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Sample records for agencies sell tobacco

  1. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and... machines in Government-owned and leased space. The Administrator of GSA or the head of an Agency...

  2. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and... machines in Government-owned and leased space. The Administrator of GSA or the head of an Agency...

  3. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and... machines in Government-owned and leased space. The Administrator of GSA or the head of an Agency...

  4. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and... machines in Government-owned and leased space. The Administrator of GSA or the head of an Agency...

  5. 41 CFR 102-74.75 - May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and leased space? 102-74.75 Section 102... Services § 102-74.75 May Federal agencies sell tobacco products in vending machines in Government-owned and... machines in Government-owned and leased space. The Administrator of GSA or the head of an Agency...

  6. Use of Native American imagery to sell tobacco.

    PubMed

    BlueEye, LaDonna

    2004-05-01

    The tobacco plant has been used in Native American communities in sacred, traditional and cultural ways prior to the arrival of Christopher Columbus. Early immigrants to North America were introduced to tobacco use by Native Americans and the plant was quickly turned into a commercial success in Europe. Native American images have been used for centuries to commercialize a product that once held only spiritual significance to American Indian tribes. This article provides a history of tobacco, from the sacred use by Native Americans, to the commercialism of tobacco in North America. Included is a review of early to current advertisements using Native American images.

  7. Forcing the Navy to sell cigarettes on ships: how the tobacco industry and politicians torpedoed Navy tobacco control.

    PubMed

    Offen, Naphtali; Arvey, Sarah R; Smith, Elizabeth A; Malone, Ruth E

    2011-03-01

    In 1986, the US Navy announced the goal of becoming smoke-free by 2000. However, efforts to restrict tobacco sales and use aboard the USS Roosevelt prompted tobacco industry lobbyists to persuade their allies in Congress to legislate that all naval ships must sell tobacco. Congress also removed control of ships' stores from the Navy. By 1993, the Navy abandoned its smoke-free goal entirely and promised smokers a place to smoke on all ships. Congressional complicity in promoting the agenda of the tobacco industry thwarted the Navy's efforts to achieve a healthy military workforce. Because of military lobbying constraints, civilian pressure on Congress may be necessary to establish effective tobacco control policies in the armed forces.

  8. Forcing the Navy to Sell Cigarettes on Ships: How the Tobacco Industry and Politicians Torpedoed Navy Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Arvey, Sarah R.; Smith, Elizabeth A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2011-01-01

    In 1986, the US Navy announced the goal of becoming smoke-free by 2000. However, efforts to restrict tobacco sales and use aboard the USS Roosevelt prompted tobacco industry lobbyists to persuade their allies in Congress to legislate that all naval ships must sell tobacco. Congress also removed control of ships’ stores from the Navy. By 1993, the Navy abandoned its smoke-free goal entirely and promised smokers a place to smoke on all ships. Congressional complicity in promoting the agenda of the tobacco industry thwarted the Navy's efforts to achieve a healthy military workforce. Because of military lobbying constraints, civilian pressure on Congress may be necessary to establish effective tobacco control policies in the armed forces. PMID:21233435

  9. Cigar magazines: using tobacco to sell a lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Wenger, L.; Malone, R.; George, A.; Bero, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the content of two cigar "lifestyle" magazines, Cigar Aficionado and Smoke.
DESIGN—Content analysis of cigar focused articles.
SUBJECTS—Cigar focused articles (n = 353) from Cigar Aficionado and Smoke magazines.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Primary focus; mention of health effects, environmental tobacco smoke, or scientific research; quotation and description of individuals; characteristics such as sex, age, ethnicity, smoking status, affiliation, and stance towards cigars; and overall image of cigars.
RESULTS—Cigar business-focused articles were the largest category (40%, n = 143), followed by articles about cigar events (12%, n = 42). Notable were articles featuring cigar benefits to raise money for health charities. Celebrities were featured in 34% (n = 121) of articles and 96% (n = 271) favoured cigar use. Only four (1%) articles featured health effects of cigars as a primary focus.
CONCLUSIONS—Cigar Aficionado and Smoke broke new ground in tobacco marketing by combining promotion of product, lifestyle, and industry in the same vehicle and linking the medium directly to product related events that extended its reach. The creation and marketing of new tobacco use sites challenges the increasing "isolation" of smokers, and positions cigar use as a socially welcome relief from restrictions. Public health advocates should anticipate and challenge other new tobacco marketing vehicles as communications technologies advance and public spaces for smoking shrink.


Keywords: cigars; cigar magazines; lifestyles; tobacco marketing PMID:11544394

  10. 9 CFR 201.61 - Market agencies selling or purchasing livestock on commission; relationships with dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... livestock on commission; relationships with dealers. 201.61 Section 201.61 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN... or purchasing livestock on commission; relationships with dealers. (a) Market agencies selling on commission. No market agency selling consigned livestock shall enter into any agreement, relationship...

  11. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  12. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  13. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  14. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  15. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation...

  16. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment. 201.56 Section 201.56 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND.... (c) Key employees not to purchase livestock out of consignments. No market agency engaged in...

  17. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment. 201.56 Section 201.56 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... other available buyers, and then only at a price higher than the highest available bid on such...

  18. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment. 201.56 Section 201.56 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... other available buyers, and then only at a price higher than the highest available bid on such...

  19. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment. 201.56 Section 201.56 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND... other available buyers, and then only at a price higher than the highest available bid on such...

  20. 9 CFR 201.56 - Market agencies selling on commission; purchases from consignment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (c) Key employees not to purchase livestock out of consignments. No market agency engaged in selling... consignment for any purpose for their own account, either directly or indirectly. (d) Purchase from... the account of sale the name of the buyer and the nature of the relationship existing between...

  1. Why and How the Tobacco Industry Sells Cigarettes to Young Adults: Evidence From Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Pamela M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To improve tobacco control campaigns, we analyzed tobacco industry strategies that encourage young adults (aged 18 to 24) to smoke. Methods. Initial searches of tobacco industry documents with keywords (e.g., “young adult”) were extended by using names, locations, and dates. Results. Approximately 200 relevant documents were found. Transitions from experimentation to addiction, with adult levels of cigarette consumption, may take years. Tobacco marketing solidifies addiction among young adults. Cigarette advertisements encourage regular smoking and increased consumption by integrating smoking into activities and places where young adults' lives change (e.g., leaving home, college, jobs, the military, bars). Conclusions. Tobacco control efforts should include both adults and youths. Life changes are also opportunities to stop occasional smokers' progress to addiction. Clean air policies in workplaces, the military, bars, colleges, and homes can combat tobacco marketing. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:908–916) PMID:12036776

  2. Selling Addiction: A Workshop Kit on Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising. A Media Literacy Workshop Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Mary Ellen; And Others

    This kit consists of: (1) a leader's guide; (2) an 18-minute videotape containing three 6-minute discussion starter segments analyzing typical commercials and advertising techniques; (3) a special issue of "Media Values" magazine on the theme "Fatal Attraction: The Selling of Addiction"; (4) an 8-page booklet "Awareness to Action: Media Literacy…

  3. Is tobacco a drug? Administrative agencies as common law courts.

    PubMed

    Sunstein, C R

    1998-04-01

    Professor Cass Sunstein argues that the FDA has the authority to regulate tobacco products. He considers the text of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, which supports the FDA assertion, and the context of its enactment, which argues against the FDA. He resolves the tension between text and context in favor of FDA jurisdiction by turning to the emerging role of administrative agencies. In modern government, he contends, administrative agencies have become America's common law courts, with the power to adapt statutory regimes to new facts and new values when the underlying statute is ambiguous. Professor Sunstein's Article, like the other pieces in this volume, was written after the United States District Court for the Middle District of North Carolina decided Coyne Beahm v. FDA, but before a three judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit reversed that decision in Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp. v. FDA. In Coyne Beahm, the District Court held that the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act authorized the FDA to regulate tobacco products, but not tobacco advertising. The Fourth Circuit rejected the District Court's jurisdictional ruling and invalidated the FDA's regulations in their entirety. The Clinton Administration has since requested an en banc rehearing before the Fourth Circuit.

  4. Why California retailers stop selling tobacco products, and what their customers and employees think about it when they do: case studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In California, some 40, 000 retailers sell tobacco products. Tobacco's ubiquitousness in retail settings normalizes use and cues smoking urges among former smokers and those attempting cessation. Thus, limiting the number of retailers is regarded as key to ending the tobacco epidemic. In the past decade, independent pharmacies and local grocery chains in California and elsewhere have voluntarily abandoned tobacco sales. No previous studies have examined the reasons for this emerging phenomenon. We sought to learn what motivated retailers to discontinue tobacco sales and what employees and customers thought about their decision. Methods We conducted case studies of seven California retailers (three grocery stores, four pharmacies) that had voluntarily ceased tobacco sales within the past 7 years. We interviewed owners, managers, and employees, conducted consumer focus groups, unobtrusively observed businesses and the surrounding environment, and examined any media coverage of each retailer's decision. We analyzed data using qualitative content analysis. Results For independent pharmacies, the only reason given for the decision to end tobacco sales was that tobacco caused disease and death. Grocers listed health among several factors, including regulatory pressures and wanting to be seen as "making a difference." Media coverage of stores' new policies was limited, and only three retailers alerted customers. Management reported few or no customer complaints and supportive or indifferent employees. Pharmacy employees were pleased to no longer be selling a deadly product. Grocery store management saw the decision to end tobacco sales as enhancing the stores' image and consistent with their inventory of healthy foods. Focus group participants (smokers and nonsmokers) were largely unaware that retailers had stopped selling tobacco; however, almost all supported the decision, viewing it as promoting public health. Many said knowing this made them more likely to

  5. 75 FR 20603 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Health Document Submission AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction...

  6. 9 CFR 201.61 - Market agencies selling or purchasing livestock on commission; relationships with dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... association with dealers or other buyers which has a tendency to lessen the loyalty of the market agency to... name of the buyer and the nature of the financial relationship between the buyer and the market...

  7. 9 CFR 201.61 - Market agencies selling or purchasing livestock on commission; relationships with dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... association with dealers or other buyers which has a tendency to lessen the loyalty of the market agency to... name of the buyer and the nature of the financial relationship between the buyer and the market...

  8. 9 CFR 201.61 - Market agencies selling or purchasing livestock on commission; relationships with dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... association with dealers or other buyers which has a tendency to lessen the loyalty of the market agency to... name of the buyer and the nature of the financial relationship between the buyer and the market...

  9. Tobacco and alcohol billboards in 50 Chicago neighborhoods: market segmentation to sell dangerous products to the poor.

    PubMed

    Hackbarth, D P; Silvestri, B; Cosper, W

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a study of billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products in the city of Chicago. All billboards were counted and their advertising themes noted. These data were matched with information on population and race from the 1990 census in order to document which geographic areas of the city, if any, had excess tobacco or alcohol billboards. The data revealed that minority wards were burdened with three times as many tobacco billboards and five times as many alcohol billboards when compared to white wards. The findings are congruent with studies conducted in other urban areas, which demonstrate a consistent pattern of tobacco and alcohol advertisers targeting poor and minority neighborhoods for outdoor advertising of their dangerous products. Chicago legislative initiatives based on the billboard study are described.

  10. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a residence for which I and/or a... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION...

  11. 41 CFR 302-12.7 - What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What expenses will my agency pay if I use a relocation services company to sell or purchase a residence for which I and/or a... Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES RESIDENCE TRANSACTION...

  12. 75 FR 41498 - Draft Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability; Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... does provide for lower civil money penalties for violations of access, advertising, and promotion... distribution of a tobacco product, including restrictions on the access to, and the advertising and promotion... to cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products, as well as restrictions on advertising and promotion...

  13. Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... from poor households are frequently employed in tobacco farming to provide family income. These children are especially ... 19% of the world's population, meet the best practice for pictorial warnings, which includes the warnings in ...

  14. Selling Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varela-Ibarra, Jose L.

    1975-01-01

    To reverse trends toward reductions in the number of foreign language teaching positions, it is necessary to change the negative image associated with foreign languages and to try to attract more students. A four-point selling program is suggested. (Author/RM)

  15. 77 FR 20026 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Modified Risk Tobacco Product Applications; Availability; Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... grants FDA authority to regulate the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products to... that, prior to marketing tobacco products for use to reduce harm or the risk of tobacco-related disease... introduction or delivery for introduction into interstate commerce of any modified risk tobacco product...

  16. 78 FR 21379 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... FDA important authority to regulate the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products..., email, telephone, and fax); and Document categorization (as applicable): Relationship of the document...

  17. 76 FR 52333 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... smartphone application for use with iPhones, Android, etc. to allow consumers to report potential violations to FDA via their smartphone. Others may simply choose to send a letter to FDA with their information... smartphone application, and sending a letter to FDA's Center for Tobacco Products. FDA estimates the...

  18. 76 FR 1640 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-11

    ... Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) Act Registration Form. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol... Form/Collection: Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) Act Registration Form. (3) Agency form number... cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products with the Attorney General in order to continue to sell...

  19. 78 FR 76838 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an opportunity for public comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the Agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (the PRA), Federal Agencies are required to publish notice in the Federal Register concerning each proposed collection of information, including each proposed extension of an existing collection of......

  20. Bad Mouthin': What Smokeless Tobacco Can Do to You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Clearinghouse, Madison.

    This booklet presents, in comic book format, information for children and adolescents on the hazards of using smokeless tobacco. It touches on the use of smokeless tobacco by baseball players, the advertising of smokeless tobacco, and the illegality of selling smokeless tobacco to minors. Health consequences of using smokeless tobacco, including…

  1. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... entire stock in liquidation. 31.66 Section 31.66 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in... liquors or a wholesale dealer in beer by virtue of selling in liquidation that dealer's entire stock...

  2. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  3. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  4. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  5. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  6. 27 CFR 31.64 - Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines and tinctures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... selling medicines and tinctures. 31.64 Section 31.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.64 Apothecaries or druggists selling medicines... medicines and in making tinctures that are unfit for use for beverage purposes are not considered to...

  7. 27 CFR 31.66 - Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer selling... Exceptions Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.66 Retail dealer selling entire stock in liquidation. No retail dealer in liquors or retail dealer in beer shall be deemed to be a wholesale dealer...

  8. Selling Your Credits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Dawn; Murtagh, Maria

    1982-01-01

    A Credits-For-Resale program underwritten by the California Association of College Stores is described. A brief history of the program, guidelines on the mechanics involved, and suggestions on how selling credits could work for individual stores are presented. (MLW)

  9. To Sell An Idea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Alan J.

    1986-01-01

    The experiences of Aurora University, a small university that not only raised money but established new links with donors, are described. The key to fund raising is selling an idea. As donors become more sophisticated, sentiment and traditional patterns play a less significant role in motivating donors. (MLW)

  10. 75 FR 80823 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Domestic Tobacco Product Establishments and Listing of Ingredients in Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and... of Domestic Tobacco Product Establishments and Listing of Ingredients in Tobacco Products'' has...

  11. Tobacco Advertising and the First Amendment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanauer, Peter; Pertschuk, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Presents an argument for the recently proposed ban on advertising of tobacco products. Differentiates between commercial speech, used to sell products and services, and political speech, which relates to ideas. Argues that tobacco is the only legal product that is dangerous when used as intended, therefore First Amendment rights regarding other…

  12. 7 CFR 29.8001 - Designation of tobacco markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the business of buying and selling tobacco in commerce; that the classification of tobacco according... tobaccos Auction markets Order of designation Citation (a) Kentucky-Tennessee Fire-cured, and Green River..., 1936. 1 FR 1416. (f) Kentucky Burley—Type 31 Bowling Green, KyCynthiana, Ky. Horse Cave, Ky....

  13. 7 CFR 29.8001 - Designation of tobacco markets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the business of buying and selling tobacco in commerce; that the classification of tobacco according... tobaccos Auction markets Order of designation Citation (a) Kentucky-Tennessee Fire-cured, and Green River..., 1936. 1 FR 1416. (f) Kentucky Burley—Type 31 Bowling Green, KyCynthiana, Ky. Horse Cave, Ky....

  14. 25 CFR 140.17 - Tobacco sales to minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tobacco sales to minors. 140.17 Section 140.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.17 Tobacco sales to minors. No trader shall sell tobacco, cigars, or cigarettes to any Indian...

  15. 25 CFR 140.17 - Tobacco sales to minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tobacco sales to minors. 140.17 Section 140.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.17 Tobacco sales to minors. No trader shall sell tobacco, cigars, or cigarettes to any Indian...

  16. 25 CFR 140.17 - Tobacco sales to minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tobacco sales to minors. 140.17 Section 140.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.17 Tobacco sales to minors. No trader shall sell tobacco, cigars, or cigarettes to any Indian...

  17. 25 CFR 140.17 - Tobacco sales to minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Tobacco sales to minors. 140.17 Section 140.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.17 Tobacco sales to minors. No trader shall sell tobacco, cigars, or cigarettes to any Indian...

  18. 25 CFR 140.17 - Tobacco sales to minors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tobacco sales to minors. 140.17 Section 140.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES LICENSED INDIAN TRADERS § 140.17 Tobacco sales to minors. No trader shall sell tobacco, cigars, or cigarettes to any Indian...

  19. Evaluating local policy adoption campaigns in California: Tobacco Retail License (TRL) adoption.

    PubMed

    Satterlund, Travis D; Treiber, Jeanette; Haun, Sue; Cassady, Diana

    2014-06-01

    As part of its state-wide "denormalization" campaign, the California Tobacco Control Program has funded local tobacco control projects to secure tobacco retail licenses (TRLs) in their communities. TRL policies generate funding by requiring tobacco retailers within a jurisdiction to obtain a license, which is in addition to the state license that tobacco retailers are legally required to purchase to sell tobacco products. The funding provided by TRLs enables local law enforcement to carry out inspection and enforcement operations. This paper examines the unique processes by which local project campaigns attempt to get TRL policies adopted in communities across the State of California. Twenty-two local projects submitted final evaluation reports pertaining to the adoption of TRLs, and the reports from these projects form the basis of the analysis. Successful campaigns tended to include the following strategies: (1) determining policy readiness; (2) gathering local data; (3) identifying and working with a "champion"; (4) building relationships with local law enforcement agencies and decision makers; and (5) educating community and decision makers. The major challenges faced by local projects included budget cuts and staffing issues, concern about creating an unfavorable environment for business by imposing more regulations and fees, and complaints about using law enforcement resources for tobacco control in light of more "pressing" public safety issues. These challenges proved difficult for local projects to overcome, and also highlight the need for projects to create and carry out strong but flexible tactical plans that incorporate the aforementioned strategies.

  20. Business policy practices that predict sales of tobacco.

    PubMed

    Gangeness, Jeanine E; Evanson, Tracy; Webb, Derek

    2006-11-01

    This pilot study with tobacco merchants asked how policy practices may influence sales of tobacco to youth. This study compared tobacco merchant new employee training and business policies and practices to business compliance data. Licensed tobacco merchants in a rural Minnesota county were mailed surveys regarding their new employee training and business policies practices. The returned surveys (75.9%, N = 44) were compared with tobacco compliance results that indicated if the business sold tobacco to youth during a county compliance check. The major finding from this study was that the survey respondents who did not sell tobacco to youth provided training on fake identification cards (68.0%, n = 17). Tobacco merchants who provided additional information on fake identification cards (40%,n = 6), chi(2)(2, n = 43) 6.66, p = .036, were more likely to not sell tobacco to youth than the merchants who did not provide fake identification card information.

  1. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    PubMed

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were surveyed to determine their store's policy regarding tobacco advertising, receipt of monetary incentives from distributors for displaying tobacco ads, and willingness to display antitobacco ads. Six types of stores were involved in the study: 10 supermarkets, 10 privately owned grocery stores, 9 chain convenience food stores that do not sell gasoline, 11 chain convenience food stores that sell gasoline, 11 chain pharmacies, and 10 private pharmacies. Two-thirds of the stores displayed tobacco posters, and 87 percent had promotional items advertising tobacco products, primarily cigarettes. Larger stores, and those that were privately owned, tended to display more posters and promotional items. Eighty percent of tobacco product displays were for cigarettes, 16 percent for smokeless tobacco products, and 4 percent for cigars and pipe tobacco. Convenience stores selling gasoline had the most separate tobacco product displays. Of tobacco product displays, 24 percent were located adjacent to candy and snack displays. Twenty-nine of the 61 store owners or managers indicated that their store had a policy regulating the display of tobacco ads and tobacco product displays. Policies dealt primarily with the location of tobacco posters (for example, no ads in the window) and number of product displays. Only 14 shop owners or managers indicated that they had previously displayed antitobacco information; more than half (31 of 61) said that they would be willing to display antitobaccoads.In many

  2. 76 FR 50226 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... tobacco products and tobacco smoke. This information will assist the Agency in establishing a list...

  3. Characteristics of tobacco retailers in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Louise; Doscher, Crile; Robertson, Lindsay A

    2013-09-01

    Using data on known tobacco outlets throughout NZ, GIS was used to map outlets, deprivation and secondary schools. A total of 5008 tobacco outlets were identified, giving a density of one outlet per 617 people or one outlet per 129 smokers. One-half of secondary schools had an outlet within 500 m. Tobacco outlets were more densely located in areas of higher socioeconomic deprivation. One third of all tobacco outlets had a licence to sell alcohol. This study indicates the widespread retail availability of tobacco and the need for a mandatory system of registration for better enforcement of smokefree legislation.

  4. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The prospective NASA contractor is provided with information that describes the agency and its procurement practices. Products include ideas, manufacturing capabilities, fabricated components, construction, basic materials, and specialized services. NASA assistance in marketing these and other products is emphasized. Small and minority business enterprises are discussed. The agency's scientific and technical information activities are also discussed.

  5. Longitudinal Trends in Tobacco Availability, Tobacco Advertising, and Ownership Changes of Food Stores, Albany, New York, 2003–2015

    PubMed Central

    Done, Douglas H.; Michaels, Isaac H.; Guarasi, Diana C.; Kammer, Jamie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Frequency of visiting convenience and corner grocery stores that sell tobacco is positively associated with the odds of ever smoking and the risk of smoking initiation among youth. We assessed 12-year trends of tobacco availability, tobacco advertising, and ownership changes in various food stores in Albany, New York. Methods Eligible stores were identified by multiple government lists and community canvassing in 2003 (n = 107), 2009 (n = 117), 2012 (n = 135), and 2015 (n = 137). Tobacco availability (all years) and advertising (2009, 2012, and 2015) were directly measured; electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) were included in 2015. Results Percentage of stores selling tobacco peaked at 83.8% in 2009 and declined to 74.5% in 2015 (P for trend = .11). E-cigarettes were sold by 63.7% of tobacco retailers. The largest decline in tobacco availability came from convenience stores that went out of business (n = 11), followed by pharmacies that dropped tobacco sales (n = 4). The gain of tobacco availability mostly came from new convenience stores (n = 24) and new dollar stores (n = 8). Significant declining trends (P < .01) were found in tobacco availability and any tobacco advertising in pharmacies and in low (<3 feet) tobacco advertising in convenience stores and stores overall. Only one-third of stores that sold tobacco in 2003 continued to sell tobacco with the same owner in 2015. Conclusion The observed subtle declines in tobacco availability and advertising were explained in part by local tobacco control efforts, the pharmacy industry’s self-regulation of tobacco sales, and an increase in the state’s tobacco retailer registration fee. Nonetheless, overall tobacco availability remained high (>16 retailers per 10,000 population) in this community. The high store ownership turnover rate suggests that a moratorium of new tobacco retailer registrations would be an integral part of a multi-prong policy strategy to reduce tobacco availability and

  6. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, Maurice; Evans, David S; Lahiffe, Blaithin; Goggin, Deirdre; Smyth, Colm; Hastings, Gerard; Byrne, Miriam

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  7. SELL — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    From NCBI Gene and UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: sL-selectin, also known as SELL, is a cell surface adhesion molecule that belongs to a family of adhesion/homing receptors. SELL mediates the adherence of lymphocytes to endothelial cells of high endothelial venules in peripheral lymph nodes and promotes initial tethering and rolling of leukocytes in endothelia, facilitating their migration into secondary lymphoid organs and inflammation sites. SELL contains a C-type lectin-like domain, a calcium-binding epidermal growth factor-like domain, and two short complement-like repeats. Alternatively spliced transcript variants have been found for this gene.

  8. Selling to NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Prospective contractors are acquainted with the organizational structure of NASA, and the major technical program offices and selected staff offices at the Headquarters level are briefly described. The basic procedures for Federal procurement are covered. A primer is presented on how to market to NASA. While the information is specific to NASA, many of the principles are applicable to other agencies as well. Some of the major programs are introduced which are available to small and disadvantaged businesses. The major research programs and fields of interest at individual NASA centers are summarized.

  9. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... stillbirth when used during pregnancy Smokeless tobacco can lead to nicotine poisoning and even death in children who mistake it for candy. Smokeless tobacco causes nicotine addiction. This can lead to smoking and using other forms of tobacco. ...

  10. 75 FR 42659 - Standards for Pipe Tobacco and Roll-Your-Own Tobacco; Request for Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Parts 40, 41, 44, 45, and 46 RIN 1513-AB78 Standards for Pipe Tobacco and Roll-Your-Own Tobacco; Request for Public Comment AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and...: The Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau requests public comments on standards that have...

  11. 7 CFR 29.9406 - Failure of warehouse to comply with opening and selling schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Failure of warehouse to comply with opening and... Markets § 29.9406 Failure of warehouse to comply with opening and selling schedule. (a) Each warehouse... warehouse may exceed its scheduled sales opportunity for designated or undesignated tobacco, but the...

  12. Show and Sell: Teaching Sales through Hands-On Selling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rippé, Cindy B.

    2015-01-01

    There is a shortage of qualified salespeople, which creates a challenge for educators to prepare more students for a sales career. One of the most common teaching techniques used in preparing students is role playing, which mirrors real-world selling. However, role plays are not necessarily authentic because the players and conditions are not a…

  13. The Selling of the Sheepskin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Maureen

    1980-01-01

    As higher education turns from a seller's to a buyer's market, colleges are using marketing strategy as an aid for student recruitment. Unethical and ethical promotion and recruiting practices, recruiting abuses (selling of immigration papers, etc.), legal contractual responsibilities, ethical decay, and consumer rights of students are discussed.…

  14. Mobilizing positive reinforcement in communities to reduce youth access to tobacco.

    PubMed

    Biglan, A; Ary, D; Koehn, V; Levings, D; Smith, S; Wright, Z; James, L; Henderson, J

    1996-10-01

    A community intervention to mobilize positive reinforcement for not selling tobacco to young people was evaluated. The intervention had five components: (a) mobilization of community support, (b) merchant education, (c) changing consequences to clerks for selling or not selling to those under 18, (d) publicity about clerks' refusals to sell, and (e) feedback to store owners or managers about the extent of their sales to adolescents. A multiple baseline design experiment was conducted, in which two small Oregon communities received the intervention, while two other continued in baseline. Outlets' willingness to sell was assessed repeatedly by teenage volunteers. The intervention significantly reduced the proportion of stores willing to sell. Mobilizing social and material reinforcement for stores not selling tobacco to young people is a viable means of reducing such sales. It may be especially valuable in communities where laws against sales to minors go unenforced.

  15. 75 FR 44259 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request AGENCY.... Affected Public: Insured State nonmember banks that sell insurance products; persons who sell...

  16. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets

    PubMed Central

    D’Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R.; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E.; Rose, Shyanika W.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living. PMID:26963859

  17. Integrating Tobacco Control and Obesity Prevention Initiatives at Retail Outlets.

    PubMed

    Ribisl, Kurt M; D'Angelo, Heather; Evenson, Kelly R; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Myers, Allison E; Rose, Shyanika W

    2016-03-10

    Tobacco products are sold in approximately 375,000 US retail outlets, including convenience stores and pharmacies, which often sell energy-dense, low-nutrient foods and beverages. The Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) increased authority over tobacco product sales and marketing, combined with declining smoking rates, provides an opportunity to transition tobacco retailers toward healthier retail environments. Unfortunately, research into improving consumer retail environments is often conducted in isolation by researchers working in tobacco control, nutrition, and physical activity. Interdisciplinary efforts are needed to transform tobacco retailers from stores that are dependent on a declining product category, to the sale and promotion of healthful foods and creating environments conducive to active living. The objective of this article is to describe the potential for interdisciplinary efforts to transition retailers away from selling and promoting tobacco products and toward creating retail environments that promote healthful eating and active living.

  18. Advertising: To Get The Reader to Buy, Buy, Buy, You Must Sell, Sell, Sell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Offers an overview of advertising as it relates to student publications. Discusses what advertising is; what the consumer wants; the buyer and seller; creating a selling strategy; basic building blocks; advertising art; and text. Describes basic guidelines for designing an ad, outlines some assignments for students, and notes a few things not to…

  19. [Can tobacco companies be good corporate citizens?].

    PubMed

    Palazzo, G; Mena, S

    2009-07-01

    Tobacco companies have jumped on the Corporate social responsibility (CSR) bandwagon as a tentative to be societally accepted as responsible actors and good corporate citizens. This is however not possible for two reasons. First, the product they sell is lethal and thus not compatible with the precondition of doing no harm to be a good corporate citizen. Second, the behavior of tobacco firms is not responsible, being illustrated by four examples: junk science versus sound science strategy, seducing young smokers, political lobbying and getting customers on new markets. To conclude, three implications for regulating the activities of the tobacco industry are given.

  20. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... divisions about tobacco (including smokeless tobacco), its health effects, and quitting. Related Oral Health Topics Oral Cancer ​ ​​​ Share This Page Facebook External link – please review our disclaimer Twitter External ...

  1. 40 CFR 1051.330 - May I sell vehicles from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM RECREATIONAL ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.330 May I sell vehicles from...

  2. 40 CFR 1048.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.330 May I sell engines from an...

  3. 40 CFR 1054.330 - May I sell engines from an engine family with a suspended certificate of conformity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.330 May I sell engines from...

  4. Nicotine and tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    Withdrawal from nicotine; Smoking - nicotine addiction and withdrawal; Smokeless tobacco - nicotine addiction; Cigar smoking; Pipe smoking; Smokeless snuff; Tobacco use; Chewing tobacco; Nicotine addiction and tobacco

  5. The Moderating Role of Gender in the Relationship Between Tobacco Outlet Exposure and Tobacco Use Among African American Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Brown, Qiana; Milam, Adam J; Bowie, Janice V; Ialongo, Nicholas S; Gaskin, Darrell J; Furr-Holden, Debra

    2016-04-01

    Tobacco outlet exposure is a correlate of tobacco use with potential differences by gender that warrant attention. The aim of this study is to explore the moderating role of gender in the relationship between tobacco outlet exposure and past month tobacco use among African American young adults 21 to 24 years old. This cross-sectional study (n = 283) used geospatial methods to determine the number of tobacco outlets within walking distance (i.e., a quarter mile) of participants' homes and distance to the nearest outlet. Logistic regression models were used to test interactions between gender and tobacco outlet exposure (i.e., density and proximity). Tobacco outlets were classified based on whether or not they were licensed to sell tobacco only (TO outlets) or tobacco and alcohol (TA outlets). Neither density nor proximity was associated with past month tobacco use in the pooled models. However, gender modified the relationship between TO outlet density and tobacco use, and this relationship was significant only among women (OR = 1.02; p < 0.01; adjusted OR = 1.01; p < 0.05). This study underscores the importance of reducing tobacco outlet density in residential neighborhoods, especially TO outlets, as well as highlights potential gender differences in the relationship between tobacco outlet density and tobacco use.

  6. Going Tobacco-Free on 24 New York City University Campuses: A Public Health Agency's Partnership with a Large Urban Public University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresnahan, Marie P.; Sacks, Rachel; Farley, Shannon M.; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Patterson, Ty; Lamberson, Patti

    2016-01-01

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene partnered with the nation's largest university system, the City University of New York (CUNY), to provide technical assistance and resources to support the development and implementation of a system-wide tobacco-free policy. This effort formed one component of "Healthy CUNY"--a…

  7. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  8. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  9. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  10. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  11. 13 CFR 120.951 - Selling agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selling agent. 120.951 Section 120.951 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) Debenture Sales and Service Agents § 120.951 Selling agent. The CDC, with...

  12. The Advanced Course in Professional Selling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, Terry; Inks, Scott

    2014-01-01

    More universities are incorporating sales content into their curriculums, and although the introductory courses in professional sales have much common ground and guidance from numerous professional selling texts, instructors teaching the advanced selling course lack the guidance provided by common academic tools and materials. The resulting…

  13. 77 FR 71805 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ..., retailer, or distributor of tobacco products to sell or distribute any such product to any individual under... the state has achieved in reducing the availability of tobacco products to individuals under the age... success the state has achieved in reducing the availability of tobacco products to individuals under...

  14. Selling College Graduates to Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagy, Daniel R.; Biehl, Kimberly A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a University of Pittsburgh placement office program to increase placement of graduates with local businesses. To challenge the employment agencies' monopoly on this market, an advertising and direct communications program was launched with continuing good results. (JAC)

  15. 77 FR 32136 - Agency Information Collection Activities:

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed collection; comments requested; Notification to Fire Safety Authority of Storage of Explosive Materials... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting the following information...

  16. The Negro in the Tobacco Industry. The Racial Policies of American Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northrup, Herbert R.; Ash, Robert I.

    The tobacco industry has employed Negroes since its inception in Colonial Virginia. This study is primarily concerned with the course of Negro employment and industry racial policies in the industry processing, manufacturing, selling, and distributing of cigarettes and manufactured tobacco, as distinct from the cigar industry which involves quite…

  17. Selling to the moneyed masses.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Paul F; Johnson, Brian A; Breene, R Timothy S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, the distribution of household incomes has shifted so much that a much larger proportion of consumers now earn significantly higher-than-average incomes--while still falling short of being truly rich. As a result, what used to be a no-man's-land for new product introductions has in many categories become an extremely profitable "new middle ground." How can marketers capitalize on this new territory? The key, say the authors, is to rethink the positioning and design of offerings and the ways they can be brought to market. Take, for instance, how Procter & Gamble redefined the positioning map for tooth-whitening solutions. A decade ago, dental centers were popularizing expensive bleaching techniques that put the price of a professionally brightened smile in the 400 dollars range. At the low end, consumers also had the choice of whitening toothpastes that cost anywhere from 2 dollars to 8 dollars. P&G wisely positioned itself between the two ends, successfully targeting the new mass market with its 35 dollars Whitestrips. In product categories where it's clear the middle ground has already been populated, it's important for companies to design or redesign offerings to compete. An example is the Polo shirt. How do you sell a man yet another one after he's bought every color he wants? Add some features, and call it a golf shirt. Here, marketers have introduced designs based on the concept of "occasional use" in order to stand out. Finally, companies wishing to reach the "almost rich" can change how they go to market. Perhaps no mass retailer has made a stronger bid for the mass affluent than Target Stores, which has pioneered a focus the company itself characterizes as upscale discount. The strategy has made Target an everyday shopping phenomenon among well-heeled urbanites and prosperous professionals.

  18. 76 FR 4917 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Pretesting of Tobacco Communications AGENCY: Food and Drug... collection of information entitle ``Pretesting of Tobacco Communications'' has been approved by the Office...

  19. Tobacco lobby political influence on US state legislatures in the 1990s

    PubMed Central

    Givel, M.; Glantz, S.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Throughout the 1990s the tobacco lobby was a potent political force in US state legislatures advancing its pro-tobacco agenda.
OBJECTIVE—To describe the market and political motivations of the tobacco lobby and the strategies they use to achieve these goals in US state legislatures.
DESIGN—This study is a content analysis and summary overview of recently released historical tobacco industry documents; tobacco related government documents; and recent state tobacco control policy reports.
RESULTS—In the 1990s, the tobacco lobby engaged in a comprehensive and aggressive political effort in state legislatures to sell tobacco with the least hindrance using lobbying, the media, public relations, front groups, industry allies, and contributions to legislators. These efforts included campaigns to neutralise clean indoor air legislation, minimise tax increases, and preserve the industry's freedom to advertise and sell tobacco. The tobacco lobby succeeded in increasing the number of states that enacted state pre-emption of stricter local tobacco control laws and prevented the passage of many state tobacco control policies. Public health advocates were able to prevent pre-emption and other pro-tobacco policies from being enacted in several states.
CONCLUSIONS—The tobacco lobby is a powerful presence in state legislatures. Because of the poor public image of the tobacco lobby, it seeks to wield this power quietly and behind the scenes. State and local health advocates, who often have high public credibility, can use this fact against the tobacco lobby by focusing public attention on the tobacco lobby's political influence and policy goals and expose links between the tobacco lobby and its legislative supporters.


Keywords: political lobbying; state legislatures; industry PMID:11387532

  20. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... States, chewing tobacco has long been associated with baseball. Players chewed it to keep their mouths moist, ... in most of America and not too many baseball players were spitting big brown gobs all over ...

  1. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  2. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  3. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  4. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  5. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drivers who sell. 541.504 Section 541.504 Labor Regulations... Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such... sales. In determining the primary duty of drivers who sell, work performed incidental to and...

  6. Policy alternatives for reducing tobacco sales to minors: results from a national survey of retail chain and franchise stores.

    PubMed

    Altman, D G; Linzer, J; Kropp, R; Descheemaeker, N; Feighery, E; Fortmann, S P

    1992-01-01

    Minors' access to tobacco has become an important public health issue. Little is known, however, about the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behavior toward access among executives from businesses that sell tobacco. This study examined access from the perspective of corporate and regional headquarters of retail chains and franchises that sell tobacco. A total of 148 U.S. companies with the largest overall retail sales volume that sold tobacco were asked to participate; 91 agreed. The sample included grocery stores, convenience stores, gas station mini-marts, liquor stores, and drug stores. Data revealed at least moderate support for policies limiting youth tobacco access. Although most companies reported having in place policies to prevent minors from purchasing tobacco, these policies did not seem intensive. In addition, executives underestimated the extent of youth access. We conclude that the time is right for passage of bold policies to protect young people from tobacco.

  7. Chemical and radioactive carcinogens in cigarettes: associated health impacts and responses of the tobacco industry, U.S. Congress, and federal regulatory agencies.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Dade W; Sun, Lin-Shen C

    2010-11-01

    ²¹⁰Po and ²¹⁰Pb were discovered in tobacco in 1964. This was followed by detailed assessments of the nature of their deposition, and accompanying dose rates to the lungs of cigarette smokers. Subsequent studies revealed: (1) the sources and pathways through which they gain access to tobacco; (2) the mechanisms through which they preferentially deposit in key segments of the bronchial epithelium; and (3) the fact that the accompanying alpha radiation plays a synergistic role in combination with the chemical carcinogens, to increase the fatal cancer risk coefficient in cigarette smokers by a factor of 8 to 25. Nonetheless, it was not until 2009 that Congress mandated that the Food and Drug Administration require that the cigarette industry reveal the presence of these carcinogens. In the meantime, cigarette smoking has become not only the number one source of cancer deaths in the United States, but also a major contributor to heart disease and other health impacts. If the latter effects are included, smoking is estimated to have caused an average of 443,000 deaths and 5.1 million years of potential life lost among the U.S. population each year from 2000 through 2004. The estimated associated collective dose is more than 36 times that to the workers at all the U.S. nuclear power plants, U.S. Department of Energy nuclear weapons facilities, and crews of all the vessels in the U.S. Nuclear Navy. This unnecessary source of lung cancer deaths demands the utmost attention of the radiation protection and public health professions.

  8. 13 CFR 120.431 - Which Lenders may sell, sell participations in, or pledge 7(a) loans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Which Lenders may sell, sell participations in, or pledge 7(a) loans? 120.431 Section 120.431 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Lenders Other Conveyances § 120.431 Which Lenders may sell, sell participations...

  9. “People over Profits”: Retailers Who Voluntarily Ended Tobacco Sales

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, Patricia A.; Malone, Ruth E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tobacco retailers are key players in the ongoing tobacco epidemic. Tobacco outlet density is linked to a greater likelihood of youth and adult smoking and greater difficulty quitting. While public policy efforts to address the tobacco problem at the retail level have been limited, some retailers have voluntarily ended tobacco sales. A previous pilot study examined this phenomenon in California, a state with a strong tobacco program focused on denormalizing smoking and the tobacco industry. We sought to learn what motivated retailers in other states to end tobacco sales and how the public and media responded. Methods We conducted interviews with owners, managers, or representatives of six grocery stores in New York and Ohio that had voluntarily ended tobacco sales since 2007. We also conducted unobtrusive observations at stores and analyzed media coverage of each retailer’s decision. Results Grocery store owners ended tobacco sales for two reasons, alone or in combination: health or ethics-related, including a desire to send a consistent health message to employees and customers, and business-related, including declining tobacco sales or poor fit with the store’s image. The decision to end sales often appeared to resolve troubling contradictions between retailers’ values and selling deadly products. New York retailers attributed declining sales to high state tobacco taxes. All reported largely positive customer reactions and most received media coverage. Forty-one percent of news items were letters to the editor or editorials; most (69%) supported the decision. Conclusion Voluntary decisions by retailers to abandon tobacco sales may lay the groundwork for mandatory policies and further denormalize tobacco. Our study also suggests that high tobacco taxes may have both direct and indirect effects on tobacco use. Highlighting the contradictions between being a responsible business and selling deadly products may support voluntary decisions by retailers

  10. 75 FR 27672 - Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco. The agency is taking this action in response to a request for an... tobacco products are necessary to protect children and adolescents from the harms caused by tobacco use... adolescents from the harms caused by tobacco use. The agency has received a request for a 90-day extension...

  11. Reconsidering Kantian arguments against organ selling.

    PubMed

    Alpinar-Şencan, Zümrüt

    2016-03-01

    Referring to Kant's arguments addressing the moral relationship between our bodies and ourselves is quite common in contemporary debate about organ selling, although he does not provide us with any specific arguments related to this debate. It is widely argued that the most promising way to show the moral impermissibility of organ selling is to mount an argument on Kantian grounds. This paper asks whether it is possible to argue coherently against organ selling in a Kantian framework. It will be shown that by mounting the argument on Kantian grounds no compelling argument can be given against sale of organs, either because the arguments apply to donation of organs, too, or the arguments are not convincing for other independent reasons. In the first section, it will be argued that donation and selling are not distinguishable in a Kantian framework, since the concern about commodification of the body and its parts shall be raised by both actions. In the second section, some contemporary accounts inspired by Kant will be presented and discussed separately. It will be argued that the reasons for promoting organ donation while arguing against selling clash with each other in an unconvincing way.

  12. 76 FR 10066 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Permittee Transaction Record. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and... Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public who will be...

  13. 77 FR 30325 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-22

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and... Justice sponsoring the collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and...

  14. 77 FR 44270 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... information collection under review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and... the collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4)...

  15. 76 FR 10066 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting the following information collection... collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public...

  16. 75 FR 64356 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Permit (Explosives). The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to...

  17. 77 FR 39262 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Student and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms ] and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following... of Justice sponsoring the collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms...

  18. 77 FR 66634 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Appeals of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following... the collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4)...

  19. 76 FR 81967 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Records and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... information collection. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives... Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public who will be...

  20. 75 FR 33826 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed..., Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following information collection request to... Justice sponsoring the collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and...

  1. 77 FR 63340 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: FEL Out-of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following... collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public...

  2. 75 FR 33827 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Medical Preplacement. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to...

  3. 75 FR 33829 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following information collection... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public who will be asked or required...

  4. 77 FR 3005 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Records of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... collection. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will... Justice sponsoring the collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and...

  5. 77 FR 22804 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Identification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... Information Collection. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives... Department of Justice sponsoring the collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms...

  6. 77 FR 17504 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Notification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following information collection... Justice sponsoring the collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and...

  7. 78 FR 14120 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Identification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the... sponsoring the collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives....

  8. 77 FR 17503 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Identification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Information Collection. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives... the collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4)...

  9. Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-05-10

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this final rule to deem products meeting the statutory definition of "tobacco product,'' except accessories of the newly deemed tobacco products, to be subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act). The Tobacco Control Act provides FDA authority to regulate cigarettes, cigarette tobacco, roll-your-own tobacco, smokeless tobacco, and any other tobacco products that the Agency by regulation deems to be subject to the law. With this final rule, FDA is extending the Agency's "tobacco product'' authorities in the FD&C Act to all other categories of products that meet the statutory definition of "tobacco product" in the FD&C Act, except accessories of such newly deemed tobacco products. This final rule also prohibits the sale of "covered tobacco products" to individuals under the age of 18 and requires the display of health warnings on cigarette tobacco, roll-your own tobacco, and covered tobacco product packages and in advertisements. FDA is taking this action to reduce the death and disease from tobacco products. In accordance with the Tobacco Control Act, we consider and intend the extension of our authorities over tobacco products and the various requirements and prohibitions established by this rule to be severable.

  10. Challenges of smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Sein, T; Swe, T; Toe, M M; Zaw, K K; Sein, T O

    2014-12-01

    Myanmar Tobacco Control Law of 2006 covers the control of all forms of tobacco use. After 7-year, tobacco use among adults did not see a decrease. The paper aimed to study the prevalence, details of the products, trade, legislation, tax, marketing, advertising and evidence on morbidity and mortality, and to make recommendations for policy options. Personal communications by authors and colleagues, and searches by keywords in PubMed and on Google, literature review and research from published reports, and various studies and surveys conducted in Myanmar and other countries. Smokeless tobacco use in Myanmar is the highest among ASEAN countries. A variety of SLT products used together with betel chewing poses a challenge; betel quid chewing has been accepted as a cultural norm in both rural and urban areas. Betel quid chewing usually starts at younger ages. Sale, marketing, and advertising of SLT are not under control and thus, road-side kiosks selling betel quid with SLT are mushrooming. Considerable trade of SLT products by illegal and legal means created an increase in access and availability. Low cost of SLT product enables high volume of use, even for the poor families. Taxation for raw tobacco and tobacco products is half the values of the tax for cigarettes. Effective enforcement, amendment of the law, and action for social change are needed.

  11. Memorandum on ground-water investigations in the Sells area, Papago Indian Reservation, Pima County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, D.R.

    1954-01-01

    From 1950 to the present date the Ground Water Branch, U.S. Geological Survey, has been collecting data about the ground-water supply in the Sells area, at the request of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Papago Indian Agency.  The purpose of these studies has been to aid in locating and developing additional ground-water supplies for the community of Sells, the agency headquarters.  The work has been financed by and has been in cooperation with the Papago Indian Agency.  In addition to the author of this memorandum, the following personnel aided in collecting data: D. G. Metzger, H. E. Skibitzke, S.F. Turner, H. N. Wolcott, and C. B. Yost, Jr.

  12. [Fatal deception: the tobacco industry's "new" world standards for tobacco marketing].

    PubMed

    Saloojee, Yussuf; Hammond, Ross

    2002-02-01

    Being increasingly threatened by the worldwide antismoking struggle, the major tobacco companies are eager to improve their public image. This leads the companies to adopt inconsequential "measures" such as the tobacco industry's "new" standards for tobacco marketing that were "voluntarily" issued in September 2001 by the British American Tobacco company. These measures are clearly attempts to reduce the disapproval generated by the companies' promotion and advertising campaigns, which indirectly target young people. With these standards the tobacco companies supposedly commit themselves, among other things, to not using advertising directed at youth and to not selling or distributing tobacco products in places frequented by young people. This document explains why these measures are completely ineffective, are not anything new, and are a subtle effort to feign a conscientious, responsible attitude, which is far from genuine. As long as there are marketing activities directed at adults, young people will be exposed to the influence of those activities. Many countries have completely prohibited the marketing of tobacco products, given that the "new" marketing standards do not represent progress in any way whatsoever.

  13. Smokeless Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... which is a cancerous tumor in the back part of the throat. In 2014, Hall of Famer ... first). Use substitutes such as tobacco-free, mint-leaf snuff; sugarless gum; hard candy; beef jerky; sunflower seeds; shredded coconut; raisins; or dried fruit. Distract yourself ...

  14. 41 CFR 102-38.70 - May the holding agency abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it? 102-38.70 Section 102-38... trying to sell it? (a) Yes, the holding agency may abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it, but only when an authorized agency official has made a...

  15. 41 CFR 102-38.70 - May the holding agency abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it? 102-38.70 Section 102-38... trying to sell it? (a) Yes, the holding agency may abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it, but only when an authorized agency official has made a...

  16. 41 CFR 102-38.70 - May the holding agency abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it? 102-38.70 Section 102-38... trying to sell it? (a) Yes, the holding agency may abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it, but only when an authorized agency official has made a...

  17. 41 CFR 102-38.70 - May the holding agency abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it? 102-38.70 Section 102-38... trying to sell it? (a) Yes, the holding agency may abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it, but only when an authorized agency official has made a...

  18. 41 CFR 102-38.70 - May the holding agency abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it? 102-38.70 Section 102-38... trying to sell it? (a) Yes, the holding agency may abandon or destroy personal property either prior to or after trying to sell it, but only when an authorized agency official has made a...

  19. 77 FR 20034 - Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Harmful and Potentially Harmful Constituents in Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke; Established List AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; establishment of a list. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is establishing a list of harmful...

  20. Selling to Industry for Sheltered Workshops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehabilitation Services Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Intended for staffs of sheltered workshops for handicapped individuals, the guide presents a plan for selling the workshop idea to industry, hints on meeting obstacles, and ideas for expanding and upgrading workshop contract promotion. Brief sections cover the following topics (example subtopics are in parentheses): finding work contract prospects…

  1. Petroleum Marketing. Selling Automotive Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luter, Robert R.

    This textbook contains material for the individualized instruction of students training for careers in service stations; automotive, tire, battery, and accessory retail stores; oil jobbers and petroleum product wholesalers, or any wholesale or retail establishment that sells automotive products and services. Included among the topics addressed in…

  2. Selling real estate to meet capital needs.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Robert A; Nelson, Gregory P

    2003-05-01

    Real estate can provide a means for hospitals to raise capital. Selling a building and investing proceeds in revenue-producing operations may yield greater return than rental income. In a ground lease, a hospital can require the buyer to adhere to certain limitations that are beneficial to the hospital's strategic goals.

  3. Advanced Selling: A Comprehensive Course Sales Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…

  4. 77 FR 71005 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Domestic Tobacco Product Establishments and Listing of Ingredients in Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and... of Domestic Tobacco Product Establishments and Listing of Ingredients in Tobacco Products'' has been... ``Registration and Product Listing for Owners and Operators of Domestic Tobacco Product Establishments...

  5. 27 CFR 45.31 - Removals for delivery to a Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... removed articles are intended for use by the Federal agency in an investigation or other Federal law... Federal agency. 45.31 Section 45.31 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND...

  6. An action plan for tobacco control at regional level.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R; Brown, J S; Hodgson, P; Kyle, D; Reed, D; Wallace, B

    1999-07-01

    Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death in the UK; killing over 120 000 people each year, contributing to inequalities in health, exacerbating and causing poverty. Smoking has increased steadily among children since 1988 and more recently, among young adults. The current context in the UK is highly favourable for introducing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper summarises a regional action plan for tobacco control. Actions at district and regional levels are outlined to establish a comprehensive local tobacco control framework and complement national tobacco control measures. Measures include: a 'SWOT' analysis of current activity; systematic monitoring of smoking prevalence, attitudes to smoking, and the impact of tobacco control interventions; provision of effective smoking cessation support to a minimum standard throughout the health service; increased coverage of smoke-free public places and workplaces; enforcement of legislation on illegal sales to children and against smuggling and selling illegally imported tobacco; paid and unpaid mass media campaigns; and systematic lobbying for fiscal and legislative measures. One of the key components of the plan is the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at district levels. These should include a performance framework with clear organisational and managerial accountability and employ a co-ordinated, multiagency, partnership approach. Priority groups should be identified. Strategies should seek to engage the public to build support for tobacco control measures. Sufficient time, staff, resources and training must be allocated to tobacco control work and progress towards objectives monitored.

  7. Electronic nicotine delivery system landscape in licensed tobacco retailers: results of a county-level survey in Oklahoma

    PubMed Central

    Brame, L S; Mowls, D S; Damphousse, K E; Beebe, L A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) have recently emerged as a component of the tobacco retail environment. The aims of this study were to describe the availability, types of ENDS and placement of ENDS relative to traditional tobacco products at franchised licensed tobacco retailers and non-franchised licensed tobacco retailers. Design Observational study. Setting Franchised and non-franchised tobacco retailers in Cleveland County, Oklahoma, USA. Primary and secondary outcome measures The number of stores selling ENDS, the variability in brands of ENDS sold, the location of the ENDS within the retailers, the quantity of ENDS sold compared with traditional tobacco products, and the presence of outdoor signage. Results Data from 57 randomly sampled tobacco retailers were used to describe the presence of ENDS at independent non-franchised and franchised tobacco retailers. The overwhelming majority (90%) of licensed tobacco retailers sold ENDS, and differences were observed between franchised and non-franchised stores. 45 of the 51 retailers (88%) selling ENDS had them placed at the point of sale. 2 of the 21 franchised retailers (9.5%) had ENDS placed at ≤3½ feet above floor level compared to none of the 30 non-franchised retailers (0%). Conclusions This small study is the first to characterise ENDS within the tobacco retail environment in a county in Oklahoma, USA. The results from this study demonstrate the complexity of the tobacco retail landscape and generate questions for future studies regarding the incorporation and placement of ENDS in tobacco retail environments. PMID:27266774

  8. 76 FR 70756 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Certification on Agency Letterhead Authorizing Purchase of Firearm for... of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting...

  9. 77 FR 43366 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Voluntary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Voluntary Magazine Questionnaire for Agencies/ Entities Who Store Explosives..., Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following information collection request...

  10. 76 FR 4116 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed...) Reports: Demonstrating Substantial Equivalence for Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...(j) Reports: Demonstrating Substantial Equivalence for Tobacco Products. DATES: Submit...

  11. 78 FR 22887 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of... and Potential Harmful Tobacco Constituents AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... ``Experimental Study on the Public Display of Lists of Harmful and Potential Harmful Tobacco Constituents''...

  12. Teaching Written Communication Skills in Professional Selling: The Cover Letter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Vicki L.

    2006-01-01

    The selling process steps have been an integral part of professional selling courses and textbooks for years. Although slight changes have been made in their wording and format, most textbooks are consistent in the recommended process for an effective sales interaction. In an effort to combine teaching the selling process with the increased demand…

  13. 2 CFR 200.467 - Selling and marketing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selling and marketing costs. 200.467 Section 200.467 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements... Cost § 200.467 Selling and marketing costs. Costs of selling and marketing any products or services...

  14. An Empirical Look at Professional Selling from a Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bristow, Dennis N.; Amyx, Douglas; Slack, Jennifer; Gulati, Rajesh

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examined students' perceptions of professional selling. They found significant differences between the perceptions of students who had completed personal selling courses and students who had not. The authors observed differences in students' perceptions of personal selling as a career, the contribution of personal…

  15. 78 FR 37821 - Joint Meeting of the Risk Communication Advisory Committee and Tobacco Products Scientific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Joint Meeting of the Risk Communication Advisory Committee and Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Joint Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug...: Risk Communication Advisory Committee and Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee....

  16. 76 FR 60055 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Applications for Premarket Review of New Tobacco Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Applications for Premarket Review of New Tobacco Products; Availability; Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... ``Applications for Premarket Review of New Tobacco Products.'' The draft guidance is intended to assist...

  17. Strategies for selling and consolidating physician practices.

    PubMed

    Mancino, D M

    1997-01-01

    The changing dynamics of healthcare service delivery is forcing many physicians to consider selling their practices to hospitals or health plans or consolidating them with other practices. Besides being subject to the corporate and tax requirements that apply to the sale of any business, the sale of physician practices is also subject to Federal fraud and abuse and self-referral laws. Several sale strategies are available to physicians who desire to sell or consolidate their practices, including asset sales, stock sales, forward mergers, drop down consolidations, spinoffs, and statutory mergers. Each strategy has advantages and disadvantages, but whichever strategy is chosen, both sellers and buyers must ensure that tax issues are addressed and that the transaction complies with the requirements of Federal anti-kickback and self-referral laws.

  18. Tobacco and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Category Cancer A-Z What Causes Cancer? Tobacco and Cancer Get information on cigarette, cigar, and ... affects different groups of people. Read more How Tobacco and Smoking Affects Your Health Carcinogens in Tobacco ...

  19. Cocaine selling among urban black and white adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Dembo, R; Williams, L; Schmeidler, J

    1994-12-01

    Data from a longitudinal study of juvenile detainees are used to examine the relationships between cocaine selling, substance use, and other delinquency among the Black and White males in the study. A descriptive comparison of rates of cocaine selling among the youths is followed by a descriptive comparison of prevalence of substance use and other delinquency across four subgroups: White and Black males indicating they sold and did not sell cocaine. These comparisons are followed by analyses of variance examining the relationships between involvement in substance use and other delinquency, and ethnicity, cocaine selling, and the interaction of ethnicity and cocaine selling. Important ethnicity and cocaine-selling effects are found, but not ethnicity by cocaine-selling interactions. The implications of our findings for theory and service provision are drawn.

  20. The global tobacco epidemic. The next 25 years.

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, J

    1998-01-01

    The Transnational Commercial Tobacco Companies are expanding their empires--denying the health evidence on the effects of smoking; advertising and promoting their products in every corner of the earth; obstructing government action; overpowering national monopolies; and selling more and more cigarettes. Their grip on the big markets in developing countries will become stronger as they move their agriculture and manufacturing processes out of the United States, and by 2025 there may be no tobacco grown in the United States. Images p15-a p16-a p18-a p19-a PMID:9475929

  1. Strategic marketing in the UK tobacco industry.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan; Hastings, Gerard; MacFadyen, Lynn

    2002-08-01

    Tobacco-industry marketing has played a central part in the global spread of tobacco use and addiction. Although the absolute size of the tobacco market has dwindled, the industry is still immensely successful, largely due to sophisticated and manipulative marketing strategies. The UK tobacco industry identifies target groups and builds enduring relationships based on careful brand management. Potential customers are exposed to brands which are likely to appeal to them most. Tobacco companies tailor their products to target markets by altering the content of tar and nicotine, and by adding flavourings to produce a distinctive taste. Marketing strategies ensure that the products are promoted heavily at the point of sale, and directed advertising and sponsorship agreements are used to increase the visibility of the brand and strengthen its image. Tobacco companies also target non-consumer organisations such as retailers and policy makers with the aim of creating the best possible business environment for tobacco sales. We review published evidence, internal-advertising-agency documents, and observational data about tobacco promotion, and discuss the use of targeted marketing strategies in the UK.

  2. Tobacco farmers and tobacco manufacturers: implications for tobacco control in tobacco-growing developing countries.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alison Snow; Austin, W David; Beach, Robert H; Altman, David G

    2008-12-01

    Assisting tobacco farmers to transition to non-tobacco alternatives is a key element of comprehensive tobacco control's end-game strategy and specifically required by the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC). We examine the historical relationship between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers in the United States, where the duration of the relationship has been longest and use information obtained to inform possible end-game strategies for tobacco control advocates working with tobacco farmers in developing countries. Tobacco Documents obtained under the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) provide evidence of conflicts between tobacco manufacturers and tobacco farmers. Findings support WHO FCTC articles aimed at helping developing country tobacco farmers adversely affected by tobacco control efforts and highlight difficulties in discouraging tobacco cultivation as long as it remains relatively profitable. We conclude that successful end-game strategies should take a long-term approach aimed at building alliances with tobacco farmers and at creating mechanisms for tobacco farmer investment in local infrastructure.

  3. Sell Energy-Efficient Products: A Guide to Selling to the U.S. Government

    SciTech Connect

    2012-12-01

    The Federal Government spends $500 billion on goods and services every year and $20 billion on energy. For many product types, the U.S. Government is the single largest purchaser. Manufacturers and vendors can increase their sales potential by helping Federal purchasers meet their energy-efficient product purchasing requirements. This guide explains how to sell products to the government.

  4. Sources of tobacco for youths in communities with strong enforcement of youth access laws

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, J.; Coleman, M.

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To determine how youths obtain tobacco in communities with strong enforcement of tobacco sales laws.
SETTING—Ten communities in Massachusetts with merchant compliance rates at or above 90%.
METHODS—Paper surveys and focus group discussions with 68 adolescent smokers.
RESULTS—Parents and friends are the primary sources of tobacco for new smokers. When stealing from parents can no longer satisfy the need for cigarettes, young adolescents ask strangers to buy them tobacco. For high school age smokers, teenage store clerks are a major source. Teenage clerks sell to other teenagers, steal tobacco, and help their friends steal from their employers. Friends who are 18 years of age or over are a second major source for older adolescents. Parents often purchase tobacco for older adolescents.
CONCLUSION—Recommended actions include raising the minimum age for the purchase of tobacco to 21 years, and prohibiting individuals less than 21 years of age from selling tobacco.


Keywords: youth; youth access laws PMID:11740022

  5. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as “carcinogenic to humans” by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15-20 fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States. PMID:24806664

  6. It is time to regulate carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines in cigarette tobacco.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S

    2014-07-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration power to regulate tobacco products. This commentary calls for immediate regulation of the carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) in cigarette tobacco as a logical path to cancer prevention. NNK and NNN, powerful carcinogens in laboratory animals, have been evaluated as "carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. NNK and NNN are present in the tobacco of virtually all marketed cigarettes; levels in cigarette smoke are directly proportional to the amounts in tobacco. The NNK metabolite NNAL, itself a strong carcinogen, is present in the urine of smokers and nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke. Some of the highest levels of NNK and NNN are found in U.S. products. It is well established that factors such as choice of tobacco blend, agricultural conditions, and processing methods influence levels of NNK and NNN in cigarette tobacco and cigarette smoke. Therefore, it is time to control these factors and produce cigarettes with 100 ppb or less each of NNK and NNN in tobacco, which would result in an approximate 15- to 20-fold reduction of these carcinogens in the mainstream smoke of popular cigarettes sold in the United States.

  7. 76 FR 19710 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Cigar and Cigarette Per Unit Assessments; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... Payment Program; Cigar and Cigarette Per Unit Assessments; Correction AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation... correction to the Request for Comments titled ``Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Cigar and Cigarette...

  8. Nuts and bolts issues to consider when selling your practice.

    PubMed

    Schlager, D D; Miaoulis, G

    1995-01-01

    Ten issues are provided that will help physicians and administrators through the process of selling a practice. Those issues include determining the buyers reasons for buying, determine your reason for selling, finding the right people, how the buyer is valuing your practice, how you value your practice, preparing the selling package, employment agreements and compensation packages, negotiating the operating contract, tax consequences and knowing when to walk away from the deal.

  9. 76 FR 737 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... adding or deleting a tobacco additive, or increasing or decreasing the quantity of an existing tobacco additive, from the requirement of demonstrating substantial equivalence if the Agency determines that: (1... implementing this provision by July 1, 2011. ``Additive'' is defined at section 900(1) of the FD&C Act,...

  10. 77 FR 48992 - Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Product Manufacturing Facility Visits AGENCY: Food... Manufacturing Facility Visits. This program is intended to give FDA staff an opportunity to visit facilities involved in the manufacturing of tobacco products, including any related laboratory testing, and...

  11. Reducing tobacco consumption in California. Development of a statewide anti-tobacco use campaign.

    PubMed

    Bal, D G; Kizer, K W; Felten, P G; Mozar, H N; Niemeyer, D

    1990-09-26

    Cigarette smoking continues to be the leading preventable cause of death in California and the United States. Although substantial progress has been made over the past 25 years, there is growing recognition of the need for large-scale efforts to reduce tobacco use. Given their central roles in implementing public health programs and their ability to reach many of the groups most at risk of tobacco use uptake and tobacco-related disease, state health agencies have an important challenge before them. This article describes the development and operation of a statewide, publicly funded anti-tobacco use campaign currently undertaken by the California Department of Health Services under the auspices of the state's Tobacco Tax and Health Promotion Act of 1988 (Proposition 99), which increased excise taxes on cigarettes by 25 cents per pack sold in the state. A discussion of problems in implementation and operation being incurred may be relevant to the planning of similar campaigns elsewhere.

  12. 27 CFR 20.136 - Labeling regulations of other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling regulations of other agencies. 20.136 Section 20.136 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... labeling requirements. (d) Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. The...

  13. 75 FR 13241 - Request for Comment on Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Implementation of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... protect children and adolescents as required by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control...

  14. 75 FR 35302 - Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco-Prohibited in All Outbound and Inbound International Mail

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... 20 Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco--Prohibited in All Outbound and Inbound International Mail AGENCY... All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) Act, which restricts the mailability of cigarettes and smokeless..., including roll-your-own tobacco, and smokeless tobacco under the Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking...

  15. 76 FR 55923 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Submission of Warning Plans for Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco Products; Availability; Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... ``Submission of Warning Plans for Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco Products.'' This draft guidance document is... Cigarette Labeling and Advertising Act, as amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control...

  16. 78 FR 19713 - Possible Role of Independent Third Parties in Industry-Sponsored Tobacco Product Research...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ...-Sponsored Tobacco Product Research; Establishment of a Public Docket; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and...-party governance of industry-sponsored tobacco product research. DATES: Submit electronic or written... to regulate the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of tobacco products to protect public...

  17. 76 FR 72422 - Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0002] Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY... will be closed to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee... Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration, 9200 Corporate Blvd., Rockville, MD 20850, 1 (877)...

  18. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke and Smoke-free Homes

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... displayed symptoms. Top of Page ETS and Indoor Air Quality Secondhand smoke, also known as environmental tobacco smoke ( ...

  19. Selling eugenics: the case of Sweden.

    PubMed

    Bjorkman, Maria; Widmalm, Sven

    2010-12-20

    This paper traces the early (1910s to 1920s) development of Swedish eugenics through a study of the social network that promoted it. The eugenics network consisted mainly of academics from a variety of disciplines, but with medicine and biology dominating; connections with German scientists who would later shape Nazi biopolitics were strong. The paper shows how the network used political lobbying (for example, using contacts with academically accomplished MPs) and various media strategies to gain scientific and political support for their cause, where a major goal was the creation of a eugenics institute (which opened in 1922). It also outlines the eugenic vision of the institute's first director, Herman Lundborg. In effect the network, and in particular Lundborg, promoted the view that politics should be guided by eugenics and by a genetically superior elite. The selling of eugenics in Sweden is an example of the co-production of science and social order.

  20. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products and marketing. The Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids was a ... gives the FDA authority to regulate the manufacturing, marketing and sale of tobacco products National Tobacco Control ...

  1. Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Pregnancy Text Size: A A A Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health Can smokeless tobacco affect my ... tobacco use cause other health problems? Can smokeless tobacco affect my oral health? It may cause tooth ...

  2. 48 CFR 31.205-38 - Selling costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selling costs. 31.205-38... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT COST PRINCIPLES AND PROCEDURES Contracts With Commercial Organizations 31.205-38 Selling costs. (a) “Selling” is a generic term encompassing all efforts to market...

  3. 48 CFR 31.205-38 - Selling costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... induce particular customers to purchase particular products or services of the contractor. Direct selling... customer with the contractor's products or services, conditions of sale, service capabilities, etc. It also... contractor's products or services for a particular customer's use. The cost of direct selling efforts...

  4. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Selling visual information materials. 811.4 Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND SERVICES RELEASE, DISSEMINATION, AND SALE OF VISUAL INFORMATION MATERIALS § 811.4 Selling...

  5. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  6. 32 CFR 811.4 - Selling visual information materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... motion media to the DVIC. The center may sell other Air Force VI motion picture and television materials... Section 811.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE SALES AND... information materials. (a) Air Force VI activities cannot sell materials. (b) HQ AFCIC/ITSM may approve...

  7. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  8. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  9. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  10. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  11. 47 CFR 73.4005 - Advertising-refusal to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Advertising-refusal to sell. 73.4005 Section 73.4005 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4005 Advertising—refusal to sell. See...

  12. A Consumer-Driven Approach To Increase Suggestive Selling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohn, Don; Austin, John; Sanford, Alison

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of the effectiveness of behavioral interventions in improving suggestive selling behavior of sales staff focuses on a study that examined the efficacy of a consumer-driven approach to improve suggestive selling behavior of three employees of a fast food franchise. Reports that consumer-driven intervention increased suggestive selling…

  13. 18 CFR 292.313 - Reinstatement of obligation to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... finding under § 292.312 relieving an electric utility of its obligation to sell electric energy, a... purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the factual basis upon which... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to sell electric energy under this section if...

  14. 18 CFR 292.313 - Reinstatement of obligation to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... finding under § 292.312 relieving an electric utility of its obligation to sell electric energy, a... purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the factual basis upon which... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to sell electric energy under this section if...

  15. 18 CFR 292.313 - Reinstatement of obligation to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... finding under § 292.312 relieving an electric utility of its obligation to sell electric energy, a... purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the factual basis upon which... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to sell electric energy under this section if...

  16. 18 CFR 292.313 - Reinstatement of obligation to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... finding under § 292.312 relieving an electric utility of its obligation to sell electric energy, a... purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the factual basis upon which... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to sell electric energy under this section if...

  17. 18 CFR 292.313 - Reinstatement of obligation to sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... finding under § 292.312 relieving an electric utility of its obligation to sell electric energy, a... purchase electric energy under this section. Such application shall set forth the factual basis upon which... application reinstating the electric utility's obligation to sell electric energy under this section if...

  18. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... General Provisions § 223.1 Authority to sell timber. Trees, portions of trees, and other forest products... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  19. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... General Provisions § 223.1 Authority to sell timber. Trees, portions of trees, and other forest products... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  20. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... General Provisions § 223.1 Authority to sell timber. Trees, portions of trees, and other forest products... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  1. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... General Provisions § 223.1 Authority to sell timber. Trees, portions of trees, and other forest products... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  2. Adolescents' Lifetime Experience of Selling Sex: Development over Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredlund, Cecilia; Svensson, Frida; Svedin, Carl Goran; Priebe, Gisela; Wadsby, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Lifetime experience of selling sex among adolescents was investigated together with sociodemographic correlates, parent-child relationship, and the existence of people to confide in. Changes over time regarding the selling of sex were investigated through a comparison of data from 2004 and 2009. This study was carried out using 3,498 adolescents…

  3. Suggestions for Successfully Establishing a University Selling Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, C. David; Eastman, Jacqueline K.

    2008-01-01

    The authors describe the multiple benefits a university selling center offers to students, faculty members, administrators, and the general business community. The seven essential steps in first establishing a university selling center are addressed: find a champion, obtain the support of administration, find a white knight, establish a board of…

  4. 78 FR 22553 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Office of Management and Budget Approval; Pretesting of Tobacco Communications AGENCY: Food and Drug... collection of information entitled ``Pretesting of Tobacco Communications'' has been approved by the Office... of Tobacco Communications'' to OMB for review and clearance under 44 U.S.C. 3507. An Agency may...

  5. 78 FR 23940 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Tobacco Products and Tobacco Smoke Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act AGENCY: Food and Drug... Products and Tobacco Smoke Under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act'' has been approved by the Office..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act'' to OMB for review and clearance under 44 U.S.C. 3507. An Agency may...

  6. A Study On Direct Selling Through Multi Level Marketing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlin, F. Mary

    2012-09-01

    Direct selling is a multi-level marketing in which the sales force is compensated not only for the sales they make but also for the sales done through their recruit. This recruited sales force is referred to as the participants who can provide multiple levels of compensation.A person's job would be to recruit others to sell their product, and in return, receive a percentage of their sales. The next person's job then is to recruit people even more so below them, and receive a percentage of their sales. Other terms for Multi-level marketing include network marketing and referral marketing. Commonly, the salespeople are expected to sell products directly to consumers by means of relationship through referrals marketing. Some people use direct selling as a synonym for MLM, although MLM is only one type of direct selling

  7. Youth and Tobacco Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2,10 Community programs that reduce tobacco advertising, promotions, and availability of tobacco products 2,10 Some ... National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2014 [accessed 2016 ...

  8. Kansas Profile: Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    One of a series of state profiles, this report describes the dimensions of the problems caused by alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in Kansas and the public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. It highlights positive developments and identifies areas to be strengthened. Demographic characteristics, state agency organization, and state…

  9. Smokeless tobacco, sport and the heart.

    PubMed

    Chagué, Frédéric; Guenancia, Charles; Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Moreau, Daniel; Cottin, Yves; Zeller, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco (snuff) is a finely ground or shredded tobacco that is sniffed through the nose or placed between the cheek and gum. Chewing tobacco is used by putting a wad of tobacco inside the cheek. Smokeless tobacco is widely used by young athletes to enhance performance because nicotine improves some aspects of physiology. However, smokeless tobacco has harmful health effects, including cardiovascular disorders, linked to nicotine physiological effects, mainly through catecholamine release. Nicotine decreases heart rate variability and the ventricular fibrillation threshold, and promotes the occurrence of various arrhythmias; it also impairs endothelial-dependent vasodilation and could therefore promote premature atherogenesis. At rest, heart rate, blood pressure, inotropism, cardiac output and myocardial oxygen consumption are increased by nicotine, leading to an imbalance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. The same occurs at submaximal levels of exercise. These increases are accompanied by a rise in systemic resistances. At maximal exercise, heart rate, cardiac output and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) are unaffected by nicotine. Because endothelial dysfunction is promoted by nicotine, paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction may occur during exercise and recovery. Nicotine induces a decrease in muscular strength and impairs anaerobic performance. However, nicotine is used in sports as it diminishes anxiety, enhances concentration and agility, improves aerobic performance and favours weight control. Importantly, smokeless tobacco, similar to cigarette smoking, leads to nicotine dependence through dopaminergic pathways. Smokeless tobacco has harmful cardiovascular effects and is addictive: it fulfils all the criteria for inclusion in the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited list as a doping product. Smokeless tobacco use in sporting activities must be discouraged.

  10. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  11. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  12. 77 FR 57591 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application and Permit for Permanent Exportation of Firearms ACTION: 60-Day..., Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following information collection request...

  13. 78 FR 43919 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application and Permit for Importation of Firearms, Ammunition and Implements of War ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,...

  14. 76 FR 39900 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Registration of Firearms Acquired by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Registration of Firearms Acquired by Certain Governmental Entities ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be...

  15. 77 FR 70468 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Application To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Firearms Act (NFA) Firearms ACTION: 30-Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting the following information collection request...

  16. 78 FR 77167 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: National Firearms Act (NFA)--Special Occupation Taxes (SOT) ACTION: 60-day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),...

  17. 77 FR 70470 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Application and Permit for Permanent Exportation of Firearms ACTION: 30-day..., Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting the following information collection request...

  18. 78 FR 12792 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Report of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Report of Firearms Transactions--Demand 2 ACTION: 30-Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be...

  19. 76 FR 29791 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Firearms...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Firearms Transaction Record, Part 1, Over-the- Counter; Extension Without... Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be...

  20. 75 FR 52978 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Federal firearms license. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and... Firearms Licensing Center, 244 Needy Road, Martinsburg, WV 20226. Written comments and suggestions from...

  1. 75 FR 52977 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following information collection... Desiree Winger, Firearms and Explosives Imports Branch, 244 Needy Road, Martinsburg, WV 25405....

  2. 76 FR 50497 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Annual Firearms Manufacturing and Exportation Report ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms...

  3. 78 FR 76322 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: FFL Out-of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will submit the following... Firearms Licensing Center, 244 Needy Road, Martinsburg, WV 25405. Written comments and suggestions from...

  4. 77 FR 4827 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: FFL Out-of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... Collection. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will...-4647, Acting Chief, Federal Firearms Licensing Center, 244 Needy Road, Martinsburg, WV 25405....

  5. 78 FR 59721 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Notice of Firearms Manufactured or Imported ACTION: 30-Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting...

  6. 78 FR 45274 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Notice of Firearms Manufactured or Imported ACTION: 60-Day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will submit...

  7. 76 FR 56223 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Registration of Firearms Acquired by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Registration of Firearms Acquired by Certain Governmental Entities ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be...

  8. 75 FR 64353 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Tax Exempt Transfer and Registration of Firearm. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following information collection request...

  9. 77 FR 66634 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... ACTION: 60-day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and... instrument with instructions or additional information, please contact Desiree Dickinson, Firearms...

  10. 75 FR 64355 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review: Federal Firearms License (FFL) RENEWAL Application. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco,...

  11. 76 FR 66084 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments Requested: Annual...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection, Comments Requested: Annual Firearms Manufacturing and Exportation Report ACTION: 30-Day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) will...

  12. 78 FR 75373 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Application To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Application To Make and Register a Firearm ACTION: 30-Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) will be...

  13. 77 FR 25752 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Application for National Firearms Examiner Academy ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms...

  14. 77 FR 32136 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed collection; Comments Requested; Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed collection; Comments Requested; Federal Firearms Licensee Firearms Inventory Theft/ Loss Report ACTION: 30..., Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) has submitted the following information collection request to...

  15. 77 FR 10560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application for National Firearms Examiner Academy ACTION: 60-Day notice of information collection. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and...

  16. 77 FR 66633 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-06

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application for Federal Firearms License ACTION: 60-Day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be...

  17. 76 FR 45863 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Firearms...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Firearms Transaction Record, Part 1, Over-the- Counter; Extension Without.... The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) will...

  18. 76 FR 70756 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Licensed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Licensed Firearms Manufacturers Records of Production, Disposition, and... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following information...

  19. 77 FR 2320 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Identification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Identification Markings Placed on Firearms ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and...

  20. 77 FR 75662 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Report of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Report of Firearms Transactions ACTION: 60-day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the...

  1. 77 FR 3795 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application for an Amended Federal Firearms License ACTION: 60-Day Notice of Information Collection. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and...

  2. 75 FR 52976 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Tax Paid Transfer and Registration of Firearm. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following information collection request...

  3. 75 FR 52977 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... an amended Federal firearms license. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the following information collection request to...

  4. 77 FR 32135 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Application for Restoration of Firearms Privileges ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms...

  5. 76 FR 69287 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Federal Firearms License (FFL) Renewal Application ACTION: 30-Day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) will be...

  6. 76 FR 70755 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Report of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Report of Firearms Transactions ACTION: 60-Day notice of information collection. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),...

  7. 78 FR 59719 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Records of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Records of Acquisition and Disposition, Collectors of Firearms ACTION: 30-Day notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives...

  8. 78 FR 43920 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application To Make and Register a Firearm ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will submit...

  9. 78 FR 45276 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Records of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Records of Acquisition and Disposition, Collectors of Firearms ACTION: 60-Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF),...

  10. 77 FR 57592 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Employee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... collection under review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives... instructions or additional information, please contact Christopher Reeves, Chief, Federal Explosives...

  11. 78 FR 77493 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Open Letter to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed..., Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will submit the following information collection request to the Office of... Justice sponsoring the collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and...

  12. 78 FR 12792 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application for Restoration of Explosives Privileges ACTION: 30-Day Notice. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) will...

  13. 77 FR 32137 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Strategic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Explosives (ATF) will be submitting the following information collection request to the Office of Management... sponsoring the collection: Form Number: None. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives....

  14. 75 FR 18886 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... forms or publications and requisition for firearms/ explosives forms. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting the following...

  15. 75 FR 18884 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Explosives Destruction Techniques (AEDT) Training Course follow-up evaluation form. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives (ATF) will be submitting the...

  16. 78 FR 20923 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Distribution of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco To Protect Children and Adolescents AGENCY: Food and Drug... review and clearance. Regulations Restricting the Sale and Distribution of Cigarettes and Smokeless... in FDA's regulations for cigarettes and smokeless tobacco containing nicotine. The regulations...

  17. 77 FR 13151 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Records and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Records and Supporting Data: Daily Summaries, Records of Production, Storage... information collection. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and...

  18. 76 FR 54255 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-31

    ... of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Notice of Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol... Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4) Affected public who will be asked or required to...

  19. Tobacco and cancer: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Herbst, Roy S; Land, Stephanie R; Leischow, Scott J; Shields, Peter G

    2010-05-01

    new tobacco products; the impact of altering the levels of addictive components in tobacco products; the identification of risk and risk-reduction measures for current and former tobacco users; enhanced early detection methods for tobacco-related cancers; and effective treatments against tobacco-related cancers tailored to the unique effects of tobacco on cancer. Pursue domestic and international economic policies that support tobacco control. Urge the United States to ratify the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Foster global scientific efforts to support the Framework. Work together with stakeholders worldwide, including federal agencies, to develop and implement effective tobacco control strategies and to deter counter-tobacco control efforts by the tobacco industry. Only such concerted global actions by scientists, policymakers, and advocates together can prevent the invidious impact of tobacco, the use of which is cutting wide swathes of death and disease around the world.

  20. Availability of tobacco and alcohol products in Los Angeles community pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Corelli, Robin L; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Kim, Gilwan; Ambrose, Peter J; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek

    2012-02-01

    The availability of tobacco and alcohol products in community pharmacies contradicts the pharmacists' Code of Ethics and presents challenges for a profession that is overwhelmingly not in favor of the sale of these products in its practice settings. The primary aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of pharmacies that sell tobacco products and/or alcoholic beverages and to characterize promotion of these products. The proportion of pharmacies that sell non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products as aids to smoking cessation also was estimated. Among 250 randomly-selected community pharmacies in Los Angeles, 32.8% sold cigarettes, and 26.0% sold alcohol products. Cigarettes were more likely to be available in traditional chain pharmacies and grocery stores than in independently-owned pharmacies (100% versus 10.8%; P < 0.001), and traditional chain drug stores and grocery stores were more likely to sell alcoholic beverages than were independently-owned pharmacies (87.5% vs. 5.4%; P < 0.001). Thirty-four (41.5%) of the 82 pharmacies that sold cigarettes and 47 (72.3%) of the 65 pharmacies that sold alcohol also displayed promotional materials for these products. NRT products were merchandised by 58% of pharmacies. Results of this study suggest that when given a choice, pharmacists choose not to sell tobacco or alcohol products.

  1. 37 CFR 501.7 - Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.7... an invention will be left with the employee, the agency shall notify the employee of this... (3) That any assignment or license of rights to use or sell the invention in the United States...

  2. Learning to Sell Door to Door: Teaching as Persuasion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Robert

    1972-01-01

    Two national firms with standardized marketing schemes employ persuasion rather than instruction in teaching an employee to sell. Students leave for their first assignment convinced of success in spite of a lack of skill. (JB)

  3. A qualitative analysis of New Zealand retailers’ responses to standardised packaging legislation and tobacco industry opposition

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, John; Hoek, Janet; Darroch, Ella; Wood, Zoë

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Many of the approximately 8000 New Zealand retailers selling tobacco are small stores that tobacco companies have represented as victims of policy measures designed to reduce smoking. Despite this depiction, many retailers experience considerable ambivalence in selling tobacco, a product they know harms their customers. We explored how retailers perceived the proposed introduction of standardised (or ‘plain’) packaging and their assessment of arguments made by tobacco companies in submissions on proposed standardised packaging legislation. Participants Using qualitative in-depth interviews, we recruited and interviewed 23 retailers of dairies (small convenience stores), small supermarkets, and service stations. Analyses Data were analysed using a protocol-driven approach; this stance enabled direct analysis of tobacco companies’ arguments, particularly those purporting to represent retailers’ concerns. Results Retailers were concerned about the financial implications of standardised packaging and the effects it may have on their ability to provide rapid and efficient customer service. However, few thought standardised packaging would foster illicit trade or spawn further regulation; most placed public health goals ahead of tobacco companies’ ‘rights’, and many supported government intervention to protect population health. Conclusions Retailers held ambivalent views on standardised packaging; while they were concerned about short-term effects on their business, they recognised the harm smoking causes. Policymakers and health researchers could collaborate more effectively with retailers by assisting them to create financially viable roles more compatible with public health objectives. PMID:26553840

  4. American Indian Internet Cigarette Sales: Another Avenue for Selling Tobacco Products

    PubMed Central

    Hodge, Felicia S.; Geishirt Cantrell, Betty A.; Struthers, Roxanne; Casken, John

    2004-01-01

    A study conducted by the University of Minnesota found that cigarettes can be purchased on American Indian–owned Internet sites for about one fifth of the price at grocery stores, making this a more convenient, lower-priced, and appealing method of purchasing cigarettes. Researchers and educators are challenged to address this new marketing ploy and to discover ways to curb rising smoking rates in American Indian communities. PMID:14759938

  5. It`s time to sell the TVA

    SciTech Connect

    Malec, W.F.

    1996-03-01

    The electric power functions of the Tennessee Valley Authority should be sold now, in total, says a former top TVA executive - not because the agency can`t survive as is, but because doing so would produce a better result for TVA`s customers and employees, as well as U.S. taxpayers. It seems ironic to the author that while the U.S. generally encourages the spread of free enterprise, and as we are witnessing an unprecedented privatization of many formerly government-owned utility systems around the world, the U.S. government retains ownership of one of the largest electric companies in the U.S. and the world in the Tennessee Valley Authority. In many areas of the globe, privatization is moving with strong investment from U.S. firms and quasi-governmental institutions like the World Bank, yet our government won`t seriously consider selling the TVA. The author believes such a sale would be beneficial in many ways. It would generate big savings for the U.S. taxpayer. It would reduce the federal debt, and build on massive operating and financial progress made at TVA in the last seven years. It might also provide a model of how and why to privatize other parts of the federal government. At the same time it would move one of the largest electric companies in America out from under the burden of federal bureaucracy into the private sector, where the author believes it could compete effectively, without excuses or alibis.

  6. Evaluation of Conceptual Selling as a job development planning process.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Linda; Smith, Galen; Rapp, Charles A

    2008-01-01

    Job development is integral to evidence-based supported employment practice. This paper reviews the limited research on job development and critically examines various definitions of job development. The authors describe Conceptual Selling, an existing method currently used in sales that can be adopted for use in job development. An exploratory evaluation of Conceptual Selling as a method for job development is described and implications discussed.

  7. Gang Membership, Drug Selling, and Violence in Neighborhood Context.

    PubMed

    Bellair, Paul E; McNulty, Thomas L

    2009-12-01

    A prominent perspective in the gang literature suggests that gang member involvement in drug selling does not necessarily increase violent behavior. In addition it is unclear from previous research whether neighborhood disadvantage strengthens that relationship. We address those issues by testing hypotheses regarding the confluence of neighborhood disadvantage, gang membership, drug selling, and violent behavior. A three-level hierarchical model is estimated from the first five waves of the 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, matched with block-group characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census. Results indicate that (1) gang members who sell drugs are significantly more violent than gang members that don't sell drugs and drug sellers that don't belong to gangs; (2) drug sellers that don't belong to gangs and gang members who don't sell drugs engage in comparable levels of violence; and (3) an increase in neighborhood disadvantaged intensifies the effect of gang membership on violence, especially among gang members that sell drugs.

  8. State Tobacco Control Highlights--1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Perry; Alexander, Vickie L.; Allison, Harmony; Coole, David F.; Fishman, Julie A.; Knox, Steven R.; Malarcher, Ann M.; Schooley, Michael W.; Shelton, Dana M.; Woollery, Trevor A.

    This document provides a compilation of tobacco information for all 50 states and the District of Columbia, covering topics such as the prevalence of tobacco use, the health impact and costs associated with tobacco use, tobacco control laws, and tobacco agriculture and manufacturing. Recommended practices for school-based programs are included.…

  9. Cadmium in tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, L. )

    1992-03-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the cadmium level in tobacco planted in five main tobacco-producing areas, a cadmium polluted area, and in cigarettes produced domestically (54 brands). The results indicate that average cadmium content in tobacco was 1.48 (0.10-4.95 mg/kg), which was similar to that of Indian tobacco (1.24 mg/kg), but the cadmium of tobacco produced in the cadmium polluted area was quite high (8.60 mg/kg). The average cigarette cadmium was 1.05 micrograms/g (with filter tip) and 1.61 micrograms/g (regular cigarette). Therefore special attention should be paid to the soil used in planting tobacco.

  10. SOCIAL WILL FOR TOBACCO CONTROL AMONG THE HUNGARIAN PUBLIC HEALTH WORKFORCE

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Kristie L.; Balázs, Péter

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Background More than 1 in 5 deaths in Hungary can be attributed to tobacco smoking. The role of the public health agency in responding to and ameliorating the tobacco epidemic in Hungary has been, until now, unexplored. This paper explores the social will of the public health agency workers to adopt tobacco control measures. Methods 269 Hungarian public health workers throughout Hungary completed an electronic survey on the types of programs offered by the public health agency, the perceived level of responsibility to reduce tobacco use, and the social will of the agencies to curb tobacco use. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate factors which contribute to the social will to curb tobacco use. Results 48% of public health workers in Hungary report that it is absolutely important for local public health agencies to offer tobacco prevention and cessation programs, but only 3% indicate that they have earmarked funds to support anti-tobacco programs. Most workers favor more programs and policies to curb tobacco use in Hungary, such as taxation (67%) and banning smoking in restaurants (81%) and confined sporting events (93%). Factors positively associated with a stronger social will for tobacco control included being a former or never smoker (versus a current smoker) (p<0.001) and being middle age (40–49, p=0.04 and 50–59, p=0.01) (versus being under the age of 30). Conclusion Based on a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analyses, we argue that public health workers have the potential to play an important role in disseminating health promotion programs and advocating for broader statewide policies that could reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. However, such an opportunity is missed with neither designated funding nor a nationally-dedicated office to tobacco control in Hungary. PMID:20586227

  11. Public health foundations and the tobacco industry: lessons from Minnesota

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J; Tsoukalas, T; Glantz, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether private foundations can be created in a way that will insulate them from attacks by the tobacco industry, using the Minnesota Partnership for Action Against Tobacco (MPAAT) as a case study. Design: Information was collected from internal tobacco industry documents, court documents, newspapers, and interviews with health advocates and elected officials. Results: The creation of MPAAT as an independent foundation did not insulate it from attacks by tobacco industry allies. During 2001–2002, MPAAT was repeatedly attacked by Attorney General Mike Hatch and major media, using standard tobacco industry rhetoric. This strategy of attack and demands for information were reminiscent of previous attacks on Minnesota's Plan for Nonsmoking and Health and the American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST). MPAAT was ultimately forced to restructure its programme to abandon effective community norm change interventions around smoke-free policies and replace them with less effective individual cessation interventions. Neither MPAAT nor other health advocates mounted an effective public response to these attacks, instead relying on the insider strategy of responding in court. Conclusion: It is not possible to avoid attacks by the tobacco industry or its political allies. Like programmes administered by government agencies, tobacco control foundations must be prepared for these attacks, including a proactive plan to educate the public about the principles of community based tobacco control. Public health advocates also need to be willing to take prompt action to defend these programmes and hold public officials who attack tobacco control programmes accountable for their actions. PMID:15333877

  12. 78 FR 32581 - Tobacco Products, User Fees, Requirements for the Submission of Data Needed To Calculate User...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... any product made or derived from tobacco that is intended for human consumption, including any... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1150 RIN 0910-AG81 Tobacco Products, User Fees... of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY:...

  13. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws.

  14. Tobacco control in India.

    PubMed Central

    Shimkhada, Riti; Peabody, John W.

    2003-01-01

    Legislation to control tobacco use in developing countries has lagged behind the dramatic rise in tobacco consumption. India, the third largest grower of tobacco in the world, amassed 1.7 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 1990 due to disease and injury attributable to tobacco use in a population where 65% of the men and 38% of the women consume tobacco. India's anti-tobacco legislation, first passed at the national level in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. In the last decade state legislation has increasingly been used but has lacked uniformity and the multipronged strategies necessary to control demand. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance. It includes the following key demand reduction measures: outlawing smoking in public places; forbidding sale of tobacco to minors; requiring more prominent health warning labels; and banning advertising at sports and cultural events. Despite these measures, the new legislation will not be enough to control the demand for tobacco products in India. The Indian Government must also introduce policies to raise taxes, control smuggling, close advertising loopholes, and create adequate provisions for the enforcement of tobacco control laws. PMID:12640476

  15. Tobacco-Control Policies in Tobacco-Growing States: Where Tobacco Was King

    PubMed Central

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-01-01

    Context The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. Methods This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. Findings The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states’ passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke-free laws. In addition, infrastructure built by National Cancer Institute research projects (COMMIT and ASSIST) led to long-standing tobacco-control coalitions that capitalized on these changes. Although tobacco production has dramatically fallen in these states, pro-tobacco sentiment still hinders tobacco-control policies in the major tobacco-growing states. Conclusions The environment has changed in the tobacco-growing states, following a fracture of the alliance between the tobacco companies and their former allies (tobacco growers and hospitality organizations). To continue this progress, health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in the tobacco-growing states, notably the

  16. "Asia is now the priority target for the world anti-tobacco movement": attempts by the tobacco industry to undermine the Asian anti-smoking movement

    PubMed Central

    Knight, J; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To identify and examine the strategies utilised by multinational tobacco companies to undermine and discredit key anti-tobacco activists and organisations in the Asian region. Method: A series of case studies drawing upon material gathered through systematic reviews of internal tobacco industry documents. Date sources: Tobacco industry documents made public as part of the settlement of the Minnesota Tobacco Trial and the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The industry sought to identify, monitor, and isolate key individuals and organisations. The way industry went about fulfilling this mandate in the Asian region is discussed. Industry targetted individuals and agencies along with the region's primary anti-smoking coalition. Conclusions: Attack by multinational tobacco companies is a virtual quid pro quo for any individual or agency seriously challenging industry practices and policies. Understanding their tactics allows anticipatory strategies to be developed to minimise the effectiveness of these attacks. PMID:15564217

  17. Young women selling sex online – narratives on regulating feelings

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women’s life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women’s perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: “Entering – adverse life experiences”; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. “Immersion – using the body as a tool for regulating feelings”; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. “Exiting – change or die”; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting. PMID:25733944

  18. Young women selling sex online - narratives on regulating feelings.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Linda S; Svedin, Carl Göran; Hydén, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The current study concerns young women's life stories of their experiences selling sex online before the age of 18. The aim was to gain an understanding of young women's perceptions of the reasons they started, continued, and stopped selling sex. The study included interviews with 15 young women between the ages of 15 and 25 (M=18.9). Thematic analysis was used to identify similarities and differences in the narratives. Three themes and eight sub-themes were identified in relation to different stages in their lives in the sex trade. The themes were organized into three parts, each with its own storyline: "Entering - adverse life experiences"; traumatic events: feeling different and being excluded. "Immersion - using the body as a tool for regulating feelings"; being seen: being touched: being in control: affect regulation and self-harming. "Exiting - change or die"; living close to death: the process of quitting. The informants all had stable social lives in the sense that they had roofs over their heads, food to eat, and no substance-abuse issues. None had a third party who arranged the sexual contacts and none were currently trafficked. They described how their experiences of traumatic events and of feeling different and excluded had led them into the sex trade. Selling sex functioned as a way to be seen, to handle traumatic events, and to regulate feelings. Professionals working with young people who sell sex online need to understand the complex web of mixed feelings and emotional needs that can play a role in selling sex. Young people selling sex might need guidance in relationship building as well as help processing traumatic experiences and ending self-harming behavior. Further studies are needed on the functions of online sex selling and on the exit process for young people, in order to prevent entrance and facilitate exiting.

  19. A Survey of N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and Total Water Content in Select Smokeless Tobacco Products Purchased in the United States in 2015.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Jeffrey R; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    This investigation provides an updated survey measuring the levels of N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and water content of a select number of smokeless tobacco products sold in the United States in 2015. A total of 34 smokeless tobacco products were collected and analyzed for NNN and water content using LC-MS/MS and GC-TCD, respectively. Smokeless tobacco products were chosen to obtain a representative sample of the different types of products on the U.S. market. These smokeless products represent 12 of the 25 top-selling smokeless tobacco products according to 2013 Nielsen net sales data while five of the smokeless tobacco products are of lower selling smokeless tobacco products. The NNN levels and the water content of the smokeless tobacco products were determined and compared to previous studies. Although the range of NNN levels found was broad for the examined smokeless tobacco products (0.64-12.0 μg/g dry weight), dry snuff had the highest levels of NNN observed (>5 μg/g dry weight). We observed a general decrease in NNN levels for the same six moist snuff products that were analyzed in 2004 compared to our current 2015 study. The water content of the smokeless tobacco products surveyed ranged from 3.92 to 54.8%.

  20. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming in African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H.

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in “protecting” farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and wellbeing of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term wellbeing of the country concerned.1-3 We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions. PMID:25428192

  1. Tobacco control and tobacco farming in African countries.

    PubMed

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H

    2015-02-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in 'protecting' farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and well-being of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term well-being of the countries concerned. We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions.

  2. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-04-24

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed.

  3. Tobacco. Technical Assistance Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Tobacco use remains the leading preventable cause of death in the United States, causing more than 400,000 deaths each year and resulting in an annual cost of more than $50 billion in direct medical costs. This paper provides tips and resources to help communities undertake the necessary steps to reduce tobacco use. It includes a list of national…

  4. Women and tobacco in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Barraclough, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To present a broad exploration of the relationship of women and tobacco in Indonesia and to describe action on tobacco and health specific to women taken by government and non-government agencies.
DATA SOURCES—Published and unpublished prevalence surveys, official documents, vernacular newspapers, secondary sources, unstructured interviews, and personal observations.
STUDY SELECTION—Data on smoking prevalence among women was primarily sought from official household surveys but several smaller scale local surveys were also examined. The only representative national household data on smoking prevalence from 1995 suggested a national prevalence for occasional and regular smoking of 2.6% for women aged 20 years or older. Smaller, local level surveys had reported rates varying from 4% for junior high school girls, and 2.9% for women undergraduates at a provincial university, to 6.4% of women in a representative sample in Jakarta. Claims that the incidence of female smoking is increasing cannot be confirmed due to an absence of comparable national longitudinal data.
CONCLUSION—Although Indonesian women are conspicuous in growing and processing tobacco, their rates of smoking are low in comparison with their male compatriots and internationally. Anecdotal evidence suggests that their disinclination to smoke is commonly attributed to cultural values, which stigmatise women smokers as morally flawed, while at the same time sanctioning smoking by men. Although there is little evidence of tobacco advertising directly targeting women, Indonesian health activists interviewed by the author felt that women are increasingly taking up smoking due to a weakening of stigma and to Western cultural influences. Cultural factors in the low rates of smoking among Indonesian women deserve closer investigation as they have proved to be a major source of health protection, albeit within a stigmatising context. More also needs to be known about the dynamics of

  5. Tobacco documents research methodology

    PubMed Central

    McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings. PMID:21504933

  6. 75 FR 67119 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) Act Registration Form. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol...) The title of the form/collection: Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking (PACT) Act Registration Form. (3... cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products with the Attorney General in order to continue to sell...

  7. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide: Tobacco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuckerman, Karen, Ed.

    This guide was designed to aid prevention specialists, educators, parents, and others in addressing tobacco problems among youth. Listed here are numerous publications--each one summarized--on tobacco use. The guide is divided into two sections: (1) Prevention Material for Tobacco; and (2) Studies, Articles, and Reports on Tobacco. Section one…

  8. A Comparison of Three Policy Approaches for Tobacco Retailer Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Allison E.; Hall, Marissa G.; Isgett, Lisa F.; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine recommends that public health agencies restrict the number and regulate the location of tobacco retailers as a means of reducing tobacco use. However, the best policy strategy for tobacco retailer reduction is unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study is to test the percent reduction in the number and density of tobacco retailers in North Carolina resulting from three policies: (1) prohibiting sales of tobacco products in pharmacies or stores with a pharmacy counter, (2) restricting sales of tobacco products within 1,000 feet of schools, and (3) regulating to 500 feet the minimum allowable distance between tobacco outlets. Methods This study uses data from two lists of tobacco retailers gathered in 2012, one at the statewide level, and another “gold standard” three-county list. Retailers near schools were identified using point and parcel boundaries in ArcMap. Python programming language generated a random lottery system to remove retailers within 500 feet of each other. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Results A minimum allowable distance policy had the single greatest impact and would reduce density by 22.1% at the state level, or 20.8% at the county level (range 16.6% to 27.9%). Both a pharmacy and near-schools ban together would reduce density by 29.3% at the state level, or 29.7% at the county level (range 26.3 to 35.6%). Conclusions The implementation of policies restricting tobacco sales in pharmacies, near schools, and/or in close proximity to another tobacco retailer would substantially reduce the number and density of tobacco retail outlets. PMID:25689540

  9. Cadmium concentrations in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, G.; Barkemeyer, H.

    1983-02-01

    The amount of cadmium in tobacco depends on the variety and origin of the plant as well as on the analytical method used to determine cadmium. In the literature, cadmium concentrations in tobacco of between 0.5 and 5 ppm are reported. Modern German cigarette tobacco contains about 0.5-1.5 micrograms cadmium/cigarette. Of importance for the smoker is the amount of the metal in the mainstream smoke. The cadmium level in the mainstream smoke of modern cigarettes is reduced by means of filters and other construction features. The average Cd value of German filter cigarettes is less than 0.1 microgram/cigarette in mainstream smoke. An average daily intake of about 1 microgram cadmium by smoking 20 cigarettes can be calculated on the basis of an experimentally proved pulmonary retention rate of 50%. Pulmonary resorption rates relevant to uptake rates of cadmium by smoking are discussed. It can be assumed that cadmium uptake by smoking modern cigarettes has been reduced because of modifications in tobacco processing and cigarette construction in the last few decades.

  10. Availability, accessibility and promotion of smokeless tobacco in a low-income area of Mumbai

    PubMed Central

    Schensul, Jean J; Nair, Saritha; Bilgi, Sameena; Cromley, Ellen; Kadam, Vaishali; Mello, Sunitha D; Donta, Balaiah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the role of accessibility, product availability, promotions and social norms promotion, factors contributing to the use of smokeless tobacco (ST) products in a typical low-income community of Mumbai community using Geographic Information System (GIS), observational and interview methodologies and to assess implementation of Cigarettes and other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA) legislation. Rationale In India, the third largest producer of tobacco in the world, smokeless tobacco products are used by men, women and children. New forms of highly addictive packaged smokeless tobacco products such as gutkha are inexpensive and rates of use are higher in low-income urban communities. These products are known to increase rates of oral cancer and to affect reproductive health and fetal development. Methods The study used a mixed methods approach combining ethnographic and GIS mapping, observation and key informant interviews. Accessibility was defined as density, clustering and distance of residents and schools to tobacco outlets. Observation and interview data with shop owners and community residents produced an archive of products, information on shop histories and income and normative statements. Results Spatial analysis showed high density of outlets with variations across subcommunities. All residents can reach tobacco outlets within 30–100 feet of their homes. Normative statements from 55 respondents indicate acceptance of men’s, women’s and children’s use, and selling smokeless tobacco is reported to be an important form of income generation for some households. Multilevel tobacco control and prevention strategies including tobacco education, community norms change, licensing and surveillance and alternative income generation strategies are needed to reduce accessibility and availability of smokeless tobacco use. PMID:22387521

  11. 76 FR 64379 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; eForm 6 Access...

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  12. 76 FR 39900 - Agency Information Collection Activities: A National Repository for the Collection and Inventory...

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  1. 78 FR 12791 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: National...

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    2013-01-11

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    2011-08-31

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  15. 77 FR 59665 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Voluntary...

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    2012-09-28

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    2013-03-04

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    2013-03-26

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  1. 77 FR 17502 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested: Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Information Collection Under Review. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and... collection: Form Number: ATF F 3210.1, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. (4)...

  2. 77 FR 59622 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Regulations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Tobacco To Protect Children and Adolescents AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... restricting the sale and distribution of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco to protect children and adolescents... Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco to Protect Children and Adolescents--21 CFR 1140 (OMB Control Number...

  3. [Cancer prevention and tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Yang, Gonghuan

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarized briefly the evidences for tobacco use as a cause of cancer based on hundreds of epidemiologic and biomedical studies carried out over the past 50-60 years, as well as overviewed the carcinogens in tobacco products and mechanisms of neoplasm induction by tobacco products. So, tobacco control is the important measure for cancer prevention.

  4. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  5. [Harm reduction strategy in tobacco control].

    PubMed

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    .Thus, California Department of Health Services prohibits promotion of snus and medicinal nicotine as a harm reduction strategy. However, the US Federal Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, signed by President Obama in 2009, places tobacco products under FDA jurisdiction: FDA must define criteria for lowering carcinogens and toxicants in tobacco products, making more available medicinal nicotine, evaluating PREPs, creating a federal Tobacco Control Agency.Which approaches is Italy going to follow?

  6. Community guide recommendations and state level tobacco control programmes: 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Carol L; Malarcher, Ann M; Clark, Pamela I; Bombard, Jennifer M; Strauss, Warren; Stillman, Frances A

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify the level of effort state tobacco control programmes and partners have expended on interventions recommended by the community guide and how those efforts have changed over time between 1999 and 2004. Design Longitudinal study. Setting United States. Participants State tobacco control partners, including the state health department, voluntary agencies and tobacco control coalitions. Main outcome measure We used the Strength of Tobacco Control survey responses in 1999, 2002 and 2004 to calculate the mean proportion of state tobacco control partners working on recommended interventions and subsequently analysed changes in effort over time. Results The proportion of state tobacco control partners working to promote clean indoor air legislation remained at more than 70% in all three years. The proportion working to increase taxes on tobacco rose significantly between 1999 and 2002 (from 54% to 70%), and those working to reduce patient costs for tobacco cessation treatments never exceeded 31% in any year. Use of mass media targeting youths decreased significantly in all years (from 40% to 32% to 26%), and the proportion of state tobacco control partners participating in a quitline has increased steadily and significantly in all years (from 24% to 36% to 41%). The level of effort in each area varied widely between states and over time. Conclusions State tobacco control partners are implementing evidence based interventions, but more focus is needed on the tobacco cessation and mass media campaign components of comprehensive tobacco control programmes. PMID:17897990

  7. Selling space colonization and immortality: A psychosocial, anthropological critique of the rush to colonize Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodian, Rayna Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Extensive media coverage regarding the proposal to send four people to Mars by 2025 has exploded recently. Private enterprise has taken the reins to venture into space, which has typically only been reserved for government agencies. I argue, that with this new direction comes less regulation, raising questions regarding the ethics of sending people into outer space to colonize Mars within a decade. Marketers selling colonization to the public include perspectives such as biological drives, species survival, inclusiveness and utopian ideals. I challenge these narratives by suggesting that much of our desire to colonize space within the next decade is motivated by ego, money and romanticism. More specifically, I will examine the roles that fear and stories of immortality play within selling space and how those stories are marketed. I am passionate about space and hope that one day humanity will colonize other worlds, but the rush to settle is dangerous and careless. I assert that humanity should first gain more experience and knowledge before colonizing outer space, using this research to mitigate the risk to astronauts and proceed with careful consideration for the lives of potential astronauts.

  8. Availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin.

    PubMed

    Lott, Jason P; Marlowe, Douglas B; Forman, Robert F

    2009-09-01

    This study assesses the availability of websites offering to sell psilocybin spores and psilocybin, a powerful hallucinogen contained in Psilocybe mushrooms. Over a 25-month period beginning in March 2003, eight searches were conducted in Google using the term "psilocybin spores." In each search the first 100 nonsponsored links obtained were scored by two independent raters according to standardized criteria to determine whether they offered to sell psilocybin or psilocybin spores. No attempts were made to procure the products offered for sale in order to ascertain whether the marketed psilocybin was in fact "genuine" or "counterfeit." Of the 800 links examined, 58% led to websites offering to sell psilocybin spores. Additionally, evidence that whole Psilocybe mushrooms are offered for sale online was obtained. Psilocybin and psilocybin spores were found to be widely available for sale over the Internet. Online purchase of psilocybin may facilitate illicit use of this potent psychoactive substance. Additional studies are needed to assess whether websites offering to sell psilocybin and psilocybin spores actually deliver their products as advertised.

  9. A Descriptive Analysis of Best-Selling Basic Course Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, David W.; Worley, Debra A.; McMahan, David

    A study examined eight best-selling hybrid texts for public speaking or speech communication courses, looking at how each text is organized, what the focus is, which topics are included, how many pages are dedicated to each topic, which pedagogical features are incorporated into each text, and what ancillaries are available with each text. The…

  10. Why HPT Will Continue to Be a Hard Sell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearlstein, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    Most executives have not heard of human performance technology (HPT), but a recent Google search showed 25 times more Google hits for "lean six sigma" than for "human performance technology." This article describes five factors that make HPT a hard sell: (1) HPT is not part of standard business jargon, (2) organizational executives associate…

  11. Our Hard Sell Almost Blew a Successful Levy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, George T.

    1985-01-01

    Based on his own experience, a school executive counsels against using a hard sell in promoting a bond issue, since Washington State public disclosure law requires that school levy material printed and distributed by the school system be strictly limited to factual information. (TE)

  12. Retail Florist: Selling the Floral Product, Maintenance and Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach units on sales of floral products and maintenance and delivery in a floral shop. Topics covered in the selling unit are basic mathematics; taxable items; sales etiquette; types of floral products; telephone etiquette; order form information; wire service regulations; care of floral…

  13. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Trees, portions of trees, and other forest products on National Forest System lands may be sold for the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  14. 17 CFR 229.507 - (Item 507) Selling security holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... holders. 229.507 Section 229.507 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Provisions § 229.507 (Item 507) Selling security holders. If any of the securities to be registered are to be offered for the account of security holders, name each such security holder, indicate the nature of...

  15. 17 CFR 229.507 - (Item 507) Selling security holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... holders. 229.507 Section 229.507 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Provisions § 229.507 (Item 507) Selling security holders. If any of the securities to be registered are to be offered for the account of security holders, name each such security holder, indicate the nature of...

  16. 17 CFR 229.507 - (Item 507) Selling security holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... holders. 229.507 Section 229.507 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Provisions § 229.507 (Item 507) Selling security holders. If any of the securities to be registered are to be offered for the account of security holders, name each such security holder, indicate the nature of...

  17. 17 CFR 229.507 - (Item 507) Selling security holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... holders. 229.507 Section 229.507 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Provisions § 229.507 (Item 507) Selling security holders. If any of the securities to be registered are to be offered for the account of security holders, name each such security holder, indicate the nature of...

  18. 17 CFR 229.507 - (Item 507) Selling security holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... holders. 229.507 Section 229.507 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Provisions § 229.507 (Item 507) Selling security holders. If any of the securities to be registered are to be offered for the account of security holders, name each such security holder, indicate the nature of...

  19. Do Young Children Understand the Selling Intent of Commercials?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macklin, M. Carole

    1985-01-01

    In a study that included nonverbal measures, young children indicated little understanding of the selling intent of commercials. Researchers interested in advertising effects on children are urged to consider the necessity and desirability of improved nonverbal measures in dealing with a subject population with limited language facility.…

  20. Wholesale Selling, a Distributive Education Manual and Answer Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batis, Harry P.

    This document containing assignments on 16 varied topics, with objectives, content information, and a separate answer book was designed to be used by secondary or post-secondary distributive education students and by wholesale distributors for use as training guides for employees. Topics discussed include: (1) thinking about selling today, (2)…

  1. Commercialism in Schools: Supporting Students or Selling Access?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    1998-01-01

    This information brief discusses the impact of commercialism in schools. It asks the question of whether such advertising is supporting students or is simply selling access. It describes how children are a desirable market since they have most of their purchases ahead of them; they can also frequently convince parents to buy items. The brief…

  2. Service Learning Inputs and Outcomes in a Personal Selling Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagenbuch, David J.

    2006-01-01

    To improve the use of service learning in the marketing curriculum, Petkus (2000) recommended that future research focus on empirical studies of service learning in specific marketing courses. Personal selling represents a key component of marketing that is quite amenable to service learning, yet very little research has examined the use of…

  3. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... People in many regions and countries, including North America, northern Europe, India and other Asian countries, and parts of Africa, have a long history of using smokeless tobacco products. There are two ...

  4. Risks of tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002032.htm Risks of tobacco To use the sharing features on ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  5. You(th) & Tobacco

    MedlinePlus

    ... the tobacco use on TV and in movies, music videos, billboards and magazines–most teens, adults, and ... Early and Often Despite the impact of movies, music, and TV, parents can be the GREATEST INFLUENCE ...

  6. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing or sniffing tobacco include aniline, naphthalene, phenol, pyrene, tar, and 2- ...

  7. Tobacco industry litigation strategies to oppose tobacco control media campaigns

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, J K; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-01-01

    Objective To document the tobacco industry's litigation strategy to impede tobacco control media campaigns. Methods Data were collected from news and reports, tobacco industry documents, and interviews with health advocates and media campaign staff. Results RJ Reynolds and Lorillard attempted to halt California's Media Campaign alleging that the campaign polluted jury pools and violated First Amendment rights because they were compelled to pay for anti‐industry ads. The American Legacy Foundation was accused of violating the Master Settlement Agreement's vilification clause because its ads attacked the tobacco industry. The tobacco companies lost these legal challenges. Conclusion The tobacco industry has expanded its efforts to oppose tobacco control media campaigns through litigation strategies. While litigation is a part of tobacco industry business, it imposes a financial burden and impediment to media campaigns' productivity. Tobacco control professionals need to anticipate these challenges and be prepared to defend against them. PMID:16436406

  8. Approaches for controlling illicit tobacco trade--nine countries and the European Union.

    PubMed

    Ross, Hana; Husain, Muhammad Jami; Kostova, Deliana; Xu, Xin; Edwards, Sarah M; Chaloupka, Frank J; Ahluwalia, Indu B

    2015-05-29

    An estimated 11.6% of the world cigarette market is illicit, representing more than 650 billion cigarettes a year and $40.5 billion in lost revenue. Illicit tobacco trade refers to any practice related to distributing, selling, or buying tobacco products that is prohibited by law, including tax evasion (sale of tobacco products without payment of applicable taxes), counterfeiting, disguising the origin of products, and smuggling. Illicit trade undermines tobacco prevention and control initiatives by increasing the accessibility and affordability of tobacco products, and reduces government tax revenue streams. The World Health Organization (WHO) Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, signed by 54 countries, provides tools for addressing illicit trade through a package of regulatory and governing principles. As of May 2015, only eight countries had ratified or acceded to the illicit trade protocol, with an additional 32 needed for it to become international law (i.e., legally binding). Data from multiple international sources were analyzed to evaluate the 10 most commonly used approaches for addressing illicit trade and to summarize differences in implementation across select countries and the European Union (EU). Although the WHO illicit trade protocol defines shared global standards for addressing illicit trade, countries are guided by their own legal and enforcement frameworks, leading to a diversity of approaches employed across countries. Continued adoption of the methods outlined in the WHO illicit trade protocol might improve the global capacity to reduce illicit trade in tobacco products.

  9. The Strategic Dialogue on Tobacco Harm Reduction: a vision and blueprint for action in the US

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Mitchell; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    The issues related to tobacco harm reduction continue to challenge the tobacco control research and policy communities. The potential for combusting tobacco products to reduce exposure and risk remains largely unknown, but this has not stopped manufacturers from offering such products making these claims. The role of oral tobacco products in a harm reduction regimen has also been a source of dialogue and debate. Within the last few years, major cigarette manufacturing companies have begun selling smokeless products for the first time, claiming to target current cigarette smokers. Other cigarette manufacturers are also offering smokeless products in markets around the world. The harm reduction debate has at times been divisive. There has been no unifying set of principles or goals articulated to guide tobacco control efforts. In particular, the research needs are extraordinarily high in order to drive evidence-based policy in this area and avoid the mistakes made with “light” cigarettes. This paper discusses recommendations from a strategic dialogue held with key, mostly US-based tobacco control researchers and policy makers to develop a strategic vision and blueprint for research, policy and communications to reduce the harm from tobacco for the US. Short-term and long-term objectives are described. PMID:19240228

  10. The Strategic Dialogue on Tobacco Harm Reduction: a vision and blueprint for action in the US.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Mitchell; Hatsukami, Dorothy

    2009-08-01

    The issues related to tobacco harm reduction continue to challenge the tobacco control research and policy communities. The potential for combusting tobacco products to reduce exposure and risk remains largely unknown, but this has not stopped manufacturers from offering such products making these claims. The role of oral tobacco products in a harm reduction regimen has also been a source of dialogue and debate. Within the last few years, major cigarette manufacturing companies have begun selling smokeless products for the first time, claiming to target current cigarette smokers. Other cigarette manufacturers are also offering smokeless products in markets around the world. The harm reduction debate has at times been divisive. There has been no unifying set of principles or goals articulated to guide tobacco control efforts. In particular, the research needs are extraordinarily high in order to drive evidence-based policy in this area and avoid the mistakes made with "light" cigarettes. This paper discusses recommendations from a strategic dialogue held with key, mostly US-based tobacco control researchers and policy makers to develop a strategic vision and blueprint for research, policy and communications to reduce the harm from tobacco for the US. Short-term and long-term objectives are described.

  11. [Evaluating tobacco dependance].

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-11-29

    Good science needs good measurement instruments, and this is also true for the study of tobacco dependence. In this paper, we present and criticize the most frequently used instrument, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence. This test, published 28 years ago, does not reflect current definitions of dependence. Several alternative approaches to the measurement of tobacco dependence are discussed, and more recent instruments are presented.

  12. Whither tobacco product regulation?

    PubMed

    McNeill, Ann; Hammond, David; Gartner, Coral

    2012-03-01

    Despite decades of industry innovation and regulatory efforts, the harmfulness of conventional cigarettes has not changed. There are several pitfalls in this area, including the long time lag before health impacts of product regulatory changes become apparent, the danger of consumers deriving false reassurance of lesser harm in the interim period, the lack of relevant expertise and the lack of an internationally agreed and evidence-based strategic approach. Articles 9 and 10 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control provide the potential for such a global strategy, and knowledge and research has increased significantly over recent years. However, there are huge opportunity costs in implementing product disclosure and regulatory strategies: most national regulators have very limited human and financial resources, which should be focused on other evidence-based tobacco control interventions. We believe therefore that it is now time to abandon the notion of safe or safer cigarettes while moving consumers towards cleaner nicotine products as soon as possible. In parallel to this, we recommend a number of other strategies be implemented including: reducing the appeal of all tobacco products, forbidding new tobacco products or brand variants being marketed without evidence of reduced harm, appeal or addictiveness, and developing a tobacco industry resourced, but industry independent, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control global repository to assist national regulators in understanding and regulating the products on their markets.

  13. 78 FR 78974 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Section 905(j) Reports: Demonstrating Substantial Equivalence for Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  14. 78 FR 54657 - Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training Programs; Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Tobacco Retailers on Tobacco Retailer Training... ``Tobacco Retailer Training Programs.'' The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (Tobacco Control Act) does not require retailers to implement retailer training programs. However, the...

  15. Tobacco industry strategy to undermine tobacco control in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Hiilamo, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To identify and explain tobacco industry strategy in undermining tobacco control measures in Finland and results of these interferences in tobacco policy development during the 1980s and early 1990s. Methods: Tobacco industry documents, which have been publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA, were analysed. Documents were sought by Finland and by names of organisations and tobacco control activists. Documents were accessed and assessed between September 2000 and November 2002. Tactics of the tobacco industry activities were categorised as presented by Saloojee and Dagli. Results: The international tobacco companies utilised similar strategies in Finland as in other industrial markets to fight tobacco control and legislation, the health advocacy movement, and litigation. These activities slowed down the development and implementation of the Tobacco Act in Finland. However, despite the extensive pressure, the industry was not able to prevent the most progressive tobacco legislation in Europe from being passed and coming into force in Finland in 1977 and in 1995. Conclusion: Denying the health hazards caused by tobacco—despite indisputable scientific evidence—decreased the credibility of the tobacco industry. Strategy of denial was falsely chosen, as health advocacy groups were active both in society and the parliamentary system. The strong influence of the tobacco industry may have in fact increased the visibility of tobacco control in Finland as the litigation process was also drawing attention to negative health effects of tobacco. Therefore the tobacco industry did not manage to convince public opinion. However, the tobacco industry did obtain experience in Finland in how to object to tobacco control measures. PMID:14660780

  16. 78 FR 34393 - Electronic Submission of Tobacco Product Applications and Other Information; Public Workshop...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-07

    ... Other Information; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... the potential electronic submission of tobacco product applications and other information. This... input from regulated industry and other stakeholders and interested parties on the potential...

  17. 77 FR 61007 - Request for Nominations for Voting Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Tobacco Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Request for Nominations for Voting Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is requesting nominations...

  18. 78 FR 64505 - Request for Nominations for Voting Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Tobacco Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Request for Nominations for Voting Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is requesting nominations...

  19. 76 FR 71934 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Availability of Current Assessment Methods Determination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Farm Service Agency Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Availability of Current Assessment Methods... regarding two consolidated determinations with respect to the current methods used to calculate manufacturer... matter, that the continued use of current procedure to calculate manufacturer and importer assessments...

  20. 76 FR 54777 - Request for Nominations for Voting Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Tobacco Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Request for Nominations for Voting Members on a Public Advisory Committee; Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is requesting nominations...

  1. [The need for tobacco control in Japan based on Articles 9 and 10 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), regulation of the contents of tobacco products, and regulation of tobacco product disclosures].

    PubMed

    Inaba, Yohei; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, ultralow-nicotine cigarette brands with ventilation holes on the cigarette filters have been widely marketed to smokers. The use of these cigarette brands leads to compensation smoking. Menthol cigarette brands that have a cooling and numbing effect are also sold. In 2013, smokeless tobacco products similar to the Swedish snus, which is banned for sale in the European Union except in Sweden, were released in Japanese markets. These tobacco products have "toxicity," have a "ventilation filter," are "attractive," and promote "dependence." Tobacco smoke and smokeless tobacco are classified into "Group 1: Carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The purpose of Articles 9 and 10 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is to regulate the contents of tobacco products as well as to regulate tobacco product disclosures. The implementation of some other articles has gradually advanced in Japan. However, that of Articles 9 and 10 is late. Japanese governmental authorities are being urged to immediately implement Articles 9 and 10.

  2. 77 FR 57568 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Registration and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Registration and Product Listing for Owners and Operators of Domestic Tobacco Product Establishments and Listing of Ingredients in Tobacco Products; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug... Agency pertaining to registration and product listing for owners and operators of domestic...

  3. 29 CFR 780.710 - A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A country elevator may sell products and services to... Elevator § 780.710 A country elevator may sell products and services to farmers. Section 13(b)(14... the exemption, includes “such an establishment which sells products and services used in the...

  4. 12 CFR 150.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between... Dealing § 150.370 May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? You may sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts, if the transaction is fair to both accounts and is not prohibited...

  5. 12 CFR 550.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between... Dealing § 550.370 May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? You may sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts, if the transaction is fair to both accounts and is not prohibited...

  6. 12 CFR 550.370 - May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I sell assets or lend money between... Dealing § 550.370 May I sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts? You may sell assets or lend money between fiduciary accounts, if the transaction is fair to both accounts and is not prohibited...

  7. "!Chalinas a 20 Pesos!": Economic Ideas Developed through Children's Strategies for Successful Selling in Oaxaca, Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitabkhan, Yasmin Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation is to explore the economic ideas of indigenous Triqui children between the ages of 5-15 who sell artisanal goods in Oaxaca, Mexico. I report findings from two studies that investigated (1) sellers' strategies for successfully selling goods, and (2) children's economic ideas linked to their selling strategies. In…

  8. 18 CFR 292.312 - Termination of obligation to sell to qualifying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sell electric energy to a qualifying small power production facility, an existing qualifying...) Competing retail electric suppliers are willing and able to sell and deliver electric energy to the... is not required by State law to sell electric energy in its service territory....

  9. 18 CFR 292.312 - Termination of obligation to sell to qualifying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sell electric energy to a qualifying small power production facility, an existing qualifying...) Competing retail electric suppliers are willing and able to sell and deliver electric energy to the... is not required by State law to sell electric energy in its service territory....

  10. 18 CFR 292.312 - Termination of obligation to sell to qualifying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sell electric energy to a qualifying small power production facility, an existing qualifying...) Competing retail electric suppliers are willing and able to sell and deliver electric energy to the... is not required by State law to sell electric energy in its service territory....

  11. 18 CFR 292.312 - Termination of obligation to sell to qualifying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sell electric energy to a qualifying small power production facility, an existing qualifying...) Competing retail electric suppliers are willing and able to sell and deliver electric energy to the... is not required by State law to sell electric energy in its service territory....

  12. A Framework for Personalized Dynamic Cross-Selling in E-Commerce Retailing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timalsina, Arun Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Cross-selling and product bundling are prevalent strategies in the retail sector. Instead of static bundling offers, i.e. giving the same offer to everyone, personalized dynamic cross-selling generates targeted bundle offers and can help maximize revenues and profits. In resolving the two basic problems of dynamic cross-selling, which involves…

  13. 17 CFR 242.102 - Activities by issuers and selling security holders during a distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... selling security holders during a distribution. 242.102 Section 242.102 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... REQUIREMENTS FOR SECURITY FUTURES Regulation M § 242.102 Activities by issuers and selling security holders... or on behalf of an issuer or selling security holder, it shall be unlawful for such person, or...

  14. Establishment of toxic metal reference range in tobacco from US cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Fresquez, Mark R; Pappas, R Steven; Watson, Clifford H

    2013-06-01

    Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. There are numerous harmful substances in tobacco and tobacco smoke. Among the more than 4,000 identified compounds in smoke, many metals contribute to the health risks associated with tobacco use. Specific metals found in tobacco and tobacco smoke have been classified as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Exposure to toxic metals can cause outcomes including inflammation, sensitization and carcinogenesis. Metals in tobacco are transported in tobacco smoke proportionally with their concentrations in tobacco filler for a given cigarette design. To quantitatively examine the metal content in numerous tobacco products, high throughput methods are desired. This study developed a simple, rapid tobacco digestion method coupled with a sensitive analytical method using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Because of known memory effects and volatility of mercury, quantitative determinations of mercury were made with a direct combustion analyzer. The methods were utilized to examine arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury and nickel contents in cigarette tobacco and to establish a reference range for the metals in 50 varieties of cigarettes available in the US. These results are comparable to the limited data sets reported by others and with available standard reference material values.

  15. Are Retail Outlets Complying with National Legislation to Protect Children from Exposure to Tobacco Displays at Point of Sale? Results from the First Compliance Study in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Eadie, Douglas; Stead, Martine; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Murray, Susan; Best, Catherine; Pearce, Jamie; Tisch, Catherine; van der Sluijs, Winfried; Amos, Amanda; MacGregor, Andy; Haw, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background From April 6th 2015, all small shops in the UK were required to cover up tobacco products at point of sale (POS) to protect children from exposure. As part of a larger 5-year study to measure the impact of the legislation in Scotland, an audit was conducted to assess level and nature of compliance with the ban immediately following its introduction. Materials and Methods A discreet observational audit was conducted 7–14 days post implementation which took measures of physical changes made to cover products, server/assistant practices, tobacco signage and advertising, and communication of price information. The audit was conducted in all small retail outlets (n = 83) selling tobacco in four communities in Scotland selected to represent different levels of urbanisation and social deprivation. Data were analysed descriptively. Results Compliance with the legislation was high, with 98% of shops removing tobacco from permanent display and non-compliance was restricted almost entirely to minor contraventions. The refurbishment of shops with new or adapted tobacco storage units resulted in the removal of nearly all commercial brand messages and images from POS, dropping from 51% to 4%. The majority of shops stored their tobacco in public-facing storage units (81%). Most shops also displayed at least one generic tobacco message (88%). Conclusions Compliance with Scottish prohibitions on display of tobacco products in small retail outlets was high immediately after the legislation implementation date. However, although tobacco branding is no longer visible in retail outlets, tobacco storage units with generic tobacco messages are still prominent. This points towards a need to monitor how the space vacated by tobacco products is utilised and to better understand how the continuing presence of tobacco storage units influences people’s awareness and understanding of tobacco and smoking. Countries with existing POS bans and who are considering such bans should

  16. Smokeless tobacco and cancer.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Hecht, Stephen; Gray, Nigel; Gupta, Prakash; Straif, Kurt

    2008-07-01

    Use of smokeless tobacco products is common worldwide, with increasing consumption in many countries. Although epidemiological data from the USA and Asia show a raised risk of oral cancer (overall relative risk 2.6 [95% CI 1.3-5.2]), these are not confirmed in northern European studies (1.0 [0.7-1.3]). Risks of oesophageal cancer (1.6 [1.1-2.3]) and pancreatic cancer (1.6 [1.1-2.2]) have also increased, as shown in northern European studies. Results on lung cancer have been inconsistent, with northern European studies suggesting no excess risk. In India and Sudan, more than 50% of oral cancers are attributable to smokeless tobacco products used in those countries, as are about 4% of oral cancers in US men and 20% of oesophageal and pancreatic cancers in Swedish men. Smokeless tobacco products are a major source of carcinogenic nitrosamines; biomarkers of exposure have been developed to quantify exposure as a framework for a carcinogenesis model in people. Animal carcinogenicity studies strongly support clinical results. Cancer risk of smokeless tobacco users is probably lower than that of smokers, but higher than that of non-tobacco users.

  17. School tobacco policies in a tobacco-growing state.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Ellen J; Rayens, Mary Kay; Rasnake, Rob; York, Nancy; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Riker, Carol A

    2005-08-01

    This study examined factors associated with tobacco-free policies and tobacco cessation in schools serving children in grades 6 to 12 in a tobacco-growing state using a cross-sectional telephone survey of school administrators from public and private middle and high schools (N = 691), representing 117 of the 120 Kentucky counties. Trained health department staff contacted 1028 schools; 691 (67%) participated in a phone survey, which lasted an average of 19 minutes. Variables of interest were indoor and outdoor smoking policies, fund-raising in Bingo halls, provision of cessation and prevention programs, owning or leasing a tobacco base, if the school received money from tobacco companies, type of school (public vs private), and school setting (urban vs rural). Only 20% of Kentucky schools reported comprehensive tobacco-free policies. Urban area schools were nearly twice as likely to have a tobacco-free campus than rural schools. Schools that did fund-raising in smoky Bingo halls were 30% less likely to have tobacco-free school policies. While few schools had a tobacco affiliation, those that received money from tobacco companies or grew tobacco were nearly 3 times as likely to provide cessation resources, compared to schools without tobacco affiliation. Rural schools were less likely to be tobacco free and provide cessation services. School-related, off-campus, extracurricular events might be considered as an element of tobacco-free school policy. Schools with tobacco affiliation may provide more cessation resources due to the increased prevalence of tobacco use in these areas.

  18. Modified TAROT for cross-selling personal financial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tee, Ya-Mei; LEE, Lai-Soon; LEE, Chew-Ging; SEOW, Hsin-Vonn

    2014-09-01

    The Top Application characteristics Remainder Offer characteristics Tree (TAROT) was first introduced in 2007. This is a modified Classification and Regression Trees (CART) used to help decide which question(s) to ask potential applicants to customise an offer of a personal financial product so that it would have a high probability of take up. In this piece of work the authors are presenting, they have further modified the TAROT to cross TAROT, using its properties and modeling steps to deal with the issue of cross-selling. Since the bank already has ready customers, it would be ideal to cross-sell the financial products seeing that one can ask one (or more) further question(s) based on the initial offer to identify and customise another financial product to offer.

  19. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A Review
    Abstract
    This report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  20. Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Sebrie, E; Barnoya, J; Perez-Stable, E; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Methods: Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Results: Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. Conclusions: The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope. PMID:16183967

  1. School Tobacco Policies in a Tobacco-Growing State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Ellen J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Rasnake, Rob; York, Nancy; Okoli, Chizimuzo T.C.; Riker, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with tobacco-free policies and tobacco cessation in schools serving children in grades 6 to 12 in a tobacco-growing state using a cross-sectional telephone survey of school administrators from public and private middle and high schools (N = 691), representing 117 of the 120 Kentucky counties. Trained health…

  2. Exposure to Tobacco Marketing and Support for Tobacco Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, David; Costello, Mary-Jean; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Topham, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the salience of tobacco marketing on postsecondary campuses and student support for tobacco control policies. Methods: Face-to-face surveys were conducted with 1690 students at 3 universities in southwestern Ontario. Results: Virtually all (97%) students reported noticing tobacco marketing in the past year, and 35% reported…

  3. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  4. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  5. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  6. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  7. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  8. Why do rural primary care physicians sell their practices?

    PubMed

    Stensland, Jeffrey; Brasure, Michelle; Moscovice, Ira

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluates why rural primary care physicians sell their practices. A random sample of rural primary care practices in California, Utah, Ohio, Texas, and Virginia were surveyed to investigate changes in ownership of the practices during the period 1995-1998. These five states were selected because they represent areas with different experiences with physician-hospital integration and varied rates of managed care penetration. A series of logistic regressions were conducted to examine the factors that led independent physicians to sell their practices to either nonlocal buyers, local hospitals, or local physicians. Findings suggest that sales to nonlocal buyers represent the majority of practice ownership changes. The motivations for ceding control to nonlocal buyers center on managed care concerns, recruitment concerns, and administrative burdens. Sellers were also concerned about their level of net income prior to being acquired. However, the preacquisition financial concerns of sellers were not significantly stronger than the financial concerns of practices that remained independent. The environmental conditions that motivate rural physicians to sell their practices are not expected to improve. Therefore, additional sales of rural primary care practices to nonlocal buyers are expected. Further research is necessary to determine whether this shift in control will lead to changes in the quality or accessibility of care.

  9. Surveillance of moist snuff: total nicotine, moisture, pH, un-ionized nicotine, and tobacco-specific nitrosamines.

    PubMed

    Richter, Patricia; Hodge, Knachelle; Stanfill, Stephen; Zhang, Liqin; Watson, Clifford

    2008-11-01

    In 2005, approximately 2.3% of U.S. adults used smokeless tobacco. Moist snuff leads all types of smokeless tobacco in revenues and marketing expenditures. The U.S. Surgeon General has concluded that smokeless tobacco use can lead to nicotine addiction. The National Toxicology Program of the National Institutes of Health has classified smokeless tobacco as a human carcinogen. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are potent carcinogens in smokeless tobacco products, and the pH of the product influences the content of un-ionized nicotine which is the form of nicotine most rapidly absorbed in the mouth. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention analyzed 40 top-selling brands of moist snuff to measure nicotine, moisture, pH, un-ionized nicotine, and TSNAs, including 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL). The study findings indicate that moist snuff brands varied widely in content of rapidly absorbed, addictive un-ionized nicotine (500-fold range) and of carcinogenic TSNAs (18-fold range). Product characteristics such as packaging and moisture content appeared to be correlated with concentrations of un-ionized nicotine, and flavor characteristics of low-priced brands may correlate with TSNA concentrations. These findings warrant further study in light of (a) the marketing of smokeless tobacco for use in places where smoking is prohibited, (b) the promotion of smokeless tobacco as a harm-reduction product, and (c) the ever-expanding number of highly flavored smokeless varieties brought to the market.

  10. Prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Woelk, G; Mtisi, S; Vaughan, J P

    2001-09-01

    Using a historical and political economy perspective, this paper explores the prospects for tobacco control in Zimbabwe, the world's sixth largest producer and third largest tobacco exporter. Tobacco production, which first began in the former Rhodesia in the early 1900s, is closely associated with colonial history and land occupation by white settlers. The Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) Tobacco Association was formed in 1928 and soon became a powerful political force. Although land redistribution has always been a central issue, it was not adequately addressed after independence in 1980, largely due to the need for Zimbabwe to gain foreign currency and safeguard employment. However, by the mid-1990s political pressures forced the government to confront the mainly white, commercial farmers with a new land acquisition policy, but intense national and international lobbying prevented its implementation. With advent of global economic changes, and following the start of a structural adjustment programme in 1991, manufacturing began to decline and the government relied even more on the earnings from tobacco exports. Thus strengthening tobacco control policies has always had a low national and public health priority. Recent illegal occupation of predominantly white owned farms, under the guise of implementing the former land redistribution policy, was politically motivated as the government faced its first major challenge at the general elections in June 2000. It remains unclear whether this will lead to long term reductions in tobacco production, although future global declines in demand could weaken the tobacco lobby. However, since Zimbabwe is only a minor consumer of tobacco, a unique opportunity does exist to develop controls on domestic cigarette consumption. To achieve this the isolated ministry of health would need considerable support from international agencies, such as the World Health Organisation and World Bank.

  11. Permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship undermines tobacco control support in Africa.

    PubMed

    Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan A; Olutola, Bukola G; Agaku, Israel T

    2016-06-01

    School personnel, who are respected members of the community, may exert significant influence on policy adoption. This study assessed the impact of school personnel's permissiveness toward tobacco industry sponsorship activities on their support for complete bans on tobacco advertisements, comprehensive smoke-free laws and increased tobacco prices. Representative data were obtained from the Global School Personnel Survey for 29 African countries (n = 17 929). Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated using multi-variable Poisson regression models to assess the impact of permissiveness toward tobacco sponsorship activities on support for tobacco control policies (p < 0.05). The median of prevalence of support for different tobacco control policies among all countries was as follows: complete ban on tobacco advertisements (84.9%); comprehensive smoke-free laws (92.4%) and tobacco price increases (80.8%). School personnel who believed that the tobacco industry should be allowed to sponsor school events were significantly less likely to support complete bans on tobacco advertisements [aPR = 0.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.95] and comprehensive smoke-free laws (aPR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92-0.98). In contrast, support for complete tobacco advertisement bans was more likely among those who believed that the tobacco industry encourages youths to smoke (aPR = 1.27; 95% CI 1.17-1.37), and among those who taught about health sometimes (aPR = 1.06; 95% CI 1.01-1.11) or a lot (aPR = 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10) compared with those who did not teach about health at all. These findings underscore the need to educate school personnel on tobacco industry's strategies to undermine tobacco control policies. This may help to build school personnel support for laws intended to reduce youth susceptibility, experimentation and established use of tobacco products.

  12. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  13. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  14. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  15. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  16. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  17. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  18. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO...

  19. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of tobacco and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Record of tobacco and processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS,...

  20. Role of slotting fees and trade promotions in shaping how tobacco is marketed in retail stores

    PubMed Central

    Bloom, P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine how the retail environment in which tobacco is sold has changed because of the slotting fees and trade promotions paid by the tobacco companies. Public policy options for dealing with this environment are also evaluated.
DATA SOURCES—A literature review, telephone interviews, and observation.
RESULTS—The tobacco companies have been dramatically increasing the volume of slotting fees and trade promotions they pay to retailers, creating a more tobacco friendly retail environment containing self service displays and ample point-of-sale advertising. Critics express concern that these payments have kept prices lower and more varied than they might be otherwise, created more opportunities for pilferage and underage selling, and provided more youth exposure to tobacco promotions. Public policy makers could either ban these payments, institute policies designed to mitigate their harmful effects, or leave the situation as it is, relying on enforcement of existing statutes as well as market forces to reduce harm. Actions that might mitigate harmful effects would include putting minimum retail prices on tobacco products, banning self service displays, requiring retailers to be licensed, and adding more warning signs at the point of sale.
CONCLUSION—Additional research is needed before determining the most appropriate public policy stance.


Keywords: promotion; slotting; retailing; merchandising PMID:11740025

  1. Web-based technical assistance and training to promote community tobacco control policy change.

    PubMed

    Young, Walter F; Montgomery, Debbie; Nycum, Colleen; Burns-Martin, Lavon; Buller, David B

    2006-01-01

    In 1998 the tobacco industry was released of claims that provided monetary relief for states. A significant expansion of tobacco control activity in many states created a need to develop local capacity. Technical assistance and training for new and experienced staff became a significant challenge for tobacco control leadership. In Colorado, this challenge was addressed in part through the development of a technical assistance and training Web site designed for local tobacco control staff and coalition members. Researchers, technical Web site development specialists, state health agency, and state tobacco control coalition staff collaborated to develop, promote, and test the efficacy of this Web site. The work group embodied a range of skills including tobacco control, Web site technical development, marketing, training, and project management. Persistent marketing, updating of Web site content, and institutionalizing it as a principal source of information and training were key to use by community coalition members.

  2. The tobacco industry, state politics, and tobacco education in California.

    PubMed Central

    Begay, M E; Traynor, M; Glantz, S A

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Proposition 99 added 25 cents to the California state cigarette tax and mandated that 20% of the new revenues be spent on tobacco education and prevention programs. This paper examines the implementation of these programs and the tobacco industry's response to Proposition 99. METHODS. Political expenditure data for twelve tobacco firms and associations were gathered from California's Fair Political Practices Commission and secretary of state's Political Reform Division. Tobacco education expenditure data were collected from Governor's Budgets and the Department of Finance. RESULTS. Since Proposition 99 passed, tobacco industry political expenditures in California have risen 10-fold, from $790,050 in the 1985-1986 election to $7,615,091 in the 1991-1992 election. The tobacco industry is contributing more heavily to the California legislature than to Congress. A statistical analysis of data on campaign contributions indicates that California legislators' policy-making is influenced by campaign contributions from the tobacco industry. Since fiscal year 1989-1990, the state has ignored the voters' mandate and spent only 14.7% of the new revenues to tobacco education. Medical care programs received more money than permitted by the voters. CONCLUSIONS. The tobacco industry has become politically active in California following the passage of Proposition 99. One result may be that the state has underfunded tobacco education by $174.7 million through the 1993-1994 fiscal year. The estimated redirection of funds to medical care would essentially eliminate the tobacco education campaign by the year 2000. PMID:8362994

  3. Tobacco point‐of‐purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents

    PubMed Central

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-01-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point‐of‐purchase promotion (also called point‐of‐sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point‐of‐purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well‐trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point‐of‐sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space. PMID:16998172

  4. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    PubMed

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  5. Tobacco 101 | Smokefree 60+

    Cancer.gov

    Learn about the chemicals in your cigarette, and the harms caused by other forms of tobacco. What is nicotine? Nicotine is an addictive, fast-acting drug found in cigarettes. It affects your heart rate, blood pressure, brain chemistry, and mood. When you stop smoking, you experience cravings because your body is used to having a certain amount of nicotine each day.

  6. The Tobacco Mosaic Virus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzinski, Michael A.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how the tobacco mosaic virus can be used to study virology. Presents facts about the virus, procedures to handle the virus in the laboratory, and four laboratory exercises involving the viruses' survival under inactivating conditions, dilution end point, filterability, and microscopy. (MDH)

  7. Tobacco and ethics

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Gerard; Porter, Alan

    1986-01-01

    Tobacco is both dangerous and addictive. Its production and use thus raise ethical questions which involve the smoker, parents, teachers, producers, distributors and the State. The moral responsibilities of the various parties are examined critically and legal restrictions are considered to be justified. PMID:3735230

  8. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  9. Environmental tobacco smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, M.R.; Jenkins, R.A.

    1992-12-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is the material in indoor air which results from tobacco smoking. Early work on the chemistry of ETS and on estimates of the resulting human exposure relied heavily on studies of sidestream smoke, on the characterization of highly contaminated environments, and on the use of contained experimental atmospheres. It had also been common practice to equate ETS with mainstream smoke for purposes of risk assessments. More recent work has identified potentially important differences between the properties of ETS and those of mainstream smoke. Recent work has also included major surveys of commonly encountered smoking and nonsmoking environments for their indoor air concentrations of, particularly, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and/or respirable suspended particulate matter (RSP). Studies have also now been reported which address the general composition of the particulate and vapor phases of ETS and which measure concentrations of trace and miscellaneous constituents of tobacco smoke in indoor air. The data demonstrate that tobacco smoking clearly contributes to indoor air contamination but that the contribution is often less than was previously assumed for the more-commonly encountered environments. The data also identify difficulties in the use of nicotine, carbon monoxide, and RSP as surrogate measures of ETS as a whole. This paper summarizes recent observation concerning the measurement and concentrations of ETS constituents in indoor air.

  10. Smoking and Tobacco Use

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Employment Smoking & Tobacco Use Related Topics on AIDS.gov Cardiovascular Health Frequently Asked Questions I’m ... HIV and Smoking Last revised: 08/12/2014 AIDS.gov HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  11. 30 CFR 1206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I... Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Federal Oil § 1206.102 How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? (a) The value of oil under this section is the...

  12. 30 CFR 1206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.52 Section 1206.52 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL...

  13. 30 CFR 1206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.102 Section 1206.102 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  14. 30 CFR 1206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.52 Section 1206.52 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL...

  15. 30 CFR 1206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.52 Section 1206.52 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL...

  16. 30 CFR 1206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.102 Section 1206.102 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  17. 30 CFR 1206.102 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) under an arm's-length contract? 1206.102 Section 1206.102 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATURAL RESOURCES REVENUE...

  18. 9 CFR 201.30 - Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds. 201.30 Section 201.30 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... bond coverage for a market agency selling on commission be less than $10,000 or such higher amount...

  19. 9 CFR 201.30 - Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds. 201.30 Section 201.30 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... bond coverage for a market agency selling on commission be less than $10,000 or such higher amount...

  20. 9 CFR 201.30 - Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount of market agency, dealer and packer bonds. 201.30 Section 201.30 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS... bond coverage for a market agency selling on commission be less than $10,000 or such higher amount...

  1. 36 CFR 1226.24 - How must agencies destroy temporary records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How must agencies destroy temporary records? 1226.24 Section 1226.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS.... Unrestricted records that agencies cannot sell or otherwise salvage must be destroyed by burning,...

  2. 36 CFR 1226.24 - How must agencies destroy temporary records?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How must agencies destroy temporary records? 1226.24 Section 1226.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS.... Unrestricted records that agencies cannot sell or otherwise salvage must be destroyed by burning,...

  3. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  4. Changing smokeless tobacco products new tobacco-delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Ebbert, Jon O; Feuer, Rachel M; Stepanov, Irina; Hecht, Stephen S

    2007-12-01

    Smokeless or noncombusted oral tobacco use as a substitute for cigarette smoking has been gaining greater interest and attention by the public health community and the tobacco industry. In order for the product to appeal to smokers, tobacco companies have been manufacturing new noncombusted oral tobacco (i.e., moist snuff) that is lower in moisture content and nitrosamine levels, packaged in small sachets and "spitless." While the primary motives of the major tobacco companies are to maintain or increase tobacco use, some members of the public health community perceive the use of noncombusted oral tobacco products as a harm reduction tool. Because cigarette smoking is associated with greater toxicant exposure compared to noncombusted oral tobacco, reduced mortality and morbidity are hypothesized to ensue, if cigarette smokers switched completely to these products. However, variability exists in levels of nicotine and toxicants and potential health consequences from use within and across countries. Therefore, promulgating noncombusted oral tobacco products as a safer alternative to smoking or as a substitute for smoking may engender more rather than less harm. To date, limited research is available on the effects of marketing noncombusted oral tobacco products to smokers, to support the use of these products as a harm reduction tool, and to determine the effects of varying levels of tobacco toxicants including nicotine on health. The need exists for manufacturing standards to lower toxicant levels of all noncombusted oral tobacco products, for the formulation of appropriate tobacco-product regulations and for the development of a strategic plan by the public health community to address this controversial topic.

  5. Social context of needle selling in Baltimore, Maryland.

    PubMed

    Latkin, Carl A; Davey, Melissa A; Hua, Wei

    2006-01-01

    Although much of the debate surrounding the distribution of sterile syringes to injection drug users (IDUs) has focused on needle exchange programs (NEPs), IDUs acquire their syringes from three major sources: NEPs, pharmacies, and secondary exchangers or needle sellers. The purpose of the present study is to examine types and frequencies of social interactions among drug injectors who sell needles, most of which come from NEPs, compared with individuals who do not sell needles. Specifically, we compared engagement in drug-related behaviors, roles in the drug economy, and social network membership. Data were collected as part of the SHIELD study, an HIV prevention intervention targeted at drug users and their social networks (n=910) from February 2001 through September 2003 in Baltimore, Maryland (USA). In this sample, 56 participants reported selling needles. Needle sellers had higher levels of engagement in drug-related social interactions, including using drugs with others, giving or receiving drugs from others, and buying drugs with other users. Participants who sold needles had a significantly higher number of roles in the drug economy. Also, they had more social network members who were injectors, with whom they talked about risky drug behaviors, gave needles to, and shared cookers and bleach with. Compared with nonselling injectors, needle sellers engage in HIV risk-related behaviors, such as injecting daily and sharing injection equipment, more frequently. The study's findings may be useful to determine whether secondary exchangers should be targeted for HIV prevention activities both to reduce their own risk and to diffuse risk reduction information throughout the drug using community.

  6. [Legal aspects of selling medical products by gynecologists].

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Monika; Spaczyński, Robert Z

    2013-07-01

    Sales and distribution of medical products and drugs in Poland remains under strict regulations, especially legal regulation contained in the Medical and Dental Practitioners Act, that banned sales of medical products by doctors. It needs to be emphasized that currently doctors are allowed to sell drugs and medical products only in rigorously specified situations. Knowledge of current legal regulations concerning sales of medical products by gynecologists allows to conform with the law and to distribute drugs and medical products under special and predefined conditions.

  7. Time dependent optimal switching controls in online selling models

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Cohen, Albert

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to incorporate dishonesty in online selling via a stochastic optimal control problem. In our framework, the seller wishes to maximize her average wealth level W at a fixed time T of her choosing. The corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellmann (HJB) equation is analyzed for a basic case. For more general models, the admissible control set is restricted to a jump process that switches between extreme values. We propose a new approach, where the optimal control problem is reduced to a multivariable optimization problem.

  8. Tobacco outlet density and demographics at the tract level of analysis in Iowa: implications for environmentally based prevention initiatives.

    PubMed

    Schneider, John E; Reid, Robert J; Peterson, N Andrew; Lowe, John B; Hughey, Joseph

    2005-12-01

    This study assessed the geographic association between tobacco outlet density and three demographic correlates-income, race, and ethnicity-at the tract level of analysis for one county in the Midwestern United States. Data for residential census tracts in a Midwestern U.S. county were derived from year 2003 licenses for 474 tobacco outlets. Demographic variables were based on 2000 census data. Census tracts with lower median household income, higher percent of African American residents, and higher percent of Latinos residents had greater density of tobacco selling retail outlets. Areas characterized by lower income and disproportionately more African Americans and Latinos have greater physical access to tobacco products. Physical access to tobacco is a critical public-health issue because, given that smokers have been shown to be price sensitive, lowering access costs (e.g., reduced travel time) is likely to increase consumption. Findings also suggest the need for structural or environmental interventions, i.e., tobacco outlet zoning laws, to mitigate the health consequences associated with tobacco use in certain populations and geographic regions.

  9. A strategy for controlling the marketing of tobacco products: a regulated market model

    PubMed Central

    Borland, R

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To outline a novel strategy for controlling the tobacco market. Arguments: More comprehensive controls over the tobacco market are essential and long overdue. Effective controls need to encourage the development of less harmful products; control commercial communication to ensure that potential harms are highlighted relative to any benefits; and provide mechanisms to move consumers away from tobacco use, or at least towards less harmful alternatives. Achieving this by regulating the existing industry is one strategy. This paper puts the case for an alternative: to have marketing controlled by an agency (called here the Tobacco Products Agency, or TPA) which tendered to manufacturers for product and which distributed to retailers in ways that reduce incentives to bend or break the law. The TPA would be backed by legislation that made tobacco a controlled substance with possession sale and use only allowed as permitted by the regulations, which in reality would be only as provided by the TPA. Conclusions: The overall effect of such a model, which we call a "regulated market model", would be to eliminate most of the incentives and remaining opportunities for commercial promotion of tobacco and to create incentives to encourage the development of less harmful tobacco products. Such a model preserves the competition inherent in a free market, but directs it towards the challenge of reducing the harm from tobacco use. PMID:14660771

  10. Implications for Tobacco Control of the Multistate Tobacco Settlement

    PubMed Central

    Daynard, Richard A.; Parmet, Wendy; Kelder, Graham; Davidson, Patricia

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 master settlement agreement between major tobacco manufacturers and the US states will have a profound effect on many tobacco industry practices and will significantly influence future settlements with the tobacco industry. This article analyzes the settlement's key provisions pertaining to youth sales, advertising, marketing, and lobbying. It also examines the ways in which the settlement restricts industry practices as well as the many industry practices that remain unregulated. PMID:11726376

  11. 76 FR 55835 - Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1140 RIN 0910-AG43 Non-Face-to-Face Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing of Tobacco Products AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Advance notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  12. 75 FR 34418 - Tobacco Inspection and Grading Services: Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... currently approved information collection in support of the Fair and Equitable Tobacco Reform Act of 2004 (U.S.C. Chapter 518), the Rural Development, Food and Drug Administrative, and Related Agencies... eligible for price support in the U.S. be inspected and graded. The Fair and Equitable Tobacco Reform...

  13. 75 FR 42605 - Increase in Tax Rates on Tobacco Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes; Floor Stocks Tax on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Products and Cigarette Papers and Tubes; Floor Stocks Tax on Certain Tobacco Products, Cigarette Papers, and Cigarette Tubes; and Changes to Basis for Denial, Suspension, or Revocation of Permits AGENCY... rates on tobacco products and cigarette papers and tubes, the floor stocks tax provisions of the...

  14. Tobacco and the Movies

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  15. 19 CFR 161.2 - Enforcement for other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other agencies. (a) Laws enforced by Customs Service for administering agencies. Some of the laws... exportations of arms, ammunition, implements of war, helium gas, and other munitions of war are governed by laws administered by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and Department of State;...

  16. 19 CFR 161.2 - Enforcement for other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other agencies. (a) Laws enforced by Customs Service for administering agencies. Some of the laws... exportations of arms, ammunition, implements of war, helium gas, and other munitions of war are governed by laws administered by the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms and Department of State;...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  18. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  20. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears...

  1. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines in new tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Stepanov, Irina; Jensen, Joni; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Hecht, Stephen S

    2006-04-01

    New tobacco products, designed to attract consumers who are concerned about the health effects of tobacco, have been appearing on the market. Objective evaluation of these products requires, as a first step, data on their potentially toxic constituents. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) are an important class of carcinogens in tobacco products, but virtually no data were available on their levels in these products. In the present study, we analyzed several new products-Ariva, Stonewall, Exalt, Revel, Smokey Mountain, and Quest-for TSNAs and compared their TSNA levels with those in nicotine replacement products and conventional smokeless tobacco and cigarette brands. TSNAs were not detected in Smokey Mountain, which is a tobacco-free snuff product. The lowest levels among the new products containing tobacco were in Ariva and Stonewall (0.26-0.28 microg/g wet weight of product). The highest levels in the new products were found in Exalt (3.3 microg/g tobacco), whereas Revel and Quest had intermediate amounts. Only trace amounts were found in nicotine replacement products, and conventional brands had levels consistent with those reported in the literature. These results demonstrate that TSNA levels in new tobacco products range from relatively low to comparable with those found in some conventional brands.

  2. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  3. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  4. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  5. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  6. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  7. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  8. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  9. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  10. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 40.1 Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  11. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Scope of Regulations § 41.1 Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. This part...

  12. Health effects of smokeless tobacco

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-28

    Pharmacologic and physiologic effects of snuff and chewing tobacco include the gamut of cardiovascular, endocrinologic, neurologic, and psychological effects that are associated with nicotine. A review of studies appearing in the scientific literature involving various populations and approaches indicates that the use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with a variety of serious adverse effects and especially with oral cancer. The studies suggest that snuff and chewing tobacco also may affect reproduction, longevity, the cardiovascular system, and oral health. The Council on Scientific Affairs concludes there is evidence demonstrating that use of snuff or chewing tobacco is associated with adverse health effects such as oral cancer, urges the implementation of well-planned and long-term studies that will further define the risks of using snuff and chewing tobacco, and recommends that the restrictions applying to the advertising of cigarettes also be applied to the advertising of snuff and chewing tobacco.

  13. Cross-correlations in volume space: Differences between buy and sell volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun Young; Hwang, Dong Il; Kim, Min Jae; Koh, In Gyu; Kim, Soo Yong

    2011-03-01

    We study the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes on the Korean stock market in high frequency. We observe that the pulling effects of volumes are as small as that of returns. The properties of the correlations of buy and sell volumes differ. They are explained by the degree of synchronization of stock volumes. Further, the pulling effects on the minimal spanning tree are studied. In minimal spanning trees with directed links, the large pulling effects are clustered at the center, not uniformly distributed. The Epps effect of buy and sell volumes are observed. The reversal of the cross-correlations of buy and sell volumes is also detected.

  14. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    PubMed Central

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  15. The changing role of agriculture in tobacco control policymaking: a South Carolina case study.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Sarah; Glantz, Stanton

    2010-10-01

    To document the behavior of tobacco manufacturers' agricultural third-party allies in South Carolina from the 1970s through 2009, we analyzed news reports, public documents and internal tobacco industry documents and conducted interviews with knowledgeable individuals. We found that agriculture-based interest groups (the Farm Bureau), elected state agency heads (Commissioners of Agriculture) and tobacco-area legislators acted as an iron triangle containing strong third-party allies of tobacco manufacturers from the 1970s through the 1990 s. The Farm Bureau and Commissioners of Agriculture reacted to national-level changes in the tobacco leaf market structure by shifting towards a neutral position on tobacco control, while some tobacco-area legislators remained manufacturer allies (Sullivan, Barnes, & Glantz, 2009). This shift was reinforced by public health outreach and successes, which were in turn facilitated by the lack of opposition from agricultural groups. We conclude that public health advocates in tobacco-growing states should use the pragmatic shift of agricultural groups' position to challenge remaining third-party manufacturer alliances and agriculture-based opposition to tobacco control policies.

  16. 78 FR 52127 - Tobacco Inspection and Grading Services: Notice of Request for an Extension of a Currently...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Tobacco Inspection and Grading Services: Notice of Request for an Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and... 35), this notice announces the Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request...

  17. Biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure.

    PubMed

    Mattes, William; Yang, Xi; Orr, Michael S; Richter, Patricia; Mendrick, Donna L

    2014-01-01

    Diseases and death caused by exposure to tobacco smoke have become the single most serious preventable public health concern. Thus, biomarkers that can monitor tobacco exposure and health effects can play a critical role in tobacco product regulation and public health policy. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco toxicants are well established and have been used in population studies to establish public policy regarding exposure to second-hand smoke, an example being the nicotine metabolite cotinine, which can be measured in urine. Biomarkers of biological response to tobacco smoking range from those indicative of inflammation to mRNA and microRNA patterns related to tobacco use and/or disease state. Biomarkers identifying individuals with an increased risk for a pathological response to tobacco have also been described. The challenge for any novel technology or biomarker is its translation to clinical and/or regulatory application, a process that requires first technical validation of the assay and then careful consideration of the context the biomarker assay may be used in the regulatory setting. Nonetheless, the current efforts to investigate new biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure promise to offer powerful new tools in addressing the health hazards of tobacco product use. This review will examine such biomarkers, albeit with a focus on those related to cigarette smoking.

  18. Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Furrukh, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains the most established cause of lung carcinogenesis and other disease processes. Over the last 50 years, tobacco refinement and the introduction of filters have brought a change in histology, and now adenocarcinoma has become the most prevalent subtype. Over the last decade, smoking also has emerged as a strong prognostic and predictive patient characteristic along with other variables. This article briefly reviews scientific facts about tobacco, and the process and molecular pathways involved in lung carcinogenesis in smokers and never-smokers. The evidence from randomised trials about tobacco smoking’s impact on lung cancer outcomes is also reviewed. PMID:23984018

  19. The political economy of tobacco and poverty alleviation in Southeast Asia: contradictions in the role of the state.

    PubMed

    Barraclough, Simon; Morrow, Martha

    2010-03-01

    Of the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), all but Indonesia have embraced the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control and all endorse some form of tobacco control policy. Nevertheless, except for Brunei, all these states are, to varying degrees, complicit in investing in or promoting the tobacco industry, often using the justification of poverty alleviation. Tobacco use is the major preventable cause of illness and death among the populations of these countries. Claims that tobacco alleviates poverty in developing countries have increasingly been discredited: thus continuing state support for the industry represents a fundamental paradox. Using primary documents from governments and the tobacco industry, and published studies investigating tobacco and poverty, this article explores the contradictions inherent in the state seeking to prevent tobacco use in the interests of health, while actively promoting tobacco for the economic benefit of its citizens. These contradictions result in both symbolic and substantial harm to tobacco control efforts: tobacco production is legitimized, rational policy principles are violated, direct cooperation between the state and multinational tobacco corporations is made possible with associated opportunities for mollifying control policies, and different state agencies work at cross purposes. Although tobacco exports within the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) also threaten the group's health solidarity, it is argued that divestiture of state ownership of capital in tobacco corporations and a commitment by states not to promote tobacco are urgently required if the Convention is to have full effect both in the countries of the region and in other states that have ratified it.

  20. "Creative solutions": selling cigarettes in a smoke-free world

    PubMed Central

    Smith, E; Malone, R

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the development and execution of the "Creative Solutions" Benson & Hedges advertising campaign to understand its social, political, and commercial implications. Methods: Searches of the Philip Morris documents and Legacy Tobacco Documents websites for relevant materials; Lexis/Nexis searches of major news and business publications; and denotative and connotative analyses of the advertising imagery. Results: Philip Morris developed the Creative Solutions campaign in an effort to directly confront the successes of the tobacco control movement in establishing new laws and norms that promoted clean indoor air. The campaign's imagery attempted to help smokers and potential smokers overcome the physical and social downsides of smoking cigarettes by managing risk and resolving internal conflict. The slogans suggested a variety of ways for smokers to respond to restrictions on their habit. The campaign also featured information about the Accommodation Program, Philip Morris's attempt to organise opposition to clean indoor air laws. Conclusion: The campaign was a commercial failure, with little impact on sales of the brand. Philip Morris got some exposure for the Accommodation Program and its anti-regulatory position. The lack of commercial response to the ads suggests that they were unable to successfully resolve the contradictions that smokers were increasingly experiencing and confirms the power of changing social norms to counter tobacco industry tactics. PMID:14985598

  1. Consumption and production waste: another externality of tobacco use

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, T.; Zhao, F.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To describe the waste produced by and environmental implications of individual cigarette consumption (filter tips, packages, and cartons) and tobacco manufacturing.
STUDY SELECTION—All available articles and reports published since 1970 related to cigarette consumption and production waste were reviewed.
DATA SOURCES—Global cigarette consumption data were used to estimate cigarette butt and packaging waste quantities. Data from the Center for Marine Conservation's International Coastal Cleanup Project were used to describe some environmental impacts of tobacco-related trash. Data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Toxics Release Inventory and reported global cigarette consumption totals were used to estimate waste production from cigarette manufacturing.
DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS—In 1995, an estimated 5.535 trillion cigarettes (27 675 million cartons and 276 753 million packages) were sold by the tobacco industry globally. Some of the wastes from these products were properly deposited, but a large amount of tobacco consumption waste ends up in the environment. Some is recovered during environmental clean-up days. For the past eight years (1990-1997), cigarette butts have been the leading item found during the International Coastal Cleanup Project; they accounted for 19.1% of all items collected in 1997. The tobacco manufacturing process produces liquid, solid, and airborne waste. Among those wastes, some materials, including nicotine, are designated by the EPA as Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) chemicals. These are possible environmental health hazards. In 1995, the global tobacco industry produced an estimated 2262 million kilograms of manufacturing waste and 209 million kilograms of chemical waste. In addition, total nicotine waste produced in the manufacture of reduced nicotine cigarettes was estimated at 300 million kilograms.
CONCLUSIONS—Laws against littering relative to cigarette butts

  2. 75 FR 76921 - Tobacco Transition Payment Program; Tobacco Transition Assessments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... allocated among six statutorily-specified classes of tobacco products: Cigarettes, cigars, snuff, roll-your... cigarettes and cigars, pounds for the other classes) from the published TTB data and multiplied those numbers.... The initial percentage assigned to cigarette tobacco in FETRA was 96.331 percent, as specified in 7...

  3. Associations between Schools' Tobacco Restrictions and Adolescents' Use of Tobacco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslash-Verland, Simon; Aaro, Leif Edvard; Lindbak, Rita Lill

    2010-01-01

    Schools are an important arena for smoking prevention. In many countries, smoking rates have been reduced among adolescents, but the use of smokeless tobacco is on the rise in some of these countries. We aimed to study the associations between schools' restrictions on smoking and snus and on the use of these tobacco products among students in…

  4. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Clifton; Novotny, Thomas E; Lee, Kelley; Freiberg, Mike; McLaughlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. PMID:26931480

  5. Assessing Support for Campus Tobacco Policy in Tobacco Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Kerry; Simmons, Susan J.; Caldwell, Rebecca; Dowd, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of comprehensive tobacco policies has shown positive results regarding limiting exposure to secondhand smoke. While many states were moving forward with respect to implementation of tobacco policies, North Carolina has lagged behind in this regard. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess support for a…

  6. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal

    PubMed Central

    Shields, D.; Carol, J.; Balbach, E.; McGee, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of secondhand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal.
DESIGN—Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview.
SUBJECTS—54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry.
RESULTS—Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS—The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.


Keywords: films; movies; television; tobacco use PMID:10629243

  7. Tobacco alkaloids and tobacco-specific nitrosamines in dust from homes of smokeless tobacco users, active smokers, and nontobacco users.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Todd P; Havel, Christopher; Metayer, Catherine; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton

    2015-05-18

    Smokeless tobacco products, such as moist snuff or chewing tobacco, contain many of the same carcinogens as tobacco smoke; however, the impact on children of indirect exposure to tobacco constituents via parental smokeless tobacco use is unknown. As part of the California Childhood Leukemia Study, dust samples were collected from 6 homes occupied by smokeless tobacco users, 6 homes occupied by active smokers, and 20 tobacco-free homes. To assess children's potential for exposure to tobacco constituents, vacuum-dust concentrations of five tobacco-specific nitrosamines, including N'-nitrosonornicotine [NNN] and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK], as well as six tobacco alkaloids, including nicotine and myosmine, were quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We used generalized estimating equations derived from a multivariable marginal model to compare levels of tobacco constituents between groups, after adjusting for a history of parental smoking, income, home construction date, and mother's age and race/ethnicity. The ratio of myosmine/nicotine was used as a novel indicator of the source of tobacco contamination, distinguishing between smokeless tobacco products and tobacco smoke. Median dust concentrations of NNN and NNK were significantly greater in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. In multivariable models, concentrations of NNN and NNK were 4.8- and 6.9-fold higher, respectively, in homes with smokeless tobacco users compared to tobacco-free homes. Median myosmine/nicotine ratios were lower in homes with smokeless tobacco users (1.8%) compared to homes of active smokers (7.7%), confirming that cigarette smoke was not the predominant source of tobacco constituents in homes with smokeless tobacco users. Children living with smokeless tobacco users may be exposed to carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines via contact with contaminated dust and household surfaces.

  8. The speakers’ bureau system: a form of peer selling

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Lynette; Herder, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In the speakers’ bureau system, physicians are recruited and trained by pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device companies to deliver information about products to other physicians, in exchange for a fee. Using publicly available disclosures, we assessed the thesis that speakers’ bureau involvement is not a feature of academic medicine in Canada, by estimating the prevalence of participation in speakers’ bureaus among Canadian faculty in one medical specialty, cardiology. We analyzed the relevant features of an actual contract made public by the physician addressee and applied the Canadian Medical Association (CMA) guidelines on physician–industry relations to participation in a speakers’ bureau. We argue that speakers’ bureau participation constitutes a form of peer selling that should be understood to contravene the prohibition on product endorsement in the CMA Code of Ethics. Academic medical institutions, in conjunction with regulatory colleges, should continue and strengthen their policies to address participation in speakers’ bureaus. PMID:24348883

  9. Selling health data: de-identification, privacy, and speech.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Bonnie

    2015-07-01

    Two court cases that involve selling prescription data for pharmaceutical marketing affect biomedical informatics, patient and clinician privacy, and regulation. Sorrell v. IMS Health Inc. et al. in the United States and R v. Department of Health, Ex Parte Source Informatics Ltd. in the United Kingdom concern privacy and health data protection, data de-identification and reidentification, drug detailing (marketing), commercial benefit from the required disclosure of personal information, clinician privacy and the duty of confidentiality, beneficial and unsavory uses of health data, regulating health technologies, and considering data as speech. Individuals should, at the very least, be aware of how data about them are collected and used. Taking account of how those data are used is needed so societal norms and law evolve ethically as new technologies affect health data privacy and protection.

  10. Eleven essential steps to purchasing or selling a medical practice.

    PubMed

    Barrett, William

    2014-01-01

    Based on our experience in representing more than 100 doctors and medical specialists in practice sales and acquisitions, we have identified 11 key considerations important to a deal. There are several issues to consider while going through the process of buying or selling a practice including the implementation of a "letter of intent" as a first step rather than drafting a contract, securing a lease, and verifying the property is not in violation of the local zoning requirements. There are also considerations with regard to the patients, which range from how will the accounts receivable at the time of the closing be handled to who is responsible for the handling of continued treatment in an ongoing case after a deal is finalized. This article details these considerations and more.

  11. Corporate Power and Social Policy: The Political Economy of the Transnational Tobacco Companies

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on published tobacco document research and related sources, this article applies Farnsworth and Holden's conceptual framework for the analysis of corporate power and corporate involvement in social policy (2006) to the transnational tobacco companies (TTCs). An assessment is made of TTCs' structural power, the impact upon their structural position of tobacco control (TC) policies, and their use of agency power. The analysis suggests that, as a result of the growth of TC policies from the 1950s onwards, TTCs have had to rely on political agency to pursue their interests and attempt to reassert their structural position. The collapse of the Eastern bloc and the liberalisation of East Asian economies presented new structural opportunities for TTCs in the 1980s and 1990s, but the development of globally coordinated TC policies facilitated by the World Health Organisation's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has the potential to constrain these. PMID:20228951

  12. 30 CFR 1206.52 - How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I... Resources Revenue PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Oil § 1206.52 How do I calculate royalty value for oil that I or my affiliate sell(s) or exchange(s) under an arm's-length contract? (a) The value of oil under...

  13. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  14. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  15. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  16. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... stemming, sweating or fermenting, and conditioning are not regarded as manufacturing processes. Leaf tobacco does not include any manufactured or semimanufactured tobacco, stems which have been removed...

  17. Selling medical travel to US patient-consumers: the cultural appeal of website marketing messages.

    PubMed

    Sobo, Elisa J; Herlihy, Elizabeth; Bicker, Mary

    2011-04-01

    More US-based patients than ever are travelling abroad for medical or dental services. Beyond financial incentives, what cultural factors have supported this trend? Because of their interest in selling medical travel, medical travel agencies (MTAs) have vested interests in this question. To find out how they are answering it, an ethnographic content analysis of MTA websites was undertaken. Beyond themes promoting a 'worry-free experience' of 'legitimate services', themes linking healthcare consumerism to culturally specific identity ideals and self-creation/representation processes predominated. Themes relating to the demonstration of social position, savvy expression of good consumer judgment, and achievement of libertarian ideals figured highly. However, various inconsistencies (including an appeal to tourism in some but not other situations) suggested that medical travel involves, for the US-based consumer, a complex act of juggling context-specific self-identity desires and expectations in relation to healthcare. The potential impact of prevailing discourses on 'self-construction-in-practice' was explored. Findings enhance understanding of the care seeking process as experienced within the context of globalized, mass-mediated healthcare consumerism. They also point to the need for finer-grained distinctions than the global gloss 'medical travel' offers.

  18. Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    manufacturers. The Navy has a major in- house design capability for ships; the government does not possess such a capability for aircraft or other weapon systems...the Coast Guard, government agencies acquire a wide variety of ships, ranging from sophisticated submarines and nuclear aircraft carriers to much...the initial phase a review was made of written material relating to government procedures in U.S. Government agencies for acquiring vessels, aircraft

  19. WHEN TOBACCO TARGETS DIRECT DEMOCRACY

    PubMed Central

    Laposata, Elizabeth; Kennedy, Allison P.

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco control advocates began to use ballot initiatives to enact tobacco control policies in the late 1970s. In response, the tobacco industry worked for over two decades to change laws governing initiative and referendum processes to prevent passage of tobacco control measures. In 1981, the tobacco industry’s political lobbying arm, the Tobacco Institute, created a front group that presented itself as a neutral initiative research clearinghouse to affect changes in state initiative and referenda laws. In 1990, the Tobacco Institute began creating an in-house team, and worked with third party groups to try to change state initiative laws. While the industry ultimately abandoned both efforts when neither achieved immediate success, over time, the industry’s goals have penetrated legitimate discourse on the I&R process in the United States and many specific ideas it advocated have garnered mainstream support. Direct democracy advocates, as well as public health advocates and policymakers, need to understand the tobacco industry’s goals (which other industries adopted) of limiting the direct democracy process in order to ensure that any changes do not inadvertently increase the power of the special interests that direct democracy was developed to counterbalance. PMID:24603083

  20. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  1. Tobacco control: present and future.

    PubMed

    West, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The history of tobacco control in the twentieth century can be summed up by the phrase 'too little, too late'. The century saw the proliferation of the most deadly form of tobacco use: cigarette smoking. Until the 1970s, no government took serious action to protect its citizens. In fact, probably the most effective global tobacco control 'strategies' to date have not been motivated by health concerns: they have been inaccessible or uneconomic markets for tobacco companies and a cultural taboo on women smoking. Economic development has led to massive increases in male cigarette smoking in developing countries but even now <10% of women in non-Western countries such as China, Russia and India smoke. With 'westernization', this picture is changing. Without drastic action to get current smokers to stop, the annual rate of tobacco-related deaths will grow from 5 million in 2006 to 10 million in 2025. Without further action to prevent take up of smoking, the subsequent death toll will be even higher. The recently enacted World Health Organization (WHO)-initiated Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) can mitigate this impending disaster but only if it is implemented according to the spirit and not just the letter of the articles contained therein. Specific tobacco levies in every country should be the primary means of kick-starting the process, with the proceeds being used exclusively to fund other tobacco control initiatives, including product regulation.

  2. Close It, Sell It, or Lease It: What to Do with That Old School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter

    Recommendations on leasing or selling a surplus school building that has been closed due to declining enrollment are offered. Questions which need to be addressed in deciding which option to pursue are presented including whether it would be better to use the building for community purposes than to lease or sell it. The advantages and…

  3. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  4. 26 CFR 1.1234-1 - Options to buy or sell.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... option determines whether the capital gain or loss is short-term or long-term. (2) Section 1231... Options to buy or sell. (a) Sale or exchange—(1) Capital assets. Gain or loss from the sale or exchange of an option (or privilege) to buy or sell property which is (or if acquired would be) a capital...

  5. A New Approach to Organizing and Selling Advertising for the School Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad, Shirley C.

    1977-01-01

    Describes ways in which a high school newspaper reorganized its approach to designing advertising layouts and selling advertising space. The new approach includes the use of "unitized" page samples to show to advertisers and the preparation of advertising packets for use by staff members in selling ads. (GW)

  6. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  7. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  8. 43 CFR 3602.41 - When will BLM sell mineral materials on a competitive basis?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When will BLM sell mineral materials on a... (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL MATERIALS DISPOSAL Mineral Materials Sales Competitive Sales § 3602.41 When will BLM sell mineral...

  9. 25 CFR 161.711 - How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property... NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Actions § 161.711 How will BIA sell impounded livestock or other property? (a) Unless the owner or known lien holder of the impounded livestock or...

  10. 17 CFR 250.87 - Subsidiaries authorized to perform services or construction or to sell goods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... investment trust; or (2) Such services, construction, or goods are reasonably required by such associate to..., or sell goods to, associate companies thereof: (1) An approved mutual service company. (2) A... businesses other than that of selling goods to associate companies, that of performing services...

  11. 17 CFR 242.105 - Short selling in connection with a public offering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short selling in connection with a public offering. 242.105 Section 242.105 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... SECURITY FUTURES Regulation M § 242.105 Short selling in connection with a public offering. (a)...

  12. [Damage from passive tobacco smoking].

    PubMed

    Bartkowiak, Z

    1995-01-01

    The author presents data on the biological casualties and consequences of tobacco-smoking. Smoking is the most dangerous addiction in the scale of the world and in Poland. It causes numerous premature decrease and tobacco-dependent sickness. The author characterises the spread of this addiction in Poland concentrating on the problem of the passive smoking harmfulness. Non-smokers, children and youth, embryo and foetus during the pregnancy are exposed to the passive smoking. The experimental examinations of animals and the analysis of the lateral stream of the tobacco smoke confirm not the least, but rather the greater damage of the passive smoking than the active one. The mechanisms of acting of the tobacco smoke on the passive smokers' body and the health consequences are discussed. The manners, means and activities that are useful for the health protection of non-smokers against the tobacco smoke and the ways of the smoking prevention are described.

  13. Junking Science to Promote Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Yach, Derek; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga

    2001-01-01

    Despite the tobacco industry's claims that it has changed its practices, the toll of tobacco-related disease and death continues to grow worldwide, and the industry continues to use a vast array of strategies to promote its products and increase profits. This commentary discusses the ways the tobacco industry has created controversy about risk assessment and about the scientific evidence of the health hazards of secondhand smoke. The authors recommend that policymakers be more vigilant and that they demand transparency about affiliations and linkages between allegedly independent scientists and tobacco companies. They also urge policymakers to be prepared for new and continuing challenges posed by the tobacco industry, because, despite the industry's claims, there is little evidence of fundamental change in its objectives. PMID:11684592

  14. Attempts to Undermine Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2007-01-01

    We sought to understand how the tobacco industry uses “youth smoking prevention” programs in Latin America. We analyzed tobacco industry documents, so-called “social reports,” media reports, and material provided by Latin American public health advocates. Since the early 1990s, multinational tobacco companies have promoted “youth smoking prevention” programs as part of their “Corporate Social Responsibility” campaigns. The companies also partnered with third-party allies in Latin America, most notably nonprofit educational organizations and education and health ministries. Even though there is no evidence that these programs reduce smoking among youths, they have met the industry’s goal of portraying the companies as concerned corporate citizens and undermining effective tobacco control interventions that are required by the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:17600260

  15. Factors Associated With American Indian and White Adolescent Drug Selling in Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Eitle, David; Eitle, Tamela McNulty

    2014-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the correlates of adolescent drug selling in America, with most of these studies focusing on urban settings. The present study examines the risk and protective factors associated with drug selling among American Indian and white adolescents residing in a rural Northwestern state in the United States. Using survey data collected in 2010-2012, we conduct logistic regression analyses exploring the correlates of drug selling (n=568). Generally, we found support for prior explanations of drug selling, but identified some important race-specific differences. Specifically, we found that stress exposure was a risk factor for American Indians, but not whites. Conversely, academic achievement served as a protective factor for white adolescents but not American Indians. Our findings suggest that the race gap in rural drug selling can be explained by considering differences in social bonds, stress exposure, and exposure to substance using family and friends. PMID:26120365

  16. Tobacco retail regulation: the next frontier in tobacco control?

    PubMed

    Smyth, Colleen; Freeman, Becky; Maag, Audrey

    2015-07-09

    Australia has experienced significant reductions in smoking rates in recent decades, and public health scrutiny is turning to how further gains will be made. Regulatory controls, such as licensing to reduce retailer density or limit tobacco proximity to schools or licensed premises, have been suggested by some public health advocates as appropriate next steps. This paper summarises best-practice evidence in relation to tobacco retailer regulation, noting measures undertaken in New South Wales (NSW). Research on controlling the display of tobacco products and supply of tobacco to minors is well established. The evidence shows that a combination of licensing, enforcement, education, promotion restrictions at the point of sale and a well-funded compliance program to prevent sales to minors is a best-practice approach to tobacco retail regulation. The evidence for other measures - such as restricting the number of retail outlets, and restricting how and where tobacco is sold - is far less developed. There is insufficient evidence to determine if a positive licensing system and controls on the density and location of tobacco outlets would be effective in the Australian context. More evidence is required from jurisdictions that have implemented a positive licensing scheme to evaluate the effect of such schemes on smoking rates, the potential cost benefits and any unintended consequences.

  17. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    PubMed Central

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Methods: Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. Conclusion: The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously. PMID:15564224

  18. Policy makers' perspectives on tobacco control advocates' roles in regulation development

    PubMed Central

    Montini, T.; Bero, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify, from policy makers' perspectives, strategies that enhance tobacco control advocates' effectiveness in the regulatory arena.
DESIGN—Key informant interview component of a comparative case study of regulatory agencies in the USA.
SUBJECTS—Policy makers involved in the development of four regulatory tobacco control policies (three state and one federal).
METHODS—Interviews of policy makers, field notes, and deliberation minutes were coded inductively.
RESULTS—Policy makers considered both written commentary and public testimony when developing tobacco control regulations. They triaged written commentary based upon whether the document was from a peer reviewed journal, a summary of research evidence, or from a source considered credible. They coped with in-person testimony by avoiding being diverted from the scientific evidence, and by assessing the presenters' credibility. Policy makers suggested that tobacco control advocates should: present science in a format that is well organised and easily absorbed; engage scientific experts to participate in the regulatory process; and lobby to support the tobacco control efforts of the regulatory agency.
CONCLUSIONS—There is an important role for tobacco control advocates in the policy development process in regulatory agencies.


Keywords: health policy; regulations; policy makers PMID:11544384

  19. 75 FR 64355 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comments Requested

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed... Tax-Exempt Transfer of Firearm and Registration to Special (Occupational) Taxpayer. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will be submitting the...

  20. 76 FR 70758 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comments Requested; Records of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... collection. The Department of Justice (DOJ), Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), will... instructions or additional information, please contact William Majors, William.Majors@atf.gov , Firearms...