR 67992 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program (PS-Prep Program). That notice did not... the plan. However, the notice that published on October 1, 2010 did not include a closing date for...

  7. 78 FR 75376 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTP-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... discuss matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector.... appendix 2), the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) announces a meeting of the...

  8. Strategies for engaging the private sector in sexual and reproductive health: how effective are they?

    PubMed

    Peters, David H; Mirchandani, Gita G; Hansen, Peter M

    2004-10-01

    The private health sector provides a significant portion of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services in developing countries. Yet little is known about which strategies for intervening with private providers can improve quality or coverage of services. We conducted a systematic review of the literature through PubMed from 1980 to 2003 to assess the effectiveness of private sector strategies for SRH services in developing countries. The strategies examined were regulating, contracting, financing, franchising, social marketing, training and collaborating. Over 700 studies were examined, though most were descriptive papers, with only 71 meeting our inclusion criteria of having a private sector strategy for one or more SRH services and the measurement of an outcome in the provider or the beneficiary. Nearly all studies (96%) had at least one positive association between SRH and the private sector strategy. About three-quarters of the studies involved training private providers, though combinations of strategies tended to give better results. Maternity services were most commonly addressed (55% of studies), followed by prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (32%). Using study design to rate the strength of evidence, we found that the evidence about effectiveness of private sector strategies on SRH services is weak. Most studies did not use comparison groups, or they relied on cross-sectional designs. Nearly all studies examined short-term effects, largely measuring changes in providers rather than changes in health status or other effects on beneficiaries. Five studies with more robust designs (randomized controlled trials) demonstrated that contraceptive use could be increased through supporting private providers, and showed cases where the knowledge and practices of private providers could be improved through training, regulation and incentives. Although tools to work with the private sector offer considerable promise, without stronger research

  9. Is Satisfaction with the Acute-Care Experience Higher amongst Consumers Treated in the Private Sector? A Survey of Public and Private Sector Arthroplasty Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Justine M.; Descallar, Joseph; Grootemaat, Mechteld; Badge, Helen; Harris, Ian A.; Simpson, Grahame; Jenkin, Deanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Consumer satisfaction with the acute-care experience could reasonably be expected to be higher amongst those treated in the private sector compared to those treated in the public sector given the former relies on high-level satisfaction of its consumers and their subsequent recommendations to thrive. The primary aims of this study were to determine, in a knee or hip arthroplasty cohort, if surgery in the private sector predicts greater overall satisfaction with the acute-care experience and greater likelihood to recommend the same hospital. A secondary aim was to determine whether satisfaction across a range of service domains is also higher in the private sector. Methods A telephone survey was conducted 35 days post-surgery. The hospital cohort comprised eight public and seven private high-volume arthroplasty providers. Consumers rated overall satisfaction with care out of 100 and likeliness to recommend their hospital on a 5-point Likert scale. Additional Likert-style questions were asked covering specific service domains. Generalized estimating equation models were used to analyse overall satisfaction (dichotomised as ≥ 90 or < 90) and future recommendations for care (dichotomised as ‘definitely recommend’ or ‘other’), whilst controlling for covariates. The proportions of consumers in each sector reporting the best Likert response for each individual domain were compared using non-parametric tests. Results 457 survey respondents (n = 210 private) were included. Less patient-reported joint impairment pre-surgery [OR 1.03 (95% CI 1.01–1.05)] and absence of an acute complication (OR 2.13 95% CI 1.41–3.23) significantly predicted higher overall satisfaction. Hip arthroplasty [OR 1.84 (1.1–2.96)] and an absence of an acute complication [OR 2.31 (1.28–4.17] significantly predicted greater likelihood for recommending the hospital. The only care domains where the private out-performed the public sector were hospitality (46.7 vs 35.6%, p <0

  10. Reducing Avoidable Deaths Among Veterans: Directing Private-Sector Surgical Care to High-Performance Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, William B.; West, Alan N.; Wallace, Amy E.; Lee, Richard E.; Goodman, David C.; Dimick, Justin B.; Bagian, James P.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We quantified older (65 years and older) Veterans Health Administration (VHA) patients’ use of the private sector to obtain 14 surgical procedures and assessed the potential impact of directing that care to high-performance hospitals. Methods. Using a merged VHA–Medicare inpatient database for 2000 and 2001, we determined where older VHA enrollees obtained 6 cardiovascular surgeries and 8 cancer resections and whether private-sector care was obtained in high- or low-performance hospitals (based on historical performance and determined 2 years in advance of the service year). We then modeled the mortality and travel burden effect of directing private-sector care to high-performance hospitals. Results. Older veterans obtained most of their procedures in the private sector, but that care was equally distributed across high- and low-performance hospitals. Directing private-sector care to high-performance hospitals could have led to the avoidance of 376 to 584 deaths, most through improved cardiovascular care outcomes. Using historical mortality to define performance would produce better outcomes with lower travel time. Conclusions. Policy that directs older VHA enrollees’ private-sector care to high-performance hospitals promises to reduce mortality for VHA’s service population and warrants further exploration. PMID:17971543

  11. Cooperation and Conflict. The Public and Private Sectors in Higher Education. AGB Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Relations between the public and private sectors of higher education are discussed. In the first chapter, John W. Gardner provides a historical perspective to the recent conflict in some states between public and private colleges and universities. In addition to discussing the pluralism and diversity that have characterized U.S. colleges and…

  12. Intra-Sectoral Diversity: A Political Economy of Thai Private Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Praphamontripong, Prachayani

    2010-01-01

    Private higher education (PHE) worldwide has been a rapid development in the last several decades. The private sector will continue to grow, diversify and undoubtedly play a significant role in the political economy of higher education. Nevertheless, systematically empirical studies on the trio relationships among PHE, institutional diversity and…

  13. The Impact of Private Sector Competition on Public Schooling in Kuwait: Some Socio-Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Shehab, Ali Jasem

    2010-01-01

    With the diminishing model of the welfare state, public education in Kuwait is facing the challenges of the competition of private schools, while the private sector has always struggled against the monopolistic power of the public schools that educate a broad spectrum of K-12 students. This article presents estimates of the effect of private…

  14. Private Sector Initiative Program. Documentation and Assessment of CETA Title VII Implementation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas J.

    The development and performance, through 1981, of Private Industry Councils (PICs) in 16 study sites are described and assessed in this report. (PICs were set up under Title VII of the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) to serve as a hub for attracting increased private sector involvement in employment and training activities for the…

  15. 76 FR 80971 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... committee meeting of the State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee. To discuss the matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State, Local, Tribal, and... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office State, Local, Tribal, and Private...

  16. The Medicaid School Program: An Effective Public School and Private Sector Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallett, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Privatized service delivery within Medicaid has greatly increased over the past two decades. This public program-private sector collaboration is quite common today, with a majority of Medicaid recipients receiving services in this fashion; yet controversy remains. This article focuses on just one program within Medicaid, school-based services for…

  17. How Do Private Sector Schools Serve the Public Good by Fostering Inclusive Service Delivery Models?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Martin; Tichy, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Conversations about promoting educational reforms that redress educational inequities often ignore private schools as irrelevant. Yet pursuits of inclusivity in private sector schools serve the public interest. This article focuses on how the system of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese of St. Louis has been purposefully striving for 2 decades to…

  18. 78 FR 8499 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Private School Universe Survey 2013-16

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... the universe of private elementary and secondary schools in the United States. The PSS is designed to... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Private School Universe Survey 2013-16 AGENCY... in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Private...

  19. Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…

  20. Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

    2014-02-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in <25 years (Central Intelligence Agency 2012; Fotso et al. 2011). Over half of the population already lives in an urban area, and by 2050, that proportion will increase to three quarters (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2012; Measurement Learning & Evaluation Project, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, National Population Commission 2012). Reducing unwanted and unplanned pregnancies through reliable access to high-quality modern contraceptives, especially among the urban poor, could make a major contribution to moderating population growth and improving the livelihood of urban residents. This study uses facility census data to create and assign aggregate-level family planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas.

  1. Private sector, human resources and health franchising in Africa.

    PubMed

    Prata, Ndola; Montagu, Dominic; Jefferys, Emma

    2005-04-01

    In much of the developing world, private health care providers and pharmacies are the most important sources of medicine and medical care and yet these providers are frequently not considered in planning for public health. This paper presents the available evidence, by socioeconomic status, on which strata of society benefit from publicly provided care and which strata use private health care. Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, proxies for publicly subsidized services. The evidence and theory on using franchise networks to supplement government programmes in the delivery of public health services was assessed. Examples from health franchises in Africa and Asia are provided to illustrate the potential for franchise systems to leverage private providers and so increase delivery-point availability for public-benefit services. We argue that based on the established demand for private medical services in Africa, these providers should be included in future planning on human resources for public health. Having explored the range of systems that have been tested for working with private providers, from contracting to vouchers to behavioural change and provider education, we conclude that franchising has the greatest potential for integration into large-scale programmes in Africa to address critical illnesses of public health importance.

  2. Private sector, human resources and health franchising in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Prata, Ndola; Montagu, Dominic; Jefferys, Emma

    2005-01-01

    In much of the developing world, private health care providers and pharmacies are the most important sources of medicine and medical care and yet these providers are frequently not considered in planning for public health. This paper presents the available evidence, by socioeconomic status, on which strata of society benefit from publicly provided care and which strata use private health care. Using data from The World Bank's Health Nutrition and Population Poverty Thematic Reports on 22 countries in Africa, an assessment was made of the use of public and private health services, by asset quintile groups, for treatment of diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections, proxies for publicly subsidized services. The evidence and theory on using franchise networks to supplement government programmes in the delivery of public health services was assessed. Examples from health franchises in Africa and Asia are provided to illustrate the potential for franchise systems to leverage private providers and so increase delivery-point availability for public-benefit services. We argue that based on the established demand for private medical services in Africa, these providers should be included in future planning on human resources for public health. Having explored the range of systems that have been tested for working with private providers, from contracting to vouchers to behavioural change and provider education, we conclude that franchising has the greatest potential for integration into large-scale programmes in Africa to address critical illnesses of public health importance. PMID:15868018

  3. Private-sector involvement in urban transportation. Final report, 1985-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The report documents ways to involve the private sector in the planning and implementation of highway and transit systems, and recommends procedures for improving public/private partnerships in urban transportation at the State, regional, and local levels. The report provides a broad overview of the opportunities available and briefly reviews a wide variety of techniques followed by successful applications in 20 cities across the Nation. These case studies cover the highway and transit modes and represent all major groups of private-sector participants, including local businesses and community groups, major developers and transit service providers. Six of those cases were studied in greater detail.

  4. Barriers to private-sector participation in public transportation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, T.A.

    1986-09-01

    Chapter One considers the full range of public-transportation services the private sector could provide looking at current U.S. examples. Chapter Two describes the Federal, state, and local barriers currently limiting private-sector provision of these services. Chapter Three summarizes the unique contribution of this study: an analysis of three New York counties utilizing private operators to provide varying percentages of public transportation under different institutional structures. The full case studies of the three New York counties - Onondaga (Syracuse), Suffolk (eastern Long Island), and Westchester (New York City suburb) - are presented in Appendices A-C. Appendices D and E exemplify purchase of service contracts currently in New York.

  5. Treatment of DOE and commercial mixed waste by the private sector

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, T.W.; Apel, M.L.; Owens, C.M.

    1993-03-01

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for private sector treatment of mixed low-level radioactive waste generated by the US Department of Energy and commercial industries. This approach focuses on MLLW treatment technologies and capacities available through the private sector in the near term. Wastestream characterization data for 108 MLLW streams at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were collected and combined with similar data for MLLWs generated through commercial practices. These data were then provided to private treatment facilities and vendors to determine if, and to what extent, they could successfully treat these wastes. Data obtained from this project have provided an initial assessment of private sector capability and capacity to treat a variety of MLLW streams. This information will help formulate plans for future treatment of these and similar wastestreams at DOE facilities. This paper presents details of the MLLW data-gathering efforts used in this research, private sector assessment methods employed, and results of this assessment. Advantages of private sector treatment, as well as barriers to its present use, are also addressed.

  6. Beyond Percheron - Launch vehicle systems from the private sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horne, W. C.; Pavia, T. C.; Schrick, B. L.; Wolf, R. S.; Fruchterman, J. R.; Ross, D. J.

    Private ventures for operation of spacecraft launching services are discussed in terms of alternative strategies for commercialization of space activities. The Percheron was the product of a philosophy of a cost-, rather than a weight-, minimized a lunch vehicle. Although the engine exploded during a static test firing, other private projects continued, including the launch of the Conestoga, an Aries second stage Minuteman I. Consideration is being directed toward commercial production and launch of the Delta rocket, and $1 and a $1.5 billion offers have been tendered for financing a fifth Orbiter for NASA in exchange for marketing rights. Funding for the ventures is contingent upon analyses of the size and projected growth rate of payload markets, a favorable national policy, investor confidence, and agreeable capitalization levels. It is shown that no significant barriers exist against satisfying the criteria, and private space ventures are projected to result in more cost-effective operations due to increased competition.

  7. Private sector involvement in civil space remote sensing. Volume 1: Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A survey of private sector developers, users, and interpreters of Earth resources data was conducted in an effort to encourage private investment and participation in remote sensing systems. Results indicate positive interest in participation beyond the current hardware contracting level, however, there is a substantial gap between current market levels and system costs. Issues identified include the selection process for an operating entity, the public/private interface, data collection and access policies, price and profit regulation in a subsidized system, international participation, and the responsibility for research and development. It was agreed that the cost, complexity, and security implications of integrated systems need not be an absolute bar to their private operation.

  8. Private and Public Sector Enterprise Resource Planning System Post-Implementation Practices: A Comparative Mixed Method Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    While private sector organizations have implemented enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems since the mid 1990s, ERP implementations within the public sector lagged by several years. This research conducted a mixed method, comparative assessment of post "go-live" ERP implementations between public and private sector organization. Based on a…

  9. Cybersecurity Information Sharing Between Public Private Sector Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Business Software Alliance, et al., “Improving our Nation’s Cybersecurity,” 25. 30 Michael Schmidt, “New Interest in Hacking as Threat to Security...The New York Times, March 13, 2012, http://www nytimes.com/2012/03/14/us/new-interest-in- hacking -as-threat-to-us-security html?_ r=0. 31 Ibid. 32...are only two types of companies: those that have been hacked and those that will be,” further adding, “they are even converging into one category

  10. Organizational Perceptions of Telecommuting in the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galusha, Repps J.

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has provided more organizations the opportunity to adopt telecommuting as a means to recruit and retain employees, boost productivity, and trim facility costs. This study expands on the work of a previous study by Hoang, Nickerson, Beckman, and Eng, in 2008 which found that private organizations, due to perceptions of organizational…

  11. Private-Sector Provision of Schooling: An Economic Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adnett, Nick

    2004-01-01

    In many countries the school choice agenda has promoted increased inter-school competition as a means of creating stronger incentives for state schools to raise measures of average pupil attainment. Privatization of the provision of schooling takes market-based reforms a stage further. We identify the factors that have increased governments'…

  12. Exploring Indiana's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Indiana is at the national forefront on private school choice. With the broadest eligibility guidelines among the country's 22 other school voucher programs, Indiana's Choice Scholarship Program has seen enrollment more than double each year since being enacted in 2011. Today, when compared with voucher programs in 12 other states, Indiana has the…

  13. The Role of Private Sector Management in Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Denis P.

    1994-01-01

    The school system's uniformity is clearly a liability in the modern era. Today's schools need entrepreneurship, not change by rule, regulation, and statute. The central issue of entrepreneurship is not risk-taking, but innovative, implementation methods. Eventually, using private contractors to improve the management of instructional services will…

  14. Policy Perspective: School Turnaround in England. Utilizing the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This paper, written by strategic partner of the Center on School Turnaround (CST), Julie Corbett, provides research and examples on England's approach to turning around its lowest performing schools. The English education system utilizes private vendors to support chronically low-performing schools and districts. The introduction is followed by…

  15. Power sector privatization in developing countries: Will it solve all problems?

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    The wave of economic deregulation and privatization has been sweeping the world for quite some time. The energy sector is also touched by this wave, and there is a sort of competition among developing countries to move fast in order not to miss the train. The power subsector is a major area within the energy sector that is growing fast in the third world and is facing such problems as poor performance and high investment demand for capacity addition that is beyond the capability of the utility. Thus, the power subsector is a target for deregulation and privatization in many countries. However, in many cases the objectives of these programs are too narrow and are designed only to attract private investment. They argue that the problems faced by the power sector are diverse, and privatization and deregulation cannot solve all of them, though the financial burden of the utilities may be eased. At the same time, new institutional and regulatory issues will surface. The authors also argue that the privatization program may lead to neglect of long-term planning of the electricity sector and endanger the energy security of these countries. Finally, they argue for a harmonious cohabitation of private and public utilities in a changed environment where each will play a role.

  16. The USWRP Workshop on the Weather Research Needs of the Private Sector.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielke, Roger A., Jr.; Abraham, Jim; Abrams, Elliot; Block, Jim; Carbone, Richard; Chang, David; Droegemeier, Kelvin; Emanuel, Kerry; Friday, Elbert W. Joe, Jr.; Gall, Robert; Gaynor, John; Getz, Rodger R.; Glickman, Todd; Hoggatt, Bradley; Hooke, William H.; Johnson, Edward R.; Kalnay, Eugenia; Kimpel, James Jeff; Kocin, Paul; Marler, Byron; Morss, Rebecca; Nathan, Ravi; Nelson, Steve; Pielke, Roger, Sr.; Pirone, Maria; Prater, Erwin; Qualley, Warren; Simmons, Kevin; Smith, Michael; Thomson, John; Wilson, Greg

    2003-07-01

    Private sector meteorology is a rapidly growing enterprise. It has been estimated that the provision of weather information has, by some estimates, a global market totaling in the billions of dollars. Further, the decisions based on such information could easily total trillions of dollars in the U.S. economy alone. The private sector clearly plays an important, and growing, role at the interface of weather research and the weather information needs of society. To date, little information has been paid to the connections of the meteorological research community and the scientific needs of the private sector. Thus, the time is ripe to stimulate a more active dialogue between what is generally considered the "basic" research community of physical and social scientists and those individuals and businesses that provide weather information to myriad customers across the U.S. economy. In December 2000, the U.S. Weather Research Program (supported by NSF, NOAA, NASA, and the U.S. Navy) sponsored a workshop in Palm Springs, California, to bring together weather researchers and representatives of private sector meteorology to discuss needs, wants, opportunities, and challenges and how to enhance the linkages between the two relatively detached communities. The workshop focused on developing a better understanding of the relations of research and private sector meteorology, which ultimately means a better understanding of one of the important connections of research and societal needs.

  17. Regulating the for-profit private health sector: lessons from East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Jane E

    2015-03-01

    International evidence shows that, if poorly regulated, the private health sector may lead to distortions in the type, quantity, distribution, quality and price of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour. This article provides an overview of legislation governing the for-profit private health sector in East and Southern Africa. It identifies major implementation problems and suggests strategies Ministries of Health could adopt to regulate the private sector more effectively and in line with key public health objectives. This qualitative study was based on a document review of existing legislation in the region, and seven semi-structured interviews with individuals selected purposively on the basis of their experience in policymaking and legislation. Legislation was categorized according to its objectives and the level at which it operates. A thematic content analysis was conducted on interview transcripts. Most legislation focuses on controlling the entry of health professionals and organizations into the market. Most countries have not developed adequate legislation around behaviour following entry. Generally the type and quality of services provided by private practitioners and facilities are not well-regulated or monitored. Even where there is specific health insurance regulation, provisions seldom address open enrolment, community rating and comprehensive benefit packages (except in South Africa). There is minimal control of prices. Several countries are updating and improving legislation although, in most cases, this is without the benefit of an overarching policy on the private sector, or reference to wider public health objectives. Policymakers in the East and Southern African region need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. They should not underestimate the power of the private health sector to undermine efforts for increased

  18. An Evaluation of Public and Private Sector Housing Alternatives for Military Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    housing units. Today, the military relies on three primary alternatives in the public and private sector to house its military families: government ... housing (Defense Science Board, 1995:60). Today, housing military families is big business. In 2002, the military family housing budget for the...privatization provides housing faster and less costly to the government and the American taxpayer? 2) What costs are associated with

  19. Promoting safe motherhood through the private sector in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed Central

    Brugha, Ruair; Pritze-Aliassime, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    The formal private sector could play a significant role in determining whether success or failure is achieved in working towards goals for safe motherhood in many low- and middle-income settings. Established private providers, especially nurses/midwives, have the potential to contribute to safe motherhood practices if they are involved in the care continuum. However, they have largely been overlooked by policy-makers in low-income settings. The private sector (mainly doctors) contributes to overprovision and high Caesarean section rates in settings where it provides care to wealthier segments of the population; such care is often funded through third-party payment schemes. In poorer settings, especially rural areas, private nurses/midwives and the women who choose to use them are likely to experience similar constraints to those encountered in the public sector - for example, poor or unaffordable access to higher level facilities for the management of obstetrical emergencies. Policy-makers at the country-level need to map the health system and understand the nature and distribution of the private sector, and what influences it. This potential resource could then be mobilized to work towards the achievement of safe motherhood goals. PMID:14576894

  20. Hospital safeguards capital program through private sector partnership.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J; Lungo, A; Bobrow, M

    1984-02-01

    As access to capital tightens, more hospitals are exploring the benefits of partnerships with private companies. A California hospital, burdened by the long-term debt it incurred for a medical office building, worked together with its medical staff and an outside real estate developer. By selling the building to the developer, not only was the hospital able to finance a much-needed expansion and reconstruction project, but the hospital's medical staff had an opportunity to become limited partners in the ownership of the building.

  1. Private Sector Provision of Supply Teachers: A Case of Legal Swings and Professional Roundabouts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Damian

    2003-01-01

    Explores issues related to the increasing role of private agencies in provision of supply teachers across Britain's schools. Draws on 60 interviews with mix of supply teachers, schoolteachers, and employees from two branches of large teacher-supply agency. Concludes that new models of providing temporary teaching cover are needed to address…

  2. Study of energy R and D in the private sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This study supplies DOE with information pertinent to the formulation of realistic national energy research policies and facilitates cooperation between government and business in the development and commercialization of new and improved energy technologies. The study gathered information on the amount of energy-related research and development that private companies are doing, types of energy-related programs they report, and their perceptions about appropriate areas for government support. Mail questionnaires obtained data on the amount of corporate research funding in specific energy-related technology areas and the interviews gathered information on corporate energy strategies, major commercial activities, and specific research plans in four major areas - conservation, supply, energy production and transmission, and new products. (MCW)

  3. Private sector contributions and their effect on physician emigration in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Loh, Lawrence C; Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Darko, Kwame

    2013-03-01

    The contribution made by the private sector to health care in a low- or middle-income country may affect levels of physician emigration from that country. The increasing importance of the private sector in health care in the developing world has resulted in newfound academic interest in that sector's influences on many aspects of national health systems. The growth in physician emigration from the developing world has led to several attempts to identify both the factors that cause physicians to emigrate and the effects of physician emigration on primary care and population health in the countries that the physicians leave. When the relevant data on the emerging economies of Ghana, India and Peru were investigated, it appeared that the proportion of physicians participating in private health-care delivery, the percentage of health-care costs financed publicly and the amount of private health-care financing per capita were each inversely related to the level of physician expatriation. It therefore appears that private health-care delivery and financing may decrease physician emigration. There is clearly a need for similar research in other low- and middle-income countries, and for studies to see if, at the country level, temporal trends in the contribution made to health care by the private sector can be related to the corresponding trends in physician emigration. The ways in which private health care may be associated with access problems for the poor and therefore reduced equity also merit further investigation. The results should be of interest to policy-makers who aim to improve health systems worldwide.

  4. Public-private partnerships in the Potuguese health sector.

    PubMed

    Simões, Jorge; Barros, Pedro Pita; Temido, Marta

    2010-01-01

    In Portugal, the PPP in the healthcare sector appeared only at the dawn of the new century, with the central feature of including clinical activities within its scope. Currently--except for one hospital--the Portuguese PPP experience can only be assessed in terms of conceptual model and tender processes. The analysis showed that, based on arguments associated with non-contractible investment and ex-post renegotiation opportunities, hospitals with higher technological complexity should exclude clinical activities from the PPP contract, and also that, despite the time-consuming process, the PPP can be considered a success in price competition dimension. The analysis also showed that, assessing the performance of the single PPP hospital in Portugal with two comparable units, there is no evidence that the best or worst results are correlated with the legal status and with the established management model.

  5. 20 CFR 641.630 - What private sector training activities are allowable under section 502(e)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What private sector training activities are... activities are allowable under section 502(e)? Allowable activities authorized under section 502(e) include... job development; or (9) Combinations of the above-listed activities. (b) Working with employers...

  6. Guidelines for Developing a Preschool Level Gifted Program in the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtry, Doyleen

    This practicum addresses the creation of an economically viable school in the private sector to meet the educational and social needs of cognitively developmentally accelerated preschool-age children. Anticipated outcomes of the practicum included development of a well-documented philosophical approach to preschool gifted education, curriculum…

  7. 31 CFR 50.35 - Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.35 Section 50.35 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  8. 31 CFR 50.35 - Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entities that share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.35 Section 50.35 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  9. Private sector involvement in civil space remote sensing. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Space Policy concerning the investment and direct participation in the establishment and operations of remote sensing systems is addressed. Private sector views and state and local government views are presented. Results of a market analysis are pregiven and the economic feasibility of such a program is considered.

  10. Comparison of Environmental Remediation Contracting Approaches between the Department of Defense and the Private Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    35 IV. SWOT ANALYSIS .........................................................................................................37...weaknesses, opportunities, and threats ( SWOT ) analysis to determine the best approaches utilized by DOD and the private sector. The results of the SWOT ...down-sizing efforts were completed under the same regulatory guidance, same real estate market, and with the same pressures from the public for a

  11. Erosion of the At-Will Rule and Freedom of Communication in Private Sector Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Wayne

    The "at-will" rule in American law is defined as the right of a private sector employer to dismiss an employee without a contract for virtually any reason. The rule has thrived since the nineteenth century and is still a major factor in the employer-employee relationship. However, recent court decisions have fashioned common law…

  12. The Role of the Private Sector in The Right to Read Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Opal C.

    This booklet describes the many ways in which the private sector can become involved in the national Right to Read effort by giving assistance: seminars sponsored by business and industries, on-the-job literacy classes, encouragement from recognized athletes, and the Book Ownership Program (aids the community by making books readily available at…

  13. The School and the Private Sector: Romance or Marriage of Convenience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauch I, James W.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the alliance between Reading High School (Pennsylvania) and a local corporation as a case study of the potential for incentives and private-sector involvement to improve student attendance. The partnership, Reading's Excellence and Attendance Programs, used positive reinforcements, including lottery drawings and ice-cream socials, to…

  14. Recruitment and Selection in Business and Industry: Learning from the Private Sector Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Maria D.; Munoz, Marco A.

    Recruitment and selection practices in the private sector were examined through a literature review to identify strategies that human resource (HR) departments can use in designing new employee recruitment and selection processes or improving existing processes. The following were among the findings: (1) new employees recruited by using informal…

  15. Comparison of Ethical Dilemmas across Public and Private Sectors in Rehabilitation Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beveridge, Scott; Garcia, Jorge; Siblo, Matt

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the nature of ethical dilemmas most frequently reported by rehabilitation counselors in the private and public sectors and determine if significant differences exist in how practitioners experience ethical dilemmas in these two settings. Method: A mixed-methods internet-based survey design was utilized and included descriptive,…

  16. Private sector participation in domestic waste management in informal settlements in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Opoko, Akunnaya P; Oluwatayo, Adedapo A

    2016-12-01

    Lagos is one of the fastest growing cities in Africa, which is grappling with the challenges of poorly managed urbanisation. With an estimated population of about 17.5 million, solid waste management is one of the most pressing environmental challenges currently faced in the city. It is estimated that more than 9071847.4kg of urban waste is generated every day in the city. The city lacks the capacity to deal with such magnitude of waste. Consequently, the city has involved the private sector (private sector participation) in its waste management drive. This article examines the effectiveness of this public-private sector collaboration model in waste management in informal settlements in Lagos using empirical data. Major findings of the article include the irregularity of waste collection owing to a poor road network, an inadequate transport infrastructure and the desire to maximise profit, as well as poor waste handling and disposal methods by the private sector participation operators who are not chosen based on competence and capacity to perform. Another major finding is the lack of cooperation from residents evidenced in non-payment of bills and poor packaging of wastes, resulting in wastes being littered. The article concludes on the need to restructure the scheme through proper sensitisation of residents, selection of operators with demonstrable delivery capacity and provision of a well-maintained road network to facilitate access of operators to settlements.

  17. Electric and hybrid vehicle project. Quarterly report of private-sector operations, first quarter 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-06-01

    As of January 1, 1982 sixteen private-sector site operators at 30 sites in the US were involved in electric and hybrid electric-powered vehicle demonstration programs. Data for 1981 and the first quarter of 1982 are presented on vehicle selection, miles accumulated, energy usage, maintenance requirements, reliability and operating performance for demonstration vehicles at each site. (LCL)

  18. Designing Graduate-Level Plant Breeding Curriculum: A Delphi Study of Private Sector Stakeholder Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jane K.; Repinski, Shelby L.; Hayes, Kathryn N.; Bliss, Frederick A.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2011-01-01

    A broad-based survey using the Delphi method was conducted to garner current information from private sector stakeholders and build consensus opinions supporting key ideas for enhancing plant breeder education and training. This study asked respondents to suggest and rate topics and content they deemed most important to plant breeding graduate…

  19. The Decline of Private-Sector Unionism and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, William E.; Macpherson, David A.

    1993-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1988, private sector union membership fell by 9.5 percentage points more for men than women; the gender wage gap decreased by 0.09. Unionism fell more slowly for women. Greater decline in male unionism is responsible for one-seventh of the decline in the wage gap. (SK)

  20. Predictors of Return to Work for People with Psychiatric Disabilities: A Private Sector Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluta, David J.; Accordino, Michael P.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation was a baseline study to determine if the speed of return to work could be predicted for people with psychiatric disabilities in a private sector setting. Participants with psychiatric disability claims who returned to work (N = 300) were obtained from a nationwide "Fortune 500" insurance company. The authors compared the speed…

  1. Trends in US private-sector energy R and D funding 1985--1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, J.J.

    1996-09-01

    This report has been prepared in response to a set of four questions submitted by the International Energy Agency`s (IEA) Energy Technology Policy Division to the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Research. The IEA`s questions all center on trends in US industrial energy R{ampersand}D spending over the decade 1985--1995. IEA has asked all of its member countries similar questions and intends to use the resulting multi-country data set on trends in private-sector energy R and D as basis for discussions at its October 16, 1996, Governing Board Meeting. This report first describes the principal data sets used with caveats about their shortcomings, then characterizes the context of US R and D spending over the recent past and short-term future. The remainder of the report is organized by addressing each of the four IEA questions. The appendices provide further information. IEA Question {number_sign}1: Are industry (energy) R and D expenditures monitored by the US Government? If so, please describe the types of data that are collected. Question {number_sign}2: How much money did industry spend to support energy technology development in your country in the following years: 1985, 1993, 1994, 1995? Question {number_sign}3: From the experience of your country in working with industry what is the timeframe of their R and D efforts in terms of the expected payback of their investments (e.g., short term 0--3 years, medium term 3--7 years, long term 7--12 years, or very long term beyond 12 years)? Question {number_sign}4: How would you describe industry energy technology investment trends over the past ten years?

  2. Securing US energy supplies: the private sector as an instrument of public policy

    SciTech Connect

    Prast, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Dr. Prast suggests that policy options that rely on private companies to help secure energy supplies need to consider the conflicts and tensions that exist between these companies and the public agencies, especially Federal agencies, that regulate their activities. The US still needs a combination of private initiative and public control, but the naive approach of the 1960s should be replaced with an atmosphere of continuous assessment to make sure the companies are meeting public policy goals. A new kind of private/public arrangement may be needed to deal with the large reserves on Federal lands. This will require redefining present Federal roles in energy production to focus on frontier technology and eliminate a duplication of effort. Dr. Prast feels that improvements can be made in the effectiveness of the Federal bureaucracy by profiting from past errors, but that efforts to disband DOE are premature until a relationship of cooperation and confidence develops between private companies and regulators. 64 references. (DCK)

  3. Cross-sector partnerships and public health: challenges and opportunities for addressing obesity and noncommunicable diseases through engagement with the private sector.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Lee M; Finegood, Diane T

    2015-03-18

    Over the past few decades, cross-sector partnerships with the private sector have become an increasingly accepted practice in public health, particularly in efforts to address infectious diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Now these partnerships are becoming a popular tool in efforts to reduce and prevent obesity and the epidemic of noncommunicable diseases. Partnering with businesses presents a means to acquire resources, as well as opportunities to influence the private sector toward more healthful practices. Yet even though collaboration is a core principle of public health practice, public-private or nonprofit-private partnerships present risks and challenges that warrant specific consideration. In this article, we review the role of public health partnerships with the private sector, with a focus on efforts to address obesity and noncommunicable diseases in high-income settings. We identify key challenges-including goal alignment and conflict of interest-and consider how changes to partnership practice might address these.

  4. Coordination of Vocational-Technical Education in Virginia: Transfer of Credit between Public & Private Sector Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council on Vocational Education, Richmond.

    A task force on private-public sector education in Virginia concluded that transfer and award of credit between public and private sector education providers should be facilitated. Based on the task force recommendations, the Virginia Council on Vocational Education made three recommendations to the State Board for Community Colleges and…

  5. Private sector contributions and their effect on physician emigration in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Ugarte-Gil, Cesar; Darko, Kwame

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The contribution made by the private sector to health care in a low- or middle-income country may affect levels of physician emigration from that country. The increasing importance of the private sector in health care in the developing world has resulted in newfound academic interest in that sector’s influences on many aspects of national health systems. The growth in physician emigration from the developing world has led to several attempts to identify both the factors that cause physicians to emigrate and the effects of physician emigration on primary care and population health in the countries that the physicians leave. When the relevant data on the emerging economies of Ghana, India and Peru were investigated, it appeared that the proportion of physicians participating in private health-care delivery, the percentage of health-care costs financed publicly and the amount of private health-care financing per capita were each inversely related to the level of physician expatriation. It therefore appears that private health-care delivery and financing may decrease physician emigration. There is clearly a need for similar research in other low- and middle-income countries, and for studies to see if, at the country level, temporal trends in the contribution made to health care by the private sector can be related to the corresponding trends in physician emigration. The ways in which private health care may be associated with access problems for the poor and therefore reduced equity also merit further investigation. The results should be of interest to policy-makers who aim to improve health systems worldwide. PMID:23476095

  6. Quality of anti-malarials collected in the private and informal sectors in Guyana and Suriname

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite a significant reduction in the number of malaria cases in Guyana and Suriname, this disease remains a major problem in the interior of both countries, especially in areas with gold mining and logging operations, where malaria is endemic. National malaria control programmes in these countries provide treatment to patients with medicines that are procured and distributed through regulated processes in the public sector. However, availability to medicines in licensed facilities (private sector) and unlicensed facilities (informal sector) is common, posing the risk of access to and use of non-recommended treatments and/or poor quality products. Methods To assess the quality of circulating anti-malarial medicines, samples were purchased in the private and informal sectors of Guyana and Suriname in 2009. The sampling sites were selected based on epidemiological data and/or distance from health facilities. Samples were analysed for identity, content, dissolution or disintegration, impurities, and uniformity of dosage units or weight variation according to manufacturer, pharmacopeial, or other validated method. Results Quality issues were observed in 45 of 77 (58%) anti-malarial medicines sampled in Guyana of which 30 failed visual & physical inspection and 18 failed quality control tests. The proportion of monotherapy and ACT medicines failing quality control tests was 43% (13/30) and 11% (5/47) respectively. A higher proportion of medicines sampled from the private sector 34% (11/32) failed quality control tests versus 16% (7/45) in the informal sector. In Suriname, 58 medicines were sampled, of which 50 (86%) were Artecom®, the fixed-dose combination of piperaquine-dihydroartemisinin-trimethoprim co-blistered with a primaquine phosphate tablet. All Artecom samples were found to lack a label claim for primaquine, thus failing visual and physical inspection. Conclusions The findings of the studies in both countries point to significant problems with

  7. What can be done about the private health sector in low-income countries?

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Anne; Brugha, Ruairi; Hanson, Kara; McPake, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    A very large private health sector exists in low-income countries. It consists of a great variety of providers and is used by a wide cross-section of the population. There are substantial concerns about the quality of care given, especially at the more informal end of the range of providers. This is particularly true for diseases of public health importance such as tuberculosis, malaria, and sexually transmitted infections. How can the activities of the private sector in these countries be influenced so that they help to meet national health objectives? Although the evidence base is not good, there is a fair amount of information on the types of intervention that are most successful in directly influencing the behaviour of providers and on what might be the necessary conditions for success. There is much less evidence, however, of effective approaches to interventions on the demand side and policies that involve strengthening the purchasing and regulatory roles of governments. PMID:12075370

  8. Review of private sector treatment, storage, and disposal capacity for radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.; Harris, J.G.; Moore-Mayne, S.; Mayes, R.; Naretto, C.

    1995-04-14

    This report is an update of a report that summarized the current and near-term commercial and disposal of radioactive and mixed waste. This report was capacity for the treatment, storage, dating and written for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) with the objective of updating and expanding the report entitled ``Review of Private Sector Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Capacity for Radioactive Waste``, (INEL-95/0020, January 1995). The capacity to process radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators was added to the list of private sector capabilities to be assessed. Of the 20 companies surveyed in the previous report, 14 responded to the request for additional information, five did not respond, and one asked to be deleted from the survey. One additional company was identified as being capable of performing LLMW treatability studies and six were identified as providers of laundering services for radioactively-contaminated protective clothing and/or respirators.

  9. Enterprise Funds: Evolving Models for Private Sector Development in Central and Eastern Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    and program strategies and plans for sustainability, (2) their overall performance, (3) their management practices, and (4) oversight by U.S...to for information on the business climate in the countries of operation. The enterprise funds’ strategies to dispose of investments include sale to... Strategies of loan programs developed. Poland and Hungary had taken some steps toward the creation of a private sector before the collapse of communism

  10. Analyzing the Efficacy of Early Retirement Incentives in the Private Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release...This research paper reviews costs and ramifications of early retirement incentives and their efficacy as compared to other cost-reduction options, and...Business and Public Policy iv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ANALYZING THE EFFICACY OF EARLY RETIREMENT INCENTIVES IN THE PRIVATE SECTOR

  11. Administration and Regulation of a Military Retirement System Funded by Private Sector Investments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    Retirement Income Security Act ( ERISA ) in 1974 that were designed to protect participants in pension plans or their beneficiaries from fund...mismanagement. Although ERISA does not apply to Government pension plans, some of the provisions it sets forth with regard to the responsibilities and...liabilities of pension fund managers may be applicable to the investment manager of an MRS fund financed by the private sector. According to ERISA , all those

  12. Collaboration across private and public sector primary health care services: benefits, costs and policy implications.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Julie; Powell Davies, Gawaine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Fort Harris, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Ongoing care for chronic conditions is best provided by interprofessional teams. There are challenges in achieving this where teams cross organisational boundaries. This article explores the influence of organisational factors on collaboration between private and public sector primary and community health services involved in diabetes care. It involved a case study using qualitative methods. Forty-five participants from 20 organisations were purposively recruited. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and from content analysis of documents. Thematic analysis was used employing a two-level coding system and cross case comparisons. The patterns of collaborative patient care were influenced by a combination of factors relating to the benefits and costs of collaboration and the influence of support mechanisms. Benefits lay in achieving common or complementary health or organisational goals. Costs were incurred in bridging differences in organisational size, structure, complexity and culture. Collaboration was easier between private sector organisations than between private and public sectors. Financial incentives were not sufficient to overcome organisational barriers. To achieve more coordinated primary and community health care structural changes are also needed to better align funding mechanisms, priorities and accountabilities of the different organisations.

  13. The effect of increased private sector involvement in solid waste collection in five cities in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Oduro-Kwarteng, Sampson; van Dijk, Meine Pieter

    2013-10-01

    Private sector involvement in solid waste management in developing countries has increased, but the effect is not always clear. This study assesses how it has been organized in five cities in Ghana, what has been its effect and what lessons for private sector development in developing countries can be drawn. Data were collected from 25 private companies and a sample of 1200 households. More than 60% of solid waste in Ghanaian cities is now collected by private enterprises. Sometimes, and increasingly, competitive bidding takes place, although sometimes no bidding is organized leading to rendering of this service and no contract being signed. Local governments and local solid waste companies have not changed to more customer-oriented delivery because of the slow pace of charging users and the resulting low rate of cost recovery. The participation of the population has been limited, which contributes to low cost recovery. However, a gradual better functioning of the system put in place is shown. We observed an increasing use of competitive bidding, signing of contracts and city-wide user charging.

  14. Does the Wage Gap between Private and Public Sectors Encourage Political Corruption?

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy—understood as the principle of majority rule—does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption. PMID:26495847

  15. Does the Wage Gap between Private and Public Sectors Encourage Political Corruption?

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Vukovic, Vuk; Stanley, H Eugene

    2015-01-01

    We present a dynamic network model of corrupt and noncorrupt employees representing two states in the public and private sector. Corrupt employees are more connected to one another and are less willing to change their attitudes regarding corruption than noncorrupt employees. This behavior enables them to prevail and become the majority in the workforce through a first-order phase transition even though they initially represented a minority. In the model, democracy-understood as the principle of majority rule-does not create corruption, but it serves as a mechanism that preserves corruption in the long run. The motivation for our network model is a paradox that exists on the labor market. Although economic theory indicates that higher risk investments should lead to larger rewards, in many developed and developing countries workers in lower-risk public sector jobs are paid more than workers in higher-risk private sector jobs. To determine the long-run sustainability of this economic paradox, we study data from 28 EU countries and find that the public sector wage premium increases with the level of corruption.

  16. WARF's stem cell patents and tensions between public and private sector approaches to research.

    PubMed

    Golden, John M

    2010-01-01

    While society debates whether and how to use public funds to support work on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), many scientific groups and businesses debate a different question - the extent to which patents that cover such stem cells should be permitted to limit or to tax their research. The Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), a non-profit foundation that manages intellectual property generated by researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison, owns three patents that have been at the heart of the latter controversy The story of WARF's patents and the controversy they have fostered highlights not only continuing tensions between proprietary and nonproprietary approaches to developing science and technology, but also an at least partly reassuring capacity of public and private sectors to deal with those tensions in a way that can render them substantially manageable, and frequently more manageable as a technology matures. More particularly, the cumulative story of WARF's patents features three leitmotifs that suggest how an attentive and engaged public sector might commonly succeed in working with public and private sector actors to achieve workable balances between proprietary rights and more general social interests: (1) right holders' decisions to pursue less than full rights assertion or enforcement; (2) the ability of government and other public sector actors to help bring about such decisions through co-option or pressure; and (3) the frequent availability or development of technological alternatives that limit research bottlenecks.

  17. Private participation in infrastructure: A risk analysis of long-term contracts in power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceran, Nisangul

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess whether the private participation in energy sector through long term contracting, such as Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) type investments, is an efficient way of promoting efficiency in the economy. To this end; the theoretical literature on the issue is discussed, the experience of several developing countries are examined, and a BOT project, which is undertaken by the Enron company in Turkey, has been studied in depth as a case study. Different risk analysis techniques, including sensitivity and probabilistic risk analysis with the Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) method have been applied to assess the financial feasibility and risks of the case study project, and to shed light on the level of rent-seeking in the BOT agreements. Although data on rent seeking and corruption is difficult to obtain, the analysis of case study investment using the sensitivity and MCS method provided some information that can be used in assessing the level of rent-seeking in BOT projects. The risk analysis enabled to test the sustainability of the long-term BOT contracts through the analysis of projects financial feasibility with and without the government guarantees in the project. The approach of testing the sustainability of the project under different scenarios is helpful to understand the potential costs and contingent liabilities for the government and project's impact on a country's overall economy. The results of the risk analysis made by the MCS method for the BOT project used as the case study strongly suggest that, the BOT projects does not serve to the interest of the society and transfers substantial amount of public money to the private companies, implying severe governance problems. It is found that not only government but also private sector may be reluctant about full privatization of infrastructure due to several factors such as involvement of large sunk costs, very long time period for returns to be received, political and

  18. Systematic literature review of integrated community case management and the private sector in Africa: Relevant experiences and potential next steps

    PubMed Central

    Awor, Phyllis; Miller, Jane; Peterson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite substantial investments made over the past 40 years in low income countries, governments cannot be viewed as the principal health care provider in many countries. Evidence on the role of the private sector in the delivery of health services is becoming increasingly available. In this study, we set out to determine the extent to which the private sector has been utilized in providing integrated care for sick children under 5 years of age with community–acquired malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea. Methods We reviewed the published literature for integrated community case management (iCCM) related experiences within both the public and private sector. We searched PubMed and Google/Google Scholar for all relevant literature until July 2014. The search terms used were “malaria”, “pneumonia”, “diarrhoea”, “private sector” and “community case management”. Results A total of 383 articles referred to malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea in the private sector. The large majority of these studies (290) were only malaria related. Most of the iCCM–related studies evaluated introduction of only malaria drugs and/or diagnostics into the private sector. Only one study evaluated the introduction of drugs and diagnostics for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea in the private sector. In contrast, most iCCM–related studies in the public sector directly reported on community case management of 2 or more of the illnesses. Conclusions While the private sector is an important source of care for children in low income countries, little has been done to harness the potential of this sector in improving access to care for non–malaria–associated fever in children within the community. It would be logical for iCCM programs to expand their activities to include the private sector to achieve higher population coverage. An implementation research agenda for private sector integrated care of febrile childhood illness needs to be developed and implemented in

  19. Current Regulation of Private Police: Regulatory Agency Experience and Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakalik, James S.; Wildhorn, Sorrel

    This report is the third in a series of five describing a 16-month study of the nature and extent of the private police industry in the United States, its problems, present regulation, and the laws impinging on it. Licensing and regulation of the industry in every state and several cities are described in this volume. Extensive tables present the…

  20. 78 FR 77484 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security... the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L. 104-13; 44 U.S.C. 3507). DATES: Written comments...

  1. 76 FR 76430 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Documents Required Aboard Private Aircraft AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security...-0058. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland Security will...

  2. The problems and prospects of the public–private partnership in the Russian fuel and energy sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitenko, SM; Goosen, EV

    2017-02-01

    This article highlights some opportunities for shifting the paradigm for the development of natural resources in the Russian fuel and energy sector using public-private partnership instruments. It shows three main directions for developing public-private partnerships in the area of subsoil use and emphasizes the role of innovations in implementing the most promising projects in the fuel and energy sector of Russia.

  3. Aggregating QECB Allocations & Using QECBs to Support the Private Sector. A Case Study on Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Zimring, Mark; Borgeson, Merrian

    2012-08-01

    Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds (QECBs) are federally-subsidized bonds that enable state, tribal, and local government issuers to borrow money to fund a range of energy conservation projects at very attractive interest rates and long terms. While small allocation sizes have deterred some local governments from pursuing issuances, state agencies in Massachusetts have partnered with local governments to aggregate QECBs to support a range of public and private projects. In most states, QECBs have been utilized primarily to fund energy conservation projects for public entities, but Massachusetts has facilitated over $10 million of private activity QECB issuances to support three privately-owned renewable energy projects—with more projects in the pipeline.

  4. Demonstrating and Deploying Private Sector Technologies at DOE Sites - Issues to be Overcome

    SciTech Connect

    Bedick, R. C.

    2002-02-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) continues to pursue cost-effective, environmental cleanup of the weapons complex sites with a concomitant emphasis on deployment of innovative technologies as a means to this end. The EM Office of Science and Technology (OST) pursues a strategy that entails identification of technologies that have potential applications throughout the DOE complex: at multiple DOE sites and at multiple facilities on those sites. It further encourages a competitive procurement process for the various applications entailed in the remediation of a given facility. These strategies require a competitive private-sector supplier base to help meet EM needs. OST supports technology development and deployment through investments in partnerships with private industry to enhance the acceptance of their technology products within the DOE market. Since 1992, OST and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) have supported the re search and development of technology products and services offered by the private sector. During this time, NETL has managed over 140 research and development projects involving industrial and university partners. These projects involve research in a broad range of EM related topics, including deactivation and decommissioning, characterization, monitoring, sensors, waste separation, groundwater remediation, robotics, and mixed waste treatment. Successful partnerships between DOE and Industry have resulted in viable options for EM's cleanup needs, and require continued marketing efforts to ensure that these technology solutions are used at multiple DOE sites and facilities.

  5. The Evolving Contingency Contracting Market: Private Sector Self regulation and United States Government Monitoring of Procurement of Stability Operations Services

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    well as how contracting firms may offer institutional memory and operational impartiality that might be difficult for government employees to offer...disaster and other complex environments save lives, but this private sector capac- ity has been underutilized in practice. Institutional Memory and...Impartiality It is interesting to note that private firms special- izing in contingency operations often have stronger institutional memory through

  6. Assessing the Impact of Privatization Policy on Telecommunications Sector Effectiveness and Economic Activity in Sub-Saharan Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngwa, Oneurine B.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, privatization has been a growing phenomenon in Sub-Saharan Africa. It is viewed as an instrument used by the public sector to reduce the role of the state in the economies while enhancing the scope of private ownership and participation of goods and services (Akram et al, 2011). Researchers have noted that the telecommunication…

  7. The New Business Look in Employment and Training Programs. The Private Sector Initiative Program (PSIP). Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Uvaldo

    Intended to inform local communities (especially the business sector) of ways to join government-sponsored employment and training programs with the private employment market, this handbook provides broad guidelines for use in the establishment and operation of the Private Industry Council (PIC). (The PIC is the primary vehicle created by Title…

  8. Intervention studies on rational use of drugs in public and private sector in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kafle, Kumud Kumar; Shrestha, Naveen; Karkee, Shiba Bahadur; Prasad, Radha Raman; Bhuju, Gajendra Bahadur; Das, Prabhakar Lal

    2005-06-01

    In developing countries, inappropriate, inefficient and ineffective use of pharmaceuticals have resulted into the poor health and medical cares for the community people. For improving the situation, various interventions have been tested and proved effective in different settings. In Nepal also, various strategies have been tested and found effective to improve the prescribing and dispensing practices. This paper has examined the process and results of different studies. The educational intervention, the training has not been effective in improving the prescribing practices but has limited effect on dispensing practices in the public sector. However, it becomes effective in improving prescribing practices if combined with a managerial intervention e.g. peer-group discussion. In private sector, training alone is effective in changing the drug recommendation practices of retailers. But none of interventions have been found to be effective in improving dispensing practices. After examining the effectiveness of different interventions, training combined with peer-group discussion is recommended for piloting in all Primary Health Care (PHC) outlets of a district to improve the prescribing practices. For improving the dispensing practices in both public and private sector, additional studies have to be carried out using different strategies.

  9. The Economics of Private Sector R and D Decisionmaking in Aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Information which can be used in planning to insure commercial research and technology programs which are complementary to internally financed private sector activities are presented. The main concern is to identify the characteristics of productive projects in which firms are unlikely to invest. It is shown that: (1) if it is difficult to assess the commercial relevance of an R&D project or it it is characterized by high technical risk, or a relatively long payback period, private funding will be unlikely; and (2) if a project is large relative to the size of the firm, it is unlikely to be funded in the early stages of the R&D process. Firms tend to underinvest in projects with these characteristics.

  10. Communication, Relationships, and Religious Difference in the Northern Ireland Workplace: A Study of Private and Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, David; Hargie, Owen; Wilson, Noel

    2008-01-01

    Four large organizations, two each from the private and public sectors of the Northern Ireland economy, were selected for this study which, first, explored the effects of religion-based workforce difference on intergroup relationships, second, investigated the contribution of organizational sector to communicative differences, and third, gauged…

  11. Convergence and dissonance: evolution in private-sector approaches to disease management and care coordination.

    PubMed

    Mays, Glen P; Au, Melanie; Claxton, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Disease management (DM) approaches survived the 1990s backlash against managed care because of their potential for consumer-friendly cost containment, but purchasers have been cautious about investing heavily in them because of uncertainty about return on investment. This study examines how private-sector approaches to DM have evolved over the past two years in the midst of the movement toward consumer-driven health care. Findings indicate that these programs have become standard features of health plan design, despite a thin evidence base concerning their effectiveness. Uncertainties remain regarding how well these programs will function within benefit designs that require higher consumer cost sharing.

  12. Aviation or space policy: New challenges for the insurance sector to private human access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Oijhuizen Galhego Rosa, Ana Cristina

    2013-12-01

    The phenomenon of private human access to space has introduced a new set of problems in the insurance sector. Orbital and suborbital space transportation will surely be unique commercial services for this new market. Discussions are under way regarding space insurance, in order to establish whether this new market ought to be regulated by aviation or space law. Alongside new definitions, infrastructures, legal frameworks and liability insurances, the insurance sector has also been introducing a new approach. In this paper, I aim to analyse some of the possibilities of new premiums, capacities, and policies (under aviation or space insurance rules), as well as the new insurance products related to vehicles, passengers and third party liability. This paper claims that a change toward new insurance regimes is crucial, due to the current stage in development of space tourism and the urgency to adapt insurance rules to support future development in this area.

  13. Quantifying solid waste and recycling employment in Florida, USA: Trends in public and private sectors.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunjoo; Yi, Hongtao; Feiock, Richard C

    2015-12-01

    Measuring and tracking the numbers of jobs in solid waste management and recycling industries over time provide basic data to inform decision makers about the important role played by this sector in a state or region's 'green economy'. This study estimates the number of people employed in the solid waste and recycling industry from 1989 through 2011 in the state of Florida (USA), applying a classification scheme based on the Standard Industrial Code (SIC) and utilizing the National Establishment Time Series (NETS) database. The results indicate that solid waste and recycling jobs in the private sector steadily increased from 1989 to 2011, whereas government employment for solid waste management fluctuated over the same period.

  14. Shifting the burden: the private sector's response to the AIDS epidemic in Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon L.

    2003-01-01

    As the economic burden of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) increases in sub-Saharan Africa, allocation of the burden among levels and sectors of society is changing. The private sector has more scope to avoid the economic burden of AIDS than governments, households, or nongovernmental organizations, and the burden is being systematically shifted away from the private sector. Common practices that transfer the burden to households and government include pre-employment screening, reductions in employee benefits, restructured employment contracts, outsourcing of low skilled jobs, selective retrenchments, and changes in production technologies. Between 1997 and 1999 more than two-thirds of large South African employers reduced the level of health care benefits or increased employee contributions. Most firms also have replaced defined-benefit retirement funds, which expose the firm to large annual costs but provide long-term support for families, with defined-contribution funds, which eliminate risks to the firm but provide little for families of younger workers who die of AIDS. Contracting out previously permanent jobs is also shielding firms from benefit and turnover costs, effectively shifting the responsibility to care for affected workers and their families to households, nongovernmental organizations, and the government. Many of these changes are responses to globalization that would have occurred in the absence of AIDS, but they are devastating for the households of employees with HIV/AIDS. We argue that the shift in the economic burden of AIDS is a predictable response by business to which a deliberate public policy response is needed. Countries should make explicit decisions about each sector's responsibilities if a socially desirable allocation is to be achieved. PMID:12751421

  15. Managing competition in public and private mental health agencies: implications for services and policy.

    PubMed

    Clark, R E; Dorwart, R A; Epstein, S S

    1994-01-01

    There were clear differences in our study between the management strategies employed by public agencies and those favored by private agencies. These differences, however, appeared to reflect the realities of financing rather than any fundamental differences in their orientation toward public service. There was no clear evidence that particular management practices affected an agency's performance on measures of financial access or acceptance of referrals from public hospitals. Government regulation and pressure from advocacy groups probably helped to maintain private agencies' focus on these and other public goals. From a public policy perspective, choosing a provider solely on the basis of ownership status is, at best, a naive approach to providing public mental health treatment. Not only is there great variation in process and practices within both private and public groups, but external factors such as competition from private practitioners may also exert a stronger influence on agency behavior than does ownership status. Because most current proposals for health care reform rely heavily on increased competition among providers to achieve their goals, the importance of ownership status as a predictor of conduct or performance may be further diminished. The emphasis on competition could increase differences between urban agencies and those in rural areas where there is less competition and, therefore, require different contracting approaches. As we move toward a health care system based on competition, administrators and policy makers will be forced to abandon their reliance on stereotypical public/private agency behavior as guides for policy decisions. Instead, they will have to consider more carefully the effects of political and market influences as well as agency characteristics when choosing community mental health providers.

  16. The Rise and Decline of U.S. Private Sector Investments in Energy R&D since the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents two distinct datasets that describe investments in energy research and development (R&D) by the US private sector since the mid1970s, which is when the US government began to systematically collect these data. The first dataset is based upon a broad survey of more than 20,000 firms’ industrial R&D activities. This broad survey of US industry is coordinated by the US National Science Foundation. The second dataset discussed here is a much narrower accounting of the energy R&D activities of the approximately two dozen largest US oil and gas companies conducted by the US Department of Energy’s Energy Information Agency. Even given the large disparity in the breadth and scope of these two surveys of the private sector’s support for energy R&D, both datasets tell the same story in terms of the broad outlines of the private sector’s investments in energy R&D since the mid 1970s. The broad outlines of the US private sector’s support for energy R&D since the mid 1970s is: (1) In the immediate aftermath of the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973, there is a large surge in US private sector investments in energy R&D that peaked in the period between 1980 and 1982 at approximately $3.7 billion to $6.7 billion per year (in inflation adjusted 2010 US dollars) depending upon which survey is used (2) Private sector investments in energy R&D declined from this peak until bottoming out at approximately $1.8 billion to $1 billion per year in 1999; (3) US private sector support for energy R&D has recovered somewhat over the past decade and stands at $2.2 billion to $3.4 billion. Both data sets indicate that the US private sector’s support for energy R&D has been and remains dominated by fossil energy R&D and in particular R&D related to the needs of the oil and gas industry.

  17. 76 FR 3877 - Effectiveness of Federal Agency Participation in Standardization in Select Technology Sectors for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Effectiveness of Federal Agency Participation in Standardization in Select Technology Sectors for National Science and Technology Council's Sub-Committee...

  18. 75 FR 76397 - Effectiveness of Federal Agency Participation in Standardization in Select Technology Sectors for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Effectiveness of Federal Agency Participation in Standardization in Select Technology Sectors for National Science and Technology Council's Sub-Committee...

  19. The private sector: A global pool of technical talent for remote sensing training and program support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, W. D.

    The growing global pool of highly trained, technical talent in the private sector throughout the world reflects the degree of maturation that remote sensing from air and space vehicles has undergone, especially during the past ten years. This has been further spawned by the US Government move to commercialize the Landsat system. The number of qualified technicians and scientists has grown in proportion to the amount of data that has become available for public and private use. Applications of the data have matured from research investigations to operational use in many disciplines and geographic areas. Private and public industry corporations have established their own image processing and analytical laboratories to ensure their competitive positions. This has been further enhanced by the simultaneous availability of lower cost, analytical computer systems. Training and operational project development remain prominent objectives. While these are all very positive aspects a note of caution must be raised. Concern has recently been expressed by representatives of developing nations that not enough attention is given by remote sensing specialists to spelling out the limitations of the sensing systems or qualifying the degree of accuracy of the results obtained. Such criticisms are probably justified and it is recommended that remote sensing workers be mindful of such concerns.

  20. Public-Private Partnerships in the health sector: the Danish experience.

    PubMed

    Vrangbaek, Karsten

    2008-04-01

    This article investigates the current use of Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in the Danish health sector based on an initial discussion of theoretical approaches that analyze PPP. The empirical analysis concludes that PPP has been used very sparsely in the Danish health sector. There are few examples of large-scale partnership projects with joint investment and risk taking, but a number of smaller partnerships such as jointly owned companies at the regional level. When defining PPP more broadly, we can identify a long tradition for various types of collaboration between public and private actors in health care in Denmark. An analysis of the regulatory environment is offered as an explanation for the limited use of PPPs in Denmark. Major political and institutional actors at the central level differ in their enthusiasm for the PPP concept, and the regulatory framework is somewhat uncertain. A number of general issues and concerns related to PPPs are also discussed. It is suggested that a risk-based framework can be useful for mapping the potential and challenges for both private and public partners. Such a framework can be used to feed into game theoretical models of pros and cons for PPP projects. In general terms, it is concluded that more empirical research is needed for the assessment of the various risk factors involved in using PPPs in health care. Most PPPs are still very young, and the evidence on performance and broader governance issues is only just emerging. Ideally, such assessments should include comparisons with a purely public alternative.

  1. Training's Policies: Public and Private Reinforcement for the American Economy. Final Report. The Impact of Public Policy on Education and Training in the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerson, Martin; Zemsky, Robert

    A study examined the impact of public policy on education and training in the private sector. During the study, the following research activities were completed: a statistical examination of the scope and nature of firm-supplied training, 20 case studies of the training supplied by large firms representing a diverse set of industries across the…

  2. Private sector participation in delivering tertiary health care: a dichotomy of access and affordability across two Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Katyal, Anuradha; Singh, Prabal Vikram; Bergkvist, Sofi; Samarth, Amit; Rao, Mala

    2015-01-01

    Poor quality care in public sector hospitals coupled with the costs of care in the private sector have trapped India's poor in a vicious cycle of poverty, ill health and debt for many decades. To address this, the governments of Andhra Pradesh (AP) and Maharashtra (MH), India, have attempted to improve people’s access to hospital care by partnering with the private sector. A number of government-sponsored schemes with differing specifications have been launched to facilitate this strategy. Aims This article aims to compare changes in access to, and affordability and efficiency of private and public hospital inpatient (IP) treatments between MH and AP from 2004 to 2012 and to assess whether the health financing innovations in one state resulted in larger or smaller benefits compared with the other. Methods We used data from household surveys conducted in 2004 and 2012 in the two states and undertook a difference-in-difference (DID) analysis. The results focus on hospitalization, out-of-pocket expenditure and length of stay. Results The average IP expenditure for private hospital care has increased in both states, but more so in MH. There was also an observable increase in both utilization of and expenditure on nephrology treatment in private hospitals in AP. The duration of stay recorded in days for private hospitals has increased slightly in MH and declined in AP with a significant DID. The utilization of public hospitals has reduced in AP and increased in MH. Conclusion The state of AP appears to have benefited more than MH in terms of improved access to care by involving the private sector. The Aarogyasri scheme is likely to have contributed to these impacts in AP at least in part. Our study needs to be followed up with repeated evaluations to ascertain the long-term impacts of involving the private sector in providing hospital care. PMID:25759452

  3. 15 CFR 19.15 - How will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to private collection agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How will Commerce entities refer Commerce debts to private collection agencies? 19.15 Section 19.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce COMMERCE DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Commerce Debts § 19.15 How...

  4. 20 CFR 702.505 - Vocational rehabilitation; referrals to other public and private agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vocational rehabilitation; referrals to other public and private agencies. 702.505 Section 702.505 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED...

  5. 20 CFR 702.505 - Vocational rehabilitation; referrals to other public and private agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vocational rehabilitation; referrals to other public and private agencies. 702.505 Section 702.505 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED...

  6. 20 CFR 702.505 - Vocational rehabilitation; referrals to other public and private agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vocational rehabilitation; referrals to other public and private agencies. 702.505 Section 702.505 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED...

  7. 20 CFR 702.505 - Vocational rehabilitation; referrals to other public and private agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vocational rehabilitation; referrals to other public and private agencies. 702.505 Section 702.505 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED...

  8. 31 CFR 5.15 - How will Treasury entities refer Treasury debts to private collection agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How will Treasury entities refer Treasury debts to private collection agencies? 5.15 Section 5.15 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TREASURY DEBT COLLECTION Procedures To Collect Treasury Debts § 5.15 How...

  9. 76 FR 48882 - Agency Information Collections Activities; Comment Request for Uranium Concentrations in Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... U.S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collections Activities; Comment Request for Uranium... Collection 1028-NEW, Uranium concentrations in private wells in south-east New Hampshire, in the subject line... telephone (970) 226-9165; or schusterr@usgs.gov (e-mail). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract...

  10. Sickness absence in the private sector of Greece: comparing shipyard industry and national insurance data.

    PubMed

    Alexopoulos, Evangelos C; Merekoulias, Georgios; Tanagra, Dimitra; Konstantinou, Eleni C; Mikelatou, Efi; Jelastopulu, Eleni

    2012-04-01

    Approximately 3% of employees are absent from work due to illness daily in Europe, while in some countries sickness absence exceeds 20 days per year. Based on a limited body of reliable studies, Greek employees in the private sector seem to be absent far less frequently (<5 days/year) compared to most of the industrialized world. The aim of this study was to estimate the levels of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece, using shipyard and national insurance data. Detailed data on absenteeism of employees in a large shipyard company during the period 1999-2006 were utilized. National data on compensated days due to sickness absence concerning all employees (around 2 million) insured by the Social Insurance Institute (IKA, the largest insurance scheme in Greece) were retrieved from the Institute's annual statistical reports for the period 1987-2006. Sick-leave days per employee and sick-leave rate (%) were calculated, among other indicators. In the shipyard cohort, the employment time loss due to sick leave was 1%. The mean number of sick-leave days per employee in shipyards ranged between 4.6 and 8.7 and sick-leave rate (sickness absenteeism rate) varied among 2% and 3.7%. The corresponding indicators for IKA were estimated between 5 and 6.3 sick-leave days per insured employee (median 5.8), and 2.14-2.72% (median 2.49%), respectively. Short sick-leave spells (<4 days) may account at least for the 25% of the total number of sick-leave days, currently not recorded in national statistics. The level of sickness absence in the private sector in Greece was found to be higher than the suggested by previous reports and international comparative studies, but still remains one of the lowest in the industrialized world. In the 20-years national data, the results also showed a 7-year wave in sickness absence indexes (a decrease during the period 1991-1997 and an increase in 1998-2004) combined with a small yet significant decline as a general trend. These

  11. Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2015-01-01

    Objectives A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use of these procedures may differ from region to region. Setting We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. Participants Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscus surgery as a primary or secondary procedure in the years 2000 to 2011. Hospital identification codes enabled linkage of performed procedures to specific hospitals. Primary and secondary outcome measures Yearly incidence of meniscal procedures per 100 000 inhabitants was calculated with 95% CIs for public and private procedures for each region. Results Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal procedures was three times higher in the Capital Region than in Region Zealand. Conclusions Our study identified a large increase in the use of meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark. The increase was particularly conspicuous in the private sector as its proportion of procedures performed increased from 1% to 32%. Substantial regional differences were present in the incidence and trend over time of meniscal procedures. PMID:25712820

  12. 75 FR 8694 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Animal Sectors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Animal Sectors..., and be free of any defects or viruses. For additional information about EPA's public docket, visit the... this action are concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) as specified in section 502(14) of...

  13. Community Resilience: Workshops on Private Sector and Property Owner Requirements for Recovery and Restoration from a Diasaster

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, Kathleen S.; Stein, Steven L.; Lesperance, Ann M.

    2008-12-22

    This report summarizes the results of a proejct sponsored by DTRA to 1) Assess the readiness of private-sector businesses, building owners, and service providers to restore property and recover operations in the aftermath of a wide-area dispersal of anthrax; and 2) Understand what private property owners and businesses "want and need" from federal, state, and local government to support recovery and restoration from such an incident.

  14. Between hype and veracity; privatization of municipal solid waste management and its impacts on the informal waste sector.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Kiran; Burton, Paul; Dedekorkut-Howes, Aysin

    2017-01-01

    The informal waste recycling sector has been an indispensable but ironically invisible part of the waste management systems in developing countries as India, often completely disregarded and overlooked by decision makers and policy frameworks. The turn towards liberalization of economy since 1991 in India opened the doors for privatization of urban services and the waste sector found favor with private companies facilitated by the local governments. In joining the privatization bandwagon, the local governments aim to create an image of a progressive city demonstrated most visibly through apt management of municipal solid waste. Resultantly, the long important stakeholder, the informal sector has been sidelined and left to face the adverse impacts of privatization. There is hardly any recognition of its contributions or any attempt to integrate it within the formal waste management systems. The study investigates the impacts of privatization on the waste pickers in waste recycling operations. Highlighting the other dimension of waste collection and management in urban India the study focuses on the waste pickers and small time informal scrap dealers and this is done by taking the case study of Amritsar city, which is an important historic centre and a metropolitan city in the state of Punjab, India. The paper develops an analytical framework, drawing from literature review to analyze the impacts. In conclusion, it supports the case for involving informal waste sector towards achieving sustainable waste management in the city.

  15. [Mechanism and implication of regulation of the pricing of essential medicines in the private pharmaceutical sector in Mali].

    PubMed

    Maïga, D; Maïga, S; Maïga, M D

    2010-04-01

    The healthcare and pharmaceutical professions in Mali were privatized in 1985. Privatization led to swift expansion of the private sector and upset the balance that had existed between the public and private sectors. A national pharmaceutical policy did not emerge until a decade later. Its purpose was to promote a system ensuring fair access to essential generic medicines for all. It was hoped that synergy between the two sectors would promote that objective. However, the policy calling for distribution of essential generic medicine through the private sector was not accompanied by an adequate system for pricing. This problem led the government to adopt a price regulation policy to realign market dynamics with public health goals. This experience shows that a sustained effort from public policy makers is necessary to prevail against the professional and business interests that can conflict with the public interest. Analysis of this experience also demonstrates the need to improve, restructure, and control the pharmaceutical industry. The government must continue to play its crucial role in the context of limited resources and inequality between consumers and pharmaceutical companies.

  16. GlaxoSmithKline and Merck: private-sector collaboration for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Gustavsen, K M; Bradley, M H; Wright, A L

    2009-10-01

    More than 1000 million people in 82 countries are at risk of contracting the tropical disease lymphatic filariasis (LF). Although the disease is wide-spread, transmission of the causative parasites can be stopped through mass drug administrations based on a combination of anti-parasitic medicines. For more than 10 years, the pharmaceutical companies GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) and Merck & Co., Inc., have participated in a unique private-sector collaboration to support the global efforts to eliminate LF, through donations of drugs to prevent the disease. GSK's albendazole and Merck's ivermectin (Mectizan) now reach hundreds of millions of people each year, through national LF-elimination programmes carried out in collaboration with Ministries of Health, the World Health Organization, non-governmental organizations and local communities. Working in support of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, GSK and Merck not only provide donated medicines but also offer financial, programmatic and management expertise to support LF-elimination efforts worldwide.

  17. Innovative work behavior of managers: Implications regarding stressful challenges of modernized public- and private-sector organizations

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sudeshna Basu; Ray, Anjali

    2009-01-01

    Background: The present study was firstly aimed to find out the nature of stressful life events arising out of the innovative challenges in modernized organizations; and secondly, it tried to identify the relationship between innovative work behavior of managers and the levels of stress arising out of stressful events in modernized organizations (public and private) in West Bengal. Materials and Methods: Data was collected from a sample of 200 managers, by using 3 tools (General Information Schedule, Life Event Inventory and Innovative Work Behavior Scale) through a face-to-face interview. Responses were subjected to both quantitative and qualitative analyses. The data was statistically treated for ‘t’ and ANOVA. Results: Data highlighted the fact that the qualitative profile of stressful events in the lives of managers expressed specificity in terms of their organizational type (public- and private-sector modernized organizations), and levels of stress from stressful life events were significantly higher among the modernized private-sector managers than those among public-sector managers. The prevalence of innovative work behavior was moderately higher among managers of private-sector modernized organizations than their counterparts in public-sector organizations. The trends of innovative work behavior of the managers indicated much variability due to interaction of their level of perceived stressful challenges for innovation and the global forces of change that have unleashed dynamic, systematic and higher expectation level from them. PMID:21180486

  18. Colombia: in vivo test of health sector privatization in the developing world.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Tony; De Paepe, Pierre; Unger, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The reform of the Colombian health sector in 1993 was founded on the internationally advocated paradigm of privatization of health care delivery. Taking into account the lack of empirical evidence for the applicability of this concept to developing countries and the documented experience of failures in other countries, Colombia tried to overcome these problems by a theoretically sound, although complicated, model. Some ten years after the implementation of "Law 100," a review of the literature shows that the proposed goals of universal coverage and equitable access to high-quality care have not been reached. Despite an explosion in costs and a considerable increase in public and private health expenditure, more than 40 percent of the population is still not covered by health insurance, and access to health care proves uncreasingly difficult. Furthermore, key health indicators and disease control programs have deteriorated. These findings confirm the results in other middle- and low-income countries. The authors suggest the explanation lies in the inefficiency of contracting-out, the weak economic, technical, and political capacity of the Colombian government for regulation and control, and the absence of real participation of the poor in decision-making on (health) policies.

  19. Improving access to malaria medicine through private-sector subsidies in seven African countries.

    PubMed

    Tougher, Sarah; Mann, Andrea G; Ye, Yazoume; Kourgueni, Idrissa A; Thomson, Rebecca; Amuasi, John H; Ren, Ruilin; Willey, Barbara A; Ansong, Daniel; Bruxvoort, Katia; Diap, Graciela; Festo, Charles; Johanes, Boniface; Kalolella, Admirabilis; Mallam, Oumarou; Mberu, Blessing; Ndiaye, Salif; Nguah, Samual Blay; Seydou, Moctar; Taylor, Mark; Wamukoya, Marilyn; Arnold, Fred; Hanson, Kara; Goodman, Catherine

    2014-09-01

    Improving access to quality-assured artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) is an important component of malaria control in low- and middle-income countries. In 2010 the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria launched the Affordable Medicines Facility--malaria (AMFm) program in seven African countries. The goal of the program was to decrease malaria morbidity and delay drug resistance by increasing the use of ACTs, primarily through subsidies intended to reduce costs. We collected data on price and retail markups on antimalarial medicines from 19,625 private for-profit retail outlets before and 6-15 months after the program's implementation. We found that in six of the AMFm pilot programs, prices for quality-assured ACTs decreased by US$1.28-$4.34, and absolute retail markups on these therapies decreased by US$0.31-$1.03. Prices and markups on other classes of antimalarials also changed during the evaluation period, but not to the same extent. In all but two of the pilot programs, we found evidence that prices could fall further without suppliers' losing money. Thus, concerns may be warranted that wholesalers and retailers are capturing subsidies instead of passing them on to consumers. These findings demonstrate that supranational subsidies can dramatically reduce retail prices of health commodities and that recommended retail prices communicated to a wide audience may be an effective mechanism for controlling the market power of private-sector antimalarial retailers and wholesalers.

  20. The changing role of the occupational physician in the private sector: the Canadian experience.

    PubMed

    Guidotti, T L; Cowell, J W

    1997-09-01

    The role of the occupational physician in the private sector is changing. Fewer large corporations maintain medical departments following the 'downsizing' trend of the late 1980's and early 1990's and those that do have extensively redefined the duties of the corporate medical director, often extending these duties to include responsibility for environmental health. Occupational medical services for employees previously covered by in-house services are now often provided by outsourcing. The private practice of occupational medicine has become the major growth area of the specialty in both the US and Canada. These trends have been driven primarily by economic imperatives and new management philosophies; the trend may have gone too far and a 'rightsizing' correction may be in progress. However, it is not clear that corporations in general are deriving the greatest value they can from their physicians or that the current generation of senior managers is utilizing its health professionals as effectively as they might. This is in part because the training, qualifications and capabilities of occupational physicians are not well understood. At least as important, however, is persistent confusion over desirable and appropriate roles that obscures the potential contribution of the medical professional within a management structure. We suggest that the greatest value in occupational medical services may be in the anticipation of risk related to health issues and the flexibility this gives the organization to manage the problem.

  1. Willingness to pay for private primary care services in Hong Kong: are elderly ready to move from the public sector?

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Yam, Carrie H K; Huang, Olivia H Y; Griffiths, Sian M

    2013-10-01

    How to provide better primary care and achieve the right level of public-private balance in doing so is at the centre of many healthcare reforms around the world. In a healthcare system like Hong Kong, where inpatient services are largely funded through general taxation and ambulatory services out of pocket, the family doctor model of primary care is underdeveloped. Since 2008, the Government has taken forward various initiatives to promote primary care and encourage more use of private services. However, little is known in Hong Kong or elsewhere about consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for private services when care is available in the public sector. This study assessed willingness of the Hong Kong elderly to pay for specific primary care and preventive services in the private sector, through a cross-sectional in-person questionnaire survey and focus group discussions among respondents. The survey revealed that the WTP for private services in general was low among the elderly; particularly, reported WTP for chronic conditions and preventive care both fell below the current market prices. Sub-group analysis showed higher WTP among healthier and more affluent elderly. Among other things, concerns over affordability and uncertainty (of price and quality) in the private sector were associated with this low level of WTP. These results suggest that most elderly, who are heavy users of public health services but with limited income, may not use more private services without seeing significant reduction in price. Financial incentives for consumers alone may not be enough to promote primary care or public-private partnership. Public education on the value of prevention and primary care, as well as supply-side interventions should both be considered. Hong Kong's policy-making process of the initiative studied here may also provide lessons for other countries with ongoing healthcare reforms.

  2. Enhanced disease surveillance through private health care sector cooperation in Karachi, Pakistan: experience from a vaccine trial.

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mohammad Imran; Sahito, Shah Muhammad; Khan, Mohammad Javed; Wassan, Shafi Mohammad; Shaikh, Abdul Wahab; Maheshwari, Ashok Kumar; Acosta, Camilo J.; Galindo, Claudia M.; Ochiai, Rion Leon; Rasool, Shahid; Peerwani, Sheeraz; Puri, Mahesh K.; Ali, Mohammad; Zafar, Afia; Hassan, Rumina; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Clemens, John D.; Nizami, Shaikh Qamaruddin; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In research projects such as vaccine trials, accurate and complete surveillance of all outcomes of interest is critical. In less developed countries where the private sector is the major health-care provider, the private sector must be included in surveillance systems in order to capture all disease of interest. This, however, poses enormous challenges in practice. The process and outcome of recruiting private practice clinics for surveillance in a vaccine trial are described. METHODS: The project started in January 2002 in two urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan. At the suggestion of private practitioners, a phlebotomy team was formed to provide support for disease surveillance. Children who had a reported history of fever for more than three days were enrolled for a diagnosis. RESULTS: Between May 2003 and April 2004, 5540 children younger than 16 years with fever for three days or more were enrolled in the study. Of the children, 1312 (24%) were seen first by private practitioners; the remainder presented directly to study centres. In total, 5329 blood samples were obtained for microbiology. The annual incidence of Salmonella typhi diagnosed by blood culture was 407 (95% confidence interval (95% CI), 368-448) per 100 000/year and for Salmonella paratyphi A was 198 (95% CI, 171-227) per 100 000/year. Without the contribution of private practitioners, the rates would have been 240 per 100 000/year (95% CI, 211-271) for S. typhi and 114 (95% CI, 94-136) per 100 000/year for S. paratyphi A. CONCLUSION: The private sector plays a major health-care role in Pakistan. Our experience from a surveillance and burden estimation study in Pakistan indicates that this objective is possible to achieve but requires considerable effort and confidence building. Nonetheless, it is essential to include private health care providers when attempting to accurately estimate the burden of disease in such settings. PMID:16501718

  3. Work satisfaction of professional nurses in South Africa: a comparative analysis of the public and private sectors

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Rubin

    2009-01-01

    Background Work satisfaction of nurses is important, as there is sufficient empirical evidence to show that it tends to affect individual, organizational and greater health and social outcomes. Although there have been several studies of job satisfaction among nurses in South Africa, these are limited because they relate to studies of individual organizations or regions, use small samples or are dated. This paper presents a national study that compares and contrasts satisfaction levels of nurses in both public and private sectors. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of professional nurses conducted throughout South Africa using a pretested and self-administered questionnaire. Univariate and bivariate statistical models were used to evaluate levels of satisfaction with various facets of work and to elicit the differences in satisfaction levels between different groups of nurses. A total of 569 professional nurses participated in the study. Results Private-sector nurses were generally satisfied, while public-sector nurses were generally dissatisfied. Public-sector nurses were most dissatisfied with their pay, the workload and the resources available to them. They were satisfied only with the social context of the work. Private-sector nurses were dissatisfied only with their pay and career development opportunities. Professional nurses in the more rural provinces, those intending to change sectors and those more likely not to be in their current positions within the next five years were also more likely to be dissatisfied with all facets of their work. Conclusion This study highlighted the overall dissatisfaction among South African nurses and confirmed the disparity between the levels of job satisfaction between the public and private sectors. Health managers should address those factors that affect job satisfaction, and therefore retention, of nurses in South Africa. Improving the work environment so that it provides a context congruent with the aspirations

  4. 31 CFR 50.33 - Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.33 Section 50.33 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  5. 31 CFR 50.33 - Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.33 Section 50.33 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  6. 31 CFR 50.33 - Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Entities that do not share profits and losses with private sector insurers. 50.33 Section 50.33 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM State Residual Market Insurance Entities;...

  7. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  8. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  9. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  10. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  11. 5 CFR 2641.207 - One-year restriction on any former private sector assignee under the Information Technology...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... private sector assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling... assignee under the Information Technology Exchange Program representing, aiding, counseling or assisting in... the Information Technology Exchange Program, 5 U.S.C. chapter 37, no former assignee shall...

  12. Addressing the Skills Gap in Saudi Arabia: Does Vocational Education Address the Needs of Private Sector Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baqadir, Abdullah; Patrick, Fiona; Burns, George

    2011-01-01

    This article reports the findings of data drawn from doctoral research on the extent to which recent changes in vocational training have addressed a perceived skills gap between the needs of private sector employers and potential workers in Saudi Arabia. While the Saudi government has made efforts to enhance the quality of vocational education,…

  13. Managing the Tensions between Maintaining Academic Standards and the Commercial Imperative in a UK Private Sector Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Graham Simons

    2013-01-01

    In a changing landscape of higher education, universities have been moving towards a market-led approach to strategic management. This paper examines the case of a UK private sector education provider that gained degree-awarding powers following changes made in 2004 by the UK Government to the accreditation criteria for recognised degree-awarding…

  14. 20 CFR 641.640 - How do the private sector training activities authorized under section 502(e) differ from other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required to have a community service project component. However, 502(e) participants must also be co... private sector. (c) The Department is authorized to pay all of the costs of section 502(e) activities (i.e... authorized under section 502(e) differ from other SCSEP activities? 641.640 Section 641.640...

  15. International Students in the Private VET Sector in Melbourne, Australia: Rethinking Their Characteristics and Aspirations outside the Deficit Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasura, Rinos

    2015-01-01

    The reconstruction of the Australian Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector into a competitive training market, which led to the participation of international students and commercial for-profit private VET providers, has until recently focused on the importance of international students to the national economy whilst ignoring the…

  16. Black Literacy in South Africa--A Comparison of the Contribution of the Public and the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, P. H.

    According to a 1980 estimate, 5,678,000 black South African adults are illiterate. A large number of organizations has been created to address the problem--among them such private sector operations as the South African Committee for Higher Education, Operation TEACH (Teach Every African Child), the Bureau of Literacy and Literature, the Urban…

  17. The Impact of Sexuality in Contemporary Culture: An Interpretive Study of Perceptions and Choices in Private Sector Dance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug; Godfrey, Heidi; Simmons, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    The ways in which seven private sector dance professionals in the United States perceive the impact of sexuality in contemporary culture and the choices that they make for their own schools of dance because of these perceptions are explored. This study was conducted through in-depth interviews and a survey instrument. The participants' narratives…

  18. Mobilization of the private sector in effective development of fusion energy: Papers for and a summary of a workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Four papers and a summary of a workshop on the mobilization of the private sector in developing fusion energy is reported. The workshop is one of a series which assesses Federal policy options relating to the commercialization of selected energy technologies viewed as alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. The papers focused on the potential roles to be played by fusion energy in the future electric generating industry; current commitments and participation of the private sector in fusion energy development; suggestions for policy incentives to enhance private participation in fusion research; organization, staffing, and operating a center for fusion engineering; the industrial structure and practices in developing and deploying power generating facilities and their implications in relation to fusion energy development; and characteristics required by any new energy-producing technology such as low capital and operating costs and minimal environmental output.

  19. Independent sector mental health care: a 1-day census of private and voluntary sector placements in seven Strategic Health Authority areas in England.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Barbara; Ryan, Tony; Simpson, Victoria; Sharma, Indhu

    2007-09-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to map the extent of all mental health placements in the independent sector, for adults of working age, and elderly people (excluding those with a diagnosis of dementia placed in Local Authority care homes), on a census date, across the areas in which the study was commissioned; (ii) to identify the characteristics of the population in placements; (iii) to explore some of the characteristics of the placements and the patterns of use within the private and voluntary sectors; and (iv) to identify the funding source of placements, and cost differences between the private and voluntary sector. The study took place in seven Strategic Health Authority areas, and information was sought from all Primary Care Trust and Social Services commissioners of mental health services, including regional secure commissioning teams, within those areas. A cross-sectional sample was used. Information was requested in relation to every individual meeting the inclusion criteria, placed in independent (private or voluntary) psychiatric hospitals, registered mental nursing homes and care homes on a specified study 'census date' of 28 June 2004 in six of the Strategic Health Authority areas, and 7 October 2004 in the seventh. Information was recorded on a standard questionnaire specifically designed for the study. Information was obtained on 3535 adults and 1623 elderly people in private or voluntary facilities. The largest groups of adults and elderly people had diagnoses of severe mental illnesses (42.1% and 30.5%, respectively), and placements were described as 'continuing care' or rehabilitation, with a 'niche' in specialist forensic care. Around four-fifths of units were in the private sector, which for adults was significantly more expensive than the voluntary sector. A large proportion of units (47.2% of adult placements and 59.3% of placements for elderly people) had only single placements from particular commissioning authorities, whilst others had

  20. Private vs. Public Higher Education Budgeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Private higher education institutions are those entities owned and operated by the private sector, while public institutions are those established, supported, and controlled by a governmental agency, most often a state. Key differences exist between private and public institutions that affect budgeting in critical ways. Such differences include…

  1. Does Privatization Affect Access to Government Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caponio, Joseph F.; Geffner, Janet

    This paper begins by pointing out that privatization, or relying on the private sector to provide commercial goods and services for government departments and agencies, is a tool that has been used effectively by the federal government for several decades. It then presents the theoretical basis for privatization, describes a number of methods used…

  2. Private sector drug shops in integrated community case management of malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea in children in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Awor, Phyllis; Wamani, Henry; Bwire, Godfrey; Jagoe, George; Peterson, Stefan

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a survey involving 1,604 households to determine community care-seeking patterns and 163 exit interviews to determine appropriateness of treatment of common childhood illnesses at private sector drug shops in two rural districts of Uganda. Of children sick within the last 2 weeks, 496 (53.1%) children first sought treatment in the private sector versus 154 (16.5%) children first sought treatment in a government health facility. Only 15 (10.3%) febrile children treated at drug shops received appropriate treatment for malaria. Five (15.6%) children with both cough and fast breathing received amoxicillin, although no children received treatment for 5-7 days. Similarly, only 8 (14.3%) children with diarrhea received oral rehydration salts, but none received zinc tablets. Management of common childhood illness at private sector drug shops in rural Uganda is largely inappropriate. There is urgent need to improve the standard of care at drug shops for common childhood illness through public-private partnerships.

  3. A private sector view of health, surveillance, and communities of color.

    PubMed

    Rabin, S A

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. population is fast evolving into a patchwork of health behaviors, incomes, and ethnic backgrounds. Simple cultural labeling will not do. A growing number of Americans, now numbering about 10 million, cannot or will not describe their race in any one of the Census Bureau's standard categories--white, black, American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, Asian Pacific, or Hispanic. They group themselves as a multicultural population rather than a single racial or ethnic category. To guide health interventions, the private sector now relies more on statistical clusters based on geography, lifestyle, behavior, financial status, and attitudes instead of on race. In marketing, the challenge is to reach diverse markets without stereotyping the product as one designed for only a certain ethnic group. The emphasis on athletics instead of on race is one example of how some marketers solve this problem of reaching minorities without giving the impression that specific products are only for blacks, or Hispanics, or Asians. Surveillance professionals can expand the way data are collected and publicized. Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans should not be categorized simply by race; other variables of health, such as income and age, should be given careful attention.

  4. Using and Joining a Franchised Private Sector Provider Network in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Kathryn; Hom, Mo; Aung, Tin; Theuss, Marc; Huntington, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Background Quality is central to understanding provider motivations to join and remain within a social franchising network. Quality also appears as a key issue from the client's perspective, and may influence why a client chooses to use a franchised provider over another type of provider. The dynamic relationships between providers of social franchising clinics and clients who use these services have not been thoroughly investigated in the context of Myanmar, which has an established social franchising network. This study examines client motivations to use a Sun Quality Health network provider and provider motivations to join and remain in the Sun Quality Health network. Taken together, these two aims provide an opportunity to explore the symbiotic relationship between client satisfaction and provider incentives to increase the utilization of reproductive health care services. Methods and Findings Results from a series of focus group discussions with clients of reproductive health services and franchised providers shows that women chose health services provided by franchised private sector general practitioners because of its perceived higher quality, associated with the availability of effective, affordable, drugs. A key finding of the study is associated with providers. Provider focus group discussions indicate that a principle determinate for joining and remaining in the Sun Quality Health Network was serving the poor. PMID:22180781

  5. Eradication of iron deficiency anemia through food fortification: the role of the private sector.

    PubMed

    Mehansho, Haile

    2002-04-01

    Delivering iron fortified foods that provide meaningful levels of bioavailable iron without altering the accepted appearance and taste of the product presents multiple challenges. Issues relating to food technology, product formulation, acceptance and efficacy evaluation, marketing and quality control must all be addressed. Procter & Gamble Company has developed a unique technology that stabilizes iron in an aqueous system. Utilizing this technology, a fortified powder drink has been developed that is easy to distribute, store and use and that delivers 20-30% of the U. S. RDA for iron, as well as significant amounts of vitamin A, iodine, zinc and vitamin C in a single serving. Acceptance, bioavailability and effectiveness trials have all produced positive results. This type of fortified product can contribute to alleviating iron deficiency but requires scaling up, packaging, quality control and distribution through normal trade channels and public institutions to have a sustainable impact. To be effective, a well-planned communications campaign should also accompany any major iron fortification program. Eradication of iron deficiency anemia can be done but requires a holistic approach that addresses multiple barriers and leverages the untapped expertise and strength of the alliance between public and private sectors.

  6. A case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Non-regulatory animal health issues, such as Johne's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and mastitis will become increasing important, with ongoing globalisation of markets in animals and animal products. In response, Ireland may need to broaden the scope of its national animal health services. However, there have been concerns about the respective roles and responsibilities (both financial and otherwise) of government and industry in any such moves. This paper argues the case for increased private sector involvement in Ireland's national animal health services, based both on theoretical considerations and country case studies (the Netherlands and Australia). The Dutch and Australian case studies present examples of successful partnerships between government and industry, including systems and processes to address non-regulatory animal health issues. In each case, the roles and responsibilities of government are clear, as are the principles underpinning government involvement. Furthermore, the roles and responsibilities (financial and otherwise) of the Dutch and Australian industry are determined through enabling legislation, providing both legitimacy and accountability. There are constraints on the use of EU and national government funds to support non-regulatory animal health services in EU member states (such as Ireland and the Netherlands). PMID:21851708

  7. Focus groups among public, military, and private sector mothers: insights to improve the immunization process.

    PubMed

    Houseman, C; Butterfoss, F D; Morrow, A L; Rosenthal, J

    1997-08-01

    The underimmunization of children younger than 2 years old is a major health problem in U.S. cities. Innovative methods to increase immunization rates are being researched and implemented. In 1993, six focus groups were conducted with 41 mothers (25 African Americans and 16 Caucasians) to discuss their views regarding immunizations and the services they received from health care providers in the public health (n = 27), military (n = 4), and private (n = 10) sectors. Participants viewed immunizations positively, but perceived many barriers to immunization. They suggested the following ways to improve the immunization process: enhancing knowledge acquisition, improving reminder and appointment systems, providing transportation and child care, decreasing waiting times, improving the clinic environment, and making the immunizations less traumatic. According to mothers in this study, obtaining an immunization on time is a complex task that requires planning and resources. The fewer resources that are available to mothers, the more difficult it is to succeeded. Health care providers must help mothers identify and remove barriers if immunization rates are to be increased.

  8. A private sector view of health, surveillance, and communities of color.

    PubMed Central

    Rabin, S A

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. population is fast evolving into a patchwork of health behaviors, incomes, and ethnic backgrounds. Simple cultural labeling will not do. A growing number of Americans, now numbering about 10 million, cannot or will not describe their race in any one of the Census Bureau's standard categories--white, black, American Indian, Eskimo, Aleut, Asian Pacific, or Hispanic. They group themselves as a multicultural population rather than a single racial or ethnic category. To guide health interventions, the private sector now relies more on statistical clusters based on geography, lifestyle, behavior, financial status, and attitudes instead of on race. In marketing, the challenge is to reach diverse markets without stereotyping the product as one designed for only a certain ethnic group. The emphasis on athletics instead of on race is one example of how some marketers solve this problem of reaching minorities without giving the impression that specific products are only for blacks, or Hispanics, or Asians. Surveillance professionals can expand the way data are collected and publicized. Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans should not be categorized simply by race; other variables of health, such as income and age, should be given careful attention. PMID:8303013

  9. Addressing unfunded training mandates in hospitals: engaging the private sector in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Preker, Alexander S; Keuffel, Eric; Tuckman, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Health worker finance and provision are discussed in this article in the context of the global shortage of human resources. Key issues related to public and private finance or provision of tertiary health education institutions are highlighted, and costs, benefits, and feasibility of potential financing or provision solutions are identified. Engagement of the private sector can expand the resources available for education and align incentives to address an important inefficiency: the unfunded mandate of post-graduate in-service training at hospitals that jointly provide education and health services.

  10. Net present value analysis to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation.

    PubMed

    Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

    1997-01-01

    One of the main functions of government is to invest taxpayer dollars in projects, programs, and properties that will result in social benefit. Public programs focused on the development of technology are examples of such opportunities. Selecting these programs requires the same investment analysis approaches that private companies and individuals use. Good use of investment analysis approaches to these programs will minimize our tax costs and maximize public benefit from tax dollars invested. This article describes the use of the net present value (NPV) analysis approach to select public R&D programs and valuate expected private sector participation in the programs.

  11. Evidence-based practice implementation: The impact of public versus private sector organization type on organizational support, provider attitudes, and adoption of evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The goal of this study is to extend research on evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation by examining the impact of organizational type (public versus private) and organizational support for EBP on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Both organization theory and theory of innovation uptake and individual adoption of EBP guide the approach and analyses in this study. We anticipated that private sector organizations would provide greater levels of organizational support for EBPs leading to more positive provider attitudes towards EBPs and EBP use. We also expected attitudes toward EBPs to mediate the association of organizational support and EBP use. Methods Participants were mental health service providers from 17 communities in 16 states in the United States (n = 170). Path analyses were conducted to compare three theoretical models of the impact of organization type on organizational support for EBP and of organizational support on provider attitudes toward EBP and EBP use. Results Consistent with our predictions, private agencies provided greater support for EBP implementation, and staff working for private agencies reported more positive attitudes toward adopting EBPs. Organizational support for EBP partially mediated the association of organization type on provider attitudes toward EBP. Organizational support was significantly positively associated with attitudes toward EBP and EBP use in practice. Conclusion This study offers further support for the importance of organizational context as an influence on organizational support for EBP and provider attitudes toward adopting EBP. The study demonstrates the role organizational support in provider use of EBP in practice. This study also suggests that organizational support for innovation is a malleable factor in supporting use of EBP. Greater attention should be paid to organizational influences that can facilitate the dissemination and implementation of EBPs in community settings. PMID

  12. Transfer and utilization of government technology assets to the private sector in the fields of health care and information technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Luis G.

    1995-10-01

    During the first Health Care Technology Policy conference last year, during health care reform, four major issues were brought up in regards to the efforts underway to develop a computer based patient record (CBPR), the National Information Infrastructure (NII) as part of the high performance computers and communications (HPCC), and the so-called 'patient card.' More specifically it was explained how a national information system will greatly affect the way health care delivery is provided to the United States public and reduce its costs. These four issues were: (1) Constructing a national information infrastructure (NII); (2) Building a computer based patient record system; (3) Bringing the collective resources of our national laboratories to bear in developing and implementing the NII and CBPR, as well as a security system with which to safeguard the privacy rights of patients and the physician-patient privilege; (4) Utilizing government (e.g., DOD, DOE) capabilities (technology and human resources) to maximize resource utilization, create new jobs, and accelerate technology transfer to address health care issues. This year a section of this conference entitled: 'Health Care Technology Assets of the Federal Government' addresses benefits of the technology transfer which should occur for maximizing already developed resources. This section entitled: 'Transfer and Utilization of Government Technology Assets to the Private Sector,' will look at both health care and non-health care related technologies since many areas such as information technologies (i.e. imaging, communications, archival/retrieval, systems integration, information display, multimedia, heterogeneous data bases, etc.) already exist and are part of our national labs and/or other federal agencies, i.e., ARPA. These technologies although they are not labeled under health care programs they could provide enormous value to address technical needs. An additional issue deals with both the technical

  13. A Survey of Michigan's Private Education Sector. A Mackinac Center Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rachel; DeGrow, Ben

    2016-01-01

    According to data collected by the state, Michigan has 601 private schools that enroll about 113,000 students--about 7 percent of all students in the state. All but 14 of Michigan's 84 counties have at least one private school operating within their boundaries. Despite the fact that private schools in Michigan are widespread, there is very little…

  14. Government-to-private sector energy programs: Identification of common elements leading to successful implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockton, Keith M.

    -and-control programs we examined also create market distortions that both limit the flexibility of private markets to adjust to changing economic conditions and discourage the adoption of competing technologies. We conclude our research by recommending that future policy makers maximize the range of methods availability to the private sector to meet legislative goals and limit the use of financial incentives. With these measures, energy programs may achieve higher levels of success by reaching their goals with maximum economic efficiency and minimal negative unanticipated consequences.

  15. The role of job satisfaction, job dissatisfaction and demographic factors on physicians' intentions to switch work sector from public to private.

    PubMed

    Kankaanranta, Terhi; Nummi, Tapio; Vainiomäki, Jari; Halila, Hannu; Hyppölä, Harri; Isokoski, Mauri; Kujala, Santero; Kumpusalo, Esko; Mattila, Kari; Virjo, Irma; Vänskä, Jukka; Rissanen, Pekka

    2007-09-01

    This study is based on a unique data set for the years 1988-2003 and uses structural equation models to examine the impact of job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction on physicians' intention to switch from public- to private-sector work. In Finland, physicians who work primarily in a public-hospital or health-centre setting can also run a private practice. Therefore, we also analysed the impact of having a private practice on a physician's intention to change sector. We found that private practice had a positive, statistically significant effect on the intention to switch sector in 1998 and 2003. Results also suggest that job satisfaction decreases a physician's intention to switch sector, although for 1998 it had no effect. Surprisingly, job dissatisfaction significantly increased the physicians' intentions to leave the public sector only in the 1988 data.

  16. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office evaluation of feasibility studies for private sector treatment of alpha and TRU mixed wastes

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is currently storing a large quantity of alpha contaminated mixed low level waste which will require treatment prior to disposal. The DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) recognized that current knowledge and funding were insufficient to directly pursue services for the requisite treatment. Therefore, it was decided that private sector studies would be funded to clarify cost, regulatory, technology, and contractual issues associated with procuring treatment services. This report analyzes the three private sector studies procured and recommends a path forward for DOE in procuring retrieval, assay, characterization, and treatment services for INEL transuranic and alpha contaminated mixed low level waste. This report was prepared by a team of subject matter experts from the INEL referred to as the DOE-ID Evaluation Team.

  17. Inter-Professional Practices of Private-Sector Physiotherapists for Low Back Pain Management: Who, How, and When?

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Kadija; Dionne, Clermont E.; Rossignol, Michel; Poitras, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although there have been increasing demands for health care providers to take part in inter-professional practices in recent years, very little attention has been paid to the actualization of such practices in the private sector. This study describes private-sector physiotherapists' inter-professional practices regarding low back pain (LBP) management and identifies organizational and provider-level variables associated with the intensity of such practices. Method: A total of 327 randomly selected physiotherapists were surveyed in the province of Quebec. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multiple regression analyses. Results: Physiotherapists reported frequent interactions with other physiotherapists (daily/weekly for 52.6%), family physicians (51.0%), and physiotherapy (PT) assistants (45.2%), but infrequent interactions with psychologists (3.6%), neurosurgeons (0.9%), and chiropractors (0.3%). Frequently reported means of interactions were written and oral messages sent through clients (55.1% and 24.1%, respectively), face-to-face unplanned discussions (41.9%), and faxed or mailed letters (23.2%). Variables associated with the intensity of inter-professional practices (mean of 6.7 [SD 1.7] out of 10 on the Intensity of Interprofessional Practices Questionnaire for Private Sector Physiotherapists) were related to physiotherapists' clientele, social activities with other providers, and perceptions of inter-professional practices as well as organizational models, vision, and provision of PT training. Conclusions: There is room to improve inter-professional practices with private-sector physiotherapists involved in managing LBP. Targets for action include physiotherapists and their workplaces. PMID:27904232

  18. Inter-Professional Practices of Private-Sector Physiotherapists for Low Back Pain Management: Who, How, and When?

    PubMed

    Perreault, Kadija; Dionne, Clermont E; Rossignol, Michel; Poitras, Stéphane; Morin, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Although there have been increasing demands for health care providers to take part in inter-professional practices in recent years, very little attention has been paid to the actualization of such practices in the private sector. This study describes private-sector physiotherapists' inter-professional practices regarding low back pain (LBP) management and identifies organizational and provider-level variables associated with the intensity of such practices. Method: A total of 327 randomly selected physiotherapists were surveyed in the province of Quebec. Data were analyzed using descriptive and multiple regression analyses. Results: Physiotherapists reported frequent interactions with other physiotherapists (daily/weekly for 52.6%), family physicians (51.0%), and physiotherapy (PT) assistants (45.2%), but infrequent interactions with psychologists (3.6%), neurosurgeons (0.9%), and chiropractors (0.3%). Frequently reported means of interactions were written and oral messages sent through clients (55.1% and 24.1%, respectively), face-to-face unplanned discussions (41.9%), and faxed or mailed letters (23.2%). Variables associated with the intensity of inter-professional practices (mean of 6.7 [SD 1.7] out of 10 on the Intensity of Interprofessional Practices Questionnaire for Private Sector Physiotherapists) were related to physiotherapists' clientele, social activities with other providers, and perceptions of inter-professional practices as well as organizational models, vision, and provision of PT training. Conclusions: There is room to improve inter-professional practices with private-sector physiotherapists involved in managing LBP. Targets for action include physiotherapists and their workplaces.

  19. HOSPITAL VENTILATION STANDARDS AND ENERGY CONSERVATION: A REVIEW OF GOVERNMENTAL AND PRIVATE AGENCY ENERGY CONSERVATION INITIATIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Robert S.; Rainer, David

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the results of a recent research project originally concerned with review of governmental initiatives for changes to hospital design and operation standards at both the federal and state levels. However. it quickly became apparent that concern with energy conservation was not impacting hospital environmental standards, especially at the state level, irrespective of the energy implications. Consequently, the study was redirected to consider all energy conservation initiatives directed toward design and operating practices unique to the hospital environment. The scope was limited to agency programs (i.e., not undertaken at the initiative of individual hospitals), applicable to non-federal public and private hospitals.

  20. The private sector role in HIV/AIDS in the context of an expanded global response: expenditure trends in five sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Sulzbach, Sara; De, Susna; Wang, Wenjuan

    2011-07-01

    Global financing for the HIV response has reached unprecedented levels in recent years. Over US$10 billion were mobilized in 2007, an effort credited with saving the lives of millions of people living with HIV (PLHIV). A relatively unexamined aspect of the global HIV response is the role of the private sector in financing HIV/AIDS services. As the nature of the response evolves from emergency relief to long-term sustainability, understanding current and potential contributions from the private sector is critical. This paper examines trends in private sector financing, management and resource consumption related to HIV/AIDS in five sub-Saharan African countries, with a particular emphasis on the effects of recently scaled-up donor funding on private sector contributions. We analysed National Health Accounts HIV/AIDS subaccount data for Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia between 2002 and 2006. HIV subaccounts provide comparable data on the flow of HIV/AIDS funding from source to use. Findings indicate that private sector contributions decreased in all countries except Tanzania. With regards to managing HIV/AIDS funds, non-governmental organizations are increasingly controlling the largest share of resources relative to other stakeholders, whereas private for-profit entities are managing fewer HIV/AIDS resources since the donor influx. The majority of HIV/AIDS funds were spent in the public sector, although a considerable amount was spent at private facilities, largely fuelled by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. On the whole, OOP spending by PLHIV decreased over the 4-year period, with the exception of Malawi, demonstrating that PLHIV have increased access to free or subsidized HIV/AIDS services. Our findings suggest that the influx of donor funding has led to decreased private contributions for HIV/AIDS. The reduction in private sector investment and engagement raises concerns about the sustainability of HIV/AIDS programmes over the long term, particularly in

  1. Addressing Quality Challenges in the Private University Sector in Bangladesh: From Policy Formulation to Institutional Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco Ramírez, Gerardo; Jahirul Haque, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Private higher education is growing, especially in developing and transitioning countries. Rapid growth frequently comes with concerns about quality. This article explores challenges and opportunities for higher education quality among private universities in Bangladesh. By presenting a vertical case study that explores interactions among actors…

  2. Examination of the factors and issues for an environmental technology utilization partnership between the private sector and the Department of Energy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brouse, P.

    1997-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) held a meeting on November 12, 1992 to evaluate the DOE relations with industry and university partners concerning environmental technology utilization. The goal of this meeting was to receive feedback from DOE industry and university partners for the identification of opportunities to improve the DOE cooperative work processes with the private sector. The meeting was designed to collect information and to turn that information into action to improve private sector partnerships with DOE.

  3. Private Sector Participation in Urban Water and Sanitation Provision in Ghana: Experiences from the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osumanu, Issaka Kanton

    2008-07-01

    African governments, like most countries in the developing world, face daunting tasks in their attempts to provide effective and equitable water and sanitation services for their ever increasing urban populations. Consequently, the past few years have witnessed increased private sector participation in urban water and sanitation provision, as many African governments strive to improve access to water and sanitation services for their citizens in line with Millennium Development Goal 7 (MDG7). Since the early 1990s, the government of Ghana and many local authorities have entered into various forms of public-private partnerships in urban water and sanitation provision. This article examines the outcome of such partnerships using the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA) as a case study with the aim of providing policy guidelines for the way forward. The article argues that the public-private arrangement for water supply and sanitation infrastructure management in the Tamale Metropolis has done nothing that an invigorated public sector could not have possibly achieved. It concludes that there can be no sustainable improvement in water and sanitation provision without political commitment, stakeholder ownership, and strong support for community driven initiatives.

  4. 20 CFR 641.600 - What is the purpose of the private sector training projects authorized under section 502(e) of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is the purpose of the private sector training projects authorized under section 502(e) of the OAA? 641.600 Section 641.600 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Private...

  5. Shaping Collective Functions in Privatized Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems: The Positioning and Embedding of a Network Broker in the Dutch Dairy Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines new organizational arrangements that have emerged in the context of a privatized extension system. It investigates the positioning and embedding of a network broker aimed at enhancing interaction in the privatized agricultural knowledge and information system (AKIS), to assess whether tensions reported in other sectors also…

  6. Applying a Total Market Lens: Increased IUD Service Delivery Through Complementary Public- and Private-Sector Interventions in 4 Countries

    PubMed Central

    White, Julia N; Corker, Jamaica

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increasing access to the intrauterine device (IUD), as part of a comprehensive method mix, is a key strategy for reducing unintended pregnancy and maternal mortality in low-income countries. To expand access to IUDs within the framework of informed choice, Population Services International (PSI) has historically supported increased IUD service delivery through private providers. In applying a total market lens to better understand the family planning market and address major market gaps, PSI identified a lack of high-quality public provision of IUDs. In 2013, PSI started a pilot in 4 countries (Guatemala, Laos, Mali, and Uganda) to grow public-provider IUD service delivery through increased public-sector engagement while maintaining its ongoing focus on private providers. In collaboration with country governments, PSI affiliates carried out family planning market analyses in the 4 pilot countries to identify gaps in IUD service delivery and create sustainable strategies for scaling up IUD services in the public sector. Country-specific interventions to increase service delivery were implemented across all levels of the public health system, including targeted advocacy at the national level to promote government ownership and program sustainability. Mechanisms to ensure government ownership were built into the program design, including a proof-of-concept approach to convince governments of the feasibility and value of taking over and scaling up interventions. In the first 2 years of the pilot (2013–2014), 102,055 IUD services were provided to women at 417 targeted public-sector facilities. These preliminary results suggest that there is untapped demand for IUD service delivery in the public sector that can be met in part through greater participation of the public sector in family planning and IUD provision. PMID:27540122

  7. Subsidising artemisinin-based combination therapy in the private retail sector

    PubMed Central

    Opiyo, Newton; Yamey, Gavin; Garner, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria causes ill health and death in Africa. Treating illness promptly with artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) is likely to cure people and avoid the disease progressing to more severe forms and death. In many countries, ACT use remains low. Part of the problem is that most people seek treatment from the retail sector where ACTs are expensive; this expense is a barrier to their use. The Global Fund and other international organisations are subsidising the cost of ACTs for private retail providers to improve access to ACTs. The subsidy was initially organised through a stand-alone initiative, called the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm), but has since been integrated into the Global Fund core grant management and financial processes. Objectives To assess the effect of programmes that include ACT price subsidies for private retailers on ACT use, availability, price and market share. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 1, The Cochrane Library, including the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register); MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), CINAHL (EbscoHost), EconLit (ProQuest), Global Health (OvidSP), Regional Indexes (Global Health Library, WHO), LILACS (Global Health Library, WHO), Science Citation Index and Social Sciences Citation Index (ISI Web of Science) and Health Management (ProQuest). All databases were searched February 2015, except for Health Management which was searched November 2013, without any date, language or publication status restrictions. We also searched the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP; WHO), ClinicalTrials.gov (NIH) and various grey literature sources. We also conducted a cited reference search for all included studies in ISI Web of Knowledge, checked references of identified articles and contacted authors to identify additional studies. Selection criteria Randomised trials, non

  8. A protocol for developing an evaluation framework for an academic and private-sector partnership to assess the impact of major food and beverage companies' investments in community health in the United States.

    PubMed

    Huang, Terry T-K; Ferris, Emily; Crossley, Rachel; Guillermin, Michelle; Costa, Sergio; Cawley, John

    2015-01-01

    Public health leaders increasingly recognize the importance of multi-sector partnerships and systems approaches to address obesity. Public-private partnerships (PPP), which are joint ventures between government agencies and private sector entities, may help facilitate this process, but need to be delivered through comprehensive, transparent frameworks to maximize potential benefits and minimize potential risks for all partners. The City University of New York (CUNY) School of Public Health and the Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF) propose to engage in a unique academic-private-sector research partnership to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of the food and beverage industry's investment in obesity and hunger prevention and reduction through community-level healthful eating and active living programs. The CUNY-HWCF academic-private partnership protocol described here incorporates best practices from the literature on PPP into the partnership's design. The CUNY-HWCF partnership design demonstrates how established guidelines for partnership components will actively incorporate and promote the principles of successful PPPs identified in various research papers. These identified principles of successful PPP, including mutuality (a reciprocal relationship between entities), and equality among partners, recognition of partners' unique strengths and roles, alignment of resources and expertise toward a common cause, and coordination and delegation of responsibilities, will be embedded throughout the design of governance, management, funding, intellectual property and accountability structures. The CUNY-HWCF partnership responds to the call for increased multi-sector work in obesity prevention and control. This framework aims to promote transparency and the shared benefits of complementary expertise while minimizing shared risks and conflicts of interest. This framework serves as a template for future academic-private research partnerships.

  9. Funding long-term care: applications of the trade-off principle in both public and private sectors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Ping

    2003-02-01

    The uncertain need for long-term care services is a risk best protected by insurance. However, the current funding relies heavily on personal payment and public welfare, and only lightly on social and private insurances. This method, akin to sitting on a two-legged stool, is unlikely to be sustainable. To incorporate insurance as a key component of funding and to mobilize public and private resources more effectively, we propose a three-legged-stool funding model under which social insurance would provide a basic protection, to be supplemented by private insurance and personal payment. When these sources do not provide sufficient protection for some individuals, Medicaid as public welfare would serve as a safety net. This article (a) discusses how to implement this funding model by using the trade-off principle in both the public and private sectors when resources for long-term care are scarce, and (b) analyzes several objections to this model from cognitive psychology/behavioral economics

  10. 75 FR 34148 - Voluntary Private Sector Accreditation and Certification Preparedness Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Editions 2. British Standards Institution 25999 (2007 Edition)--Business Continuity Management (BS 25999... the British Standards Institution, under the auspices of which the standard was developed, was not a... and their respective Sector Coordinating Councils to identify such existing sector activities. IP...

  11. Recent trends in working with the private sector to improve basic healthcare: a review of evidence and interventions.

    PubMed

    Montagu, Dominic; Goodman, Catherine; Berman, Peter; Penn, Amy; Visconti, Adam

    2016-10-01

    The private sector provides the majority of health care in Africa and Asia. A number of interventions have, for many years, applied different models of subsidy, support and engagement to address social and efficiency failures in private health care markets. We have conducted a review of these models, and the evidence in support of them, to better understand what interventions are currently common, and to what extent practice is based on evidence. Using established typologies, we examined five models of intervention with private markets for care: commodity social marketing, social franchising, contracting, accreditation and vouchers. We conducted a systematic review of both published and grey literature, identifying programmes large enough to be cited in publications, and studies of the listed intervention types. 343 studies were included in the review, including both published and grey literature. Three hundred and eighty programmes were identified, the earliest having begun operation in 1955. Commodity social marketing programmes were the most common intervention type, with 110 documented programmes operating for condoms alone at the highest period. Existing evidence shows that these models can improve access and utilization, and possibly quality, but for all programme types, the overall evidence base remains weak, with practice in private sector engagement consistently moving in advance of evidence. Future research should address key questions concerning the impact of interventions on the market as a whole, the distribution of benefits by socio-economic status, the potential for scale up and sustainability, cost-effectiveness compared to relevant alternatives and the risk of unintended consequences. Alongside better data, a stronger conceptual basis linking programme design and outcomes to context is also required.

  12. Learning from the private sector: towards a keener understanding of the end-user for microbicide introduction planning

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Amy H; Breger, Tiffany L; Barnhart, Matthew; Kim, Ann; Vangsgaard, Charlotte; Harris, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In planning for the introduction of vaginal microbicides and other new antiretroviral (ARV)-based prevention products for women, an in-depth understanding of potential end-users will be critically important to inform strategies to optimize uptake and long-term adherence. User-centred private sector companies have contributed to the successful launch of many different types of products, employing methods drawn from behavioural and social sciences to shape product designs, marketing messages and communication channels. Examples of how the private sector has adapted and applied these techniques to make decisions around product messaging and targeting may be instructive for adaptation to microbicide introduction. Discussion In preparing to introduce a product, user-centred private sector companies employ diverse methods to understand the target population and their lifestyles, values and motivations. ReD Associates’ observational research on user behaviours in the packaged food and diabetes fields illustrates how ‘tag along’ or ‘shadowing’ techniques can identify sources of non-adherence. Another open-ended method is self-documentation, and IDEO's mammography research utilized this to uncover user motivations that extended beyond health. Mapping the user journey is a quantitative approach for outlining critical decision-making stages, and Monitor Inclusive Markets applied this framework to identify toilet design opportunities for the rural poor. Through an iterative process, these various techniques can generate hypotheses on user drop-off points, quantify where drop-off is highest and prioritize areas of further research to uncover usage barriers. Although research constraints exist, these types of user-centred techniques have helped create effective messaging, product positioning and packaging of health products as well as family planning information. These methods can be applied to microbicide acceptability testing outside of clinical trials

  13. LANDSAT technology transfer to the private and public sectors through community colleges and other locally available institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Major first year accomplishments are summarized and plans are provided for the next 12-month period for a program established by NASA with the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan to investigate methods of making LANDSAT technology readily available to a broader set of private sector firms through local community colleges. The program applies a network where the major participants are NASA, university or research institutes, community colleges, and obtain hands-on training in LANDSAT data analysis techniques, using a desk-top, interactive remote analysis station which communicates with a central computing facility via telephone line, and provides for generation of land cover maps and data products via remote command.

  14. LANDSAT technology transfer to the private and public sectors through community colleges and other locally available institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The results achieved during the first eight months of a program to transfer LANDSAT technology to practicing professionals in the private and public sectors (grass roots) through community colleges and other locally available institutions are reported. The approach offers hands-on interactive analysis training and demonstrations through the use of color desktop computer terminals communicating with a host computer by telephone lines. The features of the terminals and associated training materials are reviewed together with plans for their use in training and demonstration projects.

  15. An Update on Analyzing Differences Between Public and Private Sector Information Resource Management: Strategic Information Challenges and Critical Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    ecommerce architecture is the business —it is the company’s competitive advantage. (Morgan, 1998:40) Morgan goes on to illustrate this point by...It Can Work in the Public Sector,” MIS Quarterly, Dec:435-448, 1990. Morgan, T.P. “ Ecommerce Options,” Global Technology Business , Sept:40-42...to focus on managing information resources and IT as a business , conducting performance reviews of these programs, and trying to change agency

  16. Socially-marketed rapid diagnostic tests and ACT in the private sector: ten years of experience in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Whilst some populations have recently experienced dramatic declines in malaria, the majority of those most at risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria still lack access to effective treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and others are already facing parasites resistant to artemisinins. In this context, there is a crucial need to improve both access to and targeting of ACT through greater availability of good quality ACT and parasitological diagnosis. This is an issue of increasing urgency notably in the private commercial sector, which, in many countries, plays an important role in the provision of malaria treatment. The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) is a recent initiative that aims to increase the provision of affordable ACT in public, private and NGO sectors through a manufacturer-level subsidy. However, to date, there is little documented experience in the programmatic implementation of subsidized ACT in the private sector. Cambodia is in the unique position of having more than 10 years of experience not only in implementing subsidized ACT, but also rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as part of a nationwide social marketing programme. The programme includes behaviour change communication and the training of private providers as well as the sale and distribution of Malarine, the recommended ACT, and Malacheck, the RDT. This paper describes and evaluates this experience by drawing on the results of household and provider surveys conducted since the start of the programme. The available evidence suggests that providers' and consumers' awareness of Malarine increased rapidly, but that of Malacheck much less so. In addition, improvements in ACT and RDT availability and uptake were relatively slow, particularly in more remote areas. The lack of standardization in the survey methods and the gaps in the data highlight the importance of establishing a clear system for monitoring and evaluation for similar initiatives. Despite these limitations, a

  17. The Introduction of Religious Charter Schools: A Cultural Movement in the Private School Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Marcia J. Harr; Cooper, Bruce S.

    2009-01-01

    Charter schools are opening, and religious associations are also sponsoring these schools since religious groups find private school tuitions to be high and prohibitive. This study includes studies of Tarek ibn Ziyad Academy, a Minnesota Arabic charter school (Blaine and Inver Grove Heights, MN); Ben Gamla Charter School, a Florida English-Hebrew…

  18. Cross-Sector Research Associated with Nutrition: Comparison of Private and Public Schools on Health Indicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Marco A.

    Healthy People 2010 is the initiative that defines the U.S. health agenda and guides policy. The initiative provides direction for individuals to change personal behaviors and for organizations and communities to support good health through health promotion policies. The objective of this research was to compare public and private schools on…

  19. The Private Sector Involvement in Literacy Efforts. Literacy: Meeting the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Lily; And Others

    The fourth of eight related documents, this booklet is part of a series of papers presented at the 1978 National Right to Read Conference examining issues and problems in literacy. In an examination of the role of private business in efforts to increase literacy, each of the three papers in this booklet discusses a specific program sponsored and…

  20. Reaching youth through franchise clinics: assessment of Kenyan private sector involvement in youth services.

    PubMed

    Decker, Martha; Montagu, Dominic

    2007-03-01

    This paper evaluates the ability of social franchise programs, which use private providers to offer reproductive health services, to provide services to youth in western Kenya. Although franchise clinics have rarely targeted youth, they appear to offer a viable alternative for providing reproductive health services to this age group.

  1. Impact of a Private Health Insurance Mandate on Public Sector Autism Service Use in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Bradley D.; Sorbero, Mark J.; Goswami, Upasna; Schuster, James; Leslie, Douglas L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Many states have implemented regulations (commonly referred to as waivers) to increase access to publicly insured services for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In recent years, several states have passed legislation requiring improved coverage for ASD services by private insurers. This study examines the impact of such legislation on…

  2. Assessing public and private sector contributions in reproductive health financing and utilization for six sub-Saharan African countries.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha; Snider, Jeremy; Ravishankar, Nirmala; Magvanjav, Oyunbileg

    2011-05-01

    The present study provides evidence to support enhanced attention to reproductive health and comprehensive measures to increase access to quality reproductive health services. We compare and contrast the financing and utilization of reproductive health services in six sub-Saharan African countries using data from National Health Accounts and Demographic and Health Surveys. Spending on reproductive health in 2006 ranged from US$4 per woman of reproductive age in Ethiopia to US$17 in Uganda. These are below the necessary level for assuring adequate services given that an internationally recommended spending level for family planning alone was US$16 for 2006. Moreover, reproductive health spending shows signs of decline in tandem with insufficient improvement in service utilization. Public providers played a predominant role in antenatal and delivery care for institutional births, but home deliveries with unqualified attendants dominated. The private sector was a major supplier of condoms, oral pills and IUDs. Private clinics, pharmacies and drug vendors were important sources of STI treatment. The findings highlight the need to commit greatly increased funding for reproductive health services as well as more policy attention to the contribution of public, private and informal providers and the role of collaboration among them to expand access to services for under-served populations.

  3. Private sector delivery of health services in developing countries: a mixed-methods study on quality assurance in social franchises

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Across the developing world health care services are most often delivered in the private sector and social franchising has emerged, over the past decade, as an increasingly popular method of private sector health care delivery. Social franchising aims to strengthen business practices through economies of scale: branding clinics and purchasing drugs in bulk at wholesale prices. While quality is one of the established goals of social franchising, there is no published documentation of how quality levels might be set in the context of franchised private providers, nor what quality assurance measures can or should exist within social franchises. The aim of this study was to better understand the quality assurance systems currently utilized in social franchises, and to determine if there are shared standards for practice or quality outcomes that exist across programs. Methods The study included three data sources and levels of investigation: 1) Self-reported program data; 2) Scoping telephone interviews; and 3) In-depth field interviews and clinic visits. Results Social Franchises conceive of quality assurance not as an independent activity, but rather as a goal that is incorporated into all areas of franchise operations, including recruitment, training, monitoring of provider performance, monitoring of client experience and the provision of feedback. Conclusions These findings are the first evidence to support the 2002 conceptual model of social franchising which proposed that the assurance of quality was one of the three core goals of all social franchises. However, while quality is important to franchise programs, quality assurance systems overall are not reflective of the evidence to-date on quality measurement or quality improvement best practices. Future research in this area is needed to better understand the details of quality assurance systems as applied in social franchise programs, the process by which quality assurance becomes a part of the

  4. Exploring the Effects of Managerial Ownership on the Decision to Go Private: A Behavioral Agency Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenti, Alix; Schneider, Marguerite

    2012-01-01

    This paper utilizes the behavioral agency model to investigate why many formerly public companies have been converted to privately held corporations. Using a matched pairs sample and categorical binary regression, and controlling for effects found in previous studies, we explore how the equity ownership of those entrusted to manage firms, the…

  5. 34 CFR 675.22 - Employment provided by a Federal, State, or local public agency, or a private nonprofit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION FEDERAL WORK-STUDY PROGRAMS Federal Work-Study Program § 675.22 Employment provided by a Federal... Federal, State, or local public agency, or a private nonprofit organization, the work that the student... work in the public interest to be work performed for the national or community welfare rather than...

  6. ‘Going private’: a qualitative comparison of medical specialists’ job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers more in decision

  7. Towards subsidized malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Lessons learned from programmes to subsidise artemisinin-based combination therapies in the private sector: a review

    PubMed Central

    Lussiana, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The idea of a private sector subsidy programme of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) was first proposed in 2004. Since then, several countries around the world have hosted pilot projects or programmes on subsidized ACTs and/or the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria programme (AMFm). Overall the private sector subsidy programmes of ACTs have been effective in increasing availability of ACTs in the private sector and driving down average prices but struggled to crowd out antimalarial monotherapies. The results obtained from this ambitious strategy should inform policy makers in the designing of future interventions aimed to control malaria morbidity and mortality. Among the interventions recently proposed, a subsidy of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in the private sector has been recommended by governments and international donors to cope with over-treatment with ACTs and to delay the emergence of resistance to artemisinin. In order to improve the cost-effectiveness of co-paid RDTs, we should build on the lessons we learned from almost 10 years of private sector subsidy programmes of ACTs in malaria-endemic countries. PMID:25862732

  8. Job satisfaction among nurses working in the private and public sectors: a qualitative study in tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Saima; Malik, Asmat Ullah; Kamran, Irum; Ramzan, Musarat

    2014-01-01

    Background Many low and middle income countries lack the human resources needed to deliver essential health interventions. A health care system with a limited number of nurses cannot function effectively. Although the recommended nurse to doctor ratio is 4:1, the ratio in Pakistan is reversed, with 2.7 doctors to one nurse. Methods A qualitative study using narrative analysis was undertaken in public and private tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan to examine and compare job satisfaction among nurses and understand the factors affecting their work climate. Interactive interviews were conducted with nurses working with inpatients and outpatients. Results All of the respondents had joined the profession by choice and were supported by their families in their decision to pursue their career, but now indicated that they were dissatisfied with their jobs. Three types of narratives were identified, namely, “Working in the spirit of serving humanity”, “Working against all odds”, and “Working in a functional system and facing pressures of increased accountability”. Nurses working in a public sector hospital are represented in the first two narrative types, whereas the third represents those working in a private sector hospital. The first narrative represents nurses who were new in the profession and despite hard working conditions were performing their duties. The second narrative represents nurses working in the public sector with limited resources, and the third narrative is a representation of nurses who were working hard and stressed out despite a well functioning system. Conclusion The study shows that the presence of a well trained health workforce is vital, and that certain aspects of its organization are key, including numbers (available quantity), skill mix (health team balance), distribution (urban/rural), and working conditions (compensation, nonfinancial incentives, and workplace safety). This study has identified the need to reform policies for

  9. 76 FR 81955 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... Information Collection Request: 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National... received must include the words ``Department of Homeland Security'' and the docket ] number for this...

  10. 77 FR 33227 - Assessment Questionnaire-IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... SECURITY Assessment Questionnaire--IP Sector Specific Agency Risk Self Assessment Tool (IP-SSARSAT) AGENCY... Information Collection Request, 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National... words ``Department of Homeland Security'' and the docket number for this action. Comments received...

  11. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making. PMID:27591203

  12. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a case study of the potential of public and private sector data in India and Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Berhanu, Della; Taddesse, Nolawi; Srivastava, Aradhana; Wickremasinghe, Deepthi; Schellenberg, Joanna; Iqbal Avan, Bilal

    2016-09-01

    Many low- and middle-income countries have pluralistic health systems where private for-profit and not-for-profit sectors complement the public sector: data shared across sectors can provide information for local decision-making. The third article in a series of four on district decision-making for health in low-income settings, this study shows the untapped potential of existing data through documenting the nature and type of data collected by the public and private health systems, data flow and sharing, use and inter-sectoral linkages in India and Ethiopia. In two districts in each country, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrators and data managers to understand the type of data maintained and linkages with other sectors in terms of data sharing, flow and use. We created a database of all data elements maintained at district level, categorized by form and according to the six World Health Organization health system blocks. We used content analysis to capture the type of data available for different health system levels. Data flow in the public health sectors of both counties is sequential, formal and systematic. Although multiple sources of data exist outside the public health system, there is little formal sharing of data between sectors. Though not fully operational, Ethiopia has better developed formal structures for data sharing than India. In the private and public sectors, health data in both countries are collected in all six health system categories, with greatest focus on service delivery data and limited focus on supplies, health workforce, governance and contextual information. In the Indian private sector, there is a better balance than in the public sector of data across the six categories. In both India and Ethiopia the majority of data collected relate to maternal and child health. Both countries have huge potential for increased use of health data to guide district decision-making.

  13. Standards Are Good (For) Business: Standardised Comparison and the Private Sector in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita

    2016-01-01

    The article examines how and why the method of "comparison against standards" has benefited non-state actors and businesses in the education sector. Drawing on brief examples from international standard schools in Qatar, Indonesia and Mongolia, the author examines how the global education industry uses the reference to…

  14. Stratification and the Emergence of the Postsecondary Private Education Sector in Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyette, Kimberly Ann

    2012-01-01

    Vietnam has a strong public postsecondary education sector that has only recently begun to experience growth in nonpublic institutions. I investigate how the growth of nonpublic institutions may be related to stratification in Vietnam. I find that these institutions are more likely to serve more advantaged students from South Vietnam. Students pay…

  15. 23 CFR 636.107 - May contracting agencies use geographic preference in Federal-aid design-build or public-private...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May contracting agencies use geographic preference in Federal-aid design-build or public-private partnership projects? 636.107 Section 636.107 Highways FEDERAL... or public-private partnership projects? No. Contracting agencies must not use geographic...

  16. 23 CFR 636.107 - May contracting agencies use geographic preference in Federal-aid design-build or public-private...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May contracting agencies use geographic preference in Federal-aid design-build or public-private partnership projects? 636.107 Section 636.107 Highways FEDERAL... or public-private partnership projects? No. Contracting agencies must not use geographic...

  17. Access to subsidized artemether-lumefantrine from the private sector among febrile children in rural setting in Kilosa, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Simba, Daudi; Kakoko, Deodatus

    2012-04-01

    The World Health Organization aims at universal access to effective antimalarial treatment by the year 2015. Consequently, an enormous financial resource has been invested on Artemisinin Combination Therapy (ACT) subsidy. In Tanzania, strategies to increase access of artemether-lumufantrine (ALu) rural areas, where the burden is highest, includes subsidy to the Faith-based Organisations (FBO) facilities and accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs). This study was done to assess the extent to which children suffering from malaria access ALu from the private sector in rural areas. A total of 1,235 under fives randomly selected from 12 rural villages were followed up at home on weekly basis for six months in Kilosa district in 2008. Using a structured questionnaire, caretakers were interviewed about the child's history of fever in the past 7 days; type of treatment given and the source. Baseline data were obtained on demographic characteristics, caretakers' knowledge about malaria and social economic indicators of the household. Of the 1,235 children followed-up, 740 care-seeking visits were recorded, of which, 264 (35.7%) were made at government health facilities and nearly a quarter (24.1%; 178/740) at ordinary shops that sell general merchandize including rice and sugar. Only 22% of the caretakers sought care from FBO and ADDOs. While 686 (86.6%) of the episodes were treated with antimalarials, only 319 (43%) received ALu, the recommended antimalarial. Majority (83%) of the visits made at government facilities were prescribed with ALu compared to less than half who went to FBO facilities (40.0%) and ADDOs (25.0%). In conclusion, this study has shown that less than a quarter of fever episodes suspected to be malaria in rural areas were made at FBO facilities and ADDOs, of which, less than half were treated with ALu. This shows that ALu subsidy to formal private sector does not adequately reach children in rural areas, where the malaria burden is highest. This cast

  18. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  19. Adequate Compensation for a Permanent Change of Station Move: A Study Comparing the Policies of the Military, Civil Service, and Private Sector.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    home for five days while their household goods are packed and picked up, the house is cleaned by a professional cleaning service, and a final inspection ...OF THE MILITARY, CIVIL SERVICE, AND PRIVATE SECTOR by Gregory Lee Hansen __. and __ Dwight Warner Handforth March 1980 L LJ Thesis Advisor: EA. Finnkp...Change o Masr esis Station Mrove: A Study cmpaing the Policiesarh1 of the Military, Civil Service, and Private a. PROMISNG 00G. REPORT uU6860 6. CONTRACT

  20. What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces: A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Private-Sector Employers Understand the Nontechnical Skills Taught in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    related terms: demonstrating concern for others, demonstrating insight into behavior, oral communication , intercultural skills): Works well with...What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Private-Sector Employers Understand the Nontechnical Skills Taught in...COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces : A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Private

  1. Is healthcare a 'Necessity' or 'Luxury'? an empirical evidence from public and private sector analyses of South-East Asian countries?

    PubMed

    Khan, Jahangir Am; Mahumud, Rashidul Alam

    2015-01-01

    South-East Asian Regional (SEAR) countries range from low- to middle-income countries and have considerable differences in mix of public and private sector expenditure on health. This study intends to estimate the income-elasticities of healthcare expenditure in public and private sectors separately for investigating whether healthcare is a 'necessity' or 'luxury' for citizens of these countries. Panel data from 9 SEAR countries over 16 years (1995-2010) were employed. Fixed- and random-effect models were fitted to estimate income-elasticity of public, private and total healthcare expenditure. Results showed that one percent point increase in GDP per capita increased private expenditure on healthcare by 1.128%, while public expenditure increased by only 0.412%. Inclusion of three-year lagged variables of GDP per capita in the models did not have remarkable influence on the findings. The citizens of SEAR countries consider healthcare as a necessity while provided through public sector and a luxury when delivered by private sector. By increasing the public provisions of healthcare, more redistribution of healthcare resources can be ensured, which can accelerate the journey of SEAR countries towards universal health coverage.

  2. Reform of Budgeting for Acquisition: Lessons from Private Sector Capital Budgeting for the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    equipment, real estate , etc.” (http://www.investorwords.com). Since cash can be classified as a “benefit” to the private firm, one can combine the two...O T M L P F MS A Analysis of Materiel Approaches Demo Demo Demo AoA Technology Development DABJROC JROC Increment 3 Increment 1 MS B MS C MS B MS B...MS C MS C - Materiel - Process DOTLPF Process Functional Area Analysis Functional Area Functional Concept Integrated Architecture Overarching Policy

  3. Use of net present value analysis to evaluate a publicly funded biomass-to-ethanol research, development, and demonstration program and valuate expected private sector participation.

    PubMed

    Hinman, N D; Yancey, M A

    1998-01-01

    One of the functions of government is to invest tax dollars in programs, projects, and properties that will result in greater public benefit than would have resulted from leaving the tax dollars in the private sector or using them to pay off the public debt. This paper describes the use of Net Present Value (NPV) as an approach to analyze and select investment opportunities for government money in public research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) programs and to evaluate potential private sector participation in the programs. This approach is then applied to a specific biomass-to-ethanol opportunity in California.

  4. Improved Childhood Diarrhea Treatment Practices in Ghana: A Pre-Post Evaluation of a Comprehensive Private-Sector Program

    PubMed Central

    El-Khoury, Marianne; Banke, Kathryn; Sloane, Phoebe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diarrhea is the fourth leading cause of child mortality in Ghana. In 2010, Ghana endorsed guidelines from the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund for use of zinc with low-osmolarity oral rehydration salts (ORS) for the treatment of acute childhood diarrhea. From late 2011 through 2014, the Strengthening Health Outcomes through the Private Sector (SHOPS) project implemented a comprehensive program in 3 regions of Ghana to increase the availability and use of ORS and zinc and to decrease incorrect use of antibiotics and antidiarrheals. The program included (1) partnering with local pharmaceutical firms to introduce and market locally produced zinc products, (2) collaborating with the Ghanaian Pharmacy Council to provide training and supportive supervision of private-sector providers on diarrhea management, and (3) conducting mass media campaigns to raise caregiver awareness. We evaluated the effect of this program using a baseline survey of 754 caregivers of children under 5 with diarrhea at the start of the intervention in 2012 and a follow-up survey of 751 caregivers in 2014. Regression analysis showed that use of ORS with zinc increased from 0.8% in 2012 to 29.2% in 2014 (P<.001), and antibiotic use declined from 66.2% to 38.2% (P<.001) during the same period. The magnitude and statistical significance of these results remained the same after including potential confounding factors as covariates. Inappropriate antibiotic use, however, remained high at follow-up. We conclude that similar programs applied in other settings have the potential to rapidly scale up use of ORS and zinc. Additional efforts are required to reduce persistent incorrect antibiotic use. PMID:27353619

  5. 75 FR 80082 - State, Local, Tribal, And Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... executive branch officials on all matters concerning the policies relating to access to and safeguarding of... meeting will be open to the public. However, due to space limitations and access procedures, the name and... Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC) AGENCY: Information Security Oversight Office, National...

  6. Ethics in public health research: masters of marketing: bringing private sector skills to public health partnerships.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie A; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-04-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships.

  7. A combined nurse-pharmacist managed pain clinic: joint venture of public and private sectors.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Briggs, Michelle; Closs, S José

    2012-02-01

    Chronic pain has become one of the most prevalent problems in primary care. The management of chronic pain is complex and often requires a multidisciplinary approach. The limited capacity of general practitioners to manage chronic pain and long waiting time for secondary care referrals further add to the complexity of chronic pain management. Restricted financial and skilled human capital make it hard for healthcare systems across the world to establish and maintain multidisciplinary pain clinics, in spite of their documented effectiveness. Affordability and accessibility to such multidisciplinary pain clinics is often problematic for patients. The purpose of this paper is to share our experience and relevant research evidence of a community based combined nurse-pharmacist managed pain clinic. The pain clinic serves as an example of public-private partnership in healthcare.

  8. Energy drinks consumption practices among medical students of a Private sector University of Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Usman, Asma; Bhombal, Swaleha Tariq; Jawaid, Ambreen; Zaki, Samar

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has become popular among students and athletes over the past few years. To explore the phenomenon, a cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered pilot-tested questionnaire. Frequency of energy drinks consumption was found to be 121(52%) in a sample of 233 medical students. Red bull was the most common brand consumed 101(43%). The major reasons reported for its usage were to gain/replenish energy by 36(15.4%), and studying for examination by 34(14.6%). Television was reported as the major source of information 153(66%) followed by friends 113(48%). There was a high frequency of energy drinks' consumption among medical students of a private university. There is a strong need to create awareness regarding these drinks, especially among adolescents and teenagers.

  9. Private Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Brian T., Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the expanding role of the rehabilitation counselor into private sector rehabilitation in the seven articles of this special issue. Topics cover private rehabilitation in an insurance context including forensics issues, computer applications, recent trends, services in a multiprogram private clinic, and rehabilitation counselor training.…

  10. Innovative health service delivery models in low and middle income countries - what can we learn from the private sector?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The poor in low and middle income countries have limited access to health services due to limited purchasing power, residence in underserved areas, and inadequate health literacy. This produces significant gaps in health care delivery among a population that has a disproportionately large burden of disease. They frequently use the private health sector, due to perceived or actual gaps in public services. A subset of private health organizations, some called social enterprises, have developed novel approaches to increase the availability, affordability and quality of health care services to the poor through innovative health service delivery models. This study aims to characterize these models and identify areas of innovation that have led to effective provision of care for the poor. Methods An environmental scan of peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted to select exemplars of innovation. A case series of organizations was then purposively sampled to maximize variation. These cases were examined using content analysis and constant comparison to characterize their strategies, focusing on business processes. Results After an initial sample of 46 studies, 10 case studies of exemplars were developed spanning different geography, disease areas and health service delivery models. These ten organizations had innovations in their marketing, financing, and operating strategies. These included approaches such a social marketing, cross-subsidy, high-volume, low cost models, and process reengineering. They tended to have a narrow clinical focus, which facilitates standardizing processes of care, and experimentation with novel delivery models. Despite being well-known, information on the social impact of these organizations was variable, with more data on availability and affordability and less on quality of care. Conclusions These private sector organizations demonstrate a range of innovations in health service delivery that have the potential to better

  11. The Quasi Government: Hybrid Organizations with Both Government and Private Sector Legal Characteristics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-18

    Government,” in Lester M. Salamon , ed., The Tools of Government: A Guide to the New Governance (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), pp. 490-511. 14 In...that it was an agency of the United States operating under the general management laws enforced by the President. These values, originating with the... Social Security Administration (SSA), recently made independent of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). “Few if any putative benefits from

  12. Policies to Spur Energy Access. Executive Summary; Volume 1, Engaging the Private Sector in Expanding Access to Electricity; Volume 2, Case Studies to Public-Private Models to Finance Decentralized Electricity Access

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Terri; Rai, Neha; Esterly, Sean; Cox, Sadie; Reber, Tim; Muzammil, Maliha; Mahmood, Tasfiq; Kaur, Nanki; Tesfaye, Lidya; Mamuye, Simret; Knuckles, James; Morris, Ellen; de Been, Merijn; Steinbach, Dave; Acharya, Sunil; Chhetri, Raju Pandit; Bhushal, Ramesh

    2015-09-01

    Government policy is one of the most important factors in engaging the private sector in providing universal access to electricity. In particular, the private sector is well positioned to provide decentralized electricity products and services. While policy uncertainty and regulatory barriers can keep enterprises and investors from engaging in the market, targeted policies can create opportunities to leverage private investment and skills to expand electricity access. However, creating a sustainable market requires policies beyond traditional electricity regulation. The report reviews the range of policy issues that impact the development and expansion of a market for decentralized electricity services from establishing an enabling policy environment to catalyzing finance, building human capacity, and integrating energy access with development programs. The case studies in this report show that robust policy frameworks--addressing a wide range of market issues--can lead to rapid transformation in energy access. The report highlights examples of these policies in action Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Mali, Mexico, and Nepal.

  13. The Relationship among Training Policy, Knowledge Transfer, and Performance Improvement: A Study of Private Sector Organizations in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafloot, Fayez M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore human resource (HR) managers' perceptions of training practices (i.e., needs assessment, trainee preparation, training program review, accountability, management support, knowledge transfer, and performance improvement) in Saudi private sector organizations. The research questions were: (1) How do HR…

  14. Landsat Technology Transfer to the Private and Public Sectors through Community Colleges and Other Locally Available Institutions, Phase II Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Robert H.

    In 1979, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) initiated a program to investigate methods of making Landsat (satellite imagery) technology available to private sector firms through a network comprising NASA, a university or research institute, local community colleges,…

  15. Public and Private Agri-Environmental Regulation in Post-Socialist Economies: Evidence from the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorton, Matthew; Zaric, Vlade; Lowe, Philip; Quarrie, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Using primary survey data and interview evidence this paper analyses the implementation and enforcement of public and private environmental regulation in the Serbian Fresh Fruit and Vegetable (FFV) sector. This provides a basis for engaging in a wider debate on the nature of agri-food regulation in post-socialist economies. Depictions of the…

  16. The Capitalistic Function of Education-Directed Social Responsibility Projects in Turkey within the Context of Relationships between the Private Sector and NGOs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicakci, Ilker C.

    2008-01-01

    Similar to other underdeveloped countries, the Republic of Turkey is also faced with high levels of poverty and unemployment, and to ameliorate these problems the state has traditionally devoted much of its social welfare efforts towards improving health and education. Certain private sector corporations also recognize that to grow and advance…

  17. The Politics of School Choice in Two Countries with Large Private-Dependent Sectors (Spain and Chile): Family Strategies, Collective Action and Lobbying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambla, Xavier; Valiente, Oscar; Frias, Carla

    2011-01-01

    In many countries choice of school is an increasing concern for families and governments. In Spain and Chile, it is also associated with a long-standing political cleavage on the regulation of large sectors of private-dependent schools. This article analyses both the micro- and the macro-politics of choice in these two countries, where low-status…

  18. Program on stimulating operational private sector use of Earth observation satellite information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastwood, L. F., Jr.; Foshage, J.; Gomez, G.; Kirkpatrick, B.; Konig, B.; Stein, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Ideas for new businesses specializing in using remote sensing and computerized spatial data systems were developd. Each such business serves as an 'information middleman', buying raw satellite or aircraft imagery, processing these data, combining them in a computer system with customer-specific information, and marketing the resulting information products. Examples of the businesses the project designed are: (1) an agricultural facility site evaluation firm; (2) a mass media grocery price and supply analyst and forecaster; (3) a management service for privately held woodlots; (4) a brokerage for insulation and roofing contractors, based on infrared imagery; (5) an expanded real estate information service. In addition, more than twenty-five other commercially attractive ideas in agribusiness, forestry, mining, real estate, urban planning and redevelopment, and consumer information were created. The commercial feasibility of the five business was assessed. This assessment included market surveys, revenue projections, cost analyses, and profitability studies. The results show that there are large and enthusiastic markets willing to pay for the services these businesses offer, and that the businesses could operate profitably.

  19. Comparing private sector family planning services to government and NGO services in Ethiopia and Pakistan: how do social franchises compare across quality, equity and cost?

    PubMed

    Shah, Nirali M; Wang, Wenjuan; Bishai, David M

    2011-07-01

    Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-government organization (NGO) providers; and (4) government providers on these three factors. Franchised private clinics have higher quality than non-franchised private clinics in both countries. In Pakistan, the costs per client and the proportion of poorest clients showed no differences between franchised and non-franchised private clinics, whereas in Ethiopia, franchised clinics had higher costs and fewer clients from the poorest quintile. Our results highlight that there are trade-offs between access, cost and quality of care that must be balanced as competing priorities. The relative programme performance of various service arrangements on each metric will be context specific.

  20. Comparing private sector family planning services to government and NGO services in Ethiopia and Pakistan: how do social franchises compare across quality, equity and cost?

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nirali M; Wang, Wenjuan; Bishai, David M

    2011-01-01

    Policy makers in developing countries need to assess how public health programmes function across both public and private sectors. We propose an evaluation framework to assist in simultaneously tracking performance on efficiency, quality and access by the poor in family planning services. We apply this framework to field data from family planning programmes in Ethiopia and Pakistan, comparing (1) independent private sector providers; (2) social franchises of private providers; (3) non-government organization (NGO) providers; and (4) government providers on these three factors. Franchised private clinics have higher quality than non-franchised private clinics in both countries. In Pakistan, the costs per client and the proportion of poorest clients showed no differences between franchised and non-franchised private clinics, whereas in Ethiopia, franchised clinics had higher costs and fewer clients from the poorest quintile. Our results highlight that there are trade-offs between access, cost and quality of care that must be balanced as competing priorities. The relative programme performance of various service arrangements on each metric will be context specific. PMID:21729919

  1. Public-Private Sector Collaboration in Education: Implications for Research, Policy, and the Education of Professional Educators. Proceedings of the Annual Rupert N. Evans Symposium (10th, Urbana, Illinois, May 2-3, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, L. Allen, Ed.; Thurston, Paul W., Ed.

    These proceedings contain 11 papers that examine several diverse collaborative efforts designed to improve education and training programs through substantive involvement of the private sector. Authors and titles are as follows: "Public-Private Sector Collaboration in Education: Implications for Research, Policy, and the Education of Professional…

  2. Private-public sector co-operation to improve pesticide safety standards in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ellis, W W

    1998-01-01

    This paper draws on the author's experiences of the pilot phase of the Safe Use Project (SUP) in Thailand; this project is a part of a major GIFAP initiative carried out in some developing countries. The SUP's objectives were; i) to raise awareness and compliance in the safe handling and storage of pesticides within the industry, the medical profession and the end-users; ii) to reduce the incidence of pesticide poisoning; iii) to protect the environment; iiii) to help relevant government agencies with resources, expertise and training. To achieve those objectives, the SUP used local-language training resources, provided basic training, lobbied for changes in governmental policies and regulations, and acted as a focal point for pesticide safety-related information. The SUP targeted the whole distribution chain, from importer/formulator, through to the endusers. Also medical profession, teachers and school students were targeted. On the base of independent audit and surveys, a general improvement in awareness has been shown within targeted groups; a longer time frame is required to detect meaningful changes in farmer practice. The SUP key programmes have been: I) training of trainers, retailers and farmers; II) schools programme; III) medical training; IV) protective clothing; V) industry standards; VI) model farm. The main conclusions of the pilot phase were: i) pesticide safety needs to be addressed by all concerned agencies in a joint effort; ii) a rural development perspective must be adopted in improving pesticide safety; iii) integrated pest management training programmes must include precautionary advice for proper handling, use and disposal of pesticides, wherever these are necessary.

  3. Future projections of insured losses in the German private building sector following the A1B climatic change scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, H.; Gerstengarbe, F.-W.; Hattermann, F.; Pinto, J. G.; Ulbrich, U.; Böhm, U.; Born, K.; Büchner, M.; Donat, M. G.; Kücken, M.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Nissen, K.; Nocke, T.; Österle, H.; Pardowitz, T.; Werner, P. C.; Burghoff, O.; Broecker, U.; Kubik, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present an overview of a complementary-approaches impact project dealing with the consequences of climate change for the natural hazard branch of the insurance industry in Germany. The project was conducted by four academic institutions together with the German Insurance Association (GDV) and finalized in autumn 2011. A causal chain is modeled that goes from global warming projections over regional meteorological impacts to regional economic losses for private buildings, hereby fully covering the area of Germany. This presentation will focus on wind storm related losses, although the method developed had also been applied in part to hail and flood impact losses. For the first time, the GDV supplied their collected set of insurance cases, dating back for decades, for such an impact study. These data were used to calibrate and validate event-based damage functions which in turn were driven by three different types of regional climate models to generate storm loss projections. The regional models were driven by a triplet of ECHAM5 experiments following the A1B scenario which were found representative in the recent ENSEMBLES intercomparison study. In our multi-modeling approach we used two types of regional climate models that conceptually differ at maximum: a dynamical model (CCLM) and a statistical model based on the idea of biased bootstrapping (STARS). As a third option we pursued a hybrid approach (statistical-dynamical downscaling). For the assessment of climate change impacts, the buildings' infrastructure and their economic value is kept at current values. For all three approaches, a significant increase of average storm losses and extreme event return levels in the German private building sector is found for future decades assuming an A1B-scenario. However, the three projections differ somewhat in terms of magnitude and regional differentiation. We have developed a formalism that allows us to express the combined effect of multi-source uncertainty on return

  4. Understanding Private Sector Antimalarial Distribution Chains: A Cross-Sectional Mixed Methods Study in Six Malaria-Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Palafox, Benjamin; Patouillard, Edith; Tougher, Sarah; Goodman, Catherine; Hanson, Kara; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Rueda, Sergio Torres; Kiefer, Sabine; O’Connell, Kathryn A.; Zinsou, Cyprien; Phok, Sochea; Akulayi, Louis; Arogundade, Ekundayo; Buyungo, Peter; Mpasela, Felton; Chavasse, Desmond

    2014-01-01

    antimalarial supply sources. Conclusions The structure and characteristics of antimalarial distribution chains vary across countries; therefore, understanding the wholesalers that comprise them should inform efforts aiming to improve access to quality treatment through the private sector. PMID:24699934

  5. Psychosocial Risk Factors and Musculoskeletal Symptoms among White and Blue-collar Workers at Private and Public Sectors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate musculoskeletal and psychosocial perception and compare these conditions regarding the type of job (white or blue-collar) and the type of management model (private or public). Methods Forty-seven public white-collar (PuWC), 84 private white-collar (PrWC) and 83 blue-collar workers (PrBC) were evaluated. Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) were applied to evaluate psychosocial factors. Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was used to assess musculoskeletal symptoms. Pressure Pain Threshold (PPT) was measured to evaluate sensory responses. Results According to JCQ, all groups were classified as active profile. There was a significant association between work engagement and workers’ categories (p < 0.05). PrWC workers had the highest scores for all the UWES domains, while PrBC had the lowest ones. PPT showed that PrBC workers had an increased sensitivity for left deltoid (p < 0.01), and for both epicondyles (p < 0.01), when compared to the other groups. PrWC workers had an increased sensitivity for both epicondyles than PuWC (right p < 0.01; left, p = 0.05). There was no significant association in the report of symptoms across the groups (p > 0.05). Conclusion This study showed differences in psychosocial risk factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in workers engaged in different types of jobs and work organization. Personal and work-related characteristics, psychosocial factors and PPT responses were different across workers’ group. Despite all, there was no significant difference in reported symptoms across the groups, possibly indicating that the physical load is similar among the sectors. PMID:25854836

  6. Transferring building energy technologies by linking government and private-sector programs

    SciTech Connect

    Farhar, B.C.

    1990-07-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) may wish to use existing networks and infrastructures wherever possible to transfer energy-efficiency technologies for buildings. The advantages of relying on already existing networks are numerous. These networks have in place mechanisms for reaching audiences interested in energy-efficiency technologies in buildings. Because staffs in trade and professional organizations and in state and local programs have responsibilities for brokering information for their members or client organizations, they are open to opportunities to improve their performance in information transfer. OBT, as an entity with primarily R D functions, is, by cooperating with other programs, spared the necessity of developing an extensive technology transfer program of its own, thus reinventing the wheel.'' Instead, OBT can minimize its investment in technology transfer by relying extensively on programs and networks already in place. OBT can work carefully with staff in other organizations to support and facilitate their efforts at information transfer and getting energy-efficiency tools and technologies into actual use. Consequently, representatives of some 22 programs and organizations were contacted, and face-to-face conversations held, to explore what the potential might be for transferring technology by linking with OBT. The briefs included in this document were derived from the discussions, the newly published Directory of Energy Efficiency Information Services for the Residential and Commercial Sectors, and other sources provided by respondents. Each brief has been sent to persons contacted for their review and comment one or more times, and each has been revised to reflect the review comments.

  7. Charging of the Electric Vehicles in Private Sector: Technical and Economic Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grackova, L.; Oleinikova, I.; Klavs, G.

    2014-12-01

    The economic aspect considered in the work is related to the charging of an electric vehicle (EV) at a single private house when this is done every day. To perform the relevant cost estimation it was necessary to determine: the average annual electricity consumption under the condition of everyday charging an EV and the average electricity consumption off the mains for covering a distance of 100 km by an EV and the time in hours for its charging. Comparison is made for the day-time intervals from which it is possible to choose the preferable for proper loading the electric line and the most beneficial for the consumer. Under analysis are two EV connection scenarios for 100 individual households from which 10%, 20% and 30% have EVs, with 8-h duration of each charging at the current of 13A. The authors consider the consumption and electric energy payment packages which - with planned opening of the electric energy market on January 1, 2015 - will offer the clients the enterprises rendering services on the electric energy sale. Šajā rakstā tiek analizēts vidējais diennakts elektroenerģijas patēriņš un diennakts slodzes grafiki privātmājās apstākļos, kad privātmājas īpašnieki lādē elektroautomobili katru dienu vidējam brauciena attālumam 100 km. Elektroautomobiļa uzlādes režīmi tiek analizēti, ņemot vērā patēriņa elektriskās slodzes grafika kvalitāti raksturojošos rādītājus un patērētāja ekonomiskos ieguvumus. Lai novērtētu ekonomiski stimulētu patērētāju elektroautomobiļa uzlādes laika izvēles ietekmi uz diennakts elektriskās slodzes aizpildījuma koeficientu, tika izveidoti un analizēti 2 scenāriji, kas apraksta 100 privātmāju ar dažādu elektroautomobiļu piederības īpatsvaru divas atšķirīgas automobiļu uzlādes gadījumus.

  8. Socio-economic and ethnic group inequities in antenatal care quality in the public and private sector in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victora, CG; Matijasevich, A; Silveira, MF; Santos, IS; Barros, AJD; Barros, FC

    2010-01-01

    Background Socio-economic inequalities in maternal and child health are ubiquitous, but limited information is available on how much the quality of care varies according to wealth or ethnicity in low- and middle-income countries. Also, little information exists on quality differences between public and private providers. Methods Quality of care for women giving birth in 2004 in Pelotas, Brazil, was assessed by measuring how many of 11 procedures recommended by the Ministry of Health were performed. Information on family income, self-assessed skin colour, parity and type of provider were collected. Results Antenatal care was used by 98% of the 4244 women studied (mean number of visits 8.3), but the number of consultations was higher among better-off and white women, who were also more likely to start antenatal care in the first trimester. The quality of antenatal care score ranged from 0 to 11, with an overall mean of 8.3 (SD 1.7). Mean scores were 8.9 (SD 1.5) in the wealthiest and 7.9 (SD 1.8) in the poorest quintiles (P < 0.001), 8.4 (SD 1.6) in white and 8.1 (SD 1.9) in black women (P < 0.001). Adjusted analyses showed that these differences seemed to be due to attendance patterns rather than discrimination. Mean quality scores were higher in the private 9.3 (SD 1.3) than in the public sector 8.1 (SD 1.6) (P < 0.001); these differences were not explained by maternal characteristics or by attendance patterns. Conclusions Special efforts must be made to improve quality of care in the public sector. Poor and black women should be actively encouraged to start antenatal care early in pregnancy so that they can fully benefit from it. There is a need for regular monitoring of antenatal attendances and quality of care with an equity lens, in order to assess how different social groups are benefiting from progress in health care. PMID:20123940

  9. Choices and utilization in dental care: Public vs. private dental sectors, and the impact of a two-channel financed health care system.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Lien; Häkkinen, Unto

    2006-06-01

    We examine the determinants of the utilization of dentists' services among adults entitled to age-based subsidized dental care, using data from the Finnish Health Care Survey of 1996. We apply a three-part model to investigate the care-seeking decision, the choice of a private/public dentist, and the number of visits to each chosen dentist. Seeking care is found to be determined mainly by dentist's recall and mostly deterred by the expense of private care. Insufficient public availability and recall positively affect the choice of a private dentist, whereas income and dentist density increase the number of private visits. Need and socioeconomic variables are controlled for and are also important determinants. The findings suggest that lowering copayments and user fees and increasing the public supply of dental care, accompanied by an efficient recall system, might improve access to dental care and better steer the choice between sectors.

  10. Practitioner perspectives matter: Public policy and private investment in the U.S. electric power sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    This dissertation examines the influence of attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of energy industry practitioners on investment decision-making with regard to fuel choice for new electric power plants. The conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and an extensive online survey I conducted of 600-800 energy professionals in the U.S. power sector. Chapter 1 analyzes the impact of policy uncertainty on investment decision-making in renewable energy, using the federal production tax credit (PTC) and wind energy investment as an example. It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the PTC causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the U.S. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. The widely held belief that the severe downturn in investment during "off" years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC turns out to be unsubstantiated: this chapter demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during "off" years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. This suggests that reducing regulatory uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from my survey, various alternative policy incentives are considered and compared in terms of their perceived reliability for supporting long-term investment. Chapter 2 introduces the concept of expected payment of carbon as a factor in investment decision-making. The notion of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under potential climate change policy) is usually incorporated into

  11. The New Zealand framework for government and private sector research, and its operation with respect to the upstream petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Beggs, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    The New Zealand government has replaced its science bureaucracy with ten Crown Research Institutes, which are structured as government-owned limited-liability companies. Government research funding is allocated by a Foundation, while a small Ministry has been retained to deal exclusively with science policy. As a Crown Research Institute, the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences gains approximately 70% of its revenues from contracts with the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology, and the remainder from a wide range of consultancy services to several industries. Petroleum exploration and development is a particular focus, and applied research and consultancy activities in basin analysis, source rock and reservoir systems, thermal modelling etc. are underpinned by research programmes in related fundamental areas such as paleontology and deep crustal structure. Situated on an active plate boundary with a complex configuration and history of development, New Zealand serves as a natural laboratory in which to develop and test models of deformation and depositional systems. The Institute`s private-sector research funding, in many cases in collaboration with international partners, addresses such topics as Quaternary sequence stratigraphy, deep-water depositional systems, basin thermal modelling and charge prediction (including distribution of inert gases). The results of this research are applicable world-wide. Insights from active tectonic and depositional processes in New Zealand improve the effectiveness of exploration and development in older or less understood basins which have developed in complex subduction and strike-slip tectonic settings.

  12. Psychosocial safety climate, emotional demands, burnout, and depression: a longitudinal multilevel study in the Malaysian private sector.

    PubMed

    Idris, Mohd Awang; Dollard, Maureen F; Yulita

    2014-07-01

    This multilevel longitudinal study investigates a newly identified climate construct, psychosocial safety climate (PSC), as a precursor to job characteristics (e.g., emotional demands), and psychological outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion and depression). We argued that PSC, as an organizational climate construct, has cross-level effects on individually perceived job design and psychological outcomes. We hypothesized a mediation process between PSC and emotional exhaustion particularly through emotional demands. In sequence, we predicted that emotional exhaustion would predict depression. At Time 1, data were collected from employees in 36 Malaysian private sector organizations (80% responses rate), n = 253 (56%), and at Time 2 from 27 organizations (60%) and n = 117 (46%). Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), we found that there were cross-level effects of PSC Time 1 on emotional demands Time 2 and emotional exhaustion Time 2, but not on depression Time 2, across a 3-month time lag. We found evidence for a lagged mediated effect; emotional demands mediated the relationship between PSC and emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion did not predict depression. Finally, our results suggest that PSC is an important organizational climate construct, and acts to reduce employee psychological problems in the workplace, via working conditions.

  13. Old ways, new means: tobacco industry funding of academic and private sector scientists since the Master Settlement Agreement

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Suzaynn F; Glantz, Stanton A

    2007-01-01

    When, as a condition of the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998, US tobacco companies disbanded the Council for Tobacco Research and the Center for Indoor Air Research, they lost a vital connection to scientists in academia and the private sector. The aim of this paper was to investigate two new research projects funded by US tobacco companies by analysis of internal tobacco industry documents now available at the University of California San Francisco (San Francisco, California, USA) Legacy tobacco documents library, other websites and the open scientific literature. Since the MSA, individual US tobacco companies have replaced their industry‐wide collaborative granting organisations with new, individual research programmes. Philip Morris has funded a directed research project through the non‐profit Life Sciences Research Office, and British American Tobacco and its US subsidiary Brown and Williamson have funded the non‐profit Institute for Science and Health. Both of these organisations have downplayed or concealed their true level of involvement with the tobacco industry. Both organisations have key members with significant and long‐standing financial relationships with the tobacco industry. Regulatory officials and policy makers need to be aware that the studies these groups publish may not be as independent as they seem. PMID:17565125

  14. Review of private sector and Department of Energy treatment, storage, and disposal capabilities for low-level and mixed low-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, R.A.; Ball, L.W.; Mousseau, J.D.; Piper, R.B.

    1996-03-01

    Private sector capacity for treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) of various categories of radioactive waste has been researched and reviewed for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company, the primary contractor for the INEL. The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to the INEL and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in determining if private sector capabilities exist for those waste streams that currently cannot be handled either on site or within the DOE complex. The survey of private sector vendors was limited to vendors currently capable of, or expected within the next five years to be able to perform one or more of the following services: low-level waste (LLW) volume reduction, storage, or disposal; mixed LLW treatment, storage, or disposal; alpha-contaminated mixed LLW treatment; LLW decontamination for recycling, reclamation, or reuse; laundering of radioactively-contaminated laundry and/or respirators; mixed LLW treatability studies; mixed LLW treatment technology development. Section 2.0 of this report will identify the approach used to modify vendor information from previous revisions of this report. It will also illustrate the methodology used to identify any additional companies. Section 3.0 will identify, by service, specific vendor capabilities and capacities. Because this document will be used to identify private sector vendors that may be able to handle DOE LLW and mixed LLW streams, it was decided that current DOE capabilities should also be identified. This would encourage cooperation between DOE sites and the various states and, in some instances, may result in a more cost-effective alternative to privatization. The DOE complex has approximately 35 sites that generate the majority of both LLW and mixed LLW. Section 4.0 will identify these sites by Operations Office, and their associated LLW and mixed LLW TSD units.

  15. A literature review: the role of the private sector in the production of nurses in India, Kenya, South Africa and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The demand for nurses is growing and has not yet been met in most developing countries, including India, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand. Efforts to increase the capacity for production of professional nurses, equitable distribution and better retention have been given high strategic priority. This study examines the supply of, demand for, and policy environment of private nurse production in four selected countries. Methods A scoping systematic review was undertaken to assess the evidence for the role of private sector involvement in the production of nurses in India, Kenya, South Africa, and Thailand. An electronic database search was performed, and grey literature was also captured from the websites of Human Resources for Health (HRH)-related organizations and networks. The articles were reviewed and selected according to relevancy. Results The review found that despite very different ratios of nurses to population ratios and differing degrees of international migration, there was a nursing shortage in all four countries which were struggling to meet growing demand. All four countries saw the private sector play an increasing role in nurse production. Policy responses varied from modifying regulation and accreditation schemes in Thailand, to easing regulation to speed up nurse production and recruitment in India. There were concerns about the quality of nurses being produced in private institutions. Conclusion Strategies must be devised to ensure that private nursing graduates serve public health needs of their populations. There must be policy coherence between producing nurses for export and ensuring sufficient supply to meet domestic needs, in particular in under-served areas. This study points to the need for further research in particular assessing the contributions made by the private sector to nurse production, and to examine the variance in quality of nurses produced. PMID:23587128

  16. Afghanistans Information and Communications Technology Sector: U.S. Agencies Obligated Over $2.6 Billion to the Sector, but the Full Scope of U.S. Efforts is Unknown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    analysis, and recommendations to help the U.S. Congress, U.S. agencies, and other decision -makers to make informed oversight, policy, and funding...extent to which the agencies coordinated these efforts. SIGAR is not making any recommendations in this report. SIGAR provided a draft of this...encouraging private investment, and private entities making those investments. The country has six active service carriers, including five 3G-licensed

  17. The Shifting Politics of the Private in Education: Debates and Developments in Researching Private School Outreach in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashley, Laura Day

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the politics of researching private education with special reference to the Indian context. Due to a recent increase in privatised forms of education globally and recognition of the private sector by governments, international agencies and researchers as a policy and academic interest, this is shifting ground. The evolving…

  18. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B.; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Conclusion Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers

  19. What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces: A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Private-Sector Employers Understand the Nontechnical Skills Taught in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Finally, instructors note that students learn oral communication as a matter of course. Students are not formally evaluated on public speaking skills ... skills constantly during the Career Course. Stu- dents conduct mock interviews with news media role-players to get them used to speaking cogently...What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Private-Sector Employers Understand the Nontechnical Skills Taught in

  20. What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces: A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Veterans Communicate to Private-Sector Employers About the Nontechnical Skills Taught in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    learn oral communication as a matter of course. Students are not formally evaluated on public speaking skills , but the nature of the curriculum and... Skills Taught in the Military Chaitra M. Hardison, Michael G. Shanley, Anna Rosefsky Saavedra, James C. Crowley, Jonathan P. Wong, Paul S...Helping Veterans Communicate to Private-Sector Employers About the Nontechnical Skills Taught in the Military 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  1. What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces: A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Veterans Communicate to Private-Sector Employers About the Nontechnical Skills Taught in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces A Prototype Toolkit for Helping Veterans Communicate to Private-Sector Employers About the Nontechnical...cooperation. Interpersonal skills (related terms: demonstrating concern for others, demonstrating insight into behavior, oral communication , intercultural ...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE What Veterans Bring to Civilian Workplaces : A Prototype Toolkit for

  2. Private-Sector Social Franchising to Accelerate Family Planning Access, Choice, and Quality: Results From Marie Stopes International

    PubMed Central

    Munroe, Erik; Hayes, Brendan; Taft, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background: To achieve the global Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) goal of reaching 120 million more women with voluntary family planning services, rapid scale-up of services is needed. Clinical social franchising, a service delivery approach used by Marie Stopes International (MSI) in which small, independent health care businesses are organized into quality-assured networks, provides an opportunity to engage the private sector in improving access to family planning and other health services. Methods: We analyzed MSI’s social franchising program against the 4 intended outputs of access, efficiency, quality, and equity. The analysis used routine service data from social franchising programs in 17 African and Asian countries (2008–2014) to estimate number of clients reached, couple-years of protection (CYPs) provided, and efficiency of services; clinical quality audits of 636 social franchisees from a subset of the 17 countries (2011–2014); and exit interviews with 4,844 clients in 14 countries (2013) to examine client satisfaction, demographics (age and poverty), and prior contraceptive use. The MSI “Impact 2” model was used to estimate population-level outcomes by converting service data into estimated health outcomes. Results: Between 2008 and 2014, an estimated 3,753,065 women cumulatively received voluntary family planning services via 17 national social franchise programs, with a sizable 68% choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). While the number of social franchisee outlets increased over time, efficiency also significantly improved over time, with each outlet delivering, on average, 178 CYPs in 2008 compared with 941 CYPs in 2014 (P = .02). Clinical quality audit scores also significantly improved; 39.8% of social franchisee outlets scored over 80% in 2011 compared with 84.1% in 2014. In 2013, 40.7% of the clients reported they had not been using a modern method during the 3 months prior to their visit (95% CI = 37.4, 44

  3. Private sector, for-profit health providers in low and middle income countries: can they reach the poor at scale?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The bottom of the pyramid concept suggests that profit can be made in providing goods and services to poor people, when high volume is combined with low margins. To-date there has been very limited empirical evidence from the health sector concerning the scope and potential for such bottom of the pyramid models. This paper analyzes private for-profit (PFP) providers currently offering services to the poor on a large scale, and assesses the future prospects of bottom of the pyramid models in health. Methods We searched published and grey literature and databases to identify PFP companies that provided more than 40,000 outpatient visits per year, or who covered 15% or more of a particular type of service in their country. For each included provider, we searched for additional information on location, target market, business model and performance, including quality of care. Results Only 10 large scale PFP providers were identified. The majority of these were in South Asia and most provided specialized services such as eye care. The characteristics of the business models of these firms were found to be similar to non-profit providers studied by other analysts (such as Bhattacharya 2010). They pursued social rather than traditional marketing, partnerships with government, low cost/high volume services and cross-subsidization between different market segments. There was a lack of reliable data concerning these providers. Conclusions There is very limited evidence to support the notion that large scale bottom of the pyramid models in health offer good prospects for extending services to the poor in the future. In order to be successful PFP providers often require partnerships with government or support from social health insurance schemes. Nonetheless, more reliable and independent data on such schemes is needed. PMID:24961496

  4. 15 CFR 287.4 - Responsibilities of Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commission (IEC), the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and the Organization for Economic... conducted by other Federal, state and international organizations and agencies and private sector... assessment practices published by domestic and international standardizing bodies as appropriate in...

  5. The skills gap in hospital management: a comparative analysis of hospital managers in the public and private sectors in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Rubin

    2010-02-01

    A lack of management capacity has been identified as the key stumbling block to attaining the goals of health for all in South Africa. As part of the overall management development process, this research aims to identify the skills that are important for health services management and to evaluate managers' self-assessed proficiency in each of these skills. We also examined the impact of past training on perceived competency levels. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 404 hospital managers in the South African public and private sectors. Respondents were asked to rate the level of importance that each proposed competency had in their job and to indicate their proficiency in each skill. Both public and private sector managers rated competencies related to 'people management', 'self-management' and 'task-related skills' highest followed by 'strategic planning' and 'health delivery', respectively. The largest differences between mean importance rating and mean skill rating for public sector managers were for people management skills, task-related skills and self-management skills. The largest deficits for private sector managers were for people management skills, self-management skills and health delivery skills. Informal management development programmes were found to be more valuable in improving management skills. These findings reflect the reality of the local health service environment and the need of health managers. It will be useful in the conceptualization, design and delivery of health management programmes aimed at enhancing current and future management and leadership capacity in the health sector in South Africa.

  6. 75 FR 23783 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Sector-Specific Agency Executive Management Office...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... responsibilities for the six CIKR sectors assigned to IP: Chemical; Commercial Facilities; Critical Manufacturing... SSA EMO will use the information collected to reserve space at a meeting for the registrant;...

  7. 29 CFR 553.104 - Private individuals who volunteer services to public agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS APPLICATION OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL... and not employees of such public agencies if their hours of service are provided with no promise... basis when so motivated include helping out in a sheltered workshop or providing personal services...

  8. Stabilization Operations Beyond Government: Joint Venture Public-Private Partnerships in Iraq and Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Defense Intelligence Agency. This article won the inaugural young Professionals in Foreign Policy Essay competition. Joint Venture Public - Private Partnerships in...Beyond Government: Joint Venture Public - Private Partnerships in Iraq and Afghanistan 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...joint venture public - private partnerships hold the best possibility to achieve the goals of A Unique Private Sector Methodology Eurasia Group brings

  9. Does labour epidural slow the progress of labour and lead to complications? Obstetricians’ perception working in private and public sector teaching hospitals in a developing country

    PubMed Central

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Ismail, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Obstetricians play a major role in the decision making for provision of analgesia for the woman in labour. As epidural analgesia (EA) is the most preferred technique, it is important to know obstetricians' perception regarding its effect on progress of labour and associated complications. Methods: The 6 months cross-sectional study included 114 obstetricians from teaching hospitals. After informed consent, obstetricians were asked to fill a predesigned questionnaire containing 13 close ended questions regarding their perception on the effect of EA on progress of labour, EA complications and whether they would recommend EA to their patients or not. Other variables included age, gender, training in EA, practice type and hospital settings (private or public sector). Results: Majority of the obstetricians had the perception of EA prolonging the first stage (89.5%) and second stage (98.2%) of labour, increasing the rate of caesarean section (87.7%), instrumental delivery (58.8%) and increasing the incidence of backache (85.5%). None of the obstetricians received any formal training in EA. Majority (84.2%) were not sure if they would recommend EA to their patients. When these responses were compared between public and private sector, a statistically higher percentage (P < 0.001) of public sector obstetricians had negative perception of EA. Conclusion: Perception of obstetrician regarding EA is contrary to the current evidence. There is a need to introduce formal curriculum on EA in obstetric training program and conduct regular refresher courses. PMID:26903670

  10. Higher Education and the Public, Private and Non-Profit Sectors. Equal Partners in Promoting Regional Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughey, Aaron W.

    2003-01-01

    Advocates collaboration by universities with public, private, and nonprofit organizations to create value-added innovative economies in their regions. Discusses the advantages of such partnerships and various approaches to regional economic development. (Contains 29 references.) (SK)

  11. Family Service Agencies: Responding to Need in the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alperin, Diane Elias

    1993-01-01

    Surveyed Family Service America member agencies to assess impact of impetus to look to private sector for provision of services. Found that family service agencies experienced tremendous growth in 1980s in both client caseloads and areas of service provision. Family service agency client was likely to be minority person seeking counseling within…

  12. The use of private-sector contracts for primary health care: theory, evidence and lessons for low-income and middle-income countries.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, N.

    2000-01-01

    Contracts for the delivery of public services are promoted as a means of harnessing the resources of the private sector and making publicly funded services more accountable, transparent and efficient. This is also argued for health reforms in many low- and middle-income countries, where reform packages often promote the use of contracts despite the comparatively weaker capacity of markets and governments to manage them. This review highlights theories and evidence relating to contracts for primary health care services and examines their implications for contractual relationships in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:10916919

  13. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Moorman, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, flexible work arrangements – through the use of temporary nursing staff – are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Methods Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices). Results In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million) on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million). The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467) and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874), thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Conclusion Hospital managers and

  14. Assessing spatial access to public and private hospitals in Sichuan, China: The influence of the private sector on the healthcare geography in China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jay; Zhao, Hanqing; Wang, Xiuli; Shi, Xun

    2016-12-01

    In 2009, the Chinese government launched a new round of healthcare reform, which encourages development of private hospitals. Meanwhile, many public hospitals in China also became increasingly profit-oriented. These trends have led to concerns about social justice and regional disparity. However, there is a lack of empirical scientific analysis to support the debate. We started to fill this gap by conducting a regional-level analysis of spatial variation in spatial access to hospitals in the Sichuan Province. Such variation is an important indication of (in) equity in healthcare resource allocation. Using data of 2012, we intended to provide a snapshot of the situation that was a few years later since the new policies had set out. We employed two methods to quantify the spatial access: the nearest-neighbor method and the enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method. We recognized two sub-regions of Sichuan: the rural West Sichuan and the well-developed East Sichuan. We classified the hospitals using both ownership and level. We applied the analysis to the resulting groups of hospitals and their combinations in the two sub-regions. The two sub-regions have a high contrast in the spatial access to hospitals, in terms of both quantity and spatial pattern. Public hospitals still dominated the service in the province, especially in the West Sichuan, which had been solely relying on public hospitals. Private hospitals only occurred in the East Sichuan, and at the primary level, they had surpassed public hospitals in terms of spatial accessibility. However, the governmental health expenditures seemed to be disconnected with the actual situation of the spatial access to hospitals. The government should continue carrying on its responsibility in allocating healthcare resources, be cautious about marketizing public hospitals, and encourage private hospitals to expand into rural areas. Methodologically, the results from the two methods are concurring but not

  15. Addressing the unequal geographic distribution of specialist doctors in indonesia: the role of the private sector and effectiveness of current regulations.

    PubMed

    Meliala, Andreasta; Hort, Krishna; Trisnantoro, Laksono

    2013-04-01

    As in many countries, the geographic distribution of the health workforce in Indonesia is unequal, with a concentration in urban and more developed areas, and a scarcity in rural and remote areas. There is less information on the distribution of specialist doctors, yet inequalities in their distribution could compromise efforts to achieve universal coverage by 2014. This paper uses data from 2007 and 2008 to describe the geographic distribution of specialist doctors in Indonesia, and to examine two key factors that influence the distribution and are targets of current policies: sources of income for specialist doctors, and specialist doctor engagement in private practice. The data demonstrates large differences in the ratio of specialist doctors to population among the provinces of Indonesia, with higher ratios on the provinces of the islands of Java, and much lower ratios on the more remote provinces in eastern Indonesia. Between 65% and 80% of specialist doctors' income derives from private practice in non-state hospitals or private clinics. Despite regulations limiting practice locations to three, most specialists studied in a provincial capital city were working in more than three locations, with some working in up to 7 locations, and spending only a few hours per week in their government hospital practice. Our study demonstrates that the current regulatory policies and financial incentives have not been effective in addressing the maldistribution of specialist doctors in a context of a growing private sector and predominance of doctors' income from private sources. A broader and more integrated policy approach, including more innovative service delivery strategies for rural and remote areas, is recommended.

  16. The Institutionalization of Private Sector Strategic Planning Methods in a Public Sector Research & Development Organization: The Naval Surface Warfare Center Case 1982-1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    strategic planning methods in a public sector federal government Department of Defense research and development organization. Corporate-style strategic planning means using a formal integrative strategic planning process whose cornerstone is the segmentation of the organization’s activities into strategic business units (SBUs). The role and mission of industrial organizations are key drivers or forcing functions in the process of execution motivation to plan and manage strategically. The U.S. federal system does not, by its

  17. Training America’s Work Force: A Private Sector Base Line and Its Impact on National Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    Child Care Human Services Receptionist Chiropractic Assistant Illustrator Recording Specialist Civil Engineering Technician Import/Export Specialist...Engraver Office Machine Reao Air Conditioning/Heating/Ventilation Environmental Health Ophthalmic Dispensing and Optical Animal Trainer Equine Studies...Building Maintenance Technician Home Health Care Aide Private Security/Investigations/ Business Administration Horsemanship Specialist Corrections

  18. Careers in the Private Sector--A National Study of College Graduates in Business and Industry. Report No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisconti, Ann Stouffer; Gomberg, Irene L.

    Three out of ten college graduates and other advanced degree recipients enter employment in private companies. The document focuses on this situation and describes the characteristics of two cohorts of college graduates (who entered college in 1961 and 1966) several years after graduation (1971). The study is based on responses from 127,212…

  19. Marketized Private Tutoring as a Supplement to Regular Schooling: Liberal Studies and the Shadow Sector in Hong Kong Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Claudia; Bray, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Around the world, increasing numbers of students receive after-school private supplementary tutoring. Such tutoring may be provided through informal channels or by companies, and it may be received one-to-one, in small groups or in large classes. The tutoring is commonly called shadow education since its content mimics that of regular schooling.…

  20. Use and Non-use of Evaluation Results: Case Study of Environmental Influences in the Private Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene; Atwood, Regina; Egherman, Tori

    2002-01-01

    Studied the evaluation of a sale program within a business services organization. Interviewed 23 sales people, 10 implementation specialists, 9 consultants, and 40 clients of the business. Results show the use and nonuse of evaluation results and point out the factors contributing to use or nonuse of evaluation results in this private sector…

  1. Forming Linkages and Private Sector Partnerships. The National Science Foundation Grant to the Science Academy of Austin 1991-92.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Robertson, Lydia

    This document describes Project A+, a cooperative school and privately funded program designed to assist the Austin Independent School District (AISD) in becoming an exemplary school district by the year 2000. The project is divided into four components. The curriculum development component presents three new curricula piloted in AISD schools in…

  2. The Impact of a Microfinance Program on Client Perceptions of the Quality of Care Provided by Private Sector Midwives in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Agha, Sohail; Balal, Asma; Ogojo-Okello, Francis

    2004-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a microfinance program that provided business skills training and revolving loans to private sector midwives on perceived quality of services and client loyalty. Study Design A quasi-experimental study with a pretest, posttest design was used to evaluate the impact of the intervention. Exit interviews were conducted at 15 clinics that received the intervention and 7 clinics that did not. Baseline exit interviews were conducted between November and December 2000. Five days of business skills training were provided to midwives, and loans (averaging $454) were given during January and February 2001. A follow-up clinic visit was made to assess whether midwives were implementing what was emphasized during the training. The loans were to be repaid with interest within 6 to 12 months, at an interest rate that is standard within the local commercial market. For those who repaid the first set of loans (11 clinics), a second set of loans (averaging $742) was provided after June 2001. Follow-up exit interviews were conducted at the same clinics between February and March 2002. We assessed the effect of the intervention at both clinic and client levels. T-tests, the analysis of variance, and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted. Principal Findings These findings should be interpreted cautiously since secular trends were observed during the study period. The intervention was associated with improvement in clients' perceptions of the quality of care received at intervention clinics. The intervention was also associated with a higher level of client loyalty. Conclusions The enthusiastic response of midwives and the high loan repayment rate indicate that midwives were very receptive to the microfinance program. Overall, these findings suggest that microfinance may have an important role in strengthening private sector health services by increasing private providers' business skills and clients' satisfaction with services. PMID

  3. 75 FR 49932 - Private Transfer Fee Covenants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... AGENCY Private Transfer Fee Covenants AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Guidance, ``Guidance on Private Transfer Fee Covenants,'' to the Federal National Mortgage Association... mortgages on properties encumbered by private transfer fee covenants. Such covenants appear adverse...

  4. Information Operations - Demands of Increased Cooperation Within the Cabinet and Between the State and the Private Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ENDNOTES 1 Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), The World Fact Book 2001, Washington, D.C.: Central Intelligence Agency, 2001), 477. 2 Anna Lindh ...accessed 20 January 2003. Libicki, Martin C., What is Information Warfare? Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press, August 1995. Lindh , Anna

  5. 75 FR 60759 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Agency Information Collection Activities... collection; Title of Information Collection: Medicaid Drug Program Monthly and Quarterly Drug Reporting...); Frequency: Monthly and Quarterly; Affected Public: Private Sector: Business or other for-profits; Number...

  6. 15 CFR 1160.5 - Coordination/cooperation with other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.5 Coordination/cooperation... agencies and laboratories that may be of assistance to industrial technology partnerships....

  7. 15 CFR 1160.5 - Coordination/cooperation with other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.5 Coordination/cooperation... agencies and laboratories that may be of assistance to industrial technology partnerships....

  8. 15 CFR 1160.5 - Coordination/cooperation with other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.5 Coordination/cooperation... agencies and laboratories that may be of assistance to industrial technology partnerships....

  9. 15 CFR 1160.5 - Coordination/cooperation with other Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE PRODUCTIVITY, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION Promotion of Private Sector Industrial Technology Partnerships § 1160.5 Coordination/cooperation... agencies and laboratories that may be of assistance to industrial technology partnerships....

  10. 78 FR 22855 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Annual Performance Report for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Annual Performance Report for Historically... of Collection: Annual Performance Report for Historically Black Colleges and Universities Master's... information collection. Respondents/Affected Public: Private sector. Total Estimated Number of...

  11. US Government Information: Selected Current Issues in Public Access vs. Private Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the dissemination of government information focuses on the debate concerning public versus private access to government information; efforts of the National Technical Information Service (NTIS); electronic access and the need for printed documents; and joint efforts between government agencies and the private sector to charge for…

  12. Why Does Unemployment Hurt the Employed? Evidence from the Life Satisfaction Gap between the Public and the Private Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luechinger, Simon; Meier, Stephan; Stutzer, Alois

    2010-01-01

    High unemployment rates entail substantial costs to the working population in terms of reduced subjective well-being. This paper studies the importance of individual economic security, in particular job security, by exploiting sector-specific institutional differences in the exposure to economic shocks. Public servants have stricter dismissal…

  13. 78 FR 41959 - State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC); Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND... Policy Advisory Committee (SLTPS-PAC); Notice of Meeting AGENCY: National Archives and Records...: National Archives and Records Administration, 700 Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Jefferson Room, Washington,...

  14. Using Information-Sharing Exchange Techniques from the Private Sector to Enhance Information Sharing Between Domestic Intelligence Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    of the Interior DOJ Department of Justice EDI Electronic Data Interchange Email Electronic Mail EPA Environmental Protection Agency...differences. For instance, the Department of the Interior (DOI) is able to share data with the Environmental Protection Agency ( EPA ). The EPA may be...interested in the water shed or runoff specifications of satellite data, while the DOI may be interested in the runoff specifications for an

  15. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data.

    PubMed

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-09-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3-200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector's non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with private

  16. The market dynamics of generic medicines in the private sector of 19 low and middle income countries between 2001 and 2011: a descriptive time series analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Warren A; Wirtz, Veronika J; Stephens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This observational study investigates the private sector, retail pharmaceutical market of 19 low and middle income countries (LMICs) in Latin America, Asia and the Middle East/South Africa analyzing the relationships between volume market share of generic and originator medicines over a time series from 2001 to 2011. Over 5000 individual pharmaceutical substances were divided into generic (unbranded generic, branded generic medicines) and originator categories for each country, including the United States as a comparator. In 9 selected LMICs, the market share of those originator substances with the largest decrease over time was compared to the market share of their counterpart generic versions. Generic medicines (branded generic plus unbranded generic) represent between 70 and 80% of market share in the private sector of these LMICs which exceeds that of most European countries. Branded generic medicine market share is higher than that of unbranded generics in all three regions and this is in contrast to the U.S. Although switching from an originator to its generic counterpart can save money, this narrative in reality is complex at the level of individual medicines. In some countries, the market behavior of some originator medicines that showed the most temporal decrease, showed switching to their generic counterpart. In other countries such as in the Middle East/South Africa and Asia, the loss of these originators was not accompanied by any change at all in market share of the equivalent generic version. For those countries with a significant increase in generic medicines market share and/or with evidence of comprehensive "switching" to generic versions, notably in Latin America, it would be worthwhile to establish cause-effect relationships between pharmaceutical policies and uptake of generic medicines. The absence of change in the generic medicines market share in other countries suggests that, at a minimum, generic medicines have not been strongly promoted.

  17. The Market Dynamics of Generic Medicines in the Private Sector of 19 Low and Middle Income Countries between 2001 and 2011: A Descriptive Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Warren A.; Wirtz, Veronika J.; Stephens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This observational study investigates the private sector, retail pharmaceutical market of 19 low and middle income countries (LMICs) in Latin America, Asia and the Middle East/South Africa analyzing the relationships between volume market share of generic and originator medicines over a time series from 2001 to 2011. Over 5000 individual pharmaceutical substances were divided into generic (unbranded generic, branded generic medicines) and originator categories for each country, including the United States as a comparator. In 9 selected LMICs, the market share of those originator substances with the largest decrease over time was compared to the market share of their counterpart generic versions. Generic medicines (branded generic plus unbranded generic) represent between 70 and 80% of market share in the private sector of these LMICs which exceeds that of most European countries. Branded generic medicine market share is higher than that of unbranded generics in all three regions and this is in contrast to the U.S. Although switching from an originator to its generic counterpart can save money, this narrative in reality is complex at the level of individual medicines. In some countries, the market behavior of some originator medicines that showed the most temporal decrease, showed switching to their generic counterpart. In other countries such as in the Middle East/South Africa and Asia, the loss of these originators was not accompanied by any change at all in market share of the equivalent generic version. For those countries with a significant increase in generic medicines market share and/or with evidence of comprehensive “switching” to generic versions, notably in Latin America, it would be worthwhile to establish cause-effect relationships between pharmaceutical policies and uptake of generic medicines. The absence of change in the generic medicines market share in other countries suggests that, at a minimum, generic medicines have not been strongly

  18. Pharmacy Use and Costs in Employer-Provided Health Plans. Insights for TRICARE Benefit Design from the Private Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    commands, and the defense agencies under Contract DASWO 1 -C-01-0004. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Joyce, Geoffrey. Pharmacy use and...p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. "MG-154." ISBN 0-8330-3549-5 (pbk.: alk. paper) 1 . Pharmacy, Military-United States. 2. Insurance...xxiii CHAPTER ONE Introduction ................................................................. 1 CHAPTER TWO B ackground

  19. How shall we examine and learn about public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the health sector? Realist evaluation of PPPs in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Eliza L Y; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Chau, Patsy Y K; Yam, Carrie H K; Cheung, Annie W L; Fung, Hong

    2015-12-01

    The World Health Organization advocates the goal of universal coverage of health systems to ensure that everyone can avail the services they need and are protected from the associated financial risks. Governments are increasingly engaging and interacting with the private sector in initiatives collectively referred to as public-private partnerships (PPPs) to enhance the capacity of health systems to meet this objective. Understanding the values that motivate partners and demonstrating commitment for building relationships were found to be key lessons in building effective PPPs; however there, remain many research gaps. This study focusses on the practice of PPPs at the inter-organisational (meso) level and interpersonal (micro) level in Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). The influence of the structural components of different PPPs on stakeholder interpretation and actions, as well as the eventual outcomes of the PPPs, is examined, in terms of a realist evaluation, which applies a context-mechanism-outcome configuration as the research methodology. Seven key factors initiating commitment in a partnership, critical for sustainable PPPs, were identified as follows: (1) building of trust; (2) clearly defined objectives and roles; (3) time commitment; (4) transparency and candid information, particularly in relation to risk and benefit; (5) contract flexibility; (6) technical assistance or financial incentive behind procedural arrangements; and (7) the awareness and acceptability of structural changes related to responsibility and decisions (power and authority).

  20. Extending transaction cost economics: towards a synthesised approach for analysing contracting in health care markets with experience from the Australian private sector.

    PubMed

    Donato, Ronald

    2010-12-01

    Transaction cost economics (TCE) has been the dominant economic paradigm for analysing contracting, and the framework has been applied in a number of health care contexts. However, TCE has particular limitations when applied to complex industry settings and there have been calls to extend the framework to incorporate dynamic theories of industrial organisation, specifically the resource-based view (RBV). This paper analyses how such calls for theoretical pluralism are particularly germane to health care markets and examines whether a combined TCE-RBV provides a more comprehensive approach for understanding the nature of contractual arrangements that have developed within the Australian private health care sector and its implications for informing policy. This Australian case study involved a series of interviews with 14 senior contracting executives from the seven major health funds (i.e. 97% of the insured population) and seven major private hospital groups (i.e. 73% of the private hospital beds). Study findings reveal that both the TCE perspective with its focus on exchange hazards, and the RBV approach with its emphasis on the dynamic nature of capabilities, each provide a partial explanation of the developments associated with contracting between health funds and hospital groups. For a select few organisations, close inter-firm relational ties involving trust and mutual commitment attenuate complex exchange hazards through greater information sharing and reduced propensity to behave opportunistically. Further, such close relational ties also provide denser communication channels for creating and transmitting more complex information enabling organisations to tap into each other's complementary resources and capabilities. For policymakers, having regard to both TCE and RBV considerations provides the opportunity to apply competition policy beyond the current static notions of efficiency and welfare gains, and cautions policymakers against specifying ex ante the

  1. Does the private sector receive an excessive return from investments in health care infrastructure projects? Evidence from the UK.

    PubMed

    Vecchi, Veronica; Hellowell, Mark; Gatti, Stefano

    2013-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the cost-efficiency of Private Finance Initiatives (PFIs) in the delivery of hospital facilities in the UK. We outline a methodology for identifying the "fair" return on equity, based on the Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) of each investor. We apply this method to assess the expected returns on a sample of 77 contracts signed between 1997 and 2011 by health care provider organisations in the UK. We show that expected returns are in general in excess of the WACC benchmarks. The findings highlight significant problems in current procurement practices and the methodologies by which bids are assessed. To minimise the financial impact of hospital investments on health care systems, a regulatory regime must ensure that expected returns are set at the "fair" rate.

  2. LANDSAT technology transfer to the private and public sectors through community colleges and other locally available institutions, phase 2 program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, R. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A program established by NASA with the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) applies a network where the major participants are NASA, universities or research institutes, community colleges, and local private and public organizations. Local users are given an opportunity to obtain "hands on" training in LANDSAT data analysis and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques using a desk top, interactive remote analysis station (RAS). The RAS communicates with a central computing facility via telephone line, and provides for generation of land use and land suitability maps and other data products via remote command. During the period from 22 September 1980 - 6 March 1982, 15 workshops and other training activities were successfully conducted throughout Michigan providing hands on training on the RAS terminals for 250 or more people and user awareness activities such as exhibits and demonstrations for 2,000 or more participants.

  3. District decision-making for health in low-income settings: a qualitative study in Uttar Pradesh, India, on engaging the private health sector in sharing health-related data

    PubMed Central

    Gautham, Meenakshi; Spicer, Neil; Subharwal, Manish; Gupta, Sanjay; Srivastava, Aradhana; Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Avan, Bilal Iqbal; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Health information systems are an important planning and monitoring tool for public health services, but may lack information from the private health sector. In this fourth article in a series on district decision-making for health, we assessed the extent of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH)-related data sharing between the private and public sectors in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, India; analysed barriers to data sharing; and identified key inputs required for data sharing. Between March 2013 and August 2014, we conducted 74 key informant interviews at national, state and district levels. Respondents were stakeholders from national, state and district health departments, professional associations, non-governmental programmes and private commercial health facilities with 3–200 beds. Qualitative data were analysed using a framework based on a priori and emerging themes. Private facilities registered for ultrasounds and abortions submitted standardized records on these services, which is compulsory under Indian laws. Data sharing for other services was weak, but most facilities maintained basic records related to institutional deliveries and newborns. Public health facilities in blocks collected these data from a few private facilities using different methods. The major barriers to data sharing included the public sector’s non-standardized data collection and utilization systems for MNCH and lack of communication and follow up with private facilities. Private facilities feared information disclosure and the additional burden of reporting, but were willing to share data if asked officially, provided the process was simple and they were assured of confidentiality. Unregistered facilities, managed by providers without a biomedical qualification, also conducted institutional deliveries, but were outside any reporting loops. Our findings suggest that even without legislation, the public sector could set up an effective MNCH data sharing strategy with

  4. Success Providing Postpartum Intrauterine Devices in Private-Sector Health Care Facilities in Nigeria: Factors Associated With Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Eluwa, George IE; Atamewalen, Ronke; Odogwu, Kingsley; Ahonsi, Babatunde

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Use of modern contraceptive methods in Nigeria remained at 10% between 2008 and 2013 despite substantive investments in family planning services. Many women in their first postpartum year, in particular, have an unmet need for family planning. We evaluated use of postpartum intrauterine device (IUD) insertion and determined factors associated with its uptake in Nigeria. Methods: Data were collected between May 2014 and February 2015 from 11 private health care facilities in 6 southern Nigerian states. Women attending antenatal care in participating facilities were counseled on all available contraceptive methods including the postpartum IUD. Data were abstracted from participating facility records and evaluated using a cross-sectional analysis. Categorical variables were calculated as proportions while continuous variables were calculated as medians with the associated interquartile range (IQR). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with uptake of the postpartum IUD while controlling for potential confounding factors, including age, educational attainment, marital status, parity, number of living children, and previous use of contraception. Results: During the study period, 728 women delivered in the 11 facilities. The median age was 28 years, and most women were educated (73% had completed at least the secondary level). The majority (96%) of the women reported they were married, and the median number of living children was 3 (IQR, 2–4). Uptake of the postpartum IUD was 41% (n = 300), with 8% (n = 25) of the acceptors experiencing expulsion of the IUD within 6 weeks post-insertion. After controlling for potential confounding factors, several characteristics were associated with greater likelihood of choosing the postpartum IUD, including lower education, having a higher number of living children, and being single. Women who had used contraceptives previously were less likely to choose the

  5. Technology and Education: A Review of Federal, State, and Private Sector Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet of the Committee on Energy and Commerce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (March 8, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Energy and Commerce.

    The Subcommittee on Telecommunications and the Internet met to review investments in technology and education that are being made in the United States on the federal, state, and local and private sector levels. Presiding was Representative Fred Upton (chairman). Members present included Representatives Upton, Gillmor, Shimkus, Wilson, David,…

  6. Health Insurance: Comparison of Coverage for Federal and Private Sector Employees. Briefing Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Civil Service, Post Office, and General Services, Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This briefing report was developed to provide a Senate subcommittee with information concerning certain benefit features of the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP). It compares coverage for selected health benefits in the federal and private sectors for a 6-year period (1980-1985). A description of methodology states that information…

  7. Exploring the characteristics of nursing agencies in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Olojede, Omolola I; Rispel, Laetitia C

    2015-01-01

    Background Nursing agencies are temporary employment service providers or labour brokers that supply nurses to health establishments. Objective This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of nursing agencies and their relationship with clients in the health sector. Methods During 2011, a cross-sectional national survey of 106 nursing agencies was conducted. After obtaining informed consent, telephone interviews were conducted with a representative of the selected nursing agency using a pretested structured questionnaire. Questions focused on the following: ownership, date of establishment, province of operation, distribution of clients across private and public health facilities; existence of a code of conduct; nature of the contractual relationship between nursing agencies and their clients, and numbers and cadres of nurses contracted. The survey data were analysed using STATA® 12. Results Fifty-two nursing agencies participated in the survey, representing a 49% response rate. The study found that 32 nursing agencies (62%) served private-sector clients only, which included private hospitals, homes for elderly people, patients in private homes, and private industry/company clinics, and only four (8%) of the agencies served the public sector only. Twenty-seven percent of nursing agencies provided services to homes for elderly individuals. Nursing agencies were more likely to have contracts with private-sector clients (84%) than with public-sector clients (16%) (p = 0.04). Although 98% of nursing agencies reported that they had a code of conduct, the proportion was higher for private-sector clients (73%) compared to public-sector clients (27%). In terms of quality checks and monitoring, 81% of agencies agreed with a statement that they checked the nursing council registration of nurses, 82% agreed with a statement that they requested certified copies of a nurse's qualifications. Only 21% indicated that they conducted reference checks of nurses with

  8. Exploring the characteristics of nursing agencies in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Olojede, Omolola I.; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nursing agencies are temporary employment service providers or labour brokers that supply nurses to health establishments. Objective This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of nursing agencies and their relationship with clients in the health sector. Methods During 2011, a cross-sectional national survey of 106 nursing agencies was conducted. After obtaining informed consent, telephone interviews were conducted with a representative of the selected nursing agency using a pretested structured questionnaire. Questions focused on the following: ownership, date of establishment, province of operation, distribution of clients across private and public health facilities; existence of a code of conduct; nature of the contractual relationship between nursing agencies and their clients, and numbers and cadres of nurses contracted. The survey data were analysed using STATA® 12. Results Fifty-two nursing agencies participated in the survey, representing a 49% response rate. The study found that 32 nursing agencies (62%) served private-sector clients only, which included private hospitals, homes for elderly people, patients in private homes, and private industry/company clinics, and only four (8%) of the agencies served the public sector only. Twenty-seven percent of nursing agencies provided services to homes for elderly individuals. Nursing agencies were more likely to have contracts with private-sector clients (84%) than with public-sector clients (16%) (p = 0.04). Although 98% of nursing agencies reported that they had a code of conduct, the proportion was higher for private-sector clients (73%) compared to public-sector clients (27%). In terms of quality checks and monitoring, 81% of agencies agreed with a statement that they checked the nursing council registration of nurses, 82% agreed with a statement that they requested certified copies of a nurse's qualifications. Only 21% indicated that they conducted reference checks of nurses with

  9. Technology transfer in human vaccinology: a retrospective review on public sector contributions in a privatizing science field.

    PubMed

    Hendriks, Jan

    2012-09-28

    As health intervention, vaccination has had a tremendous impact on reducing mortality and morbidity caused by infectious diseases. Traditionally vaccines were developed and made in the western, industrialised world and from there on gradually and with considerable delay became available for developing countries. Today that is beginning to change. Most vaccine doses are now produced in emerging economies, although industrialised countries still have a lead in vaccine development and in manufacturing innovative vaccines. Technology transfer has been an important mechanism for this increase in production capacity in emerging economies. This review looks back on various technology transfer initiatives and outlines the role of WHO and other public and private partners. It goes into a more detailed description of the role of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. For many decades RIVM has been providing access to vaccine technology by capacity building and technology transfer initiatives not only through multilateral frameworks, but also on a bilateral basis including a major project in China in the 90 s of the previous century. Looking forward it is expected that, in a globalizing world, the ambition of BRICS countries to play a role in global health will lead to an increase of south-south technology transfers. Further, it is argued that push approaches including technology transfer from the public domain, connecting innovative enabling platforms with competent developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVM), will be critical to ensure a sustainable supply of affordable and quality vaccines to national immunization programmes in developing countries.

  10. Quality of Artemisinin-Containing Antimalarials in Tanzania's Private Sector--Results from a Nationally Representative Outlet Survey.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    Ensuring that artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) are of good quality is a key component of effective malaria treatment. There are concerns that a high proportion of ACAs are falsified or substandard, though estimates are rarely based on representative data. During a nationally representative survey in Tanzania, ACAs were purchased from private retail drug outlets, and the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) was measured. All 1,737 ACAs contained the labeled artemisinin derivative, with 4.1% being outside the 85-115% artemisinin API range defined as acceptable quality. World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified drugs had 0.1 times the odds of being poor quality compared with non-prequalified ACAs for the artemisinin component. When partner components of combination therapies were also considered, 12.1% were outside the acceptable API range, and WHO prequalified ACAs had 0.04 times the odds of being poor quality. Although the prevalence of poor quality ACAs was lower than reported elsewhere, the minority of samples found to be substandard is a cause for concern. Improvements in quality could be achieved by increasing the predominance of WHO prequalified products in the market. Continued monitoring of quality standards is essential.

  11. Health-Care-Seeking Patterns in the Emerging Private Sector in Burkina Faso: A Population-Based Study of Urban Adult Residents in Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Beogo, Idrissa; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Chou, Yiing-Jenq; Chen, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Background The private medical care sector is expanding in urban cities in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, people’s health-care-seeking behaviors in this new landscape remain poorly understood; furthermore, distinguishing between public and private providers and among various types of private providers is critical in this investigation. This study assessed, by type, the healthcare providers urban residents in Burkina Faso visit, and their choice determinants. Method We conducted a population-based survey of a representative sample of 1,600 households in Ouagadougou from July to November 2011, consisting of 5,820 adults. We assessed the types of providers people typically sought for severe and non-severe conditions. We applied generalized estimating equations in this study. Results Among those surveyed, 97.7% and 53.1% indicated that they seek a formal provider for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Among the formal provider seekers, 20.5% and 17.0% chose for-profit (FP) providers for treating severe and non-severe conditions, respectively. Insurance coverage was held by 2.0% of those surveyed. Possessing insurance was the strongest predictor for seeking FP, for both severe (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04–1.28), and non-severe conditions (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.07–1.39). Other predictors included being a formal jobholder and holding a higher level education. By contrast, we observed no significant difference in predisposing, enabling, or need characteristics between not-for-profit (NFP) provider seekers and public provider seekers. Proximity was the primary reason for choosing a provider. Conclusion The results suggested that FP providers play a crucial role in the urban healthcare market in SSA. Socioeconomic status and insurance status are significant predictors of provider choice. The findings can serve as a crucial reference for policymakers in response to the emergence of FP providers in

  12. The private sector economic and employment benefits to the nation and to each state of proposed FY 1990 NASA procurement expenditures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The private sector economic and employment benefits (disaggregated among 80 industries and 475 occupations) of the proposed FY 1990 NASA procurement expenditures to the nation and to each state are estimated. Nationwide, it is found that FY 1990 NASA procurement expenditures of $11.3 billion will have an economic multiplier of 2.1 and will create, directly and indirectly, 237,000 jobs, $23.2 billion in total industry sales, $2.4 billion in corporate profits, and $7.4 billion in Federal, state, and local government tax revenues. These benefits are widely dispersed throughout the United States and are significant in many states not normally considered to be major beneficiaries of NASA spending. The indirect economic benefits are identified for each state resulting from the second-, third-, and fourth rounds of industry purchases generated by NASA procurement expenditures. Each state is ranked on the basis of several criteria, including the total benefits, indirect benefits, and per capita benefits received from NASA spending. The estimates developed are important for maintaining a viable U.S. Space Program through the remainder of this century.

  13. Public/private sector cooperation to promote industrial energy efficiency: Allied partners and the US Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Cockrill, Chris; Tutterow, Vestal; Radspieler, Anthony

    2003-05-18

    Since 1996, the US Department of Energy's Office of Industrial Technologies (USDOE) has been involved in a unique voluntary collaboration with industry called the Allied Partner program. Initially developed under the Motor Challenge program, the partnership concept continues as a central element of USDOE's BestPractices, which in 2001 integrated all of USDOE's near-term industrial program offerings including those in motors, compressed air, pump, fan, process heating and steam systems. Partnerships are sought with end use industrial companies as well as equipment suppliers and manufacturers, utilities, consultants, and state agencies that have extensive existing relationships with industrial customers. Partners are neither paid nor charged a fee for participation. Since the inception of Allied Partners, the assumption has been that these relationships could serve as the foundation for conveying a system energy-efficiency message to many more industrial facilities than could be reached through a typical government-to-end-user program model. An independent evaluation of the Motor Challenge program, reported at the last EEMODS conference, attributed US $16.9 million or nearly 67 percent of the total annual program energy savings to the efforts of Allied Partners in the first three years of operation. A recent evaluation of the Compressed Air Challenger, which grew out of the former Motor Challenger program, attribute additional energy savings from compressed air training alone at US $12.1 million per year. Since the reorganization under BestPractices, the Allied Partner program has been reshaped to extend the impact of all BestPractices program activities. This new model is more ambitious than the former Motor Challenge program concerning the level of collaborative activities negotiated with Allied Partners. This paper describes in detail two new types of program initiatives involving Allied Partners: Qualified Specialist Training and Energy Events. The Qualified

  14. Collaborating with the Private Sector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Federal Advisory Committee Act.‖ Federal Open Government Guide. 16 Jul. 2009 <http://www.rcfp.org/ fogg /index.php?i=faca>. 185 ―Twenty-Seventh Annual...Federal Advisory Committee Act.‖ Federal Open Government Guide. 16 Jul. 2009 <http://www.rcfp.org/ fogg /index.php?i=faca>. 193 5 U.S.C.A. Appx 2...home/THEDAREMISSION.asp>. ―The Federal Advisory Committee Act.‖ Federal Open Government Guide. 16 Jul. 2009 <http://www.rcfp.org/ fogg /index.php?i

  15. Sector-Wide Approaches in Education: Issues for Donor Agencies Arising from Case Studies of Zambia and Mozambique. A Report from the Meeting of the International Working Group on Education (IWGE) (Lisbon, Portugal, November 19-21, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Abby

    This book contains two case studies--one from Zambia, one from Mozambique--of the implications for donors of pursuing sector-wide approaches (SWAps) in education. (A sector-wide approach is characterized as a sustained partnership led by national authorities involving different arms of government and, where relevant, donor agencies, with the goals…

  16. Participation of the Private Sector in the Provision of Early Childhood Care, Development, and Education: Issues, Challenges, and Way Forward in Nigeria's Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthew, Ige Akindele

    2015-01-01

    While all children have a right to quality care and education in their early years, how to secure that right, especially in resource-limited contexts, is the subject of much debate. For some nations, private schools can seem like a good option, requiring few federal resources. However, the privatization of early education presents significant…

  17. Corporate Sector Practice Informs Online Workforce Training for Australian Government Agencies: Towards Effective Educational-Learning Systems Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Elspeth; Vilela, Cenie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline government online training practice. We searched individual research domains of the human-dimensions of Human Computer Interaction (HCI), information and communications technologies (ICT) and instructional design for evidence of either corporate sector or government training practices. We overlapped these…

  18. 75 FR 70003 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... credit risks that the private sector will not accept, Ex-Im Bank enables U.S. exporters to compete fairly..., Export Credit Insurance policies. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank'') is the official export credit agency of the United States. Its mission is to create and sustain...

  19. 76 FR 5374 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... credit risks that the private sector will not accept, Ex-Im Bank enables U.S. exporters to compete fairly..., Export Credit Insurance policies. SUMMARY: The Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank'') is the official export credit agency of the United States. Its mission is to create and sustain...

  20. Private and Public Schools: Cooperation or Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denig, Stephen J.

    This papers explores the relationship between private and public schools. It challenges the assumption that competition between the private and public sectors is desirable and argues for a cooperative model in which public and private schools work together to educate children. Each sector has strengths that can help the other. These strengths…

  1. Successful public-private partnerships: The NYPD shield model.

    PubMed

    Amadeo, Vincent; Iannone, Stephen

    2017-12-01

    This article will identify the challenges that post 9/11 law enforcement faces regarding privatepublic partnerships and describe in detail the NYPD Shield programme, created to combat those challenges. Recommendations made by the 911 Commission included the incorporation of the private sector into future homeland security strategies. One such strategy is NYPD Shield. This programme is a nationally recognized award-winning public-private partnership dedicated to providing counterterrorism training and information sharing with government agencies, non-government organizations, private businesses, and the community. Information is shared through several platforms that include a dedicated website, instruction of counterterrorism training curricula, e-mail alerts, intelligence assessments and the hosting of quarterly conferences. This article also details how the NYPD Shield is providing its successful template to other law enforcement agencies enabling them to initiate similar programmes in their respective jurisdictions, and in doing so joining a National Shield Network.

  2. Public/private cross-training programs to expedite clean-up and development of environmentally impaired property

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, B.

    1994-12-31

    There is a need to learn how to partner better. In this regard, it would be most useful to monitor a partnership from its inception and as it develops. Such a partnership to follow through its various development stages is the California Environmental Enterprise (CEE), a dynamic Statewide environmental technology services partnership linking private industry, the DOE National Laboratories, State and local governments, regulatory agencies community colleges and universities, public interest and environmental organizations, for the common purpose of facilitating the economic and rehabilitative reuse of environmentally impaired property. In cooperation with Federal agencies, CEE will work actively with the private sector and other major institutions to seek innovative technological solutions to environmental restoration and waste management problems. Through the development of public-private partnerships CEE will broker and facilitate private sector solutions that will leverage collective resources as well as demonstrating and commercializing environmental technologies and systems to the economic benefit of the State and the Nation.

  3. [Heavy snowfalls and electrical power cuts in the Muenster area in November and December of 2005: implications on foodstuffs and health sector, private disaster preparedness and stockpiling].

    PubMed

    Menski, U; Gardemann, J

    2009-06-01

    Heavy snowfalls caused electrical power cuts in the rural Muenster area in November and December of 2005. Because of the necessity of complex relief coordination, the incident command was soon transferred to the administrative districts. In a survey, 591 of the affected households were asked in written form on their attitude towards disaster preparedness and private stockpiling of foodstuffs in the districts of Steinfurt und Borken in June, 2006. Even their personal experience of a failure of critical infrastructures had not changed the confidence of the affected population in public disaster management and their unconcerned attitude towards private stockpiling of foodstuffs had not been affected either.

  4. Education and the Private Finance Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Clive

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the development of Private Finance Initiative schemes in the United Kingdom, and reflects on how profitable opportunities for private financiers and construction companies were created at the expense of the public sector. (Contains 72 notes.)

  5. Is There a Private Schooling Market in Poor Neighbourhoods in Maputo, Mozambique? Exploring the Role of the Non-State Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Härmä, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    In some low-income countries, low-fee private schools targeting relatively poor communities have sprung up in considerable numbers meeting growing demand. This is often the case where government is not providing enough school places, but also where parents could access government schools for their children but choose not to, due to perceived low…

  6. Industry, Philanthropy, and Universities: The Roles and Influences of the Private Sector in Higher Education. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.12.06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Charles M.

    2006-01-01

    Charles Vest gave the third of three Clark Kerr Lectures on the Role of Higher Education in Society on September 13, 2005 on the Berkeley campus. In public as well as private universities, resources provided by philanthropic individuals and foundations and by corporate research sponsors increasingly support the margin of university excellence, and…

  7. The Viability of Rural Towns: A Critical Appraisal of the Role of Public and Private Sectors in Sustainable Rural Town Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Philippa

    This paper addresses the need to sustain rural towns in Australia through private and public investments. Rural and remote areas of Australia have provided the national economy with crucial export earnings and provided governments with royalties and taxes collected on regional resources. However, government funding for upgrading infrastructures…

  8. Comparative Performance of Private and Public Healthcare Systems in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; Andrews, Jason; Kishore, Sandeep; Panjabi, Rajesh; Stuckler, David

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Private sector healthcare delivery in low- and middle-income countries is sometimes argued to be more efficient, accountable, and sustainable than public sector delivery. Conversely, the public sector is often regarded as providing more equitable and evidence-based care. We performed a systematic review of research studies investigating the performance of private and public sector delivery in low- and middle-income countries. Methods and Findings Peer-reviewed studies including case studies, meta-analyses, reviews, and case-control analyses, as well as reports published by non-governmental organizations and international agencies, were systematically collected through large database searches, filtered through methodological inclusion criteria, and organized into six World Health Organization health system themes: accessibility and responsiveness; quality; outcomes; accountability, transparency, and regulation; fairness and equity; and efficiency. Of 1,178 potentially relevant unique citations, data were obtained from 102 articles describing studies conducted in low- and middle-income countries. Comparative cohort and cross-sectional studies suggested that providers in the private sector more frequently violated medical standards of practice and had poorer patient outcomes, but had greater reported timeliness and hospitality to patients. Reported efficiency tended to be lower in the private than in the public sector, resulting in part from perverse incentives for unnecessary testing and treatment. Public sector services experienced more limited availability of equipment, medications, and trained healthcare workers. When the definition of “private sector” included unlicensed and uncertified providers such as drug shop owners, most patients appeared to access care in the private sector; however, when unlicensed healthcare providers were excluded from the analysis, the majority of people accessed public sector care. “Competitive dynamics” for

  9. Private Higher Education in India: A Study of Two Private Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angom, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    The Private higher education sector is growing fast in many settings, including India, and there are variations at the national level. Privatization of higher education in India has been the result of changes in the economic policy towards liberalization and privatization by the Government of India. Till 1980, higher education sector was…

  10. Latin American privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.; Hennagir, T.; Hernandez, L.A. Jr. )

    1994-01-01

    Fundamental change is reshaping the Latin America power sector as governments explore new and improved privatization schemes. Latin American power markets are second in size only to those found in Asia. As the region grows and capacity needs increase, governments are turning to private power as a way to meet new demands for electric energy. Following the privatization model initiated by Chile, an increasing number of Latin American countries are following suit with an array of private power schemes for their state-owned utilities. The move means great opportunities for developers willing to enter this growing market. The recently established Scudder Latin American Trust for Independent Power is a prime example of new equity players becoming involved in this region. In Chile, the privatization process started more than 12 years ago. Currently, the power sector has been fully restructured to concentrate price and quality regulation on transmission and distribution, leaving generation and sales to a marketplace largely in the hands of the private sector. Furthermore, the Chilean government controls only about 15 percent of the installed generation in the country, so there is free-flow in this segment of the industry or a free market modality.

  11. Finding the Right Prescription: In Stiff Competition with the Private Sector for Pharmacy Faculty, Academia Often Finds Itself on the Losing Side

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Tracie

    2004-01-01

    An aging population, the changing role of pharmacists as health systems rely more heavily on newer, sophisticated drug therapies to cure ills, and a proliferation of corner drug stores is driving a growing demand for pharmacists in this country, a challenge the higher education sector is having a tough time meeting. There are more students…

  12. Harnessing the market: The opportunities and challenges of privatization

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The decision to privatize comes from a policy determination that the Government no longer needs particular assets or no longer needs to be in control of all the means by which products or services are obtained or delivered. Most broadly defined, privatization substitutes, in whole or in part, private market mechanisms for the traditional Government role as employer, financier, owner, operator, and/or regulator of a product or service. This definition admits a wide variety of actions, from innovative contractual arrangements to outright divestiture of activities or assets. But all of these actions share common objectives: to remove the agency from those activities that are not inherently governmental functions or core business lines; to improve the management of remaining activities; to reduce the costs of doing business; and to shift greater performance and financial risk to the private sector. This report by the Privatization Working Group provides an indepth analysis of the major issues that surround privatization within the Department of Energy (DOE). The report divides privatization initiatives at the DOE into three major types: divestiture of functions, contracting out, and asset transfers. It includes the results of a survey of the entire DOE system that identifies more than 200 potential privatization opportunities. The report also includes 13 case studies that explore actual DOE privatization efforts over the past 2 years. Additionally, it summarizes the key legal authorities that govern each of the three types of privatization opportunities in the DOE. The report makes a series of recommendations and outlines accompanying actions that will help the DOE seize the opportunities presented by privatization and confront its challenges.

  13. Building the Future: Summary of Four Studies to Develop the Private Sector, Education, Health Care, and Data for Decisionmaking for the Kurdistan Region - Iraq (with Arabic-language version).

    PubMed

    Anthony, C Ross; Hansen, Michael L; Kumar, Krishna B; Shatz, Howard J; Vernez, Georges

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) asked the RAND Corporation to undertake four studies aimed at improving the economic and social development of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. RAND's work was intended to help the KRG expand access to high-quality education and health care, increase private-sector development and employment for the expanding labor force, and design a data-collection system to support high-priority policies. The studies were carried out over the year beginning February 2010. The RAND teams worked closely with the Ministries of Planning, Education, and Health to develop targeted solutions to the critical issues faced by the KRG. This article summarizes the health care study. It is intended to provide a high-level overview of the approaches, followed by the studies, key findings, and major recommendations.

  14. Aerospace technology transfer to the public sector; Proceedings of the Conference, Crystal City, Va., November 9-11, 1977

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grey, J. (Editor); Newman, M.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of aerospace technology transfer is discussed with reference to the agencies which facilitate the transfer to both the public and private sectors. Attention is given to NASA's Technology Utilization Program, and to specific applications of aerospace technology spinoff in the daily life of Americans.

  15. Public/Private Partnership Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC.

    This document presents the Public/Private Partnership Programs, a school-community project developed in 1981 by the District of Columbia public schools and the private sector community to provide career-focused high school programs. The project was designed to motivate and support young people to stay in school, graduate from high school, and…

  16. Changes in the availability and affordability of subsidised artemisinin combination therapy in the private drug retail sector in rural Ghana: before and after the introduction of the AMFm subsidy

    PubMed Central

    Ansah, Evelyn K.; Whitty, Christopher JM; Bart-Plange, Constance; Gyapong, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Background Most people with febrile illness are treated in the private drug retail sector. Ghana was among nine countries piloting the Global Fund Affordable Medicines Facility – malaria (AMFm). AMFm aimed to: increase artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) affordability; increase ACT availability; increase ACT use; and ‘crowd out’ artemisinin monotherapies. Methods Three censuses were carried out 2 months before (2010), 2 months after and 2.5 years after (2013) the first co-paid ACTs to assess changes in antimalarial (AM) availability and price in private retail shops in a Ghanaian rural district to assess the sustainability of the initial gains. Supply, stock-out and cost were explored. Results Of 62 shops in the district, 56 participated with 398, 388 and 442 brands of AMs in the shops during the 3 censuses. The proportion of ACTs increased over the period while monotherapies reduced. Herbal-based AM preparations comprised 40–45% of AMs in stock with minimal variation over the period. ACTs were the most sold AM type for all ages but overall buying and selling prices of Quality Assured-ACTs increased by 40–100%. Conclusions Initial gains in ACT availability were sustained, but not improved on 2.5 years after AMFm. Widespread availability of unproven herbal medicines is a concern; AMFm had little impact on this. PMID:27744327

  17. Synergies between veterinarians and para-professionals in the public and private sectors: organisational and institutional relationships that facilitate the process of privatising animal health services in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Woodford, J D

    2004-04-01

    The delivery of veterinary services in most developing countries was, until recently, considered to be the responsibility of the public sector. However, over the past four decades, economic constraints and the imposition of structural adjustment policies (SAPs) have led to a gradual decline in public sector investment in real terms and thus a reduction in the quality and quantity of services available to livestock keepers. Many governments acknowledged that they were no longer able to provide services that were essentially of a 'private good' nature and introduced radical policy changes which sought to introduce the concepts of a market orientated approach towards agriculture and livestock production in particular. The role of government, in the future, would be to provide a reduced range of essential 'public good' services and to create a favourable environment in which the private sector could become established as a provider of 'private good' services and at the same time act as a partner in carrying out certain public functions under contract or 'sanitary mandates'. In almost all developing countries, however, these policy changes were not accompanied by appropriate development strategies. The reasons for this are complex. Firstly, SAPs may be considered to have been foisted upon governments by donors and are thus perceived by many policy-makers as the cause of financial problems, rather than a solution to them. Secondly, most animal health senior policy-makers in the public sector have been trained as veterinarians and lack the required management skills to plan change effectively. Furthermore, as regards clinical veterinary service delivery, especially in rural or more remote areas, the solution fostered by donor investment, which involves deregulation and the deployment of privately operating para-professionals, is often perceived as a threat to the veterinary profession and might result in limiting access to international markets for the trade of livestock

  18. An Analysis of Private School Mission Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerema, Albert J.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a study of private school mission/vision statements using content analysis. Statements from private schools in British Columbia, Canada, that provided instruction to Grade 12 students were analyzed to explore the diversity that lies within the private school sector. The concepts that emerged from the analysis were grouped into five…

  19. The Private Presence in American Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Howard R.

    The importance of private initiative has long been recognized in tax exemption by federal, state, and local governments. One outcome of this history is the dual system of higher education--a system that is partly private and partly public. Despite the important service rendered by the private sector, it is today facing a bleak financial future.…

  20. 75 FR 82029 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ...; Sequence 6] Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy...) 2011 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in...

  1. 77 FR 22786 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy (OGP...) 2012 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's (GSA) special review of privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rates has resulted...

  2. 77 FR 76487 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...; Sequence 6] Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy...) 2013 Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in new...

  3. Is contracting a form of privatization?

    PubMed Central

    Perrot, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Contracting is often seen as a form of privatization, with contracts functioning as the tool that makes privatization possible. But contracting is also viewed by some as a means for the private sector to expand in a covert way its presence within the health sector. This article discusses the wider meaning of the term privatization in the health sector and the ways in which it is achieved. Privatization is seen here not simply as an action that leads to a new situation but also as one that leads to a change in behaviour. It is proposed that privatization may be assessed by looking at the ownership, management, and mission or objectives of the entity being privatized. Discussed also is the use of contracting by the state as a tool for state interventionism that is not based on authoritarian regulation. PMID:17143466

  4. 77 FR 15566 - Private Transfer Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency... fee covenants and in certain related securities. This final rule is intended to protect the regulated... participate in any market for mortgages on property encumbered by certain private transfer fees. To allow...

  5. 76 FR 6702 - Private Transfer Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1228 RIN 2590-AA41 Private Transfer Fees AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency... transfer fee covenants and in certain related securities. Such covenants are adverse to the liquidity and... except private transfer fees paid to homeowner associations, condominiums, cooperatives, and certain...

  6. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, Frédéric; Delaunay, Pascal; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Perrin, Yvon; Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken. PMID:27605306

  7. Results from a patient-based health education intervention in reducing antibiotic use for acute upper respiratory tract infections in the private sector primary care setting in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Magdalene Hui Min; Pan, Darius Shaw Teng; Huang, Joyce Huixin; Chen, Mark I-Cheng; Chong, Joash Wen Chen; Goh, Ee Hui; Jiang, Lili; Leo, Yee Sin; Lee, Tau Hong; Wong, Chia Siong; Loh, Victor Weng Keong; Lim, Fong Seng; Poh, Adrian Zhongxian; Tham, Tat Yean; Wong, Wei Mon; Yu, Yue

    2017-02-13

    We investigated the efficacy of patient-targeted education in reducing antibiotic prescriptions for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) amongst adults in the private primary care setting in Singapore. Our randomized controlled trial enrolled patients aged 21 years and above presenting at GP (general practitioner) clinics with URTI symptoms for 7 days or less. Intervention arm patients were verbally educated via pamphlets about the aetiology of URTIs, role of antibiotics in treating URTIs, and consequences of inappropriate antibiotic use. Control arm patients were educated on influenza vaccinations. Both arms were compared on proportions prescribed antibiotics and patients' post-consultation views. 914 patients consulting 35 doctors from 24 clinics completed the study (457 in each arm). Demographics in both arms were similar. 19.1% were prescribed an antibiotic, but this varied from 0% to 70% for individual GPs. The intervention did not significantly reduce antibiotic prescriptions (odds ratio [OR] 1.20, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.83-1.73) except in patients of Indian ethnicity (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.93). Positive associations between the intervention and the view that antibiotics were not needed most of the time for URTIs (p=0.047) and on being worried about the side effects of antibiotics (p=0.018) were restricted to the Indian subgroup. GPs in limited liability partnerships or clinic chains prescribed less (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14 - 0.92), while certain inappropriate patient responses were associated with receipt of antibiotics. Follow-up studies to investigate differences in responses to educational programs between ethnicities, and to explore GP-targeted interventions, are recommended.

  8. The Common bed bug (Cimex lectularius) in metropolitan France. Survey on the attitudes and practices of private- and public-sector professionals.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, Frédéric; Delaunay, Pascal; Bérenger, Jean-Michel; Perrin, Yvon; Robert, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The Common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, had virtually disappeared from France in the 1950s; however, a worldwide resurgence of bed bugs (C. lectularius and C. hemipterus) has been observed since the 1990s. To document modern pest control activities for the management of bed bugs, a survey was conducted in metropolitan France among the two main categories of professionals regularly called upon to deal with the control of infestations: Municipal Health and Safety Services (MHSSs) and private Pest Management Companies (PMCs). These professionals responded to a questionnaire targeting their knowledge, attitude and practices related to the process for diagnosing a bed bug infestation and the processes taken to actually control an infestation. There were 68 responses received from MHSSs and 51 from the PMCs. The responses indicate that every single département (French administrative division) in metropolitan France has witnessed at least one intervention for bed bugs. Among the criteria considered sufficient to confirm a bed bug infestation, direct observation of bugs was the most commonly cited response. Faced with an infestation, most PMCs used a combination of non-chemical and chemical methods, and systematically performed two treatments. This survey is the first of professionals involved in bed bug control in metropolitan France and confirms the growing importance of bed bugs as a public health pest. Establishing a database to monitor this emerging pest would improve the understanding of the distribution of these insects, help guide educational requirements, identify research needs and assist in ensuring that the most appropriate control practices are undertaken.

  9. Abnormal economics in the health sector.

    PubMed

    Hsaio, W C

    1995-01-01

    The implosion of centrally-planned economies has led to a widespread and uncritical belief that a free market is the best mechanism for structuring the economic and social sectors. Many international agencies have pushed this belief on the developing nations. This paper offers a critical analysis of the effectiveness of using free market principles to structure the health sector. We try to answer two questions: in what spheres can the market operate freely? In what spheres is government action required? According to economic theory, the market is only appropriate for producing and distributing private goods. This study analyzed health care and subdivides it into three categories (public, merit, and private goods) to clarify where the market has a legitimate role. Next, we analyze two of the five markets in the health sector--financing and delivery--and assess the respective roles of the market and government Competitive markets have certain prerequisites. We identify the major market failures by evaluating where these conditions are not satisfied. Next, we draw on international experience to ascertain the seriousness of those failures and the capacity of government action to correct them. Lessons are drawn for developing nations about the appropriateness of market strategies to finance and deliver health care.

  10. A proposed framework of big data readiness in public sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Raja Haslinda Raja Mohd; Mohamad, Rosli; Sudin, Suhizaz

    2016-08-01

    Growing interest over big data mainly linked to its great potential to unveil unforeseen pattern or profiles that support organisation's key business decisions. Following private sector moves to embrace big data, the government sector has now getting into the bandwagon. Big data has been considered as one of the potential tools to enhance service delivery of the public sector within its financial resources constraints. Malaysian government, particularly, has considered big data as one of the main national agenda. Regardless of government commitment to promote big data amongst government agencies, degrees of readiness of the government agencies as well as their employees are crucial in ensuring successful deployment of big data. This paper, therefore, proposes a conceptual framework to investigate perceived readiness of big data potentials amongst Malaysian government agencies. Perceived readiness of 28 ministries and their respective employees will be assessed using both qualitative (interview) and quantitative (survey) approaches. The outcome of the study is expected to offer meaningful insight on factors affecting change readiness among public agencies on big data potentials and the expected outcome from greater/lower change readiness among the public sectors.

  11. Privatizing Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California…

  12. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  13. Global public-private partnerships: Part I--A new development in health?

    PubMed Central

    Buse, K.; Walt, G.

    2000-01-01

    The proliferation of public-private partnerships is rapidly reconfiguring the international health landscape. This article (part I of two on the subject) traces the changing nature of partnership, and discusses the definitional and conceptual ambiguities surrounding the term. After defining global public-private partnerships (GPPPs) for health development, we analyse the factors which have led to the convergence of public and private actors and discuss the consequences of the trend toward partnership between UN agencies (including the World Bank) and commercial entities in the health sector. Generic factors such as globalization and disillusionment with the UN, and factors specific to the health sector, such as market failure in product development for orphan diseases, are examined. Reviewed are the interests, policies, practices and concerns of the UN, the private-for-profit sector, bilateral organizations, and governments of low-income countries with respect to public-private partnership. While GPPPs bring much needed resources to problems of international health, we highlight concerns regarding this new organizational format. Part II, which will be published in the May issue of the Bulletin, presents a conceptual framework for analysing health GPPPs and explores the issues raised. PMID:10885184

  14. A total market approach for condoms in Myanmar: the need for the private, public and socially marketed sectors to work together for a sustainable condom market for HIV prevention

    PubMed Central

    Longfield, Kim; Mundy, Gary; Win, Zaw; Montagu, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    Background Concerns about appropriate pricing strategies and the high market share of subsidized condoms prompted Population Services International (PSI)/Myanmar to adopt a total market approach (TMA). This article presents data on the size and composition of the Myanmar condom market, identifies inefficiencies and recommends methods for better targeting public subsidy. Methodology Data on condom need and condom use came from PSI/Myanmar’s (PSI/M’s) behavioural surveys; data for key populations’ socioeconomic status profiles came from the same surveys and the National Tuberculosis Prevalence Survey. Data on market share, volumes, value and number of condoms were from PSI/M’s quarterly retail audits and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). Results Between 2008 and 2010, the universal need for condoms decreased from 112.9 to 98.2 million while condom use increased from 32 to 46%. Free and socially marketed condoms dominated the market (94%) in 2009–11 with an increase in the proportion of free condoms over time. The retail price of socially marketed condoms was artificially low at 44 kyats ($0.05 USD) in 2011 while the price for commercial condoms was 119–399 kyats ($0.15–$0.49 USD). Equity analyses demonstrated an equal distribution of female sex workers across national wealth quintiles, but 54% of men who have sex with men and 55% of male clients were in the highest two quintiles. Donor subsidies for condoms increased over time; from $434 000 USD in 2009 to $577 000 USD in 2011. Conclusion The market for male condoms was stagnant in Myanmar due to: limited demand for condoms among key populations, the dominance of free and socially marketed condoms on the market and a neglected commercial sector. Subsidies for socially marketed and free condoms have prevented the growth of the private sector, an unintended consequence. A TMA is needed to grow and sustain the condom market in Myanmar, which requires close co-ordination between the

  15. 75 FR 72965 - Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ...-AJ09 Federal Travel Regulation; Removal of Privately Owned Vehicle Rates; Privately Owned Automobile Mileage Reimbursement When Government Owned Automobiles Are Authorized; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY... for travelers who are authorized to use a Government Owned Automobile (GOA) for temporary duty...

  16. Non-private power aggregation: New markets for public-private partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    Motivated by needs to survive the twin thrusts of deregulation and privatization, the non-private sector is beginning to take the initiative in the energy aggregation field. Success in establishing public-private partnerships with it requires appreciation of the legal and also the institutional survival issues with which they are dealing. The results can be creative uses of municipal franchises, a renaissance of non profit power firms, and the continuing financial vitality of the seriously threatened and socially valuable not-for-profit public sector. From the perspective of private firms, aggregation by non-private firms can be a portal to response to the electric power deregulation revolution.

  17. Privatization of Military Family Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Rev. 2-89) (EG) Proscribed by ANSI S IU . 239,1 PRIVATIZATION OF MILITARY FAMILY HOUSING MAJOR PATRICK W. MOUDY* * Major Patrick W. Moudy, United...amendments for Development of Private Sector Housing, Corpus Christi, Texas.29 Landmark Residential, LLC (Landmark) was the successful offeror for the...office, the JAG office, the Civil Engineering office, the Comptroller office, the environmental experts, and the housing office, as well as the command

  18. The funding of private hospitals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Abby L

    2002-01-01

    Private hospitals are an essential component of Australia's complex mix of public and private health funding and provision. Private hospitals account for 34.3 per cent of all hospital separations, and over half (56.2%) of all same-day separations. The revenue (funding) of the sector approached $4 billion by 1998/99, and as a result of its recent rapid growth capital expenditure in the sector was nearly $550 million in the same year. Private casemix of private hospitals is distinctive, and characterised by a high proportion of surgical procedures in general (48.1 per cent), and more than a majority of all services in such areas as rehabilitation, orthopaedics (shoulder, knee, spinal fusion, and hand surgery), alcohol disorders, same day colonoscopy and sleep disorders. This chapter synthesizes data from a multitude of sources to produce a comprehensive picture of Australia's private hospital sector and its funding. It examines the funding (revenue) sources of private hospitals, and considers how and why private hospitals approach the issue of funding from a different perspective than their public sector colleagues. To illustrate how Australian private hospitals approach revenue (funding) strategically, a series of indicative types of hospitals is explored.

  19. Business and AIDS: sectoral challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Weston, Mark D; Churchyard, Gavin J; Mametja, David; McIntyre, James A; Randera, Fazel

    2007-07-01

    The Business and AIDS think tank held in Durban, South Africa, in June 2006, included a discussion of the policies with which different types of employer could address HIV/AIDS in southern Africa. Breakout groups discussed the role of large and small private sector firms, the public sector, and parastatal organizations. They made recommendations for policies, programmes and future research for each sector.

  20. A Structuration Agency View of Investor-Officer Power Struggles and Conflict in a Private Firm: A Tale of Two Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Structuration theory helps to explain the role of human agency in the reciprocal relationship between social systems and structures, which Giddens called the "duality of structure." The theory explicates how power struggles emerge and are negotiated and, depending on the restructuration, can help to resolve conflict or lead to deteriorations and…

  1. OIG News Release: EPA IG responds to Sen. Vitter's letter about audit report on agency's use of private and alias email accounts to conduct official business

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Arthur A. Elkins Jr., Inspector General for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has replied to a letter signed and released to the public February 20 byU.S. Sen. David Vitter, Ranking Member of the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works.

  2. Private Sector Downsizing: Implications for DOD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    1998, July 29). The Loyalty con­ tract: Employee commitment and competitive advantage. http:// ups . c o m/c o m/new s/spe e c h/ loyalty.html...overview of employee commitment in America. AON Consulting Loyally Institute, An Arbor, MI. Sunoo, B. P. (July 1998). Employee turn­ over is...now consider keeping skilled employees a major problem, one which, if solved, can lead to greater competitive advantage. The erosion of employee

  3. Workplace Learning in Morocco: Private Sector Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, J. Ben; Al Arkoubi, Khadija

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore training and development practices in Morocco and examine them in light of international practices provided from benchmarking data. Distinctions were also made between multinationals operating in Morocco and Moroccan owned companies. Contrasts in the results are discussed with possible explanations and…

  4. Private Sector Adds to the Menu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Two school districts, Kennewick School District WA and Salem-Keizer School District OR, are leveraging their food service contractor's resources to establish work-based courses stressing sophisticated management, culinary, and life skills. Under these instructional partnerships, the contractor, cooperating with school officials, develops the…

  5. Infrastructure and Private Sector Investment in Pakistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    enrollment ratio (ffiRD, 1995). Robert E. Looney· Naval Postgraduate School. Monterey. California 93943 USA. Journal of Asian Economics , Vol. 8, No.3, 1997...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 394 JOURNAL OF ASIAN ECONOMICS 8(3),1997 2. While the country has been able to avoid high

  6. Private Sector Thinking Saves Park U.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breckon, Donald; Gibb, John

    2000-01-01

    Recounts the restructuring and resulting survival of Park University (Missouri) over the last decade. A process of evaluating the university's competitive strategy resulted in changes in tuition pricing; development of the Park School of Distance Learning, which serves primarily military installations; minority student marketing; and development…

  7. Emerging Strategies for Private-Sector Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Cristina

    This report delineates five governance strategies in U.S. corporations that have emerged over the last 20 years: (1) reform of corporate boards, which includes the role of boards and implementation approaches; (2) organizational improvement, which details employee involvement, total quality management, and reengineering; (3) developing team-based…

  8. The Evolving Private Military Sector: A Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-11

    rents; the second stage examines how much of that rent is appropriated by inside stakeholders—i.e., employees ( Coff , 1999). For an illustration of...to Coff (1999), employees’ ability to appropriate rent depends on three factors that drive employee bargaining power: the scarcity of their skills...and North Korea, and several central Asian countries. These states have both low GDP (gross national product) and little, no, or negative GDP growth

  9. The Evolving Private Military Sector: A Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-05

    organizational rents; the second stage examines how much of that rent is appropriated by inside stakeholders—i.e., employees ( Coff , 1999). For an...these contracts don’t necessarily yield profits. According to Coff (1999), employees’ ability to appropriate rent depends on three factors that drive...countries such as Laos and Cambodia, Burma and North Korea, and several central Asian countries. These states have both low GDP (gross national

  10. Public-private partnership models in France and in Europe.

    PubMed

    Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Canet, Emmanuel; Segard, Lionel

    2006-01-01

    The workshop entitled "Public-Private partnerships models in Europe-- comparison between France and European countries" brought together representatives of academia and industry, of national or European health research programs, of regional or national public-private partnership (PPP) initiatives, and of biotechnology with the following objectives: sharing a common vision on the needs, expectations and challenges of public-private partnership, based on the analysis of actual and original cases, and of new initiatives on public-private partnership, drawing conclusions and identifying key success factors, identifying trails for progress and drawing recommendations. The major event in this field is a European public-private partnership initiative between pharmaceutical industry (European Federation of Pharmaceultical Industry and Associations, EFPIA) and the European Commission (DG Research--health priority) resulting in the European Technology Platform project "Innovative Medicines Initiative" (IMI). Its architecture is based on the identification of the main bottlenecks to the development of innovative treatments (predictive pharmacology and toxicology, identification and validation of biomarkers, patients' recruitment, risk evaluation, and cooperation with the regulatory authorities). Simultaneously, initiatives both at the national and regional levels also foster PPP in the therapeutic field. Regional competitivity clusters acting in the biomedical sector, and national PPP calls such as the ANR (National Research Agency) RIB (Research and Innovation in Biotechnology) call are incentives for PPP projects. These regional and national PPP levels help public and private partners to further build consortia able to compete for EU-level calls, thus acting as incubators for EU PPP projects. In spite of incentives and of the regional and national structuring of PPP, weaknesses in the French system are linked to its fragmentation--multiple transfer agencies, multiple

  11. Criteria for Developing a Successful Privatization Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    perception and adequate profit . :" iii BIOGRAPHICAL SKSI wEf; Thoas C. McSwain, Jr. Colonel (Sel) Thomas C. McSwain, Jr is a career Services Officer. He...the private sector in lieu of traditional governrmental financing and operation. In return, private sector entrepreneurs realize profits through long...military and DOD civilian con unity. The banks and credit unions derive normal profit through services they provide. More recently, Congressional and

  12. Enrolments, Funding and Student Staff Ratios by Sector. Policy Note. Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    This briefing examines government and private funding across educational sectors. Key findings include: (1) Differences in funding for public and private education across the sectors: (a) do not reflect policy coherence; and (b) entrench inequities; (2) All sectors receive funding from both public and private sources, though the shares vary.…

  13. Private Education in Poland: Breaking the Mould?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klus-Stanska, Dorota; Olek, Hilary

    1998-03-01

    The burgeoning private sector is perhaps the most tangible of the changes in education which followed the upheavals of 1989/90 in Central and Eastern Europe. This article sets out to analyse the growth of private education in Poland and its contribution to the ongoing processes of democratisation and educational development. The authors argue that the euphoria of the period immediately following the overthrow of one-party communism encouraged unrealistic expectations of educational reform. Their analysis of private sector schooling in Poland suggests that its development has occurred in a haphazard fashion, reflecting the uncertainties of a society undergoing a painful process of transition. Symptomatic of this has been the failure to establish a clear regulatory framework for the private sector - an omission which has undermined the credibility of private schools. Nevertheless, the authors argue that the development of private sector schooling in Poland has brought diversity and a degree of innovation to a system previously almost devoid of either. There is now an urgent need for the evaluation and dissemination of private sector initiatives, which can serve as examples for future educational decision-making in Poland.

  14. Private Schooling and Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Henseke, Golo; Vignoles, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Though a relative small part of the school sector, private schools have an important role in British society, and there are policy concerns about their negative effect on social mobility. Other studies show that individuals who have attended a private school go on to have higher levels of educational achievement, are more likely to secure a…

  15. Eyes on Ecuador: Pains of privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-25

    International firms are bidding to explore petroliferous land under new more favorable terms by an Administration determined to boost private oil investment. Private sector partnership is also sought in downstream operations, formerly reserved for the state oil company. There is powerful resistance, however, to a too rapid scenario for change.

  16. Privatizing Higher Education: A New Australian Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David R., Ed.; Anwyl, John, Ed.

    The papers in this collection deal with the concept of "privatization" in higher education in both the traditional sense of student finance and in relation to recent usage involving non-government funding of research, provision of full-fee places alongside free places in public institutions, the founding of a private sector in addition…

  17. 77 FR 30351 - Sec. 221 Public Private Partnerships Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Sec. 221 Public Private Partnerships Public Meeting AGENCY: Federal... such a program be based on public- private partnership (PPP) principles and maximize the use of private... effective public-private partnership equipage incentive program. This notice is for the initial meeting....

  18. Improving Readiness with a Public-Private Partnership: NAVAIR’s Auxiliary Power Unit Total Logistics Support Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    outsourcing this work to the private sector. Yet, public - private partnerships can serve as a way to resolve the conflict between the public-sector...performance and efficiency. In a nutshell, public - private partnerships are “arrangements through which the combined resources, risks, and rewards of a...were not labeled as “ public - private partnerships .” Forming partnerships with the private sector to help support core depot maintenance capabilities

  19. Navigating Public-Private Partnerships: Introducing the Continuum of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiMartino, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In many urban districts, the public education landscape is being transformed as private-sector providers such as educational management organizations, charter management organizations, and partner support organizations partner with or run district schools. While some private-sector providers' visions for school reform have remained static…

  20. Homeschooling, Virtual Learning, and the Eroding Public/Private Binary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiger, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Regulators ubiquitously dichotomize schooling into two discrete sectors: "public" and "private". Although homeschooling is regulated in some contexts as a third sector, the general approach is to treat it as a species of private education by subjecting it to public regulation while simultaneously denying it public funds. But…

  1. Public/Private Partnerships in Education--Grounds for Optimism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Brent; Hentschke, Guilbert

    2005-01-01

    The last five years have seen a significant increase in the involvement of the private sector in the core areas of education delivery and not just in the provision of educational support services. This growing involvement of the private sector in education has been commented on in the press and in debates on education, but it is often…

  2. Private medicine and the privatisation of health care in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naylor, C D

    1988-01-01

    Health services in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) are provided by a mixture of public and private providers and institutions. Estimates of total health-related expenditure for 1985 range between 5.3% and 5.9% of gross national product (GNP), divided on approximately a 55:45 basis between public and private sectors. Basic preventive and curative services are provided by a hospital- and clinic-based public system. The public system does not adequately serve the rural areas and African tribal bantustans, and racial discrimination and/or segregation are obvious in its organisation and funding. The public sector's strength is the provision of state-subsidised care to many citizens who are unable to afford private medicine. The vast majority of hospitals are operated on a non-profit basis by government, industries, and voluntary agencies. Excluding hospitals that receive state subsidies, private investor-owned hospitals control about 10% of all hospital beds in the RSA. One-third of these investor-owned beds are held by state-dependent contractors providing long-term care. Two-thirds are wholly independent. Growth has been rapid in the independent hospital sector, and major corporations have entered the market. In 1985, over 85% of the white population was privately insured by a variety of prepayment programmes, including those organised through parastatal corporations and government departments. Despite major enrollment growth in the preceding decade, only 8% of blacks held private insurance by 1985; their coverage also tended to be less comprehensive. Faced with deficit financing, a sluggish economy, complaints from its white constituency about taxation levels, and pressure from private sector interest groups, the Nationalist government has endorsed the concept of privatisation of health care. Exponents of privatisation claim that it will permit differentiation by income to supplant discrimination by race. However, the direct links between disposable income and

  3. Privatization of solid waste collection services: Lessons from Gaborone

    SciTech Connect

    Bolaane, Benjamin Isaac, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We compared efficiency and effectiveness of waste collection by the public and private sector. • Public sector performs better than private sector in some areas and vice versa. • Outsourcing waste collection in developing countries is hindered by limited capacity on contractual issues. • Outsourcing collection in developing countries is hampered by inadequate waste information. • There is need to build capacity in the public sector of developing countries to support outsourcing. - Abstract: Formal privatization of solid waste collection activities has often been flagged as a suitable intervention for some of the challenges of solid waste management experienced by developing countries. Proponents of outsourcing collection to the private sector argue that in contrast to the public sector, it is more effective and efficient in delivering services. This essay is a comparative case study of efficiency and effectiveness attributes between the public and the formal private sector, in relation to the collection of commercial waste in Gaborone. The paper is based on analysis of secondary data and key informant interviews. It was found that while, the private sector performed comparatively well in most of the chosen indicators of efficiency and effectiveness, the public sector also had areas where it had a competitive advantage. For instance, the private sector used the collection crew more efficiently, while the public sector was found to have a more reliable workforce. The study recommends that, while formal private sector participation in waste collection has some positive effects in terms of quality of service rendered, in most developing countries, it has to be enhanced by building sufficient capacity within the public sector on information about services contracted out and evaluation of performance criteria within the contracting process.

  4. The Coordination of Job Training. Strategies for the Delivery of Services between Vocational Education Agencies and Private Industry Councils/SDAs. The 1993 Biennial Report as Required by Carl D. Perkins Vocational & Applied Technology Education Act of 1990 (P.L. 101-392).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Council on Vocational Education, Sacramento.

    Coordination of job training delivery strategies by vocational education (VE) agencies and private industry councils/service delivery areas (PICs/SDAs) throughout California in 1993 was reviewed. Among the review's main findings were the following: more than 9 of 10 SDAs have VE representatives on PICs; community colleges are the VE…

  5. The Public Good in English Private School Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyask, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    There exist some rare private schools that attempt to mitigate the anti-democratic qualities of the private schooling sector in England. This article reports on a study of private schools that aim to promote equality and participation through some aspects of their operations. It considers to what extent the governance structures within the schools…

  6. 24 CFR 92.200 - Private-public partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Private-public partnership. 92.200... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements § 92.200 Private-public partnership... private sector in accordance with section 221 of the Act....

  7. 24 CFR 92.200 - Private-public partnership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Private-public partnership. 92.200... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements § 92.200 Private-public partnership... private sector in accordance with section 221 of the Act....

  8. Private Agricultural Extension System in Kenya: Practice and Policy Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muyanga, Milu; Jayne, T. S.

    2008-01-01

    Private extension system has been at the centre of a debate triggered by inefficient public agricultural extension. The debate is anchored on the premise that the private sector is more efficient in extension service delivery. This study evaluates the private extension system in Kenya. It employs qualitative and quantitative methods. The results…

  9. The Changing Economic Advantage from Private School. CEE DP 115

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Francis; Machin, Stephen; Murphy, Richard; Zhu, Yu

    2010-01-01

    Private schooling, in its various guises, is an important feature of education systems across the world. The existence of a private education sector generates the possibility for parents to opt their children out of state provided education. In the case of the UK, private schools, though far less numerous than state schools, have for a long time…

  10. When Negotiation Fails: Private Education as a Disciplinary Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Regt, Ali; Weenink, Don

    2005-01-01

    This articles deals with the question why Dutch upper-middle-class parents resort to fee-paying private education, a tiny, recently developed sector of the Dutch educational system. The research is based on interviews with 37 parents and 20 students attending private schools, and on a survey among 376 parents involved in private schooling. From…

  11. Agriculture Sectors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  12. 77 FR 73614 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Permanent, Privately...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...; Permanent, Privately Owned Horse Quarantine Facilities AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... with regulations for permanent, privately owned horse quarantine facilities. DATES: We will consider...: For information on the regulations for permanent, privately owned horse quarantine facilities,...

  13. 77 FR 35659 - Request for Information Regarding Complaints From Private Education Loan Borrowers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... PROTECTION Request for Information Regarding Complaints From Private Education Loan Borrowers AGENCY: Bureau... a Private Education Loan Ombudsman (Ombudsman) within the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (Bureau) to provide timely assistance to borrowers of private education loans. Among other things,...

  14. Privatization of solid waste collection services: Lessons from Gaborone.

    PubMed

    Bolaane, Benjamin; Isaac, Emmanuel

    2015-06-01

    Formal privatization of solid waste collection activities has often been flagged as a suitable intervention for some of the challenges of solid waste management experienced by developing countries. Proponents of outsourcing collection to the private sector argue that in contrast to the public sector, it is more effective and efficient in delivering services. This essay is a comparative case study of efficiency and effectiveness attributes between the public and the formal private sector, in relation to the collection of commercial waste in Gaborone. The paper is based on analysis of secondary data and key informant interviews. It was found that while, the private sector performed comparatively well in most of the chosen indicators of efficiency and effectiveness, the public sector also had areas where it had a competitive advantage. For instance, the private sector used the collection crew more efficiently, while the public sector was found to have a more reliable workforce. The study recommends that, while formal private sector participation in waste collection has some positive effects in terms of quality of service rendered, in most developing countries, it has to be enhanced by building sufficient capacity within the public sector on information about services contracted out and evaluation of performance criteria within the contracting process.

  15. Public – private 'partnerships' in health – a global call to action

    PubMed Central

    Nishtar, Sania

    2004-01-01

    The need for public-private partnerships arose against the backdrop of inadequacies on the part of the public sector to provide public good on their own, in an efficient and effective manner, owing to lack of resources and management issues. These considerations led to the evolution of a range of interface arrangements that brought together organizations with the mandate to offer public good on one hand, and those that could facilitate this goal though the provision of resources, technical expertise or outreach, on the other. The former category includes of governments and intergovernmental agencies and the latter, the non-profit and for-profit private sector. Though such partnerships create a powerful mechanism for addressing difficult problems by leveraging on the strengths of different partners, they also package complex ethical and process-related challenges. The complex transnational nature of some of these partnership arrangements necessitates that they be guided by a set of global principles and norms. Participation of international agencies warrants that they be set within a comprehensive policy and operational framework within the organizational mandate and involvement of countries requires legislative authorization, within the framework of which, procedural and process related guidelines need to be developed. This paper outlines key ethical and procedural issues inherent to different types of public-private arrangements and issues a Global Call to Action. PMID:15282025

  16. Nuclear privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1995-11-01

    The United Kingdom government announced in May 1995 plans to privatize the country`s two nuclear generating companies, Nuclear Electric and Scottish Nuclear. Under the plan, the two companies will become operating divisions of a unified holding company, to be called British Electric, with headquarters in Scotland. Britain`s nuclear plants were left out of the initial privatization in 1989 because the government believed the financial community would be unwilling to accept the open-ended liability of decommissioning the original nine stations based on the Magnox gas-cooled reactor. Six years later, the government has found a way around this by retaining these power stations in state ownership, leaving the new nuclear company with the eight Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) stations and the recently completed Sizewell B PWR stations. The operating Magnox stations are to be transferred to BNFL, which operates two Magnox stations of their own at Calder Hall and Chapelcross.

  17. When the business of nursing was the nursing business: the private duty registry system, 1900-1940.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Jean C

    2012-05-31

    In the initial decades of the 20th century, most nurses worked in the private sector as private duty nurses dependent on their own resources for securing and obtaining employment with individual patients. To organize and systematize the ways in which nurses sought jobs, a structure of private duty registries, agencies which connected nurses with patients, was established via professional nurse associations. This article describes the origins of the private duty nurse labor market as the main employment field for early nurses and ways in which the private duty registry system connected nurses and patients. The impact of professional nurses associations and two registries, (New York and Chicago) illustrates how the business of nursing was carried out, including registry formation, operation, and administration. Private duty nurses are compelling examples of a previous generation of nurse entrepreneurs. The discussion identifies problems and challenges of private nursing practice via registries, including the decline and legacy of this innovative nurse role. The story of early 20th century nurse owned and operated registries provides an early and critical historical illustration of the realization of nurse power, entrepreneurship, and control over professional practice that we still learn from today.

  18. 75 FR 39090 - Airport Privatization Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airport Privatization Pilot Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU), Lawrenceville, Georgia. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has completed its review of the Gwinnett County Airport Briscoe Field (LZU)...

  19. Adapting Washington Circle performance measures for public sector substance abuse treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Garnick, Deborah W; Lee, Margaret T; Horgan, Constance M; Acevedo, Andrea

    2009-04-01

    The Washington Circle, a group focused on developing and disseminating performance measures for substance abuse services, developed three such measures for private health plans. In this article, we explore whether these measures are appropriate for meeting measurement goals in the public sector and feasible to calculate in the public sector using data collected for administrative purposes by state and local substance abuse and/or mental health agencies. Working collaboratively, 12 states specified revised measures and 6 states pilot tested them. Two measures were retained from the original specifications: initiation of treatment and treatment engagement. Additional measures were focused on continuity of care after assessment, detoxification, residential or inpatient care. These data demonstrate that state agencies can calculate performance measures from routinely available information and that there is wide variability in these indicators. Ongoing research is needed to examine the reasons for these results, which might include lack of patient interest or commitment, need for quality improvement efforts, or financial issues.

  20. Peru privatizes

    SciTech Connect

    Suttil, K.R.

    1993-02-01

    Peru has been undergoing a revolution since the election of Alberto Fujimori as president in 1990. A revolution that is reversing many of the policies of the past 25 years and one which aims to bring Peru back into the mainstream of the world economy. All the enterprises nationalized in the heady days of the early 1970s are set up for privatization. The most important are the three mining companies: Hierro-Peru, Centromin, and Mineroo-Peru. It will not be easy to attract foreign investment after such a long period of political and economic instability but the rewards are there for the intrepid.

  1. Manufacturing Consent for Privatization in Public Education: The Rise of a Social Finance Network in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Wendy; Sen, Vicheth; Fallon, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    Multiple forms of privatization are emerging in the Canadian public sector, including public-private partnerships. This article focuses on one approach to public-private partnerships called "social finance," and a network of public, private, and not-for-profit organizations that promotes social finance as a means of funding public…

  2. 78 FR 76626 - Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates AGENCY: Office of Government-wide Policy (OGP... Privately Owned Vehicle Mileage Reimbursement Rates. SUMMARY: The General Services Administration's annual privately owned vehicle (POV) mileage reimbursement rate reviews have resulted in new CY 2014 rates for...

  3. Brazil's Mixed Public and Private Hospital System.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.

  4. 77 FR 14725 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Standards for Privately...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Collection; Standards for Privately Owned Quarantine Facilities for Ruminants AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... collection associated with regulations for privately owned quarantine facilities for ruminants. DATES: We...: For information on regulations for privately owned quarantine facilities for ruminants, contact...

  5. Elements of a Knowledge Management Guide for Public Sector Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mark Cameron

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the factors that are critical to the success of public (government) sector knowledge management initiatives and the lessons from private sector knowledge management and organizational learning that apply in the public sector. The goal was to create a concise guide, based on research-validated success factors, to aid government…

  6. Exploring corruption in the South African health sector.

    PubMed

    Rispel, Laetitia C; de Jager, Pieter; Fonn, Sharon

    2016-03-01

    Recent scholarly attention has focused on weak governance and the negative effects of corruption on the provision of health services. Employing agency theory, this article discusses corruption in the South African health sector. We used a combination of research methods and triangulated data from three sources: Auditor-General of South Africa reports for each province covering a 9-year period; 13 semi-structured interviews with health sector key informants and a content analysis of print media reports covering a 3-year period. Findings from the Auditor-General reports showed a worsening trend in audit outcomes with marked variation across the nine provinces. Key-informants indicated that corruption has a negative effect on patient care and the morale of healthcare workers. The majority of the print media reports on corruption concerned the public health sector (63%) and involved provincial health departments (45%). Characteristics and complexity of the public health sector may increase its vulnerability to corruption, but the private-public binary constitutes a false dichotomy as corruption often involves agents from both sectors. Notwithstanding the lack of global validated indicators to measure corruption, our findings suggest that corruption is a problem in the South African healthcare sector. Corruption is influenced by adverse agent selection, lack of mechanisms to detect corruption and a failure to sanction those involved in corrupt activities. We conclude that appropriate legislation is a necessary, but not sufficient intervention to reduce corruption. We propose that mechanisms to reduce corruption must include the political will to run corruption-free health services, effective government to enforce laws, appropriate systems, and citizen involvement and advocacy to hold public officials accountable. Importantly, the institutionalization of a functional bureaucracy and public servants with the right skills, competencies, ethics and value systems and whose

  7. Metals Sector

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Find environmental regulatory information about the metals sector (NAICS 331 & 332), including NESHAPs for metal coatings, effluent guidelines for metal products, combustion compliance assistance, and information about foundry sand recycling.

  8. Argentina's YPF hones in on privatization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-30

    This paper reports on Argentina's push to privatize and attract more foreign investment to its petroleum sector which continues to gather momentum. The Argentine government plans by year end 1992 to sell unprofitable assets of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, then sell as much as 50% of the state oil company through an international stock offering. If privatization proceeds as expected, YPF Pres. Jose Estenssoro the, the company's stock will be offered to private investors early in 1993. The company was founded in 1922. By March 1992, Argentina also will begin selling all assets of state owned Gas del Estado (GDE) through an international bidding process expected to take about 18 months.

  9. [The national union for private hospital oncology].

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence.

  10. Public and private donor financing for health in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Howard, L M

    1991-06-01

    Among the many variables that influence the outcome of national health status in both developed and developing countries, the availability and efficiency of financing is critical. For 148 developing countries, annual public and private expenditures from domestic sources (1983) were estimated to be approximately $100 billion. For the United States alone, annual public and private costs for medical care are almost five times larger ($478 billion, 1988). In contrast to domestic expenditures, the total flow of donor assistance for health in 1986 was estimated to be $4 billion, approximately 5% of total current domestic expenditures by developing countries. Direct donor assistance for development purposes by the United States Government approximates 0.5% of the US federal budget (1988). Approximately 10% of all United States development assistance is allocated for health, nutrition, and population planning purposes. While the total health sector contribution is on the order of $500 million annually, the US contribution represents about 13% of health contributions by all external donors. In sub-Saharan Africa, all donor health allocations only reach 3.4% of total development assistance. While available data suggest that private and voluntary organizations contribute approximately 20% of total global health assistance, data reporting methods from private agencies are not sufficiently specific to provide accurate global estimates. Clearly, developing countries as a whole are dependent on the efficient use of their own resources because external financing remains a small fraction of total domestic financing. Nevertheless, improvement in health sector performance often depends on the sharing of western experience and technology, services available through external donor cooperation. In this effort, the available supply of donor financing for health is not restricted entirely by donor policy, but also by the official demand for external financing as submitted by developing

  11. Analysis of the private market for LANDSAT products and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The private sector was examined and evaluated to develop base line strategies and mechanisms for its increased utilization of LANDSAT (and future satellite) technologies as both consumer and producer of products and services. Methodologies used to assess the digital analysis service and national mapping industries are described. Private sector users in business and industry are identified and the potential U.S. industry role in the foreign LANDSAT market is considered.

  12. Privatization and the allure of franchising: a Zambian feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, John L; Wight, Jonathan B

    2003-01-01

    Efforts to privatize portions of the health sector have proven more difficult to implement than had been anticipated previously. One common bottleneck encountered has been the traditional organizational structure of the private sector, with its plethora of independent, single physician practices. The atomistic nature of the sector has rendered many privatization efforts difficult, slow and costly-in terms of both organizational development and administration. In many parts of Africa, in particular, the shortages of human and social capital, and the fragile nature of legal institutions, undermine the appeal of privatization. The private sector is left with inefficiencies, high prices and costs, and a reduced effective demand. The result is the simultaneous existence of excess capacity and unmet need. One potential method to improve the efficiency of the private sector, and thereby enhance the likelihood of successful privatization, is to transfer managerial technology--via franchising--from models that have proven successful elsewhere. This paper presents a feasibility analysis of franchizing the successful Bolivian PROSALUD system's management package to Zambia. The assessment, based on PROSALUD's financial model, demonstrates that technology transfer requires careful adaptation to local conditions and, in this instance, would still require significant external assistance.

  13. Privatization in the U.S. Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Eugene. Entrepeneurs Can Do Everything Government Can Do. Only Better- Or Can They?. Inc., Dec 1984, p. 174. 1 8 Finley. Lawrence. K.. Public Sector...For Privatization. The Academy Of Political Science, New York. 1987. I Linden, Eugene. Entrepeneurs Can Do Everything Government Can Do. Only Better

  14. Privacy and the Private Eye in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, William E.

    Land remote-sensing satellites are developing as a commercial communications technology after years under a government monopoly. The shift to the private sector and improving quality of the pictures produced have given rise to increased concerns about the potential for violations of privacy rights. Although satellites can currently photograph only…

  15. Michigan School Privatization Survey 2016. A Mackinac Center Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, James M.; Cammenga, Janelle

    2016-01-01

    Public school districts are government entities, but they rely on the private sector to support their function of delivering educational services to students. Private contractors, for example, construct district buildings, write textbooks and manufacture the supplies necessary to keep the district operational, among other things. And over the past…

  16. Private School Administration: A New Challenge for Graduate Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Marie Ducote; Growe, Roslin

    Although the majority of school administrators in the United States are employed by their states, a growing number are needed to run institutions in the private sector. As demand for private- and parochial-school education increases, so too will demand for those trained to run them. Universities ignore differences between public- and…

  17. Private and Commercial Recreation: A Text and Reference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epperson, Arlin F.

    The purpose of this book is to help to draw together and cement the relationship between the public and private sectors in the field of recreation and to remove the observable lines of difference between the two. It is also intended to introduce prospective students to private and commercial recreation, particularly those who may be considering…

  18. Private Tutoring through the Internet: Globalization and "Offshoring"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Alexandre; Jang, Sunhwa

    2010-01-01

    The private tutoring industry has come forward as the third great sector of education. The common sense representation about private tutoring is changing. The growing search for supplementary educational support services and the technological innovation have created a new paradigm. This paper focuses on one of the most interesting faces of this…

  19. Comparing Administrative Satisfaction in Public and Private Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, James Fredericks; Parmley, Kelli

    2000-01-01

    Examined levels of administrator satisfaction at public and private institutions, using national data on university characteristics, state characteristics, and administrative satisfaction. Found hypothesized differences in satisfaction between administrators at public/private institutions were related only to extrinsic rewards. In both sectors,…

  20. Teachers' Organisational Behaviour in Public and Private Funded Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honingh, M. E.; Oort, F. J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare teachers' organisational behaviour in publicly- and privately-funded schools in the Dutch Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Design/methodology/approach: A percentage of all middle managers in publicly and privately funded schools (72 per cent and 43 per cent respectively) distributed…

  1. The Private College Effort: Better, Different, or What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benezet, Louis T.

    At present most private colleges are pricing themselves out of the market, and are asking for public aid to survive as the independent sector of higher education. Private higher education should be seen as important to the United States for educational reasons rather than for reasons of preserving institutions. The educational reasons should be…

  2. 76 FR 57723 - Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... to publish the Electricity Sector Cybersecurity Risk Management Process Guideline. The guideline describes a risk management process that is targeted to the specific needs of electricity...

  3. Private health insurance: implications for developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neelam; Savedoff, William

    2005-01-01

    Private health insurance is playing an increasing role in both high- and low-income countries, yet is poorly understood by researchers and policy-makers. This paper shows that the distinction between private and public health insurance is often exaggerated since well regulated private insurance markets share many features with public insurance systems. It notes that private health insurance preceded many modern social insurance systems in western Europe, allowing these countries to develop the mechanisms, institutions and capacities that subsequently made it possible to provide universal access to health care. We also review international experiences with private insurance, demonstrating that its role is not restricted to any particular region or level of national income. The seven countries that finance more than 20% of their health care via private health insurance are Brazil, Chile, Namibia, South Africa, the United States, Uruguay and Zimbabwe. In each case, private health insurance provides primary financial protection for workers and their families while public health-care funds are targeted to programmes covering poor and vulnerable populations. We make recommendations for policy in developing countries, arguing that private health insurance cannot be ignored. Instead, it can be harnessed to serve the public interest if governments implement effective regulations and focus public funds on programmes for those who are poor and vulnerable. It can also be used as a transitional form of health insurance to develop experience with insurance institutions while the public sector increases its own capacity to manage and finance health-care coverage. PMID:15744405

  4. Management of Private-Aided Higher Education in Karnataka, India: Lessons from an Enduring Public-Private Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James

    2005-01-01

    The Grant-in-Aid (GIA) higher education sector in Karnataka, India, is examined as an example of a well-established public-private partnership (PPP). Interviews with senior officials in the Government of Karnataka, and in two contrasting Regions, centred around Gulbarga and Mysore, together with visits to GIA and private-unaided (PUA) colleges…

  5. Privatization and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Neena

    2009-01-01

    This paper highlights emerging trends, programmes and policies in privatization of education in Western countries. These trends are educational vouchers, choice of private schools, private school liberalization, private contracting of specific services, tuition tax credits and deductions for parents ,subsidies and assistance grants to private…

  6. The Winds of Privatization: A Typology for Understanding the Phenomenon in Public Higher Education. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmer, Scott W.

    Colleges and universities are privatizing various institutional components and are seeking greater autonomy from state government. In defining privatization, the paper makes the distinction between privatizing and contracting, and notes six areas where a good or service can be owned or managed by the government or by the private sector: ownership…

  7. An Exploratory Analysis of Public and Private Correctional Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Leila

    2009-01-01

    As prison populations soar at unprecedented rates, the need for high quality education behind bars has never been greater. Prison education programs are the vehicle for reform and may be the solution to curtailing an ever-growing prison population. Yet, as the public sector increasingly contracts with the private sector for prison management,…

  8. Diversity of Provision in Higher Education: The Role of the Private Provider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielden, John

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses the growing UK private sector in education and questions whether it is, as its supporters suggest, a valuable addition to an already diverse national system. An earlier "Perspectives" paper (Woodfield et al 2011) explored the emerging partnerships between public and private sectors. This follow-up explores the roles…

  9. Public-Private Partnership in the Provision of Basic Education in Ghana: Challenges and Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyeampong, Kwame

    2009-01-01

    Growing private-sector participation in basic education service delivery in many developing countries has led to calls for greater partnership arrangements with the public sector to improve access for poor and disadvantaged groups. In Ghana there is some interest in forging closer public-private partnerships to improve access for children who have…

  10. Who gives birth in private facilities in Asia? A look at six countries

    PubMed Central

    Pomeroy, Amanda M; Koblinsky, Marge; Alva, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, multilateral organizations have encouraged increased engagement with private healthcare providers in developing countries. As these efforts progress, there are concerns regarding how private delivery care may effect maternal health outcomes. Currently available data do not allow for an in-depth study of the direct effect of increasing private sector use on maternal health across countries. As a first step, however, we use demographic and health surveys (DHS) data to (1) examine trends in growth of delivery care provided by private facilities and (2) describe who is using the private sector within the healthcare system. As Asia has shown strong increases in institutional coverage of delivery care in the last decade, we will examine trends in six Asian countries. We hypothesize that if the private sector competes for clients based on perceived quality, their clientele will be wealthier, more educated and live in an area where there are enough health facilities to allow for competition. We test this hypothesis by examining factors of socio-demographic, economic and physical access and actual/perceived need related to a mother’s choice to deliver in a health facility and then, among women delivering in a facility, their use of a private provider. Results show a significant trend towards greater use of private sector delivery care over the last decade. Wealth and education are related to private sector delivery care in about half of our countries, but are not as universally related to use as we would expect. A previous private facility birth predicted repeat private facility use across nearly all countries. In two countries (Cambodia and India), primiparity also predicted private facility use. More in-depth work is needed to truly understand the behaviour of the private sector in these countries; these results warn against making generalizations about private sector delivery care. PMID:25012797

  11. 76 FR 5186 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; Agency Information Collection Activities; Office of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... contribution to achieve a shared national goal, participate in public- private partnerships, and are motivated... Stakeholder Input Project--Surveys Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public: Private sector and non-Federal.... Affected Public: Private sector and non-Federal infrastructure protection community. Number of...

  12. Public-private partnership: an opportunity for urban communities. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Successful experience with public-private partnerships is the responsibility of civic leaders and organizations. As responsibility shifts back to the local level and the private sector, the potential for cooperation between the public and private sectors should include both the policy and the operational dimensions. There are opportunities for partnership in the local economy, neighborhoods, and key community services. Each of these areas incorporates economic, social, and political factors that are interrelated. If businesses view socio-economic improvements as a self-interest, they will pursue more-active involvement. Local successes, however, will reflect the effectiveness of federal partnerships. 42 references, 2 tables. (DCK)

  13. Health sector leadership in mitigating climate change: experience from the UK and NSW.

    PubMed

    Pencheon, David; Rissel, Chris E; Hadfield, Glen; Madden, D Lynne

    2009-01-01

    The threat to human health from climate change means that all levels of government and private and public agencies will need to change their current practices to reduce carbon emissions. The health sector will also need to respond and change practice. The National Health Service in the United Kingdom is developing a systematic and strategic approach to reduce its carbon footprint, as described in the recently released NHS Carbon Reduction Strategy for England. The work is being led by the Service's new Sustainable Development Unit. While the Australian health care system has not yet embraced a shared vision for carbon reduction, there are examples emerging of how the sector is contributing to reduce greenhouse gas production. Examples from two NSW area health services to reduce energy use and promote active transport are presented. In both countries, these changes are supported by new legislation and policy.

  14. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  15. [Hospitals and the Public-Private Combination in the Portuguese Health System].

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Adalberto Campos; Nunes, Alexandre Morais

    2016-03-01

    The Portuguese health system has been characterized by the existence of a constant relationship between public and private sector, both in providing and financing health care. In recent decades, the private sector increased their responsiveness of care, extending the engagement in the relationship with the public sector. This relationship stems from the legal framework set out in the law, developing agreements, conventions and more recently through the model of public-private partnerships. In hospital network, this new dynamic relationship contributed, in the last two decades, to accentuate the mixed characteristics of the system, through a clear strengthening of the private component in the hospital network, particularly by investing in differentiated units.

  16. Brownfields Shifting Gears: Driving Toward Auto Sector Property Revitalization

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is an overview of community success stories. By building strong partnerships and setting priorities for recovery and revitalization, the public and private sectors are realizing a great deal of success in addressing idle industrial brownfields.

  17. 78 FR 70499 - Private Land Mobile Radio Stations Below 800 MHz

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... No. 07-100; FCC 13-52] Private Land Mobile Radio Stations Below 800 MHz AGENCY: Final rule... changes to 47 CFR 90.425 of the Commission's rules to allow Private Land Mobile Radio (PLMR) licensees...

  18. [Politics and strategy of privatization in health care system of Bosnia & Herzegovina. Private practice or private property?].

    PubMed

    Hrabac, Boris; Huseinagić, Senad

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a professionally sound option to conduct privatization process within the health care system of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The purpose of this text is to represent a milestone for launching a wider public debate and preparation of privatization in-depth plan. Due to complexity of such action, it is not allowed to let it be spontaneous. It is recommended to the Federal Ministry of Health to take over the leadership in order to prepare a comprehensive document entitled "Policy and Strategy of Privatization of Health Care System in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina". After preparation of the privatization concept, the wide public debate would be launched, as well as an appropriate support of the Government and Parliament. Hereinbefore mentioned document should provide answers to important issues, such as: privatization aims; subsectors eligible for privatization; ways of market regulations for providers of care and health insurance; payment mechanisms within public and private sector; issues of competition and solidarity, as well as equality and equity in health.

  19. Reform follows failure: I. Unregulated private care in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Van Lerberghe, W; Ammar, W; el Rashidi, R; Sales, A; Mechbal, A

    1997-12-01

    This first of two papers on the health sector in Lebanon describes how unregulated development of private care quickly led to a crisis situation. Following the civil war the health care sector in Lebanon is characterized by (i) ambulatory care provided by private practitioners working as individual entrepreneurs, and, to a small extent, by NGO health centres; and (ii) by a fast increase in hi-tech private hospitals. The latter is fuelled by unregulated purchase of hospital care by the Ministry of Health and public insurance schemes. Health expenditure and financing patterns are described. The position of the public sector in this context is analyzed. In Lebanon unregulated private care has resulted in major inefficiencies, distortion of the health care system, the creation of a culture that is oriented to secondary care and technology, and a non-sustainable cost explosion. Between 1991 and 1995 this led to a financing and organizational crisis that is the background for growing pressure for reform.

  20. Patients' appraisals of public and private healthcare: a qualitative study of physiotherapy and osteopathy.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, Katherine J; Bishop, Felicity L; Yardley, Lucy; Lewith, George

    2013-10-01

    Patients have previously reported differences in their experiences of treatments received in the public and private sectors; it remains unclear whether such perceived differences are particular to or shared across different interventions. This study explored whether patients' appraisals of public and private treatments are similar when appraising a complementary therapy (osteopathy) compared to a mainstream therapy (physiotherapy). Thirty-five qualitative interviews were analysed thematically. Patients' appraisals varied by health-care sector and therapy type: physiotherapy was appraised more negatively in the National Health Service than the private sector but osteopathy was appraised similarly within both health-care sectors. Potential reasons for this are discussed.