Science.gov

Sample records for agencies public health

  1. [Quality management in a public health agency].

    PubMed

    Villalbí, Joan R; Ballestín, Manuela; Casas, Conrad; Subirana, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the introduction of quality improvement actions in a public health organization. After ISO 17025 accreditation, which was legally mandated, was granted to the official control laboratory, the management decided to expand a quality policy in 2003, through a series of actions based on process analysis and proposals for improvement, further definition of standard operating procedures, exploration of users' opinions, the creation of improvement groups, and external audits or certification. The organizational response to these initiatives was diverse. External audit or certification of services seems to be the most powerful tool for change. Costing studies showed that up to 75% of the total expenditure of the agency in 2010 was spent on public health services subject to external audit or certification. PMID:22425456

  2. Local public health agency funding: money begets money.

    PubMed

    Bernet, Patrick Michael

    2007-01-01

    Local public health agencies are funded federal, state, and local revenue sources. There is a common belief that increases from one source will be offset by decreases in others, as when a local agency might decide it must increase taxes in response to lowered federal or state funding. This study tests this belief through a cross-sectional study using data from Missouri local public health agencies, and finds, instead, that money begets money. Local agencies that receive more from federal and state sources also raise more at the local level. Given the particular effectiveness of local funding in improving agency performance, these findings that nonlocal revenues are amplified at the local level, help make the case for higher public health funding from federal and state levels. PMID:17299324

  3. Structure and Functions of State Public Health Agencies in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Madamala, Kusuma; Beitsch, Leslie M.; Pearsol, Jim; Jarris, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    We sought to document the structure and functions of state public health agencies throughout the United States in 2007 and compare findings with those from a similar 2001 assessment. In 2007 a survey of the structure and functions of state public health agencies was sent to and completed by senior deputies in all 50 states and the District of Columbia (a 100% response rate). The results of the survey showed that all emerging practice areas in 2001 had expanded by 2007. Also, state health departments generally had greater levels of responsibility in 2007 than they did in 2001, emphasizing the need for continued support of governmental public health systems and research on the operations of those systems. PMID:21566028

  4. Creating Quality Improvement Culture in Public Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Mahanna, Elizabeth; Joly, Brenda; Zelek, Michael; Riley, William; Verma, Pooja; Fisher, Jessica Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted case studies of 10 agencies that participated in early quality improvement efforts. Methods. The agencies participated in a project conducted by the National Association of County and City Health Officials (2007–2008). Case study participants included health directors and quality improvement team leaders and members. We implemented multiple qualitative analysis processes, including cross-case analysis and logic modeling. We categorized agencies according to the extent to which they had developed a quality improvement culture. Results. Agencies were conducting informal quality improvement projects (n = 4), conducting formal quality improvement projects (n = 3), or creating a quality improvement culture (n = 4). Agencies conducting formal quality improvement and creating a quality improvement culture had leadership support for quality improvement, participated in national quality improvement initiatives, had a greater number of staff trained in quality improvement and quality improvement teams that met regularly with decision-making authority. Agencies conducting informal quality improvement were likely to report that accreditation is the major driver for quality improvement work. Agencies creating a quality improvement culture were more likely to have a history of evidence-based decision-making and use quality improvement to address emerging issues. Conclusions. Our findings support previous research and add the roles of national public health accreditation and emerging issues as factors in agencies’ ability to create and sustain a quality improvement culture. PMID:24228680

  5. Designing and building new local public health agencies in Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Palm, David

    2005-01-01

    Prior to 2001, the local public health system in Nebraska was weak, fragmented, and severely under funded. Local public health departments covered only 22 of the state's 93 counties. The Turning Point project provided the impetus for change by allowing a diverse group of public health stakeholders to develop a strategic plan for strengthening and transforming the public health system. The plan acted as a catalyst to use some of the Nebraska Tobacco Settlement Funds to provide dedicated state funding to build the local public health system. By June 2002, 16 new local public health departments had been organized, ultimately covering all of the 93 counties in the state. Some of the keys to long-term sustainability are creating a network of community health partners that support collaborative decision making, continually seeking input from the community, developing and implementing an education and training plan for public health professionals and local board of health members, and demonstrating accountability by documenting results and communicating them to policy makers and the general public. PMID:15711444

  6. Not-so-strange bedfellows: models of interaction between managed care plans and public health agencies.

    PubMed

    Halverson, P K; Mays, G P; Kaluzny, A D; Richards, T B

    1997-01-01

    Alliances between managed care plans and public health agencies are a growing phenomenon in local health care markets, with profound implications for health care quality, cost, and accessibility. A typology of interorganizational relations between managed care plans and local public health agencies is drawn from observations of over 60 public health jurisdictions. Relations are described along three dimensions corresponding to the strategic intent, functional operation, and structural design of each alliance type. The identified models of interaction reveal the motivations for forming alliances, the mechanics of their operation, and the possible outcomes. These alliances suggest that a wide range of interorganizational strategies is possible in order to pursue the shared interests of local public health agencies and managed care plans. Nonetheless, public health agencies may face challenges in forging managed care alliances that benefit community-wide populations and that are open to participation by the full spectrum of health care providers in the community. PMID:9063302

  7. Health-Care Provider Preferences for Time-Sensitive Communications from Public Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Revere, Debra; Painter, Ian; Oberle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Rapid Emergency Alert Communication in Health (REACH) Trial was a randomized control trial to systematically compare and evaluate the effectiveness of traditional and mobile communication modalities for public health agencies to disseminate time-sensitive information to health-care providers (HCPs). We conducted a sub-study to identify the communication channels by which HCPs preferred receiving public health alerts and advisories. Methods Enrolled HCPs were blindly randomized into four message delivery groups to receive time-sensitive public health messages by e-mail, fax, or short message service (SMS) or to a no-message control group. Follow-up interviews were conducted 5–10 days after the message. In the final interview, additional questions were asked regarding HCP preferences for receiving public health alerts and advisories. We examined the relationship between key covariates and preferred method of receiving public health alert and advisory messages. Results Gender, age, provider type, and study site showed statistically significant associations with delivery method preference. Older providers were more likely than younger providers to prefer e-mail or fax, while younger providers were more likely than older providers to prefer receiving messages via SMS. Conclusions There is currently no evidence-based research to guide or improve communication between public health agencies and HCPs. Understanding the preferences of providers for receiving alerts and advisories may improve the effectiveness of vital public health communications systems and, in turn, may enhance disease surveillance, aid in early detection, and improve case finding and situational awareness for public health emergencies. PMID:25355977

  8. Making the Case for Using Financial Indicators in Local Public Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Virginia; Denison, Dwight

    2011-01-01

    The strength of the public health infrastructure determines the ability of local public health agencies to respond to emergencies and provide essential services. Organizational and systems capacity measures and assessments are important components of the public health infrastructure. Hospitals and governments have a long tradition of using financial indicators to assess fiscal and operational activities. We reviewed the literature on how hospitals use financial indicators to monitor financial risk, promote organizational sustainability, and improve organizational capacity. Given that financial indicators have not generally been employed by public health practitioners, we discuss how these measures can be applied to local public health agencies to improve their organizational capacity. PMID:21233438

  9. The Importance of Public Health Agency Independence: Marcellus Shale Gas Drilling in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Public health often deals with inconvenient truths. These are best communicated and acted on when public health agencies are independent of the organizations or individuals for whom the truths are inconvenient. The importance of public health independence is exemplified by the lack of involvement of the Pennsylvania Department of Health in responding to health concerns about shale gas drilling. Pennsylvania Department of Health involvement has been forestalled by the state governor, who has intensely supported shale gas development. PMID:24328620

  10. Loving and Leaving Public Health: Predictors of Intentions to Quit Among State Health Agency Workers

    PubMed Central

    Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Leider, Jonathon P.; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Context: State health agencies play a critical role in protecting and promoting the health and well-being of the people they serve. To be effective, they must maintain a highly skilled, diverse workforce of sufficient size and with proper training. Objective: The goal of this study was to examine demographics, job and workplace environment characteristics, job satisfaction, and reasons for initially joining the public health workforce as predictors of an employee's intentions to leave an organization within the next year. Design: This study used a cross-sectional design. Respondents were selected on the basis of a stratified sampling approach, with 5 geographic (paired Health and Human Services [HHS] regions) as the primary strata. Balanced repeated replication was used as a resampling method for variance estimation. A logistic regression model was used to examine the correlates of intentions to leave one's organization within the next year. The independent variables included several measures of satisfaction, perceptions about the workplace environment, initial reasons for joining public health, gender, age, education, salary, supervisory status, program area, and paired HHS region. Setting and Participants: The sample for this study consisted of 10 246 permanently employed state health agency central office employees who responded to the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS). Main Outcome Measure: Considering leaving one's organization within the next year. Results: Being a person of color, living in the West (HHS regions 9 and 10), and shorter tenure in one's current position were all associated with higher odds of intentions to leave an organization within the next year. Conversely, greater employee engagement, organizational support, job satisfaction, organization satisfaction, and pay satisfaction were all significant predictors of lower intentions to leave one's organization within the next year. Conclusions: Results from this study

  11. The local public health agency workforce: research needs and practice realities.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Michael R

    2003-01-01

    There is a paucity of information about the nation's local governmental public health agency (LPHA) workforce. Without additional research, crucial questions about the individuals providing front-line public health services remain unanswered. Current national efforts to develop a public health workforce research agenda must include strategies for collecting basic data on local governmental public health workers. The work of enumerating and classifying LPHA staff is complicated, but not impossible. Projects to improve LPHA performance and discussions of the certification of public health workers are incomplete without current and accurate data on the individuals comprising our nation's public health system. The need to describe basic facets of the LPHA workforce is not trivial. As city and county budgets are cut and LPHAs are left scrambling to cover lost positions, data are needed to inform important decisions about what kinds of LPHA staff are needed to keep a community healthy. PMID:14606188

  12. Sharing Overdose Data Across State Agencies to Inform Public Health Strategies: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Cherico-Hsii, Sara; Bankoski, Andrea; Singal, Pooja; Horon, Isabelle; Beane, Eric; Casey, Meghan; Rebbert-Franklin, Kathleen; Sharfstein, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    Data sharing and analysis are important components of coordinated and cost-effective public health strategies. However, legal and policy barriers have made data from different agencies difficult to share and analyze for policy development. To address a rise in overdose deaths, Maryland used an innovative and focused approach to bring together data on overdose decedents across multiple agencies. The effort was focused on developing discrete intervention points based on information yielded on decedents' lives, such as vulnerability upon release from incarceration. Key aspects of this approach included gubernatorial leadership, a unified commitment to data sharing across agencies with memoranda of understanding, and designation of a data management team. Preliminary results have yielded valuable insights and have helped inform policy. This process of navigating legal and privacy concerns in data sharing across multiple agencies may be applied to a variety of public health problems challenging health departments across the country. PMID:26957660

  13. Evaluation of Vocabularies for Electronic Laboratory Reporting to Public Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    White, Mark D.; Kolar, Linda M.; Steindel, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    Clinical laboratories and clinicians transmit certain laboratory test results to public health agencies as required by state or local law. Most of these surveillance data are currently received by conventional mail or facsimile transmission. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and Association of Public Health Laboratories are preparing to implement surveillance systems that will use existing laboratory information systems to transmit electronic laboratory results to appropriate public health agencies. The authors anticipate that this will improve the reporting efficiency for these laboratories, reduce manual data entry, and greatly increase the timeliness and utility of the data. The vocabulary and messaging standards used should encourage participation in these new electronic reporting systems by minimizing the cost and inconvenience to laboratories while providing for accurate and complete communication of needed data. This article describes public health data requirements and the influence of vocabulary and messaging standards on implementation. PMID:10332652

  14. Utilisation and costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rispel, Laetitia C.; Angelides, George

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, insufficient information exists on the costs of nursing agencies, which are temporary employment service providers that supply nurses to health establishments and/or private individuals. Objective The aim of the study was to determine the utilisation and direct costs of nursing agencies in the South African public health sector. Design A survey of all nine provincial health departments was conducted to determine utilisation and management of nursing agencies. The costs of nursing agencies were assumed to be equivalent to expenditure. Provincial health expenditure was obtained for five financial years (2005/6–2009/10) from the national Basic Accounting System database, and analysed using Microsoft Excel. Each of the 166,466 expenditure line items was coded. The total personnel and nursing agency expenditure was calculated for each financial year and for each province. Nursing agency expenditure as a percentage of the total personnel expenditure was then calculated. The nursing agency expenditure for South Africa is the total of all provincial expenditure. The 2009/10 annual government salary scales for different categories of nurses were used to calculate the number of permanent nurses who could have been employed in lieu of agency expenditure. All expenditure is expressed in South African rands (R; US$1 ∼ R7, 2010 prices). Results Only five provinces reported utilisation of nursing agencies, but all provinces showed agency expenditure. In the 2009/10 financial year, R1.49 billion (US$212.64 million) was spent on nursing agencies in the public health sector. In the same year, agency expenditure ranged from a low of R36.45 million (US$5.20 million) in Mpumalanga Province (mixed urban-rural) to a high of R356.43 million (US$50.92 million) in the Eastern Cape Province (mixed urban-rural). Agency expenditure as a percentage of personnel expenditure ranged from 0.96% in KwaZulu-Natal Province (mixed urban-rural) to 11.96% in the Northern Cape

  15. Progress in increasing electronic reporting of laboratory results to public health agencies--United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    2013-09-27

    Electronic reporting of laboratory results to public health agencies can improve public health surveillance for reportable diseases and conditions by making reporting more timely and complete. Since 2010, CDC has provided funding to 57 state, local, and territorial health departments through the Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases cooperative agreement to assist with improving electronic laboratory reporting (ELR) from clinical and public health laboratories to public health agencies. As part of this agreement, CDC and state and large local health departments are collaborating to monitor ELR implementation in the United States by developing data from each jurisdiction regarding total reporting laboratories, laboratories sending ELR by disease category and message format, and the number of ELR laboratory reports compared with the total number of laboratory reports. At the end of July 2013, 54 of the 57 jurisdictions were receiving at least some laboratory reports through ELR, and approximately 62% of 20 million laboratory reports were being received electronically, compared with 54% in 2012. Continued progress will require collaboration between clinical laboratories, laboratory information management system (LIMS) vendors, and public health agencies. PMID:24067585

  16. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  17. Update on progress in electronic reporting of laboratory results to public health agencies - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Emilie; Satre, John; Hurd-Kundeti, Glorietta; Liscek, Bonnie; Hall, C Jason; Pinner, Robert W; Conn, Laura; Zajac, Julie; Smallwood, Megan; Smith, Kaley

    2015-04-01

    Since 2010, CDC has provided resources from the Prevention and Public Health Fund of the Affordable Care Act to 57 state, local, and territorial health departments through the Epidemiology and Laboratory Capacity for Infectious Diseases cooperative agreement to assist with implementation of electronic laboratory reporting (ELR)* from clinical and public health laboratories to public health agencies. To update information from a previous report about the progress in implementing ELR in the United States, CDC examined regular communications between the agency and the 57 health departments during 2012-2014. The results indicated that, as of July 2014, 67% of the approximately 20 million laboratory reports received annually for notifiable conditions were received electronically, compared with 62% in July 2013. These electronic reports were received by 55 of the 57 jurisdictions and came from 3,269 (up from nearly 2,900 in July 2013) of approximately 10,600 reporting laboratories. The proportion of laboratory reports received electronically varied by jurisdiction. In 2014, compared with 2013, the number of jurisdictions receiving >75% of laboratory reports electronically was higher (21 versus 14), and the number of jurisdictions receiving <25% of reports electronically was lower (seven versus nine). National implementation of ELR continues to increase and appears it might reach 80% of total laboratory report volume by 2016. PMID:25837244

  18. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey: The First National Survey of State Health Agency Employees

    PubMed Central

    Sellers, Katie; Leider, Jonathon P.; Harper, Elizabeth; Castrucci, Brian C.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Jarris, Paul E.; Hunter, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Public health practitioners, policy makers, and researchers alike have called for more data on individual worker's perceptions about workplace environment, job satisfaction, and training needs for a quarter of a century. The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) was created to answer that call. Objective: Characterize key components of the public health workforce, including demographics, workplace environment, perceptions about national trends, and perceived training needs. Design: A nationally representative survey of central office employees at state health agencies (SHAs) was conducted in 2014. Approximately 25 000 e-mail invitations to a Web-based survey were sent out to public health staff in 37 states, based on a stratified sampling approach. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to account for the complex sampling design. Setting and Participants: A total of 10 246 permanently employed SHA central office employees participated in PH WINS (46% response rate). Main Outcome Measures: Perceptions about training needs; workplace environment and job satisfaction; national initiatives and trends; and demographics. Results: Although the majority of staff said they were somewhat or very satisfied with their job (79%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 78-80), as well as their organization (65%; 95% CI, 64-66), more than 42% (95% CI, 41-43) were considering leaving their organization in the next year or retiring before 2020; 4% of those were considering leaving for another job elsewhere in governmental public health. The majority of public health staff at SHA central offices are female (72%; 95% CI, 71-73), non-Hispanic white (70%; 95% CI, 69-71), and older than 40 years (73%; 95% CI, 72-74). The greatest training needs include influencing policy development, preparing a budget, and training related to the social determinants of health. Conclusions: PH WINS represents the first nationally representative survey of SHA employees. It

  19. Anatomy of a public health agency turnaround: the case of the general health district in Mahoning County.

    PubMed

    Honoré, Peggy A; Stefanak, Matthew; Dessens, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A turnaround describes an organization's ability to recover from successive periods of decline. Current and projected declines in US economic conditions continue to place local public health departments at risk of fiscal exigency. This examination focused on turnaround methodologies used by a local public health department to reverse successive periods of operational and financial declines. Illustrations are provided on the value added by implementing financial ratio and trend analysis in addition to using evidence-based private sector turnaround strategies of retrenchment, repositioning, and reorganization. Evidence has shown how the financial analysis and strategies aided in identifying operational weakness and set in motion corrective measures. The Public Health Uniform Data System is introduced along with a list of standards offered for mainstreaming these and other routine stewardship practices to diagnose, predict, and prevent agency declines. PMID:22635191

  20. Project TEACH: A Capacity-Building Training Program for Community-Based Organizations and Public Health Agencies.

    PubMed

    Sauaia, Angela; Tuitt, Nicole R; Kaufman, Carol E; Hunt, Cerise; Ledezma-Amorosi, Mariana; Byers, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Project TEACH (Teaching Equity to Advance Community Health) is a capacity-building training program to empower community-based organizations and regional public health agencies to develop data-driven, evidence-based, outcomes-focused public health interventions. TEACH delivers training modules on topics such as logic models, health data, social determinants of health, evidence-based interventions, and program evaluation. Cohorts of 7 to 12 community-based organizations and regional public health agencies in each of the 6 Colorado Area Health Education Centers service areas participate in a 2-day training program tailored to their specific needs. From July 2008 to December 2011, TEACH trained 94 organizations and agencies across Colorado. Training modules were well received and resulted in significant improvement in knowledge in core content areas, as well as accomplishment of self-proposed organizational goals, grant applications/awards, and several community-academic partnerships. PMID:23480898

  1. Readability of Ebola Information on Websites of Public Health Agencies, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Spanoudakis, Elpiniki; Holmes, Alison H.

    2015-01-01

    Public involvement in efforts to control the current Ebola virus disease epidemic requires understandable information. We reviewed the readability of Ebola information from public health agencies in non–Ebola-affected areas. A substantial proportion of citizens would have difficulty understanding existing information, which would potentially hinder effective health-seeking behaviors. PMID:26079313

  2. 77 FR 35683 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Public Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Public Health Service Guideline on Infectious Disease Issues in... contained in the Public Health Service (PHS) guideline entitled ``PHS Guideline on Infectious Disease Issues... product recipient and to the general public. The PHS guideline is intended to address public health...

  3. Elementary Rehabilitation Nursing Care; a Manual for Nurses and Ancillary Workers in Nursing Homes, Hospitals, Convalescent Facilities, and Public Health Agencies. Public Health Service Publication No. 1436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Public Health, Denver. Public Health Nursing Section.

    This guide for teacher and student use presents a comprehensive program of physical rehabilitation for aged and physically disabled patients. Developed by the Public Health Nursing Section, the manual was tested by state health department personnel and persons doing inservice teaching in their respective nursing homes. The program is designed to…

  4. Public health and climate change adaptation at the federal level: one agency's response to Executive Order 13514.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jeremy J; Schramm, Paul J; Luber, George

    2014-03-01

    Climate change will likely have adverse human health effects that require federal agency involvement in adaptation activities. In 2009, President Obama issued Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. The order required federal agencies to develop and implement climate change adaptation plans. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as part of a larger Department of Health and Human Services response to climate change, is developing such plans. We provide background on Executive Orders, outline tenets of climate change adaptation, discuss public health adaptation planning at both the Department of Health and Human Services and the CDC, and outline possible future CDC efforts. We also consider how these activities may be better integrated with other adaptation activities that manage emerging health threats posed by climate change. PMID:24432931

  5. Building Resilience against Climate Effects—A Novel Framework to Facilitate Climate Readiness in Public Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Marinucci, Gino D.; Luber, George; Uejio, Christopher K.; Saha, Shubhayu; Hess, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is anticipated to have several adverse health impacts. Managing these risks to public health requires an iterative approach. As with many risk management strategies related to climate change, using modeling to project impacts, engaging a wide range of stakeholders, and regularly updating models and risk management plans with new information—hallmarks of adaptive management—are considered central tenets of effective public health adaptation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has developed a framework, entitled Building Resilience Against Climate Effects, or BRACE, to facilitate this process for public health agencies. Its five steps are laid out here. Following the steps laid out in BRACE will enable an agency to use the best available science to project likely climate change health impacts in a given jurisdiction and prioritize interventions. Adopting BRACE will also reinforce public health’s established commitment to evidence-based practice and institutional learning, both of which will be central to successfully engaging the significant new challenges that climate change presents. PMID:24991665

  6. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    PubMed

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect. PMID:21940195

  7. Using the structure of social networks to map inter-agency relationships in public health services.

    PubMed

    West, Robert M; House, Allan O; Keen, Justin; Ward, Vicky L

    2015-11-01

    This article investigates network governance in the context of health and wellbeing services in England, focussing on relationships between managers in a range of services. There are three aims, namely to investigate, (i) the configurations of networks, (ii) the stability of network relationships over time and, (iii) the balance between formal and informal ties that underpin inter-agency relationships. Latent position cluster network models were used to characterise relationships. Managers were asked two questions, both designed to characterise informal relationships. The resulting networks differed substantially from one another in membership. Managers described networks of relationships that spanned organisational boundaries, and that changed substantially over time. The findings suggest that inter-agency co-ordination depends more on informal than on formal relationships. PMID:26460510

  8. Reinventing public health.

    PubMed

    Lee, P; Paxman, D

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is a review of the current state of public health in light of the social, political, economic, scientific, and technological changes buffeting the United States. As an assessment of progress in current public health efforts, we address the five major issues in public health for the 1990s raised by Breslow (8): reconstruction of public health; setting objectives for public health; from disease control to health promotion; determinants of health and health policy; continuing social inequities and their impacts on health; and the health implications of accelerating developments in technology. Finally, we look to the twenty-first century and provide five clear paths necessary to strengthen the capacity of public health agencies to protect and improve the health status of the population. PMID:9143710

  9. Public health assessments completed. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Notice.

    PubMed

    1999-01-28

    This notice announces those sites for which ATSDR has completed public health assessments during the period April 1998 through September 1998. This list includes sites that are on or proposed for inclusion on the National Priorities List (NPL), and includes sites for which assessments were prepared in response to requests from the public. PMID:10557607

  10. Training Public Health Advisors

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Pamela A.; Brusuelas, Kristin M.; Baden, Daniel J.; Duncan, Heather L.

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management. PMID:25564995

  11. Training Public Health Advisors.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Pamela A; Brusuelas, Kristin M; Baden, Daniel J; Duncan, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management. PMID:25564995

  12. Does Money Matter: Earnings Patterns Among a National Sample of the US State Governmental Public Health Agency Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Castrucci, Brian C.; Leider, Jonathon P.; Liss-Levinson, Rivka; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Context: Earnings have been shown to be a critical point in workforce recruitment and retention. However, little is known about how much governmental public health staff are paid across the United States. Objective: To characterize earnings among state health agency central office employees. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of state health agency central office employees in late 2014. The sampling approach was stratified by 5 (paired HHS) regions. Balanced repeated replication weights were used to correctly calculate variance estimates, given the complex sampling design. Descriptive and bivariate statistical comparisons were conducted. A linear regression model was used to examine correlates of earnings among full-time employees. Setting and Participants: A total of 9300 permanently employed, full-time state health agency central office staff who reported earnings information. Main Outcome Measure: Earnings are the main outcomes examined in this article. Results: Central office staff earn between $55 000 and $65 000 on average annually. Ascending supervisory status, educational attainment, and tenure are all associated with greater earnings. Those employed in clinical and laboratory positions and public health science positions earn more than their colleagues in administrative positions. Disparities exist between men and women, with men earning more, all else being equal (P < .001). Racial/ethnic disparities also exist, after accounting for other factors. Conclusions: This study provides baseline information to characterize the workforce and key challenges that result from earnings levels, including disparities in earnings that persist after accounting for education and experience. Data from the survey can inform strategies to address earnings issues and help reduce disparities. PMID:26422496

  13. Paraprofessionals in Public Rehabilitation Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Paul R.

    At the outset, social service agencies and numerous public agencies initiated as a result of the Economic Opportunities Act of 1965 were excluded from the scope of this paper. Several subtopics concerning paraprofessionals deserve consideration: (1) the need for paraprofessionals in public rehabilitation agencies; (2) the attitudes of…

  14. Preparing for a Public Sector Mental Health Reform in New Mexico: The Experience of Agencies Serving Adults with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Semansky, Rafael M.; Hodgkin, Dominic; Willging, Cathleen E.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, New Mexico began a comprehensive reform of state-funded mental health care. This paper reports on differences in characteristics, infrastructure, financial status, and available services across mental health agencies. We administered a telephone survey to senior leadership to assess agency status prior to and during the first year of reform. Non-profit/public agencies were more likely than others to report reductions or no changes in administrative staff. CMHCs were more likely to report a decline in their financial situation. Findings demonstrated that CMHCs, non-profit/public agencies and rural agencies were more likely to offer critical services to adults with serious mental illness in the first year of reform. The comprehensiveness of services offered by these types of agencies may be an advantage as the state moves to a core service agency approach. PMID:21688132

  15. Congenital anomalies in Canada 2013: a perinatal health surveillance report by the Public Health Agency of Canada's Canadian Perinatal Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Irvine, B; Luo, W; León, J A

    2015-03-01

    Congenital Anomalies in Canada 2013: A Perinatal Health Surveillance Report is the second national surveillance report from the Public Health Agency of Canada dedicated to congenital anomalies. It provides comprehensive data on congenital anomalies in Canada, focussing on 6 categories of congenital anomalies: Down syndrome, neural tube defects, congenital heart defects, orofacial clefts, limb deficiency defects and gastroschisis. The report presents national-level birth prevalence data and temporal trends, provincial and territorial estimates, and international comparisons. Known risk factors, prevalence-related impacts of prenatal diagnosis and preventative measures are also discussed. PMID:25811402

  16. "1970" Inter-Agency Health Meeting (Navajo).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    An inter-agency health meeting regarding health services for Navajo Indians is reported on in this document. The meeting, sponsored by the Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, involved agencies such as the U.S. Public Health Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Navajo Tribe. Included in the proceedings are reports and remarks by…

  17. Linking Public Health, Housing, and Indoor Environmental Policy: Successes and Challenges at Local and Federal Agencies in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, David E.; Kelly, Tom; Sobolewski, John

    2007-01-01

    We describe the successes and challenges faced by federal and local government agencies in the United States as they have attempted in recent years to connect public and environmental health, housing, community development, and building design with environmental, housing, and building laws, codes, and policies. These policies can either contribute to or adversely affect human physical and mental health, with important implications for economic viability, research, policy development, and overall social stability and progress. Policy impediments include tension between housing affordability and health investment that causes inefficient cost-shifting, privacy issues, unclear statutory authority, and resulting gaps in responsibility for housing, indoor air, and the built environment. We contrast this with other environmental frameworks such as ambient air and water quality statutes where the concept of “shared commons” and the “polluter pays” is more robust. The U.S. experiences in childhood lead poisoning prevention, indoor air, and mold provide useful policy insights. Local programs can effectively build healthy homes capacity through local laws and housing codes. The experience of coordinating remediation for mold, asthma triggers, weatherization, and other healthy housing improvements in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, is highlighted. The U.S. experience shows that policymakers should adopt a prevention-oriented, comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach at all levels of government to prevent unhealthy buildings, houses, and communities. PMID:17589610

  18. 78 FR 15680 - Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders: Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders: Public Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. ACTION: Request for information and notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: We are informing the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

  19. 77 FR 7124 - Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders; Public Meeting AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for information and notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: We are informing the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection...

  20. Curriculum Materials for "Health Occupations Education." Annotated Listing of Materials Available from Public Education Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    This annotated listing of curriculum materials for Health Occupations Education provides planners, administrators, vocational educators, and others with information as to available curriculum materials developed by the various States. The materials are identified with the instructional titles and codes from the classification system of the Office…

  1. Public health workforce taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Matthew L; Beck, Angela J; Coronado, Fátima; Merrill, Jacqueline A; Friedman, Charles P; Stamas, George D; Tyus, Nadra; Sellers, Katie; Moore, Jean; Tilson, Hugh H; Leep, Carolyn J

    2014-11-01

    Thoroughly characterizing and continuously monitoring the public health workforce is necessary for ensuring capacity to deliver public health services. A prerequisite for this is to develop a standardized methodology for classifying public health workers, permitting valid comparisons across agencies and over time, which does not exist for the public health workforce. An expert working group, all of whom are authors on this paper, was convened during 2012-2014 to develop a public health workforce taxonomy. The purpose of the taxonomy is to facilitate the systematic characterization of all public health workers while delineating a set of minimum data elements to be used in workforce surveys. The taxonomy will improve the comparability across surveys, assist with estimating duplicate counting of workers, provide a framework for describing the size and composition of the workforce, and address other challenges to workforce enumeration. The taxonomy consists of 12 axes, with each axis describing a key characteristic of public health workers. Within each axis are multiple categories, and sometimes subcategories, that further define that worker characteristic. The workforce taxonomy axes are occupation, workplace setting, employer, education, licensure, certification, job tasks, program area, public health specialization area, funding source, condition of employment, and demographics. The taxonomy is not intended to serve as a replacement for occupational classifications but rather is a tool for systematically categorizing worker characteristics. The taxonomy will continue to evolve as organizations implement it and recommend ways to improve this tool for more accurate workforce data collection. PMID:25439251

  2. Strengthening public health practice content in public health training.

    PubMed

    Gellert, G A

    1996-01-01

    U.S. schools of public health have recognized the imperative to strengthen the public health practice content of training for future public health practitioners. Five strategies to develop administrative and curriculum programs within schools of public health to address this need are described: (1) institution of centers for public health program evaluation; (2) creation of automated field placement and apprenticeship programs; (3) formalization of linkages with professional management training programs to create a track for future senior managers of community health agencies; (4) establishment of cross-departmental applied public health faculty tracks; and (5) offering applied public health evaluation scholarships for students. These initiatives may provide incentives for the institution of a public health practice focus within schools of public health. PMID:10186683

  3. Only an integrated approach across academia, enterprise, governments, and global agencies can tackle the public health impact of climate change

    PubMed Central

    Stordalen, Gunhild A.; Rocklöv, Joacim; Nilsson, Maria; Byass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite considerable global attention to the issues of climate change, relatively little priority has been given to the likely effects on human health of current and future changes in the global climate. We identify three major societal determinants that influence the impact of climate change on human health, namely the application of scholarship and knowledge; economic and commercial considerations; and actions of governments and global agencies. Discussion The three major areas are each discussed in terms of the ways in which they facilitate and frustrate attempts to protect human health from the effects of climate change. Academia still pays very little attention to the effects of climate on health in poorer countries. Enterprise is starting to recognise that healthy commerce depends on healthy people, and so climate change presents long-term threats if it compromises health. Governments and international agencies are very active, but often face immovable vested interests in other sectors. Overall, there tends to be too little interaction between the three areas, and this means that potential synergies and co-benefits are not always realised. Conclusion More attention from academia, enterprise, and international agencies needs to be given to the potential threats the climate change presents to human health. However, there needs to also be much closer collaboration between all three areas in order to capitalise on possible synergies that can be achieved between them. PMID:23653920

  4. Public Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    Earth observations can be used to address human health concerns in many ways: projecting occurrence of disease or disease outbreaks; rapid detection and tracking of events; construction of risk maps; targeting interventions; and enhancing knowledge of human health-environment int...

  5. Digital government and public health.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Jane E

    2004-10-01

    Digital government is typically defined as the production and delivery of information and services inside government and between government and the public using a range of information and communication technologies. Two types of government relationships with other entities are government-to-citizen and government-to-government relationships. Both offer opportunities and challenges. Assessment of a public health agency's readiness for digital government includes examination of technical, managerial, and political capabilities. Public health agencies are especially challenged by a lack of funding for technical infrastructure and expertise, by privacy and security issues, and by lack of Internet access for low-income and marginalized populations. Public health agencies understand the difficulties of working across agencies and levels of government, but the development of new, integrated e-programs will require more than technical change - it will require a profound change in paradigm. PMID:15675046

  6. American Public Health Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health? Creating Healthy Communities Topics & Issues Gun Violence Climate Change Environmental Health Generation Public Health Health Equity Health ... all about it > APHA Webinars Making the Connection: Climate Changes Health Join APHA and ecoAmerica for this series ...

  7. 78 FR 75356 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public Comment Request AGENCY: Health Resources and Services.... Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA),...

  8. 41 CFR 102-75.490 - Who must notify eligible public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public health purposes is available? 102... Real Property Disposal Property for Educational and Public Health Purposes § 102-75.490 Who must notify eligible public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public health purposes is...

  9. 41 CFR 102-75.490 - Who must notify eligible public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public health purposes is available? 102... Real Property Disposal Property for Educational and Public Health Purposes § 102-75.490 Who must notify eligible public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public health purposes is...

  10. 41 CFR 102-75.490 - Who must notify eligible public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public health purposes is available? 102... Real Property Disposal Property for Educational and Public Health Purposes § 102-75.490 Who must notify eligible public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public health purposes is...

  11. Twitter and public health.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Catherine; Wurtz, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Twitter can serve as a powerful communication modality to both "push" and "pull" public health data; each user is a potential public health sensor and actor. However, in 2012, only 8% of local health departments had Twitter accounts. We outline how Twitter works, describe how to access public tweets for public health surveillance purposes, review the literature on Twitter's current and potential role supporting public health's essential services, summarize Twitter's limitations, and make recommendations for health department use. PMID:24356087

  12. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R.; Bherwani, Kamal M.; Henning, Kelly J.

    2008-01-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies. PMID:18382010

  13. 34 CFR 303.30 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public agency. 303.30 Section 303.30 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.30 Public agency. As used in this part, public...

  14. Public health week: marketing the concept of public health.

    PubMed

    Evans, C A; Margolis, L A

    1992-01-01

    The Public Health Programs and Services (PHP&S) Branch of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services began a strategic planning effort in January 1986 to meet new disease trends, curb rising health care costs, consolidate limited resources, and handle shifting demographics. A strategic plan was designed to assess the opportunities and challenges facing the agency over a 5-year horizon. Priority areas were recognized, and seven strategic directives were formulated to guide PHP&S in expanding public health services to a changing community. Health promotion was acknowledged as a critical target of the strategic planning process. Among the most significant results of the health promotion directive was the establishment of an annual Public Health Week in Los Angeles County. Beginning in 1988, 1 week per year was selected to enhance the community's awareness of public health programs and the leadership role PHP&S plays in providing these programs to nearly 9 million residents of Los Angeles County. Events in Public Health Week include a professional lecture series and the honoring of an outstanding public health activist and a media personality who has fostered health promotion. Other free community activities such as mobile clinics, screenings, and health fairs are held throughout the county. With intensive media coverage of Public Health Week, PHP&S has been aggressive in promoting its own services and accomplishments while also educating the community on vital wellness issues. The strategic methodology employed by PHP&S, with its emphasis on long-range proactive planning, is receiving national recognition and could be adopted by similar agencies wishing to enhance their image and develop unique health promotion projects in their communities. PMID:1738801

  15. 78 FR 46592 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public Comment Request AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... Act of 1995, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) has submitted an...

  16. 78 FR 31946 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS... Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) announces plans to submit an Information...

  17. 78 FR 55729 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration,...

  18. 78 FR 69694 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration,...

  19. Advances in public health communication.

    PubMed

    Maibach, E; Holtgrave, D R

    1995-01-01

    There have been tremendous advances in recent years in the innovative use of communication to address public health problems. This article outlines the use of communication techniques and technologies to (positively) influence individuals, populations, and organizations for the purpose of promoting conditions conducive to human and environmental health. The approaches described include social marketing, risk communication, and behavioral decision theory, entertainment education, media advocacy, and interactive decision support systems. We also address criticism of these approaches among public health professionals because of perceived discrepancies in their inherent goals and objectives. In conclusion, we call for the rapid diffusion of state-of-the-art public health communication practices into public health service agencies and organizations. PMID:7639871

  20. A procurement-based pathway for promoting public health: innovative purchasing approaches for state and local government agencies.

    PubMed

    Noonan, Kathleen; Miller, Dorothy; Sell, Katherine; Rubin, David

    2013-11-01

    Through their purchasing powers, government agencies can play a critical role in leveraging markets to create healthier foods. In the United States, state and local governments are implementing creative approaches to procuring healthier foods, moving beyond the traditional regulatory relationship between government and vendors. They are forging new partnerships between government, non-profits, and researchers to increase healthier purchasing. On the basis of case examples, this article proposes a pathway in which state and local government agencies can use the procurement cycle to improve healthy eating. PMID:23803713

  1. Latest OECD figures confirm Canada as a public health laggard.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the Canadian public health community's commitments to promoting public policy that supports health, evidence indicates that Canada's public health picture continues to decline. This may be due in part to the failure of public health agencies and local public health units to engage in public policy advocacy and public education about the social determinants of health. Examples of such activities by local public health units are now available and provide a model for such activity. PMID:23618021

  2. 78 FR 5805 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request AGENCY: Electronic Government Office; Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Government Office (EGOV), Department of Health and Human Services, announces plans to submit an...

  3. [Public health and public health systems sustainability].

    PubMed

    Repullo Labrador, José R; Segura Benedicto, Andreu

    2006-01-01

    Public health and healthcare originally started out separately from one another in the past, having later further developed taking different paths in modern times. The major development the health systems underwent in the last half of the 20th century entailed a heightening of the individual standpoint and a division of these two approaches despite the attempts made to bring them together as of the WHO Alma-Ata Conference in 1978. The waning of rationalism and other social phenomena had a hand the collective or population-oriented focus being focused on to a lesser degree in Public Health, but these trends also gave rise to a growing problem of rationality in individual healthcare and sustainability in the public health systems. The debate on the current scene stands to set out the sustainability-related problems mediated by internal and external agents and to revise Public Health's possible contribution to the improvement thereof by advocating yet a further attempt at bringing together and integrating these two diverging standpoints. PMID:17193811

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH INDICATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs), quantitative measures of health factors and environmental influences tracked over time, can be used to identify specific areas and populations for intervention and prevention efforts and to evaluate the outcomes of implemented polic...

  5. Transforming public health through distance learning.

    PubMed

    Hirano, D; Dillenberg, J

    1998-09-01

    Public health agencies face old and new problems in the next century: emerging infectious and chronic diseases, health problems related to personal behaviors, a changing demography, and a deteriorating physical and social environment. To meet these challenges, public health agencies should consider the following: the advent of new communications technologies, the need for a strong workforce, and the need for new partnerships. Distance learning can serve as a means to facilitate a strong workforce and new partnerships. PMID:10187065

  6. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Donald

    2014-01-01

    There are significant shortages in the public health workforce and it's expected to worsen. Efforts to reduce this shortage are varied and include building the workforce by increasing exposure of students and young professionals in applied public health experiences. Providing these experiences increases productivity, and may help alleviate some of the workforce shortages in public health. This article seeks to highlight the work done at the Family Health Services Division (FHSD) in the Hawai‘i Department of Health over the past 6 and half years in working with students in epidemiology practicum and fellowship experiences. PMID:24660128

  7. Public and private health initiatives in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Fonner, E

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes several health initiatives in Kansas that are being forwarded by way of public/private partnerships. Consensus is being shaped on the standardization of health data and use of actionable indicators. Statewide public health improvement planning is also being pursued. A group of large employers and state agencies are creating a basis for group purchasing, consumer assessments of health plans, and coordinated public policy formulation. PMID:9718510

  8. Why Public Health Agencies Cannot Depend on Good Laboratory Practices as a Criterion for Selecting Data: The Case of Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Myers, John Peterson; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Akingbemi, Benson T.; Arizono, Koji; Belcher, Scott; Colborn, Theo; Chahoud, Ibrahim; Crain, D. Andrew; Farabollini, Francesca; Guillette, Louis J.; Hassold, Terry; Ho, Shuk-mei; Hunt, Patricia A.; Iguchi, Taisen; Jobling, Susan; Kanno, Jun; Laufer, Hans; Marcus, Michele; McLachlan, John A.; Nadal, Angel; Oehlmann, Jörg; Olea, Nicolás; Palanza, Paola; Parmigiani, Stefano; Rubin, Beverly S.; Schoenfelder, Gilbert; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M.; Talsness, Chris E.; Taylor, Julia A.; Vandenberg, Laura N.; Vandenbergh, John G.; Vogel, Sarah; Watson, Cheryl S.; Welshons, Wade V.; Zoeller, R. Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background In their safety evaluations of bisphenol A (BPA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and a counterpart in Europe, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), have given special prominence to two industry-funded studies that adhered to standards defined by Good Laboratory Practices (GLP). These same agencies have given much less weight in risk assessments to a large number of independently replicated non-GLP studies conducted with government funding by the leading experts in various fields of science from around the world. Objectives We reviewed differences between industry-funded GLP studies of BPA conducted by commercial laboratories for regulatory purposes and non-GLP studies conducted in academic and government laboratories to identify hazards and molecular mechanisms mediating adverse effects. We examined the methods and results in the GLP studies that were pivotal in the draft decision of the U.S. FDA declaring BPA safe in relation to findings from studies that were competitive for U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding, peer-reviewed for publication in leading journals, subject to independent replication, but rejected by the U.S. FDA for regulatory purposes. Discussion Although the U.S. FDA and EFSA have deemed two industry-funded GLP studies of BPA to be superior to hundreds of studies funded by the U.S. NIH and NIH counterparts in other countries, the GLP studies on which the agencies based their decisions have serious conceptual and methodologic flaws. In addition, the U.S. FDA and EFSA have mistakenly assumed that GLP yields valid and reliable scientific findings (i.e., “good science”). Their rationale for favoring GLP studies over hundreds of publically funded studies ignores the central factor in determining the reliability and validity of scientific findings, namely, independent replication, and use of the most appropriate and sensitive state-of-the-art assays, neither of which is an expectation of industry-funded GLP

  9. What Ails Public Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcabes, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Public health, once the gem of American social programs, has turned to dross. During the 20th century, the public-health sector wiped smallpox and polio off the U.S. map; virtually eliminated rickets, rubella, and goiter; stopped epidemic typhoid and yellow fever; and brought tuberculosis--once the leading cause of death in U.S. cities--under…

  10. Student Agency Experience in Public Relations Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Becky A.; Carrick, Tonya

    This study examined the existence and use of student-operated public relations/advertising agencies which operate outside the classroom as well as in conjunction with a class. Journalism programs in the United States which were listed as having a public relations sequence, major, emphasis, or concentration were surveyed; of these 110 responded for…

  11. The future of public health law.

    PubMed

    Gostin, L O

    1986-01-01

    Developments in medicine and constitutional law dictate modification of public health legislation in the United States. Traditionally overlooked by legislators, present public health laws provide inadequate decision-making criteria and inappropriate procedures for dealing with issues. Revised legislation should provide health care officials and agencies with the tools to balance individual rights against public health necessities. This Article makes four recommendations for legislative reform: (1) remove artificial legislative distinction between venereal and other communicable diseases; (2) provide criteria defining "public health necessity" to limit discretionary exercise of police power by health officials; (3) provide strong confidentiality protections in the collection and storage of public health information; (4) empower public health officials to select from a graded series of less restrictive alternatives in dealing with public health problems. PMID:3451680

  12. Engagement with Health Agencies on Twitter

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Sanmitra; Srinivasan, Padmini; Polgreen, Phil

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate factors associated with engagement of U.S. Federal Health Agencies via Twitter. Our specific goals are to study factors related to a) numbers of retweets, b) time between the agency tweet and first retweet and c) time between the agency tweet and last retweet. Methods We collect 164,104 tweets from 25 Federal Health Agencies and their 130 accounts. We use negative binomial hurdle regression models and Cox proportional hazards models to explore the influence of 26 factors on agency engagement. Account features include network centrality, tweet count, numbers of friends, followers, and favorites. Tweet features include age, the use of hashtags, user-mentions, URLs, sentiment measured using Sentistrength, and tweet content represented by fifteen semantic groups. Results A third of the tweets (53,556) had zero retweets. Less than 1% (613) had more than 100 retweets (mean  = 284). The hurdle analysis shows that hashtags, URLs and user-mentions are positively associated with retweets; sentiment has no association with retweets; and tweet count has a negative association with retweets. Almost all semantic groups, except for geographic areas, occupations and organizations, are positively associated with retweeting. The survival analyses indicate that engagement is positively associated with tweet age and the follower count. Conclusions Some of the factors associated with higher levels of Twitter engagement cannot be changed by the agencies, but others can be modified (e.g., use of hashtags, URLs). Our findings provide the background for future controlled experiments to increase public health engagement via Twitter. PMID:25379727

  13. 41 CFR 102-75.515 - What action must the disposal agency take after an eligible public agency has submitted a plan of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... educational or public health requirement? 102-75.515 Section 102-75.515 Public Contracts and Property... Health Purposes § 102-75.515 What action must the disposal agency take after an eligible public agency has submitted a plan of use for property for an educational or public health requirement? When...

  14. 41 CFR 102-75.515 - What action must the disposal agency take after an eligible public agency has submitted a plan of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... educational or public health requirement? 102-75.515 Section 102-75.515 Public Contracts and Property... Health Purposes § 102-75.515 What action must the disposal agency take after an eligible public agency has submitted a plan of use for property for an educational or public health requirement? When...

  15. 41 CFR 102-75.515 - What action must the disposal agency take after an eligible public agency has submitted a plan of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... educational or public health requirement? 102-75.515 Section 102-75.515 Public Contracts and Property... Health Purposes § 102-75.515 What action must the disposal agency take after an eligible public agency has submitted a plan of use for property for an educational or public health requirement? When...

  16. The Perceived and Real Value of Health Information Exchange in Public Health Surveillance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brian Edward

    2011-01-01

    Public health agencies protect the health and safety of populations. A key function of public health agencies is surveillance or the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data about health-related events. Recent public health events, such as the H1N1 outbreak, have triggered increased funding for and…

  17. Going tobacco-free on 24 New York City university campuses: A public health agency's partnership with a large urban public university system.

    PubMed

    Bresnahan, Marie P; Sacks, Rachel; Farley, Shannon M; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Patterson, Ty; Lamberson, Patti

    2016-01-01

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene partnered with the nation's largest university system, the City University of New York (CUNY), to provide technical assistance and resources to support the development and implementation of a system-wide tobacco-free policy. This effort formed one component of Healthy CUNY-a larger initiative to support health promotion and disease prevention across the university system and resulted in the successful introduction of a system-wide tobacco-free policy on all CUNY campuses. Glassman et al (J Am Coll Health. 2011;59:764-768) published a blueprint for action related to tobacco policies that informed our work. This paper describes the policy development and implementation process and presents lessons learned from the perspective of the Health Department, as a practical case study to inform and support other health departments who may be supporting colleges and universities to become tobacco-free. PMID:26700322

  18. State health agencies and the legislative policy process.

    PubMed

    Williams-Crowe, S M; Aultman, T V

    1994-01-01

    A new era of health care reform places increasing pressure on public health leaders and agencies to participate in the public policy arena. Public health professionals have long been comfortable in providing the scientific knowledge base required in policy development. What has been more recent in its evolution, however, is recognition that they must also play an active role in leading and shaping the debate over policy. A profile of effective State legislative policy "entrepreneurs" and their strategies has been developed to assist health agencies in developing such a leadership position. Based on the experiences of State legislative liaison officers, specific strategies for dealing with State legislatures have been identified and are organized into five key areas--agency organization, staff skills, communications, negotiation, and active ongoing involvement. A public health agency must be organized effectively to participate in the legislative policy process. Typically, effective agencies centralize responsibility for policy activities and promote broad and coordinated participation throughout the organization. Playing a key role in the agency's political interventions, the legislative liaison office should be staffed with persons possessing excellent interpersonal skills and a high degree of technical competence. Of central importance to effective legislative policy entrepreneurship is the ability to communicate the agency's position clearly. This includes setting forward a focused policy agenda, documenting policy issues in a meaningful manner, and reaching legislators with the proper information. Once a matter is on the legislative agenda, the agency must be prepared to negotiate and build broad support for the measure. Finally, public health agencies must be active policy players. To take advantage of new opportunities for action, the public health (policy) leader must monitor the political environment continually.By working to anticipate and formulate

  19. The Problem With Estimating Public Health Spending.

    PubMed

    Leider, Jonathon P

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to

  20. 42 CFR 484.245 - Accelerated payments for home health agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accelerated payments for home health agencies. 484... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME HEALTH SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Home Health Agencies § 484.245 Accelerated payments for home health agencies. (a) General...

  1. 42 CFR 484.245 - Accelerated payments for home health agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accelerated payments for home health agencies. 484... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME HEALTH SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Home Health Agencies § 484.245 Accelerated payments for home health agencies. (a) General...

  2. 42 CFR 484.245 - Accelerated payments for home health agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accelerated payments for home health agencies. 484... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME HEALTH SERVICES Prospective Payment System for Home Health Agencies § 484.245 Accelerated payments for home health agencies. (a) General...

  3. Public health departments and accountable care organizations: finding common ground in population health.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Richard; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Costich, Julia F

    2015-05-01

    We examined areas of potential collaboration between accountable care organizations and public health agencies, as well as perceived barriers and facilitators. We interviewed 9 key informants on 4 topics: advantages of public health agency involvement in accountable care organizations; services public health agencies could provide; practical, cultural, and legal barriers to accountable care organization-public health agency involvement; and business models that facilitate accountable care organization-public health agency collaboration. Public health agencies could help accountable care organizations partner with community organizations and reach vulnerable patients, provide population-based services and surveillance data, and promote policies that improve member health. Barriers include accountable care organizations' need for short-term financial yield, limited public health agency technical and financial capacity, and the absence of a financial model. PMID:25790392

  4. Going Tobacco-Free on 24 New York City University Campuses: A Public Health Agency's Partnership with a Large Urban Public University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresnahan, Marie P.; Sacks, Rachel; Farley, Shannon M.; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Patterson, Ty; Lamberson, Patti

    2016-01-01

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene partnered with the nation's largest university system, the City University of New York (CUNY), to provide technical assistance and resources to support the development and implementation of a system-wide tobacco-free policy. This effort formed one component of "Healthy CUNY"--a…

  5. Training Public Health Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Paul; And Others

    Funded by the Office of Economic Opportunity and carried out in Springfield, Massachusetts, during 1965-67, this training project sought to meet employment needs of disadvantaged high school graduates, the shortage of health professionals, and the need to improve and coordinate professional public health services. It combined a half-time,…

  6. 34 CFR 300.33 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public agency. 300.33 Section 300.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This...

  7. 34 CFR 303.21 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public agency. 303.21 Section 303.21 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility,...

  8. Development of Systematic Knowledge Management for Public Health: A Public Health Law Ontology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has stated that legal structures and the authority vested in health agencies and other partners within the public health system are essential to improving the public's health. Variation between the laws of different jurisdictions within the United States allows for natural experimentation and research into their…

  9. Moving from Intersection to Integration: Public Health Law Research and Public Health Systems and Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Scott; Mays, Glen P; Douglas Scutchfield, F; Ibrahim, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Context For three decades, experts have been stressing the importance of law to the effective operation of public health systems. Most recently, in a 2011 report, the Institute of Medicine recommended a review of state and local public health laws to ensure appropriate authority for public health agencies; adequate access to legal counsel for public health agencies; evaluations of the health effects and costs associated with legislation, regulations, and policies; and enhancement of research methods to assess the strength of evidence regarding the health effects of public policies. These recommendations, and the continued interest in law as a determinant of health system performance, speak to the need for integrating the emerging fields of Public Health Law Research (PHLR) and Public Health Systems and Services Research (PHSSR). Methods Expert commentary. Findings This article sets out a unified framework for the two fields and a shared research agenda built around three broad inquiries: (1) the structural role of law in shaping the organization, powers, prerogatives, duties, and limitations of public health agencies and thereby their functioning and ultimately their impact on public health (“infrastructure”); (2) the mechanisms through which public health system characteristics influence the implementation of interventional public health laws (“implementation”); and (3) the individual and system characteristics that influence the ability of public health systems and their community partners to develop and secure enactment of legal initiatives to advance public health (“innovation”). Research to date has laid a foundation of evidence, but progress requires better and more accessible data, a new generation of researchers comfortable in both law and health research, and more rigorous methods. Conclusions The routine integration of law as a salient factor in broader PHSSR studies of public health system functioning and health outcomes will enhance the

  10. Protecting Labor Rights: Roles for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-01-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards. PMID:24179278

  11. Protecting labor rights: roles for public health.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Rajiv; Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June

    2013-11-01

    Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards. PMID:24179278

  12. Public Health Practice Is Not Research

    PubMed Central

    Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research. PMID:24524499

  13. Public health practice is not research.

    PubMed

    Otto, Jean Lin; Holodniy, Mark; DeFraites, Robert F

    2014-04-01

    Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued as medical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research. PMID:24524499

  14. Climate Change: The Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, Howard; Hess, Jeremy; Luber, George; Malilay, Josephine; McGeehin, Michael

    2008-01-01

    There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timeline, and complexity of climate change are unprecedented. We propose a public health approach to climate change, based on the essential public health services, that extends to both clinical and population health services and emphasizes the coordination of government agencies (federal, state, and local), academia, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. PMID:18235058

  15. Ethics in public health research: privacy and public health at risk: public health confidentiality in the digital age.

    PubMed

    Myers, Julie; Frieden, Thomas R; Bherwani, Kamal M; Henning, Kelly J

    2008-05-01

    Public health agencies increasingly use electronic means to acquire, use, maintain, and store personal health information. Electronic data formats can improve performance of core public health functions, but potentially threaten privacy because they can be easily duplicated and transmitted to unauthorized people. Although such security breaches do occur, electronic data can be better secured than paper records, because authentication, authorization, auditing, and accountability can be facilitated. Public health professionals should collaborate with law and information technology colleagues to assess possible threats, implement updated policies, train staff, and develop preventive engineering measures to protect information. Tightened physical and electronic controls can prevent misuse of data, minimize the risk of security breaches, and help maintain the reputation and integrity of public health agencies. PMID:18382010

  16. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Canyon, Deon V

    2013-01-01

    The strengthening of health systems is fundamental to improving health outcomes, crisis preparedness, and our capacity to meet global challenges, such as accelerating progress towards the Millennium Development Goals, reducing maternal and child mortality, combating HIV, malaria and other diseases, limiting the effects of a new influenza pandemic, and responding appropriately to climate change. To meet these complex needs, the Association of Schools and Programs in Public Health, the World Health Organization, and the Institute of Medicine promote systems thinking as the only sensible means to respond to issues that greatly exceed the normal capacity of health and medical services. This paper agrees with the application of systems thinking but argues that health organizations have misunderstood and misapplied systems thinking to the extent that the term has become meaningless. This paper presents the basic constructs of systems thinking, explains why systems thinking has been misapplied, examines some misapplications of systems thinking in health, and suggests how the concept can be applied correctly to medicine and public health to achieve the reason it was adopted in the first place. PMID:24377080

  17. 78 FR 69697 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ...: Proposed Collection: Public Comment Request AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration, HHS... 846A of the Public Health Service Act, as amended by Public Law 111-148, the Secretary of the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...

  18. Public health emergencies and the public health/managed care challenge.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Skivington, Skip; Praeger, Sandra

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between insurance and public health is an enduring topic in public health policy and practice. Insurers share certain attributes with public health. But public health agencies operate in relation to the entire community that they are empowered by public law to serve and without regard to the insurance status of community residents; on the other hand, insurers (whether managed care or otherwise) are risk-bearing entities whose obligations are contractually defined and limited to enrolled members and sponsors. Public insurers such as Medicare and Medicaid operate under similar constraints. The fundamental characteristics that distinguish managed care-style insurance and public health become particularly evident during periods of public health emergency, when a public health agency's basic obligations to act with speed and flexibility may come face to face with the constraints on available financing that are inherent in the structure of insurance. Because more than 70% of all personal health care in the United States is financed through insurance, public health agencies effectively depend on insurers to finance necessary care and provide essential patient-level data to the public health system. Critical issues of state and federal policy arise in the context of the public health/insurance relations during public health emergencies. These issues focus on coverage and the power to make coverage decisions, as well as the power to define service networks and classify certain data as exempt from public reporting. The extent to which a formal regulatory approach may become necessary is significantly affected by the extent to which private entities themselves respond to the problem with active efforts to redesign their services and operations to include capabilities and accountability in the realm of public health emergency response. PMID:12508505

  19. Transforming Public Health?

    PubMed Central

    ALDOUS, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Historical assessments of the Occupation’s efforts to tackle enteric diseases (cholera, typhoid, paratyphoid and dysentery) have generally reflected a celebratory narrative of US-inspired public health reforms, strongly associated with the head of the Public Health and Welfare Section, Crawford F. Sams. Close inspection of the documentary record, however, reveals much greater continuity with pre-war Japanese public health practices than has hitherto been acknowledged. Indeed, there are strong grounds for disputing American claims of novelty and innovation in such areas as immunisation, particularly in relation to typhoid vaccine, and environmental sanitation, where disparaging comments about the careless use of night soil and a reluctance to control flies and other disease vectors reveal more about the politics of public health reform than the reality of pre-war practices. Likewise, the representation of American-inspired sanitary teams as clearly distinct from and far superior to traditional sanitary associations (eisei kumiai) was closer to propaganda than an accurate rendering of past and present developments. PMID:19048809

  20. Public Health Pest Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  1. Outreach to public health professionals: lessons learned from a collaborative Iowa public health project*

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Linda J.; Hasson, Seana; Ross, Faith VanToll; Martin, Elaine Russo

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the Public Health Service (PHS) recommended that special attention be given to the information needs of unaffiliated public health professionals. In response, the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM) Greater Midwest Region initiated a collaborative outreach program for public health professionals working in rural east and central Iowa. Five public health agencies were provided equipment, training, and support for accessing the Internet. Key factors in the success of this project were: (1) the role of collaborating agencies in the implementation and ongoing success of information access outreach projects; (2) knowledge of the socio-cultural factors that influence the information-seeking habits of project participants (public health professionals); and (3) management of changing or varying technological infrastructures. Working with their funding, personnel from federal, state, and local governments enhanced the information-seeking skills of public health professionals in rural eastern and central Iowa communities. PMID:10783972

  2. Globalisation and public health.

    PubMed

    Bettcher, D; Lee, K

    2002-01-01

    At the dawn of the 21st century, globalisation is a word that has become a part of everyday communication in all corners of the world. It is a concept that for some holds the promise of a new and brighter future, while for others it represents a threat that needs to be confronted and counteracted. In the area of public health, a wide range of claims have been made about the various impacts, both positive and negative, that can be attributed to globalisation. In the ever expanding literature on globalisation and health, it has become apparent that considerable confusion is emerging in both the ways that terminology is applied and concepts are defined. The determinants of health are increasingly multisectoral, and in tackling these challenges it is necessary to take a multidisciplinary approach that includes policy analyses in such areas as trade, environment, defence/security, foreign policy, and international law. In assembling the terms for this glossary, we have attempted to demonstrate the richness of the globalisation and public health debate, and in so doing have selected some of the core terms that require definition. We hope that this glossary will help to clarify this interesting and challenging area, and will also serve as a useful entry point to this new debate in public health. PMID:11801614

  3. 43 CFR 10005.7 - Agency consultation and public involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agency consultation and public involvement... COMMISSION'S MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION PLAN § 10005.7 Agency consultation and public involvement. The Commission considers agency consultation and public involvement to be central components of the...

  4. Career Guidance and Public Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Career guidance may have the potential to promote public health by contributing positively to both the prevention of mental health conditions and to population level well-being. The policy implications of this possibility have received little attention. Career guidance agencies are well placed to reach key target groups. Producing persuasive…

  5. Home Health Agency Work Environments and Hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Linda; Lake, Eileen T.; Aiken, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An important goal of home health care is to assist patients to remain in community living arrangements. Yet home care often fails to prevent hospitalizations and to facilitate discharges to community living, thus putting patients at risk of additional health challenges and increasing care costs. Objectives: To determine the relationship between home health agency work environments and agency-level rates of acute hospitalization and discharges to community living. Methods and Design: Analysis of linked Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services Home Health Compare data and nurse survey data from 118 home health agencies. Robust regression models were used to estimate the effect of work environment ratings on between-agency variation in rates of acute hospitalization and community discharge. Results: Home health agencies with good work environments had lower rates of acute hospitalizations and higher rates of patient discharges to community living arrangements compared with home health agencies with poor work environments. Conclusion: Improved work environments in home health agencies hold promise for optimizing patient outcomes and reducing use of expensive hospital and institutional care. PMID:25215647

  6. Nanotechnology and public health.

    PubMed

    Matsudai, Masami; Hunt, Geoffrey

    2005-11-01

    Nanotechnology is developing very quickly, and Japan is in many respects leading the world in this convergence of nanoscale engineering techniques. The public health community in Japan must start to think about the public health impacts of nanotechnology over the next 20 years. The responsibility for the benefits and the harms of nanotechnology lies with government, with corporations and the business community, with scientists and specialists in all related fields, and with NPOs and the public. There are very many questions of public health which are not yet being asked about nanotechnology. If nanoparticles are to be used in cosmetics, food production and packaging, how will they react or interact with the human skin and organs? What chemical-toxic effects on life might there be from the nanoparticles in car tires and vehicle plastic mouldings when they are disposed of by incineration? Will they pass into the soil and groundwater and enter into the food-chain? It is now an urgent ethical demand, based on the precautionary principle, that Japan join the governments of the world to take an intergovernmental initiative to intervene in the further development, production and marketing of nanotechnological products with precautionary research and regulation. PMID:16408476

  7. 77 FR 71425 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public Comment Request AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. chapter 35), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)...

  8. Local public health system partnerships.

    PubMed Central

    Zahner, Susan J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Interorganizational collaboration aimed at community health improvement is an expectation of local public health systems. This study assessed the extent to which such collaboration occurred within one state (Wisconsin), described the characteristics of existing partnerships, and identified factors associated with partnership effectiveness. METHODS: In Stage 1, local health department (LHD) directors in Wisconsin were surveyed (93% response rate). In Stage 2, LHDs completed self-administered mailed surveys for each partnership identified in Stage 1 (85% response rate). Two-level hierarchical logit regression methods were used to model relationships between partnership and LHD variables and partnership outcomes. Data from 924 partnerships associated with 74 LHDs were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Partnerships most frequently addressed tobacco prevention and control, maternal and child health, emergency planning, community assessment and planning, and immunizations. Partnering was most frequent with other government agencies, hospitals, medical practices or clinics, community-based organizations, and schools. Partnership effectiveness was predicted by having a budget, having more partners contributing financially, having a broader array of organizations involved, and having been in existence for a longer period of time. A government mandate to start the partnership was inversely related to successful outcomes. Characteristics of LHDs did not predict partnership effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Financial support, having a broader array of partners, and allowing sufficient time for partnerships to succeed contribute to partnership effectiveness. Further study-using objective outcome measures-is needed to examine the effects of organizational and community characteristics on the effectiveness of local public health system partnerships. PMID:15736335

  9. 77 FR 38296 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility AGENCY: Centers... Federal Register requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for...

  10. 77 FR 28883 - Draft Public Health Action Plan-A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Draft Public Health Action Plan--A National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention, and Management of Infertility AGENCY: Centers... requesting public comment on the draft National Public Health Action Plan for the Detection, Prevention,...

  11. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  12. [Public health and sexuality].

    PubMed

    Papart, Jean-pierre

    2014-03-19

    The paper questions the legitimacy and relevance of a potential emergence of any public health policies relating to sexology, as they exist for most of the major medical issues. It discusses the two major areas of intervention of sexology namely problems related to access to pleasure on the one hand, violence, abuse and other sexual perversions on the other hand. The legitimacy and relevance of public health policy to prevent the latter, i.e. sexual violence cannot be questioned. However, interventions to promote erotic skills are beyond the role and responsibility of the State but can be assigned to the civil society, especially community associations engaged in culture, solidarity and the promotion of social links in general. PMID:24734361

  13. Brazil: public health genomics.

    PubMed

    Castilla, E E; Luquetti, D V

    2009-01-01

    Brazil represents half of South America and one third of Latin America, having more than 186 million inhabitants. After China and India it is the third largest developing country in the world. The wealth is unequally distributed among the states and among the people. Brazil has a large and complex health care system. A Universal Public Health System (SUS: Sistema SPACEnico de Saúde) covers the medical expenses for 80% of the population. The genetic structure of the population is very complex, including a large proportion of tri- hybrid persons, genetic isolates, and a panmictic large majority. Genetic services are offered at 64 genetic centers, half of them public and free. Nationwide networks are operating for inborn errors of metabolism, oncogenetics, and craniofacial anomalies. The Brazilian Society of Medical Genetics (SBGM) has granted 120 board certifications since 1986, and 7 recognized residences in medical genetics are operating in the country. Three main public health actions promoted by the federal government have been undertaken in the last decade, ultimately aimed at the prevention of birth defects. Since 1999, birth defects are reported for all 3 million annual live births, several vaccination strategies aim at the eradication of rubella, and wheat and maize flours are fortified with folic acid. Currently, the government distributes over 2 million US dollars to finance 14 research projects aimed at providing the basis for the adequate prevention and care of genetics disorders through the SUS. Continuity of this proactive attitude of the government in the area of genomics in public health is desired. PMID:19023184

  14. Geomatics and public health.

    PubMed

    Jaishankar, R; Jhonson, C P

    2006-01-01

    Geomatics technology has tremendous potential to address public health issues particularly under the present circumstances of global climate change and climate or technology induced human migration, which result in an increase in the geographical extent and re-emergence of vector-borne diseases. The authors present an overview of the science of geomatics, describe the potential impacts of climate change on vector-borne diseases and review the applications of remote sensing for disease vector surveillance. PMID:17193755

  15. 29 CFR 825.108 - Public agency coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... coverage. (a) An employer under FMLA includes any public agency, as defined in section 3(x) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, 29 U.S.C. 203(x). Section 3(x) of the FLSA defines public agency as the...

  16. 29 CFR 825.108 - Public agency coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... coverage. (a) An employer under FMLA includes any public agency, as defined in section 3(x) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, 29 U.S.C. 203(x). Section 3(x) of the FLSA defines public agency as the...

  17. 41 CFR 102-75.490 - Who must notify eligible public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who must notify eligible public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public health purposes is available? 102-75.490 Section 102-75.490 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  18. 41 CFR 102-75.490 - Who must notify eligible public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who must notify eligible public agencies that surplus real property for educational and public health purposes is available? 102-75.490 Section 102-75.490 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  19. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Victoria Y; Le‘au, Ruth Faioso

    2015-01-01

    Independent and American Samoa have a shared cultural, genetic, ethnolinguistic, and historical background but have been politically separated since 1899. In this essay, we examine the health of these two polities and identify two key health patterns that have emerged even as American Samoa has achieved a higher per capita income than Independent Samoa. Whereas the gender gap in life expectancy at birth has narrowed in Independent Samoa, this gap has not narrowed in American Samoa and its male life expectancy now lags behind that of Independent Samoa. Neonatal mortality rates in American Samoa are slightly higher than in Independent Samoa. These patterns may be linked to the higher rates of obesity and urbanization observed in American Samoa compared to Independent Samoa, as well as the differing political and institutional arrangements of the two polities. Limited data remains a persistent challenge to conducting analysis of public health in the Pacific islands, particularly in American Samoa. PMID:26019989

  20. 41 CFR 102-75.515 - What action must the disposal agency take after an eligible public agency has submitted a plan of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What action must the disposal agency take after an eligible public agency has submitted a plan of use for property for an educational or public health requirement? 102-75.515 Section 102-75.515 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  1. 41 CFR 102-75.515 - What action must the disposal agency take after an eligible public agency has submitted a plan of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What action must the disposal agency take after an eligible public agency has submitted a plan of use for property for an educational or public health requirement? 102-75.515 Section 102-75.515 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  2. Firearms, Youth Homicide, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Robert S.; Goldzweig, Irwin; Kilbourne, Barbara; Juarez, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Homicide is seven times as common among U.S. non-Hispanic Black as among non-Hispanic White youth ages 15 to 24 years. In 83% of these youth homicides, the murder weapon is a firearm. Yet, for more than a decade, the national public health position on youth violence has been largely silent about the role of firearms, and tools used by public health professionals to reduce harm from other potential hazards have been unusable where guns are concerned. This deprives already underserved populations from the full benefits public health agencies might be able to deliver. In part, political prohibitions against research about direct measures of firearm control and the absence of valid public health surveillance are responsible. More refined epidemiologic theories as well as traditional public health methods are needed if the U.S. aims to reduce disparate Black-White youth homicide rates. PMID:22643459

  3. 14 CFR 158.67 - Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency. 158.67 Section 158.67 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....67 Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency. (a) Each public agency shall keep any unliquidated...

  4. 14 CFR 158.67 - Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency. 158.67 Section 158.67 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....67 Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency. (a) Each public agency shall keep any unliquidated...

  5. 14 CFR 158.67 - Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency. 158.67 Section 158.67 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....67 Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency. (a) Each public agency shall keep any unliquidated...

  6. 14 CFR 158.67 - Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency. 158.67 Section 158.67 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....67 Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency. (a) Each public agency shall keep any unliquidated...

  7. 14 CFR 158.67 - Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency. 158.67 Section 158.67 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....67 Recordkeeping and auditing: Public agency. (a) Each public agency shall keep any unliquidated...

  8. Public Health Nursing Staff Health Education Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Terence R.; And Others

    Health education attitudes toward prevention, detection, and treatment of selected chronic diseases and conditions confronting public health nursing staffs were investigated at a Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services District, which is composed of 16 county public health units (CPHU). Findings were used to determine type of…

  9. 24 CFR 811.104 - Approval of Public Housing Agencies (other than agency or instrumentality PHAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... applicant is an approved participating agency under 24 CFR Part 883 (State Housing Finance and Development... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of Public Housing Agencies... OF PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCIES AND RELATED AMENDMENTS § 811.104 Approval of Public Housing...

  10. 24 CFR 811.104 - Approval of Public Housing Agencies (other than agency or instrumentality PHAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... applicant is an approved participating agency under 24 CFR Part 883 (State Housing Finance and Development... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approval of Public Housing Agencies... OF PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCIES AND RELATED AMENDMENTS § 811.104 Approval of Public Housing...

  11. 24 CFR 811.104 - Approval of Public Housing Agencies (other than agency or instrumentality PHAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... applicant is an approved participating agency under 24 CFR Part 883 (State Housing Finance and Development... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of Public Housing Agencies... OF PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCIES AND RELATED AMENDMENTS § 811.104 Approval of Public Housing...

  12. 75 FR 45118 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions; (2) the accuracy of the estimated burden;...

  13. 75 FR 45120 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions; (2) the accuracy of the estimated burden;...

  14. 77 FR 43826 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... proposed information collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions; (2) the accuracy...

  15. 76 FR 71037 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is publishing... proposed information collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions; (2) the accuracy...

  16. 75 FR 6033 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... proposed information collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions; (2) the accuracy...

  17. Public health preparedness: a systems‐level approach

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Spencer; Mawji, Al; Shiell, Alan; Noseworthy, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Public health and emergency preparedness have become central concepts in the current restructuring of various regional‐, national‐ and global‐level public health and emergency management agencies and systems. In this article, a glossary of the most important terms and concepts currently pertaining to public health preparedness is provided with a focus on systems‐level and organisational issues. PMID:17372286

  18. 21 CFR 25.16 - Public health and safety emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Public health and safety emergencies. 25.16... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.16 Public health... importance to the public health or safety, may make full adherence to the procedural provisions of NEPA...

  19. Noise and public health.

    PubMed

    Lipscomb, D M; Roettger, R W

    1976-01-01

    Environmental noise has increased to the point that it affects large numbers of people. The most consistently demonstrated health effect of exposure to noise is hearing impairment. Other effects, such as stress reaction, irritability, fatigue and disturbances to physiologic function have been seen in laboratory research but are highly individualized and restricted to such specific populations as industrial workers. Rising background sound levels in communities due to increased traffic flow, industralization, work saving machinery, and other noise sources have caused community noise levels to become dangerously high. This factor is complicated by exposure to high sound level recreational activities with greater frequency and for longer periods. Recognizing the existence of the problem, governmental agencies have begun to identify the scope of the problem, to designate standards and regulations controlling noise sources, and to regulate allowable noise exposure for workers. PMID:10297834

  20. Evolution and public health

    PubMed Central

    Omenn, Gilbert S.

    2009-01-01

    Evolution and its elements of natural selection, population migration, genetic drift, and founder effects have shaped the world in which we practice public health. Human cultures and technologies have modified life on this planet and have coevolved with myriad other species, including microorganisms; plant and animal sources of food; invertebrate vectors of disease; and intermediate hosts among birds, mammals, and nonhuman primates. Molecular mechanisms of differential resistance or susceptibility to infectious agents or diets have evolved and are being discovered with modern methods. Some of these evolutionary relations require a perspective of tens of thousands of years, whereas other changes are observable in real time. The implications and applications of evolutionary understanding are important to our current programs and policies for infectious disease surveillance, gene–environment interactions, and health disparities globally. PMID:19966311

  1. 45 CFR 160.426 - Notification of the public and other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of the public and other agencies. 160.426 Section 160.426 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Imposition of Civil Money Penalties § 160.426 Notification of the public and...

  2. 29 CFR 541.710 - Employees of public agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Definitions and Miscellaneous Provisions § 541.710 Employees of public agencies. (a) An employee of a public... pursuant to principles of public accountability, under which the employee accrues personal leave and sick leave and which requires the public agency employee's pay to be reduced or such employee to be placed...

  3. Ensuring public health's future in a national-scale learning health system.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Jennifer A; Friedman, Charles; Jacobson, Peter; Rubin, Joshua C

    2015-04-01

    Data and information are fundamental to every function of public health and crucial to public health agencies, from outbreak investigations to environmental surveillance. Information allows for timely, relevant, and high-quality decision making by public health agencies. Evidence-based practice is an important, grounding principle within public health practice, but resources to handle and analyze public health data in a meaningful way are limited. The Learning Health System is a platform that seeks to leverage health data to allow evidence-based real-time analysis of data for a broad range of uses, including primary care decision making, public health activities, consumer education, and academic research. The Learning Health System is an emerging endeavor that is gaining support throughout the health sector and presents an important opportunity for collaboration between primary care and public health. Public health should be a key stakeholder in the development of a national-scale Learning Health System because participation presents many potential benefits, including increased workforce capacity, enhanced resources, and greater opportunities to use health information for the improvement of the public's health. This article describes the framework and progression of a national-scale Learning Health System, considers the advantages of and challenges to public health involvement in the Learning Health System, including the public health workforce, gives examples of small-scale Learning Health System projects involving public health, and discusses how public health practitioners can better engage in the Learning Health Community. PMID:25700654

  4. 75 FR 45118 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  5. 75 FR 21294 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Office of Management and Budget to extend data collection regarding the status of the health care system... September 2009 HHS has collected data on bed availability, health care system resource needs such as... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office...

  6. 76 FR 78012 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  7. 76 FR 59130 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  8. 75 FR 48969 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30 Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  9. 76 FR 10364 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human...

  10. 76 FR 10035 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human...

  11. 76 FR 10034 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request, Grants.gov AGENCY... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human...

  12. 75 FR 45120 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  13. 75 FR 52345 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC), HHS In compliance with the requirement of section...

  14. 76 FR 71036 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  15. 76 FR 51980 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  16. Feminism and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Rogers, W A

    2006-06-01

    This paper sketches an account of public health ethics drawing upon established scholarship in feminist ethics. Health inequities are one of the central problems in public health ethics; a feminist approach leads us to examine not only the connections between gender, disadvantage, and health, but also the distribution of power in the processes of public health, from policy making through to programme delivery. The complexity of public health demands investigation using multiple perspectives and an attention to detail that is capable of identifying the health issues that are important to women, and investigating ways to address these issues. Finally, a feminist account of public health ethics embraces rather than avoids the inescapable political dimensions of public health. PMID:16731735

  17. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Oshiro, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the occurrence of and influencing the rapid correction of food illness risk factors is a common goal for all governmental food regulatory programs nationwide. Foodborne illness in the United States is a major cause of personal distress, preventable illness, and death. To improve public health outcomes, additional workforce was required due to long standing staffing shortages and was obtained partially through consolidation of the Hawai‘i Department of Health's (HDOH) two food safety programs, the Sanitation Branch, and the Food & Drug Branch in July 2012, and through legislation that amended existing statutes governing the use of food establishment permit fees. Additionally, a more transparent food establishment grading system was developed after extensive work with industry partners based on three possible placards issued after routine inspections: green, yellow, and red. From late July 2014 to May 2015, there were 6,559 food establishments inspected statewide using the placard system with 79% receiving a green, 21% receiving a yellow, and no red placards issued. Sufficient workforce to allow timely inspections, continued governmental transparency, and use of new technologies are important to improve food safety for the public. PMID:26279966

  18. [Public health: an interdisciplinary challenge].

    PubMed

    Gutzwiller, F

    1993-01-01

    Presented as an opening lecture of the new postgraduate education programme of both the Technical and the Free University of Berlin, sponsored by the German Federal Minister of Research and Technology, this lecture recalls the foundation of the first School of Public Health (The Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Md., USA) by William Henry Welch, 75 years ago. Already in this early experience, several central topics of Public Health can be traced back: for instance the exact description of health problems of total population groups, the aetiological understanding of health problems as well as the transfer of knowledge in public health programmes. After a definition of the Public Health concept both in- and outside Germany, the article reviews three examples of core topics of Public Health. Drawing on results from the first report "Health of Zurich", applications of descriptive epidemiology for both priority finding in Public Health as well as aetiological research are illustrated. The second example, with data from a recent representative survey of adults swiss germans on the issue of discrimination against persons infected with HIV draws attention to the central importance of social sciences within Public Health. Finally, the third example discusses recent advances in health services research, including issues of health economics, an other important part of an interdisciplinary Public Health understanding. PMID:8451865

  19. 16 CFR 1012.4 - Public attendance at agency meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public attendance at agency meetings. 1012.4 Section 1012.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL MEETINGS POLICY-MEETINGS BETWEEN AGENCY PERSONNEL AND OUTSIDE PARTIES § 1012.4 Public attendance at agency meetings. (a) Any person may attend any meeting involving...

  20. [Empowerment in the public health practice].

    PubMed

    Chia, Shu-Li

    2011-02-01

    Public health personnel are the first-line workers of preventive care and medical services. In the face of rapid social and demographic changes, empowerment and on-job training have become important approaches to enhance the function of nurses. Health centers act like the "peripheral nerves" of the government healthcare system, as they must both reflect the needs of community residents and fully implement government mandated services. While widely distributed, health centers face manpower shortages and disorderly information collection and distribution systems. Empowerment and on-job training programs can enhance public heath staff knowledge in order to cope with heavy workloads and shift toward multi-dimensional development. This paper examines the experience of the New Taipei City Public Health Bureau in conducting health center empowerment programs from four perspectives, including personal cultivation and organizational cultivation. It was found that public health staff self-recognition of professional values can also be further strengthened through alliances within the community, and that establishing personal relationships with patients by "treating patients as relatives" was effective in realizing health center objectives. This paper also reminds agency supervisors that staff training is a critical management task. Health authorities should thus introduce in a timely manner organizational management, on-job training, service reengineering, and other related corporate philosophies; facilitate staff empowerment; consolidate core professional knowledge; and construct intellectual and social capital that meets health unit needs in order to enhance health center competitiveness and public health staff knowledge. PMID:21328202

  1. Public health, GIS, and the internet.

    PubMed

    Croner, Charles M

    2003-01-01

    Internet access and use of georeferenced public health information for GIS application will be an important and exciting development for the nation's Department of Health and Human Services and other health agencies in this new millennium. Technological progress toward public health geospatial data integration, analysis, and visualization of space-time events using the Web portends eventual robust use of GIS by public health and other sectors of the economy. Increasing Web resources from distributed spatial data portals and global geospatial libraries, and a growing suite of Web integration tools, will provide new opportunities to advance disease surveillance, control, and prevention, and insure public access and community empowerment in public health decision making. Emerging supercomputing, data mining, compression, and transmission technologies will play increasingly critical roles in national emergency, catastrophic planning and response, and risk management. Web-enabled public health GIS will be guided by Federal Geographic Data Committee spatial metadata, OpenGIS Web interoperability, and GML/XML geospatial Web content standards. Public health will become a responsive and integral part of the National Spatial Data Infrastructure. PMID:12543872

  2. Public Health 101 for Informaticians

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Denise; O'Carroll, Patrick; LaVenture, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Public health is a complex discipline that has contributed substantially to improving the health of the population. Public health action involves a variety of interventions and methods, many of which are now taken for granted by the general public. The specific focus and nature of public health interventions continue to evolve, but the fundamental principles of public health remain stable. These principles include a focus on the health of the population rather than of individuals; an emphasis on disease prevention rather than treatment; a goal of intervention at all vulnerable points in the causal pathway of disease, injury, or disability; and operation in a governmental rather than a private context. Public health practice occurs at local, state, and federal levels and involves various professional disciplines. Public health principles and practice are illustrated by a case study example of neural tube defects and folic acid. The application of information science and technology in public health practice provides previously unfathomed opportunities to improve the health of the population. Clinical informaticians and others in the health care system are crucial partners in addressing the challenges and opportunities offered by public health informatics. PMID:11687565

  3. Public Health Disease Surveillance Networks.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2014-02-01

    Zoonotic infections are important sources of human disease; most known emerging infections are zoonotic (e.g., HIV, Ebola virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Nipah virus, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli) and originated as natural infections of other species that acquired opportunities to come in contact with humans. There are also serious infectious diseases classically considered zoonotic, such as influenza, rabies, bubonic plague, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. More recently, it has been recognized that wildlife constitutes a particularly important source of novel zoonoses. With all this microbial movement, surveillance is considered the first line of public health defense. The zoonotic origin of many human and livestock infections argues strongly for the synergistic value of a One Health approach, which provides the capability to identify pathogens crossing into new species and could provide earlier warning of potential epidemics. This article discusses public health surveillance and major recent surveillance initiatives and reviews progress toward implementing a One Health surveillance framework. Networks discussed include global intergovernmental organizations and recent combined efforts of these organizations; Web-based nongovernmental systems (e.g., ProMED, the Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases); and networks of bilateral or multilateral government programs (e.g., the CDC's Global Disease Detection [GDD] platform; the U.S. Department of Defense's Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System [GEIS]; regional and subregional networks; and the U.S. Agency for International Development's Emerging Pandemic Threats [EPT] program and its surveillance component, PREDICT). Syndromic surveillance also has potential to complement existing systems. New technologies are enabling revolutionary capabilities for global surveillance, but in addition to serious technical needs, both sustainability and data-sharing mechanisms remain

  4. Public health and media advocacy.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, Lori; Krasnow, Ingrid Daffner

    2014-01-01

    Media advocacy blends communications, science, politics, and advocacy to advance public health goals. In this article, we explain how media advocacy supports the social justice grounding of public health while addressing public health's "wicked problems" in the context of American politics. We outline media advocacy's theoretical foundations in agenda setting and framing and describe its practical application, from the layers of strategy to storytelling, which can illuminate public health solutions for journalists, policy makers, and the general public. Finally, we describe the challenges in evaluating media advocacy campaigns. PMID:24328989

  5. 29 CFR 825.108 - Public agency coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) A State or a political subdivision of a State constitutes a single public agency and, therefore, a... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public agency coverage. 825.108 Section 825.108 Labor... AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Coverage Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.108 Public...

  6. Public Health Education in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    This report documents issues related to the work of the Florida Comprehensive Health Professions Education Plan. Public health education prepares students for initial employment or advancement in a number of positions. While the public health work force is primarily employed in various units in local, state, and federal governments, industry also…

  7. 77 FR 53210 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Public Housing Agency Burden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment: Public Housing Agency.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Public Housing Agency Burden... Information and its Propose: The Department is looking at ways to reduce Public Housing Agency (PHA)...

  8. Public health challenges for universal health coverage.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Radha Madhab

    2014-01-01

    The effective functioning of any health system requires an efficient public health service. Every human being has the right to enjoy "the highest attainable standard of health," which can be fulfilled by giving every man an affordable and equitable health system he deserves and demands. In these years, complex health changes have complicated the situation in India. Most important gaps in the health care include an understanding of the burden of the disease and what leads to and causes ill health, the availability and use of appropriate technology in the management of disease, ill health and health systems that have an impact on service delivery. Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has the potential to increase economic growth, improve educational opportunities, reduce impoverishment and inequalities, and foster social cohesion. Steps taken for achieving UHC will address the public health challenges and vice versa. PMID:25116820

  9. Jurisdiction Size and Local Public Health Spending

    PubMed Central

    Santerre, Rexford E

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine if a minimum efficient scale (MES) holds with respect to the population serviced by a local health department (LHD) given the congestability, externality, and scale/scope economy effects potentially associated with public health services. Data Sources/Study Setting A nationally representative sample of LHDs in 2005. Study Design Multiple regression analysis is used to isolate the relation between population and spending while controlling for other factors known to influence local public health costs. Data Collection Data were obtained from the 2005 National Profile of Local Public Health Agencies, a project supported through a cooperative agreement between the National Association of County and City Health Officials and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Principal Findings The MES of a local public health department is approximately 100,000 people. After that size, additional population has little impact on public health spending per capita. Conclusions Seventy-seven percent of LHDs in the sample fall below the 100,000 MES. Higher levels of government may want to provide financial inducements so that smaller LHDs consolidate or enter into agreements with larger public health organizations to provide services. PMID:19656226

  10. 42 CFR 3.426 - Notification of the public and other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... health care programs (as defined in 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7(h)), the appropriate utilization and quality... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.426... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification of the public and other agencies....

  11. 42 CFR 3.426 - Notification of the public and other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... health care programs (as defined in 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7(h)), the appropriate utilization and quality... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.426... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notification of the public and other agencies....

  12. 42 CFR 3.426 - Notification of the public and other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... health care programs (as defined in 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7(h)), the appropriate utilization and quality... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.426... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notification of the public and other agencies....

  13. 42 CFR 3.426 - Notification of the public and other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... health care programs (as defined in 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7(h)), the appropriate utilization and quality... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.426... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of the public and other agencies....

  14. 42 CFR 3.426 - Notification of the public and other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... health care programs (as defined in 42 U.S.C. 1320a-7(h)), the appropriate utilization and quality... PROVISIONS PATIENT SAFETY ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.426... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notification of the public and other agencies....

  15. 42 CFR 413.125 - Payment for home health agency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for home health agency services. 413.125... Categories of Costs § 413.125 Payment for home health agency services. (a) For additional rules on the allowability of certain costs incurred by home health agencies, see §§ 409.46 and 409.49(b) of this chapter....

  16. 42 CFR 413.125 - Payment for home health agency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for home health agency services. 413.125... Categories of Costs § 413.125 Payment for home health agency services. (a) For additional rules on the allowability of certain costs incurred by home health agencies, see §§ 409.46 and 409.49(b) of this chapter....

  17. 42 CFR 413.125 - Payment for home health agency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment for home health agency services. 413.125... Categories of Costs § 413.125 Payment for home health agency services. (a) For additional rules on the allowability of certain costs incurred by home health agencies, see §§ 409.46 and 409.49(b) of this chapter....

  18. 42 CFR 413.125 - Payment for home health agency services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment for home health agency services. 413.125... Categories of Costs § 413.125 Payment for home health agency services. (a) For additional rules on the allowability of certain costs incurred by home health agencies, see §§ 409.46 and 409.49(b) of this chapter....

  19. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    PubMed

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored. PMID:16521670

  20. 21 CFR 25.16 - Public health and safety emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Public health and safety emergencies. 25.16 Section 25.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.16 Public health and safety emergencies. There...

  1. 21 CFR 25.16 - Public health and safety emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Public health and safety emergencies. 25.16 Section 25.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.16 Public health and safety emergencies. There...

  2. 78 FR 48436 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ...; Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In compliance with.... Prior to submitting that ICR to OMB, OS seeks comments from the public regarding the burden estimate... Collection Request Title: Application packets for Real Property for Public Health Purposes. Abstract:...

  3. 75 FR 38099 - Establishment of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Secretary, Office of Public... March 23, 2010. The Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health... Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health, as directed by Executive Order 13544....

  4. [Biofilms and public health].

    PubMed

    Choisy, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Micro-organisms do not always exist in planctonic forms (single cells or small groups). To survive, especially in limiting media, they may adhere to inert or living surfaces. This enables them to multiply within a community protected by an extracellular matrix, thus forming a biofilm which protects them from antimicrobials. Biofilms have many potential consequences for public health. Some are positive, such as the commensal biofilms that protect against pathogenic bacteria, while environmental biofilms may be a source of outbreaks of respiratory or gastrointestinal diseases or infections associated with implanted medical devices. Respiratory tract infection can be caused by aerosols of fragmented biofilms growing in warm humid conditions (air cooling towers, hot springs, showers, etc.). Digestive tract infection can arise from biofilms formed during food manufacturing or packaging processes. Colonized implanted medical devices can lead to sepsis. This article examines the role of central venous catheters, taking into account the surgical site. In vivo studies show that the source of catheter infection may be exogenous or endogenous, while in vitro studies of biofilms show that ablation of the device is the best solution. Prevention is difficult, as biofilm formation is multifactorial. Physical and biological knowledge of biofilms may help to limit their formation and growth. PMID:22375373

  5. Zoning should promote public health.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Joel S

    2004-01-01

    Legally, governments use their police powers to protect public health, safety, and welfare through zoning. This paper presents a case for revisiting zoning on the basis of increasing evidence that certain types of community design promote public health, as opposed to the dominant pattern of sprawl development, which does not. Zoning, and the land use planning linked to it, that prohibits or disfavors health-promoting community designs contradicts the inherent public policy goal on which it is based. If there is a paradigm shift underway, from traditional sprawl to health-promoting community designs, then health professionals and others should understand why zoning must be reassessed. PMID:14748317

  6. Global public health and the information superhighway.

    PubMed

    LaPorte, R E

    1994-06-25

    Applications of networking to health care have focused on the potential of networking to transmit data and to reduce the cost of health care. In the early 198Os networks began forming among academic institutions; one of them was Bitnet. During the 1980s Internet evolved, which joined diverse networks, including those of governments and industry. The first step is to connect public health organizations such as ministries of health, the World Health Organization, the Pan-American Health Organization, and the United Nations. Computer-based telecommunication will vastly increase effective transmission of information. Networking public health workers in local health departments, academia, governments, industry, and private agencies, will bring great benefits. One is global disease telemonitoring: with new epidemiological techniques such as capture-recapture, accurate estimates of incidences of important communicable and non-communicable diseases can now be obtained. Currently all countries in the Americas except Haiti are connected through Internet. No systematic integration of telecommunication and public health systems across countries has occurred yet. On-line vital statistics could be usable almost instantaneously to facilitate monitoring and forecasting of population growth and the health needs of mothers and children. Linking global disease telemonitoring (morbidity data for non-communicable diseases) with environmental data systems would considerably improve understanding of the environmental determinants of disease. Internet is already linked to the National Library of Medicine through Bitnis. Computer based distance education is rapidly improving through E-mail searches. Reading materials, video, pictures, and sound could be transmitted across huge distances for low costs. Hundreds of schools are already networked together. On-line electronic journals and books have the potential for instantaneous dissemination of free information through gopher servers. Global

  7. 78 FR 76310 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection Activities... Department of Public Health and Human Services focuses on a community-based, client-centered clinical service... Human Services, staff from Montana Health Education and Research Foundation, and CHW clients....

  8. Public health communications and alert fatigue

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care providers play a significant role in large scale health emergency planning, detection, response, recovery and communication with the public. The effectiveness of health care providers in emergency preparedness and response roles depends, in part, on public health agencies communicating information in a way that maximizes the likelihood that the message is delivered, received, deemed credible and, when appropriate, acted on. However, during an emergency, health care providers can become inundated with alerts and advisories through numerous national, state, local and professional communication channels. We conducted an alert fatigue study as a sub-study of a larger randomized controlled trial which aimed to identify the most effective methods of communicating public health messages between public health agencies and providers. We report an analysis of the effects of public health message volume/frequency on recall of specific message content and effect of rate of message communications on health care provider alert fatigue. Methods Health care providers enrolled in the larger study (n=528) were randomized to receive public health messages via email, fax, short message service (SMS or cell phone text messaging) or to a control group that did not receive messages. For 12 months, study messages based on real events of public health significance were sent quarterly with follow-up telephone interviews regarding message receipt and topic recall conducted 5–10 days after the message delivery date. During a pandemic when numerous messages are sent, alert fatigue may impact ability to recall whether a specific message has been received due to the “noise” created by the higher number of messages. To determine the impact of “noise” when study messages were sent, we compared health care provider recall of the study message topic to the number of local public health messages sent to health care providers. Results We calculated the mean number of

  9. Pooling academic resources for public health.

    PubMed

    Michael, J M; Hayakawa, J M

    1994-01-01

    In January 1984, the Asia-Pacific Academic Consortium for Public Health (APACPH) was established, bringing together 5 schools of public health with the objectives: to raise the quality of professional education in public health; to enhance the knowledge and skills of health workers through joint projects; to solve health problems through closer links with each other and with ministries of health; to increase opportunities for graduate students through curriculum development; and to make child survival a major priority. The Consortium now comprises 31 academic institutions or units in 16 countries, and is supported by UNICEF, The World Health Organization, the China Medical Board of New York, and the governments of Japan and Malaysia. During 1985-1992, it also received major support from the United States through the US Agency for International Development and the University of Hawaii. During the past 10 years, APACPH has carried out such activities as setting up a data bank on the programs of its members, assessing public health problems, designing new curriculum and systems for service delivery, facilitating information and faculty exchanges, and running workshops for academic administrators. It has also organized conferences on the impact of urbanization on health, aging, child survival, AIDS, and occupational health. Since 1987 it has published the Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health, the only English language journal on public health issues in the Asia and Pacific region, which will feature work being done by non-English-speaking researchers. Emphasis in the coming years will be placed on setting common standards for teaching and research, so that members can make more use of each other's programs. It is hoped that membership of the Consortium will continue to expand. A particular concern will be to focus more resources on preventive care rather than curative. PMID:7945762

  10. Masterclass in veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    Clifford, Hannah

    2016-02-01

    Each summer, one student from each vet school in the British Isles gets the chance to attend a week-long masterclass to learn more about veterinary public health. Last year, Hannah Clifford was one of them. Here she explains how her understanding of the relevance and responsibility of vets working in public health has changed. PMID:26851115

  11. 24 CFR 964.425 - Small public housing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Small public housing agencies. 964.425 Section 964.425 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... § 964.425 Small public housing agencies. (a) General. The requirements of this subpart do not apply...

  12. 24 CFR 964.425 - Small public housing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small public housing agencies. 964.425 Section 964.425 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... § 964.425 Small public housing agencies. (a) General. The requirements of this subpart do not apply...

  13. A Selected Guide to Public Agencies Concerned with Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    A selected listing of public agencies involved with exceptional children is presented. Approximately 90 agencies are included. Abstracts are provided for each entry, with an organization described in terms of its purpose, membership requirements, publications, sponsorship of conferences, and affiliation with local chapters, where applicable. (For…

  14. 46 CFR 503.82 - Public announcement of agency meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public announcement of agency meeting. 503.82 Section 503.82 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PUBLIC INFORMATION Public Observation of Federal Maritime Commission Meetings and Public Access to Information Pertaining...

  15. 46 CFR 503.82 - Public announcement of agency meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public announcement of agency meeting. 503.82 Section 503.82 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PUBLIC INFORMATION Public Observation of Federal Maritime Commission Meetings and Public Access to Information Pertaining...

  16. 46 CFR 503.82 - Public announcement of agency meeting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Observation of Federal Maritime Commission Meetings and Public Access to Information Pertaining to... shall be open or closed to public observation; and (5) The name and telephone number of the Secretary of... closed to public observation; and (5) The name and telephone number of the Secretary of the agency...

  17. 77 FR 29348 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  18. 75 FR 63479 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is..., Director, Office of Resources Management; Office of the Chief Information Officer. BILLING CODE 4150-45-P...

  19. 76 FR 20987 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  20. 77 FR 4561 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... requirements. The lack of general awareness and understanding about the nature and extent of racial and...

  1. 75 FR 67976 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... requirements of Section 512 of the Recovery Act, set forth by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  2. 75 FR 13289 - Agency Information Collection Request, 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... requirements of Section 512 of the Recovery Act, set forth by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) under... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request, 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services,...

  3. 75 FR 65340 - Agency Emergency Information Collection Clearance Request for Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Emergency Information Collection Clearance Request for Public Comment AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of...

  4. 76 FR 35444 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  5. 75 FR 63478 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  6. 76 FR 76165 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  7. 75 FR 27346 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  8. 76 FR 1616 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  9. 76 FR 17128 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  10. 76 FR 59701 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30 Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30 Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  11. 76 FR 67454 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... numbered 4.C and titled ] ``Previous Grants.gov Tracking Number''; (2) Modification of an existing...

  12. 76 FR 55065 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  13. 75 FR 48968 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30 Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... is a biennial survey of the blood collection and utilization community to produce reliable...

  14. 75 FR 22806 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... is a biennial survey of the blood collection and utilization community to produce reliable...

  15. 77 FR 5253 - Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. In compliance with the requirement of section 3506(c)(2)(A) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary...

  16. 75 FR 13288 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... conduct a nationwide survey which will use computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI) to interview...

  17. 76 FR 10366 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... Evaluation (ASPE). Abstract: This research leverages best practices in behavior change, interaction...

  18. 76 FR 33761 - Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request. 30-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human Services, is... research leverages best practices in behavior change, interaction design, and service innovation...

  19. [Regional health agencies: only sham autonomy two years later].

    PubMed

    Rolland, Christine; Pierru, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    From the outset, reform of regional health agencies in France, has been torn between two conflicting approaches: traditional state planning and the more recent New Public Management. In fact, the "Hôpital Patients Santá Territoires" (Hospital Patients Health Territories) bill juxtaposes rather than supplants these conflicting approaches. Based on a sociological and qualitative survey conducted nationwide and in three regional health agencies, this article highlights the contradictions in which regional health agency management is entangled and how it tries to accommodate them in its everyday professional activity. Officially, and paradoxically, regional agencies are required to be "autonomous" and "innovative" to ensure more "territorialized" health policies, but in fact, they are caught in a meshwork of somewhat arbitrary national regulatory and budgetary controls that are very similar to the traditional French model of administration. In the light of the example of three different schemes of regional/territorial delegation regulations, this article shows how the various stakeholders are nevertheless trying to innovate even if, ultimately, they are faced with a more traditional, centralised healthcare system with decreased participation at the more local levels. PMID:24404723

  20. Public Health Intelligence: Learning From the Ebola Crisis.

    PubMed

    Carney, Timothy Jay; Weber, David Jay

    2015-09-01

    Today's public health crises, as exemplified by the Ebola outbreak, lead to dramatic calls to action that typically include improved electronic monitoring systems to better prepare for, and respond to, similar occurrences in the future. Even a preliminary public health informatics evaluation of the current Ebola crisis exposes the need for enhanced coordination and sharing of trustworthy public health intelligence. We call for a consumer-centric model of public health intelligence and the formation of a national center to guide public health intelligence gathering and synthesis. Sharing accurate and actionable information with government agencies, health care practitioners, policymakers, and, critically, the general public, will mark a shift from doing public health surveillance on people to doing public health surveillance for people. PMID:26180978

  1. Public health and human values

    PubMed Central

    Häyry, M

    2006-01-01

    The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other values. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332

  2. Public health implications of environmental exposures.

    PubMed Central

    De Rosa, C T; Pohl, H R; Williams, M; Ademoyero, A A; Chou, C H; Jones, D E

    1998-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a public health agency with responsibility for assessing the public health implications associated with uncontrolled releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The biological effects of low-level exposures are a primary concern in these assessments. One of the tools used by the agency for this purpose is the risk assessment paradigm originally outlined and described by the National Academy of Science in 1983. Because of its design and inherent concepts, risk assessment has been variously employed by a number of environmental and public health agencies and programs as a means to organize information, as a decision support tool, and as a working hypothesis for biologically based inference and extrapolation. Risk assessment has also been the subject of significant critical review. The ATSDR recognizes the utility of both the qualitative and quantitative conclusions provided by traditional risk assessment, but the agency uses such estimates only in the broader context of professional judgment, internal and external peer review, and extensive public review and comment. This multifaceted approach is consistent with the Council on Environmental Quality's description and use of risk analysis as an organizing construct based on sound biomedical and other scientific judgment in concert with risk assessment to define plausible exposure ranges of concern rather than a single numerical estimate that may convey an artificial sense of precision. In this approach biomedical opinion, host factors, mechanistic interpretation, molecular epidemiology, and actual exposure conditions are all critically important in evaluating the significance of environmental exposure to hazardous substances. As such, the ATSDR risk analysis approach is a multidimensional endeavor encompassing not only the components of risk assessment but also the principles of biomedical judgment, risk management, and risk communication

  3. PUBLIC HEALTH AIR SURVEILLANCE EVALUATION (PHASE) - A SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NERL's Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division and other participants in the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) project will be discussing their results with European Commission, Directorate General Environment, and

    French Agency for Environment an...

  4. Public Health Perspectives on Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Gormaz, Juan G; Fry, Jillian P; Erazo, Marcia; Love, David C

    2014-01-01

    Nearly half of all seafood consumed globally comes from aquaculture, a method of food production that has expanded rapidly in recent years. Increasing seafood consumption has been proposed as part of a strategy to combat the current non-communicable disease (NCD) pandemic, but public health, environmental, social, and production challenges related to certain types of aquaculture production must be addressed. Resolving these complicated human health and ecologic trade-offs requires systems thinking and collaboration across many fields; the One Health concept is an integrative approach that brings veterinary and human health experts together to combat zoonotic disease. We propose applying and expanding the One Health approach to facilitate collaboration among stakeholders focused on increasing consumption of seafood and expanding aquaculture production, using methods that minimize risks to public health, animal health, and ecology. This expanded application of One Health may also have relevance to other complex systems with similar trade-offs. PMID:25152863

  5. Global Trade and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, Ellen R.; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization’s General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  6. Global trade and public health.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Ellen R; Waitzkin, Howard; Brenner, Joseph; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca

    2005-01-01

    Global trade and international trade agreements have transformed the capacity of governments to monitor and to protect public health, to regulate occupational and environmental health conditions and food products, and to ensure affordable access to medications. Proposals under negotiation for the World Trade Organization's General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) and the regional Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) agreement cover a wide range of health services, health facilities, clinician licensing, water and sanitation services, and tobacco and alcohol distribution services. Public health professionals and organizations rarely participate in trade negotiations or in resolution of trade disputes. The linkages among global trade, international trade agreements, and public health deserve more attention than they have received to date. PMID:15623854

  7. 21 CFR 25.16 - Public health and safety emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Public health and safety emergencies. 25.16 Section 25.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.16 Public...

  8. 21 CFR 25.16 - Public health and safety emergencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Public health and safety emergencies. 25.16 Section 25.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT CONSIDERATIONS Agency Actions Requiring Environmental Consideration § 25.16 Public...

  9. RELATING AIR QUALITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH TRACKING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initiated in February 2004, the Public Health Air Surveillance Evaluation (PHASE) Project is a multi-disciplinary collaboration between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and three Environmental Public Health Track...

  10. Implications of Network Structure on Public Health Collaboratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retrum, Jessica H.; Chapman, Carrie L.; Varda, Danielle M.

    2013-01-01

    Interorganizational collaboration is an essential function of public health agencies. These partnerships form social networks that involve diverse types of partners and varying levels of interaction. Such collaborations are widely accepted and encouraged, yet very little comparative research exists on how public health partnerships develop and…

  11. 78 FR 38345 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the... Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory...

  12. 24 CFR 964.425 - Small public housing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Small public housing agencies. 964... DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT TENANT PARTICIPATION AND TENANT OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC HOUSING Resident Board...

  13. 24 CFR 964.425 - Small public housing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Small public housing agencies. 964... DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT TENANT PARTICIPATION AND TENANT OPPORTUNITIES IN PUBLIC HOUSING Resident Board...

  14. 75 FR 48970 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment... Human Services, is publishing the following summary of a proposed collection for public...

  15. SUPERFUND PUBLIC HEALTH EVALUATION MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Superfund Public Health Evaluation Manual has been developed for use by a diverse audience, including EPA regional staff, state Superfund program staff, federal and state remedial contractors, and potentially responsible parties. Individuals having different levels of scienti...

  16. Ethical analysis in public health.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Marc J; Reich, Michael R

    2002-03-23

    Public-health regularly encounters serious ethical dilemmas, such as rationing scarce resources, influencing individuals to change their behaviour, and limiting freedom to diminish disease transmission. Yet unlike medical ethics, there is no agreed-upon framework for analysing these difficulties. We offer such a framework. It distinguishes three philosophical views, often invoked in public-health discourse: positions based on outcomes (utilitarianism), positions focused on rights and opportunities (liberalism), and views that emphasise character and virtue (communitarianism). We explore critical variations within each approach, and identify practical problems that arise in addressing the ethical dimensions of health policy. We conclude by examining challenges posed by the feminist argument of ethics-of-care and by postmodern views about the nature of ethics. Health professionals need enhanced skills in applied philosophy to improve the coherence, transparency, and quality of public deliberations over ethical issues inherent in health policy. PMID:11937202

  17. 34 CFR 300.33 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., ESAs, nonprofit public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA, and any other political subdivisions of the State that are responsible...

  18. 34 CFR 300.33 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., ESAs, nonprofit public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA, and any other political subdivisions of the State that are responsible...

  19. 34 CFR 300.33 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ESAs, nonprofit public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA, and any other political subdivisions of the State that are responsible...

  20. 34 CFR 300.33 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., ESAs, nonprofit public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA, and any other political subdivisions of the State that are responsible...

  1. Creating a Public Information Slide Show for a Rural Social Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace-Whitaker, Virginia

    1987-01-01

    Describes step-by-step procedure for creating a 20-minute public relations slide/tape show for a large community mental health and home health agency in rural Maine. Emphasizes importance of face-to-face contact, identifying and addressing the potential audience, creating a neighbor-to-neighbor atmosphere, and imaginatively using graphics to…

  2. 75 FR 45121 - Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request; 30-Day Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 30-Day Public Comment Request; 30-Day Notice... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the Office of the Secretary (OS), Department of Health and Human...

  3. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, D Kaulana; Robertson, N Tod; Hayes, Donald K

    2014-01-01

    Home visiting services are cost-effective and improve the health of children and families among those at increased risk. From 1985–2008, home visiting services in Hawai‘i were provided primarily through state funding of the Hawai‘i Healthy Start Program, but the program was severely reduced due to the economy and state budget changes over the past decade. The Maternal and Child Health Branch (MCHB) in the Family Health Services Division responded to these changes by seeking out competitive grant opportunities and collaborations in order to continue to promote home visiting services to those children and families in need. In 2010, the MCHB was awarded a federally funded Maternal, Infant and Early Childhood Home Visiting (MIECHV) grant for home visiting services to promote maternal, infant, and early childhood health, safety and development, strong parent-child relationships, and responsible parenting. In 2011, the MCHB was also awarded a competitive MIECHV development grant that funded the re-establishment of the hospital Early Identification program. Families in need of additional support identified through this program are referred for family strengthening services to a network of existing home visiting programs called the Hawai‘i Home Visiting Network (HHVN). The HHVN is supported by MIECHV and a small amount of state funds to assist programs with capacity building, training, professional development, quality assurance, and accreditation/certification support. The MIECHV grant requires that programs are evidence-based and address specific outcome measures and benchmarks. The HHVN provides home visiting services to families prenatally through 5 years of age that reside in specific at-risk communities, and is aimed at fostering positive parenting and reducing child maltreatment using a strength-based approach by targeting six protective factors: (1) social connections, (2) nurturing and attachment, (3) knowledge of parenting and child development, (4

  4. Stigmatization and public health ethics.

    PubMed

    Courtwright, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Encouraged by the success of smoking denormalization strategies as a tobacco-control measure, public health institutions are adopting a similar approach to other health behaviors. For example, a recent controversial ad campaign in New York explicitly aimed to denormalize HIV/AIDS amongst gay men. Authors such as Scott Burris have argued that efforts like this are tantamount to stigmatization and that such stigmatization is unethical because it is dehumanizing. Others have offered a limited endorsement of denormalization/stigmatization campaigns as being justified on consequentialist grounds; namely, that the potential public health benefits outweigh any stigmatizing side effects. In this paper, I examine and reject the blanket condemnation of stigmatization efforts in public health. I argue that the moral status of such efforts are best evaluated within a contractualist, as opposed to a consequentialist, framework. Contractualism in public health ethics asks whether a particular stigmatizing policy could be justified to reasonable individuals who do not know whether they will be affected by that policy. Using this approach, I argue that it is sometimes permissible for public health institutions to engage in health-related stigmatization. PMID:21797912

  5. Women's health research: public policy and sociology.

    PubMed

    Auerbach, J D; Figert, A E

    1995-01-01

    In the space of just a few years, the amount and nature of scientific research on women's health has emerged as a major policy issue being addressed at the highest levels of the federal government and in the mainstream media. This debate has engaged members of Congress, the National Institutes of Health, and other federal agencies, and medical, scientific, health, and women's organizations. Sociologists have made significant contributions to both the process by which the women's health research issue has ascended to public awareness and the content of its agenda. Many of these contributions go unrecognized and other potential contributions by medical sociologists remain unrealized. In order to advance both science and practice in women's health--by ensuring the inclusion of the sociological perspective--we encourage sociologists to participate more directly in the policy debates. PMID:7560844

  6. A Unique Funding Opportunity for Public Health in Texas

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, Thomas; Huber, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the Affordable Care Act, states are more frequently turning to Medicaid waivers to achieve the “Triple Aim” goals of improving the experience of care, improving population health, and reducing per capita costs. These demonstration waivers provide opportunities to test innovative ways to finance and deliver care. Texas is currently implementing a waiver known as the Transformation and Quality Improvement Program. Its inclusion of public health agencies is a unique approach to a system typically limited to traditional providers. San Antonio Metropolitan Health District is one public health agency taking advantage of this new funding opportunity to implement 6 new or expanded programs targeting health issues of highest priority in this south Texas region. This article discusses the use of Medicaid waivers and the advantages and challenges of public health agency participation. PMID:25423061

  7. USGS Science Serves Public Health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Herbert T.

    2010-01-01

    Human health so often depends on the health of the environment and wildlife around us. The presence of naturally occurring or human environmental contaminants and the emergence of diseases transferred between animals and humans are growing concerns worldwide. The USGS is a source of natural science information vital for understanding the quantity and quality of our earth and living resources. This information improves our understanding not only of how human activities affect environmental and ecological health, but also of how the quality of our environment and wildlife in turn affects human health. USGS is taking a leadership role in providing the natural science information needed by health researchers, policy makers, and the public to safeguard public health

  8. A Selected Guide to Public Agencies Concerned with Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    The annotated bibliography on public agencies concerned with exceptional children contains approximately 90 annotated listings of agencies serving handicapped or gifted children. Listings are alphabetical by organization title and provide address, telephone number, and a brief description which usually includes purpose, membership requirements,…

  9. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. PMID:26581727

  10. Public Law No. 101-166 of 21 November 1989, Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1990.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Among other things, this Act makes appropriations for the US Department of Health and Human Services for fiscal year 1990. It provides that none of these appropriations can be used to perform abortions, except where the life of the mother would be endangered if the fetus were carried to term. PMID:12344399

  11. Core Public Health Functions for New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daniel; Garbutt, Barbara; Peters, Julia

    2015-07-24

    This special article defines the public health principles and core public health functions that are combined to produce the public health services essential for a highly-functioning New Zealand health system. The five core functions are: health assessment and surveillance; public health capacity development; health promotion; health protection; and preventive interventions. The core functions are interconnected and are rarely delivered individually. Public health services are not static, but evolve in response to changing needs, priorities, evidence and organisational structures. The core functions describe the different ways public health contributes to health outcomes in New Zealand and provide a framework for ensuring services are comprehensive and robust. PMID:26367356

  12. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe Mather, Carolyn M; McGurk, Meghan D

    2014-01-01

    Over half of the adults in Hawai‘i are overweight or obese, exposing them to increased risk for chronic diseases and resulting in higher health care expenses. Poor dietary habits and physical inactivity are important contributors to obesity and overweight. Because adults spend most of their waking hours at work, the workplace is an important setting for interventions to solve this growing problem. Changing the nutrition environment to support healthy eating is a recommended practice for worksite wellness interventions. Following this recommendation, the Hawai‘i State Department of Health (DOH) launched the Choose Healthy Now! Healthy Vending Pilot Project to increase access to healthy options in worksites. Choose Healthy Now! utilized an education campaign and a traffic light nutrition coding system (green = go, yellow = slow, red = uh-oh), based on federal nutrition guidelines, to help employees identify the healthier options in their worksite snack shops. Inventory of healthy items was increased and product placement techniques were used to help make the healthy choice the easy choice. DOH partnered with the Department of Human Services' Ho‘opono Vending Program to pilot the project in six government buildings on O‘ahu between May and September of 2014. Vendors added new green (healthy) and yellow (intermediate) options to their snack shop and cafeteria inventories, and labeled their snacks and beverages with green and yellow point-of-decision stickers. The following article outlines background and preliminary findings from the Choose Healthy Now! pilot. PMID:25414808

  13. Keeping the "public" in schools of public health.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Klitzman, Susan; Diamond, Catherine; El-Mohandes, Ayman

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we compared the characteristics of public and private accredited public health training programs. We analyzed the distinct opportunities and challenges that publicly funded schools of public health face in preparing the nation's public health workforce. Using our experience in creating a new, collaborative public school of public health in the nation's largest urban public university system, we described efforts to use our public status and mission to develop new approaches to educating a workforce that meets the health needs of our region and contributes to the goal of reducing health inequalities. Finally, we considered policies that could protect and strengthen the distinct contributions that public schools of public health make to improving population health and reducing health inequalities. PMID:25706006

  14. Training Physicians for Public Health Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Lyla M., Ed.; Munthali, A. Wezi, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Public health efforts have resulted in tremendous improvements in the health of individuals and communities. The foundation for effective public health interventions rests, in large part, on a well-trained workforce. Unfortunately there is a major shortage of public health physicians who are prepared to face today's public health challenges.…

  15. PUBLIC HEALTH AND PUBLIC MEDICAL CARE

    PubMed Central

    Chope, H. D.

    1956-01-01

    This paper deals briefly with the historical development of the major movements and organizations dedicated to the preservation of the health and security of the American people. Statements of various national organizations on the need for integration of these various services for the protection of the indigent are presented, and the experience of one county department in San Mateo which operates a completely integrated department of public health and welfare is reviewed, giving the pros and cons of the operation of a number of disciplines through a single administration. The major advantage of an integrated department of this kind is that all the services having to do with human needs—the needs arising from emotional distress, economic reverses or illness—are combined under the direction of a physician. It is probable that failure of the health discipline to provide such services was a factor in the presentation of the Wagner Act in 1938 and the Wagner-Murray-Dingell Bill in 1943. Continued close cooperation between the various disciplines devoted to the protection of the health and welfare of American citizens can help in solving some of the current problems. PMID:13364660

  16. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed

    Maantay, J

    2001-07-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  17. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, J

    2001-01-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  18. Insights in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Choy, Lehua B; Smith, Heidi Hansen; Espiritu, Justine; Higa, Earl; Lee, Thomas; Maddock, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In 2011, a small pilot bike share program was established in the town core of Kailua, Hawai‘i, with funding from the Hawai‘i State Department of Health. The Kailua system consisted of two stations with 12 bicycles, and the goal was to secure additional funding to expand the station network in the future. Community feedback consistently indicated support for the bike share program. However, system metrics showed low levels of usage, averaging 41.5 rides per month (2011–2014). From observational data, users were primarily tourists. With minimal local staff, the bike share program had limited resources for promotion and education, which may have hindered potential use by local residents. Management of station operations and bike maintenance were additional, ongoing barriers to success. Despite the challenges, the pilot bike share program was valuable in several ways. It introduced the bike share concept to Hawai‘i, thereby helping to build awareness and connect an initial network of stakeholders. Furthermore, the pilot bike share program informed the development of a larger bike share program for urban Honolulu. As limited information exists in the literature about the experiences of smaller bike share programs and their unique considerations, this article shares lessons learned for other communities interested in starting similar bike share programs. PMID:26535166

  19. 29 CFR 825.108 - Public agency coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... coverage. (a) An “employer” under FMLA includes any “public agency,” as defined in section 3(x) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, 29 U.S.C. 203(x). Section 3(x) of the FLSA defines “public agency” as...

  20. 29 CFR 825.108 - Public agency coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... coverage. (a) An “employer” under FMLA includes any “public agency,” as defined in section 3(x) of the Fair Labor Standards Act, 29 U.S.C. 203(x). Section 3(x) of the FLSA defines “public agency” as...

  1. Integration of site-specific health information: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry health assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, A.M.; Siegel, M.R.

    1990-12-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry is required to conduct a health assessment of any site that is listed on or proposed for the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List. Sixteen US Department of Energy (DOE) sites currently fall into this category. Health assessments contain a qualitative description of impacts to public health and the environment from hazardous waste sites, as well as recommendations for actions to mitigate or eliminate risk. Because these recommendations may have major impacts on compliance activities at DOE facilities, the health assessments are an important source of information for the monitoring activities of DOE's Office of Environmental Compliance (OEC). This report provides an overview of the activities involved in preparing the health assessment, its role in environmental management, and its key elements.

  2. Thinking historically about public health.

    PubMed

    Bashford, Alison; Strange, Carolyn

    2007-12-01

    This paper argues that analysing past public health policies calls for scholarship that integrates insights not just from medical history but from a broad range of historical fields. Recent studies of historic infectious disease management make this evident: they confirm that prior practices inhere in current perceptions and policies, which, like their antecedents, unfold amidst shifting amalgams of politics, culture, law and economics. Thus, explaining public health policy of the past purely in medical or epidemiological terms ignores evidence that it was rarely, if ever, designed solely on medical grounds at the time. PMID:23674428

  3. Zoological medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Osburn, Bennie I

    2006-01-01

    Public-health issues regarding zoological collections and free-ranging wildlife have historically been linked to the risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases and accidents relating to bites or injection of venom or toxins by venomous animals. It is only recently that major consideration has been given worldwide to the role of the veterinary profession in contributing to investigating zoonotic diseases in free-ranging wildlife and integrating the concept of public health into the management activities of game preserves and wildlife parks. At the veterinary undergraduate level, courses in basic epidemiology, which should include outbreak investigation and disease surveillance, but also in population medicine, in infectious and parasitic diseases (especially new and emerging or re-emerging zoonoses), and in ecology should be part of the core curriculum. Foreign diseases, especially dealing with zoonotic diseases that are major threats because of possible agro-terrorism or spread of zoonoses, need to be taught in veterinary college curricula. Furthermore, knowledge of the principles of ecology and ecosystems should be acquired either during pre-veterinary studies or, at least, at the beginning of the veterinary curriculum. At the post-graduate level, master's degrees in preventive veterinary medicine, ecology and environmental health, or public health with an emphasis on infectious diseases should be offered to veterinarians seeking job opportunities in public health and wildlife management. PMID:17035205

  4. 75 FR 15686 - Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in...

  5. 75 FR 18783 - Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Middle East Public Health Mission; Application Deadline Extended AGENCY... Applications Mission recruitment will be conducted in an open and public manner, including publication in...

  6. Regulatory reform proposals and the public health.

    PubMed Central

    Buffler, P A; Kyle, A D

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Congress is considering legislation that would change policy for environmental health in important ways. Current approaches have been criticized for addressing the wrong set of priorities and consuming too many resources. The legislation requires additional analyses and sets new decision criteria to be applied to federal agency actions taken to protect the environment and public health. Close review of the legislation suggests that though it is intended to address identified problems, it is unlikely to lead to an improved basis for public policy and is likely to paralyze the regulatory process. Reform proposals that reduce rather than increase fragmentation of decision-making and that address problems comprehensively rather than selectively are needed. PMID:8732938

  7. [National public health information system].

    PubMed

    Erceg, Marijan; Stevanović, Ranko; Babić-Erceg, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Information production and its communication being a key public health activity, developing modern information systems is a precondition for its fulfilling these assignments. A national public health information system (NPHIS) is a set of human resources combined with computing and communication technologies. It enables data linkage and data coverage as well as undertaking information production and dissemination in an effective, standardized and safe way. The Croatian Institute of Public Health LAN/WAN modules are under development. Health Safety System, Health Workers Registry, and Digital Library are among the Institute's developmental priorities. Communication between NPHIS participants would unfold over the Internet by using every relevant data protection method. Web technology-based applications would be run on special servers. Between individual applications, use would be made of the transaction module of communication through an exchange of the HL7 standard-based xml messages. In the conditions of transition, the health system must make an optimal use of the resources, which is not feasible without applying modern information and communication technologies. PMID:16095199

  8. State health agencies and quality improvement in perinatal care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K A; Little, G A

    1999-01-01

    The origin of the federal-state partnership in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) can be traced from the Children's Bureau grants of 1912, through the Sheppard-Towner Act, to the creation of Title V and other programs of today that mandate planning, accountability, and systems development. In the past decade with the transformation of the health care system and the emergence of managed care, there has been a resurgence of interest in public, professional, and governmental interest in quality measurement and accountability. Regional perinatal systems have been implemented in all states with varying levels of involvement by state health agencies and the public sector. This historical framework discusses two primary themes: the decades of evolution in the federal-state partnership, and the emergence in the last three decades of perinatal regional system policy, and suggests that the structure of the federal-state partnership has encouraged state variation. A survey of state MCH programs was undertaken to clarify their operational and perceived role in promoting quality improvement in perinatal care. Data and information from the survey, along with five illustrative state case studies, demonstrate great variation in how individual state agencies function. State efforts in quality improvement, a process to make things better, have four arenas of activity: policy development and implementation, definition and measurement of quality, data collection and analysis, and communication to affect change. Few state health agencies (through their MCH programs and perinatal staff) are taking action in all four arenas. This analysis concludes that there are improvements MCH programs could implement without significant expansion in their authority or resources and points out that there is an opportunity for states to be more proactive as they have the legal authority and responsibility for assuring MCH outcomes. PMID:9917467

  9. Chattanooga Creek: case study of the public health nursing role in environmental health.

    PubMed

    Phillips, L

    1995-10-01

    Public health nurses have two primary roles in protecting their communities from hazardous substances: community assessment and health education. Developing assessment skills in environmental health enables public health nurses to collaborate with other federal, state, and county agencies in identifying public health hazards and making health-based recommendations at hazardous waste sites needing remedial or removal interventions. Community health education empowers communities to minimize their exposure to hazardous wastes in their environment. Methods for community environmental health assessment and interventions are demonstrated in this article by activities conducted at the Chattanooga Creek site in Chattanooga, Tennessee. A thorough assessment and collaborative approach between government agencies, local health professionals, and community members resulted in a successful community health education program and this site's placement on the National Priorities List. PMID:7479542

  10. 77 FR 42323 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Public Housing Agency (PHA) Lease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... (PHA) Lease and Grievance Requirements AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian...: Public Housing Agency (PHA) Lease and Grievance Requirements. OMB Approval Number: 2577-0006. Description... calculation and also incorrectly assumed that 100% of households would be reviewing or initiating a lease....

  11. [Health education in the French Regional Health Agencies in 2012: observations and analysis].

    PubMed

    Baudier, François; Destaing, Lara; Michaud, Claude

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the role of health education in the French Agences régionales de santé (ARS, Regional Health Agencies) in 2012. A survey was conducted among public health managers working in the ARS. Most of the participants reported that health education plays an important role in their agency, notably through their regional health plan and the activities of the organizations responsible for promoting democracy in health care. This is also true of the links with the Institut national de prévention et d'education pour la santé (INPES, the National Institute for Health Prevention and Education) and the network of Instances régionales d'éducation et de promotion de la santé (IREPS, the Regional Authorities for Health Education and Promotion). However, the answers to the open-ended questions and the results of the interviews suggest that these results must be interpreted with caution. The study focuses on a number of factors that must be taken into account when considering the results of the quantitative analysis. These factors include: the subjective (or interpretive) dimension of the term "health education" emphasized by many of the participants (a term involving an emphasis on either health promotion or preventive medicine); the limited emphasis on health education in the ARS (beyond therapeutic patient education) compared to other issues such as health monitoring and security, health care and medico-social problems; the limited resources allocated to health education and the bleak budget outlook; the relationships with the main operators; and the need to develop, promote and apply knowledge of good practice. Finally, the study shows that the role of health education is dependent on individuals' willingness to promote it and, in particular, on the commitment of ARS managers. PMID:24313069

  12. Defining Information Needs for Public Health Systems and Services Research

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, James W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: People who lead or manage public health agencies have multiple needs for information in order to do their jobs effectively. In seeking to investigate “what works” in public health practice, investigators in the field of public health systems and services research (PHSSR) have largely overlapping information needs but often require a greater detail, specificity, or comprehensiveness than is routinely available in public health data systems. PHSSR Data Needs Meeting: On April 24, 2014, the PHSSR Center of the University of Kentucky and AcademyHealth convened a 1-day meeting of public health practitioners and PHSSR investigators to identify PHSSR information needs. Meeting participants considered data needs for three PHSSR domains: the organization of public health agencies and services, the use of rapidly evolving health information technologies, and the financing and economic evaluation of public health activities. Future Data Needs: Identifying data needs in these and other PHSSR domains requires clarification of research questions, consideration of research methods, a balance of imagination and practicality, and investments to extend the information captured in existing administrative, financial, and population health monitoring systems. PMID:25848628

  13. [Recent progress in international public health].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Li, Liming

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress in international public health in terms of public health challenges, infectious diseases prevention and control, disease surveillance, chronic and non-communicable disease prevention and treatment, global health, health literacy and precision medicine for the purpose to provide reference for the improvement of public health in China. PMID:26822634

  14. 76 FR 1168 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Health and Diet...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Health and Diet Survey AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an opportunity for public comment on...

  15. Veterinarians in Environmental Health: Opportunities for Veterinarians at the Environmental Protection Agency

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was created in 1970 partially in response to widespread public concern about environmental degradation. The EPA mission is to protect human health and the environment and the Agency is tasked with enforcing our nation's envi...

  16. From theory to practice: community health nursing in a public health neighborhood team.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, L O; Schultz, P R

    2000-12-01

    An interdisciplinary team in a local public health district tested its ability to implement the core public health functions of assessment, policy development, and assurance by changing its practice to a community-driven model of building partnerships for health with groups and communities in a designated locale. Evaluation of this innovation revealed that the public health nurse members of the team enacted their community health nursing knowledge to strengthen agency to cocreate health. Interdisciplinary collaboration was essential to the team's community mobilization efforts. Additional findings suggested that this organizational innovation was associated with developing a more participatory organizational climate, increasing system effectiveness, and building community capacity. PMID:11104324

  17. 42 CFR 431.615 - Relations with State health and vocational rehabilitation agencies and title V grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relations with State health and vocational rehabilitation agencies and title V grantees. 431.615 Section 431.615 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS...

  18. Evolution of the Academic Health Department through public health academic and practice collaborations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Amy F; Quade, Thomas; Dwinnells, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In 1997, the Office of Public Health Practice was chartered at Northeast Ohio Medical University (NEOMED). Through this office, public health practitioners and academics have engaged in informal collaborations, formal collaborations, and formal agreements. Projects that have helped public health practitioners included a sanitarian preparation course, educational opportunities, and shared faculty arrangements. The academic programs have benefited through support in accreditation activities, teaching and precepting of public health and medical students, and advice on community-oriented curriculum. Formal affiliation agreements have been developed between the medical school and 5 local health departments, and public health practitioners have been given faculty appointments. Factors that have resulted in the longevity of Academic Health Department relationships through the Office of Public Health Practice include individuals dedicated to these relationships, agencies willing to support collaborative efforts, mutually beneficial activities, and a culture conducive to continued engagement. PMID:24667189

  19. 78 FR 42951 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval... (EGOV), Department of Health and Human Services, has submitted an Information Collection Request (ICR... submitted during the first public review of this ICR will be provided to OMB. OMB will accept...

  20. 78 FR 42947 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval... (EGOV), Department of Health and Human Services, has submitted an Information Collection Request (ICR... submitted during the first public review of this ICR will be provided to OMB. OMB will accept...

  1. Public Health Ethics and Liberalism

    PubMed Central

    Radoilska, Lubomira

    2009-01-01

    This paper defends a distinctly liberal approach to public health ethics and replies to possible objections. In particular, I look at a set of recent proposals aiming to revise and expand liberalism in light of public health's rationale and epidemiological findings. I argue that they fail to provide a sociologically informed version of liberalism. Instead, they rest on an implicit normative premise about the value of health, which I show to be invalid. I then make explicit the unobvious, republican background of these proposals. Finally, I expand on the liberal understanding of freedom as non-interference and show its advantages over the republican alternative of freedom as non-domination within the context of public health. The views of freedom I discuss in the paper do not overlap with the classical distinction between negative and positive freedom. In addition, my account differentiates the concepts of freedom and autonomy and does not rule out substantive accounts of the latter. Nor does it confine political liberalism to an essentially procedural form. PMID:19655049

  2. [Social marketing and public health].

    PubMed

    Arcaro, P; Mannocci, A; Saulle, R; Miccoli, S; Marzuillo, C; La Torre, G

    2013-01-01

    Social marketing uses the principles and techniques of commercial marketing by applying them to the complex social context in order to promote changes (cognitive; of action; behavioral; of values) among the target population in the public interest. The advent of Internet has radically modified the communication process, and this transformation also involved medical-scientific communication. Medical journals, health organizations, scientific societies and patient groups are increasing the use of the web and of many social networks (Twitter, Facebook, Google, YouTube) as channels to release scientific information to doctors and patients quickly. In recent years, even Healthcare in Italy reported a considerable application of the methods and techniques of social marketing, above all for health prevention and promotion. Recently the association for health promotion "Social marketing and health communication" has been established to promote an active dialogue between professionals of social marketing and public health communication, as well as among professionals in the field of communication of the companies involved in the "health sector". In the field of prevention and health promotion it is necessary to underline the theme of the growing distrust in vaccination practices. Despite the irrefutable evidence of the efficacy and safety of vaccines, the social-cultural transformation together with the overcoming of compulsory vaccination and the use of noninstitutional information sources, have generated confusion among citizens that tend to perceive compulsory vaccinations as needed and safe, whereas recommended vaccinations as less important. Moreover, citizens scarcely perceive the risk of disease related to the effectiveness of vaccines. Implementing communication strategies, argumentative and persuasive, borrowed from social marketing, also for the promotion of vaccines is a priority of the health system. A typical example of the application of social marketing, as

  3. Public health pesticide use in California: a comparative summary.

    PubMed

    Howard, Timothy S; Novak, Mark G; Kramer, Vicki L; Bronson, Larry R

    2010-09-01

    California pesticide use summary data and use reports from local vector control agencies were reviewed to document public health pesticide use patterns. During the 15-year period 1993-2007, public health pesticide use averaged 1.75 million lb (0.79 million kg) (AI), accounted for < 1% of reportable pesticide use statewide, and ranked below major crop uses and many nonagricultural uses. A review of reports from local vector control agencies (2004-07) indicated that their applications were principally for mosquito control and represented > 99% of all reported public health pesticide use. Petroleum distillates, principally larviciding oils, accounted for 88% of public health pesticide use. Pyrethrins and naled, used as mosquito adulticides, increased substantially in recent years (post-2004), coinciding with increased West Nile virus control activities and availability of emergency funding. PMID:21033068

  4. Jails, public health, and generalizability.

    PubMed

    Potter, Roberto Hugh

    2010-10-01

    This article outlines and discusses five categories of information about individual jails that should be considered before making general statements about jails. These are (a) the process by which individuals come to and are processed through the jail, (b) the size of the jail, (c) the region of the country where the jail is situated, (d) classification/assessment techniques, and (e) architecture and supervision styles. It is hoped that this discussion will generate a better understanding of the complexity of jail systems across the nation and help public health professionals better target their research, programs, and policies directed at the jail/community health nexus. PMID:20881141

  5. [Aesthetic surgery and public health].

    PubMed

    Fogli, A

    2003-10-01

    The increasing number of requests for aesthetic surgery legitimately leads to the question of whether it can be covered by Public Health. If we look at the definition of the World Health Organization, the answer is without any doubt an affirmative one. However, economic considerations show that there is no social system in the world that covers aesthetic surgery, except for some definite interventions. Requests for aesthetic surgery occur in all social classes. It is a personal choice and a voluntary decision. It is no longer society who assists a sick or ill patient but it is the person that assumes the responsibility for himself. PMID:14599901

  6. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Valerie A.; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth

    2007-01-01

    Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public–Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships. PMID:17329646

  7. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  8. 16 CFR 1012.4 - Public attendance at agency meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public attendance at agency meetings. 1012.4 Section 1012.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL MEETINGS POLICY-MEETINGS... or the Poison Prevention Packaging Act; (4) Meetings with outside parties concerning the...

  9. 16 CFR 1012.4 - Public attendance at agency meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public attendance at agency meetings. 1012.4 Section 1012.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL MEETINGS POLICY-MEETINGS... or the Poison Prevention Packaging Act; (4) Meetings with outside parties concerning the...

  10. 16 CFR 1012.4 - Public attendance at agency meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public attendance at agency meetings. 1012.4 Section 1012.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL MEETINGS POLICY-MEETINGS... or the Poison Prevention Packaging Act; (4) Meetings with outside parties concerning the...

  11. 14 CFR 158.63 - Reporting requirements: Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Reporting, Recordkeeping and Audits § 158.63... collecting PFCs for the public agency with a copy to the appropriate FAA Airports Office. The quarterly report must include: (1) Actual PFC revenue received from collecting air carriers, interest earned,...

  12. 14 CFR 158.63 - Reporting requirements: Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Reporting, Recordkeeping and Audits § 158.63... collecting PFCs for the public agency with a copy to the appropriate FAA Airports Office. The quarterly report must include: (1) Actual PFC revenue received from collecting air carriers, interest earned,...

  13. 14 CFR 158.63 - Reporting requirements: Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Reporting, Recordkeeping and Audits § 158.63... collecting PFCs for the public agency with a copy to the appropriate FAA Airports Office. The quarterly report must include: (1) Actual PFC revenue received from collecting air carriers, interest earned,...

  14. 14 CFR 158.63 - Reporting requirements: Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Reporting, Recordkeeping and Audits § 158.63... collecting PFCs for the public agency with a copy to the appropriate FAA Airports Office. The quarterly report must include: (1) Actual PFC revenue received from collecting air carriers, interest earned,...

  15. 14 CFR 158.63 - Reporting requirements: Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Reporting, Recordkeeping and Audits § 158.63... collecting PFCs for the public agency with a copy to the appropriate FAA Airports Office. The quarterly report must include: (1) Actual PFC revenue received from collecting air carriers, interest earned,...

  16. 16 CFR 1012.4 - Public attendance at agency meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public attendance at agency meetings. 1012.4 Section 1012.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL MEETINGS POLICY-MEETINGS... or negotiation of an individual case, including proposed remedial action, or meetings concerning...

  17. 7 CFR 652.24 - Certification process for public agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification process for public agencies. 652.24 Section 652.24 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES... technical services under its auspices changes; (4) Require that responsibility for any work performed by...

  18. Discover: What Is Public Health?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Social Science Biostatistics and Informatics Community Health Environmental Health Epidemiology Global Health Health Policy and Management Health Promotion and Communication Maternal and Child Health ...

  19. Public health surveillance and infectious disease detection.

    PubMed

    Morse, Stephen S

    2012-03-01

    Emerging infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, SARS, and pandemic influenza, and the anthrax attacks of 2001, have demonstrated that we remain vulnerable to health threats caused by infectious diseases. The importance of strengthening global public health surveillance to provide early warning has been the primary recommendation of expert groups for at least the past 2 decades. However, despite improvements in the past decade, public health surveillance capabilities remain limited and fragmented, with uneven global coverage. Recent initiatives provide hope of addressing this issue, and new technological and conceptual advances could, for the first time, place capability for global surveillance within reach. Such advances include the revised International Health Regulations (IHR 2005) and the use of new data sources and methods to improve global coverage, sensitivity, and timeliness, which show promise for providing capabilities to extend and complement the existing infrastructure. One example is syndromic surveillance, using nontraditional and often automated data sources. Over the past 20 years, other initiatives, including ProMED-mail, GPHIN, and HealthMap, have demonstrated new mechanisms for acquiring surveillance data. In 2009 the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) began the Emerging Pandemic Threats (EPT) program, which includes the PREDICT project, to build global capacity for surveillance of novel infections that have pandemic potential (originating in wildlife and at the animal-human interface) and to develop a framework for risk assessment. Improved understanding of factors driving infectious disease emergence and new technological capabilities in modeling, diagnostics and pathogen identification, and communications, such as using the increasing global coverage of cellphones for public health surveillance, can further enhance global surveillance. PMID:22455675

  20. Causal Inference in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Thomas A.; Goodman, Steven N.; Hernán, Miguel A.; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Causal inference has a central role in public health; the determination that an association is causal indicates the possibility for intervention. We review and comment on the long-used guidelines for interpreting evidence as supporting a causal association and contrast them with the potential outcomes framework that encourages thinking in terms of causes that are interventions. We argue that in public health this framework is more suitable, providing an estimate of an action’s consequences rather than the less precise notion of a risk factor’s causal effect. A variety of modern statistical methods adopt this approach. When an intervention cannot be specified, causal relations can still exist, but how to intervene to change the outcome will be unclear. In application, the often-complex structure of causal processes needs to be acknowledged and appropriate data collected to study them. These newer approaches need to be brought to bear on the increasingly complex public health challenges of our globalized world. PMID:23297653

  1. 77 FR 33220 - Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service,...

  2. Engineering and public health at CDC.

    PubMed

    Earnest, G Scott; Reed, Laurence D; Conover, D; Estill, C; Gjessing, C; Gressel, M; Hall, R; Hudock, S; Hudson, H; Kardous, C; Sheehy, J; Topmiller, J; Trout, D; Woebkenberg, M; Amendola, A; Hsiao, H; Keane, P; Weissman, D; Finfinger, G; Tadolini, S; Thimons, E; Cullen, E; Jenkins, M; McKibbin, R; Conway, G; Husberg, B; Lincoln, J; Rodenbeck, S; Lantagne, D; Cardarelli, J

    2006-12-22

    Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. Using imagination, judgment, and reasoning to apply science, technology, mathematics, and practical experience, engineers develop the design, production, and operation of useful objects or processes. During the 1940s, engineers dominated the ranks of CDC scientists. In fact, the first CDC director, Assistant Surgeon General Mark Hollis, was an engineer. CDC engineers were involved in malaria control through the elimination of standing water. Eventually the CDC mission expanded to include prevention and control of dengue, typhus, and other communicable diseases. The development of chlorination, water filtration, and sewage treatment were crucial to preventing waterborne illness. Beginning in the 1950s, CDC engineers began their work to improve public health while developing the fields of environmental health, industrial hygiene, and control of air pollution. Engineering disciplines represented at CDC today include biomedical, civil, chemical, electrical, industrial, mechanical, mining, and safety engineering. Most CDC engineers are located in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Engineering research at CDC has a broad stakeholder base. With the cooperation of industry, labor, trade associations, and other stakeholders and partners, current work includes studies of air contaminants, mining, safety, physical agents, ergonomics, and environmental hazards. Engineering solutions remain a cornerstone of the traditional "hierarchy of controls" approach to reducing public health hazards. PMID:17183236

  3. Noise exposure and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Passchier-Vermeer, W; Passchier, W F

    2000-01-01

    Exposure to noise constitutes a health risk. There is sufficient scientific evidence that noise exposure can induce hearing impairment, hypertension and ischemic heart disease, annoyance, sleep disturbance, and decreased school performance. For other effects such as changes in the immune system and birth defects, the evidence is limited. Most public health impacts of noise were already identified in the 1960s and noise abatement is less of a scientific but primarily a policy problem. A subject for further research is the elucidation of the mechanisms underlying noise-induced cardiovascular disorders and the relationship of noise with annoyance and nonacoustical factors modifying health outcomes. A high priority study subject is the effects of noise on children, including cognitive effects and their reversibility. Noise exposure is on the increase, especially in the general living environment, both in industrialized nations and in developing world regions. This implies that in the twenty-first century noise exposure will still be a major public health problem. Images Figure 2 PMID:10698728

  4. Electromagnetic fields and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, T E; Easterly, C E

    1987-01-01

    A review of the literature is provided for the topic of health-related research and power frequency electromagnetic fields. Minimal evidence for concern is present on the basis of animal and plant research. General observation would accord with the implication that there is no single and manifest health effect as the result of exposure to these fields. There are persistent indications, however, that these fields have biologic activity, and consequently, there may be a deleterious component to their action, possibly in the presence of other factors. Power frequency electromagnetic field exposures are essentially ubiquitous in modern society, and their implications in the larger perspective of public health are unclear at this time. Electromagnetic fields represent a methodological obstacle for epidemiologic studies and a quandary for risk assessment; there is need for more data. PMID:3319560

  5. Adapting online learning for Canada's Northern public health workforce

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Marnie; MacDougall, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Canada's North is a diverse, sparsely populated land, where inequalities and public health issues are evident, particularly for Aboriginal people. The Northern public health workforce is a unique mix of professional and paraprofessional workers. Few have formal public health education. From 2009 to 2012, the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) collaborated with a Northern Advisory Group to develop and implement a strategy to strengthen public health capacity in Canada's 3 northern territories. Access to relevant, effective continuing education was identified as a key issue. Challenges include diverse educational and cultural backgrounds of public health workers, geographical isolation and variable technological infrastructure across the north. Methods PHAC's Skills Online program offers Internet-based continuing education modules for public health professionals. In partnership with the Northern Advisory Group, PHAC conducted 3 pilots between 2008 and 2012 to assess the appropriateness of the Skills Online program for Northern/Aboriginal public health workers. Module content and delivery modalities were adapted for the pilots. Adaptations included adding Inuit and Northern public health examples and using video and teleconference discussions to augment the online self-study component. Results Findings from the pilots were informative and similar to those from previous Skills Online pilots with learners in developing countries. Online learning is effective in bridging the geographical barriers in remote locations. Incorporating content on Northern and Aboriginal health issues facilitates engagement in learning. Employer support facilitates the recruitment and retention of learners in an online program. Facilitator assets included experience as a public health professional from the north, and flexibility to use modified approaches to support and measure knowledge acquisition and application, especially for First Nations, Inuit and Metis learners

  6. Currently employed public health administrators: are they prepared?

    PubMed

    Boedigheimer, S F; Gebbie, K M

    2001-01-01

    Challenges to the public health system come from shifting expectations of government, economic cycles, and demographic changes. Public health administrators, charged with the responsibility of both leading and managing their agencies, those who are recognized as having significant management responsibility and influence over programs and hold positions of leadership, must be prepared. The skills needed by administrators were identified using a focus group approach. The critical skills identified include public health values, epidemiology and advocacy, organizational management, cultural competency, coalition building, communications, managing change, strategic thinking and planning, Informatics, and team building. Potential action steps were also identified. PMID:11141621

  7. Issues in public health entomology.

    PubMed

    Spielman, A; Pollack, R J; Kiszewski, A E; Telford, S R

    2001-01-01

    Public health entomology focuses on the population biology of vector-borne infections, seeking to understand how such pathogens perpetuate over time and attempting to devise methods for reducing the burden that they impose on human health. As public health entomology passes its centennial, a series of pervasive research themes and spirited debates characterize the discipline, many reflecting a tension between field and laboratory research. In particular, institutional support for population-based research and training programs has fallen behind that for those using modern lab-based approaches. Discussion of modes of intervention against vector-borne infections (such as deployment of genetically modified vectors, the role of DDT in malaria control, host-targeted acaricides for Lyme disease risk reduction, and truck-mounted aerosol spraying against West Nile virus transmission) illustrates the discipline's need for strengthening population-based research programs. Even with the advent of molecular methods for describing population structure, the basis for anophelism without malaria (or its eastern North American counterpart, ixodism without borreliosis) remains elusive. Such methods have not yet been extensively used to examine the phylogeography and geographical origins of zoonoses such as Lyme disease. Basic ecological questions remain poorly explored: What regulates vector populations? How may mixtures of pathogens be maintained by a single vector? What factors might limit the invasion of Asian mosquitoes into North American sites? Putative effects of "global warming" remain speculative given our relative inability to answer such questions. Finally, policy and administrative issues such as the "no-nits" dictum in American schools, the Roll Back Malaria program, and legal liability for risk due to vector-borne infections serve to demonstrate further the nature of the crossroads that the discipline of public health entomology faces at the start of the 21st Century

  8. 76 FR 62055 - Mississippi Delta Energy Agency, Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission, Public Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mississippi Delta Energy Agency, Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission... Practice and Procedures, and the applicable Tariff on file with the Commission, Mississippi Delta...

  9. Regionalization in local public health systems: variation in rationale, implementation, and impact on public health preparedness.

    PubMed

    Stoto, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Comparative case studies found that regionalization originated from a crisis or perceived need for a coordinated response, a need to build local public health capacity, or an effort to use federal preparedness funds more efficiently. Regions vary in terms of their congruence with regional structures for partner agencies, such as emergency management agencies, as well as hospital and health services markets and organizational structure. Some focus on building formal organizational relationships to coordinate and sometimes standardize preparedness and response activities or build regional capacity, while others focus on building informal professional networks. Whatever the approach, strong leadership and trust are required for effective planning, emergency response, and sustainability. This article suggests that regionalization improves emergency preparedness by allowing for more efficient use of resources and better coordination and demonstrated progress in terms of planning and coordination; regional capacity-building, training, and exercises; and development of professional networks. PMID:18763406

  10. 76 FR 20698 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Public Housing Agency (PHA) 5-Year...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment; Public Housing Agency (PHA) 5-Year and Annual Plan AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Public and Indian Housing.... This Notice also lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Public Housing Agency (PHA)...

  11. Salaries in Community Health Agencies--1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nursing Outlook, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Presents the National League of Nursings' annual report of salaries of registered nurses employed by official and nonofficial agencies and boards of education; data is given for type of agency, position classification, geographic area, population size, and other personnel. (Editor/TA)

  12. [Public health and private decisions].

    PubMed

    Karsenty, S

    1995-03-01

    The violent reactions of some members of the intellectual class with regard to certain political aspects of the fight against smoking oblige us to pose the general problem of the legitimacy of centralised public health decisions. There are three sources of legitimacy for intervention by public authorities: the existence of an externality (the risk that each imposes on the other by his or her behaviour); the invisibility of the risk in the eyes of non-professionals; the technical impossibility of individual protection against the risk. The unequal distribution of risk could be a fourth criteria of legitimate public action but one can also consider inequity as an automatic consequence of the existence of one or more of the first three conditions when they concern the less educated, less affluent, and less influential. The "hygiene" period of preventive policy, at the end of the 19th Century in Europe, corresponds to the strong externalities because of the contagiousness of infectious diseases and the patient inability to treat them in the curative domain. On the other hand, the ability to appreciate the risks, reflecting significant social differences, seems inversely proportional to the expectations of individuals toward the State. The demand for the liberty to protect oneself from health risks is all the stronger when individuals have the cognitive and material means to effectively do so. The fight against smoking thus must constantly update the external negative effects of smoking and the setbacks in curing the ill that it creates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7749645

  13. Public health, privatization, and market populism: a time for reflection.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, D

    1997-01-01

    The political, social, and economic ideology fueling the movement toward privatization in health care may be characterized as "market populism." Whether or not public health agencies retain their traditional roles in personal health services delivery, these organizations must serve as the predominant external source for quality monitoring, oversight, enforcement, and advocacy for communities in an environment that regards the private market as a panacea. PMID:10166215

  14. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine Friends of the National Library of ... 2009 FNLM Annual Awards Dinner celebrated advances in public health and medicine, along with the individuals and organizations ...

  15. 75 FR 76393 - Notice of Request for a New Information Collection (Public Health Information System)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Collection (Public Health Information System) AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... announcing its intention to request a new information collection concerning its Web-based Public Health...: Public Health Information System (PHIS). Type of Request: New information collection. Abstract: FSIS...

  16. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... public health or welfare. 49.135 Section 49.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the purpose of this section... operating within the Indian reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who...

  17. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... public health or welfare. 49.135 Section 49.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the purpose of this section... operating within the Indian reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who...

  18. 40 CFR 49.135 - Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... public health or welfare. 49.135 Section 49.135 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Rule for emissions detrimental to public health or welfare. (a) What is the purpose of this section... operating within the Indian reservation from being detrimental to public health or welfare. (b) Who...

  19. Public health equity in refugee situations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Addressing increasing concerns about public health equity in the context of violent conflict and the consequent forced displacement of populations is complex. Important operational questions now faced by humanitarian agencies can to some extent be clarified by reference to relevant ethical theory. Priorities of service delivery, the allocation choices, and the processes by which they are arrived at are now coming under renewed scrutiny in the light of the estimated two million refugees who fled from Iraq since 2003. Operational questions that need to be addressed include health as a relative priority, allocations between and within different populations, and transition and exit strategies. Public health equity issues faced by the humanitarian community can be framed as issues of resource allocation and issues of decision-making. The ethical approach to resource allocation in health requires taking adequate steps to reduce suffering and promote wellbeing, with the upper bound being to avoid harming those at the lower end of the welfare continuum. Deliberations in the realm of international justice have not provided a legal or implementation platform for reducing health disparities across the world, although norms and expectations, including within the humanitarian community, may be moving in that direction. Despite the limitations of applying ethical theory in the fluid, complex and highly political environment of refugee settings, this article explores how this theory could be used in these contexts and provides practical examples. The intent is to encourage professionals in the field, such as aid workers, health care providers, policy makers, and academics, to consider these ethical principles when making decisions. PMID:21575218

  20. Developing School Health Services in Massachusetts: A Public Health Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheetz, Anne H.

    2003-01-01

    In 1993 the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) began defining essential components of school health service programs, consistent with the public health model. The MDPH designed and funded the Enhanced School Health Service Programs to develop 4 core components of local school health services: (a) strengthening the administrative…

  1. [Public health and the health system. SESPAS Report 2010].

    PubMed

    Aboal-Viñas, José Luis

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of the relationship between public health and the health system requires definition of a conceptual framework and the choice of a particular context. The chosen context of this discussion is the management of public organizations. With this in mind, functions will be associated with organizational macroprocesses. From this point of view, this article identifies the functions-processes that any health system should develop and their goals. The current situation of public health in the health system is analyzed through the study of public health budgets and the place they occupy in the hierarchy of the health departments of the autonomous communities. The "public health" budget program represents an average of 1.34% of health expenditure in the autonomous communities in 2010. Over 20% of public health organizations of the autonomous communities have a rank lower than general directorate. These data indicate the low weight assigned to public health in the health systems of the Spanish state. To change this situation, consensus must be reached on the desired relationship between public health and the health system. Such a consensus would then have to be accepted and work would have to be undertaken to improve results. Three alternatives are proposed: (i) public health would be an organization that would be above or outside the health system; (ii) public health would be synonymous with the public health system; and (iii) public health would form part of the health system with a range of assigned functions. Finally, we provide some recommendations to help define the most effective and efficient relationship between public health and the health system. PMID:20970219

  2. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  3. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  4. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  5. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  6. 42 CFR 90.9 - Public health advisory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public health advisory. 90.9 Section 90.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH... PROCEDURES § 90.9 Public health advisory. ATSDR may issue a public health advisory based on the findings of...

  7. Building the legal foundation for an effective public health system.

    PubMed

    Baker, Edward L; Blumenstock, James S; Jensen, Jim; Morris, Ralph D; Moulton, Anthony D

    2002-01-01

    Work has been underway nationally since the mid-1990s to equip state and community public health systems with the infrastructure needed to perform essential public health services. Key components of that infrastructure are a competent workforce, information and communication systems, health department and laboratory capacity, and legal authorities. As part of this transformative work, standards and assessment tools have been developed to measure the capacity and actual performance of public health systems. In addition, a number of states have examined the legal foundation for public health services and have revised and updated those authorities to improve their system's capacity in the context of evolving health challenges. Among those states are Nebraska, New Jersey, and Texas, all of which, beginning in 1999, have adopted dynamic new approaches to aligning public health's legal authorities with new missions and expectations for performance and accountability. This article describes the approaches that these three states have taken to strengthen their legal foundation for public health practice, to illuminate the perspectives legislators and health officials bring to the process, and to give decision makers in other states practical insight into the potential benefits of reviewing and restructuring public health's legal authorities. The underlying stimuli for the states' initiatives differed significantly, yet shared an important, common core. What they held in common was concern that outdated elements of the public health system and infrastructure hindrered delivery of essential public health services at the community level. Where they differed was in the type of tools they found most suitable for the job of rejuvenating those structures. The approaches taken, and the policy tools selected, reflect the unique health needs of each state, establish relationships among state and community health authorities and agencies, and provide guidance by elected and appointed

  8. 77 FR 25498 - Notice of Proposed Information; Public Housing Agency Burden Reduction Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-30

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information; Public Housing Agency Burden Reduction Survey AGENCY... subject proposal. The Department is looking at ways to reduce Public Housing Agency (PHA) burden through a... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Public Housing Agency Burden Reduction Survey....

  9. 20 CFR 702.505 - Vocational rehabilitation; referrals to other public and private agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... public and private agencies. 702.505 Section 702.505 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS... public and private agencies. Referrals to such other public and private agencies providing assistance to... of the Veterans Administration, the Social Security Administration, and other such agencies, shall...

  10. Success of the Undergraduate Public Health at Tulane University

    PubMed Central

    White, Luann Ellis

    2015-01-01

    Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine launched the Bachelors of Science in Public Health (BSPH) in 2005. The BSPH has steadily grown and comprises one-third of the total enrollment in the school. A review of the organizational structure demonstrates that direct responsibility for undergraduate education by a school of public health is advantageous to the success of the program. The competency and skills-based curriculum attracts students. Outcome measures show the enrollment is steadily increasing. The majority of the BSPH graduates continue onto competitive graduate and professional degree programs. Those who seek jobs find employment related to their public health education, but outside of the traditional governmental public health agencies. The combined BSPH/masters of public health (MPH) degree is a pipeline for students to pursue a MPH and increases the likelihood students will pursue careers in public health. The range and depth of study in the bachelors program is continually examined. Topics once within the purview of graduate education are now being incorporated into undergraduate courses. Undergraduate public health is one of a number of factors that is influencing changes in the MPH degree. PMID:25941670

  11. 76 FR 25695 - Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Information Network (PHIN) Messaging Guide for Syndromic Surveillance AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  12. 75 FR 29570 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment Public Housing Agency Plan Revisions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection for Public Comment Public Housing Agency... Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Room 4178, Washington, DC... Urban Development, 451 7th Street, SW., Room 4116, Washington, DC 20410; telephone 202-402-3374,...

  13. Capacity building in public health nutrition.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present paper is to review capacity building in public health nutrition (PHN), the need for which has been stressed for many years by a range of academics, national and international organisations. Although great strides have been made worldwide in the science of nutrition, there remain many problems of undernutrition and increasingly of obesity and related chronic diseases. The main emphasis in capacity building has been on the nutrition and health workforce, but the causes of these health problems are multifactorial and require collaboration across sectors in their solution. This means that PHN capacity building has to go beyond basic nutrition and beyond the immediate health workforce to policy makers in other sectors. The present paper provides examples of capacity building activities by various organisations, including universities, industry and international agencies. Examples of web-based courses are given including an introduction to the e-Nutrition Academy. The scope is international but with a special focus on Africa. In conclusion, there remains a great need for capacity building in PHN but the advent of the internet has revolutionised the possibilities. PMID:25604975

  14. Public Health, the APHA, and Urban Renewal

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Joint efforts by fields of public health in the last decade have advocated use of the built environment to protect health. Past involvement by public health advocates in urban policy, however, has had mixed results. Although public health has significantly contributed to health improvements, its participation in urban renewal activities was problematic. Health advocates and the American Public Health Association produced guidelines that were widely used to declare inner-city areas blighted and provided a scientific justification for demolishing neighborhoods and displacing mostly poor and minority people. Furthermore, health departments failed to uphold their legal responsibility to ensure that relocated families received safe, affordable housing alternatives. These failures have important implications for future health-related work on the built environment and other core public health activities. PMID:19608955

  15. Public health preparedness and response capacity inventory validity study.

    PubMed

    Costich, Julia Field; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public Health Practice Program Office has issued a Public Health Preparedness and Response Capacity Inventory to help state and local public health systems assess their progress towards achievement of the critical capacities and benchmarks specified in the federal Supplemental Funds for Public Health Preparedness and Response for Bioterrorism. The criterion validity of the capacity inventory was assessed by comparing selected state and local agency responses with documentation provided by the agencies to corroborate their answers. Content validity assessment took the form of a mailed survey that also identified the most important questions from the perspective of a separate set of state and local officials. Responses generally upheld the validity of the capacity inventory, although circumstantial threats to validity were identified in the testing process. The instrument's use has been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention by approximately half the states and over 800 local public health entities. An interactive electronic version includes a scoring mechanism that allows agencies to judge progress towards the critical capacities and benchmarks over time. PMID:15253518

  16. Electronic networks, community intermediaries, and the public's health.

    PubMed Central

    Milio, N

    1996-01-01

    Information technology (IT) has the potential to assist disadvantaged communities in gaining access to mainstream resources, and to a new kind of community health-supporting infrastructure. Federal and state information technology policy will affect how and how well community institutions can reach their goals, collaborate with service agencies, and effectively advocate investing essential, health-supporting resources in their communities. The current information technology focus of the health professions is institution and provider-oriented. It should have a wider scope to include community-based organizations. Laborious efforts undertaken by community-based organizations (CBOs) with only a patchwork of resources and without policy support suggest their value to the public's health. Increasingly burdened public health organizations should examine the public health interest in closing the gap between IT-poor and IT-rich organizations and develop a strategy for building inclusive electronic webs with CBOs. PMID:8826628

  17. Electronic networks, community intermediaries, and the public's health.

    PubMed

    Milio, N

    1996-04-01

    Information technology (IT) has the potential to assist disadvantaged communities in gaining access to mainstream resources, and to a new kind of community health-supporting infrastructure. Federal and state information technology policy will affect how and how well community institutions can reach their goals, collaborate with service agencies, and effectively advocate investing essential, health-supporting resources in their communities. The current information technology focus of the health professions is institution and provider-oriented. It should have a wider scope to include community-based organizations. Laborious efforts undertaken by community-based organizations (CBOs) with only a patchwork of resources and without policy support suggest their value to the public's health. Increasingly burdened public health organizations should examine the public health interest in closing the gap between IT-poor and IT-rich organizations and develop a strategy for building inclusive electronic webs with CBOs. PMID:8826628

  18. Undergraduate Public Health Majors: Why They Choose Public Health or Medicine?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the relationship between the motivations for attending college of undergraduate students with a focus on students with a public health major, and their desire to pursue graduate training in public health and subsequently, public health careers. The study highlighted the current public health workforce shortage and…

  19. Enhancing crisis leadership in public health emergencies.

    PubMed

    Deitchman, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Reviews of public health emergency responses have identified a need for crisis leadership skills in health leaders, but these skills are not routinely taught in public health curricula. To develop criteria for crisis leadership in public health, published sources were reviewed to identify attributes of successful crisis leadership in aviation, public safety, military operations, and mining. These sources were abstracted to identify crisis leadership attributes associated with those disciplines and compare those attributes with crisis leadership challenges in public health. Based on this review, the following attributes are proposed for crisis leadership in public health: competence in public health science; decisiveness with flexibility; ability to maintain situational awareness and provide situational assessment; ability to coordinate diverse participants across very different disciplines; communication skills; and the ability to inspire trust. Of these attributes, only competence in public health science is currently a goal of public health education. Strategies to teach the other proposed attributes of crisis leadership will better prepare public health leaders to meet the challenges of public health crises. PMID:24274133

  20. Public health education for emergency medicine residents.

    PubMed

    Betz, Marian E; Bernstein, Steven L; Gutman, Deborah C; Tibbles, Carrie D; Joyce, Nina R; Lipton, Robert I; Schweigler, Lisa M; Fisher, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national Regional Public Health-Medicine Education Centers-Graduate Medical Education initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative approach to combine public health and EM clinical topics during usual residency didactics, one partnered with local public health organizations to provide real-world experiences for residents, and one drew on existing national as well as departmental resources to seamlessly integrate more public health-oriented educational activities within the existing residency curriculum. The modular and integrative approaches appeared to have a positive impact on resident attitudes toward public health, and a majority of EM residents at that program believed public health training is important. Reliance on pre-existing community partnerships facilitated development of public health rotations for residents. External funding for these efforts was critical to their success, given the time and financial restraints on residency programs. The optimal approach for public health education for EM residents has not been defined. PMID:21961671

  1. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Kanekar, A; Bitto, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported. Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics’ related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties’ needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making. Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential. In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health. There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice. PMID:23113159

  2. Public Housing, Health, and Health Behaviors: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Angela R.; Reingold, David A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between public housing, health outcomes, and health behaviors among low-income housing residents. While public housing can be a dangerous and unhealthy environment in which to live, the subsidized rent may free up resources for nutritious food and health care. In addition, public housing may be of higher…

  3. [Health technology assessment agencies in the xxi century].

    PubMed

    Argimon, Josep Maria

    2015-11-01

    The origins of the health technology assessment (HTA) agencies date back to the 70s in the United States; in the European context, the current Agency for Quality and Health Assessment of Catalonia was among the pioneers in 1991. Epidemiological, social, technological and economic changes of recent years have led to the incorporation, by the agencies, of new functions, activities and projects that can offer better services (information and knowledge) to the various players in the healthcare system (patients, professionals, providers, insurers and policy-makers) in order to increase healthcare quality and preserve the sustainability of the health system. PMID:26711062

  4. Florida's tuberculosis epidemic. Public health response.

    PubMed

    Witte, J J; Bigler, W J

    1994-03-01

    Florida ranked fourth in the nation with 1,707 tuberculosis cases reported in 1992 for a rate of 12.7 per 100,000 population. Thirteen percent of these patients had AIDS. Recent cases in prisons, shelters, hospitals and schools have stimulated interest and media coverage. Resurgence of strains of multiple-drug resistant tuberculosis is a serious concern. The Florida Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services, in collaboration with allied agencies, has utilized several initiatives in response. The most significant, Tuberculosis Epidemic Containment Plan, details intervention strategies needed to eliminate TB in the state by the year 2010. Successful implementation depends upon local TB prevention and control coalitions that include private and public sector providers. PMID:8195774

  5. [The contributions of local authorities to regional public health policy].

    PubMed

    de Maria, Florence; Grémy, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    Local authorities in France are key players in shaping public health policy by their action on the determinants of health and through their actions aimed at specific population groups. Since the public health act of 9 August 2004 establishing the first regional public health plans, their level of involvement and role continues to grow as coordinators, funders and project managers within the greater Paris metropolitan region. Their active participation in regional policy to improve population health and reduce inequalities in health has led to a better organization of the public health programs implemented (in terms of visibility, dialogue, coordination, transparency, and better awareness of context and integration of local issues). Their participation is also a source of innovation resulting in the proposal and use of new approaches (such as the development of health surveillance and observation for advising the local decision-making process). Within the current context of the "Hospitals, patients, health and territories" bill, which entrusts the governance of regional health policy to a specific agency, the role given to local authorities in this new organizational structure must be clearly defined to take into account all of their existing and potential contributions to public health policy. PMID:20218412

  6. Global Health Watch Canada? Mobilizing the Canadian public health community around a global health advocacy agenda.

    PubMed

    McCoy, David; Labonte, Ronald; Orbinski, James

    2006-01-01

    Growing poverty, collapsing health care systems, the AIDS pandemic and the widening of health and health care inequities within and between countries all point to the limited success of global public health interventions over the past few decades. Notwithstanding the efforts of multilateral agencies such as the World Health Organization and the many existing contributions from the Canadian community of health professionals, this commentary argues and appeals for further action particularly in relation to the social and political impediments to better health and justice. Specifically, it calls for the development of a robust instrument to assess the impact of Canada as a whole on the state of global health, and to monitor the performance of key Canadian institutions. It is suggested that such an instrument would result in a process that enhances global citizenship and public accountability, and buttresses the efforts of civil society to forge trans-national links in pursuit of a fairer and healthier world. Public health professionals, by virtue of their social standing as well as the nature and tools of their discipline, should be at the forefront of such civic efforts. PMID:16620004

  7. [Eprus, an agency to respond to health emergencies].

    PubMed

    de Bort, Clara

    2015-01-01

    The Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Agency (Eprus) was created by the French ministry in charge of the health. It manages on behalf of the state, human, pharmaceutical and logistical resources which can be used in the event of exceptional health situations, in France and abroad. PMID:26145996

  8. Nuclear education in public health and nursing

    SciTech Connect

    Winder, A.E.; Stanitis, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    Twenty-three public health schools and 492 university schools of nursing were surveyed to gather specific information on educational programs related to nuclear war. Twenty public health schools and 240 nursing schools responded. Nuclear war-related content was most likely to appear in disaster nursing and in environmental health courses. Three schools of public health report that they currently offer elective courses on nuclear war. Innovative curricula included political action projects for nuclear war prevention.

  9. Paving Pathways: shaping the Public Health workforce through tertiary education

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Public health educational pathways in Australia have traditionally been the province of Universities, with the Master of Public Health (MPH) recognised as the flagship professional entry program. Public health education also occurs within the fellowship training of the Faculty of Public Health Medicine, but within Australia this remains confined to medical graduates. In recent years, however, we have seen a proliferation of undergraduate degrees as well as an increasing public health presence in the Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector. Following the 2007 Australian Federal election, the new Labour government brought with it a refreshing commitment to a more inclusive and strategic style of government. An important example of this was the 2020 visioning process that identified key issues of public health concern, including an acknowledgment that it was unacceptable to allocate less than 2% of the health budget towards disease prevention. This led to the recommendation for the establishment of a national preventive health agency (Australia: the healthiest country by 2020 National Preventative Health Strategy, Prepared by the Preventative Health Taskforce 2009). The focus on disease prevention places a spotlight on the workforce that will be required to deliver the new investment in health prevention, and also on the role of public health education in developing and upskilling the workforce. It is therefore timely to reflect on trends, challenges and opportunities from a tertiary sector perspective. Is it more desirable to focus education efforts on selected lead issues such as the "obesity epidemic", climate change, Indigenous health and so on, or on the underlying theory and skills that build a flexible workforce capable of responding to a range of health challenges? Or should we aspire to both? This paper presents some of the key discussion points from 2008 - 2009 of the Public Health Educational Pathways workshops and working group of the Australian

  10. Paving Pathways: shaping the Public Health workforce through tertiary education.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Catherine M; Lilley, Kathleen; Yeatman, Heather; Parker, Elizabeth; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Hanna, Elizabeth G; Robinson, Priscilla

    2010-01-01

    Public health educational pathways in Australia have traditionally been the province of Universities, with the Master of Public Health (MPH) recognised as the flagship professional entry program. Public health education also occurs within the fellowship training of the Faculty of Public Health Medicine, but within Australia this remains confined to medical graduates. In recent years, however, we have seen a proliferation of undergraduate degrees as well as an increasing public health presence in the Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector.Following the 2007 Australian Federal election, the new Labour government brought with it a refreshing commitment to a more inclusive and strategic style of government. An important example of this was the 2020 visioning process that identified key issues of public health concern, including an acknowledgment that it was unacceptable to allocate less than 2% of the health budget towards disease prevention. This led to the recommendation for the establishment of a national preventive health agency (Australia: the healthiest country by 2020 National Preventative Health Strategy, Prepared by the Preventative Health Taskforce 2009).The focus on disease prevention places a spotlight on the workforce that will be required to deliver the new investment in health prevention, and also on the role of public health education in developing and upskilling the workforce. It is therefore timely to reflect on trends, challenges and opportunities from a tertiary sector perspective. Is it more desirable to focus education efforts on selected lead issues such as the "obesity epidemic", climate change, Indigenous health and so on, or on the underlying theory and skills that build a flexible workforce capable of responding to a range of health challenges? Or should we aspire to both?This paper presents some of the key discussion points from 2008 - 2009 of the Public Health Educational Pathways workshops and working group of the Australian

  11. Government databases and public health research: facilitating access in the public interest.

    PubMed

    Adams, Carolyn; Allen, Judy

    2014-06-01

    Access to datasets of personal health information held by government agencies is essential to support public health research and to promote evidence-based public health policy development. Privacy legislation in Australia allows the use and disclosure of such information for public health research. However, access is not always forthcoming in a timely manner and the decision-making process undertaken by government data custodians is not always transparent. Given the public benefit in research using these health information datasets, this article suggests that it is time to recognise a right of access for approved research and that the decisions, and decision-making processes, of government data custodians should be subject to increased scrutiny. The article concludes that researchers should have an avenue of external review where access to information has been denied or unduly delayed. PMID:25087372

  12. Sharing Public Health Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Susan

    2015-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that effective and appropriate data sharing requires the development of models of good data-sharing practice capable of taking seriously both the potential benefits to be gained and the importance of ensuring that the rights and interests of participants are respected and that risk of harms is minimized. Calls for the greater sharing of individual-level data from biomedical and public health research are receiving support among researchers and research funders. Despite its potential importance, data sharing presents important ethical, social, and institutional challenges in low-income settings. In this article, we report on qualitative research conducted in five low- and middle-income countries exploring the experiences of key research stakeholders and their views about what constitutes good data-sharing practice. PMID:26297744

  13. Public health problems of urbanization.

    PubMed

    Mutatkar, R K

    1995-10-01

    Developing countries have been peasant societies. The cities in traditional societies have been pilgrimage centres, seats of administration and educational centres. These cities had homogeneous relationships with the villages. Industrialization has developed modern megacities whose way of life is heterogeneous with that in the villages. Rural poverty has pushed villagers to the cities, which were never planned to accommodate immigrants. Public health and social problems have arisen lowering the quality of life. Communicable diseases among the urban poor coexist with non-communicable diseases among the comparatively affluent. Problems of pollution, crime and chronic morbidity increase. The NGOs provide relief to the poor and needy but do nothing toward creating an infrastructure for balanced development. The election of women as a result of non-discriminatory legislation provides good ground for hope. PMID:8545672

  14. Public Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Communications with Health Care Providers: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Health care providers (HCPs) play an important role in public health emergency preparedness and response (PHEPR) so need to be aware of public health threats and emergencies. To inform HCPs, public health issues PHEPR messages that provide guidelines and updates, and facilitate surveillance so HCPs will recognize and control communicable diseases, prevent excess deaths and mitigate suffering. Public health agencies need to know that the PHEPR messages sent to HCPs reach their target audience and are effective and informative. Public health agencies need to know that the PHEPR messages sent to HCPs reach their target audience and are effective and informative. We conducted a literature review to investigate the systems and tools used by public health to generate PHEPR communications to HCPs, and to identify specific characteristics of message delivery mechanisms and formats that may be associated with effective PHEPR communications. Methods A systematic review of peer- and non-peer-reviewed literature focused on the following questions: 1) What public health systems exist for communicating PHEPR messages from public health agencies to HCPs? 2) Have these systems been evaluated and, if yes, what criteria were used to evaluate these systems? 3) What have these evaluations discovered about characterizations of the most effective ways for public health agencies to communicate PHEPR messages to HCPs? Results We identified 25 systems or tools for communicating PHEPR messages from public health agencies to HCPs. Few articles assessed PHEPR communication systems or messaging methods or outcomes. Only one study compared the effectiveness of the delivery format, device or message itself. We also discovered that the potential is high for HCPs to experience "message overload" given redundancy of PHEPR messaging in multiple formats and/or through different delivery systems. Conclusions We found that detailed descriptions of PHEPR messaging from public health to HCPs

  15. 42 CFR 431.615 - Relations with State health and vocational rehabilitation agencies and title V grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relations with State health and vocational... & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.615 Relations with State health...

  16. 42 CFR 431.615 - Relations with State health and vocational rehabilitation agencies and title V grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relations with State health and vocational... & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.615 Relations with State health...

  17. 42 CFR 431.615 - Relations with State health and vocational rehabilitation agencies and title V grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relations with State health and vocational... & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.615 Relations with State health...

  18. 42 CFR 431.615 - Relations with State health and vocational rehabilitation agencies and title V grantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relations with State health and vocational... & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STATE ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL ADMINISTRATION Relations With Other Agencies § 431.615 Relations with State health...

  19. The public health impact of industrial disasters.

    PubMed

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-01-01

    The recent Deepwater Horizon oil spill and Japanese earthquake/tsunami radiation disaster have increased public concerns regarding the public health impact of industrial disasters. Industrial disasters are known to impose a unique set of challenges for public health emergency response. There are critical gaps in scientific knowledge regarding assessment and control of public health disasters related to industrial releases of hazardous materials. There is also a fundamental lack of familiarity regarding industrial disasters among the public health and medical communities, in general. There are few sources in the current public health literature that review this disaster phenomenon in a comprehensive manner. This article offers a review of the public health impact and unique considerations related to industrial disasters. PMID:22235598

  20. Public Health Interventions for School Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Marjorie A; Anderson, Linda J W; Rising, Shannon

    2016-06-01

    School nurses (SNs) use public health nursing knowledge and skills to provide nursing services to school populations. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a practice framework that can be used to explain and guide public health nursing interventions. SNs who were also members of the National Association of School Nurses completed an electronic survey on their use of public health interventions as defined by the wheel. Although 67% of the participants were not familiar with the Public Health Intervention Wheel, respondents reported conducting activities that were consistent with the Wheel interventions. Screening, referral and follow-up, case management, and health teaching were the most frequently performed interventions. Intervention use varied by educational level, age of nurse, years of practice, and student population. The Public Health Intervention Wheel is a relevant and useful framework that provides a language to explain population-based school nursing practice. PMID:26404552

  1. Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

    2013-05-01

    Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767

  2. Public Health Significance of Neuroticism

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them. PMID:19449983

  3. Defining quality improvement in public health.

    PubMed

    Riley, William J; Moran, John W; Corso, Liza C; Beitsch, Leslie M; Bialek, Ronald; Cofsky, Abbey

    2010-01-01

    Many industries commonly use quality improvement (QI) techniques to improve service delivery and process performance. Yet, there has been scarce application of these proven methods to public health settings and the public health field has not developed a set of shared principles or a common definition for quality improvement. This article discusses a definition of quality improvement in public health and describes a continuum of quality improvement applications for public health departments. Quality improvement is a distinct management process and set of tools and techniques that are coordinated to ensure that departments consistently meet the health needs of their communities. PMID:20009636

  4. Public Health Education for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Betz, Marian E.; Bernstein, Steven L.; Gutman, Deborah; Tibbles, Carrie D.; Joyce, Nina; Lipton, Robert; Schweigler, Lisa; Fisher, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has an important role in public health, but the ideal approach for teaching public health to EM residents is unclear. As part of the national regional public health–medicine education centers-graduate medical education (RPHMEC-GM) initiative from the CDC and the American Association of Medical Colleges, three EM programs received funding to create public health curricula for EM residents. Curricula approaches varied by residency. One program used a modular, integrative approach to combine public health and EM clinical topics during usual residency didactics, one partnered with local public health organizations to provide real-world experiences for residents, and one drew on existing national as well as departmental resources to seamlessly integrate more public health–oriented educational activities within the existing residency curriculum. The modular and integrative approaches appeared to have a positive impact on resident attitudes toward public health, and a majority of EM residents at that program believed public health training is important. Reliance on pre-existing community partnerships facilitated development of public health rotations for residents. External funding for these efforts was critical to their success, given the time and financial restraints on residency programs. The optimal approach for public health education for EM residents has not been defined. PMID:21961671

  5. An ecological public health approach to understanding the relationships between sustainable urban environments, public health and social equity.

    PubMed

    Bentley, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The environmental determinants of public health and social equity present many challenges to a sustainable urbanism-climate change, water shortages and oil dependency to name a few. There are many pathways from urban environments to human health. Numerous links have been described but some underlying mechanisms behind these relationships are less understood. Combining theory and methods is a way of understanding and explaining how the underlying structures of urban environments relate to public health and social equity. This paper proposes a model for an ecological public health, which can be used to explore these relationships. Four principles of an ecological public health-conviviality, equity, sustainability and global responsibility-are used to derive theoretical concepts that can inform ecological public health thinking, which, among other things, provides a way of exploring the underlying mechanisms that link urban environments to public health and social equity. Theories of more-than-human agency inform ways of living together (conviviality) in urban areas. Political ecology links the equity concerns about environmental and social justice. Resilience thinking offers a better way of coming to grips with sustainability. Integrating ecological ethics into public health considers the global consequences of local urban living and thus attends to global responsibility. This way of looking at the relationships between urban environments, public health and social equity answers the call to craft an ecological public health for the twenty-first century by re-imagining public health in a way that acknowledges humans as part of the ecosystem, not separate from it, though not central to it. PMID:23661624

  6. International environmental law and global public health.

    PubMed Central

    Schirnding, Yasmin von; Onzivu, William; Adede, Andronico O.

    2002-01-01

    The environment continues to be a source of ill-health for many people, particularly in developing countries. International environmental law offers a viable strategy for enhancing public health through the promotion of increased awareness of the linkages between health and environment, mobilization of technical and financial resources, strengthening of research and monitoring, enforcement of health-related standards, and promotion of global cooperation. An enhanced capacity to utilize international environmental law could lead to significant worldwide gains in public health. PMID:12571726

  7. "Globalized public health." A transdisciplinary comprehensive framework for analyzing contemporary globalization's influences on the field of public health.

    PubMed

    Lapaige, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    analysis of global social change, the emergence of global agency and the transmutation of the field of public health, in the full complexity of their nonlinear interaction); (5) it offers five characteristics as an auto-eco-organized system of social interactions, or dynamic, nonlinear sociohistorical system. The model features a visual interface (five interrelated figures), a structure of 30 "integrator concepts" that integrates 114 other element-parts via 1,300 hypertext links. The model is both a knowledge translation tool and an interactive heuristic guide designed for practitioners and researchers in public health/community health/population health, as well as for decision-makers at all levels. PMID:22312210

  8. Applying total quality management concepts to public health organizations.

    PubMed Central

    Kaluzny, A D; McLaughlin, C P; Simpson, K

    1992-01-01

    Total quality management (TQM) is a participative, systematic approach to planning and implementing a continuous organizational improvement process. Its approach is focused on satisfying customers' expectations, identifying problems, building commitment, and promoting open decision-making among workers. TQM applies analytical tools, such as flow and statistical charts and check sheets, to gather data about activities within an organization. TQM uses process techniques, such as nominal groups, brainstorming, and consensus forming to facilitate communication and decision making. TQM applications in the public sector and particularly in public health agencies have been limited. The process of integrating TQM into public health agencies complements and enhances the Model Standards Program and assessment methodologies, such as the Assessment Protocol for Excellence in Public Health (APEX-PH), which are mechanisms for establishing strategic directions for public health. The authors examine the potential for using TQM as a method to achieve and exceed standards quickly and efficiently. They discuss the relationship of performance standards and assessment methodologies with TQM and provide guidelines for achieving the full potential of TQM in public health organizations. The guidelines include redefining the role of management, defining a common corporate culture, refining the role of citizen oversight functions, and setting realistic estimates of the time needed to complete a task or project. PMID:1594734

  9. Energy life cycle cost analysis: Guidelines for public agencies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The State of Washington encourages energy-efficient building designs for public agencies. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) supports this goal by identifying advances in building technology and sharing this information with the design community and public administrators responsible for major construction projects. Many proven technologies can reduce operating costs-and save energy-to an extent that justifies some increases in construction costs. WSEO prepared these Energy Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) guidelines for the individuals who are responsible for preparing ELCCA submittals for public buildings. Key terms and abbreviations are provided in Appendix A. Chapters 1 and 2 serve as an overview-providing background, defining energy life cycle cost analysis, explaining which agencies and projects are affected by the ELCCA requirements, and identifying changes to the guidelines that have been made since 1990. They explain {open_quotes}what needs to happen{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}why it needs to happen.{close_quotes} Chapters 3 to 7 provide the {open_quotes}how to,{close_quotes} the instructions and forms needed to prepare ELCCA submittals.

  10. Global public health today: connecting the dots

    PubMed Central

    Lomazzi, Marta; Jenkins, Christopher; Borisch, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Background Global public health today faces new challenges and is impacted by a range of actors from within and outside state boundaries. The diversity of the actors involved has created challenges and a complex environment that requires a new context-tailored global approach. The World Federation of Public Health Associations has embarked on a collaborative consultation with the World Health Organization to encourage a debate on how to adapt public health to its future role in global health. Design A qualitative study was undertaken. High-level stakeholders from leading universities, multilateral organizations, and other institutions worldwide participated in the study. Inductive content analyses were performed. Results Stakeholders underscored that global public health today should tackle the political, commercial, economic, social, and environmental determinants of health and social inequalities. A multisectoral and holistic approach should be guaranteed, engaging public health in broad dialogues and a concerted decision-making process. The connection between neoliberal ideology and public health reforms should be taken into account. The WHO must show leadership and play a supervising and technical role. More and better data are required across many programmatic areas of public health. Resources should be allocated in a sustainable and accountable way. Public health professionals need new skills that should be provided by a collaborative global education system. A common framework context-tailored to influence governments has been evaluated as useful. Conclusions The study highlighted some of the main public health challenges currently under debate in the global arena, providing interesting ideas. A more inclusive integrated vision of global health in its complexity, shared and advocated for by all stakeholders involved in decision-making processes, is crucial. This vision represents the first step in innovating public health at the global level and should lead

  11. Conflicts of Interest: Manipulating Public Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Richard; Davis, Devra Lee

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating the potential health impacts of chemical, physical, and biological environmental factors represents a challenging task with profound medical, public health, and historical implications. The history of public health is replete with instances, ranging from tobacco to lead and asbestos, where the ability to obtain evidence on potential…

  12. Foreword: Public health, public policy, politics and policing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Reducing harm from drug use lies at the intersection of public health, public policy, politics and policing. In an ideal world, evidence of public health gains achievable through new approaches or technologies should inform public policy, should help shape political agendas in support of policy change, which should translate into law and regulations – and then to their application. The goal of this transformative process should be to yield the highest attainable health benefits to vulnerable individuals and communities and to society as a whole. PMID:22769027

  13. Application of situational leadership to the national voluntary public health accreditation process.

    PubMed

    Rabarison, Kristina; Ingram, Richard C; Holsinger, James W

    2013-01-01

    Successful navigation through the accreditation process developed by the Public Health Accreditation Board (PHAB) requires strong and effective leadership. Situational leadership, a contingency theory of leadership, frequently taught in the public health classroom, has utility for leading a public health agency through this process. As a public health agency pursues accreditation, staff members progress from being uncertain and unfamiliar with the process to being knowledgeable and confident in their ability to fulfill the accreditation requirements. Situational leadership provides a framework that allows leaders to match their leadership styles to the needs of agency personnel. In this paper, the application of situational leadership to accreditation is demonstrated by tracking the process at a progressive Kentucky county public health agency that served as a PHAB beta test site. PMID:24350195

  14. Insights in Public Health: For the Love of Data! The Hawai'i Health Data Warehouse.

    PubMed

    Chosy, Julia; Benson, Katherine; Belen, Dulce; Starr, Ranjani; Lowery St John, Tonya; Starr, Ranjani R; Ching, Lance K

    2015-11-01

    Data form the framework around which important public health decisions are made. Public health data are essential for surveillance and evaluating change. In Hawai'i, public health data come from a multitude of sources and agencies. The Hawai'i Health Data Warehouse (HHDW) was created to pull those data into a single location and to present results in a form that is easy for the public to access and utilize. In the years since its creation, HHDW has built a second consumer-focused web site, Hawai'i Health Matters, and is now introducing new functionality on the original site that allows users to define their own enquiry. The newly adopted Indicator-Based Information System (IBIS) uses a web interface to perform real-time data analysis and display results. This gives users the power to examine health data by a wide range of demographic and socioeconomic dimensions, permitting them to pinpoint the data they need. PMID:26568903

  15. Public health challenges posed by chemical mixtures.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, H; De Rosa, C T; Pohl, H; Fay, M; Mumtaz, M M

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 40 million people live within a 4-mile radius of waste sites that the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has assessed to date. Human populations living in the vicinity of such sites are often subjected to complex chemical exposures that may contribute to the total body burden of oxogenous chemicals. Apart from the contaminants found at waste sites, exposure may also include environmental, occupational, and personal agents. Concurrent exposure to chemicals such as welding fumes, indoor air pollutants, tobacco smoke, alcohol, and prescription and nonprescription drugs makes the health assessment of exposure to waste site chemicals a more complex task. Voluntary exposures such as these frequently entail exposures to relatively high chemical concentrations and can usually be well defined and quantified. Conversely, involuntary exposures from waste sites may be at low concentrations and hence difficult to characterize and quantify. Of the approximately 1450 waste sites evaluated by the ATSDR, 530 (37%) had either completed or potentially completed exposure pathways. Results of public health assessments conducted at 167 sites during 1993 to 1995 show that about 1.5 million people have been exposed to site-specific contaminants. At 10% or more of the sites that had either completed or potentially completed exposure pathways, 56 substances were identified. Of these, 19 are either known or anticipated human carcinogens, and 9 are associated with reproductive or endocrine-disrupting effects. In this paper we present important concerns regarding hazardous waste sites including the impact on human health, ecology, and quality of life. To address such human-health related issues, the ATSDR has established a mixtures program that consists of three components: trend analysis to identify combinations of chemicals of concern, experimental studies to identify data that would be useful in the development and implementation of predictive decision

  16. A relational approach to health practices: towards transcending the agency-structure divide.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry; Burnett, Patrick John

    2014-02-01

    Many health scholars find that Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice leaves too little room for individual agency. We contend that, by virtue of its relational, field-theoretic underpinnings, the idea of leaving room for agency in Bourdieu's theory of practice is misguided. With agency manifested in interactions and social structures consisting of relations built upon relations, the stark distinction between agency and structure inherent to substantialist thinking is undermined, even dissolved, in a relational field-theoretic context. We also contend that, when treated as relationally bound phenomena, Bourdieu's notions of habitus, doxa, capital and field illuminate creative, adaptive and future-looking practices. We conclude by discussing difficulties inherent to implementing a relational theory of practice in health promotion and public health. PMID:24443790

  17. 77 FR 5513 - Public Availability of Environmental Protection Agency FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-03

    ... AGENCY Public Availability of Environmental Protection Agency FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of Public Availability of FY 2011 Service Contract Inventories... availability of the FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory. This inventory provides information on service...

  18. 24 CFR 202.10 - Governmental institutions, Government-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... defined in 24 CFR 44.2) that receive insurance as lenders and mortgagees shall conduct audits in..., Government-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State housing agencies. 202.10 Section 202.10...-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State housing agencies. (a) Definition. A Federal,...

  19. 24 CFR 202.10 - Governmental institutions, Government-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... defined in 24 CFR 44.2) that receive insurance as lenders and mortgagees shall conduct audits in..., Government-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State housing agencies. 202.10 Section 202.10...-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State housing agencies. (a) Definition. A Federal,...

  20. 24 CFR 202.10 - Governmental institutions, Government-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... defined in 24 CFR 44.2) that receive insurance as lenders and mortgagees shall conduct audits in..., Government-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State housing agencies. 202.10 Section 202.10...-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State housing agencies. (a) Definition. A Federal,...

  1. 24 CFR 202.10 - Governmental institutions, Government-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... defined in 24 CFR 44.2) that receive insurance as lenders and mortgagees shall conduct audits in..., Government-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State housing agencies. 202.10 Section 202.10...-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State housing agencies. (a) Definition. A Federal,...

  2. 24 CFR 202.10 - Governmental institutions, Government-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... defined in 24 CFR 44.2) that receive insurance as lenders and mortgagees shall conduct audits in..., Government-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State housing agencies. 202.10 Section 202.10...-sponsored enterprises, public housing agencies and State housing agencies. (a) Definition. A Federal,...

  3. 78 FR 32234 - Notice of Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection: Public Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Collection: Public Health Information System--Animal Disposition Reporting AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... meat, poultry, exotic animal, and rabbit slaughter for the Public Health Information System--Animal..., South Building, Washington, DC 20250; (202) 720-0345. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Public...

  4. 40 CFR 166.32 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions. 166.32 Section 166.32 Protection of... AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.32 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public...

  5. 40 CFR 166.32 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions. 166.32 Section 166.32 Protection of... AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.32 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public...

  6. 40 CFR 166.32 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions. 166.32 Section 166.32 Protection of... AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.32 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public...

  7. 40 CFR 166.32 - Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for specific, quarantine, and public health exemptions. 166.32 Section 166.32 Protection of... AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.32 Reporting and recordkeeping requirements for specific, quarantine, and public...

  8. Public Health Legal Preparedness in Indian Country

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Rebecca McLaughlin; DeBruyn, Lemyra; Stier, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments are sovereign entities with inherent authority to create laws and enact health regulations. Laws are an essential tool for ensuring effective public health responses to emerging threats. To analyze how tribal laws support public health practice in tribal communities, we reviewed tribal legal documentation available through online databases and talked with subject-matter experts in tribal public health law. Of the 70 tribal codes we found, 14 (20%) had no clearly identifiable public health provisions. The public health–related statutes within the remaining codes were rarely well integrated or comprehensive. Our findings provide an evidence base to help tribal leaders strengthen public health legal foundations in tribal communities. PMID:19150897

  9. Constructing violence as a public health problem.

    PubMed Central

    Winett, L B

    1998-01-01

    Once viewed primarily as a criminal justice problem, violence and its prevention are now often claimed by public health professionals as being within their purview. The author reviewed 282 articles published in public health and medical journals from 1985 through 1995 that discussed violence as a public health problem. She found that while authors tended to identify social and structural causes for violence, they suggested interventions that targeted individuals' attitudes or behaviors and improved public health practice. Her study illuminates the tension between public health professionals' vision of the social precursors of violence and their attempts to apply a traditional set of remedies. In targeting individuals to rid the nation of violence, the public health community is deemphasizing societal causes. Images p[498]-a p499-a p500-a p501-a p502-a p503-a p504-a p506-a PMID:9847921

  10. Pharmacogenomics and public health: implementing 'populationalized' medicine.

    PubMed

    Mette, Lindsey; Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Vozikis, Athanassios; Patrinos, George P

    2012-05-01

    Pharmacogenomics are frequently considered in personalized medicine to maximize therapeutic benefits and minimize adverse drug reactions. However, there is a movement towards applying this technology to populations, which may produce the same benefits, while saving already scarce health resources. We conducted a narrative literature review to examine how pharmacogenomics and public health can constructively intersect, particularly in resource-poor settings. We identified 27 articles addressing the research question. Real and theoretical connections between public health and pharmacogenomics were presented in the areas of disease, drugs and public policy. Suggested points for consideration, such as educational efforts and cultural acceptability, were also provided. Including pharmacogenomics in public health can result in both health-related and economic benefits. Including pharmacogenomics in public health holds promise but deserves extensive consideration. To fully realize the benefits of this technology, support is needed from private, public and governmental sectors in order to ensure the appropriateness within a society. PMID:22594512

  11. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES...

  12. 45 CFR 234.75 - Rent payments to public housing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rent payments to public housing agencies. 234.75 Section 234.75 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUALS § 234.75 Rent payments to public housing agencies. At the option of...

  13. 45 CFR 234.75 - Rent payments to public housing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rent payments to public housing agencies. 234.75 Section 234.75 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUALS § 234.75 Rent payments to public housing agencies. At the option of...

  14. 45 CFR 234.75 - Rent payments to public housing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rent payments to public housing agencies. 234.75 Section 234.75 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUALS § 234.75 Rent payments to public housing agencies. At the option of...

  15. 45 CFR 234.75 - Rent payments to public housing agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Rent payments to public housing agencies. 234.75 Section 234.75 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE TO INDIVIDUALS § 234.75 Rent payments to public housing agencies. At the option of...

  16. Defining the Functions of Public Health Governance

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Valeria; Chilton, Marita J.; Corso, Liza C.; Beitsch, Leslie M.

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a literature review in 2011 to determine if accepted governance functions continue to reflect the role of public health governing entities. Reviewing literature and other source documents, as well as consulting with practitioners, resulted in an iterative process that identified 6 functions of public health governance and established definitions for each of these: policy development; resource stewardship; continuous improvement; partner engagement; legal authority; and oversight of a health department. These functions provided context for the role of governing entities in public health practice and aligned well with existing public health accreditation standards. Public health systems research can build from this work in future explorations of the contributions of governance to health department performance. PMID:25689187

  17. Defining the functions of public health governance.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Valeria; Chilton, Marita J; Corso, Liza C; Beitsch, Leslie M

    2015-04-01

    We conducted a literature review in 2011 to determine if accepted governance functions continue to reflect the role of public health governing entities. Reviewing literature and other source documents, as well as consulting with practitioners, resulted in an iterative process that identified 6 functions of public health governance and established definitions for each of these: policy development; resource stewardship; continuous improvement; partner engagement; legal authority; and oversight of a health department. These functions provided context for the role of governing entities in public health practice and aligned well with existing public health accreditation standards. Public health systems research can build from this work in future explorations of the contributions of governance to health department performance. PMID:25689187

  18. Lessons from Lithuania: rethinking public health training.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, L; Dixon, J

    1993-01-01

    Lithuania faces stark problems that are familiar to most countries in the former Soviet Union: high morbidity and mortality rates, pollution, an unstable economy, and rapid changes in the financing and organisation of health care. In this environment Moore and Dixon visited Kaunas Medical Academy to help identify how training in public health medicine could contribute towards improving the health of the population. Although over 200 hours are devoted to public health training for medical undergraduates, teaching is unfocused, fragmented, and includes little epidemiology--the core subject for public health physicians. Teaching is mainly through long lectures with few group discussions. Student participation and motivation are low. As well as recommending redesign of the curriculum, Moore and Dixon suggested training in teaching methods for teachers. They also suggested that postgraduate training in public health should begin and should be targeted at hospital managers, teaching staff, and existing public health physicians. Images p913-a PMID:8490421

  19. 77 FR 42313 - Recharter of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Recharter of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Secretary,...

  20. [Maternal and infant health services and the public health clinic].

    PubMed

    Urasaki, S

    1986-11-01

    The public health clinic under the jurisdiction of prefectural government should continue to play a major role in maternal-child health services. Ministry of Health's revision plan for Maternal-child Health Law, according to which maternal-child health services are to be transferred totally to municipal (city-town-village) government, is strongly opposed by public health nurses and others. The plan goes against the current movement and effort to revitalize public health clinics, where more 50% of services rendered are maternal-child health related. Secondly, municipal health centers would have much more difficulty providing quality services than prefectural public health clinics which receive annual federal aid for their operation. Federal funding for maternal-child health care, regardless of jurisdictions, is currently 1/3 of standard unit cost. Extreme financial strain on municipal governments would result in regional differences in the quality of services and/or eventual financial burden on the patients. While the national government is trying to emphasize administrative aspects of the public health clinic, it is ordinary citizens' day to day health problems that people expect the clinic to deal with, individually, via check-ups, health counseling, home visits, public health education and telephone health hot line. PMID:3642046

  1. Management Education in Public Health: Further Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Darr, Kurt J.

    2015-01-01

    Knowing and applying the basic management functions of planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling, as well as their permutations and combinations, are vital to effective delivery of public health services. Presently, graduate programs that prepare public health professionals neither emphasize teaching management theory, nor its application. This deficit puts those who become managers in public health and those they serve at a distinct disadvantage. This deficit can be remedied by enhanced teaching of management subjects PMID:26673475

  2. Applications of Health Information Exchange Information to Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kierkegaard, Patrick; Kaushal, Rainu; Vest, Joshua R

    2014-01-01

    Increased information availability, timeliness, and comprehensiveness through health information exchange (HIE) can support public health practice. The potential benefits to disease monitoring, disaster response, and other public health activities served as an important justification for the US’ investments in HIE. After several years of HIE implementation and funding, we sought to determine if any of the anticipated benefits of exchange participation were accruing to state and local public health practitioners participating in five different exchanges. Using qualitative interviews and template analyses, we identified public health efforts and activities that were improved by participation in HIE. HIE supported public health activities consistent with expectations in the literature. However, no single department realized all the potential benefits of HIE identified. These findings suggest ways to improve HIE usage in public health. PMID:25954386

  3. Public health finance: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Anthony D; Halverson, Paul K; Honoré, Peggy A; Berkowitz, Bobbie

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to stimulate development of public health finance as a field of practice, policy, and scholarship, this article proposes a working definition of the term "public health finance," embeds it in the context of the maturing literature on the public health system and its infrastructure, and proposes a four-part typology that spans both public-sector and private-sector contributions to the financing of prevention and health promotion. A developmental strategy for the field--in applied research, training and education, and performance standards--is outlined as well. PMID:15552760

  4. Ethics, practice, and research in public health.

    PubMed

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Buehler, James W

    2004-06-01

    Ethical issues that can arise in distinguishing public health research from practice are highlighted in 2 case studies--an investigation of a tuberculosis outbreak in a prison and an evaluation of a program for improving HIV prevention services. Regardless of whether such public health investigations represent research or practice, we see a need for ethics oversight procedures that reflect actual risks and enable timely responses to crises. Such oversight should accommodate the perspectives of persons and communities affected by public health threats and by governmental responses to those threats; it should further recognize that public health ethics is a distinct field combining bioethics, political philosophy, human rights, and law. PMID:15249291

  5. Systematic review of public health branding.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors. PMID:19051110

  6. Collective Impact through Public Health and Academic Partnerships: A Kentucky Public Health Accreditation Readiness Example

    PubMed Central

    Carman, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    In the ever-changing, resource-limited public health environment, the use of partners found in the faculty and students of Colleges of Public Health can provide training, consultation, and technical assistance needed to increase local health department (LHD) workforce capacity to meet new public health demands including national public heath accreditation. This manuscript describes the provision of the backbone support activities of facilitation, data management, and project management by University of Kentucky’s College of Public Health to Kentucky’s LHDs seeking national public health accreditation. PMID:25806362

  7. The Management Academy for Public Health: the South Carolina experience.

    PubMed

    Cumbey, Dorothy A; Ellison, Lu Anne

    2006-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) was faced with the challenges of a workforce that was not prepared in public health; the impending loss of significant agency expertise, leadership, and institutional knowledge through retirement; the lack of available and accessible training; and continuing state budget cuts. Preparedness for bioterrorism and other public health emergencies was also of concern, a need made more urgent after 2001. To respond to current and emerging public health challenges, the SCDHEC had to have a workforce with the knowledge and skills necessary for the delivery of essential public health services. To address these challenges, the department partnered with the University of North Carolina in the pilot of the Management Academy for Public Health. The Management Academy is now integrated into the South Carolina workforce development strategy, and 199 staff members and 22 community partners have graduated from the program. Along with increased knowledge, skills, and abilities of individual staff and increased organizational and community capacity, a significant result of South Carolina's experience with the Management Academy for Public Health is the development of a training program for emergency preparedness modeled on the Management Academy. This highly successful program illustrates the replicability of the Management Academy model. PMID:16912610

  8. Training Physician Investigators in Medicine and Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Jay, Melanie R.; Goldfrank, Lewis R.; Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Foltin, George L.; Lipkin, Mack; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We have described and evaluated the impact of a unique fellowship program designed to train postdoctoral, physician fellows in research at the interface of medicine and public health. Methods. We developed a rigorous curriculum in public health content and research methods and fostered linkages with research mentors and local public health agencies. Didactic training provided the foundation for fellows’ mentored research initiatives, which addressed real-world challenges in advancing the health status of vulnerable urban populations. Results. Two multidisciplinary cohorts (6 per cohort) completed this 2-year degree-granting program and engaged in diverse public health research initiatives on topics such as improving pediatric care outcomes through health literacy interventions, reducing hospital readmission rates among urban poor with multiple comorbidities, increasing cancer screening uptake, and broadening the reach of addiction screening and intervention. The majority of fellows (10/12) published their fellowship work and currently have a career focused in public health–related research or practice (9/12). Conclusions. A fellowship training program can prepare physician investigators for research careers that bridge the divide between medicine and public health. PMID:22594745

  9. On your time: online training for the public health workforce.

    PubMed

    Kenefick, Hope Worden; Ravid, Sharon; MacVarish, Kathleen; Tsoi, Jennifer; Weill, Kenny; Faye, Elizabeth; Fidler, Anne

    2014-03-01

    The need for competency-based training for the public health workforce is well documented. However, human and financial resource limitations within public health agencies often make it difficult for public health practitioners to attend classroom-based training programs. The Internet is an increasingly popular way of extending training beyond the workforce. Although research describes attributes of effective online learning modules, much of the available training delivered via the Internet does not incorporate such attributes. The authors describe the On Your Time training series, an effective distance education program and training model for public health practitioners, which includes a standardized process for development, review, evaluation, and continuous quality improvement. On Your Time is a series of awareness-level (i.e., addressing what practitioners should know), competency-based training modules that address topics related to regulatory responsibilities of public health practitioners (e.g., assuring compliance with codes and regulations governing housing, retail food safety, private water supplies, hazardous and solid waste, on-site wastewater systems, etc.), public health surveillance, case investigation, disease prevention, health promotion, and emergency preparedness. The replicable model incorporates what is known about best practices for online training and maximizes available resources in the interests of sustainability. PMID:24578365

  10. [Public health ethics and reproduction].

    PubMed

    Alexandrova-Yankulovska, S; Bozhinov, P; Bojinova, S

    2014-01-01

    Medical progress has enabled achievements that were not even thinkable earlier but at the same time society and public health have had to face new challenges. What are we ready to accept in the area of human reproduction? This paper aims at ethical analysis of Bulgarian laws on reproduction. The abortion debate nowadays has got new dimiension focusing not that much on its moral acceptability but rather on the acceptable indications for its performance. Is it ethical to perform abortion in case of undesired gender of the embryo or genetic malformations? Lots of moral issues mark the area of assisted reproduction which is due to the separation of the reproductive functions (ova, sperm and embryo donation, surrogacy), fragmentation of motherhood and fatherhood, differentiation of biological and social parenthood. Defining limits of acceptable interference or non-interference in human reproduction will never be easy, but dynamics of moral judgment shouldn't bother us. The rigidity of moral norms is what should be alarming because it threatens procreative autonomy. PMID:24919342

  11. Violence against women as a public health issue.

    PubMed

    Chrisler, Joan C; Ferguson, Sheila

    2006-11-01

    Violence can be considered "infectious" in rape-prone cultures that celebrate violence and domination. The number of annual injuries and deaths due to violence against women and girls is high enough to demand the type of active interventions and public policies that have been targeted at infectious diseases by public health agencies. In this article, we review data on the physical and mental health effects that violence has on victims of domestic violence, rape, stalking, and sexual harassment. We also focus on the economic costs to the health care system, business and industry, families, and the broader society that accrue as a result of the widespread violence against women and girls. Victims' suffering can never be accounted for by economic data, but those data may be helpful in pushing governments to allocate funds and agencies to take preventive actions. PMID:17189508

  12. Continuing Professional Education Programs of Voluntary Health Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    Organizational objectives and professional continuing education programs of ten voluntary health agencies--Allergy Foundation of America, American Cancer Society, American Heart Association, Arthritis Foundation, National Association for Mental Health, National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, National Society for the Prevention of Blindness,…

  13. Federal Public Health Service: In Retrospect and Prospects.

    PubMed

    Kolbe, Lloyd J

    2016-10-01

    In this article, I offer a retrospective case study about my early, short-term work within the U.S. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health and then my later, longer-term work within the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, where I endeavored for two decades largely to help our nation's schools improve health and associated education outcomes. First, for context, I briefly portray the nature of our related political and public health systems. I then frame this retrospective by illustrating how my serial employment within other public health system organizations led to, and then resulted from, my work within these two federal public health agencies. To represent the many talented individuals in each organization with whom I had the good fortune to work, I name only one in each organization. I then characterize how these individuals and organizations progressively shaped my work and career. I conclude by speculating about prospects for academic institutions to more purposefully prepare students and faculty to work within federal government public health agencies. PMID:27585459

  14. Public health law in an age of terrorism: rethinking individual rights and common goods.

    PubMed

    Gostin, Lawrence O

    2002-01-01

    The balance between individual interests and common goods needs to be recalibrated in an age of terrorism. Public health agencies should have a robust infrastructure to conduct essential public health services at a level of performance that matches evolving threats to the health of the public. This includes a well-trained workforce, electronic information, surveillance, and laboratory capacity. This paper explains modern efforts at public health law reform: a Model Public Health Statute and the Model State Emergency Health Powers Act (MSEHPA), which has been enacted wholly or in part by nineteen states and the District of Columbia. Next, the paper shows why existing public health laws provide a weak foundation for public health practice. Finally, the paper offers a systematic defense of MSEHPA, which has galvanized the public debate around the appropriate balance between public goods and individual rights. PMID:12442842

  15. A Public Health Perspective of Road Traffic Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  16. A public health perspective of road traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, S

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) have emerged as an important public health issue which needs to be tackled by a multi-disciplinary approach. The trend in RTA injuries and death is becoming alarming in countries like India. The number of fatal and disabling road accident happening is increasing day by day and is a real public health challenge for all the concerned agencies to prevent it. The approach to implement the rules and regulations available to prevent road accidents is often ineffective and half-hearted. Awareness creation, strict implementation of traffic rules, and scientific engineering measures are the need of the hour to prevent this public health catastrophe. This article is intended to create awareness among the health professionals about the various modalities available to prevent road accidents and also to inculcate a sense of responsibility toward spreading the message of road safety as a good citizen of our country. PMID:24479025

  17. Public Health and Solitary Confinement in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cloud, David H; Drucker, Ernest; Browne, Angela; Parsons, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The history of solitary confinement in the United States stretches from the silent prisons of 200 years ago to today's supermax prisons, mechanized panopticons that isolate tens of thousands, sometimes for decades. We examined the living conditions and characteristics of the populations in solitary confinement. As part of the growing movement for reform, public health agencies have an ethical obligation to help address the excessive use of solitary confinement in jails and prisons in accordance with established public health functions (e.g., violence prevention, health equity, surveillance, and minimizing of occupational and psychological hazards for correctional staff). Public health professionals should lead efforts to replace reliance on this overly punitive correctional policy with models based on rehabilitation and restorative justice. PMID:25393185

  18. Air quality standards must protect public health

    SciTech Connect

    Norman Edelman

    2006-06-15

    Leading medical and public health organizations are deeply concerned about the proposed revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced in December 2005. Led by the American Lung Association (ALA), these groups are fighting to force EPA to finalize stricter standards for fine and coarse particles when the final decision is announced in September 2006. The ALA disagrees strongly with the proposal to exempt coarse particles from agriculture and mining sources, and to exclude communities with populations fewer than 100,000 from protection and monitoring requirements. ALA urges EPA to set the following health-based NAAQS for PM: Annual average PM2.5 standard of 12 {mu}mg/m{sup 3}; 24 hour average PM2.5 standard of 25 {mu}mg.m{sup 3} (99th percentile); 24-hour average PM10-2.5 standard of 25-30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} (99th percentile), applied equally to all areas of the country and to all types of particles. 72 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. An Ethics Framework for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Kass, Nancy E.

    2001-01-01

    More than 100 years ago, public health began as an organized discipline, its purpose being to improve the health of populations rather than of individuals. Given its population-based focus, however, public health perennially faces dilemmas concerning the appropriate extent of its reach and whether its activities infringe on individual liberties in ethically troublesome ways. In this article a framework for ethics analysis of public health programs is proposed. To advance traditional public health goals while maximizing individual liberties and furthering social justice, public health interventions should reduce morbidity or mortality; data must substantiate that a program (or the series of programs of which a program is a part) will reduce morbidity or mortality; burdens of the program must be identified and minimized; the program must be implemented fairly and must, at times, minimize preexisting social injustices; and fair procedures must be used to determine which burdens are acceptable to a community. PMID:11684600

  20. Public health and high volume hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Korfmacher, Katrina Smith; Jones, Walter A; Malone, Samantha L; Vinci, Leon F

    2013-01-01

    High-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) in unconventional gas reserves has vastly increased the potential for domestic natural gas production. HVHF has been promoted as a way to decrease dependence on foreign energy sources, replace dirtier energy sources like coal, and generate economic development. At the same time, activities related to expanded HVHF pose potential risks including ground- and surface water contamination, climate change, air pollution, and effects on worker health. HVHF has been largely approached as an issue of energy economics and environmental regulation, but it also has significant implications for public health. We argue that public health provides an important perspective on policymaking in this arena. The American Public Health Association (APHA) recently adopted a policy position for involvement of public health professionals in this issue. Building on that foundation, this commentary lays out a set of five perspectives that guide how public health can contribute to this conversation. PMID:23552646

  1. Public health medicine: the constant dilemma.

    PubMed

    Eskin, Frada

    2002-03-01

    There is a well-known quotation by the nineteenth-century sociologist Virchow (quoted in Ref. 1) that aptly captures the dilemma that has confronted public health medicine since the specialty was created as a discrete entity in 1848. Virchow said: 'Medicine is politics and social medicine is politics writ large!' What does this mean in relation to effective public health medicine practice and how is it likely to affect its future? There is increasingly limited freedom of expression within the current context of political correctness, central control and a rapidly burgeoning litigious climate. The purpose of this paper is to explore these issues and to propose a means of maintaining public health medicine integrity within a working environment where action is becoming rapidly constrained by political rigidity. An additional factor to be included in the dialogue is the current context within which public health physicians work. Because the majority of public health doctors are employed within the National Health Service (NHS), they are finding themselves being expected to take on tasks and responsibilities marginal to their essential purpose and function. For example, public health physicians spend a great deal of time involved in detailed deliberations about health service provision. Although there is a great deal of evidence to show that good quality health care provision positively affects the health of the individual, there is no evidence to show that this activity has any effect on the population's health status. The essence of public health medicine practice is the prevention of ill-health and the promotion of the health of the population and, consequently, attention needs to be focused on the root causes of disease. However, as these are outside the aegis of the NHS, public health medicine involvement in such issues as education, nutrition, housing, transport and poverty is regarded as marginal to the NHS corporate agenda. PMID:11939386

  2. Assessing the level of public health partner spending using the funding formula analysis tool.

    PubMed

    Bernet, Patrick M

    2012-01-01

    Public health services are delivered through a variety of organizations. Traditional accounting of public health expenditures typically captures only spending by government agencies. New Hampshire collected information from public health partners, such as community centers that host smoking cessation classes or health education done by Girls, Inc. This study compares the new data to spending by government agencies, focusing on breakdowns by fund source and service categories. Expanded funds secured by these partners account for a 42% of all local public health spending, and they spent 4 times more than government agencies on promoting healthy behavior. The funding formula analysis tool revealed that these partners spent in ways that would be politically difficult to achieve. In an era of declining budgets, an understanding of public health's partners is increasingly vital. PMID:22635188

  3. MEDICAL CARE AND PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICES

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Haven

    1952-01-01

    Medical care applies to the individual, and public health to the community. One is the concentrated application of diagnosis and treatment for the life, the comfort of a patient, and includes guidance in health as for motherhood, infancy, childhood and old age. Public health services, provided by the community through its local government and the local department of health, are concerned with the prevention of diseases of all kinds. Some are controlled by sanitary authority, but the majority of preventable diseases are dealt with by public health education. It is not the function of the health department to treat the sick. The family physicians, the hospitals and dispensaries provide for medical care. Medical care of the sick and public health protection are two parallel activities to make use of medical science, one for treatment, the other for prevention of disease. PMID:13009462

  4. Global trade, public health, and health services: stakeholders' constructions of the key issues.

    PubMed

    Waitzkin, Howard; Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Landwehr, Angela; Mountain, Carolyn

    2005-09-01

    Focusing mainly on the United States and Latin America, we aimed to identify the constructions of social reality held by the major stakeholders participating in policy debates about global trade, public health, and health services. In a multi-method, qualitative design, we used three sources of data: research and archival literature, 1980-2004; interviews with key informants who represented major organizations participating in these debates, 2002-2004; and organizational reports, 1980-2004. We targeted several types of organizations: government agencies, international financial institutions (IFIs) and trade organizations, international health organizations, multinational corporations, and advocacy groups. Many governments in Latin America define health as a right and health services as a public good. Thus, the government bears responsibility for that right. In contrast, the US government's philosophy of free trade and promoting a market economy assumes that by expanding the private sector, improved economic conditions will improve overall health with a minimum government provision of health care. US government agencies also view promotion of global health as a means to serve US interests. IFIs have emphasized reforms that include reduction and privatization of public sector services. International health organizations have tended to adopt the policy perspectives of IFIs and trade organizations. Advocacy groups have emphasized the deleterious effects of international trade agreements on public health and health services. Organizational stakeholders hold widely divergent constructions of reality regarding trade, public health, and health services. Social constructions concerning trade and health reflect broad ideologies concerning the impacts of market processes. Such constructions manifest features of "creed," regarding the role of the market in advancing human purposes and meeting human needs. Differences in constructions of trade and health constrain policies to

  5. Education Improves Public Health and Promotes Health Equity

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Truman, Benedict I.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a framework and empirical evidence to support the argument that educational programs and policies are crucial public health interventions. Concepts of education and health are developed and linked, and we review a wide range of empirical studies to clarify pathways of linkage and explore implications. Basic educational expertise and skills, including fundamental knowledge, reasoning ability, emotional self-regulation, and interactional abilities, are critical components of health. Moreover, education is a fundamental social determinant of health – an upstream cause of health. Programs that close gaps in educational outcomes between low-income or racial and ethnic minority populations and higher-income or majority populations are needed to promote health equity. Public health policy makers, health practitioners and educators, and departments of health and education can collaborate to implement educational programs and policies for which systematic evidence indicates clear public health benefits. PMID:25995305

  6. Public health and nursing: a natural partnership.

    PubMed

    Savage, Christine; Kub, Joan

    2009-11-01

    The health of individuals occurs within the context of their environment and the other individuals they interact with in the communities they live in, work in and visit. Promoting the health of the public requires multiple strategies aimed at improving the environment, the health knowledge of groups and individuals, maintaining adequate food and water, and reducing the spread of disease. Many disciplines are needed to meet these goals, but the largest segment of the professional health work force required to meet these needs is nursing. Historically, nursing leaders in public health such as Florence Nightingale and Lillian Wald made significant inroads related to serious health issues because they were nurses. Today across the globe, nurses provide the key components of public health interventions including well baby care, health education, screening and immunization clinics, disaster management and emergency preparedness. With the growing nursing shortage in acute care settings, the brain drain of nurses from certain areas of the world, the shrinking public dollars for preventive health care, the nursing workforce needed to continue to provide these essential health care services is threatened. It is essential to put the spot light on nursing's role in public health with the hopes of attracting more public funds and more nurses to provide these essential services. PMID:20049229

  7. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    PubMed

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing. PMID:18347823

  8. Primary prevention protects public health.

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Lorenzo

    2002-12-01

    It is widely accepted that epidemiological data provide the only reliable evidence of a carcinogenic effect in humans, but epidemiology is unable to provide early warning of a cancer risk. The experimental approach to carcinogenicity can ascertain and predict potential cancer risks to humans in time for primary prevention to be successful. Unfortunately, only in rare instances were experimental data considered sufficiently convincing per se to stimulate the adoption of preventive measures. The experimental testing of environmental agents is the second line of defense against potential human carcinogens. The first line is the testing of synthesized agents, be these pesticides, medical drugs, or industrial chemical/physical agents, at the time of their development. We do not know, however, how many substances have been prevented from entering the environment because most tests are carried out by commercial or private laboratories and results are rarely released. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sequence of events of the carcinogenesis process will eventually lead to a more accurate characterization and quantification of risks. However, the ways that mechanistic data have been used lately for evaluating evidence of carcinogenicity have not necessarily meant that the evaluations were more closely oriented toward public health. A tendency has surfaced to dismiss the relevance of long-term carcinogenicity studies. In the absence of absolute certainty, rarely if ever reached in biology, it is essential to adopt an attitude of responsible caution, in line with the principles of primary prevention, the only one that may prevent unlimited experimentation on the entire human species. PMID:12562637

  9. Housing and Health: Time Again for Public Health Action

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, James; Higgins, Donna L.

    2002-01-01

    Poor housing conditions are associated with a wide range of health conditions, including respiratory infections, asthma, lead poisoning, injuries, and mental health. Addressing housing issues offers public health practitioners an opportunity to address an important social determinant of health. Public health has long been involved in housing issues. In the 19th century, health officials targeted poor sanitation, crowding, and inadequate ventilation to reduce infectious diseases as well as fire hazards to decrease injuries. Today, public health departments can employ multiple strategies to improve housing, such as developing and enforcing housing guidelines and codes, implementing “Healthy Homes” programs to improve indoor environmental quality, assessing housing conditions, and advocating for healthy, affordable housing. Now is the time for public health to create healthier homes by confronting substandard housing. PMID:11988443

  10. Public health impact of the 1992 Los Angeles civil unrest.

    PubMed

    Evans, C A

    1993-01-01

    The Los Angeles civil unrest in April 1992 stunned the nation. The days of violence resulted in 53 deaths, 2,325 reported injuries, more than 600 buildings completely destroyed by fire, and approximately $735 million in total damages. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the activities of the Public Health Programs and Services Branch of the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services during and after the civil unrest and to illustrate the types of public health issues and problems that may result from large-scale civil disturbance. Public health agencies and jurisdictions should consider these issues in their disaster planning. Public Health Programs and Services Branch activities were directly affected by the violence and destruction. Women, Infants and Children Program vouchering sites and 20 drug program and alcohol recovery sites were damaged or burned and 15 county health centers closed during the unrest. At least 38 private medical and dental offices and 45 pharmacies were destroyed or damaged. County health authorities offered facilities to house relocated private care providers and filled prescriptions for medications where needed. The environmental health impact required the inspection of 2,827 burned and damaged sites for hazardous waste including asbestos; at 9 percent of the inspected sites, waste required special disposal. More than 1,000 food facilities suffered damage and required inspection before reopening. In the 3 months following the unrest, a 20-percent increase in disposal capacity was authorized at four county landfills to accommodate the disposal of debris. Violence was a public health issue of particular concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sent a team to study the violence from an epidemiologic perspective. The Federal agency also provided funding for televised children's talk shows dealing with reactions to the violence. PMID:8497562

  11. Recent advances in public health systems research in the United States.

    PubMed

    Van Wave, Timothy W; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Honoré, Peggy A

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing the public's health is the outcome of dynamic, adaptive, and complex systems of agencies; infrastructure, relationships, and interactions that dictate how to improve health outcomes; and reducing health risks in a population is based on systems thinking and evidence. New methods such as network analysis and public health practice-based research networks demonstrate the potential for new insight to our understanding of how systems and infrastructure influence population health. We examine advances in public health systems research since 1988 and discuss the relevance of this type of research to public health practice. We assess the current infrastructure for conducting public health systems research, suggest how the research infrastructure can be improved, and conclude with a discussion of how health reform in the United States will require research focused on understanding the adaptive complexity inherent in public health and health care systems and strengthening the systems research infrastructure. PMID:20192815

  12. 75 FR 16488 - National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH/ATSDR); Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership...

  13. 75 FR 41505 - National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH/ATSDR) ATSDR-263; Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical...

  14. 75 FR 75474 - National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH/ATSDR); Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership...

  15. 75 FR 59727 - National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Environmental Health/Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (NCEH/ATSDR); Notice of National Conversation on Public Health and Chemical Exposures Leadership...

  16. Making a difference through veterinary public health.

    PubMed

    2016-06-11

    More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. PMID:27288163

  17. Recommendations for Undergraduate Public Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegelman, Richard K.; Albertine, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This curriculum guide serves to assist faculty who are developing undergraduate courses in public health as well as educational administrators and faculty curriculum committees who are designing undergraduate public health curricula. The approach outlined in these recommendations focuses on the development of three core courses, each of which is…

  18. Teaching Practical Public Health Evaluation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mary V.

    2006-01-01

    Human service fields, and more specifically public health, are increasingly requiring evaluations to prove the worth of funded programs. Many public health practitioners, however, lack the required background and skills to conduct useful, appropriate evaluations. In the late 1990s, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) created the…

  19. SURVEY OF THE PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION WORKFORCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Association of State and Territorial Public Health Nutrition Directors (ASTPHND), with support from a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), conducted a census of the professional and paraprofessional public health nutrition workforce in the sta...

  20. Physical Activity, Public Health, and Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Kahan, David

    2008-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious public health problem that is associated with numerous preventable diseases. Public health concerns, particularly those related to the increased prevalence of overweight, obesity, and diabetes, call for schools to become proactive in the promotion of healthy, physically active lifestyles. This article begins by…

  1. Baltimore's Unrest: Perspectives From Public Health and Emergency Physician Leaders.

    PubMed

    Khaldun, Joneigh S; Warren, Katherine E; Wen, Leana S

    2016-04-01

    The tragic April 19, 2015, death of an African American man injured while in police custody spurred several days of protest and civil unrest in Baltimore City. This article outlines the opportunity and role for a local health department during civil unrest, from the perspective of 2 emergency physicians who also led the Baltimore City Health Department through these recent events. Between April 27 and May 8, 2015, the Health Department was a lead agency in the unrest response and recovery activities. Similar to an emergency medical situation, a "public health code" is proposed as a model for centralizing, reacting to, and debriefing after situations of civil unrest. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:293-295). PMID:26690654

  2. Contribution of the Japan International Cooperation Agency health-related projects to health system strengthening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) has focused its attention on appraising health development assistance projects and redirecting efforts towards health system strengthening. This study aimed to describe the type of project and targets of interest, and assess the contribution of JICA health-related projects to strengthening health systems worldwide. Methods We collected a web-based Project Design Matrix (PDM) of 105 JICA projects implemented between January 2005 and December 2009. We developed an analytical matrix based on the World Health Organization (WHO) health system framework to examine the PDM data and thereby assess the projects’ contributions to health system strengthening. Results The majority of JICA projects had prioritized workforce development, and improvements in governance and service delivery. Conversely, there was little assistance for finance or medical product development. The vast majority (87.6%) of JICA projects addressed public health issues, for example programs to improve maternal and child health, and the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases such as AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. Nearly 90% of JICA technical healthcare assistance directly focused on improving governance as the most critical means of accomplishing its goals. Conclusions Our study confirmed that JICA projects met the goals of bilateral cooperation by developing workforce capacity and governance. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that JICA assistance could be used to support financial aspects of healthcare systems, which is an area of increasing concern. We also showed that the analytical matrix methodology is an effective means of examining the component of health system strengthening to which the activity and output of a project contributes. This may help policy makers and practitioners focus future projects on priority areas. PMID:24053583

  3. Trade policy and public health.

    PubMed

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Townsend, Ruth

    2015-03-18

    Twenty-first-century trade policy is complex and affects society and population health in direct and indirect ways. Without doubt, trade policy influences the distribution of power, money, and resources between and within countries, which in turn affects the natural environment; people's daily living conditions; and the local availability, quality, affordability, and desirability of products (e.g., food, tobacco, alcohol, and health care); it also affects individuals' enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health. In this article, we provide an overview of the modern global trade environment, illustrate the pathways between trade and health, and explore the emerging twenty-first-century trade policy landscape and its implications for health and health equity. We conclude with a call for more interdisciplinary research that embraces complexity theory and systems science as well as the political economy of health and that includes monitoring and evaluation of the impact of trade agreements on health. PMID:25494052

  4. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  5. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  6. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  7. 42 CFR 93.220 - Public Health Service or PHS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Health, and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and the offices of the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Public Health Service or PHS. 93.220 Section 93.220 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS...

  8. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Public Health: Online and Integrated into Core Master of Public Health Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Angus, Lynnell; Ewen, Shaun; Coombe, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The Master of Public Health (MPH) is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH) competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project. Significance for public health This approach to a comprehensive, online, integrated Indigenous public health (IPH) curriculum is significant, as it ensures that all University of Melbourne Master of Public Health (MPH) graduates will have the competencies to positively contribute to Indigenous health status. A workforce that is attuned not only to the challenges of IPH, but also to the principles of self-determination, Indigenous agency and collaboration is better equipped to be comprised of ethical and judgment-safe practitioners. Additionally, the outlined approach of utilizing IPH content and examples into core MPH subjects ensures both the Australian relevance for an Australian-based health professional course and international appeal through the modules inclusion of International Indigenous case-studies and content. Furthermore, approaches learned in a challenging Indigenous Australian context are transferable and applicable to other IPH

  9. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Public Health: Online and Integrated into Core Master of Public Health Subjects.

    PubMed

    Angus, Lynnell; Ewen, Shaun; Coombe, Leanne

    2016-04-26

    The Master of Public Health (MPH) is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH) competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project. Significance for public healthThis approach to a comprehensive, online, integrated Indigenous public health (IPH) curriculum is significant, as it ensures that all University of Melbourne Master of Public Health (MPH) graduates will have the competencies to positively contribute to Indigenous health status. A workforce that is attuned not only to the challenges of IPH, but also to the principles of self-determination, Indigenous agency and collaboration is better equipped to be comprised of ethical and judgment-safe practitioners. Additionally, the outlined approach of utilizing IPH content and examples into core MPH subjects ensures both the Australian relevance for an Australian-based health professional course and international appeal through the modules inclusion of International Indigenous case-studies and content. Furthermore, approaches learned in a challenging Indigenous Australian context are transferable and applicable to other IPH

  10. Adaptation to climate change in the Ontario public health sector

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change is among the major challenges for health this century, and adaptation to manage adverse health outcomes will be unavoidable. The risks in Ontario – Canada’s most populous province – include increasing temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme weather events, and alterations to precipitation regimes. Socio-economic-demographic patterns could magnify the implications climate change has for Ontario, including the presence of rapidly growing vulnerable populations, exacerbation of warming trends by heat-islands in large urban areas, and connectedness to global transportation networks. This study examines climate change adaptation in the public health sector in Ontario using information from interviews with government officials. Methods Fifty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted, four with provincial and federal health officials and 49 with actors in public health and health relevant sectors at the municipal level. We identify adaptation efforts, barriers and opportunities for current and future intervention. Results Results indicate recognition that climate change will affect the health of Ontarians. Health officials are concerned about how a changing climate could exacerbate existing health issues or create new health burdens, specifically extreme heat (71%), severe weather (68%) and poor air-quality (57%). Adaptation is currently taking the form of mainstreaming climate change into existing public health programs. While adaptive progress has relied on local leadership, federal support, political will, and inter-agency efforts, a lack of resources constrains the sustainability of long-term adaptation programs and the acquisition of data necessary to support effective policies. Conclusions This study provides a snapshot of climate change adaptation and needs in the public health sector in Ontario. Public health departments will need to capitalize on opportunities to integrate climate change into policies and programs

  11. 41 CFR 102-75.351 - May the disposal agency waive screening for public benefit conveyances?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waive screening for public benefit conveyances? 102-75.351 Section 102-75.351 Public Contracts and... § 102-75.351 May the disposal agency waive screening for public benefit conveyances? All properties..., the disposal agency may waive public benefit screening, with the exception of the mandatory...

  12. Systems Science Methods in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Douglas A.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems abound in public health. Complex systems are made up of heterogeneous elements that interact with one another, have emergent properties that are not explained by understanding the individual elements of the system, persist over time and adapt to changing circumstances. Public health is starting to use results from systems science studies to shape practice and policy, for example in preparing for global pandemics. However, systems science study designs and analytic methods remain underutilized and are not widely featured in public health curricula or training. In this review we present an argument for the utility of systems science methods in public health, introduce three important systems science methods (system dynamics, network analysis, and agent-based modeling), and provide three case studies where these methods have been used to answer important public health science questions in the areas of infectious disease, tobacco control, and obesity. PMID:22224885

  13. Privatization of Public Services: Organizational Reform Efforts in Public Education and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Gollust, Sarah E.; Jacobson, Peter D.

    2006-01-01

    The public health and the public education systems in the United States have encountered problems in quality of service, accountability, and availability of resources. Both systems are under pressure to adopt the general organizational reform of privatization. The debate over privatization in public education is contentious, but in public health, the shift of functions from the public to the private sector has been accepted with limited deliberation. We assess the benefits and concerns of privatization and suggest that shifting public health functions to the private sector raises questions about the values and mission of public health. Public health officials need to be more engaged in a public debate over the desirability of privatization as the future of public health. PMID:17008563

  14. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  15. Public health informatics: a CDC course for public health program managers.

    PubMed Central

    O'Carroll, P. W.; Yasnoff, W. A.; Wilhoite, W.

    1998-01-01

    Information science and technology are critical to the modern practice of public health. Yet today's public health professionals generally have no formal training in public health informatics--the application of information science and technology to public health practice and research. Responding to this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently developed, tested, and delivered a new training course in public health informatics. The course was designed for experienced public health program managers and included sessions on general informatics principles and concepts; key information systems issues and information technologies; and management issues as they relate to information technology projects. This course has been enthusiastically received both at the state and federal levels. We plan to develop an abbreviated version for health officers, administrators, and other public health executives. PMID:9929264

  16. 77 FR 1946 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... Review; Comment Request, Public Assistance Customer Satisfaction Survey AGENCY: Federal Emergency... Title: Public Assistance Customer Satisfaction Survey. Type of information collection: Revision of a... T, Public Assistance Customer Satisfaction Survey (Telephone); FEMA Form 519-0-1 INT,...

  17. The need for professional doctors of public health.

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, M I

    1986-01-01

    Planning, organizing, and operating today's complex health care systems or heading Federal, State, and city public health agencies in the United States and other countries require professionals broadly prepared in the meaning, philosophy, and strategies of public health. It is and has been recognized that the best trained clinical physician could not be expected to know the policies and practices of official public health programs. The chief health official of a State or other jurisdiction, for example, deals with the epidemiology of many diseases; with all aspects of the environment; with hospitals, drugs, health manpower, and nutrition; with issues of health economics, finance, and politics; and with administration. For these tasks, most of medical education is irrelevant. To produce the needed specialists, candidates with a BA degree would be educated as doctors of public health. The proposed 5-year postgraduate curriculum is as demanding as the training for the MD degree, but completely different. The 38 subjects or courses in the curriculum are grouped into four categories: basic tools of social analysis, health and disease in populations, protection of health and prevention of disease, and health care systems and management. At present, MPH degree holders take only a handful of core and elective courses and emerge with little systematic knowledge about the majority of problems they face. The DrPH candidates at schools of public health spend most of their time on research and dissertation writing--adequate preparation for university teachers, but academia is not the goal of most candidates, nor the greatest need of society.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3080785

  18. Organizational factors influencing implementation of evidence-based practices for integrated treatment in behavioral health agencies.

    PubMed

    Bonham, Caroline A; Sommerfeld, David; Willging, Cathleen; Aarons, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Objective. In recent years, New Mexico has prioritized integrated treatment for cooccurring mental health and substance use disorders within its public behavioral health system. This report describes factors likely to be important when implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in community agencies. Methods. Our mixed-method research design consisted of observations, semistructured interviews, and surveys undertaken with employees at 14 agencies at baseline and after 18 months. We developed four-agency typologies based on iterative coding and analysis of observations and interviews. We then examined survey data from employees at the four exemplar agencies to validate qualitative findings. Results. Financial resources and strong leadership impacted agency capacity to train providers and implement EBPs. Quantitative analysis of service provider survey responses from these agencies (N = 38) supported qualitative findings and demonstrated significant mean score differences in leadership, organizational climate, and attitudes toward EBPs in anticipated directions. Conclusion. The availability of strong leadership and financial resources were key components to initial implementation success in this study of community agencies in New Mexico. Reliance only on external funding poses risks for sustainment when demoralizing work climates precipitate employee turnover. Strong agency leadership does not always compensate for deficient financial resources in vulnerable communities. PMID:24772411

  19. Organizational Factors Influencing Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices for Integrated Treatment in Behavioral Health Agencies

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, Caroline A.; Sommerfeld, David; Willging, Cathleen; Aarons, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. In recent years, New Mexico has prioritized integrated treatment for cooccurring mental health and substance use disorders within its public behavioral health system. This report describes factors likely to be important when implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) in community agencies. Methods. Our mixed-method research design consisted of observations, semistructured interviews, and surveys undertaken with employees at 14 agencies at baseline and after 18 months. We developed four-agency typologies based on iterative coding and analysis of observations and interviews. We then examined survey data from employees at the four exemplar agencies to validate qualitative findings. Results. Financial resources and strong leadership impacted agency capacity to train providers and implement EBPs. Quantitative analysis of service provider survey responses from these agencies (N = 38) supported qualitative findings and demonstrated significant mean score differences in leadership, organizational climate, and attitudes toward EBPs in anticipated directions. Conclusion. The availability of strong leadership and financial resources were key components to initial implementation success in this study of community agencies in New Mexico. Reliance only on external funding poses risks for sustainment when demoralizing work climates precipitate employee turnover. Strong agency leadership does not always compensate for deficient financial resources in vulnerable communities. PMID:24772411

  20. [Canton Hospital and public health in Canton].

    PubMed

    Li, Jichou; Guo, Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Canton Hospital was not only the most influential missionary hospital in South China, but also the first one brought the concept and practice of public health to Guangzhou. In the late Qing Dynasty, it conducted free vaccination, plague treatment, health education and so on, demonstrating the importance of public health to the people. In the period of the Republic of China, it extensively cooperated with the government and social organizations in developing school health, maternal and child health, communicable disease control and epidemiological investigations to actively serve the social group. In the 1930s, its public health activities extended towards the rural areas of Guangzhou, and promoted the convergence of rural and urban medical and health services. The three-level medical system that it built provided demonstration model for the establishment of Chinese rural medical system. PMID:26815022

  1. Political Science Theory for Public Health Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Community health educators are well versed in the behavior sciences, including intervention theories. However, most public health professionals are not familiar with the policy theories related to political advocacy. Because health educators are engaging in policy advocacy more frequently, and as a result of the profession including policy…

  2. Public Health Information and a Diverse Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Mark

    This paper discusses public health services of the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC). The paper provides an overview of SPC and the Pacific Islands, including geography, nationality/culture, and development status. SPC Community Health Programmes (CHP) in the following areas are then described: environmental health; AIDS and STD (sexually…

  3. Advancing Public Health through Continuing Education of Health Care Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…

  4. Where Is the Future in Public Health?

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Hilary

    2010-01-01

    Context: Today's societies have far-reaching impacts on future conditions for health. Against this backdrop, this article explores how the future is represented in contemporary public health, examining both its conceptual base and influential approaches through which evidence is generated for policy. Methods: Mission statements and official reviews provide insight into how the future is represented in public health's conceptual and ethical foundations. For its research practices, the article takes examples from epidemiological, intervention, and economic research, selecting risk-factor epidemiology, randomized controlled trials, and economic evaluation as exemplars. Findings: Concepts and ethics suggest that public health research and policy will be concerned with protecting both today's and tomorrow's populations from conditions that threaten their health. But rather than facilitating sustained engagement with future conditions and future health, exemplary approaches to gathering evidence focus on today's population. Thus, risk-factor epidemiology pinpoints risks in temporal proximity to the individual; controlled trials track short-term effects of interventions on the participants’ health; and economic evaluations weigh policies according to their value to the current population. While their orientation to the present and near future aligns well with the compressed timescales for policy delivery on which democratic governments tend to work, it makes it difficult for the public health community to direct attention to conditions for future health. Conclusions: This article points to the need for research perspectives and practices that, consistent with public health's conceptual and ethical foundations, represent the interests of both tomorrow's and today's populations. PMID:20579281

  5. 77 FR 4819 - Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... 18, 1991 adoption of the common Federal Policy (56 FR 28003) by 15 departments and agencies... HUMAN SERVICES Agency Information Collection Request; 60-Day Public Comment Request AGENCY: Office of... publishing the following summary of a proposed information collection request for public comment....

  6. [Quality of health care, accreditation, and health technology assessment in Croatia: role of agency for quality and accreditation in health].

    PubMed

    Mittermayer, Renato; Huić, Mirjana; Mestrović, Josipa

    2010-12-01

    Avedis Donabedian defined the quality of care as the kind of care, which is expected to maximize an inclusive measure of patient welfare, after taking into account the balance of expected gains and losses associated with the process of care in all its segments. According to the World Medical Assembly, physicians and health care institutions have an ethical and professional obligation to strive for continuous quality improvement of services and patient safety with the ultimate goal to improve both individual patient outcomes as well as population health. Health technology assessment (HTA) is a multidisciplinary process that summarizes information about the medical, social, economic and ethical issues related to the use of a health technology in a systematic, transparent, unbiased, robust manner, with the aim to formulate safe and effective health policies that are patient focused and seek to achieve the highest value. The Agency for Quality and Accreditation in Health was established in 2007 as a legal, public, independent, nonprofit institution under the Act on Quality of Health Care. The Agency has three departments: Department of Quality and Education, Department of Accreditation, and Department of Development, Research, and Health Technology Assessment. According to the Act, the Agency should provide the procedure of granting, renewal and cancellation of accreditation of healthcare providers; proposing to the Minister, in cooperation with professional associations, the plan and program for healthcare quality assurance, improvement, promotion and monitoring; proposing the healthcare quality standards as well as the accreditation standards to the Minister; keeping a register of accreditations and providing a database related to accreditation, healthcare quality improvement, and education; providing education in the field of healthcare quality assurance, improvement and promotion; providing the HTA procedure and HTA database, supervising the healthcare insurance

  7. Facing the bureaucracy -- living and dying in a public agency

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, G.

    1993-01-01

    Gerald Garvey, a Princeton University professor, was employed by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) as a consultant during the early and mid-1980s. He has used his experience at the FERC in an effort to illuminate his thoughts about the theory of how bureaucracy functions in a Federal agency and his conclusions about the changes that must occur before the civil service can be an efficient and effective instrument for administering national affairs. This book was written as a textbook on the subject of bureaucratic practice and organizational behavior. The author's observations are likely quite controversial. The principal purpose of the book is to describe and analyze various theories about how public bureaucracies work. Garvey first describes the notions of the group of theorists, the Old Theorists, who had their heyday during the Progressive movement of the late 1800s and the first three decades of this century and taught that the civil service bureaucracy could be a force for conducting the public's business efficiently and effectively. He contrasts these views with those of the so-called New Theorists, who emphasize the effort to reduce transaction costs as the primary task of Government and see the bureaucracy as a selfish interest group. Garvey also describes the rise of the [open quotes]shadow bureaucracy[close quotes] that has arisen to bring technical expertise to the tasks of government without the inefficiencies and classification schemes that membership in the formal bureaucracy entails.

  8. Correctional health care: implications for public health policy.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Diane L.; Leath, Brenda A.

    2002-01-01

    "Correctional Health Care: Implications for Public Health Policy" is the first in a series of articles that examines the special health care needs of persons who are incarcerated in America's correctional facilities. The intent of the series is to gain a better understanding about the unmet health needs of incarcerated persons, the importance of addressing the health service delivery system in correctional facilities, and the implications that may arise from neglecting to address these health issues on health outcomes for individual detainees and society at-large when detainees transition back into the community. This article provides a descriptive overview of the corrections population, their sociodemographics, health care needs, and health concerns that are in need of improvement. This article also offers recommendations for public policy consideration to improve the overall health of inmates and society at large. PMID:12069208

  9. The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Expanding the Opportunities for Dental Health Services Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maas, William R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper describes current research interests and priorities of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research, relates those interests to dentistry and oral health, and discusses the development of practice guidelines within the context of other initiatives of the Agency including the Medical Treatment Effectiveness Program. (DB)

  10. Parks, Recreation and Public Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ching-Hua; Payne, Laura; Orsega-Smith, Elizabeth; Godbey, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    Reviews what current research says about the holistic health benefits of park and recreation services, focusing on: health benefits according to park users; physical activities in parks; stress reduction benefits of park use; social support, self-determination, and stress reduction; observing nature in parks and associated benefits; and the…

  11. Engaging local public health system partnerships to educate the future public health workforce.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Hiller, Marc D; Wyman, William J

    2013-04-01

    The Institute of Medicine concluded that keeping the public healthy required a well-educated public health workforce, thus leading to its recommendation that "all undergraduates should have access to education in public health" [2]. In response to this call, the authors examined the current practice, feasibility, and value in strengthening (or building) a functional collaborative model between academic institutions and practitioners from local health departments to educate tomorrow's public health workforce. Local and regional health departments in New England were surveyed to: (1) establish a baseline of existing working relationships between them and nearby academic institutions; (2) examine the barriers that inhibit the development of collaborations with academic partners; (3) assess how they jointly promote public health workforce development; and (4) analyze which essential public health services their partnership addresses. Despite the lack of financial resources often cited for the absence of academic-local health department collaborations, some New England states reported that their academic institution and local public health department partnerships were valued and productive. The authors discuss how effective academic-community collaborations have the potential to facilitate a broad-based appreciation of public health among students via a wide array of public health curricula and applied experiential learning opportunities in public health settings. The authors propose a model for how to combine basic public health lessons with practical experience and leadership offered by local health departments, in order to foster a real understanding of public health, its importance, practice, and relevance in today's society from a public health workforce perspective. PMID:22940868

  12. Public Health and the Epidemic of Incarceration

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Dora M.; Brockmann, Brad; Dickman, Samuel; Alexander, Nicole; Rich, Josiah D.

    2012-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Americans have been incarcerated in the past generation. In addition, arrests are concentrated in low-income, predominantly nonwhite communities where people are more likely to be medically underserved. As a result, rates of physical and mental illnesses are far higher among prison and jail inmates than among the general public. We review the health profiles of the incarcerated; health care in correctional facilities; and incarceration’s repercussions for public health in the communities to which inmates return upon release. The review concludes with recommendations that public health and medical practitioners capitalize on the public health opportunities provided by correctional settings to reach medically underserved communities, while simultaneously advocating for fundamental system change to reduce unnecessary incarceration. PMID:22224880

  13. Prenatal screening, reproductive choice, and public health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  14. Prenatal Screening, Reproductive Choice, and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    One widely held view of prenatal screening (PNS) is that its foremost aim is, or should be, to enable reproductive choice; this is the Pure Choice view. The article critiques this position by comparing it with an alternative: Public Health Pluralism. It is argued that there are good reasons to prefer the latter, including the following. (1) Public Health Pluralism does not, as is often supposed, render PNS more vulnerable to eugenics-objections. (2) The Pure Choice view, if followed through to its logical conclusions, may have unpalatable implications, such as extending choice well beyond health screening. (3) Any sensible version of Public Health Pluralism will be capable of taking on board the moral seriousness of abortion and will advocate, where practicable, alternative means of reducing the prevalence of disease and disability. (4) Public Health Pluralism is at least as well-equipped as the Pure Choice model to deal with autonomy and consent issues. PMID:25521971

  15. Ethics in Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Donald A.

    2007-01-01

    Public–private partnerships have become a common approach to health care problems worldwide. Many public–private partnerships were created during the late 1990s, but most were focused on specific diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Recently there has been enthusiasm for using public–private partnerships to improve the delivery of health and welfare services for a wider range of health problems, especially in developing countries. The success of public–private partnerships in this context appears to be mixed, and few data are available to evaluate their effectiveness. This analysis provides an overview of the history of health-related public–private partnerships during the past 20 years and describes a research protocol commissioned by the World Health Organization to evaluate the effectiveness of public–private partnerships in a research context. PMID:17138922

  16. 75 FR 4402 - Strengthening the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's 510(k) Review Process; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... not always initially provide sufficient engineering and design information for their devices under... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Strengthening the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's 510(k) Review Process; Public Meeting; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  17. Pesticides and public health: integrated methods of mosquito management.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, R. I.

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides have a role in public health as part of sustainable integrated mosquito management. Other components of such management include surveillance, source reduction or prevention, biological control, repellents, traps, and pesticide-resistance management. We assess the future use of mosquito control pesticides in view of niche markets, incentives for new product development, Environmental Protection Agency registration, the Food Quality Protection Act, and improved pest management strategies for mosquito control. PMID:11266290

  18. Training Programs to Strengthen Pennsylvania's Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, R. Elliott; Lautenbach, Ebbing; Mactavish, Lindsay E.; Pollock, Timothy R.; Weand, Crystal L.; Polachek, Catherine; Reynolds, Stanley M.; Ostroff, Stephen M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes Pennsylvania's 9-year experience in implementing training programs to strengthen public health response to emerging infectious diseases. During the biannual 3-5-day-long Pennsylvania Public Health Institute (PHI) events, which have been held since 2000, courses have covered topics such as emerging infectious disease outbreaks, monitoring of antimicrobial-resistant pathogens in retail food, and zoonotic diseases commonly associated with companion animals. Core competency courses include the legal basis for public health and epidemiology for nonepidemiologists. Emerging infectious disease seminars offered to clinicians since 2005 have focused on the emergence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Complementing the PHI, the Pennsylvania Department of Health's monthly Epidemiology Journal Club offers additional interactions with presenters from academic institutions and federal agencies. Lunch-time forums also provide a venue for health department staff to share their work with colleagues. Innovative use of modern communication technology increases participation of frontline health workers in Journal Club events, and video conference capability offers flexibility in the selection of presenters. Pennsylvania's experience over the past 9 years demonstrates that with political will, commitment from content experts, and adequate administrative support, modest state and federal resources can be used to sustain public health training programs tailored to local needs. PMID:19635002

  19. Sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education.

    PubMed

    Allotey, Pascale A; Diniz, Simone; Dejong, Jocelyn; Delvaux, Thérèse; Gruskin, Sofia; Fonn, Sharon

    2011-11-01

    This paper addresses the challenges faced in mainstreaming the teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights into public health education. For this paper, we define sexual and reproductive health and rights education as including not only its biomedical aspects but also an understanding of its history, values and politics, grounded in gender politics and social justice, addressing sexuality, and placed within a broader context of health systems and global health. Using a case study approach with an opportunistically selected sample of schools of public health within our regional contexts, we examine the status of sexual and reproductive health and rights education and some of the drivers and obstacles to the development and delivery of sexual and reproductive health and rights curricula. Despite diverse national and institutional contexts, there are many commonalities. Teaching of sexual and reproductive health and rights is not fully integrated into core curricula. Existing initiatives rely on personal faculty interest or short-term courses, neither of which are truly sustainable or replicable. We call for a multidisciplinary and more comprehensive integration of sexual and reproductive health and rights in public health education. The education of tomorrow's public health leaders is critical, and a strategy is needed to ensure that they understand and are prepared to engage with the range of sexual and reproductive health and rights issues within their historical and political contexts. PMID:22118142

  20. Informatics critical to public health surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Smith, Jack W.; Madjid, Mohammad; Casscells, Samuel W.; Lillibridge, Scott R.

    2003-09-01

    Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of data regarding a health-related event for use in public health action to reduce morbidity and mortality and to improve health by effective response management and coordination. As new pressures for early detection of disease outbreaks have arisen, particularly for outbreaks of possible bioterrorism (BT) origin, and as electronic health data have become increasingly available, so has the demand for public health situation awareness systems. Although these systems are valuable for early warning of public health emergencies, there remains the cost of developing and managing such large and complex systems and of investigating inevitable false alarms. Whether these systems are dependable and cost effective enough and can demonstrate a significant and indispensable role in detection or prevention of mass casualty events of BT origin remains to be proven. This article will focus on the complexities of design, analysis, implementation and evaluation of public health surveillance and situation awareness systems and, in some cases, will discuss the key technologies being studied in Center for Biosecurity Informatics Research at University of Texas, Health Science Center at Houston.

  1. New horizons for public health in Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Aringazina, Altyn; Macdonald, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    This paper, the first ever to review and critique public health developments in Kazakhstan, suggests ways in which public health can be improved strategically. The paper outlines the main threats to health in a dynamic economically developing country, but argues that with a health care reform agenda in place, and the Governments apparent support of public health policy initiatives, the time is right for new opportunities in the promotion of health. The paper utilises the Ottawa Charter, but suggests novel, more appropriate headings for Kazakhstan, to galvanise policy makers and professionals into tackling the growing burden of disease. It concludes by calling for greater transparency in relation to Government policy initiatives, and the need for greater national and international collaboration. PMID:17294711

  2. Health Status of Homeless and Marginally Housed Users of Mental Health Self-Help Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Steven P.; Gomory, Tomi; Silverman, Carol J.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the health status of 310 homeless and marginally housed people to determine the usefulness of mental health self-help agencies (SHAs) in addressing their physical health needs. Findings indicated that frequencies of health problems among respondents were similar to those of other homeless or marginally housed groups and that the study…

  3. Crime is a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Middleton, J

    1998-01-01

    Crime is a public health issue. It shares common causes with ill health, particularly poverty, and fear of violent crime is itself a major cause of anxiety. Community development in pre-school education, parental education, and among ethnic minorities, both reduces crime and promotes better health, for example in reducing the effects of alcohol and illicit drugs. Health workers should contribute in full to community development. PMID:9532958

  4. The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute: Building Competencies for Public Health Practice.

    PubMed

    Luck, Jeff; Yoon, Jangho; Bernell, Stephanie; Tynan, Michael; Alvarado, Carla Sarai; Eversole, Tom; Mosbaek, Craig; Beathard, Candice

    2015-08-01

    The Oregon Public Health Policy Institute (PHPI) was designed to enhance public health policy competencies among state and local health department staff. The Oregon Health Authority funded the College of Public Health and Human Sciences at Oregon State University to develop the PHPI curriculum in 2012 and offer it to participants from 4 state public health programs and 5 local health departments in 2013. The curriculum interspersed short instructional sessions on policy development, implementation, and evaluation with longer hands-on team exercises in which participants applied these skills to policy topics their teams had selected. Panel discussions provided insights from legislators and senior Oregon health experts. Participants reported statistically significant increases in public health policy competencies and high satisfaction with PHPI overall. PMID:26066925

  5. Public health system partnerships: role for local boards of health in preparing the future public health workforce.

    PubMed

    Caron, Rosemary M; Hiller, Marc D; Wyman, William J

    2014-02-01

    The Institute of Medicine's report, Who Will Keep the Public Healthy? Educating Public Health Professionals for the 21st Century, recommended that public health education be accessible to undergraduate students. Promoting access to public health education will ideally contribute to a well-educated public health workforce, thus assuring the fulfillment of the public health mission. In response to this call to action, the authors examined the current practice, feasibility, and value in developing a functional partnership between academic institutions and local boards of health in preparing future public health professionals. Local boards of health in New England were surveyed to: (1) establish a baseline of existing working relationships between them and nearby academic institutions; (2) examine the barriers that inhibit the development of their collaborations with academic partners; and (3) assess how they jointly advance public health workforce development. Despite the main barriers of a lack of time, staff, and funding that are often cited for the absence of collaborations between institutions, one New England state, in particular, reported that their academic institution and local board of health partnerships were important and effective. The authors discuss how academic-practice collaborations hold the potential to combine basic public health principles with leadership and governance experience offered by local boards of health. Such partnerships are underutilized and have the potential to integrate core public health concepts while facilitating applied experiential learning opportunities in a professional public health setting, thus contributing to the development of the future public health workforce. PMID:23897268

  6. Defining and Developing a Global Public Health Course for Public Health Graduates

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude; Alfonso, Helman

    2015-01-01

    Global public health is increasingly being seen as a speciality field within the university education of public health. However, the exact meaning of global public health is still unclear, resulting in varied curricula and teaching units among universities. The contextual differences between high- and low- and middle-income countries, and the process of globalization need to be taken into account while developing any global public health course. Global public health and public health are not separable and global public health often appears as an extension of public health in the era of globalization and interdependence. Though global public health is readily understood as health of global population, it is mainly practiced as health problems and their solutions set within low- and middle-income countries. Additional specialist competencies relevant to the context of low- and middle-income countries are needed to work in this field. Although there can be a long list of competencies relevant to this broad topic, available literature suggests that knowledge and skills related with ethics and vulnerable groups/issues; globalization and its impact on health; disease burden; culture, society, and politics; and management are important. PMID:26191520

  7. Afterword: elaborating health and medicine's publics.

    PubMed

    Scott, J Blake

    2014-06-01

    This essay argues that medical and health humanists interested in the rhetorical work of publics can extend their research by attending to embodiment and infrastructure. In addition to discussing how such strategies are illustrated in the essays appearing in this special issue, I relate them to the rhetorical study of personal health records (PHRs) as described in consumer-directed arguments. I conclude by posing two questions to health and medical humanists: "How do discursive constructions of publics and more specific instantiations of embodied experiences mutually shape each other?" and "What do the infrastructures of health and medical users look like and involve in their enactment?" PMID:24748109

  8. Framing the Public Health of Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Ronda C.; Crews, John E.

    2007-01-01

    Caregiving has only recently been acknowledged by the nation as an important topic for millions of Americans. A psychological or sociological approach to care-giving services has been most often applied, with little attention to the population-based public health outcomes of caregivers. We conceptualize caregiving as an emerging public health issue involving complex and fluctuating roles. We contend that caregiving must be considered in the context of life span needs that vary according to the ages, developmental levels, mental health needs, and physical health demands of both caregivers and care recipients. PMID:17194871

  9. Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disasters Health Disparities Profiles in Public Health Study Study Overview Graduates of CEPH-accredited schools and programs of public health are equipped with the population health skills to address the world’s most pressing health issues. ...

  10. Science and social responsibility in public health.

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Douglas L; McKeown, Robert E

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologists and environmental health researchers have a joint responsibility to acquire scientific knowledge that matters to public health and to apply the knowledge gained in public health practice. We examine the nature and source of these social responsibilities, discuss a debate in the epidemiological literature on roles and responsibilities, and cite approaches to environmental justice as reflective of them. At one level, responsibility refers to accountability, as in being responsible for actions taken. A deeper meaning of responsibility corresponds to commitment to the pursuit and achievement of a valued end. Epidemiologists are committed to the scientific study of health and disease in human populations and to the application of scientific knowledge to improve the public's health. Responsibility is also closely linked to reliability. Responsible professionals reliably perform the tasks they set for themselves as well as the tasks society expects them to undertake. The defining axiom for our approach is that the health of the public is a social good we commit ourselves to pursue, thus assuming an obligation to contribute to its achievement. Epidemiologists cannot claim to be committed to public health as a social good and not accept the responsibility of ensuring that the knowledge gained in their roles as scientists is used to achieve that good. The social responsibilities of environmental health researchers are conspicuous in the environmental justice movement, for example, in community-based participatory research. Responsibility is an ethical concept particularly well suited to frame many key aspects of the ethics of our profession. PMID:14602514

  11. 78 FR 31562 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...) workforce recruitment and retention; (d) sustainability; (e) health information technology; (f) network... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Agency Information Collection...

  12. [Drug use in the public health debate].

    PubMed

    Tirado-Otálvaro, Andrés Felipe

    2016-07-21

    This article addresses illegal drug use within the current debate in traditional public health and in proposals from Latin America, while emphasizing the need to approach the issue from an alternative public health perspective centered on individual users, groups, and social movements as protagonists. This counterhegemonic approach thus aims to orient the discussion on the need for inclusive and democratic public policies. Illegal drug use has been addressed from various perspectives: clinical medicine, viewing it as a problem that generates mental disorders and infectious diseases, both through risky sexual practices and/or use of injecting paraphernalia; from a legal perspective, as a problem related to delinquency; and according to traditional public health, as a problem that generates school dropout and work absenteeism and increases the demand on health services, in addition to increasing violence and death. However, not all forms of drug consumption involve problematic use, nor do they all trigger disorders related to substance use. PMID:27462857

  13. Rewriting public health information in plain language.

    PubMed

    Rudd, Rima E; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Colton, Tayla; Gregoire, John; Hyde, James

    2004-01-01

    Public health materials are often designed to inform and rally the public to spur action and maintain vigilance on important issues to family, work, community, and public policy. Limited access to public health information certainly curtails knowledge and awareness but may also hamper action and civic involvement. A growth in published assessments of health materials indicates an increased interest in the mismatch between the reading level of most health materials and the reading ability of the average adult. However, while several guidebooks offer suggestions for developing new materials, little attention has been given to the process of rewriting materials and grappling with bureaucratic language. We describe, in this case study, a process we used to assess and then rewrite a federally mandated report to consumers about the quality of their water. PMID:15360033

  14. Emerging issues in public health genomics

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    This review highlights emerging areas of interest in public health genomics. First, recent advances in newborn screening (NBS) are described, with a focus on practice and policy implications of current and future efforts to expand NBS programs (e.g., via next-generation sequencing). Next, research findings from the rapidly progressing field of epigenetics and epigenomics are detailed, highlighting ways in which our emerging understanding in these areas could guide future intervention and research efforts in public health. We close by considering various ethical, legal and social issues posed by recent developments in public health genomics; these include policies to regulate access to personal genomic information; the need to enhance genetic literacy in both health professionals and the public; and challenges in ensuring that the benefits (and burdens) from genomic discoveries and applications are equitably distributed. Needs for future genomics research that integrates across basic and social sciences are also noted. PMID:25184533

  15. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs. PMID:15806833

  16. Celebrating Leadership in Public Health and Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Public Health and Medicine Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM) Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... B. Lindberg, M.D., Director of the National Library of Medicine. 2 NIH researchers John T. Schiller, ...

  17. Presenteeism: a public health hazard.

    PubMed

    Widera, Eric; Chang, Anna; Chen, Helen L

    2010-11-01

    "Presenteeism" occurs when an employee goes to work despite a medical illness that will prevent him or her from fully functioning at work. This problem has been well studied in the business and social science literature, and carries increased importance in the health care setting due to the risk of infectious disease transmission in vulnerable patient populations. In this manuscript, we discuss an outbreak of viral gastroenteritis in a long-term care facility and the role presenteeism played in disease transmission and extension of the outbreak. We use existing literature to point out the hazards of presenteeism in the health care sector. We will also discuss factors that may be involved in the decision to work while ill and propose policy changes that may reduce the incidence of presenteeism in health care organizations. PMID:20549378

  18. CANCER AND THE PUBLIC HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Francis Carter

    1916-01-01

    This article by Doctor Wood is especially interesting to health workers and indeed to all readers of the Journal on account of the fact that it treats in a concise manner some of the fundamental points of importance known at the present time regarding this devastating disease. It is particularly suggestive as it indicates various ways in which state and local health authorities can direct their activities so that the people may be informed of the fact that early cancer is curable in most instances. PMID:18009399

  19. Mental health training and development needs of community agency staff.

    PubMed

    Secker, Jenny; Hill, Kathryn

    2002-09-01

    Emphasis has long been placed in UK national policy on providing 'seamless' mental health services to meet both the health and social care needs of service users. While attention has been paid to the training required by specialist mental health and primary care staff in order to achieve this, the needs of other community agency staff have received less attention. The present article describes a study designed to identify the training needs of staff working within a broad range of agencies. Focus group discussions were used to explore participants' experiences of mental health problems amongst clients, their confidence in dealing with these, current sources of support and perceived training needs. The results indicate that participants in all agencies routinely encountered a range of problems. Colleagues were the main source of support, followed by line managers, but supervision structures and wider organisational support were lacking in some cases. Joint working with specialist mental health services was almost universally problematic and all groups identified a range of training needs. On the basis of the results, the present authors put forward suggestions as to how these needs might be met. PMID:12390218

  20. The New Hampshire public health network: creating local public health infrastructure through community-driven partnerships.

    PubMed

    Kassler, William J; Goldsberry, Yvonne P

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, under the auspices of the Turning Point program, New Hampshire's public health stakeholders convened a strategic planning process to transform the state public health system. What emerged was a fundamental vision that the public health system could only be improved by strengthening the capacity of local communities to address local health issues. A plan was developed to create regional public health structures, in areas with no local health departments, to deliver essential public health services at the local level. Seven years later, that plan has become the New Hampshire Public Health Network. The network now covers 67% of the New Hampshire population and includes 113 (48%) cities and towns. Pre- and postevaluations to assess local public health infrastructure at the inception of the program and following 2 years of funding and technical assistance showed significant improvement in local public health capacity and performance. This article describes the development of local public health structures in New Hampshire where none had previously existed. PMID:15711445