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Sample records for agency astronaut chris

  1. Philadelphia Eagles Honor NASA Astronaut Chris Ferguson

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut Chris Ferguson returned to his hometown on Nov. 7 to serve as the Philadelphia Eagles' Honorary Captain during the NFL's "Monday Night Football" game. The Eagles hosted the Chicago B...

  2. Close Shave for Astronaut Chris Cassidy

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using a hair trimmer and a vacuum aboard the International Space Station, Flight Engineer Chris Cassidy gives himself a serious haircut in preparation for the arrival of fellow Expedition 36 crewma...

  3. Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and Maurizio Cheli, representing European Space Agency (ESA),

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and Maurizio Cheli, representing European Space Agency (ESA), set up an experiment at the glovebox on the Space Shuttle Columbias mid-deck. The two mission specialists joined three other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia.

  4. Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), and astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), and astronaut Kevin R. Kregel, pilot, perform a successful Inflight Maintenance (IFM) on the Bubble Drop Particle Unit (BDPU). The IFM technique was performed initially on the ground at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by alternate payload specialist Pedro Duque of the European Space Agency (ESA), with the procedure being recorded on video and uplinked to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia to aid in the repair.

  5. Chris Christiansen and the Chris Cross

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Mathewson, Don

    2009-03-01

    The Chris Cross was the world's first crossed-grating interferometer, and was the brainchild of orte of Australia's foremost radio astronomers, W.N. (Chris) Christiansen, from the CSIRO's Division of Radiophysics in Sydney. Inspired by the innovative and highly-successful E-W and N-S solar grating arrays that he constructed at Potts Hill (Sydney) in the early 1950s, Christiansen sited the Chris Cross at the Division's Fleurs field station near Sydney, and from 1957 to 1988 it provided two-dimensional maps of solar radio emission at 1423 MHz. In 1960 an 18m parabolic antenna was installed adjacent to the Chris Cross array, and when used with the Chris Cross formed the Southern Hemisphere's first high-resolution compound interferometer. A survey of discrete radio sources was carried out with this radio telescope. The Division of Radiophysics handed the Fleurs field station over to the School of Engineering at the University of Sydney in 1963, and Christiansen and his colleagues from the Department of Electrical Engineering proceeded to develop the Chris Cross into the Fleurs Synthesis Telescope (FST) by adding six stand-alone 13.7m parabolic antennas. The FST was used for detailed studies of large radio galaxies, supernova remnants and emission nebulae. The FST was closed down in 1988, and antennas in the original Chris Cross array quickly began to deteriorate. A number of individual antennas in the central part of the array received a new lease of life in 1991 when they were refurbished by staff and students from the Department of Electrical Engineering at the Universityy of Western Sydney, but this only proved to be a temporary reprieve as even these aerials were bulldozed by the landowner in 2004, bringing to an untimely end one of the world's most remarkable radio telescopes.

  6. Image acquisition planning for the CHRIS sensor onboard PROBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Peter A.

    2004-10-01

    The CHRIS (Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) instrument was launched onboard the European Space Agency (ESA) PROBA satellite on 22 October 2001. CHRIS can acquire up to 63 bands of hyperspectral data at a ground spatial resolution of 36m. Alternatively, the instrument can be configured to acquire 18 bands of data with a spatial resolution of 17m. PROBA, by virtue of its agile pointing capability, enables CHRIS to acquire five different angle images of the selected site. Two sites can be acquired every 24 hours. The hyperspectral and multi-angle capability of CHRIS makes it an important resource for stydying BRDF phenomena of vegetation. Other applications include coastal and inland waters, wild fires, education and public relations. An effective data acquisition planning procedure has been implemented and since mid-2002 users have been receiving data for analysis. A cloud prediction routine has been adopted that maximises the image acquisition capacity of CHRIS-PROBA. Image acquisition planning is carried out by RSAC Ltd on behalf of ESA and in co-operation with Sira Technology Ltd and Redu, the ESA ground station in Belgium, responsible for CHRIS-PROBA.

  7. Blog life: Chris Lintott's Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lintott, Chris

    2008-07-01

    Who is the blog written by? Chris Lintott is a postdoc at Oxford University in the UK, where he is studying the application of astrochemical models of star formation to galaxies beyond the Milky Way. He is also heavily involved in science popularization and co-presents the 50-year-old BBC TV programme The Sky at Night with Sir Patrick Moore and he co-authored, along with Moore and Queen guitarist Brian May, the book Bang!, which is a popular account of the history of the universe (see Physics World October 2006 pp12-13). Lintott is also principal investigator on the Galaxy Zoo project, which enlists the help of members of the public to classify galaxies imaged by telescopes, and contributes to the project's blog.

  8. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  9. OBITUARY Chris Beling, 1955-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, P. G.

    2011-01-01

    This short tribute to Chris Beling, who died in July 2010 at the age of 54, is written on behalf of all members of the positron research community, by whom he was much loved and admired. Obituary Picture 1 Chris Beling, a much respected and admired member of the positron research community who was a familiar face at SLOPOS and other positron conferences over the past three decades, suffered heart failure as he swam out to rescue his younger brother Jeremy while holidaying in his home town of Paignton, in the southwest of England, on June 18 2010. Chris gained a first-class honours degree in physics at Keble College, Oxford, in 1977, and his PhD in Radiation Physics from the University of London in 1981. His postdoctoral research, performed with Alan Smith at St Bart's Medical College in London, focussed on positron studies of liquids [1]. His appointment as a lecturer at University College London in 1983 marked the beginning of his research involving positron beams [2] which was to continue for the rest of his life. In 1987 he moved to the University of Hong Kong (HKU), where he became professor of physics in 2007, working with Professor Steve Fung (with whom he studied at Oxford) and later with Francis Ling. During his 23 years in Hong Kong Chris developed his research interests, concentrating principally on positron beam studies of semiconductors [3]. His brother Jeremy commented that 'moving to Hong Kong was the making of Chris; he found love and happiness'. Chris's research interests reflected the deep intellectual interest he had in his work. He maintained a strong interest in developing the capabilities of positron beam systems - initially by proposing models for field-assisted moderators to increase slow positron yields [4] and later by constructing a hybrid magnetic/electrostatic beam [5] and scanning annihilation spectroscopy [6], among other imaginative advances. His interests in semiconductor physics led him to develop a positron technique analogous to

  10. Female Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Astronauts Dr. N. Jan Davis (left) and Dr. Mae C. Jemison (right) were mission specialists on board the STS-47 mission. Born on November 1, 1953 in Cocoa Beach, Florida, Dr. N. Jan Davis received a Master degree in Mechanical Engineering in 1983 followed by a Doctorate in Engineering from the University of Alabama in Huntsville in 1985. In 1979 she joined NASA Marshall Space Flight Center as an aerospace engineer. A veteran of three space flights, Dr. Davis has logged over 678 hours in space since becoming an astronaut in 1987. She flew as a mission specialist on STS-47 in 1992 and STS-60 in 1994, and was the payload commander on STS-85 in 1997. In July 1999, she transferred to the Marshall Space Flight Center, where she became Director of Flight Projects. Dr. Mae C. Jemison, the first African-American woman in space, was born on October 17, 1956 in Decatur, Alabama but considers Chicago, Illinois her hometown. She received a Bachelor degree in Chemical Engineering (and completed the requirements for a Bachelor degree in African and Afro-American studies) at Stanford University in 1977, and a Doctorate degree in medicine from Cornell University in 1981. After receiving her doctorate, she worked as a General Practitioner while attending graduate engineering classes in Los Angeles. She was named an astronaut candidate in 1987, and flew her first flight as a science mission specialists on STS-47, Spacelab-J, in September 1992, logging 190 hours, 30 minutes, 23 seconds in space. In March 1993, Dr. Jemison resigned from NASA, thought she still resides in Houston, Texas. She went on to publish her memoirs, Find Where the Wind Goes: Moments from My Life, in 2001. The astronauts are shown preparing to deploy the lower body negative pressure (LBNP) apparatus in this 35mm frame taken in the science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavor. Fellow astronauts Robert L. Gibson (Commander), Curtis L. Brown (Junior Pilot), Mark C. Lee (Payload Commander), Jay Apt

  11. OBITUARY Chris Beling, 1955-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, P. G.

    2011-01-01

    This short tribute to Chris Beling, who died in July 2010 at the age of 54, is written on behalf of all members of the positron research community, by whom he was much loved and admired. Obituary Picture 1 Chris Beling, a much respected and admired member of the positron research community who was a familiar face at SLOPOS and other positron conferences over the past three decades, suffered heart failure as he swam out to rescue his younger brother Jeremy while holidaying in his home town of Paignton, in the southwest of England, on June 18 2010. Chris gained a first-class honours degree in physics at Keble College, Oxford, in 1977, and his PhD in Radiation Physics from the University of London in 1981. His postdoctoral research, performed with Alan Smith at St Bart's Medical College in London, focussed on positron studies of liquids [1]. His appointment as a lecturer at University College London in 1983 marked the beginning of his research involving positron beams [2] which was to continue for the rest of his life. In 1987 he moved to the University of Hong Kong (HKU), where he became professor of physics in 2007, working with Professor Steve Fung (with whom he studied at Oxford) and later with Francis Ling. During his 23 years in Hong Kong Chris developed his research interests, concentrating principally on positron beam studies of semiconductors [3]. His brother Jeremy commented that 'moving to Hong Kong was the making of Chris; he found love and happiness'. Chris's research interests reflected the deep intellectual interest he had in his work. He maintained a strong interest in developing the capabilities of positron beam systems - initially by proposing models for field-assisted moderators to increase slow positron yields [4] and later by constructing a hybrid magnetic/electrostatic beam [5] and scanning annihilation spectroscopy [6], among other imaginative advances. His interests in semiconductor physics led him to develop a positron technique analogous to

  12. History as Story: An Interview with Chris Crowe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesesne, Teri

    2004-01-01

    This is an interview between Teacher Librarian and Chris Crowe. Chris Crowe's first novel won the International Reading Association's Children's Book Award. He is a fellow professor of YA Literature and a past-president of the Assembly on Literature for Adolescents of the National Council of Teachers of English. Some interview questions include:…

  13. 5Q4: Chris Edwards - Child Presence Sensor

    NASA Video Gallery

    Five Questions For (5Q4) Chris Edwards, NASA engineer who was the team lead of a group that invented a child presence sensor designed to alert parents if they've inadvertently left their child in h...

  14. Astronauts' menu problem.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesso, W. G.; Kenyon, E.

    1972-01-01

    Consideration of the problems involved in choosing appropriate menus for astronauts carrying out SKYLAB missions lasting up to eight weeks. The problem of planning balanced menus on the basis of prepackaged food items within limitations on the intake of calories, protein, and certain elements is noted, as well as a number of other restrictions of both physical and arbitrary nature. The tailoring of a set of menus for each astronaut on the basis of subjective rankings of each food by the astronaut in terms of a 'measure of pleasure' is described, and a computer solution to this problem by means of a mixed integer programming code is presented.

  15. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1978: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janson, Bette R.

    1986-01-01

    This is the 18th in a series of annual chronologies of significant events in the fields of astronautics and aeronautics. Events covered are international as well as national and political as well as scientific and technical. This series is a reference work for historians, NASA personnel, government agencies, congressional staffs, and the media.

  16. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1985: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janson, Bette R.

    1988-01-01

    This book is part of a series of annual chronologies of significant events in the fields of astronautics and aeronautics. Events covered are international as well as national, in political as well as scientific and technical areas. This series is an important reference work used by historians, NASA personnel, government agencies, and congressional staffs, as well as the media.

  17. Astronaut John Young's Career

    NASA Video Gallery

    John Young served as a NASA astronaut for over four decades, flying on Gemini, Apollo and the Space Shuttle. He walked on the moon during Apollo 16 in 1972 and commanded the first shuttle mission, ...

  18. Building An Astronaut Core

    NASA Video Gallery

    Train to improve the strength in your abdominal and back muscles by performing the "Commander Crunch" and "Pilot Plank" exercises. The Train Like an Astronaut project uses the excitement of explora...

  19. Astronauts Practice Station Spacewalk

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Cady Coleman and Suni Williams conduct an underwater practice spacewalk session at Johnson Space Center’s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. The session was used to help International Space St...

  20. Shuttle Astronauts Play Chess

    NASA Video Gallery

    STS-134 astronauts Greg Johnson and Greg Chamitoff ponder their next move for the Earth vs. Space chess match. The shuttle crew members also discuss their activities aboard the International Space ...

  1. ISS Update: Astronaut's Perspective

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews veteran NASA astronaut Cady Coleman about what it's like to receive visitors on the International Space Station as well as her other experience...

  2. NASA Astronauts Fly Dream Chaser Simulations May 15-17

    NASA Video Gallery

    Jack Fischer was one of four NASA astronauts to fly approach and landing simulations of Sierra Nevada Corporation's Dream Chaser spacecraft at the agency's Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va. T...

  3. Chris Woodhead: A New Champion of Eugenic Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2009-01-01

    Eugenic Theories are clearly alive and well in present-day society--or this is at least true of those theories relating to the passing on of abilities and talents from one generation to the next. This depressing thought was prompted by a reading of Chris Woodhead's latest book "A Desolation of Learning."

  4. Resistance and Resilience in a Life Full of Professionals and Labels: Narrative Snapshots of Chris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hove, Geert; Gabel, Susan L.; De Schauwer, Elisabeth; Mortier, Kathleen; Van Loon, Jos; Loots, Gerrit; Devlieger, Patrick; Roets, Griet; Claes, Lien

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors relate the life of Chris through narrative snapshots. Chris asked the authors to tell her story. They decided that it could be used to provide an insight into the different ways people with labels are confronted with professional practices and rituals. Although Chris lived a "tough life," her story is full of…

  5. EAC: The European Astronauts Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripoll, Andres

    The newly established European Astronauts Centre (EAC) in Cologne represents the European Astronauts Home Base and will become a centre of expertise on European astronauts activities. The paper gives an overview of the European approach to man-in-space, describes the European Astronauts Policy and presents the major EAC roles and responsibilities including the management of selection, recruitment and flight assignment of astronauts; the astronauts support and medical surveillance; the supervision of the astronauts' non-flight assignments; crew safety; the definition of the overall astronauts training programme; the scheduling and supervision of the training facilities; the implementation of Basic Training; the recruitment, training and certification of instructors, and the interface to NASA in the framework of the Space Station Freedom programme. An overview is given on the organisation of EAC, and on the European candidate astronauts selection performed in 1991.

  6. Assessments of astronaut effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Robert M.; Helmreich, Robert L.; Fogg, Louis; Mcfadden, Terry J.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and convergent validity of three methods of peer and supervisory ratings of the effectiveness of individual NASA astronauts and their relationships with flight assignments. These two techniques were found to be reliable and relatively convergent. Seniority and a peer-rated Performance and Competence factor proved to be most closely associated with flight assignments, while supervisor ratings and a peer-rated Group Living and Personality factor were found to be unrelated. Results have implications for the selection and training of astronauts.

  7. Multi-angular hyperspectral observations of Mediterranean forest with PROBA-CHRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menenti, Massimo; Maselli, Fabio; Chiesi, Marta; Benedetti, Riccardo; Cristofori, Simone; Guzzi, Donatella; Magnani, Federico; Raddi, Sabrina; Maffei, Carmine

    2004-10-01

    Measurements of spectro-directional radiances done with the imaging spectrometer CHRIS on-board the agile platform PROBA are being used to determine key properties of terrestrial vegetation at the appropriate spatial resolution. These data on vegetation properties can then be used to improve the accuracy and the parameterizations of models describing biosphere processes, i.e. photosynthesis and water use by irrigated crops and trees. The vegetation properties considered are: albedo, Leaf Area Index (LAI), fractional cover, fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (fAPAR) and canopy chlorophyll content. The Natural Park of San Rossore (Pisa, Central Italy) is a primary test site for several national and international research projects dealing with forest ecosystem monitoring. In particular, since 1999 measurements of transpiration and ecosystem gas-exchange have been regularly taken in the park pine forest to characterize its main water and carbon fluxes. In the same period, several aerial flights have been carried out with onboard hyper-spectral sensors (MIVIS, VIRS, AISA), while a series of satellite images have been acquired using both conventional (NOAAAVHRR, Landsat-TM/ETM+) and advanced sensors (CHRIS-PROBA). The final objective of these activities is to calibrate and validate methodologies which integrate remotely sensed and ancillary data for monitoring forest ecosystem. More specifically, a major research effort has been focused on evaluating the additional information content provided by advanced hyper-spectral multi-angular sensors about the main parameters needed for forest characterization (species, LAI, pigment content, etc.). These activities are part of projects which are financed by the Italian and European Space Agencies (ASI and ESA, respectively) within the framework of the CHRIS-PROBA and SPECTRA missions. During 2002 and 2003 nine complete multi-angular acquisitions were successfully performed over the San Rossore site. This

  8. The European Astronaut Centre prepares for International Space Station operations.

    PubMed

    Messerschmid, E; Haignere, J P; Damian, K; Damann, V

    2004-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) contribution to the International Space Station (ISS) goes much beyond the delivery of hardware like the Columbus Laboratory, its payloads and the Automated Transfer Vehicles. ESA Astronauts will be members of the ISS crew. ESA, according to its commitments as ISS international partner, will be responsible to provide training on its elements and payloads to all ISS crewmembers and medical support for ESA astronauts. The European Astronaut Centre (EAC) in Cologne has developed over more than a decade into the centre of expertise for manned space activities within ESA by contributing to a number of important co-operative spaceflight missions. This role will be significantly extended for ISS manned operations. Apart from its support to ESA astronauts and their onboard operations, EAC will have a key role in training all ISS astronauts on ESA elements and payloads. The medical support of ISS crew, in particular of ESA astronauts has already started. This paper provides an overview on status and further plans in building up this homebase function for ESA astronauts and on the preparation towards Training Readiness for ISS crew training at EAC, Cologne. Copyright 2001 by the European Space Agency. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. Released to IAF/IAA/AIAA to publish in all forms.

  9. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Challenge was developed in 2011 to encourage proper exercise and nutrition at an early age by teaching young people to live and eat like space explorers. The strong correlation between an unhealthy childhood diet and adolescent fitness, and the onset of chronic diseases as an adult is the catalyst for Mission X. Mission X is dedicated to assisting people on a global scale to live healthier lifestyles and learn about human space exploration. The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut 2015 (MX15) International Challenge hosted almost 40,000 children on 800 teams, 28 countries affiliated with 12 space agencies. The MX15 website included 17 languages. MX15, the fifth annual international fitness challenges sponsored by the NASA Human Research Program worked with the European Space Agency and other space agencies from around the world. In comparison to MX14, MX15 expanded to include four additional new countries, increased the number of students by approximately 68% and the number of teams by 29%. Chile' and South Korea participated in the new fall Astro Charlie Walk Around the Earth Challenge. Pre-challenge training materials were made more readily available from the website. South Korea completed a prospective assessment of the usability of the MX content for improving health and fitness in 212 preschool children and their families. Mission X is fortunate to have the support of the NASA, ESA and JAXA astronaut corps. In MX15, they participated in the opening and closing events as well as while on-board the International Space Station. Italian Astronaut Samantha Cristoretti participated as the MX15 Astronaut Ambassador for health and fitness providing the opening video and other videos from ISS. United Kingdom Astronaut Tim Peake and US Astronaut Kate Rubins have agreed to be the MX Ambassadors for 2016 and 2017 respectively. The MX15 International Working Group Face-to-Face meeting and Closing Event were held at the Agenzia Spaziale

  10. European astronaut training in Houston.

    PubMed

    Chiarenza, O

    1993-11-01

    Three European astronauts are currently training as Space Shuttle Mission Specialists at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. Two of the astronauts, Maurizio Cheli and Jean-Francois Clervoy, recently became members of NASA's 'astronaut pool' and have entered the Advanced Training phase. The third one, Claude Nicollier, is now preparing for the mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope in December.

  11. Astronaut Pedro Duque Watches A Water Bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), European Space Agency astronaut Pedro Duque of Spain watches a water bubble float between a camera and himself. The bubble shows his reflection (reversed). Duque was launched aboard a Russian Soyuz TMA-3 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan on October 18th, along with expedition-8 crew members Michael C. Foale, Mission Commander and NASA ISS Science Officer, and Cosmonaut Alexander Y. Kaleri, Soyuz Commander and flight engineer.

  12. Multiphoton tomography of astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Weinigel, Martin; Pietruszka, Anna; Bückle, Rainer; Gerlach, Nicole; Heinrich, Ulrike

    2015-03-01

    Weightlessness may impair the astronaut's health conditions. Skin impairments belong to the most frequent health problems during space missions. Within the Skin B project, skin physiological changes during long duration space flights are currently investigated on three European astronauts that work for nearly half a year at the ISS. Measurements on the hydration, the transepidermal water loss, the surface structure, elasticity and the tissue density by ultrasound are conducted. Furthermore, high-resolution in vivo histology is performed by multiphoton tomography with 300 nm spatial and 200 ps temporal resolution. The mobile certified medical tomograph with a flexible 360° scan head attached to a mechano-optical arm is employed to measure two-photon autofluorescence and SHG in the volar forearm of the astronauts. Modification of the tissue architecture and of the fluorescent biomolecules NAD(P)H, keratin, melanin and elastin are detected as well as of SHG-active collagen. Thinning of the vital epidermis, a decrease of the autofluoresence intensity, an increase in the long fluorescence lifetime, and a reduced skin ageing index SAAID based on an increased collagen level in the upper dermis have been found. Current studies focus on recovery effects.

  13. Motivational profile of astronauts at the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that the motive triad of needs for achievement, power, and affiliation can predict variables such as occupational success and satisfaction, innovation, aggressiveness, susceptibility to illness, cooperation, conformity, and many others. The present study documents the motivational profiles of astronauts at three stages of their expedition. Thematic content analysis was employed for references to Winter's well-established motive markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and oral histories) of 46 astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) expeditions. Significant pre-flight differences were found in relation to home agency and job status. NASA astronauts, compared with those from the Russian Space Agency, are motivated by higher need for power, as are commanders in comparison to flight engineers. The need for affiliation motive showed a significant change from pre-flight to in-flight stages. The implications of the relationship between the motivational profile of astronauts and the established behavioural correlates of such profiles are discussed.

  14. Astronaut Sharnon Lucid in Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut Shannon W. Lucid, Ph.D., communicates with the ground support team inside the Core Module of the Mir Space Station. Launched aboard the STS-76, the third Shuttle/Mir docking mission, in March 1996, to join the Mir crew in the orbiting laboratory, Astronaut Lucid returned to Earth aboard STS-79 in September 1996. Astronaut Lucid made the U.S. longest record of 188 days in space. Prior to this endeavor, Astronaut Lucid served as a mission specialist on STS-51G in June 1985, STS-34 in October 1989, STS-43 in August 1991, and STS-58 in October 1993. She had logged 5,354 hours (223 days) in space and holds both an international record for the most flight hours in orbit by any non-Russian, and the record for the most flight hours in orbit by any woman in the world. In February 2002. Dr. Lucid was selected as NASA's Chief Scientist at NASA Headquarters in Washington D.C., with responsibility for developing and communicating the agency's science and research objectives to the outside world.

  15. STS-118 Astronaut Dave Williams Trains Using Virtual Reality Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist Dafydd R. 'Dave' Williams, representing the Canadian Space Agency, uses Virtual Reality Hardware in the Space Vehicle Mock Up Facility at the Johnson Space Center to rehearse some of his duties for the upcoming mission. This type of virtual reality training allows the astronauts to wear special gloves and other gear while looking at a computer that displays simulating actual movements around the various locations on the station hardware which with they will be working.

  16. Astronaut Charles Conrad trims hair of Astronaut Paul Weitz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, trims the hair of Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, during the 28-day Skylab 2 mission in Earth orbit. They are in the crew quarters wardroom of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station. Weitz is holding a vacuum hose in his right hand. This picture was taken by Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot.

  17. STS-35: Astronaut Departure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The primary objective of the STS-35 mission was the round-the-clock observations of the celestial sphere in ultraviolet and X ray astronomy with ASTRO-1. The mission was commanded by Vance D. Brand. The crew consisted of the pilot Guy S. Gardner, the mission Specialists Jeffery Hoffman, John Lounge, and Robert Parker, and the payload specialists Samuel Durrance, and Ronald Parise. This videotape shows the astronauts leaving the Kennedy Space Center after one of the attempts to launch the mission was scrubbed due to hydrogen leaks aboard the shuttle Columbia.

  18. Astronaut training manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    Scientific information from previous space flights, space medicine, exercise physiology, and sports medicine was used to prepare a physical fitness manual suitable for use by members of the NASA astronaut population. A variety of scientifically valid exercise programs and activities suitable for the development of physical fitness are provided. Programs, activities, and supportive scientific data are presented in a concise, easy to read format so as to permit the user to select his or her mode of training with confidence and devote time previously spent experimenting with training routines to preparation for space flight. The programs and activities included were tested and shown to be effective and enjoyable.

  19. Astronauts Clown Around in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts are clowning around in space in this STS-51A onboard photo. Astronaut Gardner, holds a 'For Sale' sign after the retrieval of two malfunctioning satellites; the Western Union Telegraph Communication Satellite (WESTAR VI); and the PALAPA-B2 Satellite. Astronaut Allen, who is standing on the RMS (Remote Manipulator System) is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. The 51A mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on November 8, 1984.

  20. Astronauts Clown Around in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronauts are clowning around in space in this STS-51A onboard photo. Astronaut Gardner, holds a 'For Sale' sign after the retrieval of two malfunctioning satellites; the Western Union Telegraph Communication Satellite (WESTAR VI); and the PALAPA-B2 Satellite. Astronaut Allen, who is standing on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. The 51A mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on November 8, 1984.

  1. Neuropsychological Testing of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Christopher; Vander Ark, Steve; Eksuzian, Daniel; Sipes, Walter; Kane, Robert; Vanderploeg, Rodney; Retzlaff, Paul; Elsmore, Tim; Moore, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a computer program that administers a battery of five timed neuro-cognitive tests. WinSCAT was developed to give astronauts an objective and automated means of assessing their cognitive functioning during space flight, as compared with their own baseline performances measured during similar prior testing on the ground. WinSCAT is also intended for use by flight surgeons to assess cognitive impairment after exposure of astronauts to such cognitive assaults as head trauma, decompression sickness, and exposure to toxic gas. The tests were selected from among a group of tests, denoted the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics, that were created by the United States Navy and Army for use in evaluating the cognitive impairment of military personnel who have been subjected to medication or are suspected to have sustained brain injuries. These tests have been validated in a variety of clinical settings and are now in the public domain. The tests are presented in a Microsoft Windows shell that facilitates administration and enables immediate reporting of test scores in numerical and graphical forms.

  2. Astronaut health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan; Gift, Alan; Maksymiuk, Paul; Farquharson, Stuart

    2006-10-01

    Extended weightlessness causes numerous deleterious changes in human physiology, including space motion sickness, cephalad fluid shifts, reduced immune response, and breakdown of muscle tissue with subsequent loss of bone mass and formation of renal stones. Furthermore, these physiological changes also influence the metabolism of drugs used by astronauts to minimize these deleterious effects. Unfortunately, the changes in human physiology in space are also reflected in drug metabolism, and current pre-flight analyses designed to set dosage are inadequate. Furthermore, current earth-based analytical laboratory methods that employ liquid or gas chromatography for separation and fluorescence or mass spectrometry for trace detection are labor intensive, slow, massive, and not cost-effective for operation in space. In an effort to overcome these instrument limitations we have been developing a sampling device to both separate these drugs and metabolites from urine, and generate surface-enhanced Raman (SER) spectra. The detailed molecular vibrational information afforded by Raman scattering allows chemical identification, while the surface-enhancement increases sensitivity by six or more orders of magnitude and allows detection of nanogram per milliliter concentrations. Generally no more than 1 milliliter of sample is required and complete analysis can be performed in 5 minutes using a portable, light-weight Raman spectrometer. Here we present the SER analysis of several drugs used by astronauts measured in synthetic urine and reconstituted urine.

  3. Sub pixel location identification using super resolved multilooking CHRIS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahithi, V. S.; Agrawal, S.

    2014-11-01

    CHRIS /Proba is a multiviewing hyperspectral sensor that monitors the earth in five different zenith angles +55°, +36°, nadir, -36° and -55° with a spatial resolution of 17 m and within a spectral range of 400-1050 nm in mode 3. These multiviewing images are suitable for constructing a super resolved high resolution image that can reveal the mixed pixel of the hyperspectral image. In the present work, an attempt is made to find the location of various features constituted within the 17m mixed pixel of the CHRIS image using various super resolution reconstruction techniques. Four different super resolution reconstruction techniques namely interpolation, iterative back projection, projection on to convex sets (POCS) and robust super resolution were tried on the -36, nadir and +36 images to construct a super resolved high resolution 5.6 m image. The results of super resolution reconstruction were compared with the scaled nadir image and bicubic convoluted image for comparision of the spatial and spectral property preservance. A support vector machine classification of the best super resolved high resolution image was performed to analyse the location of the sub pixel features. Validation of the obtained results was performed using the spectral unmixing fraction images and the 5.6 m classified LISS IV image.

  4. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this on-board photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS). Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair.

  5. Astronaut Aldrin is photographed by Astronaut Armstrong on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Onboard Film -- The deployment of scientific experiments by Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Jr. is photographed by Astronaut Neil Armstrong. Man's first landing on the Moon occurred today at 4:17 p.m. as Lunar Module 'Eagle' touched down gently on the Sea of Tranquility on the east side of the Moon.

  6. Several 1992 astronaut candidates brush the sand and gravel off one another following one of several

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    1992 ASCAN TRAINING --- Several 1992 astronaut candidates brush the sand and gravel off one another following one of several phases of parachute familiarization and survival training at Vance Air Force Base in Oklahoma. Recognizable in the picture are Wendy B. Lawrence, Michael E. Lopez-Alegria, Chris A. Hadfield, Winston E. Scott and Koichi Wakata. The trainees had just completed an exercise which required their jumping off a box into a gravel pit, in order to familiarize them the proper way to meet the ground following an emergency parachute drop.

  7. Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete database of the photographs. In order to perform this work, the astronauts who take the pictures must be educated in ecological issues.

  8. Acute urinary retention among astronauts.

    PubMed

    Stepaniak, Philip C; Ramchandani, Suneil R; Jones, Jeffrey A

    2007-04-01

    Although acute urinary retention (AUR) is not commonly thought of as a life-threatening condition, its presentation in orbit can lead to a number of medical complications that could compromise a space mission. We report on a middle-aged astronaut who developed urinary retention during two spaceflights. On the first mission of note, the astronaut initially took standard doses of promethazine and scopolamine before launch, and developed AUR immediately after entering orbit. For the first 3 d, the astronaut underwent intermittent catheterizations with a single balloon-tipped catheter. Due to the lack of iodine solution on board and the need for the astronaut to complete certain duties without interruption, the catheter was left in place for a total of 4 d. Although the ability to void returned after day 7, a bout of AUR reemerged on day 10, 1 d before landing. On return to Earth, a cystometrogram was unremarkable. During the astronaut's next mission, AUR again recurred for the first 24 h of microgravity exposure, and the astronaut was subsequently able to void spontaneously while in space. This report details the presentation of this astronaut, the precautions that were taken for space travel subsequent to the initial episode of AUR, and the possible reasons why space travel can predispose astronauts to urinary retention while in orbit. The four major causes of AUR--obstructive, pharmacologic, psychogenic, and neurogenic-are discussed, with an emphasis on how these may have played a role in this case.

  9. When Chris Becomes Courtney: Preparing a Pre-K-8 School Community for a Transgendering Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterman, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares a story about Chris who publicly transitioned to Courtney during his eighth grade year. Working with a transgender student would require educators as a community to make many decisions for which they had no road map. They need time to educate the community while respecting Chris's need to express himself as…

  10. 33 CFR 100.916 - Chris Craft Silver Cup Races, Algonac, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chris Craft Silver Cup Races, Algonac, MI. 100.916 Section 100.916 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.916 Chris Craft Silver...

  11. 33 CFR 100.916 - Chris Craft Silver Cup Races, Algonac, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chris Craft Silver Cup Races, Algonac, MI. 100.916 Section 100.916 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.916 Chris Craft Silver...

  12. 33 CFR 100.916 - Chris Craft Silver Cup Races, Algonac, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chris Craft Silver Cup Races, Algonac, MI. 100.916 Section 100.916 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.916 Chris Craft Silver...

  13. 33 CFR 100.916 - Chris Craft Silver Cup Races, Algonac, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chris Craft Silver Cup Races, Algonac, MI. 100.916 Section 100.916 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.916 Chris Craft Silver...

  14. 33 CFR 100.916 - Chris Craft Silver Cup Races, Algonac, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chris Craft Silver Cup Races, Algonac, MI. 100.916 Section 100.916 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.916 Chris Craft Silver...

  15. Space Shuttle Era: Astronaut Support Personnel

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts rely on other astronauts on launch day to help them get rady for liftoff and the misison ahead. The helpful cadre are known formally as Astronaut Support Personnel but are called ASPs or...

  16. Train Like an Astronaut Educational Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Yamil L.; Lloyd, Charles; Reeves, Katherine M.; Abadie, Laurie J.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to reduce the incidence of childhood obesity, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), capitalizing on the theme of human spaceflight developed two educational outreach programs for children ages 8-12. To motivate young "fit explorers," the Train Like an Astronaut National (TLA) program and the Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut International Fitness Challenge (MX) were created. Based on the astronauts' physical training, these programs consist of activities developed by educators and experts in the areas of space life sciences and fitness. These Activities address components of physical fitness. The educational content hopes to promote students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. At the national level, in partnership with First Lady Michelle Obama's Let?s Move! Initiative, the TLA program consists of 10 physical and 2 educational activities. The program encourages families, schools, and communities to work collaboratively in order to reinforce in children and their families the importance of healthy lifestyle habits In contrast, the MX challenge is a cooperative outreach program involving numerous space agencies and other international partner institutions. During the six-week period, teams of students from around the world are challenged to improve their physical fitness and collectively accumulate points by completing 18 core activities. During the 2011 pilot year, a t otal of 137 teams and more than 4,000 students from 12 countries participated in the event. MX will be implemented within 24 countries during the 2012 challenge. It is projected that 7,000 children will "train like an astronaut".

  17. Astronauts Exercising in Space Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    To minimize the effects of weightlessness and partial gravity, astronauts use several counter measures to maintain health and fitness. One counter measure is exercise to help reduce or eliminate muscle atrophy and bone loss, and to improve altered cardiovascular function. This video shows astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) using the stationary Cycle/ Ergometer Vibration Isolation System (CVIS), the Treadmill Vibration Isolation System (TVIS), and the resistance exercise device. These technologies and activities will be crucial to keeping astronauts healthy and productive during the long missions to the Moon. Mars, and beyond.

  18. Dose limits for astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, W. K.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation exposures to individuals in space can greatly exceed natural radiation exposure on Earth and possibly normal occupational radiation exposures as well. Consequently, procedures limiting exposures would be necessary. Limitations were proposed by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in 1970. This panel recommended short-term limits to avoid deterministic effects and a single career limit (of 4 Sv) based on a doubling of the cancer risk in men aged 35 to 55. Later, when risk estimates for cancer had increased and were recognized to be age and sex dependent, the NCRP, in Report No. 98 in 1989, recommended a range of career limits based on age and sex from 1 to 4 Sv. NCRP is again in the process of revising recommendations for astronaut exposure, partly because risk estimates have increased further and partly to recognize trends in limiting radiation exposure occupationally on the ground. The result of these considerations is likely to be similar short-term limits for deterministic effects but modified career limits.

  19. Chromosome Aberrations in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Kerry A.; Durante, M.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A review of currently available data on in vivo induced chromosome damage in the blood lymphocytes of astronauts proves that, after protracted exposure of a few months or more to space radiation, cytogenetic biodosimetry analyses of blood collected within a week or two of return from space provides a reliable estimate of equivalent radiation dose and risk. Recent studies indicate that biodosimetry estimates from single spaceflights lie within the range expected from physical dosimetry and biophysical models, but very large uncertainties are associated with single individual measurements and the total sample population remains low. Retrospective doses may be more difficult to estimate because of the fairly rapid time-dependent loss of "stable" aberrations in blood lymphocytes. Also, biodosimetry estimates from individuals who participate in multiple missions, or very long (interplanetary) missions, may be complicated by an adaptive response to space radiation and/or changes in lymphocyte survival and repopulation. A discussion of published data is presented and specific issues related to space radiation biodosimetry protocols are discussed.

  20. Dose limits for astronauts.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, W K

    2000-11-01

    Radiation exposures to individuals in space can greatly exceed natural radiation exposure on Earth and possibly normal occupational radiation exposures as well. Consequently, procedures limiting exposures would be necessary. Limitations were proposed by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in 1970. This panel recommended short-term limits to avoid deterministic effects and a single career limit (of 4 Sv) based on a doubling of the cancer risk in men aged 35 to 55. Later, when risk estimates for cancer had increased and were recognized to be age and sex dependent, the NCRP, in Report No. 98 in 1989, recommended a range of career limits based on age and sex from 1 to 4 Sv. NCRP is again in the process of revising recommendations for astronaut exposure, partly because risk estimates have increased further and partly to recognize trends in limiting radiation exposure occupationally on the ground. The result of these considerations is likely to be similar short-term limits for deterministic effects but modified career limits. PMID:11045534

  1. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the foreward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). This ASMU exerperiment is being done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  2. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the forward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). This ASMU exerperiment is being done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  3. Astronaut Paul Weitz gets physical examination from Astronaut Joseph Kerwin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, gets a physical examination by a fellow crewman during the 28-day Skylab 2 mission. Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot and a doctor of medicine, uses a stethoscope to check the Weitz's heartbeat. They are in the Orbital Workshop crew quarters of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station in Earth orbit. This photograph was taken by Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander.

  4. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin takes blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin (right), Skylab 2 science pilot and a doctor of medicine, takes a blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Sylab 2 commander, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. The blood sampling was part of the Skylab Hematology and Immunology Experiment M110 series.

  5. NASA's New Educator Astronauts Face Long Wait for Their Shuttle Missions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    When the U.S. space agency pinned badges on the 11 newest members of its astronaut corps this winter, it also increased by three its cadre of educator astronauts. Three former teachers-Dorothy M. Metcalf-Lindenburger, Richard R. Arnold II, and Joseph M. Acaba-graduated from NASA's grueling training program. The gauntlet of fitness test, survival…

  6. Astronauts Share the Art and Science of Earth, in their Photographs from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts have taken over 1 million photographs of Earth. Many of them directly support science research by documenting ephemeral events or showing Earth changes over the 50 year history of astronaut photography. And yet, even more of them are simply beautiful images of our wonderful planet. Astronauts love to look at the Earth from this 370km high vantage point. And they're constantly taking pictures - typically over 500 pictures each day. 'Oh, look at that' - click! 'And that' - click! Then they share them with scientists, other astronauts, and the public - as a way to help other people experience this transformative view of home planet Earth. Astronaut Chris Hadfield had 1.2 million followers on his tweeter feed from orbit, through which he sent hundreds of photographs. The yellows and oranges of the Sahara; serene islands in the middle of the Pacific; looking out over the snow-covered Alps; the night lights of Paris; looking straight down into an erupting volcano. What drama, what story, what a remarkable way to learn about Earth from the perspective of science and art. Each of these 1.2 million pictures was taken by a human, an astronaut who felt this awe and respect for Earth, who melded this art and science and pressed the button at the decisive moment. This session features dozens of these photographs, each selected as an all-time favorite by the astronauts after they returned to Earth. We will present the photos, as well as the astronauts' commentary, and an over-arching analysis of insights gained from the orbital perspective. We also will demonstrate the Windows on Earth software that the astronauts use on-orbit to plan their photographic opportunities and identify specific targets and features of interest, while orbiting at 17,000 mph. Finally, we will provide links to web-based resources for the public to get access to this entire archive of Earth photographs, so that they can pick their own favorites, download them, and explore creative ways to

  7. Private Astronaut Training Prepares Commercial Crews of Tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    A new company that includes a handful of former NASA personnel is already taking applications for the first comprehensive commercial astronaut training approved by the Federal Aviation Administration. Waypoint 2 Space, located at Johnson Space Center, hopes to draw space tourists and enthusiasts and future commercial crewmembers with first-hand NASA know-how, as well as agency training technology.

  8. Astronaut Steve Swanson Visits Goddard

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Tuesday, 3 March 2015, a special guest visited NASA Goddard Space Flight Center during his time back on Earth. Steven Swanson, NASA astronaut, intrigued the audience by highlighting his adventur...

  9. Astronauts Practice Station Spacewalk Underwater

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Robert Satcher Jr. and Rick Sturckow conduct an underwater practice spacewalk session at Johnson Space Center’s Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory. The session was used to help International Sp...

  10. Astronautics and psychology. Recommendations for the psychological training of astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haupt, Gerhard F.

    The methods presently applied in the psychological training of astronauts are based on the principle of ensuring maximum performance of astronauts during missions. The shortcomings are obvious since those undergoing training provide nothing but the best ability to cope with Earth problem situations and add simply an experience of space problem situations as they are presently conceived. Earth attitudes and Earth behaviour remain and are simply modified. Through the utilization of interdisciplinary space knowledge a much higher degree of problem anticipation could be achieved and the astronaut be psychologically transformed into a space-being. This would at the same time stimulate interdisciplinary space research. The interdisciplinary space knowledge already available suggests that space requires not only physical and mental adjustments, but a profoundly new relationship with life.

  11. Philosophy on astronaut protection: Perspective of an astronaut

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E.

    1997-04-30

    There are significant differences in the risks during the launch of a spacecraft, its journey, and its subsequent return to earth, as contrasted to the risks of latent cancers that may develop as a result of the associated radiation exposures. Once the spacecraft has landed, following a successful mission, the risks of accidental death are over. The risks of latent cancers, however, will remain with the astronauts for the rest of their lives. The same may be true for many of the effects of the space environment, including microgravity. Compounding the problem with respect to radiation are the large uncertainties accompanying the estimates of the associated latent cancer risks. In addition to radiation doses received as a result of being exposed in space, astronauts have received significant does of radiation in conjunction with medical examinations and experiments conducted to obtain data on the effects of the space environment on humans. The experiments were considered to be a part of the {open_quotes}job{close_quotes} of being an astronaut, and the resulting doses were included in the medical records. Following this approach, the accompanying doses were counted against the career limits being imposed on each astronaut. As a result, volunteering for such experiments could cause an earlier termination of the career of an astronaut than would otherwise have occurred and add to the total radiation exposure, thereby increasing one`s risk of subsequent illness. Through cooperative efforts, these does have been significantly reduced in recent years. In fact, one of the outcomes of these efforts has been the incorporation of the ALARA concept into the radiation protection program for the astronauts. The fact that a space mission has a range of risks, including some that are relatively large, is no justification for failing to reduce the accompanying radiation risk.

  12. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the foreward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). He is wearing a pressure suit for this run of the M509 experiment, but other ASMU tests are done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  13. Astronaut Aldrin is photographed by Astronaut Armstrong on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The deployment of the early Apollo scientific experiments package is photographed by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong during the Apollo 11 EVA. Here, Astronaut Aldrin is deploying the passive seismic experiments package. Already deployed is the Lunar ranging retro- reflector, which can be seen to the left and farther in the background. In the right background is the Lunar Module (LM). A flag of the United States is deployed near the LM. In the far left background is the deployed black and white lunar surface television camera. Armstrong took this picture with the 70mm lunar surface camera.

  14. STS-118 Astronaut Barbara Morgan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Barbara R. Morgan (center), STS-118 astronaut and mission specialist, dons a training version of her shuttle launch and entry suit, prior to the start of a mission training exercise in the Space Vehicle Mock Up Facility at Johnson Space Center. United Space Alliance (USA) personnel were on hand to assist Morgan. Morgan was chosen as the first educator to become a mission specialist astronaut in 2002. The Educator Astronaut Project evolved from the Teacher in Space Project. Both aimed to engage and attract students to explore the excitement and wonder of space flight and to inspire and support educators. Morgan's primary duty was the same as it is for the entire crew, accomplish the planned objectives of the station assembly mission. But she also took part in several education-related activities.

  15. The Challenges and Opportunities of a Commercial Astronaut Mission to the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirra, C.; Carl, S.

    2002-01-01

    ISS flight opportunities for ESA astronauts are considered as a vital source to meet the objectives (utilisation, operation and political), which Europe has established in participating to the International Space Station programme. Recent internal ESA assessments have demonstrated that, in order to satisfy the objectives drawn in the ESA ISS Exploitation programme, a rate of three flights per year for European Astronauts should be maintained as minimum objective. Since the establishment of a single European Astronaut Corps and having regard of the ISS flight opportunities provided through national space agencies, the current European astronauts flight rate is rather lower than the above three flights per year. In order to improve this situation, in the context of the activation of the ESA ISS Commercialisation programme, the Agency contracted Intospace to develop the conditions for the establishment of ESA astronaut missions with the financial support of both ESA and the private sector or, in future, the latter only. The study led to the definition of a "commercial astronaut", as a member of the European Astronaut Corp that will be assigned the responsibility to perform research and commercial space projects in a given ISS mission scenario. This paper will present the recent outcomes of a detailed study phase, including highlights on possible implementation of a private sector-supported astronaut mission to the ISS.

  16. Origins of astronautics in Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadlis, A.

    1977-01-01

    Swiss contributions to astronautics are recounted. Scientists mentioned include: Bernoulli and Euler for their early theoretical contributions; the balloonist, Auguste Piccard; J. Ackeret, for his contributions to the study of aerodynamics; the rocket propulsion pioneer, Josef Stemmer; and the Swiss space scientists, Eugster, Stettbacker, Zwicky, and Schurch.

  17. Astronaut Curbeam in Quest Airlock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Astronaut Robert L. Curbeam, Jr., STS-116 mission specialist, smiles for the camera in the Quest Airlock of the International Space Station (ISS). Curbeam had just completed the mission's first space walk in which the P6 truss installation was conducted.

  18. Liquid pump for astronaut cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo portable life support system water-recirculation pump used for astronaut cooling is described. The problems associated with an early centrifugal pump and how these problems were overcome by the use of a new diaphragm pump are discussed. Performance comparisons of the two pump designs are given. Developmental problems and flight results with the diaphragm pump are discussed.

  19. Astronaut Thomas Stafford and Snoopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, commander of the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission, takes time out from his preflight training activities to have his picture made with Snoopy, the character from Charles Schulz's syndicated comic strip, 'Peanuts'. During the Apollo 10 lunar orbit operations the Lunar Module will be called Snoopy when it is separated from the Command/Service Modules.

  20. Onboard photo: Astronauts at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-87) mid-deck, Leonid Kadenyuk, Ukrainian payload specialist, works with the Brassica rapa plants being grown for the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment (CUE). Kadenyuk joined five astronauts for 16-days in Earth-orbit in support of the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) mission.

  1. Astronaut Gordon Cooper After Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut Gordon Cooper leaves the Faith 7 (MA-9) spacecraft after a successful recovery operation. The MA-9 mission, the last flight of the Mercury Project, was launched on May 15, 1963, orbited the Earth 22 times, and lasted for 1-1/2 days.

  2. Astronaut Bernard Harris on RMS during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Bernard A. Harris, Jr., payload commander, standing on a foot restraint attached to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm carries astronaut C. Michael Foale, mission specialist, during their shared extravehicular activity (EVA) in the Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay.

  3. Astronaut Bernard Harris on RMS during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Bernard A. Harris, Jr., payload commander, watches astronaut C. Michael Foale (out of frame), mission specialist, during the late phases of their shared extravehicular activity (EVA) in the STS-63 Space Shuttle Discovery's cargo bay.

  4. Hall Opens Doors to Astronaut Heroes

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle astronauts Bonnie Dunbar, Curt Brown and Eileen Collins joined an elite group of American space heroes as they were inducted into the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame on April 20, during a...

  5. Official portrait of astronaut Robert C. Springer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Official portrait of astronaut Robert C. Springer, United Stated Marine Corps (USMC) Colonel, member of Astronaut Class 9 (1980), and mission specialist. Springer wears launch and entry suit (LES) while holding helmet.

  6. Metabolic changes observed in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.; Cintron, N. M.; Krauhs, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    Results of medical experiments with astronauts reveal rapid loss of volume (2 l) from the legs and a transient early increase in left ventricular volume index. These findings indicate that, during space flight, fluid is redistributed from the legs toward the head. In about 2 days, total body water decreases 2 to 3 percent. Increased levels of plasma renin activity and antidiuretic hormone while blood sodium and plasma volume are reduced suggest that space flight-associated factors are influencing the regulatory systems. In addition to fluid and electrolyte loss, Skylab astronauts lost an estimated 0.3 kg of protein. Endocrine factors, including increased cortisol and thyroxine and decreased insulin, are favorable for protein catabolism. The body appears to adapt to weightlessness at some physiologic cost. Readaptation to earth's gravity at landing becomes another physiologic challenge.

  7. Astronaut Office Scheduling System Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Estevancio

    2010-01-01

    AOSS is a highly efficient scheduling application that uses various tools to schedule astronauts weekly appointment information. This program represents an integration of many technologies into a single application to facilitate schedule sharing and management. It is a Windows-based application developed in Visual Basic. Because the NASA standard office automation load environment is Microsoft-based, Visual Basic provides AO SS developers with the ability to interact with Windows collaboration components by accessing objects models from applications like Outlook and Excel. This also gives developers the ability to create newly customizable components that perform specialized tasks pertaining to scheduling reporting inside the application. With this capability, AOSS can perform various asynchronous tasks, such as gathering/ sending/ managing astronauts schedule information directly to their Outlook calendars at any time.

  8. A Teacher of High School Language Arts Speaks with Chris Crutcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erenberger, Debbie

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Chris Crutcher, the 2000 recipient of the Margaret A. Early Award. Notes that he was given the award for his contributions to writing for teenagers. Talks about his life and origins as a writer, and his early influences as a writer in terms of style. Discusses the use of Crutcher's literature in the classroom. (SG)

  9. Learning, No Matter where You Are: Q&A with Chris Dede

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Chris Dede, the Timothy E. Wirth Professor in Learning Technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education. His research interests include the use of emerging technologies in education, with emphases on online professional development, scaling up innovations, and immersive interfaces for learning. He is…

  10. I Am 95% Confident That the Earth is Round: An Interview about Statistics with Chris Spatz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an interview with Chris Spatz who is a professor of psychology at Hendrix College in Conway (Arkansas). Discusses the null hypothesis statistical texts (NHST) and the arguments for and against the use of NHST, the changes in research articles, textbook changes, and the Internet. (CMK)

  11. Astronaut Photography of Coral Reefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.; Noordeloos, Marco

    2001-01-01

    Astronaut photographs of tropical coastal areas may contain information on submerged features, including coral reefs, up to depths of about 15 m in clear waters. Previous research efforts have shown that astronaut photographs can aid in estimating coral reef locations and extent on national, regional and global scales, and allow characterization of major geomorphological rim and lagoon features (Andrefouet et al. 2000, in preparation). They can be combined with traditional satellite data to help distinguish between clouds and lagoon features such as pinnacles (Andrefouet and Robinson, in review). Furthermore, astronaut photographs may provide reef scientists and managers with information on the location and extent of river plumes and sediment run off, or facilitate identification of land cover types, including mangroves (Webb et al., in press). Photographs included in the section were selected based on several criteria. The primary consideration of the editors was that the photographs represent a worldwide distribution of coral reefs, have extremely low visual interference by cloud cover, and display a spatial scale reasonable for examining reef-related features. Once photographs were selected, they were digitized from 2nd generation copies. The color and contrast were hand corrected to an approximation of natural color (required to account for spectral differences between photographs due to the color sensitivities of films used, and differences in sun angle and exposure of the photographs). None of the photographs shown here have been georeferenced to correct them to a map projection and scale. Any distortions in features due to slightly oblique look angles when the photographs were taken through spacecraft windows remain. When feasible, near vertical photographs have been rotated so that north is toward the top. An approximate scale bar and north arrow have added using distinctive features on each photograph with reference to a 1:1,000,000 scale navigation chart

  12. Astronaut Health Participant Summary Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kathy; Krog, Ralph; Rodriguez, Seth; Wear, Mary; Volpe, Robert; Trevino, Gina; Eudy, Deborah; Parisian, Diane

    2011-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Participant Summary software captures data based on a custom information model designed to gather all relevant, discrete medical events for its study participants. This software provides a summarized view of the study participant s entire medical record. The manual collapsing of all the data in a participant s medical record into a summarized form eliminates redundancy, and allows for the capture of entire medical events. The coding tool could be incorporated into commercial electronic medical record software for use in areas like public health surveillance, hospital systems, clinics, and medical research programs.

  13. Pharmacologic considerations for Shuttle astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Medication usage by crewmembers in the preflight and inflight mission periods is common in the Shuttle Program. The most common medical reports for which medication is used are: space motion sickness (SMS), sleeplessness, headache, and backache. A number of medications are available in the Shuttle Medical Kit to treat these problems. Currently, astronauts test all frequently used medications before mission assignment to identify potential side-effects, problems related to performance, personal likes/dislikes, and individual therapeutic effect. However, microgravity-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics, in combination with multiple operational factors, may significantly alter crewmember responses inflight. This article discusses those factors that may impact pharmacologic efficacy during Shuttle missions.

  14. Shoulder Injury Incidence Rates in NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Mitzi S.; Murray, Jocelyn D.; Foy, Millennia; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of the astronaut shoulder injury rates began with an operational concern at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) training. An astronaut suffered a shoulder injury during an NBL training run and commented that it was possibly due to a hardware issue. During the subsequent investigation, questions arose regarding the rate of shoulder injuries in recent years and over the entire history of the astronaut corps.

  15. Exposure fluctuations of astronauts due to orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Nealy, J.E.; Wood, J.S.; Qualls, G.; Atwell, W.; Shinn, J.L.; Simonsen, L.C.

    1993-09-01

    The dose incurred in an anisotropic environment depends on the orientation of the astronaut's body relative to the direction of the radiation field. The fluctuations in exposure of specific organs due to astronaut orientation are found to be a factor of 2 or more in a typical space habitation module and typical space radiations. An approximation function is found that overestimates astronaut exposure in most cases studied and is recommended as a shield design guide for future space missions.

  16. Exposure fluctuations of astronauts due to orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Wood, James S.; Qualls, Gary; Atwell, William; Shinn, Judy L.; Simonsen, Lisa C.

    1993-01-01

    The dose incurred in an anisotropic environment depends on the orientation of the astronaut's body relative to the direction of the radiation field. The fluctuations in exposure of specific organs due to astronaut orientation are found to be a factor of 2 or more in a typical space habitation module and typical space radiations. An approximation function is found that overestimates astronaut exposure in most cases studied and is recommended as a shield design guide for future space missions.

  17. Onboard photo: Astronauts at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia's (STS-87) first ever Extravehicular Activity (EVA), astronaut Takao Doi works with a 156-pound crane carried onboard for the first time. The crane's inclusion and the work with it are part of a continuing preparation effort for future work on the International Space Station (ISS). The ongoing project allows for evaluation of tools and operating methods to be applied to the construction of the Space Station. This crane device is designed to aid future space walkers in transporting Orbital Replacement Units (ORU), with a mass up to 600 pounds (like the simulated battery pictured here), from translating carts on the exterior of ISS to various worksites on the truss structure. Earlier Doi, an international mission specialist representing Japan, and astronaut Winston E. Scott, mission specialist, had installed the crane in a socket along the middle port side of Columbia's cargo bay for the evaluation. The two began the crane operations after completing a contingency EVA to snag the free-flying Spartan 201 and berth it in the payload bay (visible in the background).

  18. Designing Interfaces for Astronaut Autonomy in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillenius, Steve

    2015-01-01

    As we move towards human deep space missions, astronauts will no longer be able to say, Houston, we have a problem. The restricted contact with mission control because of the incredible distance from Earth will require astronauts to make autonomous decisions. How will astronauts take on the roles of mission control? This is an area of active research that has far reaching implications for the future of distant spaceflight. Come to this talk to hear how we are using design and user research to come up with innovative solutions for astronauts to effectively explore the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

  19. Astronaut 'Checks In' From Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut and International Space Station Commander Doug Wheelock became the first person to "check in" from space Friday using the mobile social networking application Foursquare. Wheelock's ...

  20. Apollo Project - Astronaut Roger Chaffee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Roger Chaffee on the Reduced Gravity Walking Simulator located at the Lunar Landing Facility. The purpose of this simulator was to study the subject while walking, jumping or running. Researchers conducted studies of various factors such as fatigue limit, energy expenditure, and speed of locomotion. A.W. Vigil, described the simulator as follows: 'When the astronauts land on the moon they will be in an unfamiliar environment involving, particularly, a gravitational field only one-sixth as strong as on earth. A novel method of simulating lunar gravity has been developed and is supported by a puppet-type suspension system at the end of a long pendulum. A floor is provided at the proper angle so that one-sixth of the subject's weight is supported by the floor with the remainder being supported by the suspension system. This simulator allows almost complete freedom in vertical translation and pitch and is considered to be a very realistic simulation of the lunar walking problem. For this problem this simulator suffers only slightly from the restrictions in lateral movement it puts on the test subject. This is not considered a strong disadvantage for ordinary walking problems since most of the motions do, in fact, occur in the vertical plane. However, this simulation technique would be severely restrictive if applied to the study of the extra-vehicular locomotion problem, for example, because in this situation complete six degrees of freedom are rather necessary. This technique, in effect, automatically introduces a two-axis attitude stabilization system into the problem. The technique could, however, be used in preliminary studies of extra-vehicular locomotion where, for example, it might be assumed that one axis of the attitude control system on the astronaut maneuvering unit may have failed.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 377; A.W. Vigil, 'Discussion of Existing

  1. Robonaut: A Robotic Astronaut Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambrose, Robert O.; Diftler, Myron A.

    2001-01-01

    NASA's latest anthropomorphic robot, Robonaut, has reached a milestone in its capability. This highly dexterous robot, designed to assist astronauts in space, is now performing complex tasks at the Johnson Space Center that could previously only be carried out by humans. With 43 degrees of freedom, Robonaut is the first humanoid built for space and incorporates technology advances in dexterous hands, modular manipulators, lightweight materials, and telepresence control systems. Robonaut is human size, has a three degree of freedom (DOF) articulated waist, and two, seven DOF arms, giving it an impressive work space for interacting with its environment. Its two, five fingered hands allow manipulation of a wide range of tools. A pan/tilt head with multiple stereo camera systems provides data for both teleoperators and computer vision systems.

  2. Alison Hopfield Greeted By Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Princeton, New Jersey high school student, Alison Hopfield, is greeted by astronauts Russell L. Schweickart (left) and Owen K. Garriott (center) during a tour of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Hopfield was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  3. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  4. Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Recovery of Gemini 4 spacecraft and astronauts. Views include Astronaut James A. McDivitt, command pilot of the Gemini 4 space flight, sitting in life raft awaiting pickup by helicopter from the recovery ship, the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp (33490); Navy frogmen stand on the flotation collar of the Gemini 4 spacecraft during recovery operations (33491).

  5. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Manuel, F. K.; Jones, J.; Iszard, G.; Murrey, J.; Djojonegro, B.; Wear, M.

    2001-01-01

    For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts.

  6. Colonoscopy Screening in the US Astronaut Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterova, K.; Van Baalen, M.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J.; Schaefer, C.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, colonoscopy screenings for astronauts have been conducted to ensure that astronauts are in good health for space missions. This data has been identified as being useful for determining appropriate occupational surveillance targets and requirements. Colonoscopies in the astronaut corps can be used for: (a) Assessing overall colon health, (b) A point of reference for future tests in current and former astronauts, (c) Following-up and tracking rates of colorectal cancer and polyps; and (d) Comparison to military and other terrestrial populations. In 2003, medical screening requirements for the active astronaut corps changed to require less frequent colonoscopies. Polyp removal during a colonoscopy is an intervention that prevents the polyp from potentially developing into cancer and decreases the individual's risk for colon cancer.

  7. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Manuel, F K; Jones, J; Iszard, G; Murrey, J; Djojonegro, B; Wear, M

    2001-11-01

    For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts.

  8. Changes in monocyte functions of astronauts.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Simons, Elizabeth R; Castro, Victoria A; Ott, C Mark; Pierson, Duane L

    2005-11-01

    As part of the systematic evaluation of the innate immune system for long duration missions, this study focused on the antimicrobial functions of monocytes in astronauts participating in spaceflight. The study included four space shuttle missions and 25 astronauts. Nine non-astronauts served as controls. Blood specimens were collected 10 days before launch, within 3h after landing, and again 3 days after landing. The number of monocytes did not differ significantly over the interval sampled in both the astronaut or control groups. However, following 5-11 days of spaceflight, the astronauts' monocytes exhibited reductions in ability to engulf Escherichia coli, elicit an oxidative burst, and degranulate. The phagocytic index was significantly reduced following spaceflight when compared to control values. This reduction in phagocytosis was accompanied by changes in the expression of two surface markers involved in phagocytosis, CD32 and CD64. Levels of cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine after spaceflight did not increase over preflight values.

  9. Behind the Scenes: Astronauts Keep Trainers in BBQ Bliss

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Behind the Scenes, astronaut Mike Massimino talks with astronaut Terry Virts as well as Stephanie Turner, one of the people who keeps the astronaut corps in line. Mass also ...

  10. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.; Olivotto, C.; Boese, A.; Spiero, F.; Galoforo, G.; Niihori, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut is an international educational challenge focusing on fitness and nutrition as we encourage students to "train like an astronaut." Teams of students (aged 8-12) learn principles of healthy eating and exercise, compete for points by finishing training modules, and get excited about their future as "fit explorers." The 18 core exercises (targeting strength, endurance, coordination, balance, spatial awareness, and more) involve the same types of skills that astronauts learn in their training and use in spaceflight. This first-of-its-kind cooperative outreach program has allowed 14 space agencies and various partner institutions to work together to address quality health/fitness education, challenge students to be more physically active, increase awareness of the importance of lifelong health and fitness, teach students how fitness plays a vital role in human performance for exploration, and inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in STEM fields. The project was initiated in 2009 in response to a request by the International Space Life Sciences Working Group. USA, Netherlands, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Colombia, Spain, and United Kingdom hosted teams for the pilot this past spring, and Japan held a modified version of the challenge. Several more agencies provided input into the preparations. Competing on 131 teams, more than 3700 students from 40 cities worldwide participated in the first round of Mission X. OUTCOMES AND BEST PRACTICES Members of the Mission X core team will highlight the outcomes of this international educational outreach pilot project, show video highlights of the challenge, provide the working group s initial assessment of the project and discuss the future potential of the effort. The team will also discuss ideas and best practices for international partnership in education outreach efforts from various agency perspectives and experiences

  11. A comparison of superresolution reconstruction methods for multi-angle CHRIS/Proba images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Jonathan Cheung-Wai; Ma, Jianglin; Canters, Frank

    2008-10-01

    Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer onboard the Project for On-board Autonomy, or CHRIS/Proba, represents a new generation of satellite images that provide different acquisitions of the same scene at five different angles. Given the hyperspectral-oriented waveband configuration of the CHRIS images, the scope of its application would be much wider if the present 17m nadir resolution could be refined. This paper presents the results of three superresolution methods applied to multiangular CHRIS/Proba data. The CHRIS images were preprocessed and then calibrated into reflectance using the method described in [1][2]. Automatic registration using an intensity variation approach described in [3] was implemented for motion estimation. Three methods, namely non-uniform interpolation and de-convolution [4], iterative back-projection [5], and total variation [6] are examined. Quantitative measures including peak signal to noise ratio [7], structural similarity [8], and edge stability [9], are used for the evaluation of the image quality. To further examine the benefit of multi-frame superresolution methods, a single-frame superresolution method of bicubic resampling was also applied. Our results show that a high resolution image derived from superresolution methods enhance spatial resolution and provides substantially more image details. The spectral profiles of selected land covers before and after the application of superresolution show negligible differences, hinting the use of superresolution algorithm would not degrade the capability of the data set for classification. Among the three methods, total variation gives the best performance in all quantitative measures. Visual inspections find good results with total variation and iterative back-projection approaches. The use of superresolution algorithms, however, is complex as there are many parameters. In this paper, most of the parameter settings were tuned manually or decided empirically.

  12. European astronauts set for Hubble challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-12-01

    Swiss-born Claude Nicollier will become the first European to make a "spacewalk" from the Space Shuttle. Frenchman Jean-François Clervoy, chief operator of the Shuttle's robotic arm, will capture the telescope and release it once work has been completed. The mission's main objective is to replace Hubble's failed pointing system, which allows astronomers to aim the telescope very precisely at stars, planets and other distant astronomical objects. During 10 days in orbit, astronauts will undertake four "spacewalks" to update and renew equipment. Nicollier will achieve the ambition of a lifetime when he exits the airlock at the beginning of the mission's second major spacewalk in the early hours of 16 December on his first six-hour stint carrying out repairs on the two-storey high Hubble telescope. The opportunity for one of its astronaut to make two spacewalks during the mission is important for ESA. "It is a question of building up experience. We have had EVAs (Extra Vehicular Activities) from Mir but this will be the first time a European has had the opportunity to go from the Shuttle," said Nicollier. Nicollier is on his fourth flight into space. Among them he took part in the first Hubble servicing mission in 1993, controlling the Shuttle's robotic arm while astronauts outside performed repairs to the telescope. This time Clervoy, on his third flight, will have that lead role in the operation of the robotic arm. About 48 hours after launch, Clervoy will take the controls, extend the Shuttle's arm and gently attach it to a fixture on Hubble as the two hurtle round the Earth in tandem at speeds of 27,000 km an hour. There is no room for mistakes as he performs a task in real time that he has practised for many hours in simulations on the ground. After attaching the arm, he will slowly guide the 12-ton telescope to its repair berth at the rear of the Shuttle's payload bay. Clervoy flew in space for the first time on the Space Shuttle Atlantis in November 1994 and

  13. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  14. Gemini 8 prime crew and other astronauts at prelaunch breakfast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The Gemini 8 prime crew, along with several fellow astronauts, have a hearty breakfast of steak and eggs on the morning of the Gemini 8 launch. Seated clockwise around the table, starting at lower left, are Donald K. Slayton, Manned Spaceflight Center (MSC) Assistant Director for Flight Crew Operations; Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Gemini 8 command pilot; Scientist-Astronaut F. Curtis Michel; Astronaut R. Walter Cunningham; Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr. (face obscured), Chief, MSC Astronaut Office; Astronaut David R. Scott, Gemini 8 pilot; and Astronaut Roger B. Chaffee.

  15. Astronaut Anderson Works in SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia STS-107 mission launched January 16, 2003. STS-107 is strictly a multidiscipline microgravity and Earth science research mission involving 80-plus International experiments to be performed during 16-days, many of which will be managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The majority of the research will be conducted in the Shuttle's mid deck, the area directly under the cockpit, and in the new SPACEHAB Research Double Module. This is the first flight for that module, which doubles the volume available for experiments and significantly increases the amount and complexity of research from the last dedicated Shuttle science mission, STS-95, flown in 1998 with a single SPACEHAB module. The pressurized module is carried in Columbia's payload bay and is accessible to the crew via a turnel from the Shuttle's mid deck. Pictured is an interesting view, looking through the adjoining tunnel, of astronaut Michael P. Anderson, mission specialist, performing work in SPACEHAB. The first shuttle mission in 2003, the STS-107 mission marks the 113th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program, and the 28th flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia.

  16. Vincent Converse Greeted By Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Rockford, Illinois high school student, Vincent Converse (right), is greeted by astronauts Russell L. Schweickart and Owen K. Garriott during a tour of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Converse was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. His experiment, 'Zero Gravity Mass Measurement' used a simple leaf spring with the mass to be weighed attached to the end. An electronic package oscillated the spring at a specific rate and the results were recorded electronically. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipme

  17. Astronautical Hygiene - A New Discipline to Protect the Health of Astronauts Working in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cain, J. R.

    This paper outlines the rationale for a new scientific discipline namely astronautical hygiene. Astronautical hygiene is an applied science that utilises a knowledge of space toxicology, space medicine, astronautics, occupational hygiene etc. to identify the hazards, assess the exposure risks to health, and thereby determine the measures to mitigate exposure to protect the health of astronauts during living and working in space. This paper describes the nature of the hazards (i.e. physical, chemical, microbial and psychological) encountered during space flight. It discusses exposure risk assessment and the use of sampling techniques to assess astronaut health risks. This paper then discusses the measures used to mitigate exposure to the exposure hazards during space exploration. A case study of the application of the principles of astronautical hygiene to control lunar dust exposure is then described.

  18. NASA Now: Path of an Astronaut

    NASA Video Gallery

    Mike Foreman is one of the shuttle astronauts who has lived and worked on the ISS. He flew on space shuttle Endeavour in March of 2008, and he returned to the station in on space shuttle Atlantis i...

  19. ISS Update: NASA Astronaut Mike Fincke

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Rob Navias talks with NASA Astronaut Mike Fincke inside the Mission Control Center at Johnson Space Center. They discuss the current activities taking place aboard the I...

  20. Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Prime Crew Lunar Module Pilot of the Apollo 12 Lunar Landing Mission, in his space suit minus the helmet. He is standing outside beside a mock-up of the Lunar Lander.

  1. Astronaut Alvin Drew Speaks With Phoenix Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA astronaut Alvin Drew participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Monterey Park in Phoenix. The DLN c...

  2. Astronaut Young at the commander's station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, crew commander, takes notes in the commander's station on the flight deck of the Columbia. The cathode ray tube (CRT) among the forward panels diplays the orbiter's position in relation to the Earth on its monitor.

  3. Students Speak With NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA astronaut Scott Kelly participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students in the Galena Park Independent Scho...

  4. Astronaut Doug Wheelock Speaks with Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA astronaut Doug Wheelock participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Clark Creek STEM Academy in Acwo...

  5. NASA Astronaut Mike Fossum Talks With Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA Astronaut Mike Fossum participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students from Clark Creek STEM Academy in Ackw...

  6. Portrait of Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., Prime Crew Command Module Pilot of the Apollo 12 Lunar Landing Mission, in his space suit minus the helmet. He is standing outside beside a mock-up of the Lunar Lander.

  7. Space Campers Speak With Astronaut Mike Fossum

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA astronaut Mike Fossum participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at a space camp at the Kennedy Space ...

  8. Astronaut Suni Williams on Value of Education

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this public service announcement, NASA astronaut Suni Williams stresses the importance of studying science, technology, engineering and math. What you learn in school today will help you reach f...

  9. Astronauts and cosmonauts sign Gagarin's diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In keeping with Russian tradition, astronaut Norman E. Thagard (left), guest researcher, signs the diary of the late Yuriy A. Gagarin, the first Russian cosmonaut, as his Mir 18 crew mates members look on. Cosmonauts Vladimir Dezhurov (center), misson com

  10. Astronaut Eileen Collins in Full Fuselage Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, pilot for the STS-63 mission, participates in STS-63 training at JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. Collins is seated at the pilot's station in the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT).

  11. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in simulation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, participates in simulation training in preparation for the scheduled lunar landing mission. He is in the Apollo Lunar Module Mission SImulator in the Kennedy Space Center's Flight Crew Training Building.

  12. Astronauts Call Tucson for Educational Event

    NASA Video Gallery

    Commander Mark Kelly, Pilot Greg Johnson and Expedition 28 Flight Engineer Ron Garan participate from space in a community gathering in Tucson, Ariz. The three astronauts answer questions about the...

  13. Students Speak With NASA Astronaut Mario Runco

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA astronaut Mario Runco participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students in the Newell School District in Ne...

  14. Students Speak With NASA Astronaut Mike Foreman

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center NASA astronaut Mike Foreman participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with fifth grade students at Berry Elementary Sch...

  15. Behind the Scenes: Astronauts Get Float Training

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of "NASA Behind the Scenes," astronaut Mike Massimino continues his visit with safety divers and flight doctors at the Johnson Space Center's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory as they com...

  16. Astronaut John Young photographed collecting lunar samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, is photographed collecting lunar samples near North Ray crater during the third Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-3) at the Descartes landing site. This picture was taken by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Young is using the lunar surface rake and a set of tongs. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked in the field of large boulders in the background.

  17. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  18. Astronaut Neil Armstrong during thermovacuum training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, is photographed during thermovacuum training in Chamber B of the Space Environment Simulation Laboratory, Building 32, Manned Spacecraft Center. He is wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit. The training simulated lunar surface vacuum and thermal conditions during astronaut operations outside the Lunar Module on the moon's surface. The mirror was used to reflect solar light.

  19. First Class of Female Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    From left to right are Shannon W. Lucid, Margaret Rhea Seddon, Kathryn D. Sullivan, Judith A. Resnik, Anna L. Fisher, and Sally K. Ride. NASA selected all six women as their first female astronaut candidates in January 1978, allowing them to enroll in a training program that they completed in August 1979. Shannon W. Lucid was born on January 14, 1943 in Shanghai, China but considers Bethany, Oklahoma to be her hometown. She spent many years at the University of Oklahoma, receiving a Bachelor in chemistry in 1963, a Master in biochemistry in 1970, and a Doctorate in biochemistry in 1973. Dr. Lucid flew on the STS-51G Discovery, STS-34 Atlantis, STS-43 Atlantis, and STS-58 Columbia shuttle missions, setting the record for female astronauts by logging 838 hours and 54 minutes in space. She also currently holds the United States single mission space flight endurance record for her 188 days on the Russian Space Station Mir. From February 2002 to September 2003, she served as chief scientist at NASA Headquarters before returning to JSC to help with the Return to Flight program after the STS-107 accident. Born November 8, 1947, in Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Margaret Rhea Seddon received a Doctorate of Medicine in 1973 from the University of Tennessee. She flew on space missions STS-51 Discovery, STS-40 Columbia, and STS-58 Columbia for a total of over 722 hours in space. Dr. Seddon retired from NASA in November 1997, taking on a position as the Assistant Chief Medical Officer of the Vanderbilt Medical Group in Nashville, Tennessee. Kathryn Sullivan was born October 3, 1951 in Patterson, New Jersey but considers Woodland Hills, California to be her hometown. She received a Bachelor in Earth Sciences from the University of California, Santa Cruz in 1973 and a Doctorate in Geology from Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1978. She flew on space missions STS-41G, STS-31, and STS-45 and logged a total of 532 hours in space. Dr. Sullivan left NASA in August 1992 to

  20. NASA Astronaut Selection 2009: Behavioral Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A. W.; Sipes, W.; Beven, G.; Schmidt, L.; Slack, K.; Seaton, K.; Moomaw, R.; VanderArk, S.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's multi-phase U.S. astronaut selection process seeks to identify the most qualified astronaut candidates from a large number of applicants. With the approaching retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA focused on selecting those individuals who were most suited to the unique demands of long-duration spaceflight. In total, NASA received 3,535 applications for the 2009 astronaut selection cycle. Of these, 123 were invited to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) for Round 1 initial screening and interviews, which consisted of an Astronaut Selection Board (ASB) preliminary interview, medical review, and psychological testing. Of these, 48 individuals were invited to return for Round 2. This round consisted of medical testing, further behavioral assessments, and a second ASB interview. Following this, nine astronaut candidates (ASCANs) were ultimately chosen to go forward to basic training. The contents, benefits, and lessons learned from implementing this phased process will be discussed. The lessons learned can benefit the future selection of space flyers, whether they are NASA or commercial. Learning Objective: 1) Familiarization with the 2009 NASA behavioral screening process for astronaut applicants.

  1. The Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health Newsletter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    The June 2010 LSAH newsletter introduced the change from the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health research study to the new Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health program (An Overview of the New Occupational Surveillance Program for the Astronaut Corps). Instead of performing research-focused retrospective analyses of astronaut medical data compared to a JSC civil servant control population, the new program is focused on prevention of disease and prospective identification and mitigation of health risks in each astronaut due to individual exposure history and the unique occupational exposures experienced by the astronaut corps. The new LSAH program has 5 primary goals: (1) Provide a comprehensive medical exam for each LSAH participant; (2) Conduct occupational surveillance; (3) Improve communication, data accessibility, integrity and storage; (4) Support operational and healthcare analyses; and (5) Support NASA research objectives. This article will focus primarily on the first goal, the comprehensive medical exam. Future newsletters will outline in detail the plans and processes for addressing the remaining program goals.

  2. Astronauts Koichi Wakata (left) and Daniel T. Barry check the settings on a 35mm camera during an

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-72 TRAINING VIEW --- Astronauts Koichi Wakata (left) and Daniel T. Barry check the settings on a 35mm camera during an STS-72 training session. Wakata is a mission specialist, representing Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA) and Barry is a United States astronaut assigned as mission specialist for the same mission. The two are on the aft flight deck of the fixed base Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC).

  3. Effect of the aerosol type uncertainty on the surface reflectance retrieval using CHRIS/PROBA hyperspectral images over land.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirelli, C.; Manzo, C.; Curci, G.; Bassani, C.

    2014-12-01

    The surface reflectance is crucial for the quantitative analysis of land surface properties in geological, agricultural and urban studies. The first requirement for a reliable surface reflectance estimation is an accurate atmospheric correction obtained by an appropriate selection of aerosol loading and type. The aerosol optical thickness at 550nm is widely used to describe the aerosol loading. Recent works have highlighted the relevant role of the aerosol types on the atmospheric correction process defined by their micro-physical properties. The aim of this work is to evaluate the radiative impact of the aerosol type on the surface reflectance obtained from CHRIS (Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) hyperspectral data over land. CHRIS on PROBA satellite is an high resolution multi-angular imaging spectrometer, operating in the visible near-infrared spectral domain (400 to 1000 nm). As test case the urban site of Brussels has been selected. The physically-based algorithm CHRIS@CRI (CHRIS Atmospherically Corrected Reflectance Imagery) has been developed specifically for CHRIS data by using the vector version of 6S (6SV) radiative transfer model. The atmospheric data needed for the atmospheric correction were obtained from CIMEL CE-318 of the Brussels AERONET station. CHRIS images were selected if simultaneous AERONET data were available. Other specific requirements for imagery acquisition were high aerosol loading and high solar irradiation. The aerosol radiative impact has been investigated comparing the reflectance obtained by applying the CHRIS@CRI algorithm with different aerosol types: the three aerosol standard of 6SV and two characterized by specific microphysical properties provided by the AERONET station and calculated with FlexAOD code (a post-processing tool of the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem), respectively. The results show a clear dependence of the atmospheric correction results on the aerosol absorption properties.

  4. NASA Astronaut Occupational Surveillance Program and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, LSAH, Astronaut Exposures and Risk in the Terrestrial and Spaceflight Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keprta, Sean R.; Tarver, William; Van Baalen, Mary; McCoy, Torin

    2015-01-01

    United States Astronauts have a very unique occupational exposure profile. In order to understand these risks and properly address them, the National Aeronautics and Atmospheric Administration, NASA, originally created the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health, LSAH. The first LSAH was designed to address a variety of needs regarding astronaut health and included a 3 to 1 terrestrial control population in order to compare United States "earth normal" disease and aging to that of a microgravity exposed astronaut. Over the years that program has been modified, now termed Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, still LSAH. Astronaut spaceflight exposures have also changed, with the move from short duration shuttle flights to long duration stays on international space station and considerable terrestrial training activities. This new LSAH incorporates more of an occupational health and medicine model to the study of occupationally exposed astronauts. The presentation outlines the baseline exposures and monitoring of the astronaut population to exposures, both terrestrial, and in space.

  5. Space Shuttle Underside Astronaut Communications Performance Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Dobbins, Justin A.; Loh, Yin-Chung; Kroll, Quin D.; Sham, Catherine C.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Ultra High Frequency (UHF) communications system is planned to provide Radio Frequency (RF) coverage for astronauts working underside of the Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO) for thermal tile inspection and repairing. This study is to assess the Space Shuttle UHF communication performance for astronauts in the shadow region without line-of-sight (LOS) to the Space Shuttle and Space Station UHF antennas. To insure the RF coverage performance at anticipated astronaut worksites, the link margin between the UHF antennas and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Astronauts with significant vehicle structure blockage was analyzed. A series of near-field measurements were performed using the NASA/JSC Anechoic Chamber Antenna test facilities. Computational investigations were also performed using the electromagnetic modeling techniques. The computer simulation tool based on the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) was used to compute the signal strengths. The signal strength was obtained by computing the reflected and diffracted fields along the propagation paths between the transmitting and receiving antennas. Based on the results obtained in this study, RF coverage for UHF communication links was determined for the anticipated astronaut worksite in the shadow region underneath the Space Shuttle.

  6. Space radiation and cataracts in astronauts.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, F A; Manuel, F K; Jones, J; Iszard, G; Murrey, J; Djojonegro, B; Wear, M

    2001-11-01

    For over 30 years, astronauts in Earth orbit or on missions to the moon have been exposed to space radiation comprised of high-energy protons and heavy ions and secondary particles produced in collisions with spacecraft and tissue. Large uncertainties exist in the projection of risks of late effects from space radiation such as cancer and cataracts due to the paucity [corrected] of epidemiological data. Here we present epidemiological [corrected] data linking an increased risk of cataracts for astronauts with higher lens doses (>8 mSv) of space radiation relative to other astronauts with lower lens doses (<8 mSv). Our study uses historical data for cataract incidence in the 295 astronauts participating in NASA's Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) and individual occupational radiation exposure data. These results, while preliminary because of the use of subjective scoring methods, suggest that relatively low doses of space radiation may predispose crew to [corrected] an increased incidence and early appearance of cataracts. PMID:11604058

  7. Safeguarding the Health of the NASA Astronaut Community: the Need for Expanded Medical Monitoring for Former NASA Astronauts Under the Astronaut Occupational Health Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, Meredith; Lee, Lesley; Wear, Mary; Van Baalen, Mary; Rhodes, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. Provision of health screening services to active and former astronauts ensures individual, mission, and community health and safety. Currently, the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) provides extensive medical monitoring to active astronauts throughout their careers. Upon retirement, astronauts may voluntarily return to the JSC FMC for an annual preventive exam. However, current retiree monitoring includes only selected screening tests, representing an opportunity for augmentation. The potential latent health effects of spaceflight demand an expanded framework of testing for former astronauts. The need is two-fold: screening tests widely recommended for other aging communities are necessary for astronauts to rule out conditions resulting from the natural aging process (e.g., colonoscopy, mammography), as opposed to conditions resulting directly from the astronaut occupation; and increased breadth of monitoring services will improve the understanding of occupational health risks and longitudinal health of the astronaut community, past, present, and future. To meet this need, NASA has begun an extensive exploration of the overall approach, cost, and policy implications of expanding existing medical monitoring under the Astronaut Occupational Health program for former NASA astronauts.

  8. Comparison Between Fractional Vegetation Cover Retrievals from Vegetation Indices and Spectral Mixture Analysis: Case Study of PROBA/CHRIS Data Over an Agricultural Area.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Sobrino, José A; Plaza, Antonio; Guanter, Luis; Moreno, José; Martínez, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we compare two different methodologies for Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) retrieval from Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) data onboard the European Space Agency (ESA) Project for On-Board Autonomy (PROBA) platform. The first methodology is based on empirical approaches using Vegetation Indices (VIs), in particular the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and the Variable Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI). The second methodology is based on the Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) technique, in which a Linear Spectral Unmixing model has been considered in order to retrieve the abundance of the different constituent materials within pixel elements, called Endmembers (EMs). These EMs were extracted from the image using three different methods: i) manual extraction using a land cover map, ii) Pixel Purity Index (PPI) and iii) Automated Morphological Endmember Extraction (AMEE). The different methodologies for FVC retrieval were applied to one PROBA/CHRIS image acquired over an agricultural area in Spain, and they were calibrated and tested against in situ measurements of FVC estimated with hemispherical photographs. The results obtained from VIs show that VARI correlates better with FVC than NDVI does, with standard errors of estimation of less than 8% in the case of VARI and less than 13% in the case of NDVI when calibrated using the in situ measurements. The results obtained from the SMA-LSU technique show Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) below 12% when EMs are extracted from the AMEE method and around 9% when extracted from the PPI method. A RMSE value below 9% was obtained for manual extraction of EMs using a land cover use map.

  9. STS-79 astronauts arrive at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-79 astronauts arrive at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at about the same time the three-day launch countdown gets under way. From left are Mission Specialists Carl E. Walz and John E. Blaha; Mission Commander William F. Readdy; Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt; and Mission Specialists Thomas D. Akers and Jay Apt. Not too far away, final preparations are in work at Launch Pad 39A to prepare the Space Shuttle Atlantis for liftoff on the 79th Shuttle mission. During the approximately 10-day flight, Atlantis will dock with the Russian Space Station Mir and Blaha will transfer to the station. Returning with the STS-79 astronauts aboard Atlantis will be American astronaut Shannon Lucid, who is wrapping up a record-setting stay aboard Mir. Liftoff currently is set for Sept. 16 at about 4:54 a.m. EDT during an approximately seven-minute launch window.

  10. Psychological training of German science astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzey, Dietrich; Schiewe, Albrecht

    Although the significance of psychosocial issues of manned space flights has been discussed very often in recent literature, up to now, very few attempts have been made in North-America or Europe to provide astronaut candidates or spacecrew members with some kind of psychological training. As a first attempt in this field, a psychological training program for science astronauts is described, which has been developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment and performed as part of the mission-independent biomedical training of the German astronauts' team. In contrast to other training concepts, this training program focused not only on skills needed to cope with psychosocial issues regarding long-term stays in space, but also on skills needed to cope with the different demands during the long pre-mission phase. Topics covered in the training were "Communication and Cooperation", "Stress-Management", "Coping with Operational Demands", "Effective Problem Solving in Groups", and "Problem-Oriented Team Supervision".

  11. The Digital Astronaut Project Bone Remodeling Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennline, James A.; Mulugeta, Lealem; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Thompson, William K.; Sibonga, Jean D.

    2014-01-01

    Under the conditions of microgravity, astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of 1% to 2% a month, particularly in the lower extremities such as the proximal femur: (1) The most commonly used countermeasure against bone loss has been prescribed exercise, (2) However, current exercise countermeasures do not completely eliminate bone loss in long duration, 4 to 6 months, spaceflight, (3,4) leaving the astronaut susceptible to early onset osteoporosis and a greater risk of fracture later in their lives. The introduction of the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device, coupled with improved nutrition, has further minimized the 4 to 6 month bone loss. But further work is needed to implement optimal exercise prescriptions, and (5) In this light, NASA's Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is working with NASA physiologists to implement well-validated computational models that can help understand the mechanisms of bone demineralization in microgravity, and enhance exercise countermeasure development.

  12. European astronaut selected for the third Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-08-01

    The STS-104 crew will rendezvous with the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, which is the size of a city bus, capture it using the Shuttle's Canadian robot arm and secure it in Columbia's payload bay. Then, working in teams of two, the four astronauts will leave the Shuttle's pressurised cabin and venture into the payload bay, performing a variety of tasks that will improve the productivity and reliability of the telescope. The four astronauts will perform a series of six "extravehicular" activities in the open space environment. Such activities are commonly called spacewalks, but this term does little justice to the considerable physical and mental efforts that astronauts need to make in doing the very demanding work involved. The Shuttle commander and pilot for this flight have not yet been appointed, but the four designated mission specialists begin training for the STS-104 mission immediately. "The ambitious nature of this mission, with its six spacewalks, made it important for the payload crew to begin training as early as possible," said David C. Leestma, NASA Director of Flight Crew Operations at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, to which Claude Nicollier is on resident assignment from ESA's European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany, the home base of the European astronaut corps. The Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit in April 1990. It is one of the most capable optical telescopes available to astronomers today, producing images and spectral observations at the forefront of astronomy. The European Space Agency contributed a 15 share to the development of Hubble. One of the five scientific instruments on board, the Faint Object Camera, was built by a European industrial consortium made up of British Aerospace, Dornier and Matra under a contract with the European Space Agency. The solar arrays which provide Hubble with electrical power were manufactured by British Aerospace and Dornier. In its eight years of operation, the telescope has not

  13. Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The risks for renal stone formation in astronauts due to bone loss and hypercalcuria are unknown. Astronauts have a stone risk which is about the same as commercial aviation pilots, which is about half that of the general population. However, proper management of this condition is still crucial to mitigate health and mission risks in the spaceflight environment. Methods: An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. Using this work, a screening and management algorithm was created that takes into consideration the unique operational environment of spaceflight. Results: Renal stone screening and management guidelines for astronauts were created based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In the proposed algorithm, all astronauts will receive a yearly screening ultrasound for renal calcifications, or mineralized renal material (MRM). Any areas of MRM, 3 millimeters or larger, are considered a positive finding. Three millimeters approaches the detection limit of standard ultrasound, and several studies have shown that any stone that is 3 millimeters or less has an approximately 95 percent chance of spontaneous passage. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by low-dose renal computed tomography (CT) scan, and flexible ureteroscopy if CT is positive. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion: The term "MRM" is used to account for small areas of calcification that may be outside the renal collecting system, and allows objectivity without otherwise constraining the diagnostic and treatment process for potentially very small calcifications of uncertain

  14. Astronaut Voss Works in the Destiny Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut James Voss, flight engineer of Expedition Two, performs a task at a work station in the International Space Station (ISS) Destiny Laboratory, or U.S. Laboratory, as Astronaut Scott Horowitz, STS-105 mission commander, floats through the hatchway leading to the Unity node. After spending five months aboard the orbital outpost, the ISS Expedition Two crew was replaced by Expedition Three and returned to Earth aboard the STS-105 Space Shuttle Discovery on August 22, 2001. The Orbiter Discovery was launched from the Kennedy Space Center on August 10, 2001.

  15. EAC trains its first international astronaut class.

    PubMed

    Bolender, Hans; Bessone, Loredana; Schoen, Andreas; Stevenin, Herve

    2002-11-01

    After several years of planning and preparation, ESA's ISS training programme has become operational. Between 26 August and 6 September, the European Astronaut Centre (EAC) near Cologne gave the first ESA advanced training course for an international ISS astronaut class. The ten astronauts who took part--two from NASA, four from Japan and four from ESA--had begun their advanced training programme back in 2001 with sessions at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston and at the Japanese Training Centre in Tsukuba. During their stay in Cologne, the ten astronauts participated in a total of 33 classroom lessons and hands-on training sessions, which gave them a detailed overview of the systems and subsystems of the Columbus module, the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV), and the related crew operations tasks. They were also introduced to the four ESA experiment facilities to be operated inside the Columbus module. After their first week of training at EAC, the astronauts were given the opportunity to see the flight model of the Columbus module being integrated at the site of ESA's ISS prime contractor, Astrium in Bremen. The second week of training at EAC included hands-on instruction on the Columbus Data Management System (DMS) using the recently installed Columbus Crew Training Facility. In preparation for the first advanced crew training session at EAC, two Training Readiness Reviews (TRR) were conducted there in June and August. These reviews were supported by training experts and astronauts from NASA, NASDA and CSA (Canada), who were introduced to ESA's advanced training concept and the development process, and then analysed and evaluated the training flow, content and instructional soundness of lessons and courses, as well as the fidelity of the training facilities and the skills of the ESA training instructors. The International Training Control Board (ITCB), made up of representatives from all of the ISS International Partners and mandated to control and

  16. Changes in Monocyte Functions of Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur, I.; Simons, E.; Castro, V.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2004-01-01

    Monocyte cell numbers and functions, including phagocytosis, oxidative burst capacity, and degranulation and expression of related surface molecules, were studied in blood specimens from 25 astronauts and 9 healthy control subjects. Blood samples were obtained 10 days before a space flight, 3 hours after landing and 3 days after landing. The number of monocytes in astronauts did not change significantly among the three sample collection periods. Following space flight, the monocytes ability to phagocytize Escherichia coli, to exhibit an oxidative burst, and to degranulate was reduced as compared to monocytes from control subjects. These alterations in monocyte functions after space flight correlated with alterations in the expression of CD32 and CD64.

  17. Astronaut Kathryn Thornton in Neutral Buoyancy Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This close-up of astronaut and mission specialist, Kathryn Thornton, was captured under water in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Neural Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) where she is participating in a training session for the STS-61 mission. The NBS provided the weightless environment encountered in space needed for testing and the practices of Extravehicular Activities (EVA). Launched on December 2, 1993 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor, STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope (HST) serving mission. During the 2nd EVA of the mission, Thornton, along with astronaut and mission specialist Thomas Akers, performed the task of replacing the solar arrays. The EVA lasted 6 hours and 35 minutes.

  18. Astronaut Kathryn Thornton in Neutral Buoyancy Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This close-up of astronaut and mission specialist Kathryn Thornton was captured under water in the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Neural Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) where she is participating in a training session for the STS-61 mission. The NBS provided the weightless environment encountered in space needed for testing and the practices of Extravehicular Activities (EVA). Launched on December 2, 1993 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavor, STS-61 was the first Hubble Space Telescope (HST) serving mission. During the 2nd EVA of the mission, Thornton, along with astronaut and mission specialist Thomas Akers, performed the task of replacing the solar arrays. The EVA lasted 6 hours and 35 minutes.

  19. Beyond astronaut's capabilities: The current state of the art.

    PubMed

    Gemignani, Jessica; Gheysens, Tom; Summerer, Leopold

    2015-08-01

    Space agencies have developed extensive expertise with sustaining human presence in low earth orbits and microgravity. Prolonged human presence in space beyond EarthâĂŹs orbit presents additional, some still unsolved issues. These are linked to the distance to Earth (impossibility of effective tele-operation, psychological effects linked to remoteness from Earth, required autonomy, the handling of emergencies, long mission durations), and to the environments beyond the Earth magnetosphere (radiation levels, local environments including atmospheres, dust, gravity, day-night cycles). These issues have impacts on the spacecraft design, the mission operations, astronaut selection and preparation and required supporting/ enabling technologies. This paper builds upon previous work by Rossini et al. , in critically reviewing and updating the current state of scientific research on enhancing astronaut's capabilities to face some of these challenges. In particular, it discusses the pertinence and feasibility of two approaches aiming at enhancing the chances of success of human missions: induced hibernation state and brain-machine interfaces. PMID:26737075

  20. Using computer graphics to enhance astronaut and systems safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Jeri W.

    Computer graphics is being employed at the NASA Johnson Space Center as a tool to perform rapid, efficient and economical analyses for man-machine integration, flight operations development and systems engineering. The Operator Station Design System (OSDS), a computer-based facility featuring a highly flexible and versatile interactive software package, PLAID, is described. This unique evaluation tool, with its expanding data base of Space Shuttle elements, various payloads, experiments, crew equipment and man models, supports a multitude of technical evaluations, including spacecraft and workstation layout, definition of astronaut visual access, flight techniques development, cargo integration and crew training. As OSDS is being applied to the Space Shuttle, Orbiter payloads (including the European Space Agency's Spacelab) and future space vehicles and stations, astronaut and systems safety are being enhanced. Typical OSDS examples are presented. By performing physical and operational evaluations during early conceptual phases, supporting systems verification for flight readiness, and applying its capabilities to real-time mission support, the OSDS provides the wherewithal to satisfy a growing need of the current and future space programs for efficient, economical analyses.

  1. Social desirability bias in personality testing: implications for astronaut selection.

    PubMed

    Sandal, Gro M; Musson, Dave; Helmreich, Robert L; Gravdal, Lene

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of personality is recognized by space agencies as an approach to identify candidates likely to perform optimally during spaceflights. In the use of personality scales for selection, the impact of social desirability (SD) has been cited as a concern. Study 1 addressed the impact of SD on responses to the Personality Characteristic Inventory(PCI) and NEO-FFI. This was achieved by contrasting scores from active astronauts (N=65) with scores of successful astronaut applicants (N=63), and between pilots applicants (N=1271) and pilot research subjects (N=120). Secondly, personality scores were correlated with scores on the Marlow Crown Social Desirability Scale among applicants to managerial positions (N=120). The results indicated that SD inflated scores on PCI scales assessing negative interpersonal characteristics, and impacted on four of five scales in NEO-FFI. Still, the effect sizes were small or moderate. Study 2 addressed performance implications of SD during an assessment of males applying to work as rescue personnel operations in the North Sea (N=22). The results showed that SD correlated negatively with cognitive test performance, and positively with discrepancy in performance ratings between self and two observers. In conclusion, caution is needed in interpreting personality scores in applicant populations. SD maybe a negative predictor for performance under stress.

  2. Identification of Psychological Stresses for Astronauts and Cosmonauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Melinda

    As humans continue to explore and expand in the solar system, psychological problems brought about by high stress of living in the space environment will continue to increase. Unfortunately, due to many reasons, including relative difficulties with gaining access to astronauts and cosmonauts and to gather psychological data from them regarding stressors, this area is not very well known and discussed. Five astronauts and cosmonauts from three space agencies: ESA, RSA, and JAXA were unoffi- cially surveyed regarding their experiences with ten general categories of psychological stressors as well as eight subcategories of interpersonal conflict stressors accepted in space related community of psychologists. The two subjects in space for longer periods of time reported more stressors and were likely to rate stressors as having a greater effect on the chance of mission failure. Shorter duration flyers reported nearly all general stressors were likely to increase in the event of a longer duration space flight. With the increased interest in long duration spaceflight, psychological stressors are more likely to affect mission success.

  3. Anthropometric survey of the astronaut applicants and astronauts from 1985 to 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar L.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The Anthropometry and Biomechanics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center has been collecting anthropometric data from astronaut applicants since 1977. These anthropometric measurements had been taken from 473 applicants. Based on the position they applied for, these applicants were classified as either mission specialists, payload specialists, pilots, or observers. The main objective was to document the variations among these applicants and tabulate the percentile data for each anthropometric dimension. The percentile and the descriptive statistics data were tabulated and graphed for the whole astronaut candidate population; for the male and female groups; for each subject classification such as pilot, mission specialist, and payload specialist; and finally, for those who were selected as astronauts.

  4. Astronaut Gordon Cooper in centrifuge for tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper, prime pilot for the Mercury-Atlas 9 mission, is strapped into the gondola while undergoing tests in the centrifuge at the Naval Air Development Center, Johnsville, Pennsylvania. The centrifuge is used to investigate by simulation the pilot's capability to control the vehicle during the actual flight in its booster and reentry profile.

  5. Astronaut Gordon Cooper smiles for recovery crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., has a smile for the recovery crew of the U.S.S. Kearsarge, after he is on board from a successful 22 orbit mission of the earth in his spacecraft 'Faith 7'. Cooper is still sitting in his capsule, with his helmet off.

  6. NASA Astronaut Selection 2009: Behavioral Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, A.; Sipes, W.; Bevan, G.; Schmidt, L.; Slack, K.; Moomaw, R.; Vanderark, S.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) is an operational group under medical sciences at NASA/Johnson Space Center. Astronaut applicant screening and assessment is one function of this group, along with psychological training, inflight behavioral support and family services. Direct BHP assessment spans 6-7 months of a 17-month overall selection process.

  7. Astronaut Alan Bean shaves while aboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, uses battery powered shaver while in the crew quarters of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  8. Official portrait of Astronaut Vance D. Brand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Official portrait of Astronaut Vance D. Brand. Brand is in the dark blue shuttle flight suit with his helmet under his arm and an American flag behind him. Above and to the right of his head is a view of the shuttle flying.

  9. Astronaut James Buchli wearing extravehicular mobility unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut James F. Buchli, wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), is about to be submerged in the weightless environment training facility (WETF) to simulate a contingency extravehicular activity (EVA) for STS 61-A. In this portrait view, Buchli is wearing a communications carrier assembly (CCA).

  10. Astronauts and cosmonauts sign Gagarin's diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In keeping with Russian tradition, astronaut Norman E. Thagard (seated, left), guest researcher, watches as Vladimir N. Dezhurov (seated, center), signs the diary of the late Yuriy A. Gagarin, the first Russian cosmonaut, as his Mir 18 crew mates and the

  11. Astronauts and cosmonauts sign Gagarin's diary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In keeping with Russian tradition, astronaut Bonnie J. Dunbar (left), STS-71 mission specialist, signs the diary of the late Yuriy A. Gagarin, the first Russian cosmonaut, as her STS-71 crew mates members look on. Cosmonauts Anatoliy Y. Solovyov (center),

  12. Astronaut Michael L. Coats with camera.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Michael L. Coats positions himself for a photographic briefing during a training session for 41-D crewmembers in the Shuttle one-g trainer at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). Coats will assume pilot duties aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery for the scheduled seven-day 41-D mission in late June. This photograph was taken for NASA by Otis Imboden.

  13. Astronaut Eileen Collins in Full Fuselage Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, pilot for the STS-63 mission, participates in STS-63 training at JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory. Collins is seated at the pilot's station in the Full Fuselage Trainer (FFT) (48403-4); Collins looks out the aft flight deck window in the Shuttle mockup trainer (48405).

  14. How Can "Weightless" Astronauts Be Weighed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnicer, Jesus; Reyes, Francisco; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2012-01-01

    In introductory physics courses, within the context of studying Newton's laws, it is common to consider the problem of a body's "weight" when it is in free fall. The solution shows that the "weight" is zero and this leads to a discussion of the concept of weight. There are permanent free-fall situations such as astronauts in a spacecraft orbiting…

  15. Original 7 Astronauts Inspect Mercury Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    The original seven Mercury astronauts were from left, front row: Virgil 'Gus' Grissom. Scott Carpenter, Donald 'Deke' Slayton and Gordon Cooper; back row: Alan Shepard, Walter Schirra and John Glenn. The Mercury 7 astronauts were introduced to the American public in April 1959. The seven criteria for selection were as follows: 1. less than 40 years old; 2. less than 5 foot 11 inches tall: 3. excellent physical condition; 4. bachelor's degree in engineering or equivalent; 5. test-pilot school graduate; 6. minimum of 1,500 hours flying time; 7. qualified jet pilot. However, the process of choosing the first astronauts was elaborate and rigorous. The Langley Space Task Group believed that one of the most important prerequisites was being a test pilot. Langley engineer Charles Donlan and test pilot Robert Champine played important roles in the screening and selection process. Once selected, the astronauts began their training program at Langley. This included a 'little of everything' ranging from a graduate-level course in introductory space science to simulator training and scuba-diving. Training continued until the Langley Space Task Group was transferred to Houston, Texas.

  16. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1976. A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, E. H.

    1984-01-01

    A chronology of events concerning astronautics and aeronautics for the year 1976 is presented. Some of the many and varied topics include the aerospace industry, planetary exploration, space transportation system, defense department programs, politics, and aerospace medicine. The entries are organized by the month and presented in a news release format.

  17. Astronaut John Young in Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, command module pilot, inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot are out of the view.

  18. Three astronauts inside Command Module Simulator during Apollo Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Three astronauts inside the Command Module Simulator in bldg 5 during an Apollo Simulation. Left to right are Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; John W. Young, command module pilot; and Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot.

  19. Official portrait of 1987 astronaut candidate Bruce E. Melnick

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Official portrait of 1987 astronaut candidate Bruce E. Melnick. Melnick, a member of the United States Coast Guard (USCG) and Astronaut Class 12, wears navy blue flight suit and holds space shuttle orbiter model.

  20. Astronauts Armstrong and Scott arrive at Hickam Field, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (center), command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot, arrive at Hickam Field, Hawaii on their way from Naha, Okinawa, to Cape Kennedy, Florida. Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr. is at extreme left.

  1. Astronaut William Gregory prepares to exit his sleep quarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut William G. Gregory, STS-67 pilot, ejects a cassette and prepares to bail out of his sleep quarters aboard the Earth orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. The astronaut was about to begin a shift of support to the red team.

  2. Astronaut Michael Foale on RMS arm during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut C. Michael Foale (red stripe), mission specialist, on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm prepares to grab SPARTAN 204 as astronaut Bernard A. Harris Jr., payload commander, looks on during the STS-63 extravehicular activity (EVA).

  3. Official portrait of astronaut candidate Kenneth D. Cockrell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Official portrait of astronaut candidate Kenneth D. Cockrell, a member of Astronaut Class 13 (1990) and a space shuttle pilot candidate. Cockrell wears a navy blue flight suit and holds space shuttle model.

  4. Official portrait of 1987 astronaut candidate Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Official portrait of 1987 astronaut candidate Kenneth S. Reightler, Jr. Reightler, a member of the United States Navy and Astronaut Class 12, wears a navy blue flight suit and holds a space shuttle orbiter model.

  5. Development of a Lunar Astronaut Spatial Orientation and Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, R.; He, S.; Tang, P.; Skopljak, B.; Yilmaz, A.; Jiang, J.; Banks, M. S.; Oman, C.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents the progress of the development of a Lunar Astronaut Spatial Orientation and Information System (LASOIS) to continuously provide spatial orientation and navigation information to astronauts for reducing spatial disorientation.

  6. The Cooperative Health Research in South Tyrol (CHRIS) study: rationale, objectives, and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pattaro, Cristian; Gögele, Martin; Mascalzoni, Deborah; Melotti, Roberto; Schwienbacher, Christine; De Grandi, Alessandro; Foco, Luisa; D'Elia, Yuri; Linder, Barbara; Fuchsberger, Christian; Minelli, Cosetta; Egger, Clemens; Kofink, Lisa S; Zanigni, Stefano; Schäfer, Torsten; Facheris, Maurizio F; Smárason, Sigurður V; Rossini, Alessandra; Hicks, Andrew A; Weiss, Helmuth; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2015-01-01

    The Cooperative Health Research In South Tyrol (CHRIS) study is a population-based study with a longitudinal lookout to investigate the genetic and molecular basis of age-related common chronic conditions and their interaction with life style and environment in the general population. All adults of the middle and upper Vinschgau/Val Venosta are invited, while 10,000 participants are anticipated by mid-2017. Family participation is encouraged for complete pedigree reconstruction and disease inheritance mapping. After a pilot study on the compliance with a paperless assessment mode, computer-assisted interviews have been implemented to screen for conditions of the cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, genitourinary, nervous, behavioral, and cognitive system. Fat intake, cardiac health, and tremor are assessed instrumentally. Nutrient intake, physical activity, and life-course smoking are measured semi-quantitatively. Participants are phenotyped for 73 blood and urine parameters and 60 aliquots per participant are biobanked (cryo-preserved urine, DNA, and whole and fractionated blood). Through liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis, metabolite profiling of the mitochondrial function is assessed. Samples are genotyped on 1 million variants with the Illumina HumanOmniExpressExome array and the first data release including 4570 fully phenotyped and genotyped samples is now available for analysis. Participants' follow-up is foreseen 6 years after the first visit. The target population is characterized by long-term social stability and homogeneous environment which should both favor the identification of enriched genetic variants. The CHRIS cohort is a valuable resource to assess the contribution of genomics, metabolomics, and environmental factors to human health and disease. It is awaited that this will result in the identification of novel molecular targets for disease prevention and treatment. PMID:26541195

  7. The Cooperative Health Research in South Tyrol (CHRIS) study: rationale, objectives, and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Pattaro, Cristian; Gögele, Martin; Mascalzoni, Deborah; Melotti, Roberto; Schwienbacher, Christine; De Grandi, Alessandro; Foco, Luisa; D'Elia, Yuri; Linder, Barbara; Fuchsberger, Christian; Minelli, Cosetta; Egger, Clemens; Kofink, Lisa S; Zanigni, Stefano; Schäfer, Torsten; Facheris, Maurizio F; Smárason, Sigurður V; Rossini, Alessandra; Hicks, Andrew A; Weiss, Helmuth; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2015-11-05

    The Cooperative Health Research In South Tyrol (CHRIS) study is a population-based study with a longitudinal lookout to investigate the genetic and molecular basis of age-related common chronic conditions and their interaction with life style and environment in the general population. All adults of the middle and upper Vinschgau/Val Venosta are invited, while 10,000 participants are anticipated by mid-2017. Family participation is encouraged for complete pedigree reconstruction and disease inheritance mapping. After a pilot study on the compliance with a paperless assessment mode, computer-assisted interviews have been implemented to screen for conditions of the cardiovascular, endocrine, metabolic, genitourinary, nervous, behavioral, and cognitive system. Fat intake, cardiac health, and tremor are assessed instrumentally. Nutrient intake, physical activity, and life-course smoking are measured semi-quantitatively. Participants are phenotyped for 73 blood and urine parameters and 60 aliquots per participant are biobanked (cryo-preserved urine, DNA, and whole and fractionated blood). Through liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis, metabolite profiling of the mitochondrial function is assessed. Samples are genotyped on 1 million variants with the Illumina HumanOmniExpressExome array and the first data release including 4570 fully phenotyped and genotyped samples is now available for analysis. Participants' follow-up is foreseen 6 years after the first visit. The target population is characterized by long-term social stability and homogeneous environment which should both favor the identification of enriched genetic variants. The CHRIS cohort is a valuable resource to assess the contribution of genomics, metabolomics, and environmental factors to human health and disease. It is awaited that this will result in the identification of novel molecular targets for disease prevention and treatment.

  8. Information Management Systems for Monitoring and Documenting World Heritage - the Silk Roads Chris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vileikis, O.; Serruys, E.; Dumont, B.; van Balen, K.; Santana Quinterod, M.; de Maeyer, P.; Tigny, V.

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses the application of Information Management Systems (IMS) for documenting and monitoring World Heritage (WH) properties. The application of IMS in WH can support all stakeholders involved in conservation, and management of cultural heritage by more easily inventorying, mining and exchanging information from multiple sources based on international standards. Moreover, IMS could assist in detecting damages and preparing management strategies to mitigate risks, and slowing down the deterioration of the integrity of WH properties. The case study of the Silk Roads Cultural Heritage Resource Information System (CHRIS), a Belgian Federal Science Policy Office funded project, illustrates the capabilities of IMS in the context of the nomination of the Central Asian Silk Roads on the WH List. This multi-lingual, web-based IMS will act as a collaborative platform allowing for the completion of improved transnational nomination dossiers and subsequent monitoring activities with all necessary baseline information to easily verify consistency and quality of the proposal. The Silk Roads CHRIS Geospatial Content Management System uses open source technologies and allows to georeference data from different scales and sources including data from field recording methods and combine it with historical and heritage features documented through various means such as textual descriptions, documents, photographs, 3D models or videos. Moreover, tailored maps can also be generated by overlaying a selection of available layers and then be exported to support the nomination dossier. Finally, by using this innovative information and decision support system, the State Parties and other interested stakeholders will have access to a complete nomination dossier and could therefore respond more effectively to hazards and disaster phenomena.

  9. Estimating forest species abundance through linear unmixing of CHRIS/PROBA imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stagakis, Stavros; Vanikiotis, Theofilos; Sykioti, Olga

    2016-09-01

    The advancing technology of hyperspectral remote sensing offers the opportunity of accurate land cover characterization of complex natural environments. In this study, a linear spectral unmixing algorithm that incorporates a novel hierarchical Bayesian approach (BI-ICE) was applied on two spatially and temporally adjacent CHRIS/PROBA images over a forest in North Pindos National Park (Epirus, Greece). The scope is to investigate the potential of this algorithm to discriminate two different forest species (i.e. beech - Fagus sylvatica, pine - Pinus nigra) and produce accurate species-specific abundance maps. The unmixing results were evaluated in uniformly distributed plots across the test site using measured fractions of each species derived by very high resolution aerial orthophotos. Landsat-8 images were also used to produce a conventional discrete-type classification map of the test site. This map was used to define the exact borders of the test site and compare the thematic information of the two mapping approaches (discrete vs abundance mapping). The required ground truth information, regarding training and validation of the applied mapping methodologies, was collected during a field campaign across the study site. Abundance estimates reached very good overall accuracy (R2 = 0.98, RMSE = 0.06). The most significant source of error in our results was due to the shadowing effects that were very intense in some areas of the test site due to the low solar elevation during CHRIS acquisitions. It is also demonstrated that the two mapping approaches are in accordance across pure and dense forest areas, but the conventional classification map fails to describe the natural spatial gradients of each species and the actual species mixture across the test site. Overall, the BI-ICE algorithm presented increased potential to unmix challenging objects with high spectral similarity, such as different vegetation species, under real and not optimum acquisition conditions. Its

  10. A Study Of Ips Typographus Pest Infestation With The Use Of Multi-Angular CHRIS-Proba Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filchev, Lachezar; Panayotov, Momchil; Ling, Feilong

    2013-12-01

    Insects' infestations of coniferous forests have been in the focus of the forestry community for decades. Research that is dealing with the assessment of the impacts on forests and assessment of the area affected by the infestations has been assisted by remotely sensed data after the onset of civilian remote sensing era and making the large archives of satellite data centres of NASA, ESA, and JAXA available to the researcher's community. The present study assesses the impact from European Bark beetle (Ips typhographus L.) outbreak on Norway Spruce (Picea abies L.) forests in the UNESCO MAB reserve Bistrishko Branishte in Bulgaria using the ESA's third-party mission multiangular satellite CHRIS/PROBA Mode 1 spectroradiometer data. The study aims at assessing the impact of the infestation by comparing the pre- and post-fire CHRIS/PROBA Mode 1 narrow-band vegetation indices (VIs). In order to achieve the study objective the ‘dead spruce forest' areas were extracted using eight target detection algorithms. Statistics from the CHRIS/PROBA Mode 1 VIs was drawn and compared with one another for the two dates of acquisition. It was found that the areas affected by pest infestation can be well differentiated on CHRIS/PROBA data but the results vary due to the date of acquisition, illumination conditions, and season changes. The results from the study suggest that continuous space monitoring of insect infested coniferous forests can be successfully carried out by employing present-day available hyperspectral satellite data.

  11. Astronaut Demographic Database: Everything You Want to Know About Astronauts and More

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, Kathryn; Patterson, Holly

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of information regarding the astronaut population is available that could be especially useful to researchers. However, until now, it has been difficult to obtain that information in a systematic way. Therefore, this "astronaut database" began as a way for researchers within the Behavioral Health and Performance Group to keep track of the ever growing astronaut corps population. Before our effort, compilation of such data could be found, but not in a way that was easily acquired or accessible. One would have to use internet search engines, read through lengthy and potentially inaccurate informational sites, or read through astronaut biographies compiled by NASA. Astronauts are a unique class of individuals and, by examining such information, which we dubbed "Demographics," we hoped to find some commonalities that may be useful for other research areas and future research topics. By organizing the information pertaining to astronauts1 in a formal, unified catalog, we believe we have made the information more easily accessible, readily useable, and user friendly. Our end goal is to provide this database to others as a highly functional resource within the research community. Perhaps the database can eventually be an official, published document for researchers to gain full access.

  12. Component of astronauts survival equipment backpack - medical injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The automatic medical injectors were carried on the Mercury-Atlas 9 flight. The injectors provide the astronaut with injection tubes of Tigan, for preventing motion sickness and Demerol, for relieving pain. The tubes encased in the block are stowed in the astronauts survival kit. The single injection tubes are placed in a pocket of the astronauts space suit.

  13. 14 CFR 1214.1106 - Selection of astronaut candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Selection of astronaut candidates. 1214.1106 Section 1214.1106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1106 Selection of astronaut candidates....

  14. Colonoscopy Screening in the US Astronaut Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterova, K.; Van Baalen, M.; Wear, M. L.; Murray, J.; Schaefer, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Historically, colonoscopy screenings for astronauts have been conducted to ensure that astronauts are in good health for space missions. Recently this historical data has been identified as being useful for developing an occupational surveillance requirement. It can be used to assess overall colon health and to have a point of reference for future tests in current and former astronauts, as well as to follow-up and track rates of colorectal cancer and polyps. These rates can be compared to military and other terrestrial populations. In 2003, the active astronaut colonoscopy requirements changed to require less frequent colonoscopies. Since polyp removal during a colonoscopy is an intervention that prevents the polyp from potentially developing into cancer, the procedure decreases the individual's risk for colon cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the possible effect of increased follow-up times between colonoscopies on the number and severity of polyps identified during the procedures among both current and former NASA astronauts. Initial results and forward work regarding astronaut colonoscopy screenings will be presented. METHODS: A retrospective study of all colonoscopy procedures performed on NASA astronauts between 1962 and 2015 (both during active career and retirement) was conducted by review of the JSC Clinic Electronic Medical Record and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) database for colonoscopy screening procedures and pathology reports. The timeframe of interest was from the time of selection into the Astronaut Corps through May 2015 or death. For each colonoscopy report, the following data were captured: date of procedure, age at time of procedure, reason for procedure, quality of bowel prep, completion of procedure and/or reason for termination of procedure, findings of procedure, subsequent treatment (if any), recommended follow-up interval, actual follow up interval, family history of polyps or colon cancer

  15. Evident Biological Effects of Space Radiation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2004-01-01

    Though cancer risks are the primary concern for astronauts exposed to space radiation and a number of astronauts have developed cancer, identifying a direct association or cause of disease has been somewhat problematic due to a lack of statistics and a lack of an appropriate control group. However, several bio,logical effects observed in astronauts are believed to be primarily due to exposure to space radiation. Among those are, light flashes experienced by astronauts from early missions, cataract development in the crewmembers and excess chromosome aberrations detected in astronauts' lymphocytes postmission. The space radiation environment and evident biological effects will be discussed.

  16. Preparing for space - EVA training at the European Astronaut Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolender, Hans; Stevenin, Hervé; Bessone, Loredana; Torres, Antonio

    2006-11-01

    The European Astronaut Centre has developed an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) training course for ESA astronauts to bridge the gap between their scuba diving certification and the spacesuit qualification provided by NASA. ESA astronauts André Kuipers and Frank De Winne have already completed this "EVA Pre-Familiarisation Training Programme" before their training at NASA. In June 2006, an international crew of experienced EVA astronauts approved the course as good preparation for suited EVA training; they recommended that portions of it be used to help maintain EVA proficiency for astronauts.

  17. STS-96 Astronauts Adjust Unity Hatch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), astronauts Rick D. Husband and Tamara E. Jernigan adjust the hatch for the U.S. built Unity node. The task was part of an overall effort of seven crew members to prepare the existing portion of the International Space Station (ISS). Launched on May 27, 1999, aboard the Orbiter Discovery, the STS-96 mission was the second ISS assembly flight and the first shuttle mission to dock with the station.

  18. Astronaut John Young displays drawing of Snoopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 10 command module pilot, displays drawing of Snoopy in this color reproduction taken from the fourth telecast made by the color television camera aboard the Apollo 10 spacecraft. When this picture was made the Apollo 10 spacecraft was about half-way to the moon, or approximately 112,000 nautical miles from the earth. Snoopy will be the code name of the Lunar Module (LM) during Apollo 10 operations when the LM and CM are separated.

  19. Astronaut Jack Lousma taking hot bath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A closeup view of Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, taking a hot bath in the crew quarters of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. In deploying the shower facility, the shower curtain is pulled up from the floor and attached to the ceiling. The water comes through a push-button shower head attached to a flexible hose. Water is drawn off by a vacuum system.

  20. Extravehicular mobility unit training and astronaut injuries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Samuel; Krog, Ralph L.; Feiveson, Alan H.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronaut spacewalk training can result in a variety of symptom complaints and possible injuries. This study quantified and characterized signs, symptoms, and injuries resulting from extravehicular activity spacesuit training at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX, immersion facility. METHODS: We identified the frequency and incidence of symptoms by location, mechanisms of injury, and effective countermeasures. Recommendations were made to improve injury prevention, astronaut training, test preparation, and training hardware. At the end of each test, a questionnaire was completed documenting signs and symptoms, mechanisms of injury, and countermeasures. RESULTS: Of the 770 tests, there were 190 in which suit symptoms were reported (24.6%). There were a total of 352 reported suit symptom comments. Of those symptoms, 166 were in the hands (47.16%), 73 were in the shoulders (20.7%), and 40 were in the feet (11.4%). Others ranged from 6.0% to 0.28%, respectively, from the legs, arms, neck, trunk, groin, and head. Causal mechanisms for the hands included moisture and hard glove contacts resulting in fingernail injuries; in the shoulders, hard contact with suit components and strain mechanisms; and in the feet, hard boot contact. The severity of symptoms was highest in the shoulders, hands, and feet. CONCLUSIONS: Most signs and symptoms were mild, self-limited, of brief duration, and were well controlled by available countermeasures. Some represented the potential for significant injury with consequences affecting astronaut health and performance. Correction of extravehicular activity training-related injuries requires a multidisciplinary approach to improve prevention, medical intervention, astronaut training, test planning, and suit engineering.

  1. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training.

    PubMed

    Bloomberg, Jacob J; Peters, Brian T; Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments-enhancing their ability to "learn to learn." We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:26441561

  2. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training.

    PubMed

    Bloomberg, Jacob J; Peters, Brian T; Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments-enhancing their ability to "learn to learn." We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts.

  3. Enhancing astronaut performance using sensorimotor adaptability training

    PubMed Central

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Peters, Brian T.; Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments—enhancing their ability to “learn to learn.” We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts. PMID:26441561

  4. Former Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong Visits MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Among several other NASA dignitaries, former astronaut Neil A. Armstrong visited the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in attendance of the annual NASA Advisory Council Meeting. While here, Mr. Armstrong was gracious enough to allow the casting of his footprint. This casting will join those of other astronauts on display at the center. Armstrong was first assigned to astronaut status in 1962. He served as command pilot for the Gemini 8 mission, launched March 16, 1966, and performed the first successful docking of two vehicles in space. In 1969, Armstrong was commander of Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission, and gained the distinction of being the first man to land a craft on the Moon and the first man to step on its surface. Armstrong subsequently held the position of Deputy Associate Administrator for Aeronautics, NASA Headquarters Office of Advanced Research and Technology, from 1970 to 1971. He resigned from NASA in 1971. Pictured with Armstrong is MSFC employee Daniel McFall, who assisted with the casting procedure.

  5. NASA Astronaut Urinary Conditions Associated with Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, Jennifer; Cole, Richard; Young, Millennia H.; Mason, Sara

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Spaceflight is associated with many factors which may promote kidney stone formation, urinary retention, and/or Urinary Tract Infection (UTI). According to ISS mission predictions supplied by NASA's Integrated Medical Model, kidney stone is the second and sepsis (urosepsis as primary driver) the third most likely reason for emergent medical evacuation from the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Inflight and postflight medical records of NASA astronauts were reviewed for urinary retention, UTI and kidney stones during Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Mir, Shuttle, and ISS expeditions 1-38. RESULTS: NASA astronauts have had 7 cases of kidney stones in the 12 months after flight. Three of these cases occurred within 90 to 180 days after landing and one of the seven cases occurred in the first 90 days after flight. There have been a total of 16 cases (0.018 events per person-flights) of urinary retention during flight. The event rates per mission are nearly identical between Shuttle and ISS flights (0.019 vs 0.021 events per person-flights). In 12 of the 16 cases, astronauts had taken at least one space motion sickness medication. Upon further analysis, it was determined that the odds of developing urinary retention in spaceflight is 3 times higher among astronauts who took promethazine. The female to male odds ratio for inflight urinary retention is 11:14. An astronaut with urinary retention is 25 times more likely to have a UTI with a 17% infection rate per mission. There have been 9 reported UTIs during spaceflight. DISCUSSION: It is unclear if spaceflight carries an increased post-flight risk of kidney stones. Regarding urinary retention, the female to male odds ratio is higher during flight compared to the general population where older males comprise almost all cases due to prostatic hypertrophy. This female prevalence in spaceflight is even more concerning given the fact that there have been many more males in space than females. Terrestrial

  6. Astronaut Medical Selection and Flight Medicine Care During the Shuttle ERA 1981 to 2011

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, S.; Jennings, R.; Stepaniak, P.; Schmid, J.; Rouse, B.; Gray, G.; Tarver, B.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Shuttle Program began with congressional budget approval in January 5, 1972 and the launch of STS-1 on April 12, 1981 and recently concluded with the landing of STS-135 on July 21, 2011. The evolution of the medical standards and care of the Shuttle Era Astronauts began in 1959 with the first Astronaut selection. The first set of NASA minimal medical standards were documented in 1977 and based on Air Force, Navy, Department of Defense, and the Federal Aviation Administration standards. Many milestones were achieved over the 30 years from 1977 to 2007 and the subsequent 13 Astronaut selections and 4 major expert panel reviews performed by the NASA Flight Medicine Clinic, Aerospace Medicine Board, and Medical Policy Board. These milestones of aerospace medicine standards, evaluations, and clinical care encompassed the disciplines of preventive, occupational, and primary care medicine and will be presented. The screening and retention standards, testing, and specialist evaluations evolved through periodic expert reviews, evidence based medicine, and Astronaut medical care experience. The last decade of the Shuttle Program saw the development of the International Space Station (ISS) with further Space medicine collaboration and knowledge gained from our International Partners (IP) from Russia, Canada, Japan, and the European Space Agencies. The Shuttle Program contribution to the development and implementation of NASA and IP standards and waiver guide documents, longitudinal data collection, and occupational surveillance models will be presented along with lessons learned and recommendations for future vehicles and missions.

  7. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the OWS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment, as seen in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color television camera in the Orbital Workshop (OWS) of the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped into the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). The M509 exercise was in the forward dome area of the OWS. THe dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet form top to bottom.

  8. Validation of astronaut psychological select-in criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, R. M.; Helmreich, R. L.; Mcfadden, T.; Santy, P. A.; Holland, A. W.

    1992-01-01

    An optional astronaut selection strategy would select-in individuals on the basis of personality attributes associated with superior performance. Method: A test battery, the Astronaut Personal Characteristics Inventory (ASTROPCI) was developed which assesses positive and negative components of achievement, motivation, and interpersonal orientations and skills. The battery was administered to one hundred three astronaut candidates and sixty-six current U.S. Shuttle astronauts. To determine performance, a series of conceptual areas related to space flight performance were defined. Astronauts rated their peers on each of these dimensions. Ratings were obtained on all eighty-four current astronauts (excluding those selected in 1990). In addition to peer ratings, supervisor assessments of the same dimensions were obtained for each astronaut. Results: Cluster and factor analysis techniques were employed to isolate subgroups of astronauts. Those astronauts with both high achievement needs and interpersonal skills were most often rated among the top five by their peers and least often rated among the lowest five. A number of scales discriminated between astronauts rated high and low on one or more performance dimensions. Conclusions: The results parallel findings from the personality assessment of individuals in other demanding professions, including aircraft pilots and research scientists, suggesting that personality factors are significant determinants to performance in the space environment.

  9. U.S. tabloid magazine coverage of a celebrity dating abuse incident: Rihanna and Chris Brown.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Emily F; Nagaswaran, Anita; Johnson, Renee M; Adams, Kelley M; Scrivens, Juliane; Baughman, Allyson

    2012-01-01

    Dating abuse is a prevalent adolescent health problem with substantial public health consequences. As many as 1 in 10 high school students in the United States reports being "hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose" by his or her boyfriend or girlfriend in the past year. The authors used the Rihanna-Chris Brown dating abuse incident of 2009 as a case study to conduct what is, to our knowledge, the first assessment of media framing of dating abuse. The authors reviewed the 20 leading U.S. single-copy sales magazines published from February to April 2009 and identified 48 relevant articles, which were all printed in 7 tabloid magazines. The authors conducted a content analysis of the media frames of the articles using 5 frame categories: (a) abuse is objectionable, (b) victim-blaming, (c) abuse is sexualized/romanticized, (d) myths about abuse perpetration, and (e) abuse is normalized. Abuse is objectionable was the dominant frame of 40% of articles, victim-blaming in 36%. Although the majority of articles reviewed (83%) made at least passing reference to the idea that abuse is wrong, a minority (40%) used a dominant frame that condemned abuse. Instead, the majority of articles communicated mixed messages about dating abuse, and many minimized the seriousness of partner abuse perpetration. Advocacy is needed to improve future tabloid media framing of dating abuse incidents.

  10. U.S. Tabloid Magazine Coverage of a Celebrity Dating Abuse Incident: Rihanna and Chris Brown

    PubMed Central

    ROTHMAN, EMILY F.; NAGASWARAN, ANITA; JOHNSON, RENEE M.; ADAMS, KELLEY M.; SCRIVENS, JULIANE; BAUGHMAN, ALLYSON

    2012-01-01

    Dating abuse is a prevalent adolescent health problem with substantial public health consequences. As many as 1 in 10 high school students in the US reports being “hit, slapped, or physically hurt on purpose by their boyfriend or girlfriend” in the past year. We used the Rihanna-Chris Brown dating abuse incident of 2009 as a case study to conduct what is, to our knowledge, the first assessment of media framing of dating abuse. We reviewed the 20 leading U.S. single copy sales magazines published February–April, 2009 and identified 48 relevant articles which were all printed in seven “tabloid” magazines. We conducted a content analysis of the media frames of the articles using five frame categories: (1) Abuse is objectionable; (2) Victim-blaming; (3) Abuse is sexualized/romanticized; (4) Myths about abuse perpetration; and (5) Abuse is normalized. “Abuse is objectionable” was the dominant frame of 40% of articles, “victim-blaming” in 36%. Although the vast majority of articles reviewed (83%) made at least passing reference to the idea that abuse is wrong, a minority (40%) used a dominant frame that condemned abuse. Instead, the majority of articles communicated “mixed messages” about dating abuse, and many minimized the seriousness of partner abuse perpetration. Advocacy is needed to improve future tabloid media framing of dating abuse incidents. PMID:22475328

  11. Correction of systematic spatial noise in push-broom hyperspectral sensors: application to CHRIS/PROBA images.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Chova, Luis; Alonso, Luis; Guanter, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Calpe, Javier; Moreno, José

    2008-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing images are affected by different types of noise. In addition to typical random noise, nonperiodic partially deterministic disturbance patterns generally appear in the data. These patterns, which are intrinsic to the image formation process, are characterized by a high degree of spatial and spectral coherence. We present a new technique that faces the problem of removing the spatially coherent noise known as vertical striping, usually found in images acquired by push-broom sensors. The developed methodology is tested on data acquired by the Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) onboard the Project for On-board Autonomy (PROBA) orbital platform, which is a typical example of a push-broom instrument exhibiting a relatively high noise component. The proposed correction method is based on the hypothesis that the vertical disturbance presents higher spatial frequencies than the surface radiance. A technique to exclude the contribution of the spatial high frequencies of the surface from the destriping process is introduced. First, the performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on a set of realistic synthetic images with added modeled noise in order to quantify the noise reduction and the noise estimation accuracy. Then, algorithm robustness is tested on more than 350 real CHRIS images from different sites, several acquisition modes (different spatial and spectral resolutions), and covering the full range of possible sensor temperatures. The proposed algorithm is benchmarked against the CHRIS reference algorithm. Results show excellent rejection of the noise pattern with respect to the original CHRIS images, especially improving the removal in those scenes with a natural high contrast. However, some low-frequency components still remain. In addition, the developed correction model captures and corrects the dependency of the noise patterns on sensor temperature, which confirms the robustness of the presented approach. PMID

  12. Correction of systematic spatial noise in push-broom hyperspectral sensors: application to CHRIS/PROBA images.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Chova, Luis; Alonso, Luis; Guanter, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustavo; Calpe, Javier; Moreno, José

    2008-10-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing images are affected by different types of noise. In addition to typical random noise, nonperiodic partially deterministic disturbance patterns generally appear in the data. These patterns, which are intrinsic to the image formation process, are characterized by a high degree of spatial and spectral coherence. We present a new technique that faces the problem of removing the spatially coherent noise known as vertical striping, usually found in images acquired by push-broom sensors. The developed methodology is tested on data acquired by the Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) onboard the Project for On-board Autonomy (PROBA) orbital platform, which is a typical example of a push-broom instrument exhibiting a relatively high noise component. The proposed correction method is based on the hypothesis that the vertical disturbance presents higher spatial frequencies than the surface radiance. A technique to exclude the contribution of the spatial high frequencies of the surface from the destriping process is introduced. First, the performance of the proposed algorithm is tested on a set of realistic synthetic images with added modeled noise in order to quantify the noise reduction and the noise estimation accuracy. Then, algorithm robustness is tested on more than 350 real CHRIS images from different sites, several acquisition modes (different spatial and spectral resolutions), and covering the full range of possible sensor temperatures. The proposed algorithm is benchmarked against the CHRIS reference algorithm. Results show excellent rejection of the noise pattern with respect to the original CHRIS images, especially improving the removal in those scenes with a natural high contrast. However, some low-frequency components still remain. In addition, the developed correction model captures and corrects the dependency of the noise patterns on sensor temperature, which confirms the robustness of the presented approach.

  13. Latent Virus Reactivation in Space Shuttle Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent virus reactivation was measured in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected 2-4 months before launch, 10 days before launch (L-10), 2-3 hours after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+14), and 120 days after landing (R+120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was measured in these samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was measured in the 381 saliva samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the 66 urine samples collected from these subjects. Fourteen astronauts shed EBV DNA in 21% of their saliva samples before, during, and after flight, and 7 astronauts shed VZV in 7.4% of their samples during and after flight. It was interesting that shedding of both EBV and VZV increased during the flight phase relative to before or after flight. In the case of CMV, 32% of urine samples from 8 subjects contained DNA of this virus. In normal healthy control subjects, EBV shedding was found in 3% and VZV and CMV were found in less than 1% of the samples. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after space flight did not show any significant difference between flight phases. These data show that increased reactivation of latent herpes viruses may be associated with decreased immune system function, which has been reported in earlier studies as well as in these same subjects (data not reported here).

  14. Anomalous cases of astronaut helmet detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-05-01

    An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.

  15. Anomalous Cases of Astronaut Helmet Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolph, Chester; Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Woodell, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    An astronaut's helmet is an invariant, rigid image element that is well suited for identification and tracking using current machine vision technology. Future space exploration will benefit from the development of astronaut detection software for search and rescue missions based on EVA helmet identification. However, helmets are solid white, except for metal brackets to attach accessories such as supplementary lights. We compared the performance of a widely used machine vision pipeline on a standard-issue NASA helmet with and without affixed experimental feature-rich patterns. Performance on the patterned helmet was far more robust. We found that four different feature-rich patterns are sufficient to identify a helmet and determine orientation as it is rotated about the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. During helmet rotation the field of view changes to frames containing parts of two or more feature-rich patterns. We took reference images in these locations to fill in detection gaps. These multiple feature-rich patterns references added substantial benefit to detection, however, they generated the majority of the anomalous cases. In these few instances, our algorithm keys in on one feature-rich pattern of the multiple feature-rich pattern reference and makes an incorrect prediction of the location of the other feature-rich patterns. We describe and make recommendations on ways to mitigate anomalous cases in which detection of one or more feature-rich patterns fails. While the number of cases is only a small percentage of the tested helmet orientations, they illustrate important design considerations for future spacesuits. In addition to our four successful feature-rich patterns, we present unsuccessful patterns and discuss the cause of their poor performance from a machine vision perspective. Future helmets designed with these considerations will enable automated astronaut detection and thereby enhance mission operations and extraterrestrial search and rescue.

  16. Astronaut Story Musgrave during STS-6 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, STS-6 mission specialist, translates down the Challenger's payload bay door hinge line with a bag of latch tools. In the lower left foreground are three canisters containing three getaway special (GAS) experiments. Part of the starboard wing and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod are seen backdropped against the blackness of space. The gold-foil protected object on the right is the airborne support equipment for the now vacated inertial upper stage (IUS) which aided the deployment of the tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS).

  17. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth

  18. The astronaut of 1988. [training and selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slayton, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    Past space exploration history is reviewed for a projection of requirements in astronaut training and selection in 1988. The categories of talent required for those space missions are listed as test pilots and operational pilots for the test phase of programs; flight engineers and mechanics for Space Shuttle and Space Stations; medical doctors as experimentators and crew members; medical technicians and nurses for support medical service; veterinarians and veterinary technicians; physisits, chemists and geologists; and military men and administrators. Multinational crews and participation of both sexes are anticipated.

  19. Automatic georeferencing of astronaut auroral photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechert, Maik; Walsh, Andrew P.; Gerst, Alexander; Taylor, Matthew G. G. T.

    2016-07-01

    Astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS) have taken thousands of high-resolution colour photographs of the aurora, which could be made useful for research if their pointing information could be reconstructed. We describe a method to do this using the star field in the images, and how the reconstructed pointing can then be used to georeference the images to a similar level of accuracy in existing all-sky camera images. We have used this method to make georeferenced auroral images taken from the ISS available and here describe the resulting data set, processing software, and how to access them.

  20. Food kit used by Mercury astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Food kit used by Mercury astronauts. Some is dehydrated and needs water, other packets are ready to eat. Size is measured relative to a ruler. Included are packets of mushroom soup, orange-grapefruit juice, cocoa beverage, pineapple juice, chicken with gravy, pears, strawberries, beef and vegetables and other assorted food containers (08742-3); mechanism for connecting water dispensor to dehydrated food containers to facilitate rehydration (08744); Group packets of ready to eat space food, with size being measured by a ruler (8745).

  1. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Apollo/Saturn V Center, Lisa Malone (left), chief of KSC's Media Services branch, identifies a reporter to pose a question to one of the former Apollo astronauts seated next to her. From left, they are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7. This is the 30th anniversary of the launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  2. Evaluation of the Aerosol Type Effect on the Surface Reflectance Retrieval Using Chris/proba Images Over Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirelli, C.; Manzo, C.; Curci, G.; Bassani, C.

    2015-04-01

    Surface reflectance has a central role in the analysis of land surface for a broad variety of agricultural, geological and urban studies. An accurate atmospheric correction, obtained by an appropriate selection of aerosol type and loading, is the first requirement for a reliable surface reflectance estimation. The aerosol type is defined by its micro-physical properties, while the aerosol loading is described by optical thickness at 550 nm. The aim of this work is to evaluate the radiative impact of the aerosol model on the surface reflectance obtained from CHRIS (Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) hyperspectral data over land by using the specifically developed algorithm CHRIS@CRI (CHRIS Atmospherically Corrected Reflectance Imagery) based on the 6SV radiative transfer model. Five different aerosol models have been used: one provided by the AERONET inversion products (used as reference), three standard aerosol models in 6SV, and one obtained from the output of the GEOS-Chem global chemistry-transport model (CTM). As test case the urban site of Bruxelles and the suburban area of Rome Tor Vergata have been considered. The results obtained encourages the use of CTM in operational retrieval and provides an evaluation of the role of the aerosol model in the atmospheric correction process, considering the different microphysical properties impact.

  3. Mission X in Japan, an Education Outreach Program Featuring Astronautical Specialties and Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niihori, Maki; Yamada, Shin; Matsuo, Tomoaki; Nakao, Reiko; Nakazawa, Takashi; Kamiyama, Yoshito; Takeoka, Hajime; Matsumoto, Akiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki

    In the science field, disseminating new information to the public is becoming increasingly important, since it can aid a deeper understanding of scientific significance and increase the number of future scientists. As part of our activities, we at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Space Biomedical Research Office, started work to focus on education outreach featuring space biomedical research. In 2010, we launched the Mission X education program in Japan, named after “Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut” (hereinafter called “Mission X”), mainly led by NASA and European Space Agency (ESA). Mission X is an international public outreach program designed to encourage proper nutrition and exercise and teaching young people to live and eat like astronauts. We adopted Mission X's standpoint, and modified the program based on the originals to suit Japanese culture and the students' grade. Using astronauts as examples, this mission can motivate and educate students to instill and adopt good nutrition and physical fitness as life-long practices.Here we introduce our pilot mission of the “Mission X in Japan” education program, which was held in early 2011. We are continuing the education/public outreach to promote the public understanding of science and contribute to science education through lectures on astronautical specialties and knowledge.

  4. Measurement and assessment of radiation dose of astronauts in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Binquan; Sun, Yue-qiang; Yang, Chuibai; Zhang, Shenyi; Liang, Jinbao

    Astronauts in flight are exposed by the space radiation, which is mainly composed of proton, electron, heavy ion, and neutron. To assess the radiation risk, measurement and assessment of radiation dose of astronauts is indispensable. Especially, measurement for heavy ion radiation is most important as it contributes the major dose. Until now, most of the measurements and assessments of radiation dose of astronauts are based on the LET (Linear Energy Transfer) spectrum of space radiation. However, according to the ICRP Publication 123, energy and charge number of heavy ions should be measured in order to assess space radiation exposure to astronauts. In addition, from the publication, quality factors for each organs or tissues of astronauts are different and they should be calculated or measured independently. Here, a method to measure the energy and charge number of heavy ion and a voxel phantom based on the anatomy of Chinese adult male are presented for radiation dose assessment of astronauts.

  5. Astronaut Stephen Oswald and fellow crew members on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut Stephen S. Oswald (center), STS-67 mission commander, is seen with two of his fellow crew members and an experiment which required a great deal of his time on the middeck of the Earth orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Astronaut John M. Grunsfeld inputs mission data on a computer while listening to a cassette. Astronaut William G. Gregory (right edge of frame), pilot, consults a check list. The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), not in use here, can be seen in upper center.

  6. STS-51 astronauts photographed during sleep period on Discovery's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Four of the five STS-51 crew members were photographed during one of their sleep periods on Discovery's middeck. At bottom center, astronaut Frank L. Culbertson Jr., mission commander, is barely visible, with most of his body zipped securely in the sleep restraint. Others, left to right, are astronauts Daniel W. Bursch and Carl E. Walz, mission specialists, and William F. Readdy, pilot. The photograph was taken by astronaut James H. Newman, mission specialist.

  7. Feasibility study of astronaut standardized career dose limits in LEO and the outlook for BLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Bhardwaj, A.; Ferrari, Franco; Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Lal, A. K.; Li, Yinghui; Nagamatsu, Aiko; Nymmik, Rikho; Panasyuk, Michael; Petrov, Vladislav; Reitz, Guenther; Pinsky, Lawrence; Muszaphar Shukor, Sheikh; Singhvi, A. K.; Straube, Ulrich; Tomi, Leena; Townsend, Lawrence

    2014-11-01

    Cosmic Study Group SG 3.19/1.10 was established in February 2013 under the aegis of the International Academy of Astronautics to consider and compare the dose limits adopted by various space agencies for astronauts in Low Earth Orbit. A preliminary definition of the limits that might later be adopted by crews exploring Beyond Low Earth Orbit was, in addition, to be made. The present paper presents preliminary results of the study reported at a Symposium held in Turin by the Academy in July 2013. First, an account is provided of exposure limits assigned by various partner space agencies to those of their astronauts that work aboard the International Space Station. Then, gaps in the scientific and technical information required to safely implement human missions beyond the shielding provided by the geomagnetic field (to the Moon, Mars and beyond) are identified. Among many recommendations for actions to mitigate the health risks potentially posed to personnel Beyond Low Earth Orbit is the development of a preliminary concept for a Human Space Awareness System to: provide for crewed missions the means of prompt onboard detection of the ambient arrival of hazardous particles; develop a strategy for the implementation of onboard responses to hazardous radiation levels; support modeling/model validation that would enable reliable predictions to be made of the arrival of hazardous radiation at a distant spacecraft; provide for the timely transmission of particle alerts to a distant crewed vehicle at an emergency frequency using suitably located support spacecraft. Implementation of the various recommendations of the study can be realized based on a two pronged strategy whereby Space Agencies/Space Companies/Private Entrepreneurial Organizations etc. address the mastering of required key technologies (e.g. fast transportation; customized spacecraft design) while the International Academy of Astronautics, in a role of handling global international co-operation, organizes

  8. STS-112 Astronaut Wolf Participates in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's second session of extravehicular activity (EVA), a six hour, four minute space walk, in which an exterior station television camera was installed outside of the Destiny Laboratory. Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVA sessions. Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  9. STS-112 Astronaut Wolf Participates in EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Anchored to a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) or Canadarm2, astronaut David A. Wolf, STS-112 mission specialist, participates in the mission's first session of extravehicular activity (EVA). Wolf is carrying the Starboard One (S1) outboard nadir external camera which was installed on the end of the S1 Truss on the International Space Station (ISS). Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three EVAs. Its primary mission was to install the S1 Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  10. Astronaut Sellers Performs STS-112 EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard Side Integrated Truss Structure (S1) and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the International Space Station (ISS). The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the International Space Station's railway providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts. In this photograph, Astronaut Piers J. Sellers uses both a handrail on the Destiny Laboratory and a foot restraint on the Space Station Remote Manipulator System or Canadarm2 to remain stationary while performing work at the end of the STS-112 mission's second space walk. A cloud-covered Earth provides the backdrop for the scene.

  11. Official Portrait of Astronaut Frank Borman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    This is the official portrait of astronaut Frank Borman. A career Air Force officer from 1950, his assignments included service as a fighter pilot, an operational pilot and instructor, an experimental test pilot and an assistant professor of thermodynamics and fluid mechanics at West Point. When selected by NASA, Frank Borman was an instructor at the Aerospace Research Pilot School at Edwards AFB, California. In 1967 he served as a member of the Apollo 204 Fire Investigation Board, investigating the causes of the fire which killed three astronauts aboard an Apollo spacecraft. Later he became the Apollo Program Resident Manager, heading the team that reengineered the Apollo spacecraft. He also served as Field Director of the NASA Space Station Task Force. Frank Borman retired from the air Force in 1970, but is well remembered as a part of American history as a pioneer in the exploration of space. He is a veteran of both the Gemini 7, 1965 Space Orbital Rendezvous with Gemini 6 and the first manned lunar orbital mission, Apollo 8, in 1968.

  12. Skylab Astronauts' Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    After the end of the Apollo missions, NASA's next adventure into space was the marned spaceflight of Skylab. Using an S-IVB stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle, Skylab was a two-story orbiting laboratory, one floor being living quarters and the other a work room. The objectives of Skylab were to enrich our scientific knowledge of the Earth, the Sun, the stars, and cosmic space; to study the effects of weightlessness on living organisms, including man; to study the effects of the processing and manufacturing of materials utilizing the absence of gravity; and to conduct Earth resource observations. At the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), astronauts and engineers spent hundreds of hours in an MSFC Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) rehearsing procedures to be used during the Skylab mission, developing techniques, and detecting and correcting potential problems. The NBS was a 40-foot deep water tank that simulated the weightlessness environment of space. This photograph shows astronaut Ed Gibbon (a prime crew member of the Skylab-4 mission) during the neutral buoyancy Skylab extravehicular activity training at the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) mockup. One of Skylab's major components, the ATM was the most powerful astronomical observatory ever put into orbit to date.

  13. Astronaut Clay Anderson Speaks With S.C. Students

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, NASA astronaut Clay Anderson participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Crayton Middle School, Columbia,...

  14. New Jersey Students Speak With Astronaut Mario Runco

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, astronaut Mario Runco participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Memorial Deptford High School in Deptfo...

  15. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murray, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    opened in March 1997 and is the current site for US EVA training. Other space agencies also have used water to simulate weightlessness and train for EVAs. Russia has a training facility similar to the NBL named the Hydro Lab. The Hydro Lab began operations at the Gagarin Cosmonaut Training Center (GCTC) in 1980 and has been used extensively to the present. Although a majority of training in the Hydro Lab uses the Russian Orlan suit, a small number of sessions have been conducted using a NASA suit. The Japanese Weightlessness Environment Test System (WETS) went into service at the Tsukuba Space Center in 1997 but was closed in 2011 due to extensive earthquake damage. Several sessions were performed using a NASA suit, but these sessions were short and considered "development" runs. LSAH has assembled records from the WETF, NBL and Hydro Lab. Recording of the EVA training data has changed considerably from 1967 to present. The goal of early record keeping was to track use of hardware components, and the person involved was treated as a suited operator, not as a focus of interest. Records from the past two decades are fairly precise with the person, date, suit type and size noted. On occasion the length of the session was listed, but this data is not included on all records. Records were merged from data sources and extensive cleaning of the records was required since the multiple sources frequently overlapped and duplicated records. To date the LSAH EVA training dataset includes over 12,500 EVA training sessions performed by NASA astronauts since 1981. The following variables are included for most records: Name, Sex, Event date, Event name, HUT type, HUT size, Facility, and Estimated run time. For a smaller subset of records, the following variables are available: Actual run time, Time inverted, and the suit components Waist bearing type, Shoulder harness, Shoulder pads, and Teflon inserts. The LSAH dataset is currently the most complete resource for data regarding EVA

  16. NRAO Scientists on Team Receiving International Astronautics Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    , a radio telescope bigger than the Earth." In addition to Fomalont and Romney, they are: Hisashi Hirabayashi, of the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science and Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (ISAS/JAXA), Haruto Hirosawa (ISAS/JAXA), Peter Dewdney of Canada's Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Leonid Gurvits of the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE, The Netherlands), Makoto Inoue of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), David Jauncey of the Australia Telescope National Facility, Noriyuki Kawaguchi (NAOJ), Hideyuki Kobayashi (NAOJ), Kazuo Miyoshi (Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, Japan), Yasuhiro Murata (ISAS/JAXA), Takeshi Orii (NEC, Japan) Robert Preston of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Joel Smith (JPL). The International Academy of Astronautics was founded in August 1960 in Stockholm, Sweden, during the 11th International Astronautical Congress. The Academy aims to foster the development of astronautics for peaceful purposes; recognize individuals who have distinguished themselves in a related branch of science or technology; provide a program through which members may contribute to international endeavours; cooperation in the advancement of aerospace science. Previous recipients of the Laurels for Team Achievement Award are the Russian Mir Space Station Team (2001), the U.S. Space Shuttle Team (2002), the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) Team (2003), and the Hubble Space Telescope Team (2004). The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  17. NASA Astronauts on Soyuz: Experience and Lessons for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The U. S., Russia, and, China have each addressed the question of human-rating spacecraft. NASA's operational experience with human-rating primarily resides with Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Space Shuttle, and International Space Station. NASA s latest developmental experience includes Constellation, X38, X33, and the Orbital Space Plane. If domestic commercial crew vehicles are used to transport astronauts to and from space, Soyuz is another example of methods that could be used to human-rate a spacecraft and to work with commercial spacecraft providers. For Soyuz, NASA's normal assurance practices were adapted. Building on NASA's Soyuz experience, this report contends all past, present, and future vehicles rely on a range of methods and techniques for human-rating assurance, the components of which include: requirements, conceptual development, prototype evaluations, configuration management, formal development reviews (safety, design, operations), component/system ground-testing, integrated flight tests, independent assessments, and launch readiness reviews. When constraints (cost, schedule, international) limit the depth/breadth of one or more preferred assurance means, ways are found to bolster the remaining areas. This report provides information exemplifying the above safety assurance model for consideration with commercial or foreign-government-designed spacecraft. Topics addressed include: U.S./Soviet-Russian government/agency agreements and engineering/safety assessments performed with lessons learned in historic U.S./Russian joint space ventures

  18. Feeding the Astronauts During Long Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issues surrounding feeding astronauts during long duration missions. There is a brief history from the food and food packaging available during Project Mercury through the current food requirements. It shows the packaging and the requirements that have been used. The current food system includes thermostabilized and irradiated foods to reduce the potential of harmful microorganisms. There is an explanation of drinks available, rehydratable foods, and natural forms of food, (i.e., commercially available foods that are packaged in individual serving sizes). There is also discussion of the requirements for future missions, and the research gap for requirements for food that will last 5 years, with packaging and nutrients intact.

  19. Automatic Georeferencing of Astronaut Auroral Photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, A. P.; Riechert, M.; Taylor, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on board the International Space Station have taken thousands of high quality photographs of the aurorae borealis and australis with a high temporal and spatial resolution. A barrier to these photographs being used in research is that the cameras do not have a fixed orientation and the images therefore do not have any pointing information associated with them. Using astrometry.net and other open source libraries we have developed a software toolkit to automatically reconstruct the pointing of the images from the visible starfield and hence project the auroral images in geographic and geomagnetic coordinates. Here we explain the technique and the resulting data products, which will soon be publically available through the project website.

  20. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Apollo/Saturn V Center, Lisa Malone, chief of KSC's Media Services branch, identifies a reporter in the stands to pose a question to one of the former Apollo astronauts seated next to her. From left to right, they are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7. Behind them on the lower floor are the original computer consoles used in the firing room during the Apollo program. They are now part of the reenactment of the Apollo launches in the exhibit at the center. This is the 30th anniversary of the launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  1. Astronaut Foale is reunited with his family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronaut C. Michael Foale is reunited with his family after an approximate four-and-a-half-month stay aboard the Russian Space Station Mir. Wife Rhonda, 5-year-old Jenna and 3-year-old Ian stayed up for the late-night homecoming after the Oct. 6 landing of the Space Shuttle orbiter Atlantis on the STS-86 mission. Foale, a member of the Mir 24 crew, was dropped off on the Russian space station during the STS-84 mission in mid-May. He joined the STS-86 crew aboard Atlantis for the return trip to Earth. STS-86 was the seventh docking of the Space Shuttle with the Mir. STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf replaced Foale on the Russian station.

  2. Cleanliness verification process at Martin Marietta Astronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Elizabeth A.; Giordano, Thomas J.

    1994-06-01

    The Montreal Protocol and the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandate CFC-113, other chlorinated fluorocarbons (CFC's) and 1,1,1-Trichloroethane (TCA) be banned from production after December 31, 1995. In response to increasing pressures, the Air Force has formulated policy that prohibits purchase of these solvents for Air Force use after April 1, 1994. In response to the Air Force policy, Martin Marietta Astronautics is in the process of eliminating all CFC's and TCA from use at the Engineering Propulsion Laboratory (EPL), located on Air Force property PJKS. Gross and precision cleaning operations are currently performed on spacecraft components at EPL. The final step of the operation is a rinse with a solvent, typically CFC-113. This solvent is then analyzed for nonvolatile residue (NVR), particle count and total filterable solids (TFS) to determine cleanliness of the parts. The CFC-113 used in this process must be replaced in response to the above policies. Martin Marietta Astronautics, under contract to the Air Force, is currently evaluating and testing alternatives for a cleanliness verification solvent. Completion of test is scheduled for May, 1994. Evaluation of the alternative solvents follows a three step approach. This first is initial testing of solvents picked from literature searches and analysis. The second step is detailed testing of the top candidates from the initial test phase. The final step is implementation and validation of the chosen alternative(s). Testing will include contaminant removal, nonvolatile residue, material compatibility and propellant compatibility. Typical materials and contaminants will be tested with a wide range of solvents. Final results of the three steps will be presented as well as the implementation plan for solvent replacement.

  3. Changes in Neutrophil Functions in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur, Indreshpal; Simons, Elizabeth R.; Castro, Victoria; Pierson, Duane L.

    2002-01-01

    Neutrophil functions (phagocytosis, oxidative burst, degranulation) and expression of surface markers involved in these functions were studied in 25 astronauts before and after 4 space shuttle missions. Space flight duration ranged from 5 to 11 days. Blood specimens were obtained 10 days before launch (preflight or L-10), immediately after landing (landing or R+0), and again at 3 days after landing (postflight or R+3). Blood samples were also collected from 9 healthy low-stressed subjects at 3 time points simulating a 10-day shuttle mission. The number of neutrophils increased at landing by 85 percent when compared to the preflight numbers. Neutrophil functions were studied in whole blood using flow cytometric methods. Phagocytosis of E.coli-FITC and oxidative burst capacity of the neutrophils following the 9 to 11 day missions were lower at all three sampling points than the mean values for control subjects. Phagocytosis and oxidative burst capacity of the astronauts was decreased even 10-days before space flight. Mission duration appears to be a factor in phagocytic and oxidative functions. In contrast, following the short-duration (5-days) mission, these functions were unchanged from control values. No consistent changes in degranulation were observed following either short or medium length space missions. The expression of CD16, CD32, CD11a, CD11b, CD11c, L-selectin and CD36 was measured and found to be variable. Specifically, CD16 and CD32 did not correlate with the changes in oxidative burst and phagocytosis. We can conclude from this study that the stresses associated with space flight can alter the important functions of neutrophils.

  4. Did Vertigo Kill America's Forgotten Astronaut?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Merlin, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    On November 15, 1967, U.S. Air Force test pilot Major Michael J. Adams was killed while flying the X-15 rocket-propelled research vehicle in a parabolic spaceflight profile. This flight was part of a joint effort with NASA. An electrical short in one of the experiments aboard the vehicle caused electrical transients, resulting in excessive workload by the pilot. At altitude Major Adams inappropriately initiated a flat spin that led to a series of unusual aircraft attitudes upon atmospheric re-entry, ultimately causing structural failure of the airframe. Major Adams was known to experience vertigo (i.e. spatial disorientation) while flying the X-15, but all X-15 pilots most likely experienced vertigo (i.e. somatogravic, or "Pitch-Up", illusion) as a normal physiologic response to the accelerative forces involved. Major Adams probably experienced vertigo to a greater degree than did others, since prior aeromedical testing for astronaut selection at Brooks AFB revealed that he had an unusually high degree of labyrinthine sensitivity. Subsequent analysis reveals that after engine burnout, and through the zenith of the flight profile, he likely experienced the oculoagravic ("Elevator") illusion. Nonetheless, painstaking investigation after the mishap revealed that spatial disorientation (Type II, Recognized) was NOT the cause, but rather, a contributing factor. The cause was in fact the misinterpretation of a dual-use flight instrument (i.e. Loss of Mode Awareness), resulting in confusion between yaw and roll indications, with subsequent flight control input that was inappropriate. Because of the altitude achieved on this flight, Major Adams was awarded Astronaut wings posthumously. Understanding the potential for spatial disorientation, particularly the oculoagravic illusion, associated with parabolic spaceflight profiles, and understanding the importance of maintaining mode awareness in the context of automated cockpit design, are two lessons that have direct

  5. Astronauts Conrad and Kerwin practice Human Vestibular Function experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, checks out the Human Vestibular Function, Experiment M131, during Skylab training at JSC. Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, science pilot of the mission, goes over a checklist. The two men are in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC.

  6. Astronaut Jerry Ross on RMS holds on to ACCESS device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, anchored to the foot restraint on the remote manipulator system (RMS), holds on to the tower-like Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) device just erected by Ross and Astronaut Sherwood Spring as the Atlantis flies over white clouds and blue ocean waters of the Atlantic.

  7. Astronaut Ellen Ochoa at RMS controls on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Ellen Ochoa, payload commander, on the Space Shuttle Atlantis' aft flight deck, has just completed an operations at the controls for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm while working in chorus with astronaut Donald R. McMonagle. McMonagle, mission commander, is seen here at his station on the forward flight deck. An RMS operations checklist floats in front of Ochoa.

  8. Astronaut Jerry Ross on RMS holds on to ACCESS device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, anchored to the foot restraint on the remote manipulator system (RMS), approaches the tower-like Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) device just erected by Ross and Astronaut Sherwood Spring as the Atlantis flies over white clouds and blue ocean waters of the Atlantic.

  9. Compiling a Comprehensive EVA Training Dataset for NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, M. S.; Murry, J. D.; Lee, L. R.; Wear, M. L.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Training for a spacewalk or extravehicular activity (EVA) is considered hazardous duty for NASA astronauts. This activity places astronauts at risk for decompression sickness as well as various musculoskeletal disorders from working in the spacesuit. As a result, the operational and research communities over the years have requested access to EVA training data to supplement their studies.

  10. Validation of current land cover maps utilizing astronaut acquired photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebelein, Jennifer; Estes, John E.

    2000-01-01

    This investigation focuses on the potential use of astronaut acquired photography for the validation of current, land cover maps. More specifically, this study is directed at assessing the potential for the use of astronaut acquired photography to document and validate land cover change. Space Shuttle, astronaut acquired photography is employed to test the potential utility of data that may be acquired by astronauts employing the Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF) on International Space Station (ISS). The majority of astronaut acquired photography has been obtained under conditions similar to ISS operations in terms of both spectral as well as spatial resolution. Validation of land cover maps utilizing this type of imagery is being accomplished through a process of comparison among three different land cover classification legends created from the Eros Data Center (EDC) Land Characteristics Database. Our study area is a subregional scale portion of an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) based global Land Characteristics Database. The goal of this research is to attempt to establish: 1. which legend derived for this area provides the highest overall accuracy for the land cover classes present: 2. which legend is best validated using astronaut acquired photography; and 3. which classes of these legends best lend themselves to validation with astronaut acquired photography. Preliminary results indicate that astronaut acquired photography can be employed to validate land cover maps and that results achieved using this imagery corresponds well to those achieved utilizing Landsat data. .

  11. Astronaut Story Musgrave in payload bay during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman is reflected in the helmet visor of F. Story Musgrave as he photographs the veteran astronaut during one of the pair's three shared spacewalks. Beside Musgrave is the Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC II).

  12. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  13. FACILITIES - VISITORS INFORMATION CENTER [VIC] ASTRONAUTS MEMORIAL CONSTRUCTION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Construction steadily progresses on the Astronauts Memorial to be dedicated in May 1991 at Spaceport USA, The NASA Visitors Center at KSC. Both the memorial space mirror and a future education center will be dedicated to all U. S. astronauts who have died in the pursuit of space exploration.

  14. Astronaut James Lovell hoisted from water by recovery helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, is hoisted from the water by a recovery helicopter from the Aircraft Carrier U.S.S. Wasp. Astronaut Frank Borman, command pilot, waits in the raft to be hoisted aboard the helicopter.

  15. Astronaut James Lovell checks body temperature with oral temperature probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Gemini 7 pilot Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr. has temperature check with oral temperature probe attached to his space suit during final preflight preparations for the Gemini 7 space mission. The temperature probe allows doctors to monitor astronauts body temperature at any time during the mission.

  16. Official portrait of astronaut Robert D.Cabana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Official portrait of astronaut Robert D.Cabana, a colonel in the United States Marine Corps (USMC) and a member of the 1985 Astronaut Class 11. Cabana is wearing a blue flight suit and poses with an American flag and asmall model of the space shuttle orbiter.

  17. Astronaut Jack Lousma egresses Skylab 3 Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, egresses the Skylab 3 Command Module aboard the prime recovery ship, U.S.S. New Orleans, during recovery operations in the Pacific Ocean. Note surgical masks on those assisting Lousma. This is to prevent the astronauts from contracting infections.

  18. The Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Eugenia; Wear, Mary L.; Lee, Lesley R.; VanBaalen, Mary

    2013-01-01

    From 1989-2010 NASA conducted a research study, the Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health, to investigate the incidence of acute and chronic morbidity and mortality in astronauts and to determine whether their occupational exposures were associated with increased risk of death or disability. In 2004, the Institute of Medicine recommended that NASA convert the longitudinal study into an occupational health surveillance program and in 2010, NASA initiated the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health project. The new program collects data on astronaut workplace exposures, especially those occurring in the training and space flight environments, and conducts operational and health care analyses to look for trends in exposure and health outcomes. Astronaut selection and retention medical standards are rigorous, requiring an extensive clinical testing regimen. As a result, this employee population has contributed to a large set of health data available for analyses. Astronauts represent a special population with occupational exposures not typically experienced by other employee populations. Additionally, astronauts are different from the general population in terms of demographic and physiologic characteristics. The challenges and benefits of conducting health surveillance for an employee population with unique occupational exposures will be discussed. Several occupational surveillance projects currently underway to examine associations between astronaut workplace exposures and medical outcomes will be described.

  19. 14 CFR 1214.1106 - Selection of astronaut candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of astronaut candidates. 1214.1106 Section 1214.1106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1106 Selection of...

  20. 14 CFR 1214.1106 - Selection of astronaut candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of astronaut candidates. 1214.1106 Section 1214.1106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1106 Selection of...

  1. 14 CFR 1214.1106 - Selection of astronaut candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of astronaut candidates. 1214.1106 Section 1214.1106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1106 Selection of...

  2. 14 CFR § 1214.1106 - Selection of astronaut candidates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of astronaut candidates. § 1214.1106 Section § 1214.1106 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT NASA Astronaut Candidate Recruitment and Selection Program § 1214.1106 Selection of...

  3. Astronaut Dale Gardner holds up for sale sign after EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Dale A. Gardner, having just completed the major portion of his second extravehicular activity (EVA) period in three days, holds up a 'for sale' sign. Astronaut Joseph P. ALlen IV, who also participated in the two EVA's, is reflected in Gardner's helmet visor. A portion of each of two recovered satellites is in the lower right corner, with Westar nearer Discovery's aft.

  4. Astronaut Gordon Cooper backs out of his spacecraft 'Faith 7'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper backs out of his spacecraft 'Faith 7' after a 600,000 mile, 22.9 orbit journey around the earth. He elected to remain in the spacecraft until it was hoisted to the deck of the Kearsarge, as did Astronaut Walter Schirra during the previous mission.

  5. Astronaut Gordon Cooper is assisted from his spacecraft 'Faith 7'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper stands supported by strong hands after climbing out of his spacecraft 'Faith 7' after a 600,000 mile, 22.9 orbit journey around the earth. He elected to remain in the spacecraft until it was hoisted to the deck of the Kearsarge, as did Astronaut Walter Schirra during the previous mission.

  6. Astronaut Richard Gordon practices attaching camera to film EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., prime crew pilot for the Gemini 11 space flight, practices attaching to a Gemini boilerplate a camera which will film his extravehicular activity (EVA) outside the spacecraft. The training exercise is being conducted in the Astronaut Training Building, Kennedy Space Center, Florida.

  7. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  8. Astronaut Eileen Collins is briefed on use of Sky Genie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, STS-63 mission pilot, is briefed on the use of Sky Genie device by Karin L. Porter. The device would aid in emergency egress operations aboard a troubled Space Shuttle. Porter, an employee of Rockwell International, helps train astronauts in egress procedures at JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  9. Astronauts Harbaugh and Collins with T-38 jet trainers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts Eileen M. Collins and Gregory J. Harbaugh discuss current weather conditions with NASA pilot Jack Nickel, safety officer in the Aircraft Operations Division (AOD) at JSC. With Collins in the front seat, the two astronauts were about to take a f

  10. Astronaut Bernard Collins prepares to use Sky Genie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Bernard A. Harris, Jr., STS-63 payload commander, prepares to make use of a Sky Genie device used in emergency egress training. The device would aid in emergency egress operations aboard a troubled Space Shuttle. Porter, an employee of Rockwell International, helps train astronauts in egress procedures at JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  11. The First Lunar Landing as Told by the Astronauts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This brochure contains a transcript of the Apollo 11 post-flight press conference, in which the astronauts discussed the scenes shown in 40 photographs taken during the mission. These photographs are included in the brochure. Most are in color. The conference concluded with a question and answer interview of the astronauts. (PR)

  12. Official portrait of 1987 astronaut candidate Kenneth D. Bowersox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Official portrait of 1987 astronaut candidate Kenneth D. Bowersox. Bowersox, a member of the United States Navy (USN) and Astronaut Class 12, wears navy blue flight suit and holds space shuttle orbiter model with external tank (ET) and solid rocket boosters (SRBs).

  13. Astronaut hazard during free-flight polar EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, W. N.

    1985-01-01

    Extravehicular Activity (EVA) during Shuttle flights planned for the late 1980's includes several factors which together may constitute an astronaut hazard. Free-flight EVA is planned whereas prior United States Earth orbit EVA has used umbilical tethers carrying communications, coolant, and oxygen. EVA associated with missions like LANDSAT Retrieval will be in orbits through the auroral oval where charging of spacecraft may occur. The astronaut performing free flight EVA constitutes an independent spacecraft. The astronaut and the Shuttle make up a system of electrically isolated spacecraft with a wide disparity in size. Unique situations, such as the astronaut being in the wake of the Shuttle while traversing an auroral disturbance, could result in significant astronaut and Shuttle charging. Charging and subsequent arc discharge are important because they have been associated with operating upsets and even satellite failure at geosynchronous orbit. Spacecraft charging theory and experiments are examined to evaluate charging for Shuttle size spacecraft in the polar ionosphere.

  14. STS-118 Astronaut Williams and Expedition 15 Engineer Anderson Perform EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    As the construction continued on the International Space Station (ISS), STS-118 Astronaut Dave Williams, representing the Canadian Space Agency, participated in the fourth and final session of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). During the 5 hour space walk, Williams and Expedition 15 engineer Clay Anderson (out of frame) installed the External Wireless Instrumentation System Antenna, attached a stand for the shuttle robotic arm extension boom, and retrieved the two Materials International Space Station Experiments (MISSE) for return to Earth. MISSE collects information on how different materials weather in the environment of space.

  15. Robonaut: a telepresence-based astronaut assistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diftler, Myron; Jenks, Kenneth C.; Williams, Lorraine E. P.

    2002-02-01

    Robonaut, NASA's latest anthropomorphic robot, is designed to work in the hazards of the space environment as both an astronaut assistant and, in certain situations, an astronaut surrogate. This highly dexterous robot is now performing complex tasks under telepresence control in the Dexterous Robotics Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center that could previously only be carried out directly by humans. With 43 degrees of freedom (DOF), Robonaut is a state-of-the-art human size telemanipulator system. It has a three-DOF articulated waist and two seven-DOF arms, giving it an impressive work space for interacting with its environment. Its two five-fingered hands allow manipulation of a wide range of common tools. A pan/tilt head with multiple stereo camera systems provides data for both teleoperators and computer vision systems. Telepresence control is the main mode of operation for Robonaut. The teleoperator dons a variety of sensors to map hand, head, arm and body motions to control the robot. A distributed object-oriented network architecture links the various computers used to gather posture and joint angle data from the human operator, to control the robot, to generate video displays for the human operator and to recognize and generate human voice inputs and outputs. Distributed object-oriented software allows the same telepresence gear to be used on different robots and allows interchangable telepresence gear in the laboratory environment. New telepresence gear and new robots only need to implement a standard software interface. The Robonaut implementation is a two-tiered system using Java/Jini for distributed commands and a commercial-off-the-shelf data sharing protocol for high-speed data transmission. Experimental telepresence gear is being developed and evaluated. Force feedback devices and techniques are a focus, and their efforts on teleoperator performance of typical space operations tasks is being measured. Particularly, the augmentation of baseline

  16. Digital Astronaut Photography: A Discovery Dataset for Archaeology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Astronaut photography acquired from the International Space Station (ISS) using commercial off-the-shelf cameras offers a freely-accessible source for high to very high resolution (4-20 m/pixel) visible-wavelength digital data of Earth. Since ISS Expedition 1 in 2000, over 373,000 images of the Earth-Moon system (including land surface, ocean, atmospheric, and lunar images) have been added to the Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov ). Handheld astronaut photographs vary in look angle, time of acquisition, solar illumination, and spatial resolution. These attributes of digital astronaut photography result from a unique combination of ISS orbital dynamics, mission operations, camera systems, and the individual skills of the astronaut. The variable nature of astronaut photography makes the dataset uniquely useful for archaeological applications in comparison with more traditional nadir-viewing multispectral datasets acquired from unmanned orbital platforms. For example, surface features such as trenches, walls, ruins, urban patterns, and vegetation clearing and regrowth patterns may be accentuated by low sun angles and oblique viewing conditions (Fig. 1). High spatial resolution digital astronaut photographs can also be used with sophisticated land cover classification and spatial analysis approaches like Object Based Image Analysis, increasing the potential for use in archaeological characterization of landscapes and specific sites.

  17. NASA and ESA astronauts visit ESO. Hubble repair team meets European astronomers in Garching.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-02-01

    On Wednesday, February 16, 1994, seven NASA and ESA astronauts and their spouses will spend a day at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. They are the members of the STS-61 crew that successfully repaired the Hubble Space Telescope during a Space Shuttle mission in December 1993. This will be the only stop in Germany during their current tour of various European countries. ESO houses the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST/ECF), a joint venture by the European Space Agency and ESO. This group of astronomers and computer specialists provide all services needed by European astronomers for observations with the Space Telescope. Currently, the European share is about 20 of the total time available at this telescope. During this visit, a Press Conference will be held on Wednesday, February 16, 11:45 - 12:30 at the ESO Headquarters Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748 Garching bei Munchen. Please note that participation in this Press Conference is by invitation only. Media representatives may obtain invitations from Mrs. E. Volk, ESO Information Service at this address (Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax.: +49-89-3202362), until Friday, February 11, 1994. After the Press Conference, between 12:30 - 14:00, a light refreshment will be served at the ESO Headquarters to all participants. >From 14:00 - 15:30, the astronauts will meet with students and teachers from the many scientific institutes in Garching in the course of an open presentation at the large lecture hall of the Physics Department of the Technical University. It is a 10 minute walk from ESO to the hall. Later the same day, the astronauts will be back at ESO for a private discussion of various space astronomy issues with their astronomer colleagues, many of whom are users of the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as ground-based telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and elsewhere. The astronauts continue to Switzerland in the evening.

  18. Station Astronauts Do Experiment for 'Cosmos'

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aboard the International Space Station, Expedition 38 Commander Koichi Wakata of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and Flight Engineer Rick Mastracchio of NASA help 'Cosmos' host Neil deGrasse...

  19. Apollo 16 astronauts in Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, participates in extravehicular activity (EVA) training in bldg 5 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). In the right background is Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. They are inside the Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator (31046); Mattingly (right foreground) and Duke (right backgroung) in the Apollo Command Module Mission Simulator for EVA simulation and training. Astronaut John W. Young, commander, can be seen in the left background (31047).

  20. Astronauts Truly and Engle engaged in on-board activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut Joe H. Engle, STS-2 Commander, enjoying in-space exercise session on a treadmill specially designed for astronauts in zero gravity. He is in the middeck area of the orbiter (39570); Engle prepares a beverage by using a space squirt-gun to fill a plastic, accordion-like receptacle while another one, already filled, floats around his left knee. He is wearing the onboard constant wear garment (39571); Astronaut Richard H. Truly, STS-2 Pilot, shaves in zero gravity atmosphere (39572); Engle shaves in zero gravity atmosphere. Behind him is a fire extinguisher and a picture of George Abbey (39573).

  1. Skylab-3 Mission Onboard Photograph - Astronaut Bean on Ergometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This Skylab-3 onboard photograph shows Astronaut Allen Bean on the ergometer, breathing into the metabolic analyzer. Skylab's Metabolic Activity experiment (M171), a medical evaluation facility, was designed to measure astronauts' metabolic changes while on long-term space missions. The experiment obtained information on astronauts' physiological capabilities and limitations and provided data useful in the design of future spacecraft and work programs. Physiological responses to physical activity was deduced by analyzing inhaled and exhaled air, pulse rate, blood pressure, and other selected variables of the crew while they performed controlled amounts of physical work with a bicycle ergometer.

  2. Astronaut Thomas Mattingly performs EVA during Apollo 16 transearth coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Thomas K. Mattingly II, command module pilot of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, performs extravehicular activity (EVA) during the Apollo 16 transearth coast. mattingly is assisted by Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot. Mattingly inspected the SIM bay of the Service Module, and retrieved film from the Mapping and Panoramic cameras. Mattingly is wearing the helmet of Astronaut John W. Young, commander. The helmet's lunar extravehicular visor assembly helped protect Mattingly's eyes frmo the bright sun. This view is a frame from motion picture film exposed by a 16mm Maurer camera.

  3. Astronauts Hoffman and Musgrave monitor Neutral Buoyancy Simulator training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (far left) and F. Story Musgrave (second left) monitor a training session from consoles in the control room for the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Seen underwater in the NBS on the big screen and the monitors at the consoles is astronaut Thomas D. Akers. The three mission specialists, along with astronaut Kathryn C. Thornton, are scheduled to be involved in a total of five sessions of extravehicular activity (EVA) to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in orbit during the STS-61 mission, scheduled for December 1993.

  4. Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut. International Fitness Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The Mission X, Train like an Astronaut, pilot project was a 2-year effort directed by the International Life Science Working Group. The pilot was funded by the Human Research Program and was lead by the Human Research Program Education and Outreach (HRPEO) project and supported by a group of space agencies providing in-kind resources. The aim was to identify an international educational outreach concept that would promote a life science topic utilizing the education and outreach expertise of the various space agencies working on the utilization of the International Space Station. This in turn serves as an inspiration for the younger generation to aspire to go further in school, and provides insight into the capability of a participating country to ensure the effort provided value for their communities and children. The pilot project developed the necessary tools to promote communications between the partners and to use materials and expertise from all the countries? space agencies. The Mission X Website (trainlikeanastronaut.org) provided a single repository for the educational activities as well as a place for the Challenge Teams to provide their progress in the international fitness challenge. It also added to the International flavor as different countries were able to share and learn about what was happening with all those involved in the 6-week challenge period. A point system was utilized to promote constructive, cooperative competition in which 4164 students participated. The points were used to help FitKid, Astro Charlie, "Walk-To-The-Moon". The 18 physical and educational Mission X activities were made available on the Mission X website in seven languages. The Mission X pilot project was considered a success in 1) the design, development, and implementation of the multi-language website, 2) the expansion of healthy lifestyle awareness, and 3) the concept for drawing an international educational community together to highlight global topics in association

  5. Effects of HZE particles on astronauts

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, S.B. ); Townsend, L.W.; Wilson, J.W. )

    1991-01-01

    Outside the effective shielding provided by Earth's magnetic field, space travelers will experience penetrating high-energy galactic cosmic rays, which reach the orbit of earth isotropically and with fluxes that vary smoothly over an 11-yr interval that is related to the 11-yr cycle of solar activity. This radiation consists of protons (Z=1) up to uranium (Z=92). There is an abundance of even--over odd-Z nuclei, with several local peaks in abundance when plotted as a function of Z. A prominent peak occurs in the iron abundance (Z=26) and is presumably related to the richness of iron in the galactic cosmic ray sources. The iron component is particularly important in a biological assessment of risk. High-energy particles with Z>2 have been called (high Z and energy) (HZE) particles. These particles are a concern in the evaluation of radiation risk because (a) they are highly ionizing and cause considerable damage as they penetrate biological tissue, and (b) they undergo nuclear interactions within the spacecraft shielding and the bodies of the astronauts themselves to produce lighter, more penetrating and sometimes highly ionizing secondaries. Considerably more ground-based cellular and animal experimentation is in order with high-energy heavy-ion beams before definitive statements can be made on the risk of HZE particles to humans outside the geomagnetosphere.

  6. Biological dosimetry in Russian and Italian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, O.; Durante, M.; Gialanella, G.; Grossi, G.; Pugliese, M.; Scampoli, P.; Snigiryova, G.; Obe, G.

    Large uncertainties are associated with estimates of equivalent dose and cancer risk for crews of longterm space missions. Biological dosimetry in astronauts is emerging as a useful technique to compare predictions based on quality factors and risk coefficients with actual measurements of biological damage in-flight. In the present study, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in one Italian and eight Russian cosmonauts following missions of different duration on the MIR and the international space station (ISS). We used the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize translocations in chromosomes 1 and 2. In some cases, an increase in chromosome damage was observed after flight, but no correlation could be found between chromosome damage and flight history, in terms of number of flights at the time of sampling, duration in space and extra-vehicular activity. Blood samples from one of the cosmonauts were exposed in vitro to 6 MeV X-rays both before and after the flight. An enhancement in radiosensitivity induced by the spaceflight was observed.

  7. Biological dosimetry in Russian and Italian astronauts.

    PubMed

    Greco, O; Durante, M; Gialanella, G; Grossi, G; Pugliese, M; Scampoli, P; Snigiryova, G; Obe, G

    2003-01-01

    Large uncertainties are associated with estimates of equivalent dose and cancer risk for crews of long-term space missions. Biological dosimetry in astronauts is emerging as a useful technique to compare predictions based on quality factors and risk coefficients with actual measurements of biological damage in-flight. In the present study, chromosomal aberrations were analyzed in one Italian and eight Russian cosmonauts following missions of different duration on the MIR and the international space station (ISS). We used the technique of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to visualize translocations in chromosomes 1 and 2. In some cases, an increase in chromosome damage was observed after flight, but no correlation could be found between chromosome damage and flight history, in terms of number of flights at the time of sampling, duration in space and extra-vehicular activity. Blood samples from one of the cosmonauts were exposed in vitro to 6 MeV X-rays both before and after the flight. An enhancement in radiosensitivity induced by the spaceflight was observed. PMID:12971404

  8. Apollo astronaut supports return to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-12-01

    Nearly 40 years after the Apollo 17 Moon launch on 7 December 1972, former NASA astronaut Harrison Schmitt said there is "no question" that the Moon is still worth going to, "whether you think about the science of the Moon or the resources of the Moon, or its relationship to accelerating our progress toward Mars." Schmitt, a geologist and the lunar module pilot for that final Apollo mission, was speaking at a 6 December news briefing about lunar science at the AGU Fall Meeting. "By going back to the Moon, you accelerate your ability to go anywhere else," Schmitt said, because of the ability to gain experience on a solar system body just a 3-day journey from Earth; test new hardware and navigation and communication techniques; and utilize lunar resources such as water, hydrogen, methane, and helium-3. He said lunar missions also would be a way "to develop new generations of people who know how to work in deep space. The people who know how to work [there] are my age, if not older, and we need young people to get that kind of experience." Schmitt, 77, said that a particularly interesting single location to explore would be the Aitken Basin at the Moon's south pole, where a crater may have reached into the Moon's upper mantle. He also said a longer duration exploration program might be able to explore multiple sites.

  9. Official Portrait of Astronaut Neil Armstrong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, poses for his official Apollo 11 portrait. Armstrong began his flight career as a naval aviator. He flew 78 combat missions during the Korean War. Armstrong joined the NASA predecessor, NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics), as a research pilot at the Lewis Laboratory in Cleveland and later transferred to the NACA High Speed Flight Station at Edwards AFB, California. He was a project pilot on many pioneering high speed aircraft, including the 4,000 mph X-15. He has flown over 200 different models of aircraft, including jets, rockets, helicopters, and gliders. In 1962, Armstrong was transferred to astronaut status. He served as command pilot for the Gemini 8 mission, launched March 16, 1966, and performed the first successful docking of two vehicles in space. In 1969, Armstrong was commander of Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission, and gained the distinction of being the first man to land a craft on the Moon and the first man to step on its surface. Armstrong subsequently held the position of Deputy Associate Administrator for Aeronautics, NASA Headquarters Office of Advanced Research and Technology, from 1970 to 1971. He resigned from NASA in 1971.

  10. Atrial Arrhythmias in Astronauts. Summary of a NASA Summit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, Yael; Watkins, Sharmila; Polk, J. D.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the findings of a panel of heart experts brought together to study if atrial arrhythmias more prevalent in astronauts, and potential risk factors that may predispose astronauts to atrial arrhythmias. The objective of the panel was to solicit expert opinion on screening, diagnosis, and treatment options, identify gaps in knowledge, and propose relevant research initiatives. While Atrial Arrhythmias occur in approximately the same percents in astronauts as in the general population, they seem to occur at younger ages in astronauts. Several reasons for this predisposition were given: gender, hypertension, endurance training, and triggering events. Potential Space Flight-Related Risk factors that may play a role in precipitating lone atrial fibrillation were reviewed. There appears to be no evidence that any variable of the space flight environment increases the likelihood of developing atrial arrhythmias during space flight.

  11. Astronaut Claude Nicollier at RMS controls on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Swiss Astronaut Claude Nicollier is pictured at the aft flight deck station he occupies. Among Nicollier 's responsibilities were the control of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) during operations with the Hubble Space Telesocpe (HST).

  12. Astronaut Karl Henize with soft drink in middeck area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Karl Henize drinks from a special carbonated beverage dispenser labeled Pepsi while floating in the middeck area of the shuttle Challenger. Note the can appears to have its own built in straw.

  13. Space Station Live: Astronaut Don Pettit on Earth Photography

    NASA Video Gallery

    In observance of Earth Day, Space Station Live commentator Pat Ryan talks with NASA astronaut Don Pettit, who along with his fellow Expedition 30/31 crew members captured more than a half a million...

  14. Space Station Live: Astronaut Photos Highlight Earth Month

    NASA Video Gallery

    Melissa Dawson, an Earth scientist with NASA’s Johnson Space Center, recently spoke by phone with Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters to discuss the importance of astronaut photograp...

  15. Why does astronaut Reid Wiseman use social media?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Reid Wiseman, who is living and working on the International Space Station, has taken everyone along on the incredible journey using social media. But why does he use social media? Find o...

  16. Astronaut James D. van Hoften examines student experiment on Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut James D. van Hoften, 41-C mission specialist, holds an aluminum box full of honeybees. The experiment in earth orbit is duplicated with another colony of the bees on earth. This is an experiment submitted by student researchers.

  17. Forty Years of Psychological and Psychiatric Selection of NASA Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Albert W.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to chronicle the history and development of the psychological selection process for NASA astronauts. For over 40 years, astronaut applicants have undergone rigorous medical testing to qualify for candidacy. Psychological selection has an equally long history, dating back to 1958, when psychological requirements were established for astronauts during the Mercury program. However, for many years, psychological selection consisted of psychiatric screening for psychopathology. As we approach the day in which the first ISS crew will live and work in space for months at a time, it becomes clear that both the psychological criteria and the selection system to detect said criteria have changed. This presentation discusses the events that led to the current, dual-phase selection system that is used to select individuals into the astronaut corps. Future directions for psychological selection will also be addressed.

  18. Astronaut Sally Ride responds to question from interviewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Astronaut Sally K. Ride, mission specialist for STS-7, responds to a question from an interviewer during a taping session for ABC's Night Line. Dr. Ride is in the shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  19. Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1979-1984: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janson, Bette R.; Ritchie, Eleanor H.

    1989-01-01

    This volume of the Astronautics and Aeronautics series covers 1979 through 1984. The series provides a chronological presentation of all significant events and developments in space exploration and the administration of the space program during the period covered.

  20. How Can We Protect Our Astronauts in Space?

    NASA Video Gallery

    Richard Wilkins, director for the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration, or CRESSE, at Prairie View A&M University, explains mitigation procedures to protect astronauts...

  1. Astronaut Alan Bean works on Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, works at the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) on the Apollo 12 Lunar Module during the mission's first extravehicular activity, EVA-1, on November 19, 1969.

  2. Astronaut Alan Bean participates in lunar surface simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface simulation training in bldg 29 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. Bean is strapped to a one-sixth gravity simulator.

  3. Astronaut's tool for withdrawing/replacing computer cards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, R. L.

    1969-01-01

    Symmetrical tool allows astronauts to withdraw and replace Apollo Telescope Mount control computer cards. It is easily manipulated by a gloved hand, provides positive locking of a withdrawn card, and has a visible locking device.

  4. Astronauts Schirra and Stafford congratulate each other on mission completion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts Walter M. Schirra Jr. (right), command pilot, and Thomas P. Stafford, pilot, shake each other's hand as they arrive aboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Wasp to conclude their 25 hour, 52 minute Gemini 6 space flight.

  5. Astronaut Eileen Collins during phone interview with news media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Eileen M. Collins, pilot for the STS-63 mission, participates in a telephone interview with an out of town media representative after having been announced as the pilot on NASA's STS-63 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  6. Astronauts Stafford and Brand at controls of Apollo Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two American ASTP crewmen, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (foreground) and Vance D. Brand are seen at the controls of the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit mission.

  7. Astronaut Vance Brand at controls of Apollo Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew, is seen at the controls of the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit mission.

  8. Astronaut Robert Gibson prepares to use motion picture camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Astronaut Robert L. Gibson, STS 61-C mission commander, partially floats on the aft flight deck of the Shuttle Columbia while preparing to use a motion picture camera. The windows overlooking the cargo bay are visible in the background.

  9. Students Speak With NASA Astronaut Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA’s International Space Station Mission Control Center NASA astronaut Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at Heritage Middle S...

  10. STS-133 Astronauts Rehearse Launch Day During TCDT

    NASA Video Gallery

    The six astronauts who will fly space shuttle Discovery to the International Space Station on STS-133 spent four days at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center to participate in a launch countdown dress reh...

  11. Astronaut Hoffman replaces fuse plugs on Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman sees to the replacement of fuse plugs on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) during the first of five space walks. Thunderclouds are all that is visible on the dark earth in the background.

  12. Astronaut Daniel Bursch with CPCG experiment on Discovery's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, is pictured on Discovery's middeck with the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment. This experiment is designed to explore the structure of specific protein molecules in space-grown crystals.

  13. Astronauts L. Gordon Cooper Jr. hoisted up to Navy helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr. is hoisted up to a Navy helicopter during recovery operations in the Atlantic Ocean of the Gemini 5 spacecraft. The NASA Headquarter alternative photo number is 65-H-688.

  14. Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr. during water egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., Gemini 5 command pilot, sits in the Gemini Static Article 5 spacecraft and prepares to be lowered from the deck of the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever for water egress training in the Gulf.

  15. Astronaut Richard Gordon returns to hatch of spacecraft following EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., pilot for the Gemini 11 space flight, returns to the hatch of the spacecraft following extravehicular activity (EVA). This picture was taken over the Atlantic Ocean at approximately 160 nautical miles above the earth's surface.

  16. Astronaut Gordon Cooper walks to elevator to spacecraft 'Faith 7'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr. waited inside the transfer van for several minutes and then leaving the transfer van walked to the elevator which took him to the spacecraft 'Faith 7' atop the Atlas vehicle for his mission.

  17. ISS Update: Astronaut Participates in Autonomous Mission Operations Test

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean talks with astronaut Alvin Drew who is participating in the Autonomous Mission Operations test, which looks at how communication delays will affect future de...

  18. ISS Update: Diagnosing Astronauts in Space From Here on Earth

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Josh Byerly interviews Ed Powers, NASA Flight Surgeon, about how flight doctors work with the crew members on board, diagnosing astronauts in space from Earth and impact...

  19. Reactivation and shedding of cytomegalovirus in astronauts during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R. P.; Feiveson, A. H.; Tyring, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    The reactivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV) in 71 astronauts was investigated, using polymerase chain reaction. A significantly greater (P<.0001) shedding frequency was found in urine samples from astronauts before spaceflight (10.6%) than in urine from the healthy control subject group (1.2%). Two of 4 astronauts studied during spaceflight shed CMV in urine. A significant increase (P<.0001) in CMV antibody titer, compared with baseline values, was also found 10 days before spaceflight. CMV antibody titer was further increased (P<.001) 3 days after landing, compared with 10 days before the mission. Significant increases in stress hormones were also found after landing. These results demonstrate that CMV reactivation occurred in astronauts before spaceflight and indicate that CMV may further reactivate during spaceflight.

  20. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  1. Astronaut John Fabian show off signs on aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut John Fabian, payload specialist, show off a series of signs on the aft flight deck of Discovery, from whose payload bay three communications satellites were deployed. The sign reads 'We deliver and deliver and deliver...'

  2. Astronaut Risk Levels During Crew Module (CM) Land Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly S.; Littell, Justin

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) is investigating the merits of water and land landings for the crew exploration vehicle (CEV). The merits of these two options are being studied in terms of cost and risk to the astronauts, vehicle, support personnel, and general public. The objective of the present work is to determine the astronaut dynamic response index (DRI), which measures injury risks. Risks are determined for a range of vertical and horizontal landing velocities. A structural model of the crew module (CM) is developed and computational simulations are performed using a transient dynamic simulation analysis code (LS-DYNA) to determine acceleration profiles. Landing acceleration profiles are input in a human factors model that determines astronaut risk levels. Details of the modeling approach, the resulting accelerations, and astronaut risk levels are provided.

  3. Behind the Scenes: Rolling Room Greets Returning Astronauts

    NASA Video Gallery

    Have you ever wondered what is the first thing the shuttle crews see after they land? In this episode of NASA Behind the Scenes, astronaut Mike Massimino takes you into the Crew Transport Vehicle, ...

  4. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in simulation of moon's surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, deploys a lunar surface television camera during lunar surface simulation training in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

  5. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong during water egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Gemini 5 backup crew command pilot, sits in the Gemini Static Article 5 spacecraft and prepares to be lowered from the deck of the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever for water egress training in the Gulf.

  6. Astronauts Armstrong and Scott during photo session outside KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (left), command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot, the Gemini 8 prime crew, during a photo session outside the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mission Control Center. They are standing in front of a radar dish.

  7. Astronaut Kenneth Reightler, STS-60 pilot, during egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Kenneth S. Reightler, pilot for the STS-60 mission, prepares to simulate egress from a troubled Space Shuttle using Crew Escape System (CES) pole. The action came during emergency egress training in JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory.

  8. Behind the Scenes: Astronauts Pockets Deep in Mystery

    NASA Video Gallery

    Host Mike Massimino returns to the pre-launch suit up room at the Kennedy Space Center to reexamine the question: what's inside all those pockets of the astronauts' big orange suits? Find out on "N...

  9. Mercury astronaut John Glenn and President Kennedy at survival display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Mercury astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. gives President Kennedy a quick run-down on the display of survival gear. The Chief Executive took a quick tour of a dozen displays set up for him after the classified briefing.

  10. Astronauts Culbertson and Bursch brush their teeth on Discovery's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronauts Frank L. Culbertson (right), mission commander, and Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, brush their teeth on Discovery's middeck. Two sleep restraints form part of the backdrop for the photograph.

  11. Astronauts Stafford and Young await pickup by recovery helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, commander; and John W. Young, command module pilot, await pickup by the recovery helicopter from the prime recovery ship, U.S.S. Pinceton. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, lunar module pilot, is already hoisted aboard the helicopter. U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmers assist in the recovery operations. Splashdown occurred at 11:53 a.m., May 26, 1969, about 400 miles east of American Samoa.

  12. Initial Incidence of White Matter Hyperintensities on MRI in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norcross, Jason; Sherman, Paul; McGuire, Steve; Kochunov, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Previous literature has described the increase in white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden associated with hypobaric exposure in the U-2 and altitude chamber operating personnel. Although astronauts have similar hypobaric exposure pressures to the U2 pilot population, astronauts have far fewer exposures and each exposure would be associated with a much lower level of decompression stress due to rigorous countermeasures to prevent decompression sickness. Therefore, we postulated that the WMH burden in the astronaut population would be less than in U2 pilots. Methods: Twenty-one post-flight de-identified astronaut MRIs (5 mm slice thickness FLAIR sequences) were evaluated for WMH count and volume. The only additional data provided was an age range of the astronauts (43-57) and if they had ever performed an EVA (13 yes, 8 no). Results: WMH count in these 21 astronaut MRI was 21.0 +/- 24.8 (mean+/- SD) and volume was 0.382 +/- 0.602 ml, which was significantly higher than previously published results for the U2 pilots. No significant differences between EVA and no EVA groups existed. Age range of astronaut population is not directly comparable to the U2 population. Discussion: With significantly less frequent (sometimes none) and less stressful hypobaric exposures, yet a much higher incidence of increased WMH, this indicates the possibility of additional mechanisms beyond hypobaric exposure. This increase unlikely to be attributable just to the differences in age between astronauts and U2 pilots. Forward work includes continuing review of post-flight MRI and evaluation of pre to post flight MRI changes if available. Data mining for potential WMH risk factors includes collection of age, sex, spaceflight experience, EVA hours, other hypobaric exposures, hyperoxic exposures, radiation, high performance aircraft experience and past medical history. Finally, neurocognitive and vision/eye results will be evaluated for any evidence of impairment linked to

  13. Unimpaired Neuro-Adaptive Plasticity in an Elderly Astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Black, F. Owen; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative analyses of a 77 year old astronaut's balance control performances on a standardized test battery revealed few differences between his neuro-adaptive responses to space flight and those of a group of younger astronauts tested following missions of similar duration. This finding suggests that the physiological changes associated with age do not necessarily impair adaptive plasticity in the human following removal and subsequent reintroduction of gravity.

  14. Astronaut Alan Bean assisted with egressing command module after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, is assisted with egressing the Apollo 12 Command Module by a U.S. Navy underwater demolition team swimmer during recovery operations in the Pacific Ocean. Already in the life raft are Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander; and Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot. The Apollo 12 splashdown occured at 2:58 p.m., November 24, 1969 near American Samoa.

  15. Screening and Management of Asymptomatic Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Management guidelines were created to screen and manage asymptomatic renal stones in U.S. astronauts. The true risk for renal stone formation in astronauts due to the space flight environment is unknown. Proper management of this condition is crucial to mitigate health and mission risks. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic electronic medical record and the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health databases were reviewed. An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the monitoring and management of renal stones was also done. This work was used to develop a screening and management protocol for renal stones in astronauts that is relevant to the spaceflight operational environment. In the proposed guidelines all astronauts receive a yearly screening and post-flight renal ultrasound using a novel ultrasound protocol. The ultrasound protocol uses a combination of factors, including: size, position, shadow, twinkle and dispersion properties to confirm the presence of a renal calcification. For mission-assigned astronauts, any positive ultrasound study is followed by a low-dose renal computed tomography scan and urologic consult. Other specific guidelines were also created. A small asymptomatic renal stone within the renal collecting system may become symptomatic at any time, and therefore affect launch and flight schedules, or cause incapacitation during a mission. Astronauts in need of definitive care can be evacuated from the International Space Station, but for deep space missions evacuation is impossible. The new screening and management algorithm has been implemented and the initial round of screening ultrasounds is under way. Data from these exams will better define the incidence of renal stones in U.S. astronauts, and will be used to inform risk mitigation for both short and long duration spaceflights.

  16. Astronaut Jack Lousma seen outside Skylab space station during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, is seen outside the Skylab space station in Earth orbit during the August 5, 1973 Skylab 3 extravehicular activity (EVA) in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the space station. Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, participated in the EVA with Lousma. During the EVA the two crewmen deployed the twin pole solar shield to help shade the Orbital Workshop.

  17. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong suits up before launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong prepares to put on his helmet with the assistance of a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A Armstrong and Michael Collins, will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  18. Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong looks over flight plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong is looking over flight plans while being assisted by a spacesuit technician during suiting operations in the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building (MSOB) prior to the astronauts' departure to Launch Pad 39A. The three astronauts, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Neil A. Armstrong and Michael Collins will then board the Saturn V launch vehicle, scheduled for a 9:32 a.m. EDT liftoff, for the first manned lunar landing mission.

  19. Apollo 11 Astronauts Swarmed by Thousands In Mexico City Parade.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil A. Armstrong, Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and Michael Collins, wearing sombreros and ponchos, are swarmed by thousands in Mexico City as their motorcade is slowed by the enthusiastic crowd. The GIANTSTEP-APOLLO 11 Presidential Goodwill Tour emphasized the willingness of the United States to share its space knowledge. The tour carried the Apollo 11 astronauts and their wives to 24 countries and 27 cities in 45 days.

  20. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Chickasaw Tribal Elder Lee Frazier leads the dedication to the astronauts of STS-113 during the Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  1. Biological dosimetry for astronauts: a real challenge.

    PubMed

    Testard, I; Sabatier, L

    1999-12-01

    Manned space missions recently increased in number and duration, thus it became important to estimate the biological risks encountered by astronauts. They are exposed to cosmic and galactic rays, a complex mixture of different radiations. In addition to the measurements realized by physical dosimeters, it becomes essential to estimate real biologically effective doses and compare them to physical doses. Biological dosimetry of radiation exposures has been widely performed using cytogenetic analysis of chromosomes. This approach has been used for many years in order to estimate absorbed doses in accidental or chronic overexposures of humans. In addition to conventional techniques (Giemsa or FPG staining, R- or G-banding), faster and accurate means of analysis have been developed (fluorescence in situ hybridization [FISH] painting). As results accumulate, it appears that strong interindividual variability exists in the basal level of aberrations. Moreover, some aberrations such as translocations exhibit a high background level. Radiation exposures seem to induce variability between individual responses. Its extent strongly differs with the mode of exposure, the doses delivered, the kind of radiation, and the cytogenetic method used. This paper aims to review the factors that may influence the reliability of cytogenetic dosimetry. The emphasis is on the exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET) particles in space as recent studies demonstrated interindividual variations in doses estimated from aberration analysis after long-term space missions. In addition to the problem of dose estimates, the heterogeneity of cosmic radiation raises questions relating to the real numbers of damaged cells in an individual, and potential long-term risks. Actually, densely ionizing particles are extremely potent to induce late chromosomal instability, and again, interindividual variability exists in the expression of damage. PMID:10631347

  2. Memoirs of an armchair astronaut (retired)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Arthur C.

    1993-11-01

    According to my biographer Neil McAleer, who now knows far more about me than I have any wish to, I joined the British Interplanetary Society (BIS) in the summer of 1934, when it was one year old and I was approaching seventeen. Much of the next two years was spent bombarding the Society's patient secretary, Leslie Johnson, with technical queries which he did his best to answer, and which I am sure would make embarrassing reading today. During this period I also made contact with another active BIS member, the science-fiction writer Eric Frank Russell, to whom I owe a great debt of gratitude for early encouragement. I wish I still possessed his amusing and often bawdy letters, written in the most beautiful script I have ever encountered. In 1936, escaping from the uncharted wilds of rural Somerset to the genteel environs of Whitehall (literally - my office was next door to Downing Street) I made contact with the London members of the BIS, as well as the local s.f. fans. There was a 90% overlap between the two groups, and until the outbreak of war rocketry and science fiction dominated my life, with H.M. Civil Service a very poor third. A quarter of a century later, I looked back on those days in an essay which appeared in Holiday Magazine (May, 1963) and which has since been reprinted in Voices from the Sky (1965), Astounding Days (1989) and By Space Possessed (1993). Any attempt to update it would now be both impossible and absurd: it preserves the spirit of the early Space Age like a fly in amber. Here, exactly as originally published, are 'Memoirs of an Armchair Astronaut (Retired)'.

  3. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1974: A chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brun, N. L.

    1977-01-01

    The 14th volume in the NASA series of day-by-day records of aeronautical and space events has somewhat narrowed its scope and selectivity in its brief accounts from immediately available, open sources. This year the emphasis is even more directly focused on concrete air and space activities. The text continues to reflect some events in other agencies and countries.

  4. Congress hears from astronauts about human spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-10-01

    NASA's 15 September announcement of a new Space Launch System (SLS) design, which includes a heavy lift rocket in combination with the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) already under development, generally was favorably received at a 22 September congressional hearing on NASA and human spaceflight held by the U.S. House of Representatives' Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. However, witnesses, including Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong, said they remain concerned about America's manned access to space, the nation's leadership in manned space exploration, and what they said is the lack of a clear direction for NASA. Armstrong said the proposal for the new heavy lift vehicle “appears to meet the intent” of a congressional mandate in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, but he also said that the past year has been “frustrating” to NASA observers trying to understand the agency's plans and progress in the area of human space exploration. “The NASA leadership enthusiastically assured the American people that the agency was embarking on an exciting new age of discovery in the cosmos. But the realities of the termination of the shuttle program, the cancellation of existing rocket launcher and spacecraft programs, the layoffs of thousands of aerospace workers, and the outlook for American space activity throughout the next decade were difficult to reconcile with the agency assertions,” Armstrong said.

  5. Estimation of leaf area index using an angular vegetation index based on in situ measurements and CHRIS/PROBA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Guimin; Lin, Hui; Liang, Liang; Niu, Zheng

    2016-06-01

    The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is widely used for Leaf Area Index (LAI) estimation. It is well documented that the NDVI is extremely subject to the saturation problem when LAI reaches a high value. A new multi-angular vegetation index, the Hotspot-darkspot Difference Vegetation Index (HDVI) is proposed to estimate the high density LAI. The HDVI, defined as the difference between the hot and dark spot NDVI, relative to the dark spot NDVI, was proposed based on the Analytical two-layer Canopy Reflectance Model (ACRM) model outputs. This index is validated using both in situ experimental data in wheat and data from the multi-angular optical Compact High-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS) satellite. Both indices, the Hotspot-Darkspot Index (HDS) and the NDVI were also selected to analyze the relationship with LAI, and were compared with new index HDVI. The results show that HDVI is an appropriate proxy of LAI with higher determination coefficients (R2) for both the data from the in situ experiment (R2=0.7342, RMSE=0.0205) and the CHRIS data (R2=0.7749, RMSE=0.1013). Our results demonstrate that HDVI can make better the occurrence of saturation limits with the information of multi-angular observation, and is more appropriate for estimating LAI than either HDS or NDVI at high LAI values. Although the new index needs further evaluation, it also has the potential under the condition of dense canopies. It provides the effective improvement to the NDVI and other vegetation indices that are based on the red and NIR spectral bands.

  6. Multi-Temporal Monitoring Of Ecological Succession In Tropical Dry Forests Using Angular - Hyperspectral Data (Chris/Proba)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Millan, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The tropical dry forest is the largest and most threatened ecosystem in Latin America. Remote sensing can effectively contribute to the surveillance of conservation measurements and laws through the monitoring of natural protected areas, at the required temporal and spatial scales. CHRIS/PROBA is the only satellite that presents quasi-simultaneous multi-angular pointing and hyperspectral spectroscopy. These two characteristics permit the study of structural and compositional traces of successional stages within the tropical dry forest. The current study presents the results of mapping the succession of tropical dry forest in the Parque Estadual de la Mata-Seca, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, using a temporal analysis of CHRIS/PROBA images in a time frame of 7 years, between 2008 and 2014. For the purpose the -55° angle of observation has been used, which enhances spectral differences between successional stages. Spectral Angle Mapper has been used for mapping succession of tropical dry forest and afterwards Change Detection Analysis has been performed. Based on our observations, the tropical dry forest in the Parque Estadual de la Mataseca recovers at a fast rate, for the observed period (2008-2014). More than the 50% of the early and intermediate forests has been recovered to a mature forest. Significantly, around a 12% of old pastures have been converted into forest. The spatial analysis also reveals that the areas that recover most rapidly are located in the east of the Park, close to mature forests. The provision of seeds from these forests might be the cause for the fast recovery.

  7. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight.

    PubMed

    Pierson, D L; Stowe, R P; Phillips, T M; Lugg, D J; Mehta, S K

    2005-05-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  8. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T. M.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  9. A Personal View of Outdoor Education: An Interview with Chris Loynes, Editor of the Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubens, Des

    1998-01-01

    Chris Loynes relates his involvement in outdoor education and his views on its evolution, its status as a teaching method, the idea of adventure, program delivery, and teaching styles. He believes outdoor education contributes to larger debates on relationships between intellectualizing and experiencing, social order and personal freedom, liberal…

  10. Embracing Role Model Status: Acknowledging That Young People Often Glorify Athletes, Michigan State's Chris Hill Embraces His Responsibility as a Role Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keels, Crystal L.

    2005-01-01

    It was "the unbelievable family atmosphere" that drew Chris Hill to Michigan State University's basketball program. And it has proven to be a good fit for the 6'3" Spartan guard. In his senior season, he has helped his team return to the Sweet Sixteen in the NCAA tournament. In his first year, Hill became the team's second leading scorer, led his…

  11. IAC-11.E1-7.-A1.8.5 The Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Charles W.

    2012-12-01

    Mission X: Train Like an Astronaut is an international educational challenge focusing on fitness and nutrition as we encourage students to "train like an astronaut." Teams of students (aged 8-12) learn principles of healthy eating and exercise, compete for points by finishing training modules, and get excited about their future as "fit explorers." The 18 core exercises (targeting strength, endurance, coordination, balance, spatial awareness, and more) involve the same types of skills that astronauts learn in their training and use in spaceflight. This first-of-its-kind cooperative outreach program has allowed 11 space agencies and various partner institutions to work together to address quality health/fitness education, challenge students to be more physically active, increase awareness of the importance of lifelong health and fitness, teach students how fitness plays a vital role in human performance for exploration, and to inspire and motivate students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. The project was initiated in 2009 in response to a request by the International Space Life Sciences Working Group. USA, Netherlands, Italy, France, Germany, Austria, Colombia, Spain, Belgium, Czech Republic and United Kingdom hosted teams for the pilot in the spring of 2010, and Japan held a modified version of the challenge. Several more agencies provided input into the preparations. Competing in 137 teams, more than 4000 students from over 40 cities worldwide participated in the first round of Mission X.

  12. Baseline characteristics of different strata of astronaut corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamm, Peggy B.; Pepper, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) is an epidemiological study designed to study the effects of the occupational exposures incurred by astronauts in health outcomes and changes in physiological variables. Between 1959 and 1991, 195 individuals were selected for the program. The medical standards for selection have remained essentially unchanged since the Mercury Program, but the range and stringency of these criteria have been modified. Demographic and physiological variables identified during the selection year are examined for various strata of the Astronaut Corps. Specifically, age, sex, race, education, usual occupation, military affiliation, medical history, family medical history, visual and hearing measurements, physical exam variables, and specific laboratory values are investigated. Differences are examined in astronauts for the following criteria: (1) were selected prior to 1970 (n = 73) versus those selected after 1970 (n = 122); (2) have flown multiple missions versus those who have flown less than two missions; (3) have walked in space versus all others; (4) have more than 500 hours of mission time versus all others; and (5) have gone to the Moon versus all others. Length of time served in the Astronaut Corps is examined for each of these strata.

  13. Geometric illusions in astronauts during long-duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Clément, Gilles; Skinner, Anna; Richard, Ghislaine; Lathan, Corinna

    2012-10-24

    In our previous studies, we have shown that the occurrence of geometric illusions was reduced in vestibular patients who presented signs of otolith disorders and when healthy observers were tilted relative to gravity. We hypothesized that the alteration in the gravitational (otolith) input was responsible for this change, presumably because of a connection between vestibular and visual-spatial cognitive functions. In this study, we repeated similar experiments in astronauts during long-duration spaceflight. In agreement with the data of otolithic patients, the inverted-T geometric illusion was less present in the astronauts in 0 g than in 1g. In addition, the vertical length of drawings made by astronauts in orbit was shorter than that on the ground. This result is also comparable with the otolithic patients who perceived the vertical length of line drawings to be smaller than healthy individuals. We conclude that the impairment in the processing of gravitational input in long-duration astronauts affects their mental representation of the vertical dimension similar to the otolithic patients. The astronauts, however, recover to baseline levels within 1 week after returning to Earth.

  14. Astronauts Alan Bean and Charles Conrad on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn Five launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Their lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. In this photograph, one of the astronauts on the Moon's surface is holding a container of lunar soil. The other astronaut is seen reflected in his helmet. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  15. Latent Virus Reactivation in Astronauts and Shingles Patients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Spaceflight is a uniquely stressful environment with astronauts experiencing a variety of stressors including: isolation and confinement, psychosocial, noise, sleep deprivation, anxiety, variable gravitational forces, and increased radiation. These stressors are manifested through the HPA and SAM axes resulting in increased stress hormones. Diminished T-lymphocyte functions lead to reactivation of latent herpesviruses in astronauts during spaceflight. Herpes simplex virus reactivated with symptoms during spaceflight whereas Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate and are shed without symptoms. EBV and VZV are shed in saliva and CMV in the urine. The levels of EBV shed in astronauts increased 10-fold during the flight; CMV and VZV are not typically shed in low stressed individuals, but both were shed in astronauts during spaceflight. All herpes viruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Culturing revealed that VZV shed in saliva was infectious virus. The PCR technology was extended to test saliva of 54 shingles patients. All shingles patients shed VZV in their saliva, and the levels followed the course of the disease. Viremia was also found to be common during shingles. The technology may be used before zoster lesions appear allowing for prevention of disease. The technology may be used for rapid detection of VZV in doctors offices. These studies demonstrated the value of applying technologies designed for astronauts to people on Earth.

  16. NASA honors Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Apollo 13 astronaut and Biloxi native Fred Haise Jr. smiles during a Dec. 2 ceremony at Gorenflo Elementary School in Biloxi honoring his space career. During the ceremony, Haise was presented with NASA's Ambassador of Exploration Award (an encased moon rock). He subsequently presented the moon rock to Gorenflo officials for display at the school. Haise is best known as one of three astronauts who nursed a crippled Apollo 13 spacecraft back to Earth during a perilous 1970 mission. Although he was unable to walk on the moon as planned for that mission, Haise ended his astronaut career having logged 142 hours and 54 minutes in space. During the ceremony, he praised all those who contributed to the space program.

  17. Astronauts and Cosmonauts sightseeing at Red Square in Moscow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A group of Astronauts and their Cosmonaut hosts are photographed sightseeing on Red Square in the heart of Moscow during a tour of the Soviet capital. The Americans were in the USSR to participate in Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) familiarization training on the Soyuz systems at the Cosmonaut Training Center (Star City) near Moscow. Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford (light coat, black cap), commander of the American ASTP crew, was head of the U.S. delegation to Star City. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan (on Stafford's left, light coat) is the Special Assistant to the American Technical Director of ASTP. The sightseeing group is walking in the direction of Lenin's Mausoleum. The structure in the background is the Cathedral of the Intercession (St. Basil's) Museum. The historic Kremlin complex is to the right.

  18. Astronaut David Brown poses with ComBBat team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut David Brown poses with members of the team known as ComBBat, representing Central Florida's Astronaut and Titusville high schools. ComBBat was teamed with Boeing at KSC and Brevard Community College. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition being held March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  19. An Interactive Astronaut-Robot System with Gesture Control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinguo; Luo, Yifan; Ju, Zhaojie

    2016-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA) have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM) is employed to recognize hand gestures and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of SVM to further improve its recognition accuracy. Various hand gestures from American Sign Language (ASL) have been selected and used to test and validate the performance of the proposed system.

  20. Psychiatric diagnoses in a group of astronaut applicants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Faulk, Dean M.; Holland, Al W.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1959 and 1987, the psychiatric evaluation of astronaut candidates evolved from a 30-h intensive examination evaluating applicants for psychopathology, and studying their performance under stress, to a 2-h clinical interview whose structure and contents were determined by the individual examiner. Evaluations done during these years applied both psychiatric (or, 'select-out') criteria and psychological (or, 'select-in') criteria. In an attempt to more rigorously define the psychiatric, 'select-out' component, a standardized, semistructured clinical interview was developed to identify the presence or history of psychiatric disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd Ed. ('DSM-III'). A total of 117 astronaut applicants underwent this clinical interview as part of a comprehensive medical evaluation during a recent astronaut selection. Of the 117 applicants, 9 (7.7 percent) met DSM-III criteria for a variety of Axis I and Axis II diagnoses, including V-code diagnoses.

  1. An Interactive Astronaut-Robot System with Gesture Control

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinguo; Luo, Yifan; Ju, Zhaojie

    2016-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA) have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM) is employed to recognize hand gestures and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of SVM to further improve its recognition accuracy. Various hand gestures from American Sign Language (ASL) have been selected and used to test and validate the performance of the proposed system. PMID:27190503

  2. An Interactive Astronaut-Robot System with Gesture Control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinguo; Luo, Yifan; Ju, Zhaojie

    2016-01-01

    Human-robot interaction (HRI) plays an important role in future planetary exploration mission, where astronauts with extravehicular activities (EVA) have to communicate with robot assistants by speech-type or gesture-type user interfaces embedded in their space suits. This paper presents an interactive astronaut-robot system integrating a data-glove with a space suit for the astronaut to use hand gestures to control a snake-like robot. Support vector machine (SVM) is employed to recognize hand gestures and particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is used to optimize the parameters of SVM to further improve its recognition accuracy. Various hand gestures from American Sign Language (ASL) have been selected and used to test and validate the performance of the proposed system. PMID:27190503

  3. An Astronaut's View of Jewel-toned Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronauts onboard the International Space Station often observe small, otherwise unnoticed water bodies on the ground due to their unusual colors. For example, the Little Blue Run Dam and reservoir is located in western Pennsylvania, just south of the Ohio River. It is owned by Pennsylvania Power Company and used for industrial sludge impoundment. The materials suspended in the water give it a striking, turquoise color. Another lake with color linked commercial activity is Lake Gribben, just southeast of Palmer in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Iron ore is extracted from New Richmond Mine visible just north of the lake. Images ISS004-E-10472 (Little Blue Run, April 4, 2002) and ISS004-E-10319 (Gribben, April 22, 2002) were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  4. Logistical Consideration in Computer-Based Screening of Astronaut Applicants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galarza, Laura

    2000-01-01

    This presentation reviews the logistical, ergonomic, and psychometric issues and data related to the development and operational use of a computer-based system for the psychological screening of astronaut applicants. The Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHPG) at the Johnson Space Center upgraded its astronaut psychological screening and selection procedures for the 1999 astronaut applicants and subsequent astronaut selection cycles. The questionnaires, tests, and inventories were upgraded from a paper-and-pencil system to a computer-based system. Members of the BHPG and a computer programmer designed and developed needed interfaces (screens, buttons, etc.) and programs for the astronaut psychological assessment system. This intranet-based system included the user-friendly computer-based administration of tests, test scoring, generation of reports, the integration of test administration and test output to a single system, and a complete database for past, present, and future selection data. Upon completion of the system development phase, four beta and usability tests were conducted with the newly developed system. The first three tests included 1 to 3 participants each. The final system test was conducted with 23 participants tested simultaneously. Usability and ergonomic data were collected from the system (beta) test participants and from 1999 astronaut applicants who volunteered the information in exchange for anonymity. Beta and usability test data were analyzed to examine operational, ergonomic, programming, test administration and scoring issues related to computer-based testing. Results showed a preference for computer-based testing over paper-and -pencil procedures. The data also reflected specific ergonomic, usability, psychometric, and logistical concerns that should be taken into account in future selection cycles. Conclusion. Psychological, psychometric, human and logistical factors must be examined and considered carefully when developing and

  5. Astronaut Charles Conrad checks out Human Vestibular Function experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander of the first manned Skylab mission, checks out the Human Vestibular Function, Experiment M131, during Skylab training at JSC. Conrad is in the work and experiments compartment of the crew quarters of the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer at JSC. The reference sphere with a magnetic rod is used by the astronaut to indicate body orientation non-visually. The litter chair in which he is seated can be rotated by a motor at its base or, when not being rotated, can tilt forward, backward or to either side.

  6. Astronaut Jeffrey Hoffman on RMS robot arm during HST repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman (frame center) remains secured by his feet on the end of the Endeavour's robot arm as he prepares to participate in the replacement of Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC). Astronaut F. Story Musgrave (just in frame at lower left corner) assists Hoffman in removing the new camera (WF/PC2) from the Scientific Instrument Protective Enclosure (SIPE). Electronic still photography is technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  7. Astronaut Jeffrey Hoffman on RMS robot arm during HST repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Jeffrey A. Hoffman, anchored to a foot restraint on the end of the Endeavour's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robot arm, inserts the new Wide Field/Planetary Camera (WF/PC2) into its place on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, who shared the duties of replacing the camera, is partially visible at right edge of frame. Electronic still photography is technology which provides the means for a handheld camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality.

  8. Astronaut John Young leaps from lunar surface to salute flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, leaps from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.

  9. Eating in space--from an astronaut's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kerwin, Joseph; Seddon, Rhea

    2002-10-01

    Food systems and meal components are constantly under review and development at the National Aerospace and Space Administration. The goal of this work is to generate a diet that meets the nutrient requirements of astronauts and satiates them. The constraints involved in shorter- and longer-term missions are described. The insight provided by observations of astronauts from the Skylab and Shuttle eras will allow researchers to consider the fact that, for any nutritional regimen to work, it must consider the limitations and taste buds of the individuals involved. Otherwise, the best diet design generated by their work may never be consumed.

  10. Astronaut Story Musgrave in EMU in thermal vacuum chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, wearing a training version of the extravehicular activity unit (EMU), particpates in a dry run for tests in thermal vacuum chamber. The test, conducted in Chamber B ofthe Space Environment and Simulation Laboratory at JSC, verified that the tools being designed for the mission will work in the cold vacuum of space. Others pictured, from the left, are Andrea Tullar and Donna Fender, test directors; Leonard S. Nicholson, acting Director of engineering; and Astronauts Thomas D. Akers and Kathryn C. Thornton, STS-61 mission specialists, along with Musgrave.

  11. Astronaut Susan Helms in the ISS Unity Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In this photograph, Astronaut Susan Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, is positioned near a large amount of water temporarily stored in the Unity Node aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Helms accompanied the STS-105 crew back to Earth after having spent five months with two crewmates aboard the ISS. The 11th ISS assembly flight, the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission was launched on August 10, 2001, and landed on August 22, 2001 at the Kennedy Space Center after the completion of the successful 12-day mission.

  12. Astronaut Edgar Mitchell addresses MSC personnel and news media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, right, the Apollo 14 lunar module pilot, addresses JSC/MSC personnel and news media representatives and other visitors soon after he and his fellow crewmen were released from a 15-day confinement period in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory. Pictured with Mitchell in front of the LRL, MSC bldg 37, are Astronauts Alan B. Shepard Jr., left, commander; and Stuart A Roosa, command module pilot, Mrs Mitchell is at right and Mrs. Roosa, near left. Roosa is flanked by his four children, left to right, Christopher A., Stuart A. Roosa Jr., John D. and Rosemary D.

  13. Astronaut Jack Lousma in Lower Body Negative Pressure Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A medium close-up view of Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, in the Lower Body Negative Pressure Device (LBNPD), as Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, works around the leg band area. This portion of the LBNPD MO-92 experiment was televised on August 7, 1973. The LBNPD experiment is to provide information concerning the time course of cardiovascular adaptation during flight, and to provide inflight data for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerence and impairment of physical capacity to be expected upon returning to Earth environment. The bicycle ergometer is in the background, partially visible behind Bean.

  14. Virtual Glovebox (VGX) Aids Astronauts in Pre-Flight Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's Virtual Glovebox (VGX) was developed to allow astronauts on Earth to train for complex biology research tasks in space. The astronauts may reach into the virtual environment, naturally manipulating specimens, tools, equipment, and accessories in a simulated microgravity environment as they would do in space. Such virtual reality technology also provides engineers and space operations staff with rapid prototyping, planning, and human performance modeling capabilities. Other Earth based applications being explored for this technology include biomedical procedural training and training for disarming bio-terrorism weapons.

  15. Conceptual design of an astronaut hand anthropometry device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Robert

    1993-01-01

    In a microgravity environment, fluid equalizes throughout the body, causing the upper body to swell. This causes the hands to swell which can cause problems for astronauts trying to do work in pressurized EVA (extravehicular activity) gloves. To better design these gloves, accurate measurements of the astronauts swollen hands are needed. Five concepts were developed in this report from an original field of 972 possible concepts. These five concepts were based on mold impression, ultrasound, laser topography, white light photography, and video imaging. From a decision matrix based on nine weighted criteria, the video imaging technique was found to be the best design to pursue.

  16. Astronautics and Aeronautics: A Chronology, 1996-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marieke; Swanson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    This report is a chronological compilation of narrative summaries of news reports and government documents highlighting significant events and developments in United States and foreign aeronautics and astronautics. It covers the years 1996 through 2000. These summaries provide a day-by-day recounting of major activities, such as administrative developments, awards, launches, scientific discoveries, corporate and government research results, and other events in countries with aeronautics and astronautics programs. Researchers used the archives and files housed in the NASA History Division, as well as reports and databases on the NASA Web site.

  17. Astronautics and Aeronautics: A Chronology, 2001-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivey, William Noel; Lewis, Marieke

    2010-01-01

    This report is a chronological compilation of narrative summaries of news reports and government documents highlighting significant events and developments in U.S. and foreign aeronautics and astronautics. It covers the years 2001 through 2005. These summaries provide a day-by-day recounting of major activities, such as administrative developments, awards, launches, scientific discoveries, corporate and government research results, and other events in countries with aeronautics and astronautics programs. Researchers used the archives and files housed in the NASA History Division, as well as reports and databases on the NASA Web site.

  18. Telecast of Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin by the Lunar Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (in center) commander; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. (on right), lunar module pilot, are seen standing near their Lunar Module in this black and white reproduction taken from a telecast by the Apollo 11 lunar surface television camera during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. This picture was made from a televised image received at the Deep Space Network tracking station at Goldstone, California. President Richard M. Nixon had just spoken to the two astronauts by radio and Aldrin, a colonel in the U.S. Air Force, is saluting the president.

  19. Development of the NASA Digital Astronaut Project Muscle Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Pennline, James A.; Thompson, W. K.; Humphreys, B. T.; Ryder, J. W.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Mulugeta, L.

    2015-01-01

    This abstract describes development work performed on the NASA Digital Astronaut Project Muscle Model. Muscle atrophy is a known physiological response to exposure to a low gravity environment. The DAP muscle model computationally predicts the change in muscle structure and function vs. time in a reduced gravity environment. The spaceflight muscle model can then be used in biomechanical models of exercise countermeasures and spaceflight tasks to: 1) develop site specific bone loading input to the DAP bone adaptation model over the course of a mission; 2) predict astronaut performance of spaceflight tasks; 3) inform effectiveness of new exercise countermeasures concepts.

  20. Eating in space--from an astronaut's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, Joseph; Seddon, Rhea

    2002-01-01

    Food systems and meal components are constantly under review and development at the National Aerospace and Space Administration. The goal of this work is to generate a diet that meets the nutrient requirements of astronauts and satiates them. The constraints involved in shorter- and longer-term missions are described. The insight provided by observations of astronauts from the Skylab and Shuttle eras will allow researchers to consider the fact that, for any nutritional regimen to work, it must consider the limitations and taste buds of the individuals involved. Otherwise, the best diet design generated by their work may never be consumed.

  1. Access to Archived Astronaut Data for Human Research Program Researchers: Update on Progress and Process Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, L. R.; Montague, K. A.; Charvat, J. M.; Wear, M. L.; Thomas, D. M.; Van Baalen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA directive to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for astronaut medical data has increased greatly. LSAH and LSDA personnel are working with Human Research Program on many fronts to improve data access and decrease lead time for release of data. Some examples include the following: Feasibility reviews for NASA Research Announcement (NRA) data mining proposals; Improved communication, support for researchers, and process improvements for retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocols; Supplemental data sharing for flight investigators versus purely retrospective studies; Work with the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) to develop acceptable data sharing and crew consent processes and to organize inter-agency data coordinators to facilitate requests for international crewmember data. Current metrics on data requests crew consenting will be presented, along with limitations on contacting crew to obtain consent. Categories of medical monitoring data available for request will be presented as well as flow diagrams detailing data request processing and approval steps.

  2. HAMLET -Human Model MATROSHKA for Radiation Exposure Determination of Astronauts -Current status and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Burmeister, Soenke; Labrenz, Johannes; Hager, Luke; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hajek, Michael; Puchalska, Monika; Sihver, Lembit

    The exploration of space as seen in specific projects from the European Space Agency (ESA) acts as groundwork for human long duration space missions. One of the main constraints for long duration human missions is radiation. The radiation load on astronauts and cosmonauts in space (as for the ISS) is a factor of 100 higher than the natural radiation on Earth and will further increase should humans travel to Mars. In preparation for long duration space missions it is important to evaluate the impact of space radiation in order to secure the safety of the astronauts and minimize their radiation risks. To determine the radiation risk on humans one has to measure the radiation doses to radiosensitive organs within the human body. One way to approach this is the ESA facility MATROSHKA (MTR), under the scientific and project lead of DLR. It is dedicated to determining the radiation load on astronauts within and outside the International Space Station (ISS), and was launched in January 2004. MTR is currently preparing for its fourth experimental phase inside the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM) in summer 2010. MTR, which mimics a human head and torso, is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detectors to determine the depth dose and organ dose distribution in the body. It is the largest international research initiative ever performed in the field of space dosimetry and combines the expertise of leading research institutions around the world, thereby generating a huge pool of data of potentially immense value for research. Aiming at optimal scientific exploitation, the FP7 project HAMLET aims to process and compile the data acquired individually by the participating laboratories of the MATROSHKA experiment. Based on experimental input from the MATROSHKA experiment phases as well as on radiation transport calculations, a three-dimensional model for the distribution of radiation dose in an astronaut's body will be built up. The scientific achievements

  3. Astronaut Jerry Ross on RMS holds on to ACCESS device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Jerry L. Ross, anchored to the foot restraint on the remote manipulator system (RMS), holds onto the tower-like Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS) device as the Atlantis flies over white clouds and blue ocean waters.

  4. Astronaut Rich Clifford inserts tape into payload high data recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, Astronaut Michael R. (Rich) Clifford, mission specialist, inserts a tape in the payload high rate recorder. Three of these state-of-the-art recorders captured four times the amount of data that could be radioed to the ground.

  5. Astronaut David Wolf in medical experiment in SLS-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut David A. Wolf, mission specialist, participates in an experiment that investigates in-space distribution and movement of blood and gas in the pulmonary system. The data gathered during the two-week flight will be compared with results of tests performed on Earth to determine the changes that occur in pulmonary functions.

  6. Astronaut Walter Schirra smiles during post-flight physcial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Astronaut Walter M. Schirra Jr. smiles at medical personnel (out of frame) during a post-flight physcial aboard the U.S.S. Kearsage, prime recovery vessel for Mercury-Atlas 8 (MA-8) upon which Schirra served as pilot earlier today.

  7. Astronaut Gregory in T-38 rear cockpit at Ellington Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Seated in the ejection seat of T-38 rear cockpit, Astronaut Frederick D. Gregory, wearing navy blue flight suit coveralls, breathing apparatus, and helmet, prepares for departure from Ellington Field with STS-29 crew. T-38 canopy has not yet closed over Gregory.

  8. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Watch Cake Cutting Ceremony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home for 21 days following the mission. In this photograph, the Hornet crew and honor guard snap to attention to begin the official cake cutting ceremony for the Apollo 11 astronauts. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin are visible in the window of the MQF.

  9. Astronaut Story Musgrave recieves assistance during suiting for WETF training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Larry Kasallis of Hamilton Standard assists Astronaut Story Musgrave as the STS-6 mission specialist suits up for an underwater training session in the Weightless environment training facility (WETF). Kasallis is assisting Musgrave to don the extravehicular mobility unit's gloves. Musgrave is already wearing the EMU and the communication carrier assembly but not the helmet.

  10. Astronaut Story Musgrave deploys HST solar array panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut F. Story Musgrave, anchored to a foot restraint on the Space Shuttle Endeavour's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, aids the deployment of one of the solar array panels on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The action came during the final of five STS-61 space walks.

  11. Astronaut Kevin Chilton works with advanced cell reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Kevin P. Chilton, pilot, works with an advanced cell reactor, which incorporated the first ever videomicroscope, on the Space Tissue Loss (STL-B) experiment on the Space Shuttle Endeavour's middeck. This experiment studied cell growth during the STS-59 mission.

  12. Blue Hills Regional Grad Fulfills Dream, Becomes Astronaut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This article features Scott D. Tingle, a former career and technical education (CTE) student who always aimed high. November 4, 2011 marked the official culmination of a cherished, virtually lifelong dream of his--becoming an astronaut. It was a goal he had in mind even when he was a high school student in the 1980s at Blue Hills Regional…

  13. Heavy cosmic-ray exposure of Apollo astronauts.

    PubMed

    Benton, E V; Henke, R P; Bailey, J V

    1975-01-24

    A comprehensive study of the heavy-particle cosmic-ray exposure received by the individual astronauts during the nine lunar Apollo missions reveals a significant variation in the exposure as a function of shielding and the phase of the solar cycle. The data are useful in planning for future long-range missions and in estimating the expected biological damage.

  14. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1972. [a chronology of events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Important events of the U. S. space program during 1972 are recorded in a chronology which encompasses all NASA, NASA related, and international cooperative efforts in aeronautics and astronautics. Personnel and budget concerns are documented, along with the major developments in aircraft research, manned space flight, and interplanetary exploration.

  15. Astronaut Alan Bean with subpackages of the ALSEP during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, traverses with the two subpackages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Bean deployed the ALSEP components 300 feet from the Lunar Module (LM). The LM and deployed erectable S-band antenna can be seen in the background.

  16. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys Lunar Surface Magnetometer on lunar surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, deploys the Lunar Surface Magnetometer (LSM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity on the Moon. The LSM is a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). The Lunar Module can be seen in the left background.

  17. Astronaut Alan Bean doing acrobatics in OWS dome area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, doing acrobatics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  18. Astronaut Eugene Cernan eating a meal aboard Apollo 17 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A fellow crewman took this photograph of Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 mission commander, eating a meal under the weightless conditions of space during the final lunar landing mission in the Apollo program. Cernan appears to be eating chocolate pudding.

  19. Astronaut Richard H. Truly gets practice eating in weghtlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut Richard H. Truly, STS-2 pilot, gets some practice eating in a weightless environment during moments of zero gravity on the KC-135 aircraft. He holds a spoon in his right hand and a package of dehydrated food in his left hand and is in the process of swallowing.

  20. Television transmission of Astronaut Eugene Cernan using Lunar Surface Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan operates the Apollo Lunar Surface Drill during the first Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Cernan is the commander of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission.

  1. Television transmission of Astronaut Harrison Schmitt falling during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. Schmitt loses his balance and heads for a fall during the second Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site, in this black and white reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle. Schmitt is the lunar module pilot.

  2. Geocorona photographed by Astronaut John Young with UV camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The geocorona, a halo of low density hydrogen around the Earth (center) photographed by Astronaut John W. Young, Apollo 16 commander, with UV camera. Sunlight is shining from the left, and the geocorona is bright on that side. Exposure 15 secones, with F/1 electronicgraphic camera. The streaks and circular patch on right are instrumental.

  3. Astronauts Blaha and Lucid celebrate Lucid's 752 hour in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    On the forward flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia, Astronauts John E. Blaha and Shannon W. Lucid show their glee at a milestone achieved a while earlier. The mission commander had earlier announced that Lucid's just achieved 752nd hour in space marked a Space Shuttle record for time spent on a mission.

  4. Heavy cosmic-ray exposure of Apollo astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. V.; Henke, R. P.; Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the heavy-particle cosmic-ray exposure received by the individual astronauts during the nine lunar Apollo missions reveals a significant variation in the exposure as a function of shielding and the phase of the solar cycle. The data are useful in planning for future long-range missions and in estimating the expected biological damage.

  5. Astronauts give Hubble a new lease of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-06-01

    Astronauts successfully repaired and upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope last month by performing five space walks each lasting more than six hours. The mission will improve Hubble's "observational power" by up to a factor of 100. The upgrade will also enable the 19-year-old instrument to carry on obtaining images of the early universe until 2014.

  6. Astronaut Frank Borman hoisted from water by recovery helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronaut Frank Borman, command pilot of the Gemini 7 space flight, is hoisted from the water by a recovery helicopter from the Aircraft Carrier U.S.S. Wasp. Below him, Navy divers sit in the life raft next to the Gemini spacecraft.

  7. Astronaut Linda Godwin during contingency EVA training in WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Linda M. Godwin, payload commander, prepares to donn her helmet before being submerged in a 25-feet deep pool at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). STS-59 crewmembers are using the WETF to train for contingency space walks for the shuttle Endeavour mission. Godwin is wearing the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU), communication carrier assembly (CCA) but no helmet.

  8. A survey of Rocketry and astronautics in Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluquer, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The entire field of rocketry and astronautics in Spain was studied. Congreve war rockets in military actions were emphasized in the African war, the Cuban campaign and the Spanish Civil War. Rockets in space travel were also summarized along with space science fiction.

  9. The selection of commercial astronauts for suborbital spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, Brian J.

    With the launch of Dennis Tito aboard a Russian Soyuz rocket in 2001 and SpaceShipOne winning the Ansari X-Prize in 2004, the commercial space tourism industry is on the verge of lifting off. In 2007 Burt Rutan spoke about the future of space tourism, "We think that 100,000 people will fly by 2020" (Rutan, 2007). With such a high frequency of suborbital spaceflights, there is a need for qualified crews to operate the spacecraft. The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study was to investigate the possible selection criteria for suborbital commercial astronauts within the space tourism industry. Data was collected in the form of telephone and email interviews with 4 of the 5 U.S.-based suborbital space tourism companies participating. Purdue University's extensive astronaut alumni network was used to augment data gathered with five astronauts who have flown in space. In addition, Brian Binnie, the pilot who flew SpaceShipOne on its award winning Ansari X-Prize flight, participated. Grounded Theory and Truth and Reality Testing were used as the theoretical framework for data analysis. The data gathered suggests that the commercial astronaut should have at least a Bachelor's degree in engineering, have a test pilot background with thousands of hours of pilot-in-command time in high performance jet aircraft, be confident yet humble in personality, and have a fundamental understanding of their spacecraft, including spacecraft trajectories, and emergency procedures.

  10. Astronaut Jack Lousma with part of Inflight Medical Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, reaches into a medical kit, part of the Inflight Medical Support System (IMSS), during training for the second manned Skylab Earth-orbital mission. This activity took place in the Orbital Workshop (OWS) trainer in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility at JSC.

  11. Astronaut Jack Lousma works at Multispectral camera experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, works at the S190A multispectral camera experiment in the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), seen from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. Lousma later used a small brush to clean the six lenses of the multispectral camera.

  12. Astronaut Jack Lousma doing acrobatics in OWS dome area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, doing acrobatics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  13. Astronaut Kevin Chilton displays map of Scandinavia on flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Kevin P. Chilton, pilot, displays a map of Scandinavia on the Space Shuttle Endeavour's flight deck. Large scale maps such as this were used by the crew to locate specific sites of interest to the Space Radar Laboratory scientists. The crew then photographed the sites at the same time as the radar in the payload bay imaged them.

  14. How Will Astronauts Stay Fit during Long Spaceflights?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Devera

    1989-01-01

    Astronauts on lengthy spaceflights must exercise regularly to forestall muscle atrophy and bone loss, but exercise presents unique problems in a weightless environment. All exercise equipment must have a harness or seat belt. Soviet and NASA space exercise plans and experimental ideas are discussed. (Author/SM)

  15. "Almost Astronauts" and the Pursuit of Reliability in Children's Nonfiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Joe Sutliff

    2015-01-01

    A recent surge of conversation about children's nonfiction reveals a conflict between two positions that do not at first appear to be opposed: modeling inquiry and presenting authoritative facts. Tanya Lee Stone, the author of the Sibert Award-winning "Almost Astronauts" (2009), has recently alluded to that tension and expressed a…

  16. Young Astronauts Blast Off in Math and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jack

    1988-01-01

    The Young Astronaut Program (YAP) has reached 500,000 children in 20,000 classrooms. Schools and community groups sponsor YAP, which provides space-related curricular material to encourage students to study science and math. A contact address is given. (JL)

  17. Astronaut Daniel Brandenstein shows of Father's Day card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel Brandenstein, STS 51-G mission commander, shows of Father's Day card from his daughter. The card reads 'To the world's best Dad,' and contains artwork. He is in the aft flight deck near the remote manipulator system (RMS) controls.

  18. Astronauts Conrad and Gordon demonstrate tethering procedures for news media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Charles Conrad (left), command pilot, and Richard F. Gordon (right), pilot, demonstrate tether procedure between their Gemini 11 spacecraft and the Agena Target Docking Vehicle at the post flight press conference. They use models of their spacecraft and its Agena to illustrate maneuvers.

  19. Astronaut Gordon Cooper assisted into his Mercury Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., is assisted into his 'Faith 7' Mercury Spacecraft early Tuesday (May 14, 1963) morning. Cooper remained in the spacecraft for approximately 5 hours and then climbed out again as the mission was delayed because of trouble at a tracking station.

  20. Astronaut C. Gordon Fullerton in suit donning/doffing exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut C. Gordon Fullerton, STS-3 pilot, takes part in a suit donning/doffing exercise aboard a KC-135 'zero-gravity' aircraft. Mission Specialist William F. Fisher, far left, holds a mirror to assist Fullerton with hose and cable linkups to his suit. Fullerton is wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) minus gloves and helmet.

  1. Astronaut Gordon Cooper assisted into his Mercury Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Astronaut L. Gordon Cooper Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 9 (MA-9) earth-orbital space mission, is assisted into his 'Faith 7' Mercury Spacecraft during the prelaunch countdown. MA-9 was launched on May 15, 1963, and the flight lasted for 34 hours and 20 minutes.

  2. Astronaut C. Gordon Fullerton in donning/doffing exercise experiences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Astronaut C. Gordon Fullerton, STS-3 pilot, experiences free fall while taking part in a suit donning/doffing exercise aboard a KC-135 'zero-gravity' aircraft. Fullerton is wearing an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) complete with gloves and helmet.

  3. Astronaut Richard F. Gordon Aboard Command Module Yankee Clipper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is a view of astronaut Richard F. Gordon attaching a high resolution telephoto lens to a camera aboard the Apollo 12 Command Module (CM) Yankee Clipper. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms. Their lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  4. Astronauts Conrad and Gordon demonstrate tethering procedures for news media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Charles Conrad (center), command pilot, and Richard F. Gordon (right), pilot, demonstrate tether procedure between their Gemini 11 spacecraft and the Agena Target Docking Vehicle at the post flight press conference. They use models of their spacecraft and its Agena to illustrate maneuvers. At left is George Low, Deputy Director, Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston.

  5. Astronaut Linda Godwin uses Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, Astronaut Linda M. Godwin uses the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX). The payload commander, as well as several other STS-59 crew members, spent some off-duty time using the amateur radio experiment to communicate with 'Hams' and students on Earth.

  6. Astronaut Norman Thagard changes tray in RAHF for rodents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut Norman Thagard changes a tray in the research animal holding facility (RAHF) for rodents at the Ames double rack facility aboard the Spacelab 3 science module in the cargo bay of the shuttle Challenger. Lending a hand is payload specialist Lodewijk van den Berg. Both men are wearing protective clothing and surgical masks for this procedure.

  7. STS-79 astronauts have prelaunch meal in O&C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Already on an altered schedule in preparation for their spaceflight, the STS-79 astronauts are having lunch around midnight in the Operations and Checkout Building. From left are Mission Specialist Jay Apt; Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt; Commander William F. Readdy; and Mission Specialists Thomas D. Akers, Carl E. Walz and John E. Blaha. After receiving a weather briefing, the astronauts will don their launch/entry suits and depart for Launch Pad 39A. Awaiting them is the Space Shuttle Atlantis, slated to lift off at approximately 4:54 a.m. EDT, Sept. 16, during a seven-minute window. The 79th Shuttle flight will be highlighted by the fourth docking between the U.S. Shuttle and Russian Space Station Mir and the first in a series of U.S. crew exchanges. Blaha will transfer to Mir and fellow U.S. astronaut Shannon Lucid will return to Earth with the other STS-79 astronauts after a record-setting stay on the station.

  8. Astronaut Michael Clifford takes a break during bailout training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Michael R.U. (Rich) Clifford takes a break while video taping crew mates in training in the JSC Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF). He is pictured with Trent G. Keeple, a member of the training staff assigned to STS-59.

  9. Astronaut Collins and cosmonaut Titov organize TIPS paper messages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Discovery's middeck, astronaut Eileen M. Collins and cosmonaut Vladimir G. Titov attempt to organize a lengthy mail message from flight controllers on Earth. Collins was pilot for the STS-63 eight day mission and Titov served as a mission specialist. Approximately 30 feet of messages from the Thermal Imaging Printing System (TIPS) are spread around the middeck.

  10. Who is an astronaut? The inadequacy of current international law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyall, F.

    2010-06-01

    The concept of 'astronaut' as found in law in the 'space treaties' and elsewhere does not fit well with the modern proposals for commercial space tourism. Will the 'rescue and return' provisions apply to commercial flights? Many national laws will apply to space tourism but for the future the international legal regime should be reconsidered. Finally what may happen in a crisis in space?

  11. Fitness variables and the lipid profile in United States astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, M. A.; Squires, W. G.; Jackson, A. S.

    1980-01-01

    The study examines the relationship between several measures of fitness and the lipid profile in United States astronauts. Data were collected on 89 astronauts, previously selected (PSA) and newly selected (NSA), during their annual physical examinations. Several similarities were seen in the two groups. The PSA (mean age of 46.1) had a lower maximum oxygen capacity (41.7 ml kg/min vs. 47.5 ml kg/min); when adjusted for age, it was no different from the NSA (mean age 33.5). The PSA had similar body composition with 15.7% - lower than expected for age. The lipid profiles of the two groups were basically the same with the differences being a function of age. Compared to a normative population, the astronauts had similar cholesterols, lower triglycerides, and higher HDLs. The astronaut profiles were generally more favorable than the age-matched controls, which is felt to be a result of the self-supervised conditioning program and annual preventive medicine consultation and education.

  12. Astronauts Armstrong and Scott during photo session outside KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (left), command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot, the Gemini 8 prime crew, during a photo session outside the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mission Control Center. Both men are wearing full space suits and carring their helmets.

  13. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Suited Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit, participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969, in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he simulates scooping up a lunar surface sample.

  14. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface simulation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface simulation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center. Armstrong is the prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is standing on Lunar Module mockup foot pad preparing to ascend steps.

  15. Astronaut Neil Armstrong participates in lunar surface siumlation training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), participates in lunar surface siumlation training on April 18, 1969 in bldg 9, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Armstrong is prime crew commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Here, he is opening a sample return container. At the right is the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) and the Lunar Module Mockup.

  16. Astronauts Scott and Armstrong undergoe water egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (on left), command pilot, and David R. Scott, pilot of the Gemini 8 prime crew, use a boilerplate model of a Gemini spacecraft during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico. Three Manned Spacecraft Center swimmers assist in the training exercise.

  17. Astronauts Scott and Armstrong undergoe water egress training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (center), command pilot, and David R. Scott (right), pilot of the Gemini 8 prime crew, are suited up for water egress training aboard the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever in the Gulf of Mexico. At left is Dr. Kenneth N. Beers, M.D., Flight Medicine Branch, Center Medical Office.

  18. Teacher-Astronaut out to Lift Academic Sights of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The space shuttle Endeavour, slated to begin an 11-day mission August 7, will carry an educational payload that includes two "growth chambers" loaded with basil and lettuce seeds, and a list of activities to be led by teacher-turned-astronaut Barbara R. Morgan. The activities targeted to K-12 students are add-ons to the shuttle crew's primary…

  19. Exercise-training protocols for astronauts in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Greenleaf, J E; Bulbulian, R; Bernauer, E M; Haskell, W L; Moore, T

    1989-12-01

    The question of the composition of exercise protocols for use by astronauts in microgravity is unresolved. Based on our knowledge of physical working requirements for astronauts during intra- and extravehicular activity and on the findings from bed-rest studies that utilized exercise training as a countermeasure for the reduction of aerobic power, deterioration of muscular strength and endurance, decrements in mood and cognitive performance, and possibly for bone loss, two exercise protocols are proposed. One assumes that, during microgravity, astronaut exercise physiological functions should be maintained at 100% of ground-based levels; the other assumes that maximal aerobic power in flight can be reduced by 10% of the ground-based level. A recommended prescription for in-flight prevention or partial suppression of calcium (bone) loss cannot be written until further research findings are obtained that elucidate the site, the magnitude, and the mechanism of the changes. Hopefully these proposed exercise prescriptions will stimulate further research and discussion resulting in even more efficient protocols that will help ensure the optimal health and well-being of our astronauts. PMID:2691487

  20. Astronaut William Thornton observes monkey in the RAHF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Astronaut William E. Thornton, 51-B/Spacelab 3 mission specialist, observes one of two squirel monkeys (cage #1) in the research animal holding facility (RAHF) at the Ames double rack facility aboard the Spacelab 3 science module in the cargo bay of the shuttle Challenger.

  1. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Chickasaw Dance troupe member Tim Harjo (second from left) leads Joyce and James Herrington in a dance honoring their son, STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington. The dance was part of a Native American ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex commemorating Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission.

  2. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a pre-launch Native American ceremony, Radmilla Cody, the 2001 Miss Navaho Nation, sings the 'Star Spangled Banner' in her native language. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  3. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Chickasaw Dance Troupe performs an Honor Dance during the Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  4. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The Chickasaw Dance Troupe performs an Honor Dance for John Herrington's parents during the Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  5. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Cosmic radiation doses to the crews of the Apollo 14, 15, and 16 missions of 142 + or - 80, 340 + or - 80, and 210 + or - 130 mR respectively were calculated from the specific activities of Na-22 and Na-24 in the postflight urine specimens of the astronauts. The specific activity of Fe-59 was higher in the urine than in the feces of the Apollo 14 and 15 astronauts, and a possible explanation is given. The concentrations of K-40, K-42, Cr-51, Co-60, and Cs-137 in the urine are also reported for these astronauts. The radiation doses received by pilots and navigators flying high altitude missions during the solar flare of March 27 to 30, 1972 were calculated from the specific activity of Na-24 in their urine. These values are compared with the expected radiation dose calculated from the known shape and intensity of the proton spectrum and demonstrate the magnitude of atmospheric shielding. The concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fe, Co, Ag, Zn, Hg, As, Sb, Se, and Br were measured in the urine specimens from the Apollo 14 and 15 astronauts by neutron activation analysis. The mercury and arsenic levels were much higher than expected.

  6. Astronaut William Gregory works with pharmaceutical experiments on middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut William G. Gregory, STS-67 pilot, works with a pharmaceutical experiment on the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instruments Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX-03) includes not only pharmaceutical but also biotechnology, cell biology, fluids and crystal growth investigations.

  7. 128. PRESIDENT NIXON CONGRATULATES APOLLO 11 ASTRONAUTS THROUGH WINDOW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. PRESIDENT NIXON CONGRATULATES APOLLO 11 ASTRONAUTS THROUGH WINDOW OF THE MOBIL QUARANTINE VAN LOCATED IN THE HANGAR DECK. 24 JULY 1969. (NATIONAL ARCHIVES NO. 428-KN-18088) - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  8. Space station astronauts discuss life in space during AGU interview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-07-01

    Just one day after China's Shenzhou-9 capsule, carrying three Chinese astronauts, docked with the Tiangong-1 space lab on 18 June, Donald Pettit, a NASA astronaut on the International Space Station (ISS), said it is “a step in the right direction” that more people are in space. “Before they launched, there were six people in space,” he said, referring to those on ISS, “and there are 7 billion people on Earth.” The astronauts were “like one in a billion. Now there are nine people in space,” Pettit said during a 19 June interview that he and two other astronauts onboard ISS had with AGU. Pettit continued, “So the gradient of human beings going into space is moving in the right direction. We need to change these numbers so that more and more human beings can call space their home so we can expand off of planet Earth and move out into our solar system.”

  9. NASA astronaut and Mir 24 crew member David Wolf after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA astronaut and Mir 24 crew member David Wolf, M.D., who was on the Russian Space Station Mir since late September 1997, greets his friend, Tammy Kruse, shortly after his return to Earth on Jan. 31. Dr. Wolf returned aboard the orbiter Endeavour with the rest of the STS-89 crew, including Commander Terrence Wilcutt; Pilot Joe Edwards Jr.; and Mission Specialists James Reilly, Ph.D.; Michael Anderson; Bonnie Dunbar, Ph.D.; and Salizhan Sharipov with the Russian Space Agency. STS-89 Mission Specialist Andrew Thomas, Ph.D., succeeded Dr. Wolf on Mir and is scheduled to remain on the Russian space station until the STS-91 Shuttle mission returns in June 1998. In addition to the docking and crew exchange, STS-89 included the transfer of science, logistical equipment and supplies between the two orbiting spacecrafts.

  10. Protecting the Health of Astronauts: Enhancing Occupational Health Monitoring and Surveillance for Former NASA Astronauts to Understand Long-Term Outcomes of Spaceflight-Related Exposures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossi, Meredith; Lee, Lesley; Wear, Mary; Van Baalen, Mary; Rhodes, Bradley

    2017-01-01

    The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. A better understanding of the individual, population, and mission impacts of astronaut occupational exposures is critical to providing clinical care, targeting occupational surveillance efforts, and planning for future space exploration. The ability to characterize the risk of latent health conditions is a significant component of this understanding. Provision of health screening services to active and former astronauts ensures individual, mission, and community health and safety. Currently, the NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) provides extensive medical monitoring to active astronauts throughout their careers. Upon retirement, astronauts may voluntarily return to the JSC FMC for an annual preventive exam. However, current retiree monitoring includes only selected screening tests, representing an opportunity for augmentation. The potential long-term health effects of spaceflight demand an expanded framework of testing for former astronauts. The need is two-fold: screening tests widely recommended for other aging populations are necessary to rule out conditions resulting from the natural aging process (e.g., colonoscopy, mammography); and expanded monitoring will increase NASA's ability to better characterize conditions resulting from astronaut occupational exposures. To meet this need, NASA has begun an extensive exploration of the overall approach, cost, and policy implications of e an Astronaut Occupational Health program to include expanded medical monitoring of former NASA astronauts. Increasing the breadth of monitoring services will ultimately enrich the existing evidence base of occupational health risks

  11. 78 FR 72011 - Interpretation Concerning Involvement of NASA Astronauts During a Licensed Launch or Reentry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... parachutes. Emergency operations could also include the NASA astronaut manually piloting a vehicle to a water... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 460 Interpretation Concerning Involvement of NASA Astronauts... (NASA) regarding whether the space transportation regulations of the Federal Aviation...

  12. Space Culture: Innovative Cultural Approaches To Public Engagement With Astronomy, Space Science And Astronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malina, Roger F.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years a number of cultural organizations have established ongoing programs of public engagement with astronomy, space science and astronautics. Many involve elements of citizen science initiatives, artists’ residencies in scientific laboratories and agencies, art and science festivals, and social network projects as well as more traditional exhibition venues. Recognizing these programs several agencies and organizations have established mechanisms for facilitating public engagement with astronomy and space science through cultural activities. The International Astronautics Federation has established an Technical Activities Committee for the Cultural Utilization of Space. Over the past year the NSF and NEA have organized disciplinary workshops to develop recommendations relating to art-science interaction and community building efforts. Rationales for encouraging public engagement via cultural projects range from theory of creativity, innovation and invention to cultural appropriation in the context of `socially robust science’ as advocated by Helga Nowotny of the European Research Council. Public engagement with science, as opposed to science education and outreach initiatives, require different approaches. Just as organizations have employed education professionals to lead education activities, so they must employ cultural professionals if they wish to develop public engagement projects via arts and culture. One outcome of the NSF and NEA workshops has been development of a rationale for converting STEM to STEAM by including the arts in STEM methodologies, particularly for K-12 where students can access science via arts and cultural contexts. Often these require new kinds of informal education approaches that exploit locative media, gaming platforms, artists projects and citizen science. Incorporating astronomy and space science content in art and cultural projects requires new skills in `cultural translation’ and `trans-mediation’ and new kinds

  13. Potentials for Indication of Potentially Harmful Toxic Algal Blooms Using PROBA1-CHRIS Hyperspectral Imagery- A Case Study in Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiermann, Timo

    2010-12-01

    Toxic algal blooms are an issue affecting water quality and can cause harmful health impacts. The aim of the conducted case study is to assess such blooms by chlorophyll a and phycocyanin detection as indicators of the occurrence. Using demonstrated single reflectance ratio algorithms published as in [7] and processed with provided tools for hyperspectral Proba1-CHRIS imagery in a study site including Loumbila reservoir near Ouagadougou, capital of Burkina Faso to investigate potentials of this approach.

  14. Astronaut Alan Bean steps from ladder of Lunar Module for EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, steps from the ladder of the Lunar Module to join Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander, in extravehicular activity on November 19, 1969. Astronaut Ricard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command/Service Modules in lunar orbit.

  15. Dr. James McGee shows three astronauts how to handle non-poisonous snake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Dr. James W. McGee (right), Medical Operations Office, Manned Spacecraft Center, shows three astronauts how to handle a non-poisonous snake during desert survival training in Washington state. Left to right, are Astronauts Thomas K. Mattingly, Alfred M. Worden, and John L. Swigert Jr.; and Dr. McGee. The astronauts are dressed in faked Arab clothing.

  16. Astronauts Young and Duke collect rock samples along simulated lunar traverse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Astronauts John W. Young, left, prime crew commander for Apollo 16, and Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, collect rock samples along a simulated lunar traverse route in the Coso Hills, near Ridgecrest, California. Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, right background, prime crew commander for Apollo 17, looks on. The astronauts trained at the U.S. Naval Ordnance Test Station.

  17. Combining Epidemiologic Information Across Space Agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minard, Charles G.; Clark, April L.; Wear, Mary L.; Mason, Sara; Van Baalen, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Space flight is a very unique occupational exposure with potential hazards that are not fully understood. A limited number of individuals have experienced the exposures incurred during space flight, and epidemiologic research would benefit from shared information across space agencies. However, data sharing can be problematic due to agency protection policies for personally identifiable information as well as medical records. Compliance with these protocols in the astronaut population is particularly difficult given the small, high-profile population under study. Creativity in combining data is necessary in order to overcome these difficulties and improve statistical power in research. This study presents methods in meta-analysis that may be used to combine non-attributable data across space agencies so that meaningful conclusions may be drawn about study interests. Methods for combining epidemiologic data across space agencies are presented, and the processes are demonstrated using life-time mortality data in U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts. This proof of concept was found to be an acceptable way of sharing data across agencies, and will be used in the future as more relevant research interests are identified.

  18. Measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    A cosmic radiation dose to the Apollo 17 crew of 1.3 R was calculated from the specific activities of Na-24 in their postflight urine specimens. The specific activities of K-42, Cr-51, Co60, and Sb-124, introduced by injection into the astronauts, are extremely high in these specimens. The Fe-59 and Cs-137 levels are also reported and appear to be normal. The concentrations of Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Fe, Co, Ag, Au, Zn, Cd, Hg, Sn, As, Sb, Se, Br, Sc, La, Sm, Eu, Tb, Hf, Ta, and Th were measured in urine specimens from the Apollo 17 astronauts by neutron activation analysis. Strontium, barium, gold, cadmium, lanthanum, samarium, europium, terbium, thorium, and tin are reported for the first time. The concentrations or excretion rates of bromine and the alkali metals exhibit singificantly reduced postflight levels and are generally lower than values observed for previous missions. Chromium concentrations reflect radiochromium injections.

  19. Astronaut David Brown talks with team members from South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut David Brown looks over the robot named 'L'il Max' with members of the team The Bot Kickers! from Northwestern High School, Rock Hill, S.C. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition being held March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co- sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  20. Astronaut David Brown talks to FIRST team members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut David Brown talks with FIRST team members, Baxter Bomb Squad, from Mountain Home High School, Mountain Home, Ariz., during the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  1. STS-79 Astronaut Shannon Lucid interviewed after landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Surrounded by her family, U.S. astronaut Shannon W. Lucid answers questions from KSC Public Affairs official Lisa Malone about her record-setting stay aboard the Russian Space Station Mir. Standing behind Lucid are, from left, husband Michael, daughter Kawai, son Michael, son-in-law Jeff Richeson, and daughter Shandara. Lucid returned to Earth earlier today aboard the orbiter Atlantis, wrapping up a 188-day spaceflight that represents a U.S. long-duration spaceflight record as well as the longest stay in space by a woman. Lucid and the other five STS-79 astronauts are spending the night here in the Operations and Checkout Building before returning to Johnson Space Center in Houston. Atlantis touched down on Runway 15 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 8:13:15 a.m. EDT.

  2. Astronaut Shannon Lucid and family after STS-79 Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Surrounded by her family and looking very fit and happy, U.S. astronaut Shannon W. Lucid answers questions about her record- setting stay aboard the Russian Space Station Mir. From left are husband Michael, daughter Kawai, son Michael, son-in-law Jeff Richeson, and daughter Shandara. Lucid returned to Earth earlier today aboard the orbiter Atlantis, wrapping up a 188-day spaceflight that represents a U.S. long-duration spaceflight record as well as the longest stay in space by a woman. Lucid and the other five STS-79 astronauts are spending the night here in the Operations and Checkout Building before returning to Johnson Space Center in Houston. Atlantis touched down on Runway 15 of KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility at 8:13:15 a.m. EDT.

  3. Prediction system to protect astronauts from solar storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-08-01

    With the impending solar maximum expected to bring heightened rates of fares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), putting at risk an ever-increasing human presence in space, Oh et al. designed and assessed a prediction system to keep astronauts safe from these solar storms. During a solar fare or CME, particles from the Sun can be accelerated to very high energies—in some cases traveling near the speed of light. Protons with energies surpassing 100 megaelectron volts (MeV) essentially sandblast everything in their path. Though people on Earth are protected by the planet's magnetic feld and thick atmosphere, astronauts in spacecraft beyond low-Earth orbit or people at high altitudes near the poles can be exposed to this increased radiation, which can cause radiation sickness, with symptoms such as fever and vomiting.

  4. Apollo 8 Astronaut William Anders On Phone With President Johnson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 8 Astronaut William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) pilot of the first manned Saturn V space flight into Lunar orbit, accepted a phone call from the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson prior to launch. Anders, along with astronauts James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot, and Frank Borman, commander, launched aboard the Apollo 8 mission on December 21, 1968 and returned safely to Earth on December 27, 1968. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  5. Apollo 8 Astronaut James Lovell On Phone With President Johnson

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 8 Astronaut James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot of the first manned Saturn V space flight into Lunar orbit, accepted a phone call from the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson prior to launch. Lovell, along with astronauts William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) pilot, and Frank Borman, commander, launched aboard the Apollo 8 mission on December 21, 1968 and returned safely to Earth on December 27, 1968. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  6. Cerebrovascular Accident Incidence in the NASA Astronaut Population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPelusa, Michael B.; Charvat, Jacqueline M.; Lee, Lesley R.; Wear, Mary L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The development of atherosclerosis is strongly associated with an increased risk for cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), including stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA). Certain unique occupational exposures that individuals in the NASA astronaut corps face, specifically high-performance aircraft training, SCUBA training, and spaceflight, are hypothesized to cause changes to the cardiovascular system. These changes, which include (but are not limited to) oxidative damage as a result of radiation exposure and circadian rhythm disturbance, increased arterial stiffness, and increased carotid-intima-media thickness (CIMT), may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and subsequent CVA. The purpose of this study was to review cases of CVA in the NASA astronaut corps and describe the comorbidities and occupational exposures associated with CVA.

  7. Philosophy on astronaut protection: A physician`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, H.

    1997-04-30

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has a responsibility to assure that proper ethical standards are applied in establishing and applying limits for the control of radiation doses to the astronauts. Such a responsibility obviously includes assuring that the astronauts are properly informed of the hazards associated with individuals missions and that they agree to accept the associated risks. The responsibility, however, does not end there. It includes a need to discuss how to initiate a discourse for developing the related ethical standards and how to determine who should be involved in their establishment. To assure that such proper communications on matters that encompass the realms of policy, science, politics, and ethics. There is also a need to mesh public perceptions with those of the scientific and technical community. This will be a monumental undertaking.

  8. Diagnostic and treatment support for the NASA space program astronauts.

    PubMed

    Grams, R R; Jin, Z M

    1989-04-01

    For over 9 years our research unit has been investigating medical databases that would be required to support astronauts on long-term missions. The configuration that has been developed will allow complete separation from earth-based experts and the capability of an on-board stand-alone system for knowledge engineering and medical decision support. Our data processing base of operation has advanced from the early stages on mainframe computers to the now ubiquitous microcomputer. Over this nine-year period we have seen several generations of improvements in every level of technology to the point where we can now package and deliver for space travel a rather broad-based decision support tool for astronauts that can provide the basic needs of medical treatment and diagnostic support which is vital for the proper execution of manned space missions.

  9. The measurement of radiation exposure of astronauts by radiochemical techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brodzinski, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The principal gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes, produced in the body of astronauts by cosmic-ray bombardment, which have half-lives long enough to be useful for radiation dose evaluation, are Be-7, Na-22, and Na-24. The sodium isotopes were measured in the preflight and postflight urine and feces, and those feces specimens collected during the manned Apollo missions, by analysis of the urine salts and the raw feces in large crystal multidimensional gamma-ray spectrometers. The Be-7 was chemically separated, and its concentration measured in an all NaI (TL), anticoincidence shielded, scintillation well crystal. The astronaut radiation dose in millirads, as determined for the Apollo 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, and 13 missions, was 330, 160, smaller than 315, 870 plus or minus 550, 31, 110, and smaller than 250, respectively.

  10. Small robot will give astronauts a big hand.

    PubMed

    Flinn, E D

    2000-02-01

    Now being built at NASA-Ames is a small robot that will work independently alongside astronauts in space. About the size of a softball, the 5-in.-diam. Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) will serve as an intelligent robot, providing another set of eyes and ears and an extra nose to the crew and ground support personnel. The device will move and operate on its own in the microgravity environment of space-based vehicles. Yuri Gawdiak, principal investigator for the projects, expects astronauts to fly a demonstration model of the device aboard a Space Shuttle in about two years. The first crew to use PSAs will test the examine safety issues. Those tests, if successful, will lead to a demonstration aboard the International Space Station. Gawdiak says the project has an annual budget of about $500,000.

  11. Astronaut Susan Helms on aft flight deck with RMS controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Discovery's aft flight deck, astronaut Susan J. Helms handles controls for the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The robot arm operated by Helms, who remained inside the cabin, was used to support task such as the release and retrieval of the free-flying Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) - 201, a six-hour space walk and the Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX).

  12. 1990 astronaut candidate Thomas prepares bedding during wilderness training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Under a camouflage tarp, Donald A. Thomas assembles small pieces of wood for bedding during a wilderness survival training course at Fairchild Air Force Base in the state of Washington. Thomas, one of 23 1990 Group 13 astronaut candidates, participated in the training near Spokane, Washington, 08-26-90 through 08-30-90. The survival exercise is part of a year's evaluation and training program.

  13. Astronauts Schirra and Eisele seen in first live television transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Astronauts Walter M. Schirra Jr. (on right) and Donn F. Eisele (on left) are seen in this first live television transmission from space. Schirra is holding a sign which reads 'Keep those cards and letters coming in, folks!'. Schirra is the Apollo 7 commander; and Eisele is the Apollo 7 command module pilot. This transmission was made at the end of their third day in space.

  14. Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Photos of Astronaut Donald K. Slayton during World War II. The first view shows Slayton (on right) beside a Douglas A-26 bomber in the Pacific Theater of Operations during the summer of 1945, probably on Okinawa. The second man is 1st. Lt. Ed Steinman (28359); This view shows Slayton as an eighteen-year-old U.S. Army Air Force cadet at Victoria Field, Vernon, Texas in the autumn of 1942.

  15. 1990 astronaut candidate Walz prepares snack during wilderness training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Sitting on a log, Carl E. Walz takes a break from survival training activities to prepare a snack. Walz spreads peanut butter on a cracker during a wilderness survival training course at Fairchild Air Force Base in the state of Washington. Walz, one of 23 1990 Group 13 astronaut candidates, participated in the training near Spokane, Washington, 08-26-90 through 08-30-90. The survival exercise is part of a year's evaluation and training program.

  16. Astronauts Stafford and Slayton visit Soviet Soyuz spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford, left, NASA ASTP crew commander, and Donald K. Slayton, docking module pilot, visit the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft during the joint phase of the ASTP mission. They hold Soviet containers of borsh (beet soup) over which vodka labels have been pasted. This was the crew's way of toasting each other. The photo was taken in the Orbital Module portion of the Soviet Soyuz spacecraft. The hatch to the Soyuz Descent Vehicle is in center background.

  17. Epstein-Barr Virus Shedding by Astronauts During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5 to 14 d duration. Samples were collected on a similar schedule from control subjects. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected during flight and 16% of those collected after flight. The mean number of copies of EBV DNA from samples taken during the flights was 417 plus or minus 31, significantly greater (p less than 0.05) than the number of copies from the preflight (40 plus or minus 2) and postflight (44 plus or minus 5) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and a mean number of EBV DNA copies of 40 plus or minus 2 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p less than 0.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines, and plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides, were increased over their preflight values. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with the occurrence of EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  18. Television transmission of Astronauts Cernan and Schmitt sending greetings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan (on left) and Harrison H. Schmitt pay their respects and send their best wishes to the members of the International Youth Science Tour, who were visiting the Manned Spacecraft Center, in brief ceremonies near the close of the third Apollo 17 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. This picture is a reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by the RCA color TV camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle.

  19. Morphing: A Novel Approach to Astronaut Suit Sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margerum, Sarah; Clowers, Kurt; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2006-01-01

    The fitting of a spacesuit to an astronaut is an iterative process consisting of two parts. The first uses anthropometric data to provide an approximation of the suit components that will fit the astronaut. The second part is the subjective fitting, where small adjustments are made based on the astronaut s preference. By providing a better approximation of the correct suit components, the entire fit process time can be reduced significantly. The goals of this project are twofold: (1) To evaluate the effectiveness of the existing sizing algorithm for the Mark III Hybrid suit and (2) to determine what additional components are needed in order to provide adequate sizing for the existing astronaut population. A single subject was scanned using a 3D whole-body scanner (VITUS 3D) in the Mark III suit in eight different poses and four subjects in minimal clothing were also scanned in similar poses. The 3D external body scans of the suit and the subject are overlaid and visually aligned in a customized MATLAB program. The suit components were contracted or expanded linearly along the subjects limbs to match the subjects segmental lengths. Two independent measures were obtained from the morphing program on four subjects and compared with the existing sizing information. Two of the four subjects were in correspondence with the sizing algorithm and morphing results. The morphing outcome for a third subject, incompatible with the suit, suggested that an additional arm element at least 6 inches smaller than the existing smallest suit component would need to be acquired. The morphing result of the fourth subject, deemed incompatible with the suit using the sizing algorithm, indicated a different suit configuration which would be compatible. This configuration matched with the existing suit fit check data.

  20. Minimizing Astronauts' Risk from Space Radiation during Future Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Hayat, Mathew; Nounu, Hatem N.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the risk factors from space radiation for astronauts on future lunar missions. Two types of radiation are discussed, Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and Solar Particle events (SPE). Distributions of Dose from 1972 SPE at 4 DLOCs inside Spacecraft are shown. A chart with the organ dose quantities is also given. Designs of the exploration class spacecraft and the planned lunar rover are shown to exhibit radiation protections features of those vehicles.

  1. Air Force Astronautics Laboratory smart structures and skins program overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehart, Douglas W.

    1990-02-01

    The smart structure/skins systems envisioned by the USAF Astronautics Laboratory for such future spacecraft as the Space Based Radar and Space Based Laser will employ embedded sensors, actuators, and microprocessors to sense, evaluate, and damp, all natural and spurious vibrations; the health-monitoring system also figured by the smart structure will sense any deterioration of structural soundness. Fiber-optics constitutes the sensor technology of choice, due to its lightness, immunity to EM interference, and easy incorporation into composite materials.

  2. Astronaut Daniel Bursch participates in emergency bailout training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, prepares to participate in emergency bailout training exercise at JSC's Shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory. This phase of training is designed to prepare the crewmembers for emergency bailout from the Space Shuttle and to familiarize them with the escape pole carried aboard for each Shuttle flight. Bursch is standing in the hatch, wearing an orange launcy/entry suit without a helmet.

  3. Shoulder Injuries in US Astronauts Related to EVA Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; McCulloch, P.; Van Baalen, Mary; Minard, Charles; Watson, Richard; Blatt, T.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: For every one hour spent performing extravehicular activity (EVA) in space, astronauts in the US space program spend approximately six to ten hours training in the EVA spacesuit at NASA-Johnson Space Center's Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL). In 1997, NASA introduced the planar hard upper torso (HUT) EVA spacesuit which subsequently replaced the existing pivoted HUT. An extra joint in the pivoted shoulder allows increased mobility but also increased complexity. Over the next decade a number of astronauts developed shoulder problems requiring surgical intervention, many of whom performed EVA training in the NBL. This study investigated whether changing HUT designs led to shoulder injuries requiring surgical repair. Methods: US astronaut EVA training data and spacesuit design employed were analyzed from the NBL data. Shoulder surgery data was acquired from the medical record database, and causal mechanisms were obtained from personal interviews Analysis of the individual HUT designs was performed as it related to normal shoulder biomechanics. Results: To date, 23 US astronauts have required 25 shoulder surgeries. Approximately 48% (11/23) directly attributed their injury to training in the planar HUT, whereas none attributed their injury to training in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT design limits shoulder abduction to 90 degrees compared to approximately 120 degrees in the pivoted HUT. The planar HUT also forces the shoulder into a forward flexed position requiring active retraction and extension to increase abduction beyond 90 degrees. Discussion: Multiple factors are associated with mechanisms leading to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Limitations to normal shoulder mechanics, suit fit, donning/doffing, body position, pre-existing injury, tool weight and configuration, age, in-suit activity, and HUT design have all been identified as potential sources of injury. Conclusion: Crewmembers with pre-existing or current shoulder injuries or certain

  4. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Astronaut Post Flight Bone Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Myers, Jerry; Licata, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Space flight potentially reduces the loading that bone can resist before fracture. This reduction in bone integrity may result from a combination of factors, the most common reported as reduction in astronaut BMD. Although evaluating the condition of bones continues to be a critical aspect of understanding space flight fracture risk, defining the loading regime, whether on earth, in microgravity, or in reduced gravity on a planetary surface, remains a significant component of estimating the fracture risks to astronauts. This presentation summarizes the concepts, development, and application of NASA's Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) to understanding pre-, post, and in mission astronaut bone fracture risk. The overview includes an assessment of contributing factors utilized in the BFxRM and illustrates how new information, such as biomechanics of space suit design or better understanding of post flight activities may influence astronaut fracture risk. Opportunities for the bone mineral research community to contribute to future model development are also discussed. Methods: To investigate the conditions in which spaceflight induced changes to bone plays a critical role in post-flight fracture probability, we implement a modified version of the NASA Bone Fracture Risk Model (BFxRM). Modifications included incorporation of variations in physiological characteristics, post-flight recovery rate, and variations in lateral fall conditions within the probabilistic simulation parameter space. The modeled fracture probability estimates for different loading scenarios at preflight and at 0 and 365 days post-flight time periods are compared. Results: For simple lateral side falls, mean post-flight fracture probability is elevated over mean preflight fracture probability due to spaceflight induced BMD loss and is not fully recovered at 365 days post-flight. In the case of more energetic falls, such as from elevated heights or with the addition of lateral movement

  5. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Chickasaw Indian princesses 'sign' the Lord's Prayer during a Native American Ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. The princesses are Crystal Underwood, Julie Underwood and Tamela Alexander. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  6. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Chickasaw Indian princesses seen here contributed to a pre-launch Native American ceremony at the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex by leading a prayer. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  7. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Chickasaw Indian princesses pose with folk singer Buffy Saint- Marie (center) during a Native American ceremony held in the Rocket Garden in the KSC Visitor Complex. Several days of activities were held at KSC and in Orlando commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  8. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Singer Buffy Sainte-Marie sings during a pre-launch Native American ceremony in the Rocket Garden of the KSC Visitor Complex. She herself is a Cree. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  9. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During a pre-launch Native American ceremony, Radmilla Cody (right) , the 2001 Miss Navaho Nation, sings the 'Star Spangled Banner' in her native language. With her is her grandmother. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  10. Activities commemorating John B. Herrington as first Native American astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - An elder of her Navaho tribe, Dorothy Cody shares the stage with her granddaughter Radmilla Cody (not shown), the 2001 Miss Navaho Nation, who is singing the 'Star Spangled Banner' in her native language during a pre-launch Native American ceremony. The ceremony was part of several days' activities commemorating John B. Herrington as the first tribally enrolled Native American astronaut to fly on a Shuttle mission. Herrington is a Mission Specialist on STS-113.

  11. Astronaut William Gregory practices with PILOT laptop computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Astronaut William G. Gregory, pilot for STS-67 mission, moves a control stick with his hands and monitors a landing scenario on his computer screen aboard the Earth orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. This activity measures the effects of space flight on pilot proficiency and is supported by the Portable Inflight Landing Operations Trainer (PILOT). The control stick is positioned near the primary stick which controls the Orbiter's maneuvers.

  12. Families learn what it's like to be a geoscientist astronaut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamec, Bethany Holm

    2012-02-01

    Astronaut and AGU member Andrew Feustel delivered the 2011 Public Lecture on Sunday, 4 December. Feustel gave a fun and engaging talk full of amazing photos about his two space missions: STS-125, during which he and his fellow crew members extended the life of the Hubble Space Telescope, and STS-134, the space shuttle Endeavour's final mission, which delivered the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) to the International Space Station (ISS). AMS is a state-of- the-art instrument designed to study matter and the origin and structure of the universe. Regular Eos readers will remember a July 2011 article about Eos in space, complete with a photo of an issue of Eos floating in front of the ISS window (Eos, 92(28), 236, doi:10.1029/2011EO2800 08). As the enthusiastic AGU member who took that issue into space, Feustel spoke from the unique perspective of someone who was trained in the geosciences before becoming an astronaut. Thus, he discussed the role of astronauts as explorers of Earth from space as well as the importance of geological observations on the Moon and the exploration of the cosmos. To thank him for his dedication, AGU president Mike McPhaden joined more than 160 other attendees at the Public Lecture and presented Feustel with a framed picture of the article featuring Eos in space.

  13. Close-up of Astronaut's Foot on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is a close-up view of an astronaut's foot and footprint in the lunar soil, photographed by a 70 mm lunar surface camera during the Apollo 11 lunar surface extravehicular activity (EVA). The first manned lunar mission launched via a Saturn V launch vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, mission commander; Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) Pilot; and Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as magnificent desolation. Astronaut Collins piloted the CM in a parking orbit around the Moon. During a 2½ hour surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  14. Psychological Selection of NASA Astronauts for International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galarza, Laura

    1999-01-01

    During the upcoming manned International Space Station (ISS) missions, astronauts will encounter the unique conditions of living and working with a multicultural crew in a confined and isolated space environment. The environmental, social, and mission-related challenges of these missions will require crewmembers to emphasize effective teamwork, leadership, group living and self-management to maintain the morale and productivity of the crew. The need for crew members to possess and display skills and behaviors needed for successful adaptability to ISS missions led us to upgrade the tools and procedures we use for astronaut selection. The upgraded tools include personality and biographical data measures. Content and construct-related validation techniques were used to link upgraded selection tools to critical skills needed for ISS missions. The results of these validation efforts showed that various personality and biographical data variables are related to expert and interview ratings of critical ISS skills. Upgraded and planned selection tools better address the critical skills, demands, and working conditions of ISS missions and facilitate the selection of astronauts who will more easily cope and adapt to ISS flights.

  15. Decreases in thymopoiesis of astronauts returning from space flight

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Cara L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; St. John, Lisa; Sams, Clarence F.; Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian E.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2016-01-01

    Following the advent of molecular assays that measure T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) present in recent thymic emigrants, it has been conclusively shown that thymopoiesis persists in most adults, but that functional output decreases with age, influencing the maintenance of a diverse and functional T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Space flight has been shown to result in a variety of phenotypic and functional changes in human T cells and in the reactivation of latent viruses. While space flight has been shown to influence thymic architecture in rodents, thymopoiesis has not previously been assessed in astronauts. Here, we assessed thymopoiesis longitudinally over a 1-year period prior to and after long-term space flight (median duration, 184 days) in 16 astronauts. While preflight assessments of thymopoiesis remained quite stable in individual astronauts, we detected significant suppression of thymopoiesis in all subjects upon return from space flight. We also found significant increases in urine and plasma levels of endogenous glucocorticoids coincident with the suppression of thymopoiesis. The glucocorticoid induction and thymopoiesis suppression were transient, and they normalized shortly after return to Earth. This is the first report to our knowledge to prospectively demonstrate a significant change in thymopoiesis in healthy individuals in association with a defined physiologic emotional and physical stress event. These results suggest that suppression of thymopoiesis has the potential to influence the maintenance of the TCR repertoire during extended space travel. Further studies of thymopoiesis and endogenous glucocorticoids in other stress states, including illness, are warranted. PMID:27699228

  16. A Guideline for the Management of Renal Stones in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes, David; Locke, James; Johnston, Smith

    2014-01-01

    There are no specific guidelines for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Given the increased risk for bone loss, hypercalcuria, and stone formation due to microgravity, a clinical practice guideline is needed. Methods An extensive review of the literature and current aeromedical standards for the management of renal stones was done. The NASA Flight Medicine Clinic's electronic medical record and Longitudinal Survey of Astronaut Health were also reviewed. This information was used to create an algorithm for the management of renal stones in astronauts. Results Guidelines are proposed based on accepted standards of care, with consideration to the environment of spaceflight. In a usual medical setting, asymptomatic, small stones less than 7 mm are often observed over time. Given the constraints of schedule, and the risks to crew health and mission, this approach is too liberal. An upper limit of 3 mm stone diameter was adopted before requiring intervention, because this is the largest size that has a significant chance of spontaneous passage on its own. Other specific guidelines were also created. Discussion The spaceflight environment requires more aggressive treatment than would otherwise be found with the usual practice of medicine. A small stone can become a major problem because it may ultimately require medical evacuation from orbit. Thus renal stones are a significant mission threat and should be managed in a systematic way to mitigate risks to crew health and mission success.

  17. Radiation-induced chromosome damage in astronauts' lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Testard, I; Ricoul, M; Hoffschir, F; Flury-Herard, A; Dutrillaux, B; Fedorenko, B; Gerasimenko, V; Sabatier, L

    1996-10-01

    The increased number of manned space missions has made it important to estimate the biological risks encountered by astronauts. As they are exposed to cosmic rays, especially ions with high linear energy transfer (LET), it is necessary to estimate the doses they receive. The most sensitive biological dosimetry used is based on the quantification of radiation-induced chromosome damage to human lymphocytes. After the space missions ANTARES (1992) and ALTAIR (1993), we performed cytogenetic analysis of blood samples from seven astronauts who had spent from 2 weeks to 6 months in space. After 2 or 3 weeks, the X-ray equivalent dose was found to be below the cytogenetic detection level of 20 mGy. After 6 months, the biological dose greatly varied among the astronauts, from 95 to 455 mGy equivalent dose. These doses are in the same range as those estimated by physical dosimetry (90 mGy absorbed dose and 180 mSv equivalent dose). Some blood cells exhibited the same cytogenetic pattern as the 'rogue cells' occasionally observed in controls, but with a higher frequency. We suggest that rogue cells might result from irradiation with high-LET particles of cosmic origin. However, the responsibility of such cells for the long-term effects of cosmic irradiation remains unknown and must be investigated. PMID:8862451

  18. Bioastronautics: the influence of microgravity on astronaut health.

    PubMed

    Blaber, Elizabeth; Marçal, Helder; Burns, Brendan P

    2010-06-01

    For thousands of years different cultures around the world have assigned their own meaning to the Universe. Through research and technology, we have begun to understand the nature and mysteries of the Cosmos. Last year marked the 40(th) anniversary of our first steps on the Moon, and within two decades it is hoped that humankind will have established a settlement on Mars. Space is a harsh environment, and technological advancements in material science, robotics, power generation, and medical equipment will be required to ensure that astronauts survive interplanetary journeys and settlements. The innovative field of bioastronautics aims to address some of the medical issues astronauts encounter during space travel. Astronauts are faced with several health risks during both short- and long-duration spaceflight due to the hostile environment presented in space. Some of these health problems include bone loss, muscle atrophy, cardiac dysrhythmias, and altered orientation. This review discusses the effects of spaceflight on living organisms, in particular, the specific effects of microgravity on the human body and possible countermeasures to these effects.

  19. The Graphical Representation of the Digital Astronaut Physiology Backbone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briers, Demarcus

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes my internship project with the NASA Digital Astronaut Project to analyze the Digital Astronaut (DA) physiology backbone model. The Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) applies integrated physiology models to support space biomedical operations, and to assist NASA researchers in closing knowledge gaps related to human physiologic responses to space flight. The DA physiology backbone is a set of integrated physiological equations and functions that model the interacting systems of the human body. The current release of the model is HumMod (Human Model) version 1.5 and was developed over forty years at the University of Mississippi Medical Center (UMMC). The physiology equations and functions are scripted in an XML schema specifically designed for physiology modeling by Dr. Thomas G. Coleman at UMMC. Currently it is difficult to examine the physiology backbone without being knowledgeable of the XML schema. While investigating and documenting the tags and algorithms used in the XML schema, I proposed a standard methodology for a graphical representation. This standard methodology may be used to transcribe graphical representations from the DA physiology backbone. In turn, the graphical representations can allow examination of the physiological functions and equations without the need to be familiar with the computer programming languages or markup languages used by DA modeling software.

  20. Decreases in thymopoiesis of astronauts returning from space flight

    PubMed Central

    Benjamin, Cara L.; Stowe, Raymond P.; St. John, Lisa; Sams, Clarence F.; Mehta, Satish K.; Crucian, Brian E.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2016-01-01

    Following the advent of molecular assays that measure T cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) present in recent thymic emigrants, it has been conclusively shown that thymopoiesis persists in most adults, but that functional output decreases with age, influencing the maintenance of a diverse and functional T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. Space flight has been shown to result in a variety of phenotypic and functional changes in human T cells and in the reactivation of latent viruses. While space flight has been shown to influence thymic architecture in rodents, thymopoiesis has not previously been assessed in astronauts. Here, we assessed thymopoiesis longitudinally over a 1-year period prior to and after long-term space flight (median duration, 184 days) in 16 astronauts. While preflight assessments of thymopoiesis remained quite stable in individual astronauts, we detected significant suppression of thymopoiesis in all subjects upon return from space flight. We also found significant increases in urine and plasma levels of endogenous glucocorticoids coincident with the suppression of thymopoiesis. The glucocorticoid induction and thymopoiesis suppression were transient, and they normalized shortly after return to Earth. This is the first report to our knowledge to prospectively demonstrate a significant change in thymopoiesis in healthy individuals in association with a defined physiologic emotional and physical stress event. These results suggest that suppression of thymopoiesis has the potential to influence the maintenance of the TCR repertoire during extended space travel. Further studies of thymopoiesis and endogenous glucocorticoids in other stress states, including illness, are warranted.