Science.gov

Sample records for agency consumer product

  1. Consumer Health: Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Jessie Helen

    This book presents a general overview of consumer health, its products and services. Consumer health is defined as those topics dealing with a wise selection of health products and services, agencies concerned with the control of these products and services, evaluation of quackery and health misconceptions, health careers, and health insurance.…

  2. Federal Law on Consumer Deception: An Agency by Agency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibel, George J.

    A comprehensive analysis of statutes and regulations on consumer deception administered by thirty government agencies is provided in this report. Each agency's chapter includes a brief description of the agency, and a detailed listing of all deceptive trade practices prohibited by that agency's enabling legislation, regulations, or other sources…

  3. Consumer Product Category Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Chemical and Product Categories database (CPCat) catalogs the use of over 40,000 chemicals and their presence in different consumer products. The chemical use information is compiled from multiple sources while product information is gathered from publicly available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS). EPA researchers are evaluating the possibility of expanding the database with additional product and use information.

  4. 76 FR 63957 - Consumer Product Policy Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Consumer Product Policy Statement AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed revision to policy statement; request for public comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  5. 5 CFR 845.207 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 845... § 845.207 Use of consumer reporting agencies. (a) Notice. If a debtor's response to the notice described... rights under § 845.204 have been exhausted, OPM may report the debtor to a consumer reporting agency....

  6. 5 CFR 831.1307 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Collection of Debts § 831.1307 Use of consumer reporting agencies. (a... report the debtor to a consumer reporting agency. In addition, a debtor's failure to make...

  7. 14 CFR 1261.408 - Use of consumer reporting agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Use of consumer reporting agency. 1261.408... the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) § 1261.408 Use of consumer reporting agency. (a) The term consumer reporting agency has the meaning provided in the Federal Claims Collection...

  8. 14 CFR 1261.408 - Use of consumer reporting agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of consumer reporting agency. 1261.408... the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) § 1261.408 Use of consumer reporting agency. (a) The term consumer reporting agency has the meaning provided in the Federal Claims Collection...

  9. 29 CFR 1450.16 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 1450.16 Section 1450.16... OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Administrative Offset-Consumer Reporting Agencies-Contracting for Collection § 1450.16 Use of consumer reporting agencies. (a) The term individual means a natural person,...

  10. 47 CFR 1.1918 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 1.1918... Collection of Claims Owed the United States Administrative Offset-Consumer Reporting Agencies-Contracting for Collection § 1.1918 Use of consumer reporting agencies. (a) The term individual means a natural person,...

  11. 5 CFR 831.1307 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Collection of Debts § 831.1307 Use of consumer reporting agencies. (a... report the debtor to a consumer reporting agency. In addition, a debtor's failure to make...

  12. 49 CFR 1018.23 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 1018.23... Collection of Claims § 1018.23 Use of consumer reporting agencies. (a) In addition to assessing interest... delinquent for 90 days to a consumer reporting agency, if all the conditions of this paragraph are met....

  13. 5 CFR 845.207 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 845... § 845.207 Use of consumer reporting agencies. (a) Notice. If a debtor's response to the notice described... rights under § 845.204 have been exhausted, OPM may report the debtor to a consumer reporting agency....

  14. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  15. Product Manuals: A Consumer Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showers, Linda S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Qualitative analysis of insights from consumer focus groups on product manual usage reveals consumer perceptions and preferences regarding manual and safety message format. Results can be used to improve manual design and content. (JOW)

  16. 22 CFR 1506.7 - Disclosure to consumer reporting agencies and contracts with collection agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Disclosure to consumer reporting agencies and... COLLECTION OF CLAIMS § 1506.7 Disclosure to consumer reporting agencies and contracts with collection... of current Federal employees, to consumer reporting agencies in accordance with 31 U.S.C. 3711(f)...

  17. 29 CFR 1450.16 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 1450.16 Section 1450.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE COLLECTIONS OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Administrative Offset-Consumer Reporting Agencies-Contracting...

  18. 47 CFR 1.1918 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Treasury who may disclose to a consumer reporting agency from a system of records, information that an individual is responsible for a claim. System information includes, for example, name, taxpayer... information in the system may be disclosed to a consumer reporting agency; (2) Review the claim to...

  19. Consumer protection act for digital products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1996-03-01

    This report proposes a `Consumer Protection Act for Digital Products' to support electronic commerce and to control the increasing abuse and lack of security on the national information highways. Patterned after the `Food and Drug Act of 1906 (21 USC)' and subsequent legislation, a new agency similar to that of the FDA would have the authority `to develop administrative policy with regard to the safety, effectiveness, and labeling of digital products and their communications for human use, and to review and evaluate new applications of such products.' Specifically, it is proposed that standards, originally developed by the defense industry for the labeling, enveloping, and authentication of digital products delivered to the Government, be extended to promote global electronic commerce by protecting the intellectual property rights of producers, establishing their liability for the end-use of digital products, and give consumers means for informed decision making and purchase.

  20. 76 FR 48053 - Consumer Registration of Durable Infant or Toddler Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1130 Consumer Registration of Durable Infant or Toddler Products AGENCY: Consumer...(d) of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (``CPSIA'') the Consumer Product...

  1. Consumer oriented product noise testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, Les

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the need for product noise measurements and how best to meet that need in the near future. Currently there is only a small market place for quieter consumer products. This is not because of lack of interest. No one really wants to announce to everyone in their house that they just flushed the toilet, few really want the entire neighborhood to know they are mowing their yard, etc. The small market place is primarily due to a lack of regulations on product noise, a lack of information easily available to consumers about which products are quieter, and market consolidation resulting in fewer manufacturers, most of whom are unwilling to emphasize their quieter products at the risk of eroding sales of their noisier ones (that currently have greater market share). In the absence of the EPA fulfilling its statutory requirement to regulate and label product noise under the Noise Control Act of 1972, and with the unwillingness of most industries to voluntarily publish accurate product noise data, there is a significant role for ``Consumer Oriented Product Noise Testing.'' This paper explores the Noise Pollution Clearinghouse's ongoing and planned product noise testing, evaluating its advantages, disadvantages, and limitations.

  2. Optical design for consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Anurag

    2014-10-01

    Optical engineers often limit their focus on meeting the provided targets on performance and geometry and assume that the specifications are largely non-negotiable. Such approach ignores the value proposition behind the product and the challenges associated with overall product design, manufacturing, business development and legal issues. As a result, the design effort can be expensive, time consuming and can result in product failure. We discuss a product based systems engineering approach that leads to an application specific optical design that is more effective and efficient to implement.

  3. 75 FR 53533 - Procedures for the Handling of Retaliation Complaints Under Section 219 of the Consumer Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Retaliation Complaints Under Section 219 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 AGENCY... ``whistleblower'') provisions of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 (``CPSIA''). This rule... System) and audiotape. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The Consumer Product Safety...

  4. 47 CFR 1.1918 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... consumer reporting agency from a system of records, information that an individual is responsible for a claim. System information includes, for example, name, taxpayer identification number, business and home...) Provide notice required by section 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(4) that information in the system may be disclosed...

  5. 49 CFR 89.29 - Disclosure to commercial credit bureaus and consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... consumer reporting agencies. 89.29 Section 89.29 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation... bureaus and consumer reporting agencies. (a) Data on all delinquent commercial and consumer debts may be reported to commercial credit bureaus and consumer reporting agencies (see 31 U.S.C. 3701(a)(3))....

  6. 20 CFR 422.305 - Report of overdue program overpayment debts to consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... to consumer reporting agencies. 422.305 Section 422.305 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... debts to consumer reporting agencies. (a) Debts we will report. We will report to consumer reporting... debt to a consumer reporting agency, we will send the debtor written notice of the following: (1)...

  7. 75 FR 29155 - Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] Part III Consumer Product Safety Commission 16 CFR Part 1102 Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database...; ] CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1102 Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety...

  8. 17 CFR 204.76 - Use of credit bureau or consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... consumer reporting agencies. 204.76 Section 204.76 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Services § 204.76 Use of credit bureau or consumer reporting agencies. (a) The Commission may report delinquent debts to consumer reporting agencies (See 31 U.S.C. 3701(a)(3), 3711). Sixty days prior to...

  9. 17 CFR 204.76 - Use of credit bureau or consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consumer reporting agencies. 204.76 Section 204.76 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Services § 204.76 Use of credit bureau or consumer reporting agencies. (a) The Commission may report delinquent debts to consumer reporting agencies (See 31 U.S.C. 3701(a)(3), 3711). Sixty days prior to...

  10. 78 FR 48821 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... submission of comments by August 12, 2013. Thereafter, the Consumer Electronics Association (CEA), on behalf... Part 430 RIN 1904-AD04 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination of Computers as a Covered Consumer Product AGENCY: Office...

  11. Extraterrestrial consumables production and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    Potential oxygen requirements for lunar-surface, lunar-orbit, and planetary missions are presented with emphasis on: (1) emergency survival of the crew, (2) provision of energy consumables for vehicles, and (3) nondependency on an earth supply of oxygen. Although many extraterrestrial resource processes are analytically feasible, this study has considered hydrogen and fluorine processing concepts to obtain oxygen or water (or both). The results are quite encouraging and are extrapolatable to other processes. Preliminary mission planning and sequencing analysis has enabled the programmatic evaluation of using lunar-derived oxygen relative to transportation cost as a function of vehicle delivery and operational capability.

  12. Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many products (e.g., cutting boards, kitchen sponges, cat litter, toothbrushes and juvenile toys) are being treated with antimicrobial pesticides. Learn about requirements that apply to such products.

  13. Exploring the effect of organizational culture on consumer perceptions of agency support for mental health recovery.

    PubMed

    Clossey, Laurene; Rheinheimer, David

    2014-05-01

    This research explores the impact of mental health agency culture on consumers' perceptions of agency support for their recovery. This study hypothesized that a constructive organizational culture must be present for consumers to perceive agency support for recovery. A sample of 12 mental health agencies in rural Pennsylvania participated in the research. Agency administrators completed an instrument called the recovery oriented service environment, which measured the number of recovery model program components offered by the agency. Consumers completed the recovery oriented services indicators, which taps into their perception of agency support for recovery. Direct service staff completed the organizational social context, which measured their agency's culture. Results showed that in this sample stronger consumer perceptions of agency support for recovery were correlated with higher ratings of agency constructive culture. The results suggest that agency culture is an important variable to target when implementing recovery model programming.

  14. NANOMATERIALS, NANOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS, CONSUMER PRODUCTS, AND BENEFITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanotechnology is a platform technology that is finding more and more applications daily. Today over 600 consumer products are available globally that utilize nanomaterials. This chapter explores the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in three areas, namely Medicine, Environ...

  15. 24 CFR 17.76 - Disclosure to a consumer reporting agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disclosure to a consumer reporting... General Provisions § 17.76 Disclosure to a consumer reporting agency. (a) Definition. For purposes of this... Consumer Reporting Agency information from a system of records to the effect that an individual...

  16. 24 CFR 17.76 - Disclosure to a consumer reporting agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure to a consumer reporting... General Provisions § 17.76 Disclosure to a consumer reporting agency. (a) Definition. For purposes of this... Consumer Reporting Agency information from a system of records to the effect that an individual...

  17. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    SciTech Connect

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-04-15

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  18. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  19. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Kotthoff, Matthias; Müller, Josef; Jürling, Heinrich; Schlummer, Martin; Fiedler, Dominik

    2015-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in a wide range of products of all day life. Due to their toxicological potential, an emerging focus is directed towards their exposure to humans. This study investigated the PFAS load of consumer products in a broad perspective. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C4, C6-C8, C10-PFSA), carboxylic acids (C4-C14-PFCA) and fluorotelomer alcohols (4:2, 6:2; 8:2 and 10:2 FTOH) were analysed in 115 random samples of consumer products including textiles (outdoor materials), carpets, cleaning and impregnating agents, leather samples, baking and sandwich papers, paper baking forms and ski waxes. PFCA and PFSA were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS, whereas FTOH were detected by GC/CI-MS. Consumer products such as cleaning agents or some baking and sandwich papers show low or negligible PFSA and PFCA contents. On the other hand, high PFAS levels were identified in ski waxes (up to about 2000 μg/kg PFOA), leather samples (up to about 200 μg/kg PFBA and 120 μg/kg PFBS), outdoor textiles (up to 19 μg/m(2) PFOA) and some other baking papers (up to 15 μg/m(2) PFOA). Moreover, some test samples like carpet and leather samples and outdoor materials exceeded the EU regulatory threshold value for PFOS (1 μg/m(2)). A diverse mixture of PFASs can be found in consumer products for all fields of daily use in varying concentrations. This study proves the importance of screening and monitoring of consumer products for PFAS loads and the necessity for an action to regulate the use of PFASs, especially PFOA, in consumer products.

  20. Consumer product safety: A systems problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    The manufacturer, tester, retailer, consumer, repairer disposer, trade and professional associations, national and international standards bodies, and governments in several roles are all involved in consumer product safety. A preliminary analysis, drawing on system safety techniques, is utilized to distinguish the inter-relations of these many groups and the responsibilities that they are or could take for product safety, including the slow accident hazards as well as the more commonly discussed fast accident hazards. The importance of interactive computer aided information flow among these groups is particularly stressed.

  1. Determining Consumer Preference for Furniture Product Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Carolyn S.; Edwards, Kay P.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes instruments for determining preferences of consumers for selected product characteristics associated with furniture choices--specifically style, color, color scheme, texture, and materials--and the procedures for administration of those instruments. Results are based on a random sampling of public housing residents. (Author/MW)

  2. 78 FR 48821 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AD03 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and... Consumer Product AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... servers and provided for the submission of comments by August 12, 2013. Thereafter, the...

  3. 76 FR 54998 - Request for Information on Consumer Financial Products and Services Offered to Servicemembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... servicemembers and their families; and to coordinate efforts among Federal and State agencies, as appropriate... help the office develop a knowledge base of consumer financial products and services utilized...

  4. 16 CFR 1031.3 - Consumer Product Safety Act amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. 1031.3 Section 1031.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. The Consumer Product Safety Act, as amended, contains...

  5. 16 CFR 1031.3 - Consumer Product Safety Act amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. 1031.3 Section 1031.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. The Consumer Product Safety Act, as amended, contains...

  6. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    2009-01-15

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects.

  7. 77 FR 33659 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer... approving the addition of a new rule to the Illinois State Implementation Plan (SIP) submitted by the... more stringent than, EPA's national consumer products and architectural and industrial maintenance...

  8. Effects of carbon fibers on consumer products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, R. A.; Lovett, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effects of carbon fibers on consumer products such as dishwashers, microwave ovens, and smoke detectors were investigated. The investigation was divided into two categories to determine the potential faults and hazards that could occur if fibers should enter the electrical circuits of the selected appliances. The categories were a fault analysis and a hazard analysis. Hazards considered were fire, flood, physical harm, explosion, and electrical shock. Electrical shock was found to be a possible occurrence related to carbon fibers. Faults were considered to be any effect on the performance of an appliance which would result in complaint or require service action.

  9. Consumers' use of written product information.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Bettina S; Sauer, Jürgen; Rüttinger, Bruno

    2004-09-15

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the predictive role of person-specific, product-specific, and situation-specific influences on the use of instruction manuals in the field of electrical consumer products. In a laboratory study, 42 participants were observed while putting a vacuum cleaner into operation. Situational primes (i.e., receiving a verbal cue that the packaging contains an instruction manual) increased the probability of the user manual being read. Additional verbal information that the manual contains information on energy-saving behaviours was especially motivating for persons with high environmental concern. Self-report data, collected on a wide range of products, suggest that product complexity is the best predictor of instruction manual use. In a second study with 30 participants, different positions of product labels were compared, i.e. placing the information on the packaging or directly onto the product. Information placed directly onto the product had a significantly higher influence on participants' actual behaviour than providing the same information on the packaging.

  10. 76 FR 6813 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Consolidated Consumers' Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ....S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Consolidated Consumers' Report (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension... Information Collection Clearance Officer, U.S. Geological Survey, 2150- C Centre Avenue, Fort Collins,...

  11. Which Efficient Products Must Federal Agencies Buy

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-24

    Fact sheet prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to help Federal agencies comply with FEMP Designated, Low Standby Power, ENERGY STAR Qualified, and Water Sense Labeled product purchasing requirements.

  12. Product Safety: "An Ounce of Prevention". Health and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    Secondary level students learn about product safety in this consumer education learning activity package, which is one of a series. While the majority of products are safe, there remains a small percentage of consumer goods which reach the market place containing a real or potential hazard to the consumer's safety. This module is designed to make…

  13. Consumers' perception of organic product characteristics. A review.

    PubMed

    Schleenbecker, Rosa; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    Consumer interest in organic products is growing alongside a diversification of the supply. In order to serve consumers actual needs and wants regarding organic products, those involved in the market need to be informed about consumers' perception of organic products. Therefore, the state of research as regards consumers' perception of organic product characteristics, including basic and additional characteristics, product labelling, product innovations and the range of products on the market is displayed in this contribution. A comprehensive literature analysis was performed uncovering not only the state of the art in the field including employed methodology, but also research needs. Most studies are published on consumers' perception of organic products' design and labelling. A trend towards the so called 'organic-plus' positioning can be perceived, with many consumers expecting an extensive orientation towards sustainability. The diversity of product labels features prominently in related studies. The demand for reliable information, as well as the low degree of awareness of many labels amongst consumers becomes clear in these studies. To date, few results are available on consumers' perception of packaging and design of organic products, and even fewer for consumers' perception of range design. Both consumers' perception of organic product innovation and valued added services are untouched so far.

  14. Work-Life Differences and Outcomes for Agency and Consumer-Directed Home-Care Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, A.E.; Matthias, Ruth E.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. Research on home-care outcomes has highlighted the promise of consumer-directed models that rely on recipients rather than agencies to arrange and direct services. However, there has been little research on workers employed directly by recipients. This study examined differences in work-life and worker outcomes between workers in…

  15. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Consumer Education Efforts for Revised Children's Sleepwear Safety Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    A study examined the type and extent of consumer education that occurred since the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) amended the 1972 federal safety standards (effective January 1997) to permit marketing of snug-fitting, nonflame-resistant cotton garments as sleepwear. Three voluntary point-of-sale (POS) practices recognized as important…

  16. Presence in, and release of, nanomaterials from consumer products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Westerhoff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products has led to concerns about their potential impact on humans and the environment. In order to fully assess the impacts and release of ENMs from consumer products, this chapter provides an overview of the types of consumer products that contain nanomaterials, the potential release mechanisms of these ENMs from consumer products, and the associated human exposure. Information from two large datasets on consumer goods associated with ENMs, namely, the U.S.-based Project for Emerging Nanotechnologies from the Woodrow Wilson International Center, and the European-based National Institute for Public Health and the Environment of Netherlands, have been summarized. These databases reveal that silver, titanium, carbon-based ENMs are the major nanomaterials associated with consumer products. The presence and potential release of silver, titanium, carbon-based, and other nanomaterials from consumer goods available in published literature are also summarized, as well as the potential human exposure scenarios of inhalation, ingestion, dermal, and combination of all means. The prospecting of nanomaterial in water and biosolids provides further evidence of ENM occurrence, which could be linked to the use of nanomaterials containing consumer goods. Finally, this overview provides guidelines on toxicity studies, which calls for further efforts to analyze the biological effects of ENMs on human beings and their exposure pathways in consumer products.

  17. . Cheminformatic exploration of the chemical landscape of consumer products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, little information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which they are present. To address this data gap, we have created a database of chemicals in consumer pro...

  18. Emergence of product differentiation from consumer heterogeneity and asymmetric information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, L.; Medo, M.; Zhang, Y.-C.; Challet, D.

    2008-07-01

    We introduce a fully probabilistic framework of consumer product choice based on quality assessment. It allows us to capture many aspects of marketing such as partial information asymmetry, quality differentiation, and product placement in asupermarket.

  19. 78 FR 72533 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... / Tuesday, December 3, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AD08 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule;...

  20. 77 FR 1649 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Units and Residential Heat Pump Split-System Outdoor Units as a Covered Consumer Product AGENCY: Office... standard rulemakings for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps of which the Condensing Units... pump that is designed to transfer heat between the refrigerant and the outdoor air, and which...

  1. 76 FR 33271 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision... Residential Clothes Dryer Test Procedure AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... from the DOE clothes dryer test procedure. The waiver pertains to the specified models of...

  2. 76 FR 61999 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers (Standby Mode and Off Mode); Correction AGENCY: Office of... for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers. This correction provides... `` FurnaceBoiler-IEC-2011-TP@ee.doe.gov '' Issued in Washington, DC, on September 29, 2011. Kathleen B....

  3. 76 FR 66663 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and AIM Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and... architectural and industrial maintenance (AIM) coatings and incorporate this new rule into the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the State of Illinois. However, there are four specific paragraphs in this...

  4. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... process to consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light...

  5. Hormones in international meat production: biological, sociological and consumer issues.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Hugh

    2002-12-01

    Beef and its products are an important source of nutrition in many human societies. Methods of production vary and include the use of hormonal compounds ('hormones') to increase growth and lean tissue with reduced fat deposition in cattle. The hormonal compounds are naturally occurring in animals or are synthetically produced xenobiotics and have oestrogenic (oestradiol-17beta and its esters; zeranol), androgenic (testosterone and esters; trenbolone acetate) or progestogenic (progesterone; melengestrol acetate) activity. The use of hormones as production aids is permitted in North American countries but is no longer allowed in the European Union (EU), which also prohibits the importation of beef and its products derived from hormone-treated cattle. These actions have resulted in a trade dispute between the two trading blocs. The major concern for EU authorities is the possibility of adverse effects on human consumers of residues of hormones and metabolites. Methods used to assess possible adverse effects are typical of those used by international agencies to assess acceptability of chemicals in human food. These include analysis of quantities present in the context of known biological activity and digestive, absorptive, post-absorptive and excretory processes. Particular considerations include the low quantities of hormonal compounds consumed in meat products and their relationships to endogenous production particularly in prepubertal children, enterohepatic inactivation, cellular receptor- and non-receptor-mediated effects and potential for interference with growth, development and physiological function in consumers. There is particular concern about the role of oestradiol-17beta as a carcinogen in certain tissues. Now subject to a 'permanent' EU ban, current evidence suggests that certain catechol metabolites may induce free-radical damage of DNA in cell and laboratory animal test systems. Classical oestrogen-receptor mediation is considered to stimulate

  6. 75 FR 32161 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Consumer Focus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... investigations relating to the causes and prevention of deaths, accidents, injuries, illnesses, other health impairments, and economic losses associated with consumer products. Section 5(b) of the CPSA, 15 U.S.C....

  7. 76 FR 15953 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ...; Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission... collection of information entitled Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database has...

  8. Using Ingredient Lists to Quantitatively Characterize Composition of Consumer Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing exposure to substances in consumer products requires data on the composition of the products. This is a challenge since product composition data are rarely available. Many products, however, provide a list of ingredients. In many cases the list is presented in descendin...

  9. Technical support document: energy use projections for four consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes an investigation conducted to forecast the amount of energy savings which could be attributed to energy efficiency standards for four consumer products as well as to determine the economic impact of such standards on consumers. The four consumer products are dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. Energy savings were forecasted for two levels of energy efficiency standards. Since the standard levels selected were greater than the energy efficiency at the minimum life cycle point, energy efficiency standards could result in increased life cycle costs for all four products. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the effect that different projections of consumer purchasing behavior during a no-standards scenario would have on the forecasts of energy savings. Standards for the four products probably would not result in significant conservation of energy. The economic impact of such standards could result in higher first costs and increased life cycle costs for all four products.

  10. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  11. Featured Partner: Georgia-Pacific Consumer Products Group

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Georgia-Pacific Consumer Products Group as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability by improving its transportation efficiency and environmental performance in reducing fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions caused by in

  12. Cost Benefit Analysis of Consumer Product Safety Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Betty F.; Dardis, Rachel

    1977-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of cost-benefit analysis in evaluating consumer product safety standards and applys such analysis to an evaluation of flammability standards for children's sleepwear. (Editor)

  13. Quarternary Amines as Nitrosamine Precursors: A Role for Consumer Products?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrosamine formation is associated with wastewater-impacted water supplies, but the specific precursors within municipal wastewater effluents have not been identified. Quaternary amines are significant constituents of consumer products, including shampoos, detergents and fabric softeners. Experimen...

  14. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 1213 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act Appendix to Part 1213 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT... Part 1213—Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act The Consumer Product Safety Act requires...

  15. Aerogels Insulate Missions and Consumer Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Aspen Aerogels, of Northborough, Massachusetts, worked with NASA through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center to develop a robust, flexible form of aerogel for cryogenic insulation for space shuttle launch applications. The company has since used the same manufacturing process developed under the SBIR award to expand its product offerings into the more commercial realms, making the naturally fragile aerogel available for the first time as a standard insulation that can be handled and installed just like standard insulation.

  16. Consumer motivation towards purchasing fruit from integrated production in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers.

  17. Variation of consumer contact with household products: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Weegels, M E; van Veen, M P

    2001-06-01

    Little information is available on product use by consumers, which severely hampers exposure estimation for consumer products. This article describes actual contact with several consumer products, specifically dishwashing detergents, cleaning products, and hair styling products. How and where products are handled, as well as the duration, frequency, and amount of use were studied by means of diaries, in-home observations, and measurements. This study addressed the question, "To what extent are frequency, duration, and amount of use associated?" Findings showed that there was a large intra- as well as interindividual variation in frequency, duration, and amount of use, with the interindividual variation being considerably larger. At the same time, results showed that, for a given activity, users tended to follow their own routine. Few relations were found among frequency, duration, and amount of use. It was concluded that among persons, frequency, duration, and amount of product act in practice as independent parameters. Diaries appear to be quite suitable for gaining insight into frequently used products. Observations of usage, recorded on video, were indispensable for obtaining particular information on product use. In addition, home visits enabled the collection of specific measurements. Although diaries and home visits are time-consuming, the combination provided insight into variation as well as relations among frequency, duration, and amount of use.

  18. Consumer choice: Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products.

    PubMed

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase behavior of GM food products and compared this with their attitude and behavioral intention for buying GM food. We found that despite a majority of consumers voicing a negative attitude toward GM food over 50% of our European respondents stated that they did not actively avoid the purchase of GM food and 6% actually purchased one of the few available GM labeled food products in the period between September 2006 and October 2007. Our results imply that a voiced negative attitude of consumers in responses to questionnaires about their intentions is not a reliable guide for what they actually do in supermarkets. We conclude that the assumption of a negative attitude with regard to GM food is at least in part construed.

  19. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  20. Firearm Advertising: Product Depiction in Consumer Gun Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Elizabeth A.; Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to tobacco, alcohol, and other consumer products associated with health risks, we know very little about how firearm manufacturers advertise their products. The authors examined advertisements for firearms in all 27 ad-accepting magazines listed in "Bacon's Magazine Directory" "guns and shooting" category. Sixty-three manufacturers…

  1. Consumer Research - Product Testing. USMES Teacher's Resource Book, Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    This USMES unit challenges students to determine which brand of a product is the best buy for a certain purpose. The teacher resource book for the Consumer Research - Product Testing unit contains five sections. The first section describes the USMES approach to student-initiated investigations of real problems, including a discussion of the nature…

  2. Integrating asthma hazard characterization methods for consumer products.

    PubMed

    Maier, A; Vincent, M J; Gadagbui, B; Patterson, J; Beckett, W; Dalton, P; Kimber, I; Selgrade, M J K

    2014-10-01

    Despite extensive study, definitive conclusions regarding the relationship between asthma and consumer products remain elusive. Uncertainties reflect the multi-faceted nature of asthma (i.e., contributions of immunologic and non-immunologic mechanisms). Many substances used in consumer products are associated with occupational asthma or asthma-like syndromes. However, risk assessment methods do not adequately predict the potential for consumer product exposures to trigger asthma and related syndromes under lower-level end-user conditions. A decision tree system is required to characterize asthma and respiratory-related hazards associated with consumer products. A system can be built to incorporate the best features of existing guidance, frameworks, and models using a weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach. With this goal in mind, we have evaluated chemical hazard characterization methods for asthma and asthma-like responses. Despite the wealth of information available, current hazard characterization methods do not definitively identify whether a particular ingredient will cause or exacerbate asthma, asthma-like responses, or sensitization of the respiratory tract at lower levels associated with consumer product use. Effective use of hierarchical lines of evidence relies on consideration of the relevance and potency of assays, organization of assays by mode of action, and better assay validation. It is anticipated that the analysis of existing methods will support the development of a refined WoE approach.

  3. Factors for consumer choice of dairy products in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, Hassan; Rajabpour, Shayan

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about consumers' behavior especially their choice behavior toward purchasing and consuming dairy products in developing countries. Hence, the aim of the present work is understanding the factors that affect on consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products in Iran. The study applies the theory of consumption values, which includes the functional values (taste, price, health, and body weight), social value, emotional value, conditional value and epistemic value. The sample were 1420 people (men and women). The data was collected using face to face survey in summer and fall 2015. Chi-square, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation modelling is used to assess data collected. The results indicate that functional values, social value, emotional value and epistemic value have a positive impact on choosing dairy products and conditional value didn't have a positive impact. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior toward dairy products included consumers experience positive emotion (e.g. enjoyment, pleasure, comfort and feeling relaxed) and functional value-health. This study emphasized the proper pricing of dairy products by producers and sellers.

  4. Endocrine Disruptors and Asthma-Associated Chemicals in Consumer Products

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J.; Perovich, Laura J.; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. Objectives: We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. Methods: We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. Results: We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Conclusions: Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in

  5. Agency Decision-Making Control and Employment Outcomes by Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Bernard A.; Kwan, Ngai; Boeltzig-Brown, Heike; Haines, Kelly; Halliday, John; Foley, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We hypothesized that consumers who are blind or visually impaired (that is, those who have low vision) who were served by state vocational rehabilitation agencies with decision-making control over administrative functions would experience better vocational rehabilitation outcomes than consumers served by vocational rehabilitation…

  6. Consumer acceptance and sensory profiling of reengineered kitoza products.

    PubMed

    Pintado, Ana I E; Monteiro, Maria J P; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Scislowski, Valérie; Fliedel, Geneviève; Rakoto, Danielle; Maraval, Isabelle; Costa, Ana I A; Silva, Ana P; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela M E

    2016-05-01

    Kitoza refers to a traditional way of preparing beef and pork in Madagascar. However, in order to improve some drawbacks previous identified, the product was submitted to a reengineering process. The acceptance and sensory profiling of improved Kitoza products among Portuguese consumers was investigated. A local smoked loin sausage was selected as basis for comparison. Firstly, a Focus Group study was performed to identify sensory descriptors for Kitoza products and explore product perception. Subsequently, a Flash Profile and a consumer sensory acceptance study were conducted. Flash Profile's results showed that beef- and pork-based Kitoza products investigated differed considerably in all sensory dimensions. The Portuguese sausage was characterized as having a more intense and lasting after taste, as well as displaying a higher degree of (meat) doneness. The acceptance study yielded higher overall liking ratings for pork- than for beef-based Kitoza, although the Portuguese sausage remained the most appreciated product.

  7. 78 FR 53446 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to ASKO...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... T744C, T754C, and T794C product models of condensing clothes dryer. The applicable test procedure is... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision... Dryer Test Procedure AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of...

  8. EPHECT II: Exposure assessment to household consumer products.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulopoulou, C; Trantallidi, M; Carrer, P; Efthimiou, G C; Bartzis, J G

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU), irritative and respiratory health effects were assessed in relation to acute and long-term exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. In this context, inhalation exposure assessment was carried out for six selected 'target' compounds (acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene). This paper presents the methodology and the outcomes from the micro-environmental modelling of the 'target' pollutants following single or multiple use of selected consumer products and the subsequent exposure assessment. The results indicate that emissions from consumer products of benzene and α-pinene were not considered to contribute significantly to the EU indoor background levels, in contrast to some cases of formaldehyde and d-limonene emissions in Eastern Europe (mainly from cleaning products). The group of housekeepers in East Europe appears to experience the highest exposures to acrolein, formaldehyde and benzene, followed by the group of the retired people in North, who experiences the highest exposures to naphthalene and α-pinene. High exposure may be attributed to the scenarios developed within this project, which follow a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' strategy for exposure and health risk assessment. Despite the above limitations, this is the first comprehensive study that provides exposure estimates for 8 population groups across Europe exposed to 6 priority pollutants, as a result of the use of 15 consumer product classes in households, while accounting for regional differences in uses, use scenarios and ventilation conditions of each region.

  9. Consumers' Risk Perception of Household Cleaning and Washing Products.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Miesler, Linda; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-05-10

    A large share of accidental and nonaccidental poisonings are caused by household cleaning and washing products, such as drain cleaner or laundry detergent. The main goal of this article was to investigate consumers' risk perception and misconceptions of a variety of cleaning and washing products in order to inform future risk communication efforts. For this, a sorting task including 33 commonly available household cleaning and washing products was implemented. A total of 60 female consumers were asked to place the cleaning and washing products on a reference line 3 m in length with the poles "dangerous" and "not dangerous." The gathered data were analyzed qualitatively and by means of multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, and linear regression. The dimensionality of the sorting data suggests that both analytically (i.e., written and graphical hazard notes and perceived effectiveness) and intuitively driven risk judgments (i.e., eco vs. regular products) were applied by the participants. Furthermore, results suggest the presence of misconceptions, particularly related to consumers' perceptions of eco cleaning products, which were generally regarded as safer than their regular counterparts. Future risk communication should aim at dispelling these misconceptions and promoting accurate risk perceptions of particular household cleaning and washing products.

  10. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Scruggs, Caroline E; Van Buren, Harry J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood.

  11. Consumer Electronic Product Servicing. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This program guide identifies primary concerns in the organization, operation, and evaluation of a consumer electronic product servicing program. It is designed for local school district and community college administrators, instructors, program advisory committees, and regional coordinating councils. The guide begins with the Dictionary of…

  12. Consumer Electronic Product Servicing. Florida Vocational Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of South Florida, Tampa. Dept. of Adult and Vocational Education.

    This packet contains a program guide and Career Merit Achievement Plan (Career MAP) for the implementation of a consumer electronic product servicing program in Florida secondary and postsecondary schools. The program guide describes the program content and structure, provides a program description, lists job titles under the program, and includes…

  13. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Scruggs, Caroline E.; Van Buren, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood. PMID:27471326

  14. Consumer Online Search and New-Product Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ho

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation contains three essays that study the implications of online search activity for new-product marketing. Using the U.S. motion picture industry as a test case, the first essay examines the dynamic causal relationship between traditional media, consumers' media generation activity, media consumption activity, and market demand…

  15. The Extent of Consumer Product Involvement in Paediatric Injuries.

    PubMed

    Catchpoole, Jesani; Walker, Sue; Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2016-07-07

    A challenge in utilising health sector injury data for Product Safety purposes is that clinically coded data have limited ability to inform regulators about product involvement in injury events, given data entry is bound by a predefined set of codes. Text narratives collected in emergency departments can potentially address this limitation by providing relevant product information with additional accompanying context. This study aims to identify and quantify consumer product involvement in paediatric injuries recorded in emergency department-based injury surveillance data. A total of 7743 paediatric injuries were randomly selected from Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit database and associated text narratives were manually reviewed to determine product involvement in the injury event. A Product Involvement Factor classification system was used to categorise these injury cases. Overall, 44% of all reviewed cases were associated with consumer products, with proximity factor (25%) being identified as the most common involvement of a product in an injury event. Only 6% were established as being directly due to the product. The study highlights the importance of utilising injury data to inform product safety initiatives where text narratives can be used to identify the type and involvement of products in injury cases.

  16. The Extent of Consumer Product Involvement in Paediatric Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Catchpoole, Jesani; Walker, Sue; Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    A challenge in utilising health sector injury data for Product Safety purposes is that clinically coded data have limited ability to inform regulators about product involvement in injury events, given data entry is bound by a predefined set of codes. Text narratives collected in emergency departments can potentially address this limitation by providing relevant product information with additional accompanying context. This study aims to identify and quantify consumer product involvement in paediatric injuries recorded in emergency department-based injury surveillance data. A total of 7743 paediatric injuries were randomly selected from Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit database and associated text narratives were manually reviewed to determine product involvement in the injury event. A Product Involvement Factor classification system was used to categorise these injury cases. Overall, 44% of all reviewed cases were associated with consumer products, with proximity factor (25%) being identified as the most common involvement of a product in an injury event. Only 6% were established as being directly due to the product. The study highlights the importance of utilising injury data to inform product safety initiatives where text narratives can be used to identify the type and involvement of products in injury cases. PMID:27399744

  17. 75 FR 56998 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... its expert judgment about consumer behavior, perceptions, and similar information related to consumer... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...; Comment Request; Consumer Focus Groups AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice....

  18. Availability of operator manuals for used consumer products.

    PubMed

    Wogalter, M S; Vigilante, W J; Baneth, R C

    1998-01-01

    This research investigates the availability of operator manuals for used (second-hand or resold) consumer products. One hundred people were solicited at a shopping mall and asked various questions about 20 common consumer products (e.g. car, computer, power lawn mower, bicycle, etc.). They were queried about: (a) whether they have ever purchased the products new and/or used and, if purchased used, whether it came with an operator manual or an instruction sheet, (b) whether they personally sold any of the products used, and if so, whether they transferred the operator manual to the receiver, (c) the desirability of having an operator manual; and (d) how much they would be willing to pay for a manual assuming they had to purchase it separately. Participants were also asked to rate each product on familiarity, hazard level, and difficulty of use, and to answer a set of general manual-related questions. A second survey solicited the opinions of 39 professional sellers (dealers) of used products. Findings from both surveys indicate that while operator manuals for some used products are transferred to purchasers at moderate frequencies, others are much lower. In general, participants believed that the inclusion of the operator manual would aid the sale of used products and they were willing to pay extra to have one (particularly for unfamiliar, more hazardous, difficult-to-use products). The results suggest that manufacturers ought to address ways that would make it more likely that consumers retain the operator manual and transfer it to subsequent purchasers at later resale. Additionally, convenient ways of obtaining replacement copies should be provided to ensure that important safety-related information reaches end users.

  19. 76 FR 11665 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Review; Comment Request; Consumer Expenditure Surveys: The Quarterly Interview and the Diary; Notice #0...; Comment Request; Consumer Expenditure Surveys: The Quarterly Interview and the Diary ACTION: Notice...) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Consumer Expenditure Surveys: The...

  20. 78 FR 4872 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ...; Consumer Expenditure Surveys: Quarterly Interview and Diary ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of... (ICR) revision titled, ``Consumer Expenditure Surveys: Quarterly Interview and Diary,'' to the Office.... 3507(a)(1)(D). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The BLS uses the Consumer Expenditure Surveys to...

  1. Consumer preferences for food product quality attributes from Swedish agriculture.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Frykblom, Peter; Lagerkvist, Carl Johan

    2005-06-01

    This paper employs a choice experiment to obtain consumer preferences and willingness to pay for food product quality attributes currently not available in Sweden. Data were obtained from a large mail survey and estimated with a random parameter logit model. We found evidence for intraproduct differences in consumer preferences for identical attributes, as well as interproduct discrepancies in ranking of attributes. Furthermore, we found evidence of a market failure relating to the potential use of genetically modified animal fodder. Finally, we found support for the idea that a cheap-talk script can alleviate problems of external validity of choice experiments. Our results are useful in forming product differentiation strategies within the food industry, as well as for the formation of food policy.

  2. 78 FR 53448 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to BSH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision... Residential Clothes Dryer Test Procedure AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... from the DOE clothes dryer test procedure. The waiver pertains to the models of condensing...

  3. 75 FR 57915 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of the General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice... Clothes Washer Test Procedure, and Grant of Interim Waiver AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... forth a variety of provisions concerning energy efficiency. Part A of Title III provides for...

  4. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM...

  5. 77 FR 71167 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, Nebraska, Authorization of Production Activity, Novartis Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 59--Lincoln, Nebraska, Authorization of Production Activity, Novartis Consumer Health, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Related Preparations Production), Lincoln, Nebraska Novartis Consumer Health, Inc. submitted a notification of proposed production activity for the...

  6. 78 FR 65223 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Miscellaneous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC51 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products...) established the ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,'' which covers consumer products and certain commercial products (i.e. ``covered products'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Upon codification...

  7. Consumers.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Lisa M; Roper, Catherine E; Hamilton, Bridget E; Tellez, Juan José; McSherry, Bernadette M

    2016-03-03

    Objective This paper examines the perspectives of consumers and their supporters regarding the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health settings.Methods Five focus groups for consumers and five focus groups for supporters were conducted in four Australian cities and in one rural location. The 66 participants were asked about strategies to reduce or eliminate the use of seclusion and restraint in mental health settings.Results All participants supported the reduction of the use of seclusion and restraint. Barriers to reducing these practices related to the environment, the effects of drug and alcohol issues, lack of a human rights focus and poor recognition of trauma, stigma and discrimination. Strategies for reducing or eliminating seclusion and restraint included workforce development, environmental and cultural changes.Conclusions Participants clearly identified that the status quo needs to change and conveyed urgency for action. Participants suggested that the involvement of supporters and a range of consumer roles are integral to reducing the use of seclusion and restraint. The findings support the current policy emphasis of working towards the elimination of these practices.What is known about the topic? Mental health policies across many jurisdictions support the reduction and elimination of restraint and seclusion. Evidence suggests those subjected to restraint and seclusion largely experience a range of harmful consequences. No studies focus on the views of supporters of consumers regarding the reduction and elimination of seclusion and restraint, whereas the views of consumers appear in a minority of international studies.What does this paper add? The research enabled an opportunity to hear from people who have been personally affected by and/or have lived experience of these coercive practices. Participants identified local reforms that can uphold the human rights of consumers. They suggested practices to increase accountability, peer support and

  8. Survey instrument for the universal design of consumer products.

    PubMed

    Beecher, Valerie; Paquet, Victor

    2005-05-01

    Universal design is a process intended to include all user groups in product or environmental design. The objective of this study was to develop a usability testing survey instrument to inform how well consumer products complied with established principles of universal design. Thirty-six adults, aging adults and adult wheelchair users performed standardized tasks with pens, food storage containers, pliers and calculators, and for each task responded to a preliminary set of survey items and rated task difficulty. Factor analysis of the survey responses produced an eleven-factor solution that accounted for 67% of the variance in scores and corresponded fairly closely to the principles of universal design. Analysis of scale scores developed from each factor showed that some of the scales were sensitive to product feature and user group differences, and were negatively associated with perceived task difficulty. Such a tool may aid designers who intend their products for user groups of diverse abilities and preferences.

  9. Consumers' environmental and ethical consciousness and the use of the related food products information: The role of perceived consumer effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ghvanidze, Sophie; Velikova, Natalia; Dodd, Tim H; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna

    2016-12-01

    Consumers can be important active contributors to a sustainable society by selecting food choices that are both healthy and produced respecting environmental and socially ethical standards. The current study investigates five consumer behavioural factors - namely, perceived consumer effectiveness (PCE); environmental conscious behaviour; concerns for ethical food production; health conscious lifestyle; and healthy dietary patterns. The key interest of the study lies in exploring the moderating role of PCE - the extent to which the consumer believes that his/her own efforts can make a difference - in these interrelationships. The empirical analysis was conducted through an online survey of food consumers implemented in three markets - the US, the UK and Germany. Findings indicate that for individuals with higher levels of PCE, who are environmental conscious and ethically concerned, information on food labels relating to environmental and social issues represents value by itself. Interestingly, health and nutrition information on food labels was not perceived valuable by consumers with high PCE. The predictive effects of various socio-demographic variables on PCE, consumer environmental and health consciousness are discussed. Cross-cultural differences are also outlined. The results of this research may contribute to the development of environmental policies and communication strategies of the food industry to enhance perceived consumer effectiveness among consumers. Improved PCE, in turn, may catalyze consumers' environmental behaviour and ethical concerns in relation to consumption of food products with environmental and social information.

  10. Models for oral uptake of nanoparticles in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Eleonore; Roblegg, Eva

    2012-01-27

    Presently, many consumer products contain nano-sized materials (NMs) to improve material properties, product quality and ease of use. NMs in food additives and in cosmetic articles (e.g., tooth paste) may be taken up by the oral route. As adverse effects of environmental nanoparticles, like ultrafine particles, have been reported, consumers worry about potential risks when using products containing NMs. The review focuses on metal and metal oxide NMs as common additives in tooth paste and in food industry and exposure by the oral route. Testing of NMs for oral exposure is very complex because differences in the diet, in mucus secretion and composition, in pH, in gastrointestinal transit time and in gastrointestinal flora influence NM uptake. Acellular (mucus, saliva) and epithelial layer of the orogastrointestinal barrier are described. Expected exposure doses, interaction of the NMs with mucus and permeation through the epithelium as well as in vivo data are mentioned. The role of in vitro models for the study of parameters relevant for ingested NMs is discussed.

  11. Modeling Population Exposures to Silver Nanoparticles Present in Consumer Products

    PubMed Central

    Royce, Steven G.; Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Cai, Ting; Xu, Shu S.; Alexander, Jocelyn A.; Mi, Zhongyuan; Calderon, Leonardo; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lee, KiBum; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-01-01

    Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (Geographic Information System) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human Life Stage Analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs Probabilistic Material Flow Analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employs screening Microenvironmental Modeling and Intake Fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically-relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters. PMID:25745354

  12. Modeling population exposures to silver nanoparticles present in consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royce, Steven G.; Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Cai, Ting; Xu, Shu S.; Alexander, Jocelyn A.; Mi, Zhongyuan; Calderon, Leonardo; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lee, KiBum; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-11-01

    Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (geographic information system) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product life cycle analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human life stage analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs probabilistic material flow analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employ screening microenvironmental modeling and intake fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters.

  13. Modeling Population Exposures to Silver Nanoparticles Present in Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Royce, Steven G; Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Cai, Ting; Xu, Shu S; Alexander, Jocelyn A; Mi, Zhongyuan; Calderon, Leonardo; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lee, KiBum; Lioy, Paul J; Tetley, Teresa D; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G

    2014-11-01

    Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (Geographic Information System) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human Life Stage Analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs Probabilistic Material Flow Analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employs screening Microenvironmental Modeling and Intake Fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically-relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters.

  14. Consumer product branding strategy and the marketing of physicians' services.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, H; Witt, J

    1995-01-01

    Hospitals have traditionally maintained physician referral programs as a means of attracting physicians to their network of affiliated providers. The advent of managed care and impending healthcare reform has altered the relationship of hospitals and physicians. An exploratory study of marketing approaches used by twelve healthcare organizations representing twenty-five hospitals in a large city was conducted. Strategies encountered in the study ranged from practice acquisition to practice promotion. This study suggests that healthcare providers might adopt consumer product branding strategies to secure market-share, build brand equity, and improve profitability.

  15. Principle considerations for the risk assessment of sprayed consumer products.

    PubMed

    Steiling, W; Bascompta, M; Carthew, P; Catalano, G; Corea, N; D'Haese, A; Jackson, P; Kromidas, L; Meurice, P; Rothe, H; Singal, M

    2014-05-16

    In recent years, the official regulation of chemicals and chemical products has been intensified. Explicitly for spray products enhanced requirements to assess the consumers'/professionals' exposure to such product type have been introduced. In this regard the Aerosol-Dispensers-Directive (75/324/EEC) with obligation for marketing aerosol dispensers, and the Cosmetic-Products-Regulation (1223/2009/EC) which obliges the insurance of a safety assessment, have to be mentioned. Both enactments, similar to the REACH regulation (1907/2006/EC), require a robust chemical safety assessment. From such assessment, appropriate risk management measures may be identified to adequately control the risk of these chemicals/products to human health and the environment when used. Currently, the above-mentioned regulations lack the guidance on which data are needed for preparing a proper hazard analysis and safety assessment of spray products. Mandatory in the process of inhalation risk and safety assessment is the determination and quantification of the actual exposure to the spray product and more specifically, its ingredients. In this respect the current article, prepared by the European Aerosol Federation (FEA, Brussels) task force "Inhalation Toxicology", intends to introduce toxicological principles and the state of the art in currently available exposure models adapted for typical application scenarios. This review on current methodologies is intended to guide safety assessors to better estimate inhalation exposure by using the most relevant data.

  16. Risk assessment and management of chemical contaminants in fishery products consumed in the USA.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, F E; Hattis, D; Wolke, R E; Steinman, D

    1993-01-01

    In the USA a small proportion of fishery products are contaminated with appreciable amounts of potentially hazardous contaminants. However, risks to consumers are not generally high. Inorganic contaminants with the greatest potential for toxicity are antimony, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, selenium and sulfites. Among organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, several chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, certain processing-related and aquaculture-related contaminants pose potential risks for consumers. Log-normal distributions appear to provide good descriptions of the pattern of variation of contaminant concentrations among different geographic areas, and some contaminants (mostly organic) appear to be much more variable than others. This variability offers a solution for reduction of exposure through restricting the harvest of aquatic organisms from specific sites, and by excluding certain species. It is recommended that: (i) existing State and Federal regulations and environmental monitoring be strengthened and enforced to minimize contamination of the aquatic environment; (ii) a program of shared responsibility be instituted, where Federal agencies develop a set of monitoring and inspection practices and state agencies assume responsibility for primary control, site closures and advisories issue; (iii) research and public education by government agencies and health professionals be expanded to determine actual risks and approaches to manage them; (iv) mandatory labeling be considered for specific contaminants; (v) a better system requiring international agreements be developed in order to minimize the differences among various national regulatory approaches.

  17. Health and societal effects from exposure to fragranced consumer products.

    PubMed

    Steinemann, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, cleaning supplies, and personal care products- pervade society. This study investigated the occurrence and types of adverse effects associated with exposure to fragranced products in Australia, and opportunities for prevention. Data were collected in June 2016 using an on-line survey with a representative national sample (n = 1098). Overall, 33% of Australians report health problems, such as migraine headaches and asthma attacks, when exposed to fragranced products. Of these health effects, more than half (17.1%) could be considered disabling under the Australian Disability Discrimination Act. Additionally, 7.7% of Australians have lost workdays or a job due to illness from fragranced product exposure in the workplace, 16.4% reported health problems when exposed to air fresheners or deodorizers, 15.3% from being in a room after it was cleaned with scented products, and 16.7% would enter but then leave a business as quickly as possible due to fragranced products. About twice as many respondents would prefer that workplaces, health care facilities and professionals, hotels, and airplanes were fragrance-free rather than fragranced. While 73.7% were not aware that fragranced products, even ones called green and organic, emitted hazardous air pollutants, 56.3% would not continue to use a product if they knew it did. This is the first study in Australia to assess the extent of adverse effects associated with exposure to common fragranced products. It provides compelling evidence for the importance and value of reducing fragranced product exposure in order to reduce and prevent adverse health effects and costs.

  18. On organic emissions testing from indoor consumer products' use.

    PubMed

    Bartzis, J; Wolkoff, P; Stranger, M; Efthimiou, G; Tolis, E I; Maes, F; Nørgaard, A W; Ventura, G; Kalimeri, K K; Goelen, E; Fernandes, O

    2015-03-21

    A wide range of consumer and personal care products may, during their use, release significant amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the air. The identification and quantification of the emissions from such sources is typically performed in emission test chambers. A major question is to what degree the obtained emissions are reproducible and directly applicable to real situations. The present work attempts partly to address this question by comparison of selected VOC emissions in specific consumer products tested in chambers of various dimensions. The measurements were performed in three test chambers of different volumes (0.26-20 m(3)). The analytic performance of the laboratories was rigorously assessed prior to chamber testing. The results show emission variation for major VOC (terpenes); however, it remains in general, within the same order of magnitude for all tests. This variability does not seem to correlate with the chamber volume. It rather depends on the overall testing conditions. The present work is undertaken in the frame of EPHECT European Project.

  19. Quaternary amines as nitrosamine precursors: a role for consumer products?

    PubMed

    Kemper, Jerome M; Walse, Spencer S; Mitch, William A

    2010-02-15

    Nitrosamine formation has been associated with wastewater-impacted waters, but specific precursors within wastewater effluents have not been identified. Experiments indicated that nitrosamines form in low yields from quaternary amines, and that the nitrosamines form from the quaternary amines themselves, not just lower order amine impurities. Polymeric and benzylated quaternary amines were more potent precursors than monomeric quaternary alkylamines. Pretreatment of quaternary amines with ozone or free chlorine, which deactivate lower order amine impurities, did not significantly reduce nitrosamine formation. The nitrosamine formation pathway is unclear but experiments indicated that transformation of quaternary amines to lower order amine precursors via Hofmann elimination was not involved. Experiments suggest that the pathway may involve quaternary amine degradation by amidogen or chloramino radicals formed from chloramines. Quaternary amines are significant constituents of consumer products, including shampoos, detergents, and fabric softeners. Although quaternary amines may be removed by sedimentation during wastewater treatment, their importance should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The high loadings from consumer products may enable the portion not removed to serve as precursors.

  20. Nanomaterials in consumer products: a challenging analytical problem

    PubMed Central

    Contado, Catia

    2015-01-01

    Many products used in everyday life are made with the assistance of nanotechnologies. Cosmetic, pharmaceuticals, sunscreen, powdered food are only few examples of end products containing nano-sized particles (NPs), generally added to improve the product quality. To evaluate correctly benefits vs. risks of engineered nanomaterials and consequently to legislate in favor of consumer's protection, it is necessary to know the hazards connected with the exposure levels. This information implies transversal studies and a number of different competences. On analytical point of view the identification, quantification and characterization of NPs in food matrices and in cosmetic or personal care products pose significant challenges, because NPs are usually present at low concentration levels and the matrices, in which they are dispersed, are complexes and often incompatible with analytical instruments that would be required for their detection and characterization. This paper focused on some analytical techniques suitable for the detection, characterization and quantification of NPs in food and cosmetics products, reports their recent application in characterizing specific metal and metal-oxide NPs in these two important industrial and market sectors. The need of a characterization of the NPs as much as possible complete, matching complementary information about different metrics, possible achieved through validate procedures, is what clearly emerges from this research. More work should be done to produce standardized materials and to set-up methodologies to determine number-based size distributions and to get quantitative date about the NPs in such a complex matrices. PMID:26301216

  1. Defining Product Intake Fraction to Quantify and Compare Exposure to Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Csiszar, Susan A; Fantke, Peter

    2015-08-04

    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example applications of the product intake fraction concept, for two chemicals in two personal care products and two chemicals encapsulated in two articles, showing how intakes of these chemicals can primarily occur during product use. We demonstrate the utility of the product intake fraction and its application modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products, or back-calculate maximum allowable concentrations of substances inside products.

  2. Organizational behavior of regulatory agencies: a case study of the Bureau of Consumer Services in the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission

    SciTech Connect

    Silver, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    Regulatory agencies operate in a complex field of organizations and interest groups. The variety of behaviors that occur in the regulatory field are not satisfactorily explained by current interpretative frameworks. Regulatory agencies are at once criticized and praised. They flourish as organizational entities, yet they exhibit behavior that is often inexplicable. Notions like clientele capture, the politics of regulation, exchange theory, and institutionalized organizations do not singly explain the vagaries of regulatory behavior. A merger of these viewpoints, however, provides a foundation for a comprehensive interpretative framework. A bureau of consumer services within a state public utility commission is viewed as an institutionalized organization. From this perspective, a variety of ritual behaviors, based upon symbolic and tangible interorganizational exchanges are observed and characterized. The outcome of these exchanges is the establishment of the Bureau of Consumer Services as a legitimate regulatory agent with significant impact upon the formulation of regulatory policy in the formal proceedings of the Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission.

  3. 77 FR 59013 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) sponsored information collection request (ICR) titled, ``Consumer...-BLS, Office of Management and Budget, Room 10235, 725 17th Street NW., Washington, DC 20503, Fax: 202... a market basket of consumer goods and services. Each month, BLS data collectors visit or...

  4. A risk assessment for acrylonitrile in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Johnston, P K; Rock, A R

    1990-12-15

    A carcinogenic risk assessment for acrylonitrile in consumer products was prepared as part of the Second Workshop on Pragmatics of Risk Assessment, Bethesda, MD. Data from one inhalation and two oral rat bioassays served as input into several high-to-low-dose mathematical risk extrapolation models. The final unit risk estimates for humans were based on maximum likelihood estimates from the Global83 implementation of the multistage model after adjustments for surface area differences, continuous versus intermittent exposures, and the proportion of lifetime exposed. The unit risk estimates for lifetime exposure to 1 mg kg-1 day-1 by inhalation and ingestion were 0.0531 and 0.2385, respectively. These risks are equivalent to risks of 3.3 x 10(-8) for inhalation of 1 ppt in air and 3.4 x 10(-9) for ingestion of 1 ng day.-1

  5. Product Safety, It's No Accident. A Consumer Product Safety Monthly Planning Guide for Community Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    A consumer product safety monthly planning guide for community organizations is provided. The material is organized into suggested monthly topics with seasonal emphasis. Each section highlights selected information about how to identify potential hazards associated with categories of products. Each section also includes recommendaitons of ways to…

  6. 76 FR 19978 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...; Comment Request; Durable Nursery Products Exposure Survey AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (``CPSC'' or ``Commission'')...

  7. Consumer-Product and Socio-Political Messages for Use in Studies of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratkanis, Anthony R.; And Others

    Developed as part of a research program directed at obtaining reliable persuasive effects, the two sets of persuasive messages provided in this report--consumer messages and sociopolitical messages--discuss fictitious brands of consumer products and various sociopolitical issues. The consumer messages were developed for the following 12 products:…

  8. 76 FR 72439 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...-72440] [FR Doc No: 2011-30184] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2858] Certain Consumer Electronics and... Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same, DN 2858; the Commission is... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same. The...

  9. 77 FR 14422 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics...

  10. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.30 Textile fiber products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended...

  11. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.30 Textile fiber products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended...

  12. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  13. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  14. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  15. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  16. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  17. Development and application of risk management system for consumer products in compliance with global harmonization.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Bin; Ahn, Il Young; Cho, Keun Tae; Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to the wide variety of chemicals used for manufacturing consumer products commonly occurs daily and the consequences to health are beneficial. However, some of these products are hazardous and exert deleterious effects on humans and the ecosystem. To protect consumers from exposure to hazardous chemicals, appropriate risk management systems are needed. Developed countries such as the United States and Canada have developed their own risk management systems for regulating hazardous agents. However, the risk management systems prepared by developed countries may not be readily applicable to developing or underdeveloped countries because of certain economic, political, cultural, or social factors in each country. In general, a risk management framework includes evaluation components of risk assessment, risk confrontation, risk intervention, risk communication, and risk management, but these may differ in specifics. The European Commission (EC) requires a socioeconomic analysis for formulating restrictions suggested by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). The EC has an early warning system for safety management termed the Rapid Alert System (RAPEX). Korea, Australia, and Japan also developed integrated network systems for risk management of consumer products. Monitoring entails the collection of information and evaluation. The risk assessment process includes scientific evaluation of potential adverse health effects. Risk communication tasks are to (1) identify stakeholders, (2) develop stakeholder analysis, (3) assess stakeholder acceptability, (4) consult with stakeholders, (5) inform stakeholders about their options, (6) evaluate control options, and (7) monitor changing issues. The risk management process involves weighing policy options and selecting regulatory options. The decision-making step is related to the determination of governmental or voluntary actions. This review examines the critical points of risk management system in Korea to effectively

  18. Bacillus cereus in personal care products: risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Pitt, T L; McClure, J; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; McClure, P J

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is ubiquitous in nature and thus occurs naturally in a wide range of raw materials and foodstuffs. B. cereus spores are resistant to desiccation and heat and able to survive dry storage and cooking. Vegetative cells produce several toxins which on ingestion in sufficient numbers can cause vomiting and/or diarrhoea depending on the toxins produced. Gastrointestinal disease is commonly associated with reheated or inadequately cooked foods. In addition to being a rare cause of several acute infections (e.g. pneumonia and septicaemia), B. cereus can also cause localized infection of post-surgical or trauma wounds and is a rare but significant pathogen of the eye where it may result in severe endophthalmitis often leading to loss of vision. Key risk factors in such cases are trauma to the eye and retained contaminated intraocular foreign bodies. In addition, rare cases of B. cereus-associated keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) have been linked to contact lens use. Bacillus cereus is therefore a microbial contaminant that could adversely affect product safety of cosmetic and facial toiletries and pose a threat to the user if other key risk factors are also present. The infective dose in the human eye is unknown, but as few as 100 cfu has been reported to initiate infection in a susceptible animal model. However, we are not aware of any reports in the literature of B. cereus infections in any body site linked with use of personal care products. Low levels of B. cereus spores may on occasion be present in near-eye cosmetics, and these products have been used by consumers for many years. In addition, exposure to B. cereus is more likely to occur through other routes (e.g. dustborne contamination) due to its ubiquity and resistance properties of spores. The organism has been recovered from the eyes of healthy individuals. Therefore, although there may be a perceived hazard, the risk of severe eye infections as a consequence of exposure through

  19. Consumer preferences and willingness to pay for value-added chicken product attributes.

    PubMed

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-10-01

    A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application:  An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth.

  20. Exposure-Relevant Consumer Product Usage Information Derived from Longitudinal Purchasing Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consumer products that are used in and around the home are a dominant source for anthropogenic chemical exposure. Prediction of the population distribution of chemical exposures encountered due to the residential use of consumer products (such as personal care products, cleaning ...

  1. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended for... required information. For example, a garment must be labeled even though such matters as the finishing of...

  2. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended for... required information. For example, a garment must be labeled even though such matters as the finishing of...

  3. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended for... required information. For example, a garment must be labeled even though such matters as the finishing of...

  4. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. 301.24 Section 301.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS....24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  5. 77 FR 21584 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Institution of... States after importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing same... electronics and display devices and products containing same that infringe one or more of claims 2, 3, 5,...

  6. The Path to Savings: Understanding the Federal Purchase of Energy-Consuming Products

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Margaret; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2012-09-17

    Energy efficiency has been a federal procurement policy objective since at least 1992, with the origin of the Energy Efficient Product Procurement (EEPP) program within the larger Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). Today, the EEPP program’s mandate is based on requirements that 95% of new contract actions, task orders, and delivery orders for products and services be energy and water efficient, as laid out in Executive Order 13514 in 2009. Facilitating full compliance with EO 13514 presents a significant strategic planning challenge to the FEMP EEPP program, given the size of the federal government, the range of missions of its many agencies, the mix of management approaches for its buildings, and the diverse set of roughly 80 energy efficient products which has been established through preceding legislation and executive orders. The goal of this report is to aid the program in prioritizing its resources by providing an overview of how the purchase of energy-consuming products occurs in today’s evolving federal procurement system, as well as identify likely intervention points and compliance review mechanisms. Through a synthesis of the literature on U.S. federal sector procurement and two dozen primary interviews, the report particularly focuses on the importance of price in determining the actor(s) responsible for any given purchase of an energy-consuming product. This identification is important, as the relevant actors are trained and reviewed in different ways that the FEMP EEPP program can prioritize for targeting, based on the decision criteria such as the potential energy savings associated with the actor’s purchases or the administrative ease of the intervention.

  7. Computers, Productive Agency and the Effect Size after Shared Meaning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Daniel L.; Lin, Xiaodong

    2001-01-01

    Offers some recent examples and findings that may help design computer-supported collaboration in higher education and initiates a theoretical discussion that focuses on individuals who collaborate. Focuses on the important role of the productive agency that leads people to contribute rather than just borrow knowledge. (SLD)

  8. 41 CFR 101-29.503 - Agency product descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agency product descriptions. 101-29.503 Section 101-29.503 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT...

  9. 75 FR 59233 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...; Comment Request; Requirements for Non- Full-Size Baby Cribs AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Consumer Product Safety Commission (``CPSC'' or ``Commission'')...

  10. Consumers' acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bimbo, Francesco; Bonanno, Alessandro; Nocella, Giuseppe; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Nardone, Gianluca; De Devitiis, Biagia; Carlucci, Domenico

    2017-06-01

    This systematic literature review collects and summarizes research on consumer acceptance and preferences for nutrition-modified and functional dairy products, to reconcile, and expand upon, the findings of previous studies. We find that female consumers show high acceptance for some functional dairy products, such as yogurt enriched with calcium, fiber and probiotics. Acceptance for functional dairy products increases among consumers with higher diet/health related knowledge, as well as with aging. General interest in health, food-neophobia and perceived self-efficacy seem also to contribute shaping the acceptance for functional dairy products. Furthermore, products with "natural" matches between carriers and ingredients have the highest level of acceptance among consumers. Last, we find that brand familiarity drives consumers with low interest in health to increase their acceptance and preference for health-enhanced dairy products, such as probiotic yogurts, or those with a general function claim.

  11. The Influence of Purchasing Context and Reversibility of Choice on Consumer Responses Toward Personalized Products and Standardized Products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jieun; Lee, Doo-Hee; Taylor, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    Existing research on personalization has found that consumers generally prefer personalized products over standardized ones. This study argued that consumer preference for personalized products is dependent on purchasing context and reversibility of choice. Results of an experiment conducted in this study found that consumers preferred personalized products when purchasing an item for personal use but preferred standardized products when purchasing an item as a gift. However, the effects of purchasing context were negated when consumers were given the assurance that personalized products could be returned (reversibility of choice); when presented with reversibility of choice, consumers preferred personalized products over standardized products regardless of purchasing context. Theoretical and managerial implications of these results were discussed.

  12. 76 FR 14101 - Meadwestvaco Corporation, Consumer and Office Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on December 22, 2010, applicable to workers of MeadWestvaco... assistance was issued for all workers of MeadWestvaco, Consumer and Office Products Division, Sidney, New... workers of MeadWestvaco Corporation, Consumer and Office Products Division, including on-site...

  13. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  14. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  15. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. On the basis that airborne asbestos fibers present the hazards of cancer, including lung cancer and mesothelioma to the public,...

  16. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. On the basis that airborne asbestos fibers present the hazards of cancer, including lung cancer and mesothelioma to the public,...

  17. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. On the basis that airborne asbestos fibers present the hazards of cancer, including lung cancer and mesothelioma to the public,...

  18. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. On the basis that airborne asbestos fibers present the hazards of cancer, including lung cancer and mesothelioma to the public,...

  19. 77 FR 61513 - Information Disclosure Under Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1101 Information Disclosure Under Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act CFR..., on page 147, in Sec. 1101.25 (a) and (b), the words ``5 working'' are corrected to read...

  20. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children's potential exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their phy...

  1. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  2. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  3. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  4. Evaluation of Consumer Product Co-occurrence to Inform Chemical Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consumer products are an important target of chemical innovation. Used daily for personal hygiene, home care, disinfection and cleaning, consumer products provide a host of benefits, and also an efficient delivery vehicle for a variety of chemicals into our homes and bodies. Al...

  5. Dangerous Products, Dangerous Places: An AARP Report on Home Safety and Older Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fise, Mary Ellen R.

    This report was written to identify the safety problems confronting older persons and to educate readers about product and home hazards and appropriate preventive measures. It was written for older consumers, their families, policymakers, and manufacturers. Information on the incidence of home accidents and consumer product accidents among the…

  6. 78 FR 76443 - Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing this proposed rule to amend the 1994 tentative final monograph or proposed rule (the 1994 TFM) for over-the-counter (OTC) antiseptic drug products. In this proposed rule, we are proposing to establish conditions under which OTC consumer antiseptic products intended for use with water (referred to throughout as consumer antiseptic washes) are......

  7. 77 FR 31876 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not To... importation of certain consumer electronics and display devices and products containing the same by reason...

  8. Development of a consumer product ingredient database for chemical exposure screening and prioritization.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, M-R; Grulke, C M; Brooks, R D; Transue, T R; Tan, Y M; Frame, A; Egeghy, P P; Edwards, R; Chang, D T; Tornero-Velez, R; Isaacs, K; Wang, A; Johnson, J; Holm, K; Reich, M; Mitchell, J; Vallero, D A; Phillips, L; Phillips, M; Wambaugh, J F; Judson, R S; Buckley, T J; Dary, C C

    2014-03-01

    Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, yet little structured information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which ingredients are present. To address this data gap, we created a database of chemicals in consumer products using product Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) publicly provided by a large retailer. The resulting database represents 1797 unique chemicals mapped to 8921 consumer products and a hierarchy of 353 consumer product "use categories" within a total of 15 top-level categories. We examine the utility of this database and discuss ways in which it will support (i) exposure screening and prioritization, (ii) generic or framework formulations for several indoor/consumer product exposure modeling initiatives, (iii) candidate chemical selection for monitoring near field exposure from proximal sources, and (iv) as activity tracers or ubiquitous exposure sources using "chemical space" map analyses. Chemicals present at high concentrations and across multiple consumer products and use categories that hold high exposure potential are identified. Our database is publicly available to serve regulators, retailers, manufacturers, and the public for predictive screening of chemicals in new and existing consumer products on the basis of exposure and risk.

  9. Intervention Model for Contaminated Consumer Products: A Multifaceted Tool for Protecting Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Munerah; Nagin, Deborah; Clark, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Lead-based paint and occupational lead hazards remain the primary exposure sources of lead in New York City (NYC) children and men, respectively. Lead poisoning has also been associated with the use of certain consumer products in NYC. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed the Intervention Model for Contaminated Consumer Products, a comprehensive approach to identify and reduce exposure to lead and other hazards in consumer products. The model identifies hazardous consumer products, determines their availability in NYC, enforces on these products, and provides risk communication and public education. Implementation of the model has resulted in removal of thousands of contaminated products from local businesses and continues to raise awareness of these hazardous products. PMID:24922141

  10. Correlation of in vitro challenge testing with consumer use testing for cosmetic products.

    PubMed Central

    Brannan, D K; Dille, J C; Kaufman, D J

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro microbial challenge test has been developed to predict the likelihood of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. The challenge test involved inoculating product at four concentrations (30, 50, 70, and 100%) with microorganisms known to contaminate cosmetics. Elimination of these microorganisms at each concentration was followed over a 28-day period. The test was used to classify products as poorly preserved, marginally preserved, or well preserved. Consumer use testing was then used to determine whether the test predicted the risk of actual consumer contamination. Products classified by the challenge test as poorly preserved returned 46 to 90% contaminated after use. Products classified by the challenge test as well preserved returned with no contamination. Marginally preserved products returned with 0 to 21% of the used units contaminated. As a result, the challenge test described can be accurately used to predict the risk of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. PMID:3662517

  11. Kansei engineering as a powerful consumer-oriented technology for product development.

    PubMed

    Nagamachi, Mitsuo

    2002-05-01

    Kansei engineering was founded 30 years ago, as an ergonomics and consumer-oriented technology for producing a new product. When a consumer wants to buy something, he/she will have a kind of feeling and image (kansei in Japanese) in his/her mind. If the consumer's feeling could be implemented in the new product, he/she would be more satisfied with the product. Kansei engineering aims at translation of kansei into the product design field including product mechanical function. This is why it is called the consumer-oriented aspect. There are many products in Japan which have applied kansei engineering. Recently, it has also been applied to construction products as well as to community design.

  12. 75 FR 76831 - Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ...-counter drugs and dietary supplements should not be included in the Database because food and drugs are regulated and monitored by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (``FDA''). The commenter notes that the..., including food and drugs. This information will include links to the appropriate government agencies that...

  13. Buying higher welfare poultry products? Profiling Flemish consumers who do and do not.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Verbeke, W

    2009-12-01

    A substantial number of studies has already investigated differences within the consumer market with regard to attitudes and perceptions in relation to farm animal welfare. Likewise, several studies focused on the gap that exists between positive attitudes and reported consumption or purchase intentions for sustainable food products in general and higher welfare products more specific, and on the factors influencing this attitude-behavior gap. Little or no studies, however, have started from reported pro-welfare behavior to distinguish between consumer groups and to explore the motivations of the respective behavior. With this study, we aim to group consumers according to their reported buying frequency of higher welfare eggs and higher welfare chicken meat. Similarities and dissimilarities between these groups are mapped in terms of individual characteristics, product attribute importance, perceived consumer effectiveness, perception of higher welfare products, and attitude toward a welfare label. The research methodology applied was a quantitative study with cross-sectional consumer survey data collected in Flanders in spring 2007 (n = 469). Pro-welfare behavior was unevenly distributed across different consumer segments, despite a general interest and concern for bird welfare. A consistent choice for standard (no welfare premium) poultry products was related to strong perceived price and availability barriers, to a low importance attached to ethical issues as product attributes, and to a low perceived consumer effectiveness. A consistent choice for products with higher welfare standards to the contrast associated with a high importance attached to ethical issues; a low effect of price and availability perception; a strong association of higher welfare products with product attributes like health, taste, and quality; and a high perceived consumer effectiveness. The identification of market segments with common characteristics is essential for positioning higher

  14. [Informed decisions: patient and consumer information at the German Agency for Quality in Medicine (ÄZQ)].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Corinna; Kirschning, Silke

    2010-01-01

    The concept of informed decision making does not only comply with the ideals of the self-determining citizen. In politics and society it is more and more understood as an individual obligation. In order to be capable of making competent decisions regarding treatment options, citizens have to be provided with high quality information. With the aim of facilitating patients' and consumers' orientation in health care questions, the German Agency for Quality in Medicine (ÄZQ) has been committed to developing and promoting the use of reliable patient information for more than ten years. ÄZQ's activities are based on four main principles: development of patient versions of high quality clinical practice guidelines; provision of patient information which has been assessed according to its formal quality; provision of information on the German health care system (checklists); further development of quality standards and methods.

  15. 78 FR 26301 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer... is proposing to approve a revision to the Illinois State Implementation Plan (SIP). This approval... language to clarify VOC limit applicability for architectural and industrial maintenance coatings into...

  16. 76 FR 10025 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... Request; National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products (Renewal) AGENCY... http://www.regulations.gov . Title: National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer... for volatile organic compounds in consumer products. Respondents are manufacturers, distributors,...

  17. Manufacturing Processes for Various Shaped Consumable Ordnance Products

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-10-01

    Spacers Spiral wrapping Felting...manufacture of a variety of different shaped combustible ordnance products. Matched metal molding and spiral wrapping processes were utilized...higher product off-press weight and slick feeling of the product’s outer surface. The process of spiral wrapping with nitro- cellulose paper was

  18. Quantifying the Release of Silver from Nanotechnology-Based Consumer Products for Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the potential for children’s exposure to bioavailable silver during the realistic use of selected nanotechnology-based consumer products (plush toy, fabric products, breast milk storage bags, sippy cups, cleaning products). All products had at least one componen...

  19. Habitat, not resource availability, limits consumer production in lake ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Nicola; Jones, Stuart E.; Weidel, Brian C.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Food web productivity in lakes can be limited by dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which reduces fish production by limiting the abundance of their zoobenthic prey. We demonstrate that in a set of 10 small, north temperate lakes spanning a wide DOC gradient, these negative effects of high DOC concentrations on zoobenthos production are driven primarily by availability of warm, well-oxygenated habitat, rather than by light limitation of benthic primary production as previously proposed. There was no significant effect of benthic primary production on zoobenthos production after controlling for oxygen, even though stable isotope analysis indicated that zoobenthos do use this resource. Mean whole-lake zoobenthos production was lower in high-DOC lakes with reduced availability of oxygenated habitat, as was fish biomass. These insights improve understanding of lake food webs and inform management in the face of spatial variability and ongoing temporal change in lake DOC concentrations.

  20. 78 FR 77019 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AD08 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer... the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA or ``the Act'') (42 U.S.C. 6291-6309, as codified), which provides for an energy conservation program for consumer products other than automobiles, and...

  1. Postreinforcement Pause in Grocery Shopping: Comparing Interpurchase Times across Products and Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; James, Victoria K.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2007-01-01

    Purchase probability as a function of interpurchase time was examined through comparison of findings from laboratory experiments on reinforcement schedules and from marketing investigations of consumers' interpurchase time. Panel data, based on a sample of 80 consumers who purchased nine supermarket food products during 16 weeks, were used. For…

  2. 77 FR 76972 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Part 431 RIN 1904-AC83 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and... conservation standards on consumers, manufacturers, and the nation. Neither of these steps is legally required... burdens and benefits of potential standards, pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 6295(o). DOE affords interested...

  3. Consumer appeal of nutrition and health claims in three existing product concepts.

    PubMed

    Verbeke, Wim; Scholderer, Joachim; Lähteenmäki, Liisa

    2009-06-01

    This paper reports on consumers' reactions towards calcium-enriched fruit juice, omega-3 enriched spread and fibre-enriched cereals, each with a nutrition claim, health claim and reduction of disease risk claim. Cross-sectional data were collected in April 2006 from a sample of 341 consumers in Belgium. Consumers' reactions to the carrier product, functional ingredient and claim combinations were assessed as perceived convincingness of the claim, credibility of the product, attractiveness of the product, and intention to buy the product, while accounting for differences in product familiarity, attitudinal and demographic characteristics. Generally, health claims outperformed nutrition claims, and both of these claim types outperformed reduction of disease risk claims. Comparing consumer reactions across product concepts revealed clear preferences for fibre-enriched cereals as compared to the other two concepts. The interaction effects between claim type and product concept indicated that reduction of disease risk claims are perceived very well in omega-3 enriched spreads, particularly in terms of perceived convincingness of the claim, while not appealing to consumers in the other product concepts. Positive attitudes towards functional foods and familiarity with the concrete functional product category boosted the claim type and product ratings, whereas perceived control over own health and perceiving functional foods as a marketing scam decreased all product concept's appeal.

  4. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries.

  5. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    PubMed

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially.

  6. Consumer Specialty Products Association Letter and EPA Response re: Minimum Risk Pesticide Exemption Petition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Consumer Specialty Products Association petitioned EPA to exclude from the minimum risk pesticide exemption pesticides claiming to control “pests of significant public health importance” and require registration. View the petition and EPA's response.

  7. 75 FR 4548 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for Exemption From Federal Preemption of Massachusetts'...

  8. Consumer satisfaction with pork meat and derived products in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Resano, Helena; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Veflen-Olsen, Nina; Grunert, Klaus G; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-02-01

    This paper investigates consumers' satisfaction level with pork meat and derived products in five European countries. Data were collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Poland during January 2008 with a total sample of 2437 consumers. Data included socio-demographics and questions regarding satisfaction with 27 common pork-based products; classified into fresh pork, processed pork and pork meat products. Satisfaction was evaluated in terms of overall satisfaction, as well as satisfaction with health-giving qualities, price, convenience and taste. Logistic regression analyses showed taste as the main determinant of satisfaction, followed by convenience. Healthfulness is not a significant driver of overall satisfaction. Price influences satisfaction with fresh pork more than with processed products. Tasty pork, easy to prepare and consume, with adequate promotion of its healthfulness, and with a good price/quality relationship appears to be the key factor to satisfy pork consumers.

  9. The Influence of Consumer Goals and Marketing Activities on Product Bundling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haijun, Wang

    Upon entering a store, consumers are faced with the questions of whether to buy, what to buy, and how much to buy. Consumers include products from different categories in their decision process. Product categories can be related in different ways. Product bundling is a process that involves the choice of at least two non-substitutable items. In this research, the consumers' explicit product bundling activity at the point of sale is focused. We focuses on the retailers' perspective and therefore leaves out consumers' brand choice decisions, concentrating on purchase incidence and quantity. At the base of the current model of the exist researches, we integrate behavioural choice analysis and predictive choice modelling through the underlying behavioural models, called random utility maximization (RUM) models. The methodological contribution of this research lies therein to combine a nested logit choice model with a latent variable factor model. We point out several limitations for both theory and practice at the end.

  10. Use of consumer insight in the new product development process in the meat sector.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O; Saeed, Faiza; Scholderer, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    Successful new product development requires input from the market throughout the product development process, from identification of opportunities via screening of ideas, development of concepts, development of physical prototypes and to launch. Drawing on work done in the EU FP6 projects PROSAFEBEEF and Q-PORKCHAINS and a Danish project, all dealing with new product development in the meat sector, it is shown how the use of consumer insight techniques can a) support the identification of market opportunities, b) make sure that technologies applied are acceptable to consumers, c) aid the selection and optimisation of new product concepts and related communication, and d) be used to test product prototypes before final launch.

  11. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Foods and Nutrition. Module I-C-2: Regulatory Agencies Responsible for Wholesomeness and Quality of Foods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Evelyn

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on regulatory agencies responsible for wholesomeness and quality of foods is the second in a set of five modules on consumer education related to foods and nutrition. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer…

  12. Which perceived characteristics make product innovations appealing to the consumer? A study on the acceptance of fruit innovations using cross-cultural consumer segmentation.

    PubMed

    Onwezen, Marleen C; Bartels, Jos

    2011-08-01

    In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the first two years, due to a lack of consumer acceptance. Consumer segmentation may be a useful research tool to increase the success rates of new fruit products. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on individual importance rankings of fruit choice motives. We conducted a cross-national, online panel survey on fresh fruit innovations in four European countries: the Netherlands (n=251), Greece (n=246), Poland (n=250), and Spain (n=250). Our cluster analysis revealed three homogeneous consumer segments: Average Joe, the Naturally conscious consumer, and the Health-oriented consumer. These consumer segments differed with respect to their importance ratings for fruit choice motives. Furthermore, the willingness to buy specific fruit innovations (i.e., genetically modified, functional food and convenience innovation) and the perceived product characteristics that influence this willingness differed across the segments. Our study could lead to more tailored marketing strategies aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of fruit product innovations based on consumer segmentation.

  13. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles derived from consumer products on the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased manufacture of TiO2 nano-products has caused concern about the potential toxicity of these products to the environment and in public health. Identification and confirmation of the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles derived from consumer products as opposed to industrial TiO...

  14. Release of silver from nanotechnology-based consumer products for children

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the potential for children’s exposure to bioavailable silver during the realistic use of selected nanotechnology-based consumer products (plush toy, fabric products, breast milk storage bags, sippy cups, cleaning products, humidifiers, and humidifier accessory). We me...

  15. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  16. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  17. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  18. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  19. Development of a Harmonized Database of Reported and Predicted Consumer Product Ingredient Information

    EPA Science Inventory

    Near-field exposure to chemicals in consumer products has been identified as a significant source of exposure for many chemicals. Quantitative data on product chemical composition and weight fraction is a key parameter for characterizing this exposure. While data on product compo...

  20. Nanomaterials in consumer products: a challenging analytical problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contado, Catia

    2015-08-01

    Many products used in everyday life are made with the assistance of nanotechnologies. Cosmetic, pharmaceuticals, sunscreen, powdered food are only few examples of end products containing nano-sized particles (NPs), generally added to improve the product quality. To evaluate correctly benefits versus risks of engineered nanomaterials and consequently to legislate in favor of consumer’s protection, it is necessary to know the hazards connected with the exposure levels. This information implies transversal studies and a number of different competences. On analytical point of view the identification, quantification and characterization of NPs in food matrices and in cosmetic or personal care products pose significant challenges, because NPs are usually present at low concentration levels and the matrices, in which they are dispersed, are complexes and often incompatible with analytical instruments that would be required for their detection and characterization. This paper focused on some analytical techniques suitable for the detection, characterization and quantification of NPs in food and cosmetics products, reports their recent application in characterizing specific metal and metal-oxide NPs in these two important industrial and market sectors. The need of a characterization of the NPs as much as possible complete, matching complementary information about different metrics, possible achieved through validate procedures, is what clearly emerges from this research. More work should be done to produce standardized materials and to set-up methodologies to determine number-based size distributions and to get quantitative date about the NPs in such a complex matrices.

  1. How food marketers can sell smaller portions: Consumer insights and product innovation.

    PubMed

    Riis, J; Fisher, J O; Rowe, S

    2016-08-01

    Food portion size has been shown to be an important driver of energy intake. Despite the well acknowledged role of portion control in weight management, large portion sizes remain ubiquitous in the marketplace. Moving consumers towards consumption of smaller portion sizes will require changes in consumer behavior as well as changes in products available to consumers in a variety of settings. This special supplement presents cutting edge research aimed at understanding consumer behavior around portion size and innovations in product design that may promote the selection and consumption of smaller portion sizes. We identify further research that will be needed to translate basic behavioral findings into real world settings and to viable product development.

  2. 40 CFR 59.203 - Standards for consumer products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) through (d)(4) of this section apply to charcoal lighter materials. (1) No person shall manufacture or import any charcoal lighter material after December 10, 1998 that emits, on average, greater than 9 grams... a charcoal lighter material shall label the product with usage directions that specify the...

  3. 40 CFR 59.203 - Standards for consumer products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) through (d)(4) of this section apply to charcoal lighter materials. (1) No person shall manufacture or import any charcoal lighter material after December 10, 1998 that emits, on average, greater than 9 grams... a charcoal lighter material shall label the product with usage directions that specify the...

  4. 40 CFR 59.203 - Standards for consumer products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) through (d)(4) of this section apply to charcoal lighter materials. (1) No person shall manufacture or import any charcoal lighter material after December 10, 1998 that emits, on average, greater than 9 grams... a charcoal lighter material shall label the product with usage directions that specify the...

  5. 40 CFR 59.203 - Standards for consumer products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) through (d)(4) of this section apply to charcoal lighter materials. (1) No person shall manufacture or import any charcoal lighter material after December 10, 1998 that emits, on average, greater than 9 grams... a charcoal lighter material shall label the product with usage directions that specify the...

  6. 40 CFR 59.203 - Standards for consumer products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) through (d)(4) of this section apply to charcoal lighter materials. (1) No person shall manufacture or import any charcoal lighter material after December 10, 1998 that emits, on average, greater than 9 grams... a charcoal lighter material shall label the product with usage directions that specify the...

  7. Assessment of Consumers' Satisfaction with the Automotive Product Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amineh, Hadi; Kosach, Nataliya

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of article is caused by the fact that customer's satisfaction currently serves as the mechanism allowing the carmakers to be competitive in the market. The paper describes issues of assessment of the quality of products manufactured by automobile companies. The assessment is based on widely applicable complex characteristics of the…

  8. End-of-life flows of multiple cycle consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiliyannis, C.A.

    2011-11-15

    Explicit expressions for the end-of-life flows (EOL) of single and multiple cycle products (MCPs) are presented, including deterministic and stochastic EOL exit. The expressions are given in terms of the physical parameters (maximum lifetime, T, annual cycling frequency, f, number of cycles, N, and early discard or usage loss). EOL flows are also obtained for hi-tech products, which are rapidly renewed and thus may not attain steady state (e.g. electronic products, passenger cars). A ten-step recursive procedure for obtaining the dynamic EOL flow evolution is proposed. Applications of the EOL expressions and the ten-step procedure are given for electric household appliances, industrial machinery, tyres, vehicles and buildings, both for deterministic and stochastic EOL exit, (normal, Weibull and uniform exit distributions). The effect of the physical parameters and the stochastic characteristics on the EOL flow is investigated in the examples: it is shown that the EOL flow profile is determined primarily by the early discard dynamics; it also depends strongly on longevity and cycling frequency: higher lifetime or early discard/loss imply lower dynamic and steady state EOL flows. The stochastic exit shapes the overall EOL dynamic profile: Under symmetric EOL exit distribution, as the variance of the distribution increases (uniform to normal to deterministic) the initial EOL flow rise becomes steeper but the steady state or maximum EOL flow level is lower. The steepest EOL flow profile, featuring the highest steady state or maximum level, as well, corresponds to skew, earlier shifted EOL exit (e.g. Weibull). Since the EOL flow of returned products consists the sink of the reuse/remanufacturing cycle (sink to recycle) the results may be used in closed loop product lifecycle management operations for scheduling and sizing reverse manufacturing and for planning recycle logistics. Decoupling and quantification of both the full age EOL and of the early discard flows is

  9. End-of-life flows of multiple cycle consumer products.

    PubMed

    Tsiliyannis, C A

    2011-11-01

    Explicit expressions for the end-of-life flows (EOL) of single and multiple cycle products (MCPs) are presented, including deterministic and stochastic EOL exit. The expressions are given in terms of the physical parameters (maximum lifetime, T, annual cycling frequency, f, number of cycles, N, and early discard or usage loss). EOL flows are also obtained for hi-tech products, which are rapidly renewed and thus may not attain steady state (e.g., electronic products, passenger cars). A ten-step recursive procedure for obtaining the dynamic EOL flow evolution is proposed. Applications of the EOL expressions and the ten-step procedure are given for electric household appliances, industrial machinery, tyres, vehicles and buildings, both for deterministic and stochastic EOL exit, (normal, Weibull and uniform exit distributions). The effect of the physical parameters and the stochastic characteristics on the EOL flow is investigated in the examples: it is shown that the EOL flow profile is determined primarily by the early discard dynamics; it also depends strongly on longevity and cycling frequency: higher lifetime or early discard/loss imply lower dynamic and steady state EOL flows. The stochastic exit shapes the overall EOL dynamic profile: Under symmetric EOL exit distribution, as the variance of the distribution increases (uniform to normal to deterministic) the initial EOL flow rise becomes steeper but the steady state or maximum EOL flow level is lower. The steepest EOL flow profile, featuring the highest steady state or maximum level, as well, corresponds to skew, earlier shifted EOL exit (e.g., Weibull). Since the EOL flow of returned products consists the sink of the reuse/remanufacturing cycle (sink to recycle) the results may be used in closed loop product lifecycle management operations for scheduling and sizing reverse manufacturing and for planning recycle logistics. Decoupling and quantification of both the full age EOL and of the early discard flows is

  10. Survey of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors present in Japanese consumer products.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2015-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors have been used in various consumer products. However, limited information regarding their occurrence and concentration levels in products is available. In this study, we investigated 18 PFAAs and 14 PFAA precursors in various categories of consumer products purchased in Japan. Relatively high total concentrations of PFAAs and their precursors were found in sprays for fabrics and textiles (products (consumer products is required. Furthermore, the amount of PFAAs emitted from consumer products may be underestimated if the occurrence of PFAA precursors is not considered. In addition to PFAA precursors, long chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (carbon chain length⩾7) were also detected in greater concentrations than short chain PFCAs (⩽6). This result suggests that consumer products are one of the important sources of long-chain PFCAs in the environment.

  11. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    Isley, Steven C.; Stern, Paul C.; Carmichael, Scott P.; Joseph, Karun M.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2016-08-30

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers' incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products' environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers' contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the 'soft costs' to consumers of pro-environmental choices. Lastly, opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make pro-environmental action difficult.

  12. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products.

    PubMed

    Isley, Steven C; Stern, Paul C; Carmichael, Scott P; Joseph, Karun M; Arent, Douglas J

    2016-08-30

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers' incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products' environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers' contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the "soft costs" to consumers of proenvironmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make proenvironmental action difficult.

  13. Modelling production per unit of food consumed in fish populations.

    PubMed

    Wiff, Rodrigo; Barrientos, Mauricio A; Milessi, Andrés C; Quiroz, J C; Harwood, John

    2015-01-21

    The ratio of production-to-consumption (ρ) reflects how efficiently a population can transform ingested food into biomass. Usually this ratio is estimated by separately integrating cohort per-recruit production and consumption per unit of biomass. Estimates of ρ from cohort analysis differ from those that consider the whole population, because fish populations are usually composed of cohorts that differ in their relative abundance. Cohort models for ρ also assume a stable age-structure and a constant population size (stationary condition). This may preclude their application to harvested populations, in which variations in fishing mortality and recruitment will affect age-structure. In this paper, we propose a different framework for estimating (ρ) in which production and consumption are modelled simultaneously to produce a population estimator of ρ. Food consumption is inferred from the physiological concepts underpinning the generalised von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). This general framework allows the effects of different age-structures to be explored, with a stationary population as a special case. Three models with different complexities, depending mostly on what assumptions are made about age-structure, are explored. The full data model requires knowledge about food assimilation efficiency, parameters of the VBGF and the relative proportion of individuals at age a at time y (Py(a)). A simpler model, which requires less data, is based on the stationary assumption. Model results are compared with estimates from cohort models for ρ using simulated fish populations of different lifespans. The models proposed here were also applied to three fish populations that are targets of commercial fisheries in the south-east Pacific. Uncertainty in the estimation of ρ was evaluated using a resampling approach. Simulation showed that cohort and population models produce different estimates for ρ and those differences depend on lifespan, fishing mortality and

  14. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    PubMed

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand.

  15. Determination of fluorotelomer alcohols in selected consumer products and preliminary investigation of their fate in the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Folk, Edgar E; Roache, Nancy F

    2015-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established an ongoing effort to identify the major perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) sources in nonoccupational indoor environments and characterize their transport and fate. This study determined the concentrations of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), which are the precursors to PFCAs, in fifty-four consumer products collected from the U.S. open market in the years of 2011 and 2013. The products included carpet, commercial carpet-care liquids, household carpet/fabric-care liquids, treated apparel, treated home textiles, treated non-woven medical garments, floor waxes, food-contact paper, membranes for apparel, and thread-sealant tapes. The FTOHs quantified were 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-1-octanol (6:2 FTOH), 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-1-decanol (8:2 FTOH), and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-1-dodecanol (10:2 FTOH). The content of 6:2 FTOH ranged from non-delectable to 331μgg(-1), 8:2 FTOH from non-delectable to 92μgg(-1), and 10:2 FTOH from non-detectable to 24μgg(-1). In addition, two consumer products from the home textile category were tested in the washing-drying process. One product from the treated apparel category and one from the home textile category were tested in the micro-scale chamber under elevated temperatures. The experimental data show that the washing-drying process with one cycle did not significantly reduce the FTOH concentrations in the tested consumer products. FTOH off-gassing was observed under accelerated aging conditions. Future tests should include air sampling to allow determination of the absolute emission rates at different temperatures. The results of this study should be informative to exposure assessment and risk management.

  16. 16 CFR Appendix A to Part 1212 - Findings Under the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reflect the information that was available to the Consumer Product Safety Commission (“CPSC” or..., and the probable effect of the rule on the utility, cost, or availability of such products to meet.... Manufacturers would have to devote some resources to the development or modification of technology to...

  17. 75 FR 64621 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...-AB89 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and... procedures for residential furnaces and boilers to include provisions for measuring standby mode and off mode... Products Other Than Automobiles,'' including residential furnaces and boilers (all of which are...

  18. Understanding the Role of Neuroscience in Brain Based Products: A Guide for Educators and Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvan, Lesley J.; Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2010-01-01

    The term "brain" based is often used to describe learning theories, principles, and products. Although there have been calls urging educators to be cautious in interpreting and using such material, consumers may find it challenging to understand the role of the brain and to discriminate among brain based products to determine which would be…

  19. Development of a Consumer Product Ingredient Database for Chemical ExposureScreening and Prioritization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, yet little structured information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which ingredients are present. To address this data gap, we created a database of chemicals in cons...

  20. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children's potential exposures.

    PubMed

    Tulve, Nicolle S; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Vance, Marina E; Rogers, Kim; Mwilu, Samuel; LeBouf, Ryan F; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willis, Robert; Thomas, Treye A; Marr, Linsey C

    2015-05-01

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their physiological functions, developmental stage, and activities and behaviors. Despite much research to date, children's potential exposures to AgNPs are not well characterized. Our objectives were to characterize selected consumer products containing AgNPs and to use the data to estimate a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure. We identified and cataloged 165 consumer products claiming to contain AgNPs that may be used by or near children or found in the home. Nineteen products (textile, liquid, plastic) were selected for further analysis. We developed a tiered analytical approach to determine silver content, form (particulate or ionic), size, morphology, agglomeration state, and composition. Silver was detected in all products except one sippy cup body. Among products in a given category, silver mass contributions were highly variable and not always uniformly distributed within products, highlighting the need to sample multiple areas of a product. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Using this data, a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure to AgNPs when drinking milk formula from a sippy cup is 1.53 μg Ag/kg. Additional research is needed to understand the number and types of consumer products containing silver and the concentrations of silver in these products in order to more accurately predict children's potential aggregate and cumulative exposures to AgNPs.

  1. Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Lahaniatis, Majlinda; Papameletiou, Demosthenes; Del Pozo, Carlos; Reina, Vittorio; Van Engelen, Jacqueline; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Viso, Anne Catherine; Rodriguez, Carlos; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains.

  2. The Release of Nanosilver from Consumer Products Used in the Home

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Troy; Cavanagh, Bridget; Hristovski, Kiril; Posner, Jonathan D.; Westerhoff, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Nanosilver has become one of the most widely used nanomaterials in consumer products because of its antimicrobial properties. Public concern over the potential adverse effects of nanosilver's environmental release has prompted discussion of federal regulation. In this paper, we assess several classes of consumer products for their silver content and potential to release nanosilver into water, air, or soil. Silver was quantified in a shirt, a medical mask and cloth, toothpaste, shampoo, detergent, a towel, a toy teddy bear, and two humidifiers. Silver concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 270,000 μg Ag g product−1. Products were washed in 500 mL of tap water to assess the potential release of silver into aqueous environmental matrices (wastewater, surface water, saliva, etc.). Silver was released in quantities up to 45 μg Ag g product−1, and size fractions were both larger and smaller than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of nanoparticle silver in most products as well as in the wash water samples. Four products were subjected to a toxicity characterization leaching procedure to assess the release of silver in a landfill. The medical cloth released an amount of silver comparable to the toxicity characterization limit. This paper presents methodologies that can be used to quantify and characterize silver and other nanomaterials in consumer products. The quantities of silver in consumer products can in turn be used to estimate real-world human and environmental exposure levels. PMID:21284285

  3. Consumer acceptance of vegetarian sweet potato products intended for space missions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C D; Pace, R D; Bromfield, E; Jones, G; Lu, J Y

    1998-01-01

    Sweet potato is one of the crops selected for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for potential long-duration lunar/Mars missions. This article presents recipes of products made from sweet potato and determines the consumer acceptability of products containing from 6% to 20% sweet potato on a dry weight basis. These products were developed for use in nutritious and palatable meals for future space explorers. Sensory evaluation (appearance/color, aroma, texture, flavor/taste, and overall acceptability) studies were conducted to determine the consumer acceptability of vegetarian products made with sweet potato using panelists at NASA/Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. None of these products including the controls, contained any ingredient of animal origin with the exception of sweet potato pie. A 9-point hedonic scale (9 being like extremely and 1 being dislike extremely) was used to evaluate 10 products and compare them to similar commercially available products used as controls. The products tested were pancakes, waffles, tortillas, bread, pie, pound cake, pasta, vegetable patties, doughnuts, and pretzels. All of the products were either liked moderately or liked slightly with the exception of the sweet potato vegetable patties, which were neither liked nor disliked. Mean comparisons of sensory scores of sweet potato recipes and their controls were accomplished by using the Student t-test. Because of their nutritional adequacy and consumer acceptability, these products are being recommended to NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for inclusion in a vegetarian menu plan designed for lunar/Mars space missions.

  4. Psychophysical methods in study of consumers' perceived price change for food products.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ming-Hsu; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-04-01

    When adjusting product prices, marketers wish information concerning consumers' price perceptions. The present study aimed to develop an optimal pricing framework for food products by applying Weber's Law and Stevens' Power Law in psychophysics. The first phase attempted to measure the differential thresholds when magnitudes of prices were raised and lowered. The second phase was conducted to establish the psychophysical function representing perceived changes. Analysis showed consumers' differential thresholds were positively correlated with the initial price, consistent with Weber's Law. Further, participants' perceived change differed for increased and decreased prices. Products were perceived as cheaper only when medium-and low-priced products dropped dramatically in price. However, small reductions for the high-priced products were perceived as cheaper. Regardless of price changes, participants perceived products were more expensive when prices dropped by a small

  5. Nutritional properties and consumer evaluation of donkey bresaola and salami: comparison with conventional products.

    PubMed

    Marino, R; Albenzio, M; Della Malva, A; Muscio, A; Sevi, A

    2015-03-01

    Nutritional properties and consumer evaluation were performed in bresaola and salami from donkey meat compared with respective conventional products. Donkey bresaola and salami showed higher content of protein and lower content of fat than beef bresaola and pork salami. Significant differences in the unsaturation level of fatty acids were found. Particularly, donkey meat products showed lower saturated fatty acids, higher polyunsatured fatty acid content and better nutritional indices than conventional beef bresaola and pork salami. Furthermore, donkey meat products, especially bresaola, showed the highest content of essential amino acids. Both donkey meat products resulted to be more tender than conventional products, in addition donkey bresaola showed also higher consumer acceptability. Our investigation demonstrates the possibility of processing donkey meat into products comparable to traditional ones with a high nutritional value.

  6. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  7. Toward a sustainability label for food products: an analysis of experts' and consumers' acceptance.

    PubMed

    Engels, Stéphanie V; Hansmann, Ralf; Scholz, Roland W

    2010-01-01

    The recent proliferation of standards and labels for organic, fair-trade, locally produced, and healthy food products risks creating confusion among consumers. This study presents a standardized approach to developing a comprehensive sustainability label that incorporates ecological, economic, and social values. The methodology is based on an extension of modular life-cycle assessment to non-environmental sustainability criteria. Interviews with a wide range of experts (n=65) and a consumer survey (n=233) were conducted to analyze the feasibility and potential effectiveness of the approach. Responses indicated that a comprehensive sustainability label could considerably influence consumption patterns and facilitate cross-product comparisons.

  8. 75 FR 51246 - Petition Requesting Regulations Restricting Cadmium in Children's Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Petition Requesting Regulations Restricting Cadmium in Children's Products AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Consumer Product Safety Commission...

  9. Emission characteristics of VOCs emitted from consumer and commercial products and their ozone formation potential.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Kim, Su-Yeon; Son, Youn-Suk; Choi, In-Young; Park, Seong-Ryong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from several consumer and commercial products (body wash, dishwashing detergent, air freshener, windshield washer fluid, lubricant, hair spray, and insecticide) were studied and compared. The spray products were found to emit the highest amount of VOCs (~96 wt%). In contrast, the body wash products showed the lowest VOC contents (~1.6 wt%). In the spray products, 21.6-96.4 % of the VOCs were propane, iso-butane, and n-butane, which are the components of liquefied petroleum gas. Monoterpene (C10H16) was the dominant component of the VOCs in the non-spray products (e.g., body wash, 53-88 %). In particular, methanol was present with the highest amount of VOCs in windshield washer fluid products. In terms of the number of carbon, the windshield washer fluids, lubricants, insecticides, and hair sprays comprised >95 % of the VOCs in the range C2-C5. The VOCs in the range C6-C10 were predominantly found in the body wash products. The dishwashing detergents and air fresheners contained diverse VOCs from C2 to C11. Besides comprising hazardous VOCs, VOCs from consumer products were also ozone precursors. The ozone formation potential of the consumer and commercial spray products was estimated to be higher than those of liquid and gel materials. In particular, the hair sprays showed the highest ozone formation potential.

  10. From electronic consumer products to e-wastes: Global outlook, waste quantities, recycling challenges.

    PubMed

    Tansel, Berrin

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in technology, materials development, and manufacturing processes have changed the consumer products and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) since 1960s. Increasing quantities of discarded consumer products remain a major challenge for recycling efforts, especially for discarded electronic products (also referred as e-waste). The growing demand for high tech products has increased the e-waste quantities and its cross boundary transport globally. This paper reviews the challenges associated with increasing e-waste quantities. The increasing need for raw materials (especially for rare earth and minor elements) and unregulated e-waste recycling operations in developing and underdeveloped counties contribute to the growing concerns for e-waste management. Although the markets for recycled materials are increasing; there are major challenges for development of the necessary infrastructure for e-waste management and accountability as well as development of effective materials recovery technologies and product design.

  11. Pediatric eye injuries related to consumer products in the United States, 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Moren Cross, Jennifer; Griffin, Russell; Owsley, Cynthia; McGwin, Gerald

    2008-12-01

    This study examines which consumer products are most commonly associated with pediatric eye injuries that are treated in emergency departments in the United States. The results demonstrate that, overall, boys experienced proportionally more consumer product-related eye injuries than girls, but eye injuries from specific product categories are more likely to be associated with one sex than the other. Age-specific patterns also revealed that certain product categories are more likely to be associated with eye injuries among different age groups. These findings are salient because children experience a disproportionate amount of ocular trauma, possibly resulting in visual disability or blindness and concomitant developmental delays. Given the heretofore lack of detailed information on products that may contribute to the burden of pediatric eye injuries in the United States, the results of the current study provide valuable information for identifying priorities for prevention and intervention.

  12. Calculating the pre-consumer waste footprint: A screening study of 10 selected products.

    PubMed

    Laurenti, Rafael; Moberg, Åsa; Stenmarck, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the total waste generated by the production of consumer goods can help raise awareness among policy-makers, producers and consumers of the benefits of closing loops in a future circular economy, avoiding unnecessary production and production steps and associated generation of large amounts of waste. In strict life cycle assessment practice, information on waste outputs from intermediate industrial processes of material and energy transformation is translated into and declared as potential environmental impacts, which are often not reported in the final results. In this study, a procedure to extract available intermediate data and perform a systematic pre-consumer waste footprint analysis was developed. The pre-consumer waste footprint concept was tested to analyse 10 generic products, which provided some novel and interesting results for the different product categories and identified a number of challenges that need to be resolved in development of the waste footprint concept. These challenges include standardised data declaration on waste in life cycle assessment, with a separation into waste categories illustrating the implicit environmental and scale of significance of waste types and quantities (e.g. hazardous waste, inert waste, waste for recycling/incineration) and establishment of a common definition of waste throughout sectors and nations.

  13. 7 CFR 3201.6 - Providing product information to Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Providing product information to Federal agencies... PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 3201.6 Providing product information to Federal agencies....

  14. 7 CFR 3201.6 - Providing product information to Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Providing product information to Federal agencies... PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 3201.6 Providing product information to Federal agencies....

  15. 7 CFR 3201.6 - Providing product information to Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Providing product information to Federal agencies... PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 3201.6 Providing product information to Federal agencies....

  16. Defense Logistics Agency Can Improve Its Product Quality Deficiency Report Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    in a series of audits on DLA processing product quality deficiency reports. Finding DLA Aviation quality assurance personnel conducted adequate...4 Finding. Defense Logistics Agency Aviation Did Not Adequately Process Product Quality...Deficiency Reports _________________________________________________________________5 Defense Logistics Agency Aviation Product Quality Deficiency

  17. Sustainable sheep production and consumer preference trends: compatibilities, contradictions, and unresolved dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Montossi, F; Font-i-Furnols, M; del Campo, M; San Julián, R; Brito, G; Sañudo, C

    2013-12-01

    There are increasing concerns of society towards the consumption of animal products which have been produced and transformed in a sustainable manner. This trend influences consumer purchasing decision making, particularly in developed countries. On the other hand, in the next years, the pressure to increase the volume and efficiency of meat production will be much higher to cope with the expected unsatisfied demand. At least in part, current and future technologies could contribute to solve this challenge. However, the use of some of these innovations could have a negative effect on consumer preferences. There is no consensus in our society about this dilemma. The objective of this paper is to review the scientific evidence related to these topics and to analyze and discuss the effect of some of the extrinsic and intrinsic factors linked with the sheep industry which could affect the acceptability of lamb meat by consumers.

  18. 75 FR 51245 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Durable Nursery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Products Exposure Survey AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Consumer...), preferably in five copies, to: Office of the Secretary, Consumer Product Safety Commission, Room 502,...

  19. A methodology for evaluating the usability of audiovisual consumer electronic products.

    PubMed

    Kwahk, Jiyoung; Han, Sung H

    2002-09-01

    Usability evaluation is now considered an essential procedure in consumer product development. Many studies have been conducted to develop various techniques and methods of usability evaluation hoping to help the evaluators choose appropriate methods. However, planning and conducting usability evaluation requires considerations of a number of factors surrounding the evaluation process including the product, user, activity, and environmental characteristics. In this perspective, this study suggested a new methodology of usability evaluation through a simple, structured framework. The framework was outlined by three major components: the interface features of a product as design variables, the evaluation context consisting of user, product, activity, and environment as context variables, and the usability measures as dependent variables. Based on this framework, this study established methods to specify the product interface features, to define evaluation context, and to measure usability. The effectiveness of this methodology was demonstrated through case studies in which the usability of audiovisual products was evaluated by using the methods developed in this study. This study is expected to help the usability practitioners in consumer electronics industry in various ways. Most directly, it supports the evaluators' plan and conduct usability evaluation sessions in a systematic and structured manner. In addition, it can be applied to other categories of consumer products (such as appliances, automobiles, communication devices, etc.) with minor modifications as necessary.

  20. A Century of Graduate Research Productivity in Extension Family and Consumer Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    For many years, overall graduate research productivity has been reported annually by several authors in the December issue of the "Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal." The knowledge gleaned from a century's worth of Extension studies is valuable because it can improve our ability to build on prior research, particularly…

  1. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ..., U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies... Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation...

  2. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  3. 78 FR 53374 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC76 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for.... Department of Energy (DOE) published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) for test procedures for... must identify the NOPR for test procedures for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers...

  4. 78 FR 26711 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC65 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Test Procedures for Showerheads, Faucets, Water Closets... test procedures for showerheads, faucets, water closets, urinals and commercial prerinse spray...

  5. Investigating Greek consumers' attitudes towards low-fat food products: a segmentation study.

    PubMed

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kapirti, A

    2003-05-01

    The present study aims at gaining a first insight into Greek consumers' attitudes towards low-fat food products. Although Greece, and in particular Crete, have enjoyed a great popularity in terms of the Mediterranean diet, there has been an almost complete lack of low-fat-related surveys concerning the Greek food consumer. Using this as a research trigger, the current investigation evolves around the conflict between 'sensory appeal' and 'healthiness' of low-fat products, widely described in the international literature. Other crucial factors examined are consumers' awareness, occasional use and conscious purchase of, and willingness to pay for, food products with the 'low-fat' claim. Overall, the study has the objective to segment the Greek market in terms of users' perceptions of light products and to identify a number of well-described clusters with clear-cut socio-demographic and behavioural profile. Three clusters are identified, comprised of consumers with favourable attitudes towards low-fat foods and willing to pay premiums to purchase them.

  6. 76 FR 1137 - Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database: Notice of Public Web Conferences

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... COMMISSION Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database: Notice of Public Web Conferences... Commission (``Commission,'' ``CPSC,'' or ``we'') is announcing two Web conferences to demonstrate to...''). The Web conferences will be webcast live from the Commission's headquarters in Bethesda, MD via...

  7. Korean Ministry of Environment's web-based visual consumer product exposure and risk assessment system (COPER).

    PubMed

    Lee, Hunjoo; Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Ji Young; Min, Sung-Gi

    2017-04-08

    With support from the Korean Ministry of the Environment (ME), our interdisciplinary research staff developed the COnsumer Product Exposure and Risk assessment system (COPER). This system includes various databases and features that enable the calculation of exposure and determination of risk caused by consumer products use. COPER is divided into three tiers: the integrated database layer (IDL), the domain specific service layer (DSSL), and the exposure and risk assessment layer (ERAL). IDL is organized by the form of the raw data (mostly non-aggregated data) and includes four sub-databases: a toxicity profile, an inventory of Korean consumer products, the weight fractions of chemical substances in the consumer products determined by chemical analysis and national representative exposure factors. DSSL provides web-based information services corresponding to each database within IDL. Finally, ERAL enables risk assessors to perform various exposure and risk assessments, including exposure scenario design via either inhalation or dermal contact by using or organizing each database in an intuitive manner. This paper outlines the overall architecture of the system and highlights some of the unique features of COPER based on visual and dynamic rendering engine for exposure assessment model on web.

  8. 76 FR 57612 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Refrigerators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... for making representations regarding energy usage until June 14, 2011. Concurrently with this Final... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AB92 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for...

  9. 77 FR 3559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... inability to capture all energy usage during defrost cycles when using the second (defrost) part of the test... / Wednesday, January 25, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AB92 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators,...

  10. 78 FR 53625 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ...-AC96 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...) published a final rule in the Federal Register that amended the test procedure for residential furnaces and... Independence Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121. Telephone: (202) 586-6590. Email:...

  11. 75 FR 56795 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the ``Department'') is proposing to revise and expand its existing certification, compliance, and enforcement regulations for certain consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment covered under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended (EPCA or the ``Act''). These regulations provide for sampling plans used in determining......

  12. 76 FR 12421 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or the ``Department'') is adopting revisions to its existing certification, compliance, and enforcement regulations for certain consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment covered under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975, as amended (EPCA or the ``Act''). These regulations provide for sampling plans used in determining compliance......

  13. 76 FR 69122 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AB93 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products (Dishwashers, Dehumidifiers, Microwave Ovens, and Electric and Gas Kitchen Ranges and Ovens)...

  14. Consumers regulate nutrient limitation regimes and primary production in seagrass ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Allgeier, Jacob E; Yeager, Lauren A; Layman, Craig A

    2013-02-01

    Consumer-mediated nutrient supply is increasingly recognized as an important functional process in many ecosystems. Yet, experimentation at relevant spatial and temporal scales is needed to fully integrate this bottom-up pathway into ecosystem models. Artificial reefs provide a unique approach to explore the importance of consumer nutrient supply for ecosystem function in coastal marine environments. We used bioenergetics models to estimate community-level nutrient supply by fishes, and relevant measures of primary production, to test the hypothesis that consumers, via excretion of nutrients, can enhance primary production and alter nutrient limitation regimes for two dominant primary producer groups (seagrass and benthic microalgae) around artificial reefs. Both producer groups demonstrated marked increases in production, as well as shifts in nutrient limitation regimes, with increased fish-derived nutrient supply. Individuals from the two dominant functional feeding groups (herbivores and mesopredators) supplied nutrients at divergent rates and ratios from one another, underscoring the importance of community structure for nutrient supply to primary producers. Our findings demonstrate that consumers, through an underappreciated bottom-up mechanism in marine environments, can alter nutrient limitation regimes and primary production, thereby fundamentally affecting the way these ecosystems function.

  15. 78 FR 62988 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment. SUMMARY: The recently enacted... to certain consumer products and commercial and industrial equipment. The amendments include new and... Department of Energy (DOE) is incorporating into its regulations in this technical amendment. DOE is...

  16. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AC87 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards... and invite comments on the Framework Document regarding energy conservation standards for...

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE SPRAY DISPENSER TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM AEROSOL CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the operating principles and performance of a new type of spray nozzle. This nozzle, termed a "ligament-controlled effervescent atomizer," was developed to allow consumer product manufacturers to replace volatile organic compound (VOC) solvents with water, and...

  18. 16 CFR 1500.88 - Exemptions from lead limits under section 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... August 14, 2009, products designed or intended primarily for children 12 and younger cannot contain more... 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for certain electronic devices. 1500.88 Section 1500.88 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES...

  19. 76 FR 6765 - Consumer Product Safety Act: Notice of Commission Action on the Stay of Enforcement of Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... (``Bicycles and Related Products'') designed or intended primarily for children 12 years of age or younger. 74... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Consumer Product Safety Act: Notice of Commission Action on the Stay of Enforcement of Testing...

  20. Subsidy or subtraction: how do terrestrial inputs influence consumer production in lakes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Stuart E.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-ecosystem fluxes are ubiquitous in food webs and are generally thought of as subsidies to consumer populations. Yet external or allochthonous inputs may in fact have complex and habitat-specific effects on recipient ecosystems. In lakes, terrestrial inputs of organic carbon contribute to basal resource availability, but can also reduce resource availability via shading effects on phytoplankton and periphyton. Terrestrial inputs might therefore either subsidise or subtract from consumer production. We developed and parameterised a simple model to explore this idea. The model estimates basal resource supply and consumer production given lake-level characteristics including total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, and consumer-level characteristics including resource preferences and growth efficiencies. Terrestrial inputs diminished primary production and total basal resource supply at the whole-lake level, except in ultra-oligotrophic systems. However, this system-level generalisation masked complex habitat-specific effects. In the pelagic zone, dissolved and particulate terrestrial carbon inputs were available to zooplankton via several food web pathways. Consequently, zooplankton production usually increased with terrestrial inputs, even as total whole-lake resource availability decreased. In contrast, in the benthic zone the dominant, dissolved portion of the terrestrial carbon load had predominantly negative effects on resource availability via shading of periphyton. Consequently, terrestrial inputs always decreased zoobenthic production except under extreme and unrealistic parameterisations of the model. Appreciating the complex and habitat-specific effects of allochthonous inputs may be essential for resolving the effects of cross-habitat fluxes on consumers in lakes and other food webs.

  1. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, Todd; Vejerano, Eric P; McGinnis, Sean P; Hochella, Michael F; Rejeski, David; Hull, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Summary To document the marketing and distribution of nano-enabled products into the commercial marketplace, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies created the Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory (CPI) in 2005. The objective of this present work is to redevelop the CPI by leading a research effort to increase the usefulness and reliability of this inventory. We created eight new descriptors for consumer products, including information pertaining to the nanomaterials contained in each product. The project was motivated by the recognition that a diverse group of stakeholders from academia, industry, and state/federal government had become highly dependent on the inventory as an important resource and bellweather of the pervasiveness of nanotechnology in society. We interviewed 68 nanotechnology experts to assess key information needs. Their answers guided inventory modifications by providing a clear conceptual framework best suited for user expectations. The revised inventory was released in October 2013. It currently lists 1814 consumer products from 622 companies in 32 countries. The Health and Fitness category contains the most products (762, or 42% of the total). Silver is the most frequently used nanomaterial (435 products, or 24%); however, 49% of the products (889) included in the CPI do not provide the composition of the nanomaterial used in them. About 29% of the CPI (528 products) contain nanomaterials suspended in a variety of liquid media and dermal contact is the most likely exposure scenario from their use. The majority (1288 products, or 71%) of the products do not present enough supporting information to corroborate the claim that nanomaterials are used. The modified CPI has enabled crowdsourcing capabilities, which allow users to suggest edits to any entry and permits researchers to upload new findings ranging from human and environmental exposure data to complete life cycle

  2. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory.

    PubMed

    Vance, Marina E; Kuiken, Todd; Vejerano, Eric P; McGinnis, Sean P; Hochella, Michael F; Rejeski, David; Hull, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    To document the marketing and distribution of nano-enabled products into the commercial marketplace, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies created the Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory (CPI) in 2005. The objective of this present work is to redevelop the CPI by leading a research effort to increase the usefulness and reliability of this inventory. We created eight new descriptors for consumer products, including information pertaining to the nanomaterials contained in each product. The project was motivated by the recognition that a diverse group of stakeholders from academia, industry, and state/federal government had become highly dependent on the inventory as an important resource and bellweather of the pervasiveness of nanotechnology in society. We interviewed 68 nanotechnology experts to assess key information needs. Their answers guided inventory modifications by providing a clear conceptual framework best suited for user expectations. The revised inventory was released in October 2013. It currently lists 1814 consumer products from 622 companies in 32 countries. The Health and Fitness category contains the most products (762, or 42% of the total). Silver is the most frequently used nanomaterial (435 products, or 24%); however, 49% of the products (889) included in the CPI do not provide the composition of the nanomaterial used in them. About 29% of the CPI (528 products) contain nanomaterials suspended in a variety of liquid media and dermal contact is the most likely exposure scenario from their use. The majority (1288 products, or 71%) of the products do not present enough supporting information to corroborate the claim that nanomaterials are used. The modified CPI has enabled crowdsourcing capabilities, which allow users to suggest edits to any entry and permits researchers to upload new findings ranging from human and environmental exposure data to complete life cycle assessments. There

  3. Light quality and efficiency of consumer grade solid state lighting products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2013-03-01

    The rapid development in flux and efficiency of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) has resulted in a flooding of the lighting market with Solid State Lighting (SSL) products. Many traditional light sources can advantageously be replaced by SSL products. There are, however, large variations in the quality of these products, and some are not better than the ones they are supposed to replace. A lack of quality demands and standards makes it difficult for consumers to get an overview of the SSL products. Here the results of a two year study investigating SSL products on the Danish market are presented. Focus has been on SSL products for replacement of incandescent lamps and halogen spotlights. The warm white light and good color rendering properties of these traditional light sources are a must for lighting in Denmark and the Nordic countries. 266 SSL replacement lamps have been tested for efficiency and light quality with respect to correlated color temperature and color rendering properties. This shows a trade-off between high color rendering warm white light and energy efficiency. The lumen and color maintenance over time has been investigated and results for products running over 11000 h will be presented. A new internet based SSL product selection tool will be shown. Here the products can be compared on efficiency, light quality parameters, thus providing a better basis for the selection of SSL products for consumers.

  4. The ecology of Lake Nakuru (Kenya) : V. Production and consumption of consumer organisms.

    PubMed

    Vareschi, E; Jacobs, J

    1984-01-01

    Consumer production and consumption were studied in the equatorial alkaline-saline Lake Nakuru from 1972 to 1976. Together with earlier reports (including a study of the dominant consumer, the Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor), the data provide the basis for estimating the major pathways of energy flow. Detritus food chains were not included in this project.Production and consumption rates were estimated from the distribution of numbers and size classes in the lake and laboratory experiments on growth and filtration rates. Rotifers (Brachionus dimidiatus and B. plicatilis), though not especially significant in biomass, had the highest production rates (1.7 KJ m(-3) d(-1)) due to a very short juvenile phase (ca. 2 days) and fast production of very large eggs (about 1 per day). Consumption rates were correspondingly high (11.3 KJ m(-3) d(-1)), comparable only to those of the Lesser Flamingo (12.6 KJ m(-3) d(-1); in this species, production was negligible because the birds do not breed at L. Nakuru). Copepods almost matched rotifers in 1972/73 (production 1.5, consumption 6.5 KJ m(-3) d(-1)) but vanished from the lake in the following years. Chironomid larvae (mainly Leptochironomus deribae) and fish (Sarotherodon alcalicus grahami) had similar ranges of production (0.7 and 0.4 KJ m(-3) d(-1)) and consumption (3.6 and 3.4 KJ m(-3) d(-1)) although the fish had about twice the biomass (20 KJ m(-3)) of the insects.Most primary consumer organisms fed on the dominant primary producer, the cyanophyte Spirulina platensis, but rotifers and Leptochironomus met an unknown fraction of their energy requirements by consuming bacteria and detritus. Of the secondary consumers only fisheating birds (≈90% adult Pelecanus onocrotalus) and the Greater Flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber, mainly full-grown individuals) contributed significantly to the energy flow. Neither pelicans nor Greater Flamingos breed at L. Nakuru, therefore their production rates were negligible. The total fish

  5. Functional or constructive attitudes: Which type drives consumers' evaluation of meat products?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Consumer attitudes towards meat can be divided up into two types: Functional attitudes which are stable and exist over long periods of time, and constructive attitudes which are ephemeral and usually constructed at the point of sale. This research investigated the temporal and situational stability of meat consumers' attitudes by using the same established functional, multidimensional attitude instrument to generate attitude profiles for the four meat types: chicken/beef/lamb/poultry both as an abstracted construct and as a cue on a range of meat and meat-based products. The results showed that strong attitude profile was generated by the meat types as abstracted constructs, but that this profile broke down completely when the food products carrying the same meat types were evaluated. This result indicates that consumer attitudes may not be temporally or situationally stable, which in turn suggests that consumers' evaluation and choice of meat products may be driven to a greater or lesser extent by constructive rather than functional attitudes.

  6. Screening for halogenated flame retardants in European consumer products, building materials and wastes.

    PubMed

    Vojta, Šimon; Bečanová, Jitka; Melymuk, Lisa; Komprdová, Klára; Kohoutek, Jiří; Kukučka, Petr; Klánová, Jana

    2017-02-01

    To fulfill national and international fire safety standards, flame retardants (FRs) are being added to a wide range of consumer products and building materials consisting of flammable materials like plastic, wood and textiles. While the FR composition of some products and materials has been identified in recent years, the limited global coverage of the data and the large diversity in consumer products necessitates more information for an overall picture of the FR composition in common products/materials. To address this issue, 137 individual samples of various consumer products, building materials and wastes were collected. To identify and characterize potential sources of FRs in indoor environment, all samples were analyzed for content of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs). The most frequently detected were HBCDDs (85%), with the highest median concentration of Σ4HBCDDs of 300 mg kg(-1) in polystyrenes. The highest median concentration of Σ10PBDEs was found in recycled plastic materials, reaching 4 mg kg(-1). The lowest concentrations were observed for NFRs, where the median of Σ12NFRs reached 0.4 mg kg(-1) in the group of electrical & electronic equipment wastes. This suggests that for consumer products and building materials that are currently in-use, legacy compounds still contribute to the overall burden of FRs. Additionally, contrasting patterns of FR composition in recycled and virgin plastics, revealed using principle component analysis (PCA), suggest that legacy flame retardants are reentering the market through recycled products, perpetuating the potential for emissions to indoor environments and thus for human exposure.

  7. Literacy demands of product information intended to supplement television direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisements.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Rudd, Rima E; DeJong, William; Daltroy, Lawren H

    2004-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows television direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements that do not fully disclose drug risks if the ads include "adequate provision" for dissemination of the drug's approved labeling. This requirement can be met in part by referring consumers to multiple text sources of product labeling. This study was designed to assess the materials to which consumers were referred in 23 DTC television advertisements. SMOG assessments showed that the average reading grade levels were in the high school range for the main body sections of the materials and college-level range for the brief summary sections. The Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument identified specific difficulties with the materials, including content, graphics, layout, and typography features. Stronger plain language requirements are recommended. Health care providers should be aware that patients who ask about an advertised drug might not have the full information required to make an informed decision.

  8. Reducing microplastics from facial exfoliating cleansers in wastewater through treatment versus consumer product decisions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Microplastics (<5mm) have been discovered in fresh and saltwater ecosystems, sediments, and wastewater effluent around the world. Their ability to persist and accumulate up food chains should be a concern as research is still experimenting with techniques to assess their long-term effects on the environment. I sought to characterize the microbeads found in facial exfoliating cleansers so as to better understand how to reduce this source of pollution through consumer use and wastewater treatment solutions. By sampling products from national-grossing cosmetic personal care brands, I was able to gather information on the size, color, volume, mass, and concentration of polyethylene beads in the cleansers. From that data, I modeled onto a consumer survey the estimated volume of microplastics entering a wastewater stream. Through inquiry, I learned the practices of two local wastewater treatment facilities. My findings show that consumer decisions and treatment protocols both play crucial parts in minimizing microplastic pollution.

  9. The voice of the customer--Part 2: Benchmarking battery chargers against the Consumer's Ideal Product.

    PubMed

    Bauer, S M; Lane, J P; Stone, V I; Unnikrishnan, N

    1998-01-01

    The Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Evaluation and Transfer is exploring how the end users of assistive technology devices define the ideal device. This work is called the Consumer Ideal Product program. In this work, end users identify and establish the importance of a broad range of product design features, along with the related product support and service provided by manufacturers and vendors. This paper describes a method for systematically transforming end-user defined requirements into a form that is useful and accessible to product designers, manufacturers, and vendors. In particular, product requirements, importance weightings, and metrics are developed from the Consumer Ideal Product battery charger outcomes. Six battery charges are benchmarked against these product requirements using the metrics developed. The results suggest improvements for each product's design, service, and support. Overall, the six chargers meet roughly 45-75% of the ideal product's requirements. Many of the suggested improvements are low-cost changes that, if adopted, could provide companies a competitive advantage in the marketplace.

  10. Eutrophication and consumer control of new England salt marsh primary productivity.

    PubMed

    Bertness, Mark D; Crain, Caitlin; Holdredge, Christine; Sala, Nicholas

    2008-02-01

    Although primary productivity in salt marshes is thought to be controlled by physical forces, recent evidence suggests that human disturbances can drive a switch to consumer control in these ecologically valuable ecosystems. We tested the hypothesis that nitrogen enrichment can trigger consumer control in salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, with (1) a field experiment in which we manipulated nutrient availability (with nutrient additions) and insect herbivory (with insecticide application), (2) a survey of 20 salt marshes that examined the relationship between marsh nutrient status and herbivore pressure, and (3) insect herbivore removal at high and low nutrient input sites to directly test the hypothesis that nutrient enrichment is increasing insect herbivory in these marshes. Experimental nitrogen eutrophication initially increased plant productivity but eventually led to reduced plant biomass due to insect herbivory, and our surveys revealed that marsh nitrogen supply was a good predictor of herbivore damage to plants. Insects had minimal impacts on primary productivity in pristine marshes, but suppressed primary productivity in eutrophic salt marshes by 50-75%. Thus, eutrophication is currently triggering consumer suppression of primary productivity in New England salt marshes and may ultimately jeopardize the ecological and societal services these systems provide.

  11. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products

    DOE PAGES

    Isley, Steven C.; Stern, Paul C.; Carmichael, Scott P.; ...

    2016-08-30

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers' incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products' environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers' contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement withmore » existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the 'soft costs' to consumers of pro-environmental choices. Lastly, opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make pro-environmental action difficult.« less

  12. 77 FR 17364 - Inadmissibility of Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Noncompliant With Applicable Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... functions. List of Subjects in 19 CFR Part 12 Customs duties and inspection, Electronic products, Entry of... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Part 12 RIN 1515-AD82... Labeling Standards AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...

  13. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... measurement of the estimated annual operating costs or other measures of energy consumption for certain... that the estimated annual operating costs of a covered product be calculated from measurements of...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  14. 77 FR 24940 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... measurement of the estimated annual operating costs or other measures of energy consumption for certain... that the estimated annual operating costs of a covered product be calculated from measurements of...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  15. Risk assessment of consuming agricultural products irrigated with reclaimed wastewater: An exposure model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ginneken, Meike; Oron, Gideon

    2000-09-01

    This study assesses health risks to consumers due to the use of agricultural products irrigated with reclaimed wastewater. The analysis is based on a definition of an exposure model which takes into account several parameters: (1) the quality of the applied wastewater, (2) the irrigation method, (3) the elapsed times between irrigation, harvest, and product consumption, and (4) the consumers' habits. The exposure model is used for numerical simulation of human consumers' risks using the Monte Carlo simulation method. The results of the numerical simulation show large deviations, probably caused by uncertainty (impreciseness in quality of input data) and variability due to diversity among populations. There is a 10-orders of magnitude difference in the risk of infection between the different exposure scenarios with the same water quality. This variation indicates the need for setting risk-based criteria for wastewater reclamation rather than single water quality guidelines. Extra data are required to decrease uncertainty in the risk assessment. Future research needs to include definition of acceptable risk criteria, more accurate dose-response modeling, information regarding pathogen survival in treated wastewater, additional data related to the passage of pathogens into and in the plants during irrigation, and information regarding the behavior patterns of the community of human consumers.

  16. Nanosized aerosols from consumer sprays: experimental analysis and exposure modeling for four commercial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Christiane; Hagendorfer, Harald; von Goetz, Natalie; Kaegi, Ralf; Gehrig, Robert; Ulrich, Andrea; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-08-01

    Consumer spray products are already on the market in the cosmetics and household sector, which suggest by their label that they contain engineered nanoparticles (ENP). Sprays are considered critical for human health, because the lungs represent a major route for the uptake of ENP into the human body. To contribute to the exposure assessment of ENP in consumer spray products, we analyzed ENP in four commercially available sprays: one antiperspirant, two shoe impregnation sprays, and one plant-strengthening agent. The spray dispersions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and (scanning-) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). Aerosols were generated by using the original vessels, and analyzed by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and (S)TEM. On the basis of SMPS results, the nanosized aerosol depositing in the respiratory tract was modeled for female and male consumers. The derived exposure levels reflect a single spray application. We identified ENP in the dispersions of two products (shoe impregnation and plant spray). Nanosized aerosols were observed in three products that contained propellant gas. The aerosol number concentration increased linearly with the sprayed amount, with the highest concentration resulting from the antiperspirant. Modeled aerosol exposure levels were in the range of 1010 nanosized aerosol components per person and application event for the antiperspirant and the impregnation sprays, with the largest fraction of nanosized aerosol depositing in the alveolar region. Negligible exposure from the application of the plant spray (pump spray) was observed.

  17. Consumer product safety: Risk assessment of exposure to asbestos emissions from hand-held hair dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallenbeck, William H.

    1981-01-01

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is concerned that consumer exposure to asbestos from consumer products may present an unreasonable risk of injury. Recently, CPSC has obtained agreement by industry to cease production and distribution of hair dryers containing asbestos heat insulation. CPSC intends to broaden its investigation by selecting consumer products containing asbestos for “priority attention.” The Commission does not intend to make quantitative estimates of cancer risks posed by exposure to asbestos fibers in making regulatory decisions. This position may lead to a serious waste of resources for the Commission, industry, and society. The Commission should focus its initial attention on those products for which the release of asbestos is significant enough to cause an unreasonable health risk. To make a risk assessment for a particular use of asbestos, CPSC must acquire or request data on asbestos emissions and define “unreasonable risk to health.” In an attempt to give some meaning to the phrase “risk assessment,” the primary goal of this paper is to present a detailed risk assessment of exposure to asbestos from hand-held hair dryers. Several scenarios of use are presented using various assumptions regarding time of operation, mixing of fibers in a small room, rate of fiber emission, and time of exposure. The worst case analysis of the health risk of exposure to hair dryer emissions is based on several conservative assumptions and shows that the increased number of deaths per year due to respiratory cancer is 4 for the entire United States population. A more representative case analysis shows the increased number of deaths to be on the order of 0.15 per year.

  18. Internal cycle modeling and environmental assessment of multiple cycle consumer products.

    PubMed

    Tsiliyannis, C A

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic annual flow models incorporating consumer discard and usage loss and featuring deterministic and stochastic end-of-cycle (EOC) return by the consumer are developed for reused or remanufactured products (multiple cycle products, MCPs), including fast and slow cycling, short and long-lived products. It is shown that internal flows (reuse and overall consumption) increase proportionally to the dimensionless internal cycle factor (ICF) which is related to environmental impact reduction factors. The combined reuse/recycle (or cycle) rate is shown capable for shortcut, albeit effective, monitoring of environmental performance in terms of waste production, virgin material extraction and manufacturing impacts of all MCPs, a task, which physical variables (lifetime, cycling frequency, mean or total number of return trips) and conventional rates, via which environmental policy has been officially implemented (e.g. recycling rate) cannot accomplish. The cycle rate is shown to be an increasing (hyperbolic) function of ICF. The impact of the stochastic EOC return characteristics on total reuse and consumption flows, as well as on eco-performance, is assessed: symmetric EOC return has a small, positive effect on performance compared to deterministic, while early shifted EOC return is more beneficial. In order to be efficient, environmental policy should set higher minimum reuse targets for higher trippage MCPs. The results may serve for monitoring, flow accounting and comparative eco-assessment of MCPs. They may be useful in identifying reachable and efficient reuse/recycle targets for consumer products and in planning return via appropriate labelling and digital coding for enhancing environmental performance, while satisfying consumer demand.

  19. 19 CFR 12.50 - Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to energy conservation or labeling standards. 12.50 Section 12.50 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND... MERCHANDISE Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Subject to Energy Conservation Or Labeling Standards § 12.50 Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling...

  20. Made with Renewable Energy: How and Why Companies are Labeling Consumer Products

    SciTech Connect

    Baker Brannan, D.; Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-03-01

    Green marketing--a marketing strategy highlighting the environmental attributes of a product, often through the use of labels or logos--dates back to the 1970s. It did not proliferate until the 1990s, however, when extensive market research identified a rapidly growing group of consumers with a heightened concern for the environment. This group expressed not only a preference for green products but also a willingness to pay a premium for such products. The response was a surge in green marketing that lasted through the early 1990s. This report discusses the experience of companies that communicate to consumers that their products are 'made with renewable energy.' For this report, representatives from 20 companies were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences marketing products produced using renewable energy. The first half of this report provides an overview of the type of companies that have labeled products or advertised them as being made with renewable energy. It also highlights the avenues companies use to describe their use of renewable energy. The second half of the report focuses on the motivations for making on-product claims about the use of renewable energy and the challenges in doing so.

  1. Tobacco Industry Consumer Research on Smokeless Tobacco Users and Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Adrienne B.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, RJ Reynolds (RJR) and Philip Morris have both introduced new smokeless “snus” tobacco products. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents describing the history of RJR and Philip Morris's consumer research, smokeless product development, and marketing strategies. We found that RJR had invested in smokeless research, development, and marketing since 1968. RJR first targeted low-income males through sampling and sponsorship at fishing, rodeo, and baseball events, and through advertising portraying the user as “hard working.” In the early 1990s, Philip Morris and RJR hoped to attract more urban, female smokeless users. The current “snus” campaigns appear to appeal to these targeted consumers and smokers in smoke-free environments. These efforts may expand the tobacco market and undermine smoking cessation. PMID:19910355

  2. Tobacco industry consumer research on smokeless tobacco users and product development.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Adrienne B; Ling, Pamela M

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, RJ Reynolds (RJR) and Philip Morris have both introduced new smokeless "snus" tobacco products. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents describing the history of RJR and Philip Morris's consumer research, smokeless product development, and marketing strategies. We found that RJR had invested in smokeless research, development, and marketing since 1968. RJR first targeted low-income males through sampling and sponsorship at fishing, rodeo, and baseball events, and through advertising portraying the user as "hard working." In the early 1990s, Philip Morris and RJR hoped to attract more urban, female smokeless users. The current "snus" campaigns appear to appeal to these targeted consumers and smokers in smoke-free environments. These efforts may expand the tobacco market and undermine smoking cessation.

  3. EPHECT III: Health risk assessment of exposure to household consumer products.

    PubMed

    Trantallidi, M; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Wolkoff, P; Kephalopoulos, S; Carrer, P

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios

  4. The impact of cGMP compliance on consumer confidence in dietary supplement products.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Richard; FitzGerald, Libby Harvey

    2006-04-03

    The FDA estimates that US citizens spend more than $ 8.5 billion a year on dietary supplements and world wide the market is estimated at more than $ 60 billion. However, although a majority of consumers express confidence in the safety of these products, 74% believe the government should be more involved in ensuring that these products are safe and efficacious. Recent regulatory initiatives such as the imminent adoption of cGMPs for dietary supplements in the US, implementation of cGMPs in Canada and the recent EU dietary supplement initiative represent legislative and industry response to public clamor for more comprehensive oversight of dietary supplements. Regardless of mandated practices, the majority of dietary supplement manufacturers have done an excellent job of protecting the safety and quality of their products. The promulgation of these cGMPs will help ensure consumers that equal standards are followed throughout the industry. For some companies with established processes based on existing food or pharmaceutical cGMP regulations, the transition will be relatively painless while, for many, it will represent a significant increase in the level of documentation and testing. However, consumers deserve and demand that products meet standards for safety and quality and the implementation of cGMPs for these products are an important first step. Although the cGMPs are designed to ensure products are safe from a standpoint of identity, purity, quality, strength and composition, they do not address preclinical or clinical testing of ingredients for safety or efficacy. This would involve ingredients meeting the requirements of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status or going through the New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) process.

  5. The Role of Product Design in Consumers' Choices in the Individual Insurance Market

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, M Susan; Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Escarce, José J; Kapur, Kanika

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of health plan benefit design and price on consumers' decisions to purchase health insurance in the nongroup market and their choice of plan. Data Sources and Study Setting Administrative data from the three largest nongroup insurers in California and survey data about those insured in the nongroup market and the uninsured in California. Study Design We fit a nested logit model to examine the effects of plan characteristics on consumer choice while accounting for substitutability among certain groups of products. Principal Findings Product choice is quite sensitive to price. A 10 percent decrease in the price of a product would increase its market share by about 20 percent. However, a 10 percent decrease in prices of all products would only increase overall market participation by about 4 percent. Changes in the generosity of coverage will also affect product choice, but have only small effects on overall participation. A 20 percent decrease in the deductible or maximum out-of-pocket payment of all plans would increase participation by about 0.3–0.5 percent. Perceived information search costs and other nonprice barriers have substantial effects on purchase of nongroup coverage. Conclusions Modest subsidies will have small effects on purchase in the nongroup market. New product designs with higher deductibles are likely to be more attractive to healthy purchasers, but the new benefit designs are likely to have only small effects on market participation. In contrast, consumer education efforts have a role to play in helping to expand coverage. PMID:17995560

  6. 77 FR 35110 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Production Plan Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ...: Production Plan Reports AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... updated future product plans, as well as production data through the recent past, including data about... Standards--Model Years 2016-2025; Production Plan Data. Type of Review: Extension of existing...

  7. Product Warranties: Business Guidelines to Meet Consumer Needs. Report of the Sub-Council on Warranties and Guarantees of the National Business Council for Consumer Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Business Council for Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    In this report prepared to assist the business community in undertaking its responsibility to reexamine warranty policies and practices in the light of consumer expectations, it is recommended that the following policies and practices be adopted by businesses and trade associations: (1) Product warranties should be effective for a period…

  8. Potential Impact of Increased Use of Biocides in Consumer Products on Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Peter; McBain, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    There has recently been much controversy surrounding the increased use of antibacterial substances in a wide range of consumer products and the possibility that, as with antibiotics, indiscriminate use of biocides might contribute to the overall pattern of susceptibility in the general environment and in the clinic. Such speculation, based on the isolation of resistant mutants from in vitro monoculture experiments, is not reflected by an emergence of biocide-resistant strains in vivo. This review provides a broad coverage of the biocide and resistance literature and evaluates the potential risks, perceived from such laboratory monoculture experiments, against evidence gathered over 50 years of field studies. An explanation for the continued effectiveness of broad-spectrum biocidal agents against the decline in efficacy of therapeutic agents is provided based on the fitness costs of resistance and the ubiquity of naturally occurring substances that possess antibacterial effect. While we conclude from this review of the literature that the incorporation of antibacterial agents into a widening sphere of personal products has had little or no impact on the patterns of microbial susceptibility observed in the environment, the associated risks remain finite. The use of such products should therefore be associated with a clear demonstration of added value either to consumer health or to the product life. Hygienic products should therefore be targeted to applications for which the risks have been established. PMID:12692093

  9. 77 FR 37616 - Disclosure of Consumer Complaint Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Chapter X Disclosure of Consumer Complaint Data AGENCY... statement regarding the Bureau's disclosure of data from consumer complaints about financial products and... complaint data. The present notice (the ``Concurrent Notice'') describes the Bureau's plan to duplicate...

  10. Internal cycle modeling and environmental assessment of multiple cycle consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiliyannis, C.A.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic flow models are presented for remanufactured, reused or recycled products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early loss and stochastic return are included for fast and slow cycling products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reuse-to-input flow ratio (Internal Cycle Factor, ICF) is determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cycle rate, which is increasing with the ICF, monitors eco-performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early internal cycle losses diminish the ICF, the cycle rate and performance. - Abstract: Dynamic annual flow models incorporating consumer discard and usage loss and featuring deterministic and stochastic end-of-cycle (EOC) return by the consumer are developed for reused or remanufactured products (multiple cycle products, MCPs), including fast and slow cycling, short and long-lived products. It is shown that internal flows (reuse and overall consumption) increase proportionally to the dimensionless internal cycle factor (ICF) which is related to environmental impact reduction factors. The combined reuse/recycle (or cycle) rate is shown capable for shortcut, albeit effective, monitoring of environmental performance in terms of waste production, virgin material extraction and manufacturing impacts of all MCPs, a task, which physical variables (lifetime, cycling frequency, mean or total number of return trips) and conventional rates, via which environmental policy has been officially implemented (e.g. recycling rate) cannot accomplish. The cycle rate is shown to be an increasing (hyperbolic) function of ICF. The impact of the stochastic EOC return characteristics on total reuse and consumption flows, as well as on eco-performance, is assessed: symmetric EOC return has a small, positive effect on performance compared to deterministic, while early shifted EOC return is more beneficial. In order to be efficient, environmental policy should set higher minimum reuse targets for higher trippage MCPs. The

  11. Characterizing isotopic variability of primary production and consumers in Great Plains ecosystems during protracted regional drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haveles, A. W.; Fox-Dobbs, K.; Talmadge, K. A.; Fetrow, A.; Fox, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last few years (2010-2012), the Great Plains of the central USA experienced protracted drought conditions, including historically severe drought during Summer, 2011. Drought severity in the region generally decreases with increasing latitude, but episodic drought is a fundamental trait of grassland ecosystems. Documenting above ground energy and nutrient flow with current drought is critical to understanding responses of grassland ecosystems in the region to predicted increased episodicity of rainfall and recurrence of drought due to anthropogenic climate change. Characterization of biogeochemical variability of modern ecosystems at the microhabitat, local landscape, and regional scales is also necessary to interpret biogeochemical records of ancient grasslands based on paleosols and fossil mammals. Here, we characterize three grassland ecosystems that span the drought gradient in the Great Plains (sites in the Texas panhandle, southwest Kansas, and northwest Nebraska). We measured δ13C and δ15N values of plants and consumers to characterize the biogeochemical variability within each ecosystem. Vegetation at each site is a mix of trees, shrubs, herbs, and cool- and warm-growing season grasses (C3 and C4, respectively). Thus, consumers have access to isotopically distinct sources of forage that vary in abundance with microhabitat (e.g., open grassland, shrub thicket, riparian woodland). Observations indicate herbivorous arthropod (grasshoppers and crickets) abundance follows drought severity, with high abundance of many species in Texas, and low abundance of few species in Nebraska. Small mammal (rodents) abundance follows the inverse pattern with 0.8%, 3.2% and 17.2% capture success in Texas, Kansas and Nebraska, respectively. The inverse abundance patterns of consumer groups may result from greater sensitivity of small mammal consumers with high metabolic needs to lower local net primary productivity and forage quality under drought conditions. As a

  12. 75 FR 19953 - Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Survey of Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ..., Mailstop EE-2J, 1000 Independence Ave., SW., Washington, DC 20585-0121 (submit one signed copy) or by fax..., Washington, DC 20024-2123. Telephone: (202) 586-2945. Please submit one signed original paper copy. ] Federal... are not encountered under test conditions. Moreover, field metering will allow DOE to determine...

  13. Determination of the total level of nitrosamines in select consumer products in Lagos area of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, H.A.B.; Thomas, A.E.; Akintonwa, A. )

    1991-11-01

    For some time there has been a considerable interest and growing concern in the extent of contamination of food items by N-nitrosamines because of the known carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of these compounds. Nitrosamines can be derived from the interaction of organic secondary and tertiary amines with nitrite, nitrate under reducing conditions, low pH values or nitrous gases. In Nigeria, the present harsh economic conditions have somewhat influenced the emergence of different kinds of socioeconomic attitude in Nigerians. There is now high incidence of adulteration of many consumer products. Faking of assorted consumables and pharmaceuticals, notably drugs, is a common feature, all in attempt to cut corners. It is a common practice amongst the local people to use certain chemicals as preservatives, colorants and flavorants without taking cognizance of the long-term health and toxicological hazards posed to the citizenry by these foreign agents. Recent work in the authors' laboratory had shown the presence of N-nitrosamines in some consumer products and it was therefore thought that a more thorough investigation and survey of as many foods and drinks as possible in the Lagos metropolis for contamination by nitrosamines might present a more revealing picture.

  14. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S.; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S.; Fan, Jung-wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research. PMID:27375358

  15. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    PubMed Central

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry. PMID:24860803

  16. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design.

    PubMed

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry.

  17. Trends in Exposure to Chemicals in Personal Care and Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Antonia M; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Ye, Xiaoyun

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic organic chemicals can be used in personal care and consumer products. Data on potential human health effects of these chemicals are limited-sometimes even contradictory-but because several of these chemicals are toxic in experimental animals, alternative compounds are entering consumer markets. Nevertheless, limited information exists on consequent exposure trends to both the original chemicals and their replacements. Biomonitoring (measuring concentrations of chemicals or their metabolites in people) provides invaluable information for exposure assessment. We use phthalates and bisphenol A-known industrial chemicals-and organophosphate insecticides as case studies to show exposure trends to these chemicals and their replacements (e.g., other phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers, various bisphenols, pyrethroid insecticides) among the US general population. We compare US trends to national trends from Canada and Germany. Exposure to the original compounds is still prevalent among these general populations, but exposures to alternative chemicals may be increasing.

  18. Why People Drink Shampoo? Food Imitating Products Are Fooling Brains and Endangering Consumers for Marketing Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Frédéric; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Hayek, Maryvonne; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Oullier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A Food Imitating Product (FIP) is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related phone calls at a poison control center followed by a behavioral experiment. Unintentional self-poisoning in the home following the accidental ingestion of a hygiene product by a healthy adult is very likely to result from these products being packaged like foodstuffs. Our hypothesis is that FIPs are non-verbal food metaphors that could fool the brain of consumers. We therefore conducted a subsequent functional neuroimaging (fMRI) experiment that revealed how visual processing of FIPs leads to cortical taste inferences. Considered in the grounded cognition perspective, the results of our studies reveal that healthy adults can unintentionally categorize a personal care product as something edible when a food-like package is employed to market nonedible and/or dangerous products. Our methodology combining field (qualitative) and laboratory (behavioral and functional neuroimaging) findings could be of particular relevance for policy makers, as it can help screening products prior to their market release – e.g. the way they are packaged and how they can potentially confuse the mind of consumers – and therefore save lives. PMID:25207971

  19. Why people drink shampoo? Food Imitating Products are fooling brains and endangering consumers for marketing purposes.

    PubMed

    Basso, Frédéric; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Hayek, Maryvonne; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Oullier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A Food Imitating Product (FIP) is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related phone calls at a poison control center followed by a behavioral experiment. Unintentional self-poisoning in the home following the accidental ingestion of a hygiene product by a healthy adult is very likely to result from these products being packaged like foodstuffs. Our hypothesis is that FIPs are non-verbal food metaphors that could fool the brain of consumers. We therefore conducted a subsequent functional neuroimaging (fMRI) experiment that revealed how visual processing of FIPs leads to cortical taste inferences. Considered in the grounded cognition perspective, the results of our studies reveal that healthy adults can unintentionally categorize a personal care product as something edible when a food-like package is employed to market nonedible and/or dangerous products. Our methodology combining field (qualitative) and laboratory (behavioral and functional neuroimaging) findings could be of particular relevance for policy makers, as it can help screening products prior to their market release--e.g. the way they are packaged and how they can potentially confuse the mind of consumers--and therefore save lives.

  20. Consumption-weighted life cycle assessment of a consumer electronic product community.

    PubMed

    Ryen, Erinn G; Babbitt, Callie W; Williams, Eric

    2015-02-17

    A new approach for quantifying the net environmental impact of a "community" of interrelated products is demonstrated for consumer electronics owned by an average U.S. household over a 15-year period (1992-2007). This consumption-weighted life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology accounts for both product consumption (number of products per household) and impact (cumulative energy demand (MJ) and greenhouse gas emissions (MT CO2 eq) per product), analyzed using a hybrid LCA framework. Despite efficiency improvements in individual devices from 1992 to 2007, the net impact of the entire product community increased, due primarily to increasing ownership and usage. The net energy impact for the product community is significant, nearly 30% of the average gasoline use in a U.S. passenger vehicle in 2007. The analysis points to a large contribution by legacy products (cathode ray tube televisions and desktop computers), due to historically high consumption rates, although impacts are beginning to shift to smaller mobile devices. This method is also applied to evaluate prospective intervention strategies, indicating that environmental impact can be reduced by strategies such as lifespan extension or energy efficiency, but only when applied to all products owned, or by transforming consumption trends toward fewer, highly multifunctional products.

  1. Sandia National Laboratories/Production Agency Weapon Waste Minimization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Skinrood, A.C.; Radosevich, L.G.

    1991-07-01

    This Plan describes activities to reduce the usage of hazardous materials and the production of hazardous material waste during the development, production, stockpile, and retirement phases of war reserve nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon test units. Activities related to the development and qualification of more benign materials and processes for weapon production and the treatment and disposal of these materials from weapon retirement are described in separate plans.

  2. Signalling product healthiness through symbolic package cues: Effects of package shape and goal congruence on consumer behaviour.

    PubMed

    van Ooijen, Iris; Fransen, Marieke L; Verlegh, Peeter W J; Smit, Edith G

    2017-02-01

    Three studies show that product packaging shape serves as a cue that communicates healthiness of food products. Inspired by embodiment accounts, we show that packaging that simulates a slim body shape acts as a symbolic cue for product healthiness (e.g., low in calories), as opposed to packaging that simulates a wide body shape. Furthermore, we show that the effect of slim package shape on consumer behaviour is goal dependent. Whereas simulation of a slim (vs. wide) body shape increases choice likelihood and product attitude when consumers have a health-relevant shopping goal, packaging shape does not affect these outcomes when consumers have a hedonic shopping goal. In Study 3, we adopt a realistic shopping paradigm using a shelf with authentic products, and find that a slim (as opposed to wide) package shape increases on-shelf product recognition and increases product attitude for healthy products. We discuss results and implications regarding product positioning and the packaging design process.

  3. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review.

    PubMed

    Siró, István; Kápolna, Emese; Kápolna, Beáta; Lugasi, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    It was mainly the advances in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health that resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods, which means a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. Functional foods are found virtually in all food categories, however products are not homogeneously scattered over all segments of the growing market. The development and commerce of these products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. Besides potential technological obstacles, legislative aspects, as well as consumer demands need to be taken into consideration when developing functional food. In particular, consumer acceptance has been recognized as a key factor to successfully negotiate market opportunities. This paper offers a brief overview of the current functional food market situation in USA, Japan and some European countries completed with some comments on functional food future potential. It explores the main challenges of such product development focusing on the different factors determining the acceptance of functional food. Furthermore it discusses some prominent types of these food products currently on the market.

  4. Consumer preferences for household water treatment products in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Christine; Yang, Jui-Chen; Patil, Sumeet R; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Wood, Siri; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos

    2012-08-01

    Over 5 billion people worldwide are exposed to unsafe water. Given the obstacles to ensuring sustainable improvements in water supply infrastructure and the unhygienic handling of water after collection, household water treatment and storage (HWTS) products have been viewed as important mechanisms for increasing access to safe water. Although studies have shown that HWTS technologies can reduce the likelihood of diarrheal illness by about 30%, levels of adoption and continued use remain low. An understanding of household preferences for HWTS products can be used to create demand through effective product positioning and social marketing, and ultimately improve and ensure commercial sustainability and scalability of these products. However, there has been little systematic research on consumer preferences for HWTS products. This paper reports the results of the first state-of-the-art conjoint analysis study of HWTS products. In 2008, we conducted a conjoint analysis survey of a representative sample of households in Andhra Pradesh (AP), India to elicit and quantify household preferences for commercial HWTS products. Controlling for attribute non-attendance in an error components mixed logit model, the study results indicate that the most important features to respondents, in terms of the effect on utility, were the type of product, followed by the extent to which the product removes pathogens, the retail outlet and, the time required to treat 10 L. Holding all other product attributes constant, filters were preferred to combination products and chemical additives. Department stores and weekly markets were the most favorable sales outlets, followed by mobile salespeople. In general, households do not prefer to purchase HWTS products at local shops. Our results can inform the types of products and sales outlets that are likely to be successful in commercial HWTS markets in AP, as well as the influence of different pricing and financing strategies on product demand

  5. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided.

  6. Chromium Exposure in the Adult Population, Consuming Different Types of Smokeless Tobacco Products in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Asma; Afridi, Hasan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Talpur, Farah Naz; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Khan, Noman; Khan, Mustafa; Bilal, Muhammad

    2017-02-01

    The pervasive smokeless tobacco (SLT) consumption and diseases related to its use is a hot topic for the public discussion. In this study, concentrations of chromium (Cr) were measured in different SLT products [snuff (dry and moist), mainpuri, and gutkha] offered and used in Pakistan. The current study was also designed to assess the Cr levels in the biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of male and female subjects, age ranged from 25 to 60 years, chewing different SLT products. For comparative purpose, the healthy persons of the same age group, who did not consume any SLT products, were selected as referents. The concentrations of Cr in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials (CRMs). The resulted data indicated that the adult persons, who consumed different SLT products, have 2-3 fold higher levels of Cr in biological samples as compared to referent subjects (p < 0.01). The persons, who chew/sniff different SLT products, have 50-80 and 42-82 % higher levels of Cr in their scalp hair and blood samples as related to referents. The daily intake of Cr is lower as compared to the recommended value of 50-200 μg/day. It was expected that 10 g consumption of various kinds of SLT products (snuff, mainpuri, and gutkha) may subsidize 21.2-220, 17.7-122, and 18.4-273 % of the recommended daily intake of Cr, respectively.

  7. Mixed policies for recovery and disposal of multiple-type consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    Krikke, H.R.; Harten, A. van; Schuur, P.C.

    1998-04-01

    New European government policies aim at the closure of material flows as part of integrated chain management (ICM). One of the main implementation instruments is extended producer responsibility, which makes original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) formally responsible for take-back, recovery, and reuse of discarded products. One of the key problems for OEMs is to determine a recovery strategy, i.e., determine to what extent return products must be disassembled and which recovery and disposal (RD) options should be applied. On a tactical management level, this involves anticipation of problems such as meeting legislation, limited volumes of secondary end markets, bad quality of return products, and facility investments in recycling infrastructure. In this paper, a model is presented that can be used to determine a recovery strategy for multiple-type consumer products. The objective function incorporates technical, ecological, and commercial decision criteria and optimization occurs using a two-level optimization procedure. First, a set of potential product recovery and disposal (PRD) strategies is generated for each separate product type. Secondly, optimal PRD strategies are assigned to the products within a coherent multiproduct or product group policy. The aim is to find an optimal balance between maximizing net profit and meeting constraints like recovery targets, limited market volumes, and processing capacities. A TV case is worked out to illustrate the working of the model. Also, the managerial use of the model is discussed in view of establishing an economically and ecologically sound base for achieving ICM.

  8. 7 CFR 2902.6 - Providing product information to Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND NEW USES, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNATING BIOBASED PRODUCTS FOR FEDERAL PROCUREMENT General § 2902.6 Providing product information to Federal agencies. (a) Informational... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Providing product information to Federal...

  9. A systematic procedure for modeling usability based on product design variables: a case study in audiovisual consumer electronic products.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Jae; Han, Sung H; Yun, Myung Hwan; Kwahk, Jiyoung

    2002-01-01

    A systematic modeling approach to describing, prescribing, and predicting usability of a product has been presented. Given the evaluation results of the usability dimension (UD) and the measurement of the product's design variables, referred to as the human interface elements (HIEs), the approach enables one to systematically assess the relationship between the UD and HIEs. The assessed relationship is called a usability model. Once built, such a usability model can relate, in a quantitative manner, the HIEs directly to the UDs, and thus can serve as an effective aid to designers by evaluating and predicting the usability of an existing or hypothetical product. A usability model for elegance of audiovisual consumer electronic products has been demonstrated.

  10. School Meal Programs: Changes to Federal Agencies' Procedures Could Reduce Risk of School Children Consuming Recalled Food. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-09-649

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few years, several food recalls, such as for beef and peanut products, have affected schools. It is especially important that recalls affecting schools be carried out efficiently and effectively because young children have a higher risk of complications from food-borne illnesses. GAO was asked to determine how federal agencies (1)…

  11. Influence of the reformulation of ingredients in bakery products on healthy characteristics and acceptability of consumers.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Asensi, G; Merola, N; López-Fernández, A; Ros-Berruezo, G; Frontela-Saseta, C

    2016-01-01

    Bakery products are highly consumed by children and adults and as cereal-derived foods are considered a fundamental part of a balanced diet, but they are usually high in sugar and saturated and trans fat and low in fibre. This study aimed to develop four different bakery products (cookies, croissants, Spanish muffins and Spanish sponge cake) with healthier properties, such as lower fat and sugar content, healthy fatty acid profile and higher fibre content. Margarine and sunflower oil were replaced with high oleic sunflower oil, and inulin was also added. After the modifications, a significant reduction of fat content and kilocalories in all cases, an increment of monounsaturated fat and a decrease in saturated fatty acids in three products were observed. The sensory analysis resulted similar results in both recipes for cookies and lower acceptability in sponge cake, croissants and muffins. Purchase intention only decreased in sponge cake.

  12. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  13. Measuring nanoparticles size distribution in food and consumer products: a review.

    PubMed

    Calzolai, L; Gilliland, D; Rossi, F

    2012-08-01

    Nanoparticles are already used in several consumer products including food, food packaging and cosmetics, and their detection and measurement in food represent a particularly difficult challenge. In order to fill the void in the official definition of what constitutes a nanomaterial, the European Commission published in October 2011 its recommendation on the definition of 'nanomaterial'. This will have an impact in many different areas of legislation, such as the European Cosmetic Products Regulation, where the current definitions of nanomaterial will come under discussion regarding how they should be adapted in light of this new definition. This new definition calls for the measurement of the number-based particle size distribution in the 1-100 nm size range of all the primary particles present in the sample independently of whether they are in a free, unbound state or as part of an aggregate/agglomerate. This definition does present great technical challenges for those who must develop valid and compatible measuring methods. This review will give an overview of the current state of the art, focusing particularly on the suitability of the most used techniques for the size measurement of nanoparticles when addressing this new definition of nanomaterials. The problems to be overcome in measuring nanoparticles in food and consumer products will be illustrated with some practical examples. Finally, a possible way forward (based on the combination of different measuring techniques) for solving this challenging analytical problem is illustrated.

  14. Brominated and organophosphate flame retardants in selected consumer products on the Japanese market in 2008.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Natsuko; Noma, Yukio; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2011-09-15

    The concentrations of traditional brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in new consumer products, including electronic equipment, curtains, wallpaper, and building materials, on the Japanese market in 2008 were investigated. Although some components of the electronic equipment contained bromine at concentrations on the order of percent by weight, as indicated by X-ray fluorescence analysis, the bromine content could not be fully accounted for by the BFRs analyzed in this study, which included polybrominated diphenylethers, decabromodiphenyl ethane, tetrabromobisphenol A, polybromophenols, and hexabromocyclododecanes. These results suggest the use of alternative BFRs such as newly developed formulations derived from tribromophenol, tetrabromobisphenol A, or both. Among the 11 OPFRs analyzed, triphenylphosphate was present at the highest concentrations in all the products investigated, which suggests the use of condensed-type OPFRs as alternative flame retardants, because they contain triphenylphosphate as an impurity. Tripropylphosphate was not detected in any samples; and trimethylphosphate, tributyl tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate were detected in only some components and at low concentrations. Note that all the consumer products evaluated in this study also contained traditional BFRs in amounts that were inadequate to impart flame retardancy, which implies the incorporation of recycled plastic materials containing BFRs that are of global concern.

  15. Linking PBDEs in house dust to consumer products using X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; McClean, Michael D; Stapleton, Heather M; Webster, Thomas F

    2008-06-01

    The indoor environment is an important source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of fire retardants used in many household products. Previous attempts to link PBDE concentrations in house dust to consumer products have been hampered by the inability to determine the presence of PBDEs in otherwise similar products. We used a portable X-rayfluorescence (XRF) analyzer to nondestructively quantify bromine concentrations in consumer goods. In the validation phase, XRF-measured bromine was highly correlated with GC/MS-measured bromine for furniture foam and plastic from electronics (n = 29, r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). In the field study phase, the XRF-measured bromine in room furniture was associated with pentaBDE concentrations in room dust in the bedroom (r = 0.68, p = 0.001) and main living area (r = 0.51, p = 0.02). We also found an association between XRF-measured bromine levels in electronics and decaBDE levels in dust, largely driven by the high levels in televisions (r = 0.64, p = 0.003 for bedrooms). For the main living area, predicting decaBDE in dust improved when we included an interaction effect between the bromine content of televisions and the number of persons in the house (p < 0.005), a potential surrogate for television usage.

  16. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  17. Coupled near-field and far-field exposure assessment framework for chemicals in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Huang, Lei; Csiszar, Susan A; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products through product use and environmental emissions over the product life cycle. Exposure pathways are often complex, where chemicals can transfer directly from products to humans during use or exchange between various indoor and outdoor compartments until sub-fractions reach humans. To consistently evaluate exposure pathways along product life cycles, a flexible mass balance-based assessment framework is presented structuring multimedia chemical transfers in a matrix of direct inter-compartmental transfer fractions. By matrix inversion, we quantify cumulative multimedia transfer fractions and exposure pathway-specific product intake fractions defined as chemical mass taken in by humans per unit mass of chemical in a product. Combining product intake fractions with chemical mass in the product yields intake estimates for use in life cycle impact assessment and chemical alternatives assessment, or daily intake doses for use in risk-based assessment and high-throughput screening. Two illustrative examples of chemicals used in personal care products and flooring materials demonstrate how this matrix-based framework offers a consistent and efficient way to rapidly compare exposure pathways for adult and child users and for the general population. This framework constitutes a user-friendly approach to develop, compare and interpret multiple human exposure scenarios in a coupled system of near-field ('user' environment), far-field and human intake compartments, and helps understand the contribution of individual pathways to overall human exposure in various product application contexts to inform decisions in different science-policy fields for which exposure quantification is relevant.

  18. Exploring consumer exposure pathways and patterns of use for chemicals in the environment through the Chemical/Product Categories Database

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Exploring consumer exposure pathways and patterns of use for chemicals in the environment through the Chemical/Product Categories Database (CPCat) (Presented by: Kathie Dionisio, Sc.D., NERL, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC (1/23/2014).

  19. Consumer concerns and expectations about novel food processing technologies: effects on product liking.

    PubMed

    Cardello, Armand V

    2003-06-01

    Eighty-eight consumers participated in a blind pre-test in which they rated their baseline preference for chocolate pudding, their liking of three tasted brands of chocolate pudding, and their level of concern for 20 different food processing and preservation technologies. All returned one month later and tasted the same puddings, but this time they were informed that they had been processed by one of several different novel or traditional food processing techniques. Different sub-groups were informed of the name of the process, the name plus a factual description of the process, or the name, the factual description, plus a benefit statement. Ratings of expected liking were obtained before and after viewing the samples, but before tasting them. Finally, subjects tasted and rated the products for actual liking and a sub-group rated their concern levels for the same 20 technologies rated in the pre-test. Pre-test results showed females to have significantly higher concern levels for all technologies. Individuals who had demonstrated a willingness to consume foods processed by one novel technology (irradiation) had lower concern ratings for all technologies. Ratings of concern were negatively correlated with expected liking for products believed to be processed by the technologies. Expected liking ratings were positively influenced by visual exposure to the product and by a safety and benefit statement. Linear regression of the change in product liking as a function of whether products were better or worse than expected supported an assimilation model of the effect of disconfirmed expectations on liking/disliking. Lastly, post-test concern levels for many of the technologies were reduced by participation in the study.

  20. 78 FR 54629 - Consumer Advisory Board meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION BUREAU Consumer Advisory Board meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION... Consumer Advisory Board (``CAB'' or ``Board'') of the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (Bureau)....

  1. Evaluation of ozone emissions and exposures from consumer products and home appliances.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Jenkins, P L

    2017-03-01

    Ground-level ozone can cause serious adverse health effects and environmental impacts. This study measured ozone emissions and impacts on indoor ozone levels and associated exposures from 17 consumer products and home appliances that could emit ozone either intentionally or as a by-product of their functions. Nine products were found to emit measurable ozone, one up to 6230 ppb at a distance of 5 cm (2 inches). One use of these products increased room ozone concentrations by levels up to 106 ppb (mean, from an ozone laundry system) and personal exposure concentrations of the user by 12-424 ppb (mean). Multiple cycles of use of one fruit and vegetable washer increased personal exposure concentrations by an average of 2550 ppb, over 28 times higher than the level of the 1-h California Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone (0.09 ppm). Ozone emission rates ranged from 1.6 mg/h for a refrigerator air purifier to 15.4 mg/h for a fruit and vegetable washer. The use of some products was estimated to contribute up to 87% of total daily exposures to ozone. The results show that the use of some products may result in potential health impacts.

  2. New Trends in Pesticide Residue Analysis in Cereals, Nutraceuticals, Baby Foods, and Related Processed Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide residue methods have been developed for a wide variety of food products including cereal-based foods, nutraceuticals and related plant products, and baby foods. These cereal, fruit, vegetable, and plant-based products provide the basis for many processed consumer products. For cereal and nutraceuticals, which are dry sample products, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method has been used with additional steps to allow wetting of the dry sample matrix and subsequent cleanup using dispersive or cartridge format SPE to reduce matrix effects. More processed foods may have lower pesticide concentrations but higher co-extracts that can lead to signal suppression or enhancement with MS detection. For complex matrixes, GC/MS/MS or LC/electrospray ionization (positive or negative ion)-MS/MS is more frequently used. The extraction and cleanup methods vary with different sample types particularly for cereal-based products, and these different approaches are discussed in this review. General instrument considerations are also discussed.

  3. Consumer Product Chemicals in Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-analysis of U.S. Studies.

    PubMed

    Mitro, Susanna D; Dodson, Robin E; Singla, Veena; Adamkiewicz, Gary; Elmi, Angelo F; Tilly, Monica K; Zota, Ami R

    2016-10-04

    Indoor dust is a reservoir for commercial consumer product chemicals, including many compounds with known or suspected health effects. However, most dust exposure studies measure few chemicals in small samples. We systematically searched the U.S. indoor dust literature on phthalates, replacement flame retardants (RFRs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), synthetic fragrances, and environmental phenols and estimated pooled geometric means (GMs) and 95% confidence intervals for 45 chemicals measured in ≥3 data sets. In order to rank and contextualize these results, we used the pooled GMs to calculate residential intake from dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal uptake from air, and then identified hazard traits from the Safer Consumer Products Candidate Chemical List. Our results indicate that U.S. indoor dust consistently contains chemicals from multiple classes. Phthalates occurred in the highest concentrations, followed by phenols, RFRs, fragrance, and PFASs. Several phthalates and RFRs had the highest residential intakes. We also found that many chemicals in dust share hazard traits such as reproductive and endocrine toxicity. We offer recommendations to maximize comparability of studies and advance indoor exposure science. This information is critical in shaping future exposure and health studies, especially related to cumulative exposures, and in providing evidence for intervention development and public policy.

  4. Consumer Product Chemicals in Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-analysis of U.S. Studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Indoor dust is a reservoir for commercial consumer product chemicals, including many compounds with known or suspected health effects. However, most dust exposure studies measure few chemicals in small samples. We systematically searched the U.S. indoor dust literature on phthalates, replacement flame retardants (RFRs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), synthetic fragrances, and environmental phenols and estimated pooled geometric means (GMs) and 95% confidence intervals for 45 chemicals measured in ≥3 data sets. In order to rank and contextualize these results, we used the pooled GMs to calculate residential intake from dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal uptake from air, and then identified hazard traits from the Safer Consumer Products Candidate Chemical List. Our results indicate that U.S. indoor dust consistently contains chemicals from multiple classes. Phthalates occurred in the highest concentrations, followed by phenols, RFRs, fragrance, and PFASs. Several phthalates and RFRs had the highest residential intakes. We also found that many chemicals in dust share hazard traits such as reproductive and endocrine toxicity. We offer recommendations to maximize comparability of studies and advance indoor exposure science. This information is critical in shaping future exposure and health studies, especially related to cumulative exposures, and in providing evidence for intervention development and public policy. PMID:27623734

  5. Performance-based regulation: enterprise responsibility for reducing death, injury, and disease caused by consumer products.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Stephen D

    2009-12-01

    This article offers a bold new idea for confronting the staggering level of death, injury, and disease caused by five consumer products: cigarettes, alcohol, guns, junk food, and motor vehicles. Business leaders try to frame these negative outcomes as "collateral damage" that is someone else's problem. That framing not only is morally objectionable but also overlooks the possibility that, with proper prodding, industry could substantially lessen these public health disasters. I seek to reframe the public perception of who is responsible and propose to deploy a promising approach called "performance-based regulation" to combat the problem. Performance-based regulation would impose on manufacturers a legal obligation to reduce the negative social costs of their products. Rather than involving them in litigation or forcing them to operate differently (as "command-and-control" regimes do), performance-based regulation allows the firms to determine how best to decrease bad public health consequences. Like other public health strategies, performance-based regulation focuses on those who are far more likely than individual consumers to achieve real gains. Analogous to a tax on causing harm that exceeds a threshold level, performance-based regulation seeks to harness private initiative in pursuit of the public good.

  6. Advanced glycation endproducts in 35 types of seafood products consumed in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zhenxing; Pavase, Ramesh Tushar; Lin, Hong; Zou, Long; Wen, Jie; Lv, Liangtao

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been recognized as hazards in processed foods that can induce chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the AGEs contents of 35 types of industrial seafood products that are consumed frequently in eastern China. Total fluorescent AGEs level and Nɛ-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) content were evaluated by fluorescence spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The level of total fluorescent AGEs in seafood samples ranged from 39.37 to 1178.3 AU, and was higher in canned and packaged instant aquatic products that were processed at high temperatures. The CML content in seafood samples ranged from 44.8 to 439.1 mg per kg dried sample, and was higher in roasted seafood samples. The total fluorescent AGEs and CML content increased when seafood underwent high-temperature processing, but did not show an obvious correlation. The present study suggested that commonly consumed seafood contains different levels of AGEs, and the seafood processed at high temperatures always displays a high level of either AGEs or CML.

  7. A tiered asthma hazard characterization and exposure assessment approach for evaluation of consumer product ingredients.

    PubMed

    Maier, Andrew; Vincent, Melissa J; Parker, Ann; Gadagbui, Bernard K; Jayjock, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a complex syndrome with significant consequences for those affected. The number of individuals affected is growing, although the reasons for the increase are uncertain. Ensuring the effective management of potential exposures follows from substantial evidence that exposure to some chemicals can increase the likelihood of asthma responses. We have developed a safety assessment approach tailored to the screening of asthma risks from residential consumer product ingredients as a proactive risk management tool. Several key features of the proposed approach advance the assessment resources often used for asthma issues. First, a quantitative health benchmark for asthma or related endpoints (irritation and sensitization) is provided that extends qualitative hazard classification methods. Second, a parallel structure is employed to include dose-response methods for asthma endpoints and methods for scenario specific exposure estimation. The two parallel tracks are integrated in a risk characterization step. Third, a tiered assessment structure is provided to accommodate different amounts of data for both the dose-response assessment (i.e., use of existing benchmarks, hazard banding, or the threshold of toxicological concern) and exposure estimation (i.e., use of empirical data, model estimates, or exposure categories). Tools building from traditional methods and resources have been adapted to address specific issues pertinent to asthma toxicology (e.g., mode-of-action and dose-response features) and the nature of residential consumer product use scenarios (e.g., product use patterns and exposure durations). A case study for acetic acid as used in various sentinel products and residential cleaning scenarios was developed to test the safety assessment methodology. In particular, the results were used to refine and verify relationships among tiered approaches such that each lower data tier in the approach provides a similar or greater margin of safety for a given

  8. 78 FR 13857 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, NC; Authorization of Production Activity; Revlon Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, NC; Authorization of Production Activity; Revlon Consumer Products Corporation (Hair Coloring Products); Oxford, NC On October 10, 2012,...

  9. Chemical Products in the Home, Workshop and Garden. Proceed with Caution; Consumer Safety in the Home, II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    The average home has chemical products to clean floors, kill insects, clean ovens, thin paint, remove grease, and perform countless other chores. Many consumers remain unaware of the dangers these products bring into the home. This booklet provides information on the safe use, storage, and disposal of these products. The compounds found in…

  10. The production of consuming less: Energy efficiency, climate change, and light bulbs in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoyre, Autumn

    In this research, I have analyzed the production of consuming less electricity through a case study of promotions of compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs). I focused on the CFL because it has been heavily promoted by environmentalists and electricity companies as a key tool for solving climate change, yet such promotions appear counter-intuitive. The magnitude of CFL promotions by environmentalists is surprising because CFLs can only impact less than 1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. CFL promotions by electricity providers are surprising given such companies' normal incentives to sell more of their product. I used political ecological and symbolic interactionist theories, qualitative methods of data collection (including interviews, participant-observation, texts, and images), and a grounded theory analysis to understand this case. My findings suggest that, far from being a self-evident technical entity, energy efficiency is produced as an idea, a part of identities, a resource, and a source of value through social, political, and economic processes. These processes include identity formation and subjectification; gender-coded household labor; and corporate appropriation of household value resulting from environmental governance. I show how environmentalists use CFLs to make and claim neoliberal identities, proposing the concept of green neoliberal identity work as a mechanism through which neoliberal ideologies are translated into practices. I analyze how using this seemingly easy energy efficient technology constitutes labor that is gendered in ways that reflect and reproduce inequalities. I show how electricity companies have used environmental governance to valorize and appropriate home energy efficiency as an accumulation strategy. I conclude by discussing the symbolic power of CFLs, proposing a theory of green obsolescence, and framing the production of energy efficiency as a global production network. I found that promoting energy efficiency involves

  11. The meaning of colours in nutrition labelling in the context of expert and consumer criteria of evaluating food product healthfulness.

    PubMed

    Wąsowicz, Grażyna; Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted to explore the effect of front-of-pack nutrition labels on the perceived healthfulness of food products. Consumers were found to hold beliefs about colours and their fit to product categories that influence the assessment process. Consumers associate certain colours with product healthfulness. Yellow, blue, green and red were found to be evocative of health. Heather, pink and celadon suggested an artificial thus unhealthful product. The impact of labels on healthfulness assessment was observed only in the unhealthful category. The findings show the complexity of psychological processes in the perception of food healthfulness.

  12. A review of models for near-field exposure pathways of chemicals in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter; Csiszar, Susan A; Jolliet, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to chemicals in consumer products has been gaining increasing attention, with multiple studies showing that near-field exposures from products is high compared to far-field exposures. Regarding the numerous chemical-product combinations, there is a need for an overarching review of models able to quantify the multiple transfers of chemicals from products used near-field to humans. The present review therefore aims at an in-depth overview of modeling approaches for near-field chemical release and human exposure pathways associated with consumer products. It focuses on lower-tier, mechanistic models suitable for life cycle assessments (LCA), chemical alternative assessment (CAA) and high-throughput screening risk assessment (HTS). Chemicals in a product enter the near-field via a defined "compartment of entry", are transformed or transferred to adjacent compartments, and eventually end in a "human receptor compartment". We first focus on models of physical mass transfers from the product to 'near-field' compartments. For transfers of chemicals from article interior, adequate modeling of in-article diffusion and of partitioning between article surface and air/skin/food is key. Modeling volatilization and subsequent transfer to the outdoor is crucial for transfers of chemicals used in the inner space of appliances, on object surfaces or directly emitted to indoor air. For transfers from skin surface, models need to reflect the competition between dermal permeation, volatilization and fraction washed-off. We then focus on transfers from the 'near-field' to 'human' compartments, defined as respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and epidermis, for which good estimates of air concentrations, non-dietary ingestion parameters and skin permeation are essential, respectively. We critically characterize for each exposure pathway the ability of models to estimate near-field transfers and to best inform LCA, CAA and HTS, summarizing the main characteristics of the

  13. Perception of oyster-based products by French consumers. The effect of processing and role of social representations.

    PubMed

    Debucquet, Gervaise; Cornet, Josiane; Adam, Isabelle; Cardinal, Mireille

    2012-12-01

    The search for new markets in the seafood sector, associated with the question of the continuity of raw oyster consumption over generations can be an opportunity for processors to extend their ranges with oyster-based products. The twofold aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of processing and social representation on perception of oyster-based products by French consumers and to identify the best means of development in order to avoid possible failure in the market. Five products with different degrees of processing (cooked oysters in a half-shell, hot preparation for toast, potted oyster, oyster butter and oyster-based soup) were presented within focus groups and consumer tests, at home and in canteens with the staff of several companies in order to reach consumers with different ages and professional activities. The results showed that social representation had a strong impact and that behaviours were contrasted according to the initial profile of the consumer (traditional raw oyster consumers or non-consumers) and their age distribution (younger and older people). The degree of processing has to be adapted to each segment. It is suggested to develop early exposure to influence the food choices and preferences of the youngest consumers on a long-term basis.

  14. Differential effects of nutrient-limited primary production on primary, secondary or tertiary consumers.

    PubMed

    Malzahn, Arne M; Hantzsche, Florian; Schoo, Katherina L; Boersma, Maarten; Aberle, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional imbalances between predator and prey are the rule rather than the exception at the lower end of food webs. We investigated the role of different grazers in the propagation of nutritionally imbalanced primary production by using the same primary producers in a three-trophic-level food chain and a four-trophic-level food chain experimental setup. The three-trophic-level food chain consisted of a classic single-cell primary producer (Rhodomonas salina), a metazoan grazer (the copepod Acartia tonsa) and a top predator (the jellyfish Gonionemus vertens), while we added a protozoan grazer (Oxyrrhis marina) as primary consumer to the food chain to establish the four-trophic-level food chain. This setup allowed us to investigate how nutrient-limitation effects change from one trophic level to another, and to investigate the performance of two components of our experimental food chains in different trophic positions. Stoichiometry and fatty acid profiles of the algae showed significant differences between the nutrient-depleted [no N and no P addition (-P), respectively] and the nutrient-replete (f/2) treatments. The differences in stoichiometry could be traced when O. marina was the first consumer. Copepods feeding on these flagellates were not affected by the nutritional imbalance of their prey in their stoichiometry, their respiration rates nor in their developmental rates. In contrast, when copepods were the primary consumer, those reared on the -P algae showed significantly higher respiration rates along with significantly lower developmental rates. In neither of our two experimental food chains did the signals from the base of the food chains travel up to jelly fish, our top predator.

  15. Detection of nanomaterials in food and consumer products: bridging the gap from legislation to enforcement.

    PubMed

    Stamm, H; Gibson, N; Anklam, E

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the requirements and resulting challenges for the implementation of current and upcoming European Union legislation referring to the use of nanomaterials in food, cosmetics and other consumer products. The European Commission has recently adopted a recommendation for the definition of nanomaterials. There is now an urgent need for appropriate and fit-for-purpose analytical methods in order to identify nanomaterials properly according to this definition and to assess whether or not a product contains nanomaterials. Considering the lack of such methods to date, this paper elaborates on the challenges of the legislative framework and the type of methods needed, not only to facilitate implementation of labelling requirements, but also to ensure the safety of products coming to the market. Considering the many challenges in the analytical process itself, such as interaction of nanoparticles with matrix constituents, potential agglomeration and aggregation due to matrix environment, broad variety of matrices, etc., there is a need for integrated analytical approaches, not only for sample preparation (e.g. separation from matrix), but also for the actual characterisation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for quality assurance tools such as validated methods and (certified) reference materials, including materials containing nanoparticles in a realistic matrix (food products, cosmetics, etc.).

  16. Energy and materials use in the production and recycling of consumer-goods packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.

    1981-02-01

    A comparison is made of the energy consumed annually in the United States to produce paper, glass, steel, aluminum, and plastic for consumer-goods packaging and types of energy used for production are examined. Energy saved through recycling and combustion for energy recovery also is considered. A maximum of 1.5 quad could be saved if this packaging material were recycled, and about 0.6 quad could be recovered if it were burned as part of municipal solid waste. Paper and plastic compete in several markets, including bags and milk containers: in almost all cases, the plastic container requires less energy to produce and recycle. However, the major energy input to paper manufacture is wood, rather than oil and natural gas. Glass bottles require less energy to produce than aluminum or steel cans. On the other hand, aluminum cans take less energy to recycle than bottles, and recycled aluminum cans are the least energy intensive of the single-serving beverage containers, except for refillable glass bottles that are reused several times. For family-sized beverage bottles, a plastic bottle uses less energy to make and to recycle than a glass bottle. In addition, plastic bottles are combustible. However, glass bottles could be made with no oil or natural gas input, and they can be reused.

  17. Determination of the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Wilfong, A K; McKillip, K V; Gonzalez, J M; Houser, T A; Unruh, J A; Boyle, E A E; O'Quinn, T G

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties. Six treatments were used in the study: 90/10 Certified Angus Beef (CAB) ground sirloin, 90/10 ground beef, 80/20 CAB ground chuck, 80/20 ground chuck, 80/20 ground beef, and 73/27 CAB ground beef. Ground beef was processed into 151.2-g patties using a patty former with 2 consecutively formed patties assigned to blind consumer testing and the following 2 assigned to informed testing. Following cooking to 74°C, patties were cut into quarters and served to consumers. Consumers ( = 112) evaluated samples in 2 rounds for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, texture liking, and overall liking. Each trait was also rated as either acceptable or unacceptable. In the first round of testing, samples were blind evaluated, with no information about the treatments provided to consumers, but in the second round, product type and brand were disclosed prior to sample evaluation. Additionally, texture profile and shear force analyses were performed on patties from each treatment. Few differences were observed for palatability traits during blind consumer testing; however, during informed testing, 90/10 CAB ground sirloin was rated greatest ( < 0.05) for all palatability traits other than juiciness. Also, 90/10 CAB ground sirloin had increased ( < 0.05; (consumer informed score - consumer blind score)/consumer blind score) ratings for tenderness (17.4%), juiciness (36.5%), flavor liking (23.3%), texture liking (18.2%), and overall liking (24.7%) due to brand disclosure. Increased ( < 0.05) ratings were found for CAB products for multiple traits due to treatment disclosure, whereas the only non-CAB-branded product that received increased ( < 0.05) ratings during informed testing was 90/10 ground beef for tenderness and juiciness. Texture results indicated that decreased fat level increased hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and

  18. Consumer preferences regarding the introduction of new organic products. The case of the Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mauracher, C; Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of new products on the market poses several challenges; in particular, whether the characteristics of the proposed product will be judged positively by potential consumers. This paper analyses the preferences of consumers regarding the introduction on the Italian market of a new product: organic Mediterranean sea bass. The aim of this study is to assess the importance given by consumers to four main characteristics of sea bass (country of origin, size, production method - organic or conventional - and price) so as to be able to formulate marketing strategies. We applied a choice experiment (CE) in order to define not only the ordinal ranking of preferences but also the willingness to pay (WTP) for the key characteristics of the newly-introduced product. We found that consumers show a higher WTP for the sea bass country of origin than for the breeding method used. Our results suggest that while organic aquaculture might be a new and important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication, either from a public policy or commercial perspective, and labelling/certification are not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by the final consumers.

  19. Consumer attitude and purchase intention towards processed meat products with natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung; de Kok, Theo M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates consumer attitude and purchase intention towards processed meat products with added natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite. The rationale for such innovation relates to nitrite's negative health image as a chemical additive among consumers, versus the perception of compounds from fruits and vegetables as being natural and healthy. Cross-sectional data were collected through online questionnaires on knowledge about, interest in, attitude and intentions towards such new type of processed meat products in Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy and Germany (n=2057). Consumers generally had limited knowledge about nitrite being added to meat products. Yet, they expressed favourable attitudes and purchase intentions towards the new processed meat products. Purchase intention associated positively with: attitude; preference for natural over chemical additives; perceived harmfulness of chemical additives; risk importance; domain specific innovativeness; awareness of nitrite added; education; general health interest; and processed meat consumption frequency. Consumers from Italy and Germany had a lower level of purchase intention compared to Belgium. Four consumer segments were identified based on attitude and purchase intention: 'enthusiasts' (39.3% of the sample), 'accepters' (11.9%), 'half-hearted' (42.3%) and 'uninterested' (6.6%). This study provides valuable insight for further product development and effective tailoring of marketing communication strategies of innovative processed meat products.

  20. Risk assessment of volatile organic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong Kwang; Shin, Han Seung; Yoon, Kyung Sil; Kwack, Seung Jun; Um, Yoon Mi; Hyeon, Ji Hyeon; Kwak, Hyo Min; Kim, Ji Yun; Kim, Tae Young; Kim, Yeon Joo; Roh, Tae Hyun; Lim, Duck Soo; Shin, Min Kyung; Choi, Seul Min; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2014-01-01

    Exposure and risk assessment was performed by evaluating levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in 207 consumer products. The products were categorized into 30 different items, consisting of products of different brands. Samples were analyzed for BTEX by headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (headspace-GC/MS) with limit of detection (LOD) of 1 ppm. BTEX were detected in 59 consumer products from 18 item types. Benzene was detected in whiteout (ranging from not detected [ND] to 3170 ppm), glue (1486 ppm), oil-based ballpoint pens (47 ppm), and permanent (marking) pens (2 ppm). Toluene was detected in a leather cleaning product (6071 ppm), glue (5078 ppm), whiteout (1130 ppm), self-adhesive wallpaper (15-1012 ppm), shoe polish (806 ppm), permanent pen (609 ppm), wig adhesive (372 ppm), tapes (2-360 ppm), oil-based ballpoint pen (201 ppm), duplex wallpaper (12-52 ppm), shoes (27 ppm), and air freshener (13 ppm). High levels of ethylbenzene were detected in permanent pen (ND-345,065 ppm), shoe polish (ND-277,928 ppm), leather cleaner (42,223 ppm), whiteout (ND-2,770 ppm), and glue (ND-792 ppm). Xylene was detected in permanent pen (ND-285,132 ppm), shoe polish (ND-87,298 ppm), leather cleaner (12,266 ppm), glue (ND-3,124 ppm), and whiteout (ND-1,400 ppm). Exposure assessment showed that the exposure to ethylbenzene from permanent pens ranged from 0 to 3.11 mg/kg/d (men) and 0 to 3.75 mg/kg/d (women), while for xylene, the exposure ranges were 0-2.57 mg/kg/d and 0-3.1 mg/kg/d in men and women, respectively. The exposure of women to benzene from whiteout ranged from 0 to 0.00059 mg/kg/d. Hazard index (HI), defined as a ratio of exposure to reference dose (RfD), for ethylbenzene was 31.1 (3.11 mg/kg/d/0.1 mg/kg/d) and for xylene (2.57 mg/kg/d/0.2 mg/kg/d) was 12.85, exceeding 1 for both compounds. Cancer risk for benzene was calculated to be 3.2 × 10(-5) based on (0.00059 mg/kg/d × 0.055 mg/kg-d(-1), cancer

  1. Hexabromocyclododecane in polystyrene based consumer products: an evidence of unregulated use.

    PubMed

    Rani, Manviri; Shim, Won Joon; Han, Gi Myung; Jang, Mi; Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee

    2014-09-01

    Polystyrene (PS) is made flame retardant by combining with hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD). HBCD can release from consumer products during their production, use or disposal. As a result, it has become a ubiquitous contaminant in the environment with a high potential for bioaccumulation. Therefore, to evaluate the extent of exposure to HBCD from PS, we determined the concentration of HBCD in a variety of products (n=34) made from three types of commonly used PS: expanded PS (EPS), extruded PS foam (XPS), and extruded PS. The concentration of HBCD was highest in EPS, with a mean value and range of 475643±16710ngg(-1) and 106-960000ngg(-1), respectively. PS related to building construction and laboratory uses had a significantly higher concentration of HBCD (3300-905000ngg(-1)), except XPS styroboard (191±100ngg(-1)). Lower concentrations were measured in most food-related products (24.3-199ngg(-1)). However, a relatively high concentration of HBCD was detected in an ice box (960000±29000ngg(-1)), aquaculture buoy (53500±2100ngg(-1)), and disposable tray (8430±730ngg(-1)) used in fish market, raising concern for public health. Our data demonstrate a wide variation in the concentration of HBCD, suggesting a lack of proper controls for the addition of HBCD to PS products. Other brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were also detected in a majority of the XPS products (TBBPA=3.83-545ngg(-1), BTBPE=44-216ngg(-1) and DBDPE=215-4200ngg(-1)). Thus, HBCD is being added to PS along with other BFRs that cannot be ignored.

  2. Demographic and psychographic associations of consumer intentions to purchase healthier food products

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Melissa; Wang, Wei Chun; Worsley, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations of nutrition concerns, demographics, universalism (community oriented) values, perceived control over personal health and food buying, and perceived influence over the food system with intentions to purchase low fat, sugar and salt (LFSS) food products. Methods A national online survey of 2204 Australian consumers administered in November 2011. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations of LFSS purchasing intentions with demographic, values, perceived control, and influence factors. Results Nutrition concern, perceived influence over the food system, and universalism values were key predictors of LFSS purchasing intentions. Almost two thirds (64.6%) of the variance associated with LFSS purchasing was explained by the structural equation model. Conclusion Communication programs which focus on universalism values, nutrition concern and perceived influence over the food system are likely to increase LFSS purchasing and perhaps reduce the demand for energy dense, nutrient poor foods. PMID:26844047

  3. The Application of the Karl Fischer Oven for the Determination of Water in Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Houston, T E; Poore, M W

    1996-10-01

    The direct Karl Fischer (KF) titration method has known interferences for measuring water content. In addition, in analyzing some paints, KF can fail to produce an accurate analysis. The California Air Resources Board (GARB) staff has developed a KF procedure that can be used to determine the water content of consumer products. The procedure uses an oven accessory to the titration system, and is based on a distillation method developed by the California Polytechnical University at San Luis Obispo (Cal Poly). Samples are diluted in l-methoxy-2-propanol (MPA), and an aliquot is injected into an enclosed oven system, where the MPA/water azeotrope is swept directly into the KF titration vessel. The technique is accurate and precise and, thus far, proves to be a fast and reliable method for analysis.

  4. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  5. 76 FR 52333 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... smartphone application for use with iPhones, Android, etc. to allow consumers to report potential violations to FDA via their smartphone. Others may simply choose to send a letter to FDA with their information... smartphone application, and sending a letter to FDA's Center for Tobacco Products. FDA estimates the...

  6. Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

  7. Investigation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in old consumer products in India.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Kanchan; Sharma, Jitendra K; Kanade, Gajanan S; Kashyap, Sanjay M; Juwarkar, Asha A; Wate, Satish R

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used extensively over the past 3 decades as flame retardants in most types of polymers, all over the world, have been identified as global pollutants. PBDEs pose various health problems such as thyroid hormone disruption, permanent learning and memory impairment, behavioral changes, hearing deficits, delayed puberty onset, fetal malformations, and possibly cancer. Many measurements of PBDEs in various matrices from Sweden, Holland, Japan, the USA, and elsewhere have been reported, but few measurements are available for India. In this study, a preliminary screening of different congeners of PBDEs has been performed in different old electronic and consumer products with an objective to build capacity in order to analyze PBDEs and BFRs. Six different samples, foam from upholstery, motherboard of a computer, children toy composite sample, old vanishing window blind sample, electrical wire sample, and PVC flooring sample, were collected and analyzed for the presence of the following PBDE congeners: BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, and BDE-209. It was found that three out of six samples were positive for the presence of PBDEs. Three congeners were detected in the samples, i.e., BDE-47, BDE-153, and BDE-209, of which, highest concentration was of BDE-209. Among the samples, motherboard of computer showed the highest concentration of BDE-209 followed by window blind and foam from upholstery. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that PBDEs are still present in the old consumer products which can be an important additional source of exposure to the population.

  8. Screening for perfluoroalkyl acids in consumer products, building materials and wastes.

    PubMed

    Bečanová, Jitka; Melymuk, Lisa; Vojta, Šimon; Komprdová, Klára; Klánová, Jana

    2016-12-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a large group of important chemical compounds with unique and useful physico-chemical properties, widely produced and used in many applications. However, due to the toxicity, bioaccumulation and long-range transport potential of certain PFASs, they are of significant concern to scientists and policy makers. To assess human exposure to PFASs, it is necessary to understand the concentrations of these emerging contaminants in our environment, and particularly environments where urban population spend most of their time, i.e. buildings and vehicles. A total of 126 samples of building materials, consumer products, car interior materials and wastes were therefore analyzed for their content of key PFASs - 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs). At least one of the target PFAAs was detected in 88% of all samples. The highest concentration of Σ15PFAAs was found in textile materials (77.61 μg kg(-1)), as expected, since specific PFAAs are known to be used for textile treatment during processing. Surprisingly, PFAAs were also detected in all analyzed composite wood building materials, which were dominated by perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids with 5-8 carbons in the chain (Σ4PFCAs up to 32.9 μg kg(-1)). These materials are currently widely used for building refurbishment, and this is the first study to find evidence of the presence of specific PFASs in composite wood materials. Thus, in addition to consumer products treated with PFASs, materials used in the construction of houses, schools and office buildings may also play an important role in human exposure to PFASs.

  9. Consumer perception of meat quality and implications for product development in the meat sector-a review.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G; Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen

    2004-02-01

    In the first part of the paper, the Total Food Quality Model is used as a frame of reference for analysing the way in which consumers perceive meat quality, drawing mainly on European studies involving beef and pork. The way in which consumers form expectations about quality at the point of purchase, based on their own experience and informational cues available in the shopping environment, is described, as well as the way in which quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. The relationship between quality expectations and quality experience and its implications for consumer satisfaction and repeat purchase intent is addressed. In the second part of the paper, and building on the insights obtained on subjective quality perception, possibilities for consumer-oriented product development in the meat sector are addressed. Issues dealt with here are branding, differentiation by taste, healthiness and convenience, and by process characteristics like organic production and animal welfare.

  10. 76 FR 24476 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Volatile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Manufacturing''. Title: National Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings (40 CFR... volatile organic compounds emissions from the use of consumer and commercial products. Pursuant to...

  11. 78 FR 44895 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: First Co. Petition for Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... necessary to prevent harm to manufacturers and consumers. To the extent that the collection of EER... interim basis is necessary to prevent harm to manufacturers and consumers. The petition states that... CCMS/CCD includes EER information, and that consumers will also suffer harm if they are unable...

  12. 78 FR 41873 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    .../forecasts/aeo/ . \\3\\ Urban, B. et al., 2011. Energy Consumption of Consumer Electronics in U.S. Homes in 2010. Prepared by the Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems for the Consumer Electronics... Appliances. Prepared by Navigant Consulting, Inc. for DOE. \\4\\ Consumer Electronics Association, 2013....

  13. Increasing donor ecosystem productivity decreases terrestrial consumer reliance on a stream resource subsidy.

    PubMed

    Davis, John M; Rosemond, Amy D; Small, Gaston E

    2011-11-01

    Because nutrient enrichment can increase ecosystem productivity, it may enhance resource flows to adjacent ecosystems as organisms cross ecosystem boundaries and subsidize predators in recipient ecosystems. Here, we quantified the biomass and abundance of aquatic emergence and terrestrial spiders in a reference and treatment stream that had been continuously enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus for 5 years. Because we previously showed that enrichment increased secondary production of stream consumers, we predicted that aquatic emergence flux would be higher in the treatment stream, subsequently increasing the biomass and abundance of terrestrial spiders. Those increases were predicted to be greatest for spiders specializing on aquatic emergence subsidies (e.g., Tetragnathidae). By adding a (15)N stable isotope tracer to both streams, we also quantified nitrogen flow from the stream into the riparian community. Emergence biomass, but not abundance, was higher in the treatment stream. The average body size of emerging adult insects and the relative dominance of Trichoptera adults were also greater in the treatment stream. However, spider biomass did not differ between streams. Spiders also exhibited substantially lower reliance on aquatic emergence nitrogen in the treatment stream. This reduced reliance likely resulted from shifts in the body size distributions and community composition of insect emergence that may have altered predator consumption efficiency in the treatment stream. Despite nutrient enrichment approximately doubling stream productivity and associated cross-ecosystem resource flows, the response of terrestrial predators depended more on the resource subsidy's characteristics that affected the predator's ability to capitalize on such increases.

  14. Common Commercial and Consumer Products Contain Activators of the Aryl Hydrocarbon (Dioxin) Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bin; Bohonowych, Jessica E. S.; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Affatato, Alessandra A.; Rice, Robert H.; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Denison, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the Ah receptor (AhR) by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs), such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin), can produce a wide variety of toxic and biological effects. While recent studies have shown that the AhR can bind and be activated by structurally diverse chemicals, how widespread of these AhR agonists are in environmental, biological and synthetic materials remains to be determined. Using AhR-based assays, we demonstrate the presence of potent AhR agonists in a variety of common commercial and consumer items. Solvent extracts of paper, rubber and plastic products contain chemicals that can bind to and stimulate AhR DNA binding and/or AhR-dependent gene expression in hepatic cytosol, cultured cell lines, human epidermis and zebrafish embryos. In contrast to TCDD and other persistent dioxin-like HAHs, activation of AhR-dependent gene expression by these extracts was transient, suggesting that the agonists are metabolically labile. Solvent extracts of rubber products produce AhR-dependent developmental toxicity in zebrafish in vivo, and inhibition of expression of the metabolic enzyme CYP1A, significantly increased their toxic potency. Although the identity of the responsible AhR-active chemicals and their toxicological impact remain to be determined, our data demonstrate that AhR active chemicals are widely distributed in everyday products. PMID:23441220

  15. 75 FR 59234 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...; Comment Request; Requirements for Full-Size Baby Cribs AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Consumer Product Safety Commission (``CPSC'' or ``Commission'') is announcing that...

  16. 78 FR 73504 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Standard for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35), the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or...

  17. 76 FR 17637 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Miele...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... its T8000 and T9000 product models of condensing clothes dryer. The applicable test procedures are... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Miele From the Department of Energy Residential Clothes Dryer...

  18. 78 FR 43974 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and... standards and to aid shoppers who compare products during this period, AHAM proposed two measures. First,...

  19. Evaporation of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) from selected cosmetic products: Implications for consumer exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Dudzina, Tatsiana; Garcia Hidalgo, Elena; von Goetz, Natalie; Bogdal, Christian; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Consumer exposure to leave-on cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCPs) ingredients of low or moderate volatility is often assumed to occur primarily via dermal absorption. In reality they may volatilize from skin and represent a significant source for inhalation exposure. Often, evaporation rates of pure substances from inert surfaces are used as a surrogate for evaporation from more complex product matrices. Also the influence of partitioning to skin is neglected and the resulting inaccuracies are not known. In this paper we describe a novel approach for measuring chemical evaporation rates from C&PCPs under realistic consumer exposure conditions. Series of experiments were carried out in a custom-made ventilated chamber fitted with a vapor trap to study the disposition of a volatile cosmetic ingredient, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), after its topical application on either aluminum foil or porcine skin in vitro. Single doses were applied neat and in commercial deodorant and face cream formulations at normal room (23°C) and skin temperature (32°C). The condition-specific evaporation rates were determined as the chemical mass loss per unit surface area at different time intervals over 1-1.25h post-dose. Product weight loss was monitored gravimetrically and the residual D5 concentrations were analyzed with GC/FID. The release of D5 from exposed surfaces of aluminum occurred very fast with mean rates of 0.029 mg cm(-2)min(-1) and 0.060 mg cm(-2)min(-1) at 23°C and 32°C, respectively. Statistical analysis of experimental data confirmed a significant effect of cosmetic formulations on the evaporation of D5 with the largest effect (2-fold decrease of the evaporation rate) observed for the neat face cream pair at 32°C. The developed approach explicitly considers the initial penetration and evaporation of a substance from the Stratum Corneum and has the potential for application in dermal exposure modeling, product emission tests and the formulation of C&PCPs.

  20. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children’s potential exposures

    PubMed Central

    Tulve, Nicolle S.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Vance, Marina E.; Rogers, Kim; Mwilu, Samuel; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willis, Robert; Thomas, Treye A.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their physiological functions, developmental stage, and activities and behaviors. Despite much research to date, children’s potential exposures to AgNPs are not well characterized. Our objectives were to characterize selected consumer products containing AgNPs and to use the data to estimate a child’s potential non-dietary ingestion exposure. We identified and cataloged 165 consumer products claiming to contain AgNPs that may be used by or near children or found in the home. Nineteen products (textile, liquid, plastic) were selected for further analysis. We developed a tiered analytical approach to determine silver content, form (particulate or ionic), size, morphology, agglomeration state, and composition. Silver was detected in all products except one sippy cup body. Among products in a given category, silver mass contributions were highly variable and not always uniformly distributed within products, highlighting the need to sample multiple areas of a product. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Using this data, a child’s potential non-dietary ingestion exposure to AgNPs when drinking milk formula from a sippy cup is 1.53 μg Ag/kg. Additional research is needed to understand the number and types of consumer products containing silver and the concentrations of silver in these products in order to more accurately predict children’s potential aggregate and cumulative exposures to AgNPs. PMID:25747543

  1. Information for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Credit Union National Association, Inc., Madison, WI.

    This revised pamphlet was developed by a national association of credit unions for the purpose of directing consumer complaints to appropriate agencies or heads of agencies for action. Suggestions to aid the consumer are included, such as trying to solve problems at the local level before complaining to top officials. Addresses and phone numbers…

  2. Field-portable-XRF reveals the ubiquity of antimony in plastic consumer products.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Filella, Montserrat

    2017-02-09

    Very little systematic information exists on the occurrence and concentrations of antimony (Sb) in consumer products. In this study, a Niton XL3t field-portable-X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometer was deployed in situ and in the laboratory to provide quantitative information on Sb dissipated in plastic items and fixtures (including rubber, textile and foamed materials) from the domestic, school, vehicular and office settings. The metalloid was detected in 18% of over 800 measurements performed, with concentrations ranging from about 60 to 60,000μgg(-1). The highest concentrations were encountered in white, electronic casings and in association with similar concentrations of Br, consistent with the use of antimony oxides (e.g. Sb2O3) as synergistic flame retardants. Concentrations above 1000μgg(-1), and with or without Br, were also encountered in paints, piping and hosing, adhesives, whiteboards, Christmas decorations, Lego blocks, document carriers, garden furniture, upholstered products and interior panels of private motor vehicles. Lower concentrations of Sb were encountered in a wide variety of items but its presence (without Br) in food tray packaging, single-use drinks bottles, straws and small toys were of greatest concern from a human health perspective. While the latter observations are consistent with the use of antimony compounds as catalysts in the production of polyethylene terephthalate, co-association of Sb and Br in many products not requiring flame retardancy suggests that electronic casings are widely recycled. Further research is required into the mobility of Sb when dissipated in new, recycled and aged polymeric materials.

  3. Consumer available permanent hair dye products cause major allergic immune activation in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Bonefeld, C M; Larsen, J M; Dabelsteen, S; Geisler, C; White, I R; Menné, T; Johansen, J D

    2010-01-01

    Background p-Phenylenediamine (PPD) and related substances are ingredients of more than two-thirds of oxidative (permanent) hair dyes currently used. Although PPD is a potent skin sensitizer in predictive assays, the extent to which permanent hair dyes sensitize humans has been questioned due to the in-use conditions, e.g. the presence of couplers in the hair dye gel and rapid oxidation using a developer. Objectives To study the skin sensitizing potential of permanent hair dyes in mice. Methods Two different permanent hair dye products containing PPD were studied in CBA mice using a modified version of the local lymph node assay. The colour gel and developer (oxidant) were tested separately and in combination. Response was measured by ear swelling and cytokine production in ear tissue and serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The immune cellular response in the draining lymph nodes was analysed by flow cytometry. Results Application of the colour gel both alone and mixed with the developer induced skin production of interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and IL-6 as well as systemic IL-6 release. Both treatments induced B- and T-cell infiltration as well as T-cell proliferation within the draining lymph nodes. Treatment with the mixture induced at least 20% more skin inflammation, cytokine production and CD4+ T-cell activation compared with the colour gel alone. Conclusions Consumer available PPD-containing permanent hair dyes can be potent and rapid immune activators. Mixing the colour gel and developer (oxidant) increased the induction of skin inflammation compared with application of the colour gel alone.

  4. Toxin production and growth of pathogens subjected to temperature fluctuations simulating consumer handling of cold cuts.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin; Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Granum, Per Einar; Møretrø, Trond; Hjerpekjøn, Marianne Røine; Langsrud, Solveig

    2014-08-18

    It is crucial for the quality and safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods to maintain the cold chain from production to consumption. The effect of temperature abuse related to daily meals and elevated refrigerator temperatures on the growth and toxin production of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis and Staphylococcus aureus and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica was studied. A case study with temperature loggings in the domestic environment during Easter and Christmas holidays was performed to select relevant time and temperature courses. A model for bacterial surface growth on food using nutrient agar plates exposed to variations in temperatures was used to simulate food stored at different temperatures and exposed to room temperature for short periods of time. The results were compared with predicted growth using the modeling tool ComBase Predictor. The consumers exposed their cold cuts to room temperatures as high as 26.5°C with an average duration of meals was 47 min daily for breakfast/brunch during the vacations. Short (≤ 2 h) daily intervals at 25°C nearly halved the time the different pathogens needed to reach levels corresponding to the levels associated with human infection or intoxication, compared with the controls continuously stored at refrigerator temperature. Although the temperature fluctuations affected growth of both B. weihenstephanensis and S. aureus, toxin production was only detected at much higher cell concentrations than what has been associated with human intoxications. Therefore, growth of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica was found to be the limiting factor for safety. In combination with data on temperature abuse in the domestic environment, modeling programs such as ComBase Predictor can be efficient tools to predict growth of some pathogens but will not predict toxin production.

  5. Evaluation of consumable household products for decontaminating retail skinless, boneless chicken breasts.

    PubMed

    McKee, L H; Neish, L; Pottenger, A; Flores, N; Weinbrenner, K; Remmenga, M

    2005-03-01

    The effect of 15 consumable products, including juices, wines, and vinegar, used as rinsing agents on microbial loads of retail skinless, boneless chicken breasts was evaluated in two studies. Ten breasts were rinsed for 1 min with each solution. Samples were swabbed before and after rinsing with a cellulose sponge and evaluated for total aerobic (APC), total coliform (TCC), and generic Escherichia coli counts by Petrifilm methods. No differences were found in initial APC or TCC in either study, with initial mean APC ranging from 5.30 to 7.05 log CFU/cm2 and initial mean TCC ranging from 2.21 to 3.36 log CFU/cm2. In study 1, the APC for breasts rinsed with distilled white vinegar (3.22 log CFU/cm2) was lower than for those rinsed with all other solutions except cranberry juice cocktail (3.86 log CFU/cm2). The TCC for breasts rinsed with distilled white vinegar (0.00 log CFU/cm2) and cranberry juice cocktail (0.20 log CFU/cm2) were lower than those for all other solutions except 10% NaCl (0.43 log CFU/cm2) and 10% NaHCO3 (0.48 log CFU/cm2). In study 2, APC values for breasts rinsed with red wine (5.29 log CFU/cm2) and white wine (5.32 log CFU/cm2) were lower than for breasts rinsed with the other three solutions. The TCC after rinsing with chicken broth (4.48 log CFU/cm2) was higher than for all other solutions except Italian dressing. Although distilled white vinegar was the most effective rinsing agent, all solutions produced lower counts after rinsing, indicating that consumers could use rinsing to remove microorganisms from chicken breast surfaces prior to cooking.

  6. DNA barcoding for identification of consumer-relevant mushrooms: A partial solution for product certification?

    PubMed

    Raja, Huzefa A; Baker, Timothy R; Little, Jason G; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2017-01-01

    One challenge in the dietary supplement industry is confirmation of species identity for processed raw materials, i.e. those modified by milling, drying, or extraction, which move through a multilevel supply chain before reaching the finished product. This is particularly difficult for samples containing fungal mycelia, where processing removes morphological characteristics, such that they do not present sufficient variation to differentiate species by traditional techniques. To address this issue, we have demonstrated the utility of DNA barcoding to verify the taxonomic identity of fungi found commonly in the food and dietary supplement industry; such data are critical for protecting consumer health, by assuring both safety and quality. By using DNA barcoding of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA gene with fungal specific ITS primers, ITS barcodes were generated for 33 representative fungal samples, all of which could be used by consumers for food and/or dietary supplement purposes. In the majority of cases, we were able to sequence the ITS region from powdered mycelium samples, grocery store mushrooms, and capsules from commercial dietary supplements. After generating ITS barcodes utilizing standard procedures accepted by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, we tested their utility by performing a BLAST search against authenticate published ITS sequences in GenBank. In some cases, we also downloaded published, homologous sequences of the ITS region of fungi inspected in this study and examined the phylogenetic relationships of barcoded fungal species in light of modern taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. We anticipate that these data will motivate discussions on DNA barcoding based species identification as applied to the verification/certification of mushroom-containing dietary supplements.

  7. Characterization of organophosphorus flame retardants' sorption on building materials and consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Allen, Matthew R.; Roache, Nancy F.

    2016-09-01

    Better understanding the transport mechanisms of organophosphorus flame-retardants (OPFRs) in the residential environment is important to more accurately estimate their indoor exposure and develop risk management strategies that protect human health. This study describes an improved dual small chamber testing method to characterize the sorption of OPFRs on indoor building materials and consumer products. The OPFRs studied were tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). The test materials and products used as sinks include concrete, ceiling tile, vinyl flooring, carpet, latex painted gypsum wallboard, open cell polyurethane foam, mattress pad and liner, polyester clothing, cotton clothing, and uniform shirt. During the tests, the amount of OPFRs absorbed by the materials at different exposure times was determined simultaneously. OPFRs air concentrations at the inlet and inside the test chamber were monitored. The data were used to rank the sorption strength of the OPFRs on different materials. In general, building materials exhibited relatively stronger sorption strength than clothing textiles. The material-air partition and material phase diffusion coefficients were estimated by fitting a sink model to the sorption concentration data for twelve materials with three OPFRs. They are in the range of 2.72 × 105 to 3.99 × 108 (dimensionless) for the material-air partition coefficients and 1.13 × 10-14 to 5.83 × 10-9 (m2/h) for the material phase diffusion coefficients.

  8. Cytochrome P450-inhibitory activity of parabens and phthalates used in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hitomi; Sugihara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yoko; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP)-inhibitory effects of 11 parabens and 7 phthalates used in consumer products, as well as their hydrolytic metabolites, were investigated, using rat liver microsomes as an enzyme source. The effects on individual CYP isozymes were evaluated by assaying inhibition of activities towards specific substrates, i.e., ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (MROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (BFCD), 7-methoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (MFCD) and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (EFCD) activities. These activities were dose-dependently inhibited, most potently by medium-side-chain parabens (C6-9) and phthalates (C4-6), and less potently by shorter- and longer-side-chain esters. The hydrolytic product of parabens, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, was not inhibitory, while those of phthalates, phthalic acid monoesters, showed lower inhibitory activity than the parent phthalates. Parabens showed relatively potent inhibition of MFCD activity, considered to be mainly due to CYP2C, and phthalates showed relatively potent inhibition of PROD activity, considered to be mainly due to CYP2B.

  9. Consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products. Patterns and insights from a sample of international studies.

    PubMed

    Carlucci, Domenico; Nocella, Giuseppe; De Devitiis, Biagia; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Bimbo, Francesco; Nardone, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The present systematic review was performed to assess consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products in the wide context of developed countries. Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar engines were used to search the existing literature and a total of 49 studies were identified for inclusion. These studies investigated consumer purchasing behaviour towards a variety of fish and seafood products, in different countries and by means of different methodological approaches. In particular, the review identifies and discusses the main drivers and barriers of fish consumption as well as consumers' preferences about the most relevant attributes of fish and seafood products providing useful insights for both practitioners and policy makers. Finally, main gaps of the existing literature and possible trajectories for future research are also discussed.

  10. The productive techniques and constitutive effects of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' discourses in health policy processes.

    PubMed

    Lancaster, K; Seear, K; Treloar, C; Ritter, A

    2017-03-01

    For over twenty years there have been calls for greater 'consumer' participation in health decision-making. While it is recognised by governments and other stakeholders that 'consumer' participation is desirable, barriers to meaningful involvement nonetheless remain. It has been suggested that the reifying of 'evidence-based policy' may be limiting opportunities for participation, through the way this discourse legitimates particular voices to the exclusion of others. Others have suggested that assumptions underpinning the very notion of the 'affected community' or 'consumers' as fixed and bounded 'policy publics' need to be problematised. In this paper, drawing on interviews (n = 41) with individuals closely involved in Australian drug policy discussions, we critically interrogate the productive techniques and constitutive effects of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' discourses in the context of drug policy processes. To inform our analysis, we draw on and combine a number of critical perspectives including Foucault's concept of subjugated knowledges, the work of feminist theorists, as well as recent work regarding conceptualisations of emergent policy publics. First, we explore how the subject position of 'consumer' might be seen as enacted in the material-discursive practices of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' in drug policy processes. Secondly, we consider the centralising power-effects of the dominant 'evidence-based policy' paradigm, and how resistance may be thought about in this context. We suggest that such interrogation has potential to recast the call for 'consumer' participation in health policy decision-making and drug policy processes.

  11. 77 FR 72686 - HACCP Plan Reassessment for Not-Ready-To-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency Verification Procedures AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection... NRTE meat or poultry product with an outbreak would make subsequently-produced like product adulterated. In addition, FSIS is expanding its Salmonella Verification Sampling Program for Raw Meat and...

  12. 78 FR 14635 - HACCP Plan Reassessment for Not-Ready-To-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 417 HACCP Plan Reassessment for Not-Ready-To-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products... for Not-Ready-to-Eat Comminuted Poultry Products and Related Agency Verification Procedures'' until... prevalence of Salmonella in NRTE comminuted poultry product announced in the document. The Agency is...

  13. 41 CFR 101-29.403-2 - Agency responsibility relative to exceptions to Federal product descriptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Agency responsibility relative to exceptions to Federal product descriptions. 101-29.403-2 Section 101-29.403-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY...

  14. 75 FR 27574 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Production Estimate, Quarterly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ..., Quarterly Construction Sand and Gravel and Crushed and Broken Stone (3 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey... Construction Sand and Gravel and Crushed and Broken Stone. This collection consists of three forms and this.... Title: Production Estimate, Quarterly Construction Sand and Gravel and Crushed and Broken Stone. Type...

  15. DEFENSE PRODUCTION ACT: Agencies Lack Policies and Guidance for Use of Key Authorities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Vehicle NAICS North American Industry Classification System NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NDER National Defense Executive...manufacturing sources for next-generation radiation-hardened microelectronics for space and missile systems and to reestablish a domestic production source for...and Space Administration (NASA) have contributed money in support of DOD- managed projects. Other agencies have considered using the authority for

  16. Identifying effective factors on consumers' choice behavior toward green products: the case of Tehran, the capital of Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahnama, Hassan; Rajabpour, Shayan

    2017-01-01

    The environment is increasingly turning to a vital and very important issue for all people. By increasing environmental concerns as well as legislating and regulating rules on the protection of the environment and the emergence of green consumers, implementing green marketing approach for organizations seems to be more crucial and essential. As a result, the need for ecological products and green business activities compels companies to combine environmental issues with marketing strategies. The first step in the success of companies and organizations is to identify consumers and their consumption behaviors correctly and accurately. So, the purpose of this study is to identify effective factors for the choice of consumers of green products. We used consumption values (functional value, social value, emotional value, conditional value, epistemic value, and environmental value) as the effective factor for choosing green products. The original place of this research was in Tehran, capital city of Iran, which is one of the most polluted cities in the world due to environmental issues. The results from the survey questionnaires are analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results indicated that functional value-price, functional value-quality, social value, epistemic value, and environmental value had significantly positive effects on the choice of green products; also, conditional value and emotional value had no influence on it. It was concluded that the main influential factors for consumers' choice behavior regarding green products included environmental value and epistemic value. This study emphasized the proper pricing of green products by producers and sellers.

  17. Consumer preferences for sustainable aquaculture products: Evidence from in-depth interviews, think aloud protocols and choice experiments.

    PubMed

    Risius, Antje; Janssen, Meike; Hamm, Ulrich

    2017-02-20

    Fish from aquaculture is becoming more important for human consumption. Sustainable aquaculture procedures were developed as an alternative to overcome the negative environmental impacts of conventional aquaculture procedures and wild fisheries. The objective of this contribution is to determine what consumers expect from sustainable aquaculture and whether they prefer sustainable aquaculture products. A combination of qualitative research methods, with think aloud protocols and in-depth interviews, as well as quantitative methods, using choice experiments and face-to-face interviews, was applied. Data was collected in three different cities of Germany. Results revealed that sustainable aquaculture was associated with natural, traditional, local, and small scale production systems with high animal welfare standards. Overall, participants paid a lot of attention to the declaration of origin; in particular fish products from Germany and Denmark were preferred along with local products. Frequently used sustainability claims for aquaculture products were mostly criticized as being imprecise by the participants of the qualitative study; even though two claims tested in the choice experiments had a significant positive impact on the choice of purchase. Similarly, existing aquaculture-specific labels for certified sustainable aquaculture had an impact on the buying decision, but were not well recognized and even less trusted. Overall, consumers had a positive attitude towards sustainable aquaculture. However, communication measures and labelling schemes should be improved to increase consumer acceptance and make a decisive impact on consumers' buying behavior.

  18. Use of an aggregate exposure model to estimate consumer exposure to fragrance ingredients in personal care and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Smith, B; Thomas, R; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA.

  19. Narrow-and-sharp or broad-and-blunt--regulations of hazardous chemicals in consumer products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Molander, Linda; Rudén, Christina

    2012-04-01

    Chemicals are incorporated into a vast number of consumer products, and it has been recognized that considerable exposures of humans and the environment to chemicals are due to diffuse emissions from everyday products. Different approaches to the management of risks concerning chemicals in products are discussed on the international arena, but no general strategy has yet been adopted. The aim of this study is to investigate how health and environmental risks associated with chemicals in consumer products are currently managed in European Union legislations, mainly by the Toys Directive, the RoHS Directive, and REACH. Significant differences were found between the risk reduction strategies in these legislations, including substance prioritization, type of restrictions and requirements, and information dissemination to consumers. REACH regulates chemicals in products to a limited extent, and via quite complicated processes. Product-specific rules are therefore useful supplements to REACH for regulating chemicals in products. The combined effects of the RoHS and WEEE directives seem to be effective in promoting substitution of substances identified as problematic in electrical and electronic equipment, and it is recommended that the possibility to develop similar systems should be considered also for other product categories.

  20. THE ROLE OF CONSUMER VALUES AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS IN GREEN PRODUCT SATISFACTION: THE CASE OF HYBRID CARS.

    PubMed

    Hur, Won-Moo; Woo, Jeong; Kim, Yeonshin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between consumer value and customer satisfaction, seeking a better understanding of the motivations underlying "green product" purchases. Based on the influence of demographic factors, it further explores the moderation effects of buyers' socio-demographics on the link between value and satisfaction. Data were collected through a mail survey of American hybrid car buyers. Consumer value, satisfaction, and socio-demographic information were measured, and the proposed relationships among them were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. This study's findings reveal that values (i.e., functional and social) significantly impact hybrid satisfaction and that the effects vary by sex and age. This research provides insight into the motivations of green product purchases by incorporating important consumer characteristics.

  1. The invariance of production per unit of food consumed in fish populations.

    PubMed

    Wiff, R; Barrientos, M A; Segura, A M; Milessi, A C

    2017-02-03

    The amount of biomass production per unit of food consumed (P/Q) represents an important quantity in ecosystem functioning, because it indicates how efficient a population transforms ingested food into biomass. Several investigations have noticed that P/Q remains relatively constant (or invariant) across fish population that feed at the same food-type level (carnivorous/herbivorous). Nevertheless, theoretical explanation for this invariant is still lacking. In this paper, we demonstrate that P/Q remains invariant across fish populations with stable-age distribution. Three key assumptions underpin the P/Q invariant: (1) the ratio between natural mortality M and von Bertalanffy growth parameter k (M/k ratio) should remain invariant across fish populations; (2) a parameter defining the fraction of ingested food available for growth needs to remain constant across fish that feed at the same trophic level; (3) third, the ratio between length at age 0 ([Formula: see text]) and asymptotic length ([Formula: see text]) should be constant across fish populations. The influence of these assumptions on the P/Q estimates were numerically assessed considering fish populations of different lifespan. Numerical evaluations show that the most critical condition highly relates to the first assumption, M/k. Results are discussed in the context of the reliability of the required assumption to consider the P/Q invariant in stable-age distributed fish populations.

  2. Pharmaceuticals and consumer products in four wastewater treatment plants in urban and suburb areas of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qian; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Wentao; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Cao, Xuqi; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lu, Shuguang

    2015-04-01

    Ten pharmaceuticals and two consumer products were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influents ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 9340 ng/L, with the frequency of detection of 31-100%, and the removal efficiencies were observed to be -82 to 100% in the four WWTPs. Concentrations of most target compounds (i.e. diclofenac, caffeine, metoprolol, sulpiride) in the wastewater influents were around three to eight times higher in urban WWTPs than in suburb ones, probably due to the different population served and lifestyles. Mean concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influent generally decreased by 5-76% after rainfall due to the dilution of raw sewage by rainwater, which infiltrated into the sewer system. In the WWTPs located in the suburb area, the increased flow of wastewater influent led to a shortened hydraulic retention time (HRT) and decreased removal efficiencies of some compounds. On the contrary, the influence of rainfall was not significant on the removal efficiencies of investigated compounds in urban WWTPs, probably due to the almost unchanged influent flow, good removal performance, or bypass system employed.

  3. Co-Existence of Service and Productiveness of Education from Consumers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Fengchun

    2007-01-01

    Neither of the "Three Industry" Theory nor the "General Agreement of Trading Service" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) can be the essential criteria to analyze the property of education. The property of education can be defined from consumers' perspective. The direct consumers of education are students; but the…

  4. Relations between transit time, fermentation products, and hydrogen consuming flora in healthy humans.

    PubMed Central

    El Oufir, L; Flourié, B; Bruley des Varannes, S; Barry, J L; Cloarec, D; Bornet, F; Galmiche, J P

    1996-01-01

    consuming flora and certain indices of colonic fermentation. Considering the effects of some fermentation products on intestinal morphology and function, these variations may be relevant to the pathogenesis of colorectal diseases. PMID:8984026

  5. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America.

  6. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A METHOD FOR MEASURING EXEMPT VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development and validation of a method for measuring exempt volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon dioxide in consumer products. (NOTE: Ground-level ozone can cause a variety of adverse health effects as well as agricultural and ecological damage. C...

  7. 76 FR 21879 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to LG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... tested energy use would be less than the actual energy usage, and could evaluate the basic model in a... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products:...

  8. 76 FR 11233 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to LG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... tested energy use would be less than the actual energy usage, and could evaluate the basic model in a... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products:...

  9. 75 FR 76968 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-10

    ... energy use would be less than the actual energy usage, and could evaluate the basic model in a manner so... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products:...

  10. Validation of the Consumer Values versus Perceived Product Attributes Model Measuring the Purchase of Athletic Team Merchandise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghun; Byon, Kevin K.; Schoenstedt, Linda; Johns, Gary; Bussell, Leigh Ann; Choi, Hwansuk

    2012-01-01

    Various consumer values and perceived product attributes trigger consumptive behaviors of athletic team merchandise (Lee, Trail, Kwon, & Anderson, 2011). Likewise, using a principal component analysis technique on a student sample, a measurement scale was proposed that consisted of nine factors affecting the purchase of athletic team…

  11. Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Claims on Consumer Perceptions about Food Products' Healthfulness and Helpfulness for Weight Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Verrill, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate effect of low-carbohydrate claims on consumer perceptions about food products' healthfulness and helpfulness for weight management. Design: Experiment in which participants were randomly assigned 1 of 12 front-of-package claim conditions on bread or a frozen dinner. Seven of the 12 conditions also included Nutrition Facts (NF)…

  12. Probabilistic representation of the exposure of consumers to Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin in a minimally processed potato product.

    PubMed

    Barker, G C; Malakar, P K; Del Torre, M; Stecchini, M L; Peck, M W

    2005-04-15

    We have examined the potential of a well-specified, minimally processed potato product as a vehicle for the exposure of consumers to Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin. The product is a relatively simple combination of raw potato flakes, flour, starch and other minor ingredients and has an extended lifetime under refrigeration conditions. A combination of information and data, from a variety of sources that includes the manufacturer, has shown that the product is particularly safe with respect to non-proteolytic C. botulinum hazards. The model concentrates on a simple end point, the toxicity of an individual retail unit of the product at the point of consumer preparation, which is related to an individual risk. The probabilistic analysis was built using Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) techniques.

  13. Product Performance and Servicing: An Examination of Consumer Problems and Business Responses. Report of the Sub-Council on Performance and Service of the National Business Council for Consumer Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Business Council for Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses consumer and corporate problems associated with product performance and servicing of consumer durables (such as automobiles, large and small appliances, and televisions and phonographs), and outlines action which should be taken by manufacturers, trade and professional associations, and government to assure quality and…

  14. Exposure assessment of consumer products: human body weights and total body surface areas to use, and sources of data for specific products

    SciTech Connect

    Hakkinen, P.J.; Kelling, C.K.; Callender, J.C. )

    1991-02-01

    A thorough understanding of the routes and magnitudes of chemical exposures that consumers experience during the use of a household product is needed as part of a well-founded risk assessment for that product and its components. This review describes some sources of generic consumer data (eg, relevant body weight or total body surface area for a given human age), and exposure-related data (eg, task frequency and duration) for specific product types needed for exposure assessments. The review also contains a discussion of the importance of statistical characterization of the consumer data (eg, does its range follow a normal, log-normal, or other type of distribution ). The importance of examining these data for correlative interactions is emphasized.25 references.

  15. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products

    PubMed Central

    Isley, Steven C.; Stern, Paul C.; Carmichael, Scott P.; Joseph, Karun M.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers’ incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products’ environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers’ contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the “soft costs” to consumers of proenvironmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make proenvironmental action difficult. PMID:27528670

  16. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from building materials and consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo; Leaderer, Brian; Zelon, Harvey; Sheldon, Linda

    EPA's TEAM Study of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air and drinking water of 650 residents of seven U.S. cities resulted in the identification of a number of possible sources encountered in peoples' normal daily activities and in their homes. A follow-up EPA study of publicaccess buildings implicated other potential sources of exposure. To learn more about these potential sources, 15 building materials and common consumer products were analyzed using a headspace technique to detect organic emissions and to compare relative amounts. About 10-100 organic compounds were detected offgassing from each material. Four mixtures of materials were then chosen for detailed study: paint on sheetrock; carpet and carpet glue; wallpaper and adhesives; cleansers and a spray pesticide. The materials were applied as normally used, allowed to age 1 week (except for the cleansers and pesticides, which were used normally during the monitoring period), and placed in an environmentally controlled chamber. Organic vapors were collected on Tenax-GC over a 4-h period and analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Emission rates and chamber concentrations were calculated for 17 target chemicals chosen for their toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic properties. Thirteen of the 17 chemicals were emitted by one or more of the materials. Elevated concentrations of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, n-decane, n-undecane, p-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane and styrene were produced by the four mixtures of materials tested. For some chemicals, these amounts were sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the elevated concentrations observed in previous indoor air studies. We conclude that common materials found in nearly every home and place of business may cause elevated exposures to toxic chemicals.

  17. Long-Range Technological Impact on Computer-Aided Product Development at DMA (Defense Mapping Agency).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    RICHARD W. POULIOT Plans & Programs Division DESTRUCTION NOTICE - For classified documents, follow the procedures in DOD 5200.22-M, Industrial Security...1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1.1. GOALS The Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) production plan is determined by the Mapping, Charting, and Geodesy (MC&G) needs of...investigation into technological trends and opportunities useful in the development of powerful new GDP systems assists planning and design efforts in

  18. The Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation Team and Product Characterization Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanoni, Vicki; Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Snyder, Greg; Lehman, William; Roylance, Spencer

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) team is a collaborative interagency group focused on the characterization of commercial remote sensing data products. The team members - the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - each have a vested interest in the purchase and use of commercial imagery to support government research and operational applications. For both research and applications, commercial products must be well characterized for precision, accuracy, and repeatability. Since commercial systems are built and operated with no government insight or oversight, the JACIE team provides an independent product characterization of delivered image and image-derived end products. End product characterization differs from the systems calibration approach that is typically used with government systems, where detailed system design information is available. The product characterization approach addresses three primary areas of product performance: geopositional accuracy, image quality, and radiometric accuracy. The JACIE team utilizes well-characterized test sites to support characterization activities. To characterize geopositional accuracy, the team utilizes sites containing several "photo-identifiable" targets and compares their precisely known locations with those defined by the commercial image product. In the area of image quality, spatial response is characterized using edge targets and pulse targets to measure edge response and to estimate image modulation transfer function. Additionally, imagery is also characterized using the National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale, a means of quantifying the ability to identify certain targets (e.g., rail-cars, airplanes) within an image product. Radiometric accuracy is characterized using reflectance-based vicarious calibration methods at several uniform sites. Each JACIE agency performs an aspect of

  19. Consumer perceptions of the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and grocery stores among U.S. adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmacy-based tobacco sales are a rapidly increasing segment of the U.S. retail tobacco market. Growing evidence links easy access to tobacco retail outlets such as pharmacies to increased tobacco use. This mixed-mode survey was the first to employ a nationally representative sample of consumers (n = 3057) to explore their opinions on sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and grocery stores. Results The majority reported that sale of tobacco products should be either ‘allowed if products hidden from view’ (29.9%, 25.6%) or ‘not allowed at all’ (24.0%, 31.3%) in grocery stores and pharmacies, respectively. Significantly fewer smokers, compared to non-smokers, reported agreement on point-of-sale restrictions on sales of tobacco products (grocery stores: 27.1% vs. 59.6%, p < .01; pharmacy: 32.8% vs. 62.0%, p < .01). Opinions also varied significantly by demographic characteristics and factors such as presence of a child in the household and urban/rural location of residence. Conclusions Overall, a majority of consumers surveyed either supported banning sales of tobacco in grocery stores and pharmacies or allowing sales only if the products are hidden from direct view. Both policy changes would represent a departure from the status quo. Consistent with the views of practicing pharmacists and professional pharmacy organizations, consumers are also largely supportive of more restrictive policies. PMID:23837647

  20. Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Products and Biological Samples of Oral Cancer Patients and Control Consumers.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Kamboh, Muhammad A

    2015-12-01

    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p<0.001). It was also observed that the values of As were two- to threefolds higher in biological samples of controls subjects, consuming SLT products as compared to those have none of these habits (p>0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer.

  1. Eating quality of beef, from different production systems, assessed by German, Spanish and British consumers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, M A; Nute, G R; Font I Furnols, M; San Julián, R; Campo, M M; Sañudo, C; Cañeque, V; Guerrero, L; Alvarez, I; Díaz, M T; Branscheid, W; Wicke, M; Montossi, F

    2006-11-01

    The acceptability of beef from Uruguay (UY), based on eating quality, was compared with beef produced in different European countries (Germany, DE, Spain, ES and United Kingdom, UK). Consumer tests were conducted in DE, ES and UK (each comprising 200 consumers) using 'Hall Tests'. In each country four samples were evaluated, two from Hereford steers from UY (finished at 2 and 3 years) and two from local meat (the same meat sample aged 7 or 20d). Consumers evaluated tenderness, flavour and overall acceptability using 8-point category scales. Hierarchical cluster analysis, highlighted the existence of different clusters of consumers. Two main clusters were identified in DE and UK. The main cluster identified in DE, was labelled as Prefer foreign-imported beef (n=128). These consumers preferred (P<0.05) the samples from UY_2y in terms of tenderness and overall acceptability. The other cluster was labelled as Prefer local beef in terms of flavour and overall acceptability (P<0.05) and comprised the majority of consumers from ES (n=176) and UK (n=153) and the cluster 2 from DE (n=69). UK, cluster 2 (n=33) that did not discriminate between origin and ageing time of beef. These results indicate that consumers did not prefer the same type of meat within the same country and it is possible that there are individual preferences that could lead to the concept of market segmentation being based on taste preferences. It would appear that Uruguayan beef would be very acceptable in Germany and to a lesser extent in Britain and Spain, although further studies are required that include labelling information.

  2. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    This guide to consumer health contains two parts, the first of which covers consumerism, cosmetics (aids for skin problems, dandruff, deodorants, dentifrices), food shopping, and clothes shopping. Part 2 discusses health quackery, including arthritis quackery, and mail-order "doctoring", food quackery, weight-reducing products, and how…

  3. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Larson, James H; Richardson, William B; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, John C; Vallazza, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the USA and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: (1) How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and (2) Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee river mouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee river mouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee river mouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content

  4. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, J. C.; Vallazza, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the U.S. and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee rivermouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee rivermouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee rivermouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content in the

  5. 75 FR 12144 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... for certain residential furnaces, and the analytical approach, models, and tools that DOE is using to... furnaces, which is available at:...

  6. Identifying consumer preferences for specific beef flavor characteristics in relation to cattle production and postmortem processing parameters.

    PubMed

    O'Quinn, T G; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Chapman, P L; Legako, J F; Brooks, J C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D

    2016-02-01

    Sensory analysis of ground LL samples representing 12 beef product categories was conducted in 3 different regions of the U.S. to identify flavor preferences of beef consumers. Treatments characterized production-related flavor differences associated with USDA grade, cattle type, finishing diet, growth enhancement, and postmortem aging method. Consumers (N=307) rated cooked samples for 12 flavors and overall flavor desirability. Samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid content. Volatile compounds produced by cooking were extracted and quantified. Overall, consumers preferred beef that rated high for beefy/brothy, buttery/beef fat, and sweet flavors and disliked beef with fishy, livery, gamey, and sour flavors. Flavor attributes of samples higher in intramuscular fat with greater amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and lesser proportions of saturated, odd-chain, omega-3, and trans fatty acids were preferred by consumers. Of the volatiles identified, diacetyl and acetoin were most closely correlated with desirable ratings for overall flavor and dimethyl sulfide was associated with an undesirable sour flavor.

  7. Factors associated with the hospital admission of consumer product-related injuries treated in U.S. hospital emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Thomas J; Rodgers, Gregory B

    2013-10-01

    While unintentional injuries and hazard patterns involving consumer products have been studied extensively in recent years, little attention has focused on the characteristics of those who are hospitalized after treatment in emergency departments, as opposed to those treated and released. This study quantifies the impact of the age and sex of the injury victims, and other factors, on the likelihood of hospitalization. The analysis focuses on consumer product injuries, and was based on approximately 400,000 injury cases reported through the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, a national probability sample of U.S. hospital emergency departments. Logistic regression was used to quantify the factors associated with the likelihood of hospitalization. The analysis suggests a smooth U-shaped relationship between the age of the victim and the likelihood of hospitalization, declining from about 3.4% for children under age 5 years to 1.9% for 15-24 year-olds, but then rising to more than 25% for those ages 75 years and older. The likelihood of hospitalization was also significantly affected by the victim's sex, as well as by the types of products involved, fire involvement, and the size and type of hospital at which the injury was treated. This study shows that the probability of hospitalization is strongly correlated with the characteristics of those who are injured, as well as other factors.

  8. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p < 0.001) with lesser correlations between knowledge and behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.593, p < 0.001) and knowledge and attitudes (Pearson's r = 0.413, p < 0.001). GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions.

  9. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Giarlotta, Alfio; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling’s differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge. PMID:26784700

  10. Consumer and health literacy: The need to better design tobacco-cessation product packaging, labels, and inserts.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stephanie M; Smith-Simone, Stephanie Y

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco-cessation product packaging and instruction materials may not be appropriate for some smokers and may contribute to the underuse and misuse of evidence-based treatments. The dual goals of this project are to analyze literacy levels of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and non-approved tobacco-cessation product packaging, directions, and claims, and to identify and categorize claims found on product packaging. The Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (CTFK) maintains the Quitting and Reducing Tobacco Use Inventory of Products (QuiTIP) database, which catalogs products marketed and sold to consumers to reduce or quit use of tobacco products. It also includes all medications approved by the FDA for tobacco cessation as well as a sample of non-approved products such as homeopathic, herbal, nutritional, or dietary supplements commonly marketed as either cessation aids or alternative tobacco/nicotine products. This paper assesses the reading levels required to understand product packaging, labeling, and instructions using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and identifies claims on the product package labels using standard qualitative methods. Key findings show that the average reading levels needed to understand instructions for both FDA-approved and non-approved cessation products are above the reading levels recommended to ensure maximum comprehension. Improving the packaging and directions of evidence-based tobacco-cessation products so that they are preferably at or below a fifth-grade reading level, along with using consumer-based design principles to develop packaging, may help smokers take advantage of and correctly use products that will greatly increase their chances of successful quitting.

  11. Consumer-reported handling of raw poultry products at home: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter cause an estimated combined total of 1.8 million foodborne infections each year in the United States. Most cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are associated with eating raw or undercooked poultry or with cross-contamination. Between 1998 and 2008, 20% of Salmonella and 16% of Campylobacter foodborne disease outbreaks were associated with food prepared inside the home. A nationally representative Web survey of U.S. adult grocery shoppers (n = 1,504) was conducted to estimate the percentage of consumers who follow recommended food safety practices when handling raw poultry at home. The survey results identified areas of low adherence to current recommended food safety practices: not washing raw poultry before cooking, proper refrigerator storage of raw poultry, use of a food thermometer to determine doneness, and proper thawing of raw poultry in cold water. Nearly 70% of consumers reported washing or rinsing raw poultry before cooking it, a potentially unsafe practice because "splashing" of contaminated water may lead to the transfer of pathogens to other foods and other kitchen surfaces. Only 17.5% of consumers reported correctly storing raw poultry in the refrigerator. Sixty-two percent of consumers own a food thermometer, and of these, 26% or fewer reported using one to check the internal temperature of smaller cuts of poultry and ground poultry. Only 11% of consumers who thaw raw poultry in cold water reported doing so correctly. The study results, coupled with other research findings, will inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  12. Analysis of odour compounds from scented consumer products using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Jennifer; Uhde, Erik; Salthammer, Tunga

    2016-01-21

    Scented consumer products are being bought in increasing amounts and gaining more popularity. There is, however, relatively little information available about their ingredients, emissions and allergenic potential. Frequently, a mixture of different fragrance substances and not solely an individual substance contributes to the overall desired smell. The aim of this study was to investigate the odorous volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) in consumer products containing fragrances. Over 44 products were selected: various scented candles, printing products with different scent types and other products types particularly meant to be used indoors. Measurements were carried out in a desiccator. Air samples were collected on thermal desorption tubes to determine the released fragrance substances by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) was used to obtain sensory data and to ensure no important odorant was overlooked. Using both methods it was possible to distinguish between odour active and inactive compounds and subsequently to identify almost 300 different odorants across all scented products. Besides the advantage of differentiation, as the human nose is a very sensitive detector, GC-O was found to be a useful tool for detecting traces and chosen target compounds. One focus in this study lay on the 26 EU-regulated fragrance allergens to prove their relevance in scented consumer goods. In total, 18 of them were identified, with at least one substance being present in almost every product. Benzyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, citronellol, eugenol, linalool and limonene were the prevalently detected allergens. Particularly linalool and limonene were observed in over 50% of the products. In addition, eugenol appeared to be one of the most frequently detected compounds in trace-level concentrations in the candle emissions.

  13. Variations in mature market consumer behavior within a health care product: implications for marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Hopper, J A; Busbin, J W

    1995-01-01

    America is undergoing a profound age shift in its demographic make-up with people 55 and over comprising an increasing proportion of the population. Marketers may need to increase their response rate to this shift, especially in refining the application of marketing theory and practice to older age consumers. To this end, a survey of older couple buying behavior for health insurance coverage is reported here. Results clarify evaluative criteria and the viability of multiple market segmentation for health care coverage among older consumers as couples. Commentary on the efficacy of present health coverage marketing programs is provided.

  14. The Trade-Off: Consumer Privacy for Technology Products and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scibelli, David B.

    2013-01-01

    With the Internet advancements of information systems and social media channels, consumer data has become a valuable source for companies and social networking communities. These Internet businesses are allowed to use and share their customers' information, with minimal regulatory intervention other than in health and financial areas. This…

  15. 76 FR 40285 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination of Set-Top Boxes and Network Equipment as a Covered Consumer... on the proposed determination for set-top boxes and network equipment is extended to September 30... set-top boxes and network equipment published June 15, 2011 (76 FR 34914) received no later than 5...

  16. Consumer Advertising: Its Role in Bringing a Product to Market. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This kit, designed for high school classes, considers advertising from both consumers' and manufacturers' perspectives. The role of advertising in relation to free enterprise principles is discussed in chapter 1, while chapter 2 provides a history of U.S. advertising processes and development. Chapter 3 describes advertising's role in bringing a…

  17. 75 FR 57556 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Project (ASAP), the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and the National Consumer Law Center (NCLC... sensor, or timer; or continuous functions, including information or status displays (including clocks) or sensor-based functions. (42 U.S.C. 6295(gg)(1)(A)(iii)) ``Off mode'' is defined as the condition in...

  18. 75 FR 57555 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Project (ASAP), the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) and the National Consumer Law Center (NCLC... sensor, or timer; or continuous functions, including information or status displays (including clocks) or sensor-based functions. (42 U.S.C. 6295(gg)(1)(A)(iii)) ``Off mode'' is defined as the condition in...

  19. 77 FR 9592 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Product and Service Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Account Management Policy, establishes a charge-off policy for open-end credit at 180 days delinquency and... or Social Security numbers. Comments will not be edited to remove any identifying or contact... holding a series of roundtable discussions with industry, consumer and civil rights groups, and...

  20. 76 FR 16760 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Publication of the Petition for Waiver and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... for capturing this energy usage. Samsung expects that of its new 2011 refrigerator-freezer models will... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer...

  1. Consumers' Motivations and Dairy Production Beliefs Regarding Participation in an Educational Dairy Farm Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFollette, Lindsay K.; Knobloch, Neil A.; Schutz, Michael M.; Brady, Colleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory discriminant analysis was used to determine the extent adult consumers' interest motivation to participate in a free educational dairy farm event and their beliefs of the dairy industry could correctly classify the respondents' predicted participation in a nonformal educational event. The most prominent conclusion of the study was that…

  2. Designing Social Production Models to Support Producer-Consumer Collaboration and Innovation in Digital Social Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arakji, Reina Y.

    2009-01-01

    The first decade of the twenty-first century has seen dramatic advances in Internet technologies. Digital social spaces have emerged as popular Internet applications that are radically changing how firms and consumers of digital content interact. In the first chapter "Research Agenda" I introduce my research and the context within which it is…

  3. 75 FR 78809 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ...-Sweat Heating Control Waivers 10. Elimination of Part 3 of the Variable Defrost Test 11. Corrections and... for variable defrost control (a system that varies the time intervals between defrosts based on the... manufacturers to determine the energy consumed by a refrigerator using this type of variable control system....

  4. Importance of consumer perceptions in fiber-enriched food products. A case study with sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Tarrega, Amparo; Quiles, Amparo; Morell, Pere; Fiszman, Susana; Hernando, Isabel

    2017-02-22

    Sponge cakes enriched with fiber from different sources (maltodextrin, wheat, apple, blackcurrant and a mixture of potato and Plantago ovata) were studied. Profiling of the different cakes was carried out, first using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question then evaluating the consumers' likings using a hedonic scale. The consumers also completed a nutrition knowledge (NK) questionnaire that was used to classify them according to their NK level. The instrumental texture of the cakes was evaluated by the texture profile analysis (TPA) method. The consumers' response was not linked to their NK level, but it mainly depended on the importance they gave to the cakes' distinctive sensory characteristics. In general, liking increased for samples considered easy to chew, spongy, soft and sweet, and decreased for samples perceived as tasteless, dry or having a fruity or an odd flavor. The sponge cakes containing maltodextrin or wheat fiber, which mostly resembled a conventional cake, were the most liked in general. Those containing the other three fibers were rejected by part of the consumers, for being tasteless in the case of potato plus Plantago ovata fiber, for being dry and doughy in the case of apple fiber and for having an odd flavor in the case of blackcurrant fiber.

  5. 76 FR 17639 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of BSH...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... their dishwasher through a clean-up cycle. ] BSH also states that the amount of water consumed by the... cycle, using a water meter as specified in section 3.3 of this Appendix. Where the regeneration of the water softener depends on demand and water hardness, and does not take place on every cycle, BSH...

  6. Comparative modeling of exposure to airborne nanoparticles released by consumer spray products.

    PubMed

    Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Consumer exposure to sprays containing nano-objects is a continuing concern as a potential health hazard. One potential hazard has been formulated in the overload hypothesis. It describes a volume fraction of the macrophages that is occupied by deposited nanoparticles that leads to reduced macrophage mobility. Subsequent chronic inflammation may then lead to severe health consequences including cancer. To calculate lung deposition of spherical particles, the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD) model (ARA, Albuquerque, NM) provides different kinds of lung models and age settings. Using the MPPD v 2.11 software, we modeled several consumer-related exposure scenarios. Different body orientations and age groups were investigated. Moreover, a number of materials representing different densities were used, and the exposure calculated using MPPD is compared to the hazard derived from the overload hypothesis. Conditions leading to macrophage overload were found for exposures to high particle doses for prolonged times and repeated exposure. Such conditions are unlikely in the context of regular consumer exposure. The overload hypothesis assumes the particles to be inert and biopersistent, a condition that currently lacks a clear regulatory definition and is valid only for a few selected materials. Furthermore, because of material-specific effects and the possibility of surface adsorption of hazardous chemicals, nano-objects in propellant sprays remain of concern for consumer health.

  7. Mexican consumers' perceptions and attitudes towards farm animal welfare and willingness to pay for welfare friendly meat products.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, G C; Estévez-Moreno, L X; Sepúlveda, W S; Estrada-Chavero, M C; Rayas-Amor, A A; Villarroel, M; María, G A

    2017-03-01

    Increasing concerns about farm animal welfare have led to an increase in the availability of welfare-friendly-products (WFP), but little is known about how much more consumers are willing-to-pay (WTP) for WFP or about their buying trends in Latin America. In this study, a survey was given to 843 meat consumers in the city of Toluca, Mexico. The results show that consumers were interested in farm animal welfare issues and their ethical, sociological and economic implications, as in Europe. The people surveyed also conveyed a high level of empathy with animal feelings and emotions, however they clearly demanded more information and regulations related to farm animal welfare. The majority of respondents expressed that they were WTP more for properly certified WFP, but mostly based on the benefits in terms of product quality and human health. If the demand for WFP begins to increase in Mexico, the supply chain should consider a certification system to guarantee product origin based on current conditions.

  8. 76 FR 14948 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: U.S. Consumer Product... effort to streamline the process to seek feedback from the public on service delivery, the U.S. Consumer... Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on...

  9. 77 FR 52744 - Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. The Food and Drug Administration's...

  10. 78 FR 51732 - The Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration The Food and Drug Administration/European Medicines Agency Orphan Product Designation and Grant Public Workshop AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice of public workshop. The Food and...

  11. Toxicants in Consumer Products. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Metro Toxicant Program No. 1B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgley, Susan M.

    Four general product classes (pesticides, paint products, household cleaners, and automotive products) are reviewed in this document. Each product class is described, and several aspects of the problem associated with product use or disposal are examined, including estimates of volumes used and environmental impacts. Technical data on the specific…

  12. Consumer hazards of plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, G S

    1976-01-01

    The modern consumer is exposed to a wide variety of plastic and rubber products in his day to day life: at home, work, school, shopping, recreation and play, and transport. A large variety of toxic sequellae have resulted from untoward exposures by many different routes: oral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral. Toxic change may result from the plastic itself, migration of unbound components and additives, chemical decomposition or toxic pyrolysis products. The type of damage may involve acute poisoning, chronic organ damage, reproductive disorders, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic episodes. Typical examples for all routes are cited along with the activites of Canadian regulatory agencies to reduce both the incidence and severity of plastic-induced disease. PMID:1026409

  13. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Radon Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your Home Contains information ...

  14. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans C M; Luning, Pieternel

    2005-06-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary analysis of 10 different health claims systematically combined with 10 different food carriers to evaluate their combined suitability for functional food positioning. The results show that consumers tend to prefer functional food concepts that primarily communicate disease-related health benefits in carriers with a healthy image or health positioning history. Study 2 examines health claim format and systematically varies the way in which specific health benefits are being communicated to the consumer. Two physiologically oriented claims (heart disease and osteoporosis) and two psychologically oriented food claims (stress and lack of energy) are expressed in enhanced function format versus disease risk reduction format. Also, it includes the individual difference variable of 'regulatory focus' and the health status of the respondent to explore how these factors impact health claim evaluation. The results show that consumer evaluations primarily differ to the extent that health claims are personally relevant in addressing an experienced disease state. Framing is important, but its effect differs by health benefit. No strong effects for consumers' regulatory focus were found. Underlying mechanisms of these effects and their implications for the development of functional foods are discussed.

  15. Analysis of Ingredient Lists to Quantitatively Characterize Chemicals in Consumer Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA’s ExpoCast program is developing high throughput (HT) approaches to generate the needed exposure estimates to compare against HT bioactivity data generated from the US inter-agency Tox21 and the US EPA ToxCast programs. Assessing such exposures for the thousands of...

  16. 76 FR 56125 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy... rulemaking for direct heating equipment is extended to October 14, 2011. ] DATES: DOE will accept comments, data, and information regarding the notice of proposed rulemaking for direct heating equipment...

  17. 78 FR 77607 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Standards for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... conservation standards for residential furnace fans, with a comment period that was scheduled to close December... conservation standards for residential furnace fans published on October 25, 2013 (78 FR 64067) is extended...

  18. 75 FR 32177 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... Efficiency Standard for Residential Non- Weatherized Gas Furnaces AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... Standard for Non-weatherized Gas Furnaces (hereafter ``Massachusetts Petition'' or ``Petition'')--sought a waiver of preemption from DOE to permit a standard affecting non-weatherized gas furnaces to remain...

  19. 76 FR 56339 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Residential Furnaces and Boilers (Standby Mode and Off Mode) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... procedures for residential furnaces and boilers to include provisions for measuring the standby mode and off... Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, and provide the docket number EERE-2011-BT- TP-0007 and/or...

  20. 76 FR 17755 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting 180-Day Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... Compliance Date for Residential Furnaces and Boilers Test Procedure Amendments AGENCY: Office of Energy... the compliance date related to recent amendments to the DOE test procedure for residential furnaces... furnaces and boilers starting on October 15, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Michael G....

  1. 77 FR 49701 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Equipment: Notice of Policy Amendment Regarding Full-Fuel-Cycle Analyses AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency..., 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) announced its intention to use full-fuel-cycle (FFC) measures... full-fuel-cycle (FFC) measures of energy use and greenhouse gas and other emissions in the...

  2. 75 FR 42611 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy... current active mode provisions in its test procedure for microwave ovens do not produce accurate and... concerns with the DOE microwave oven cooking efficiency test procedure. Elsewhere in today's...

  3. 77 FR 74559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters (Standby Mode and Off Mode) AGENCY... water heaters, direct heating equipment (DHE), and pool heaters to include provisions for measuring... 2007 (EISA 2007). DOE has concluded that such amendments are necessary for direct heating equipment...

  4. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), American Gas Association (AGA), Air-Conditioning, Heating, and... Heating Equipment and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... (DOE) proposes to revise its test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters...

  5. 78 FR 8998 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of.... James Raba, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Industrial Fans and Blowers, at www.regulations.gov , docket identifier EERE-2013-BT-STD-0006-0001, DOE...

  6. 78 FR 21215 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Reconsideration AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen Witkowski, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... fan-only mode and standby and off mode energy use; or (2) delays requirements regarding measurement...

  7. 75 FR 51423 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Adopting Full-Fuel-Cycle Analyses Into Energy Conservation Standards Program AGENCY: Office of Energy..., DOE proposes to use full-fuel-cycle (FFC) measures of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions... Policy for Full-Fuel-Cycle Analysis Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-NOA-0028 and/or RIN 1904-AC24,...

  8. Predicting Consumer Biomass, Size-Structure, Production, Catch Potential, Responses to Fishing and Associated Uncertainties in the World's Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Simon; Collingridge, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Existing estimates of fish and consumer biomass in the world's oceans are disparate. This creates uncertainty about the roles of fish and other consumers in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem processes, the extent of human and environmental impacts and fishery potential. We develop and use a size-based macroecological model to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on predicted consumer biomass, production and distribution. Resulting uncertainty is large (e.g. median global biomass 4.9 billion tonnes for consumers weighing 1 g to 1000 kg; 50% uncertainty intervals of 2 to 10.4 billion tonnes; 90% uncertainty intervals of 0.3 to 26.1 billion tonnes) and driven primarily by uncertainty in trophic transfer efficiency and its relationship with predator-prey body mass ratios. Even the upper uncertainty intervals for global predictions of consumer biomass demonstrate the remarkable scarcity of marine consumers, with less than one part in 30 million by volume of the global oceans comprising tissue of macroscopic animals. Thus the apparently high densities of marine life seen in surface and coastal waters and frequently visited abundance hotspots will likely give many in society a false impression of the abundance of marine animals. Unexploited baseline biomass predictions from the simple macroecological model were used to calibrate a more complex size- and trait-based model to estimate fisheries yield and impacts. Yields are highly dependent on baseline biomass and fisheries selectivity. Predicted global sustainable fisheries yield increases ≈4 fold when smaller individuals (< 20 cm from species of maximum mass < 1 kg) are targeted in all oceans, but the predicted yields would rarely be accessible in practice and this fishing strategy leads to the collapse of larger species if fishing mortality rates on different size classes cannot be decoupled. Our analyses show that models with minimal parameter demands that are based on a few established ecological principles

  9. How do consumer attitudes influence acceptance of a novel wild blueberry-soy product?

    PubMed

    Teh, T; Dougherty, M P; Camire, M E

    2007-09-01

    Acceptance of healthful foods by consumers is not yet well understood. In this study, 3 formulations of frozen dessert bars were prepared containing both soy and wild blueberries. Soy content was controlled to provide an amount of soy protein that qualified for the health claim for soy and reduced risks for cardiovascular disease. Consumers were asked to complete the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) and then evaluate the acceptability of the 3 frozen bar types using a 9-point hedonic scale. One week after the 1st session, the participants returned. Approximately half were given information to read regarding the health benefits of soy protein, the other participants were given no information. The samples were then presented a 2nd time and labeled with their soy protein content. Changes in hedonic scores between sessions were compared and correlated with HTAS ratings. Nutrition information generally did not affect acceptability scores.

  10. Application of the expanded Creme RIFM consumer exposure model to fragrance ingredients in cosmetic, personal care and air care products.

    PubMed

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Rose, J; Smith, B; Tozer, S

    2017-02-28

    As part of a joint project between the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) and Creme Global, a Monte Carlo model (here named the Creme RIFM model) has been developed to estimate consumer exposure to ingredients in personal care products. Details of the model produced in Phase 1 of the project have already been published. Further data on habits and practises have been collected which enable the model to estimate consumer exposure from dermal, oral and inhalation routes for 25 product types. . In addition, more accurate concentration data have been obtained which allow levels of fragrance ingredients in these product types to be modelled. Described is the use of this expanded model to estimate aggregate systemic exposure for eight fragrance ingredients. Results are shown for simulated systemic exposure (expressed as μg/kg bw/day) for each fragrance ingredient in each product type, along with simulated aggregate exposure. Highest fragrance exposure generally occurred from use of body lotions, body sprays and hydroalcoholic products. For the fragrances investigated, aggregate exposure calculated using this model was 11.5-25 fold lower than that calculated using deterministic methodology. The Creme RIFM model offers a very comprehensive and powerful tool for estimating aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients.

  11. Changes in plasma and oral mucosal lycopene isomer concentrations in healthy adults consuming standard servings of processed tomato products.

    PubMed

    Allen, Charlotte M; Schwartz, Steven J; Craft, Neal E; Giovannucci, Edward L; De Groff, Valerie L; Clinton, Steven K

    2003-01-01

    The consumption of tomato products is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and several cancers. It is hypothesized that lycopene, the major carotenoid in tomato products, may mediate this relationship. We designed a study to examine changes in plasma and buccal mucosal cell (BMC) lycopene concentrations in healthy adults consuming standard daily servings of processed tomato products: spaghetti sauce, tomato soup, or vegetable juice. Thirty-six healthy subjects consumed a lycopene-free diet for 2 wk and were then assigned to one of three (n = 12) intervention groups consuming daily, single servings of sauce (21 mg lycopene per (1/2) cup), soup (12 mg lycopene per 1 cup), or juice (17 mg lycopene per 8 oz) for 4 wk. Fasting blood and BMC samples were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis for carotenoids and lycopene isomers. Total plasma lycopene concentrations (Mean +/- SEM) decreased from 1.05 +/- 0.07 to 0.54 +/- 0.05 micromol/l (49%, P < 0.0001) during the 2-wk washout period. Following intervention, plasma lycopene concentrations increased significantly for those consuming sauce, soup, and juice (compared with washout baseline) to 2.08 (192%, P < 0.0001), 0.91 (122%, P < 0.0001), and 0.99 (92%, P < 0.0001) micromol/l, respectively. Plasma isomer concentrations show a 61:39 ratio of cis:all-trans at the start of the study. During the 2-wk washout the decrease in plasma all-trans-lycopene was greater than that for pooled cis isomers (70:30 cis:trans ratio, P < 0.001). After 2 wk of dietary intervention isomer ratios returned to those observed at the start of the study. Total BMC lycopene concentrations did not significantly change during the brief washout. During the 4-wk intervention period, BMC total lycopene concentrations increased (P < 0.005) by 165, 42, and 48% nmol/mg protein for those consuming sauce, soup, and juice, respectively. This study demonstrates that plasma lycopene decreases by 50% after approximately 2

  12. Staged invasions across disparate grasslands: effects of seed provenance, consumers and disturbance on productivity and species richness.

    PubMed

    Maron, John L; Auge, Harald; Pearson, Dean E; Korell, Lotte; Hensen, Isabell; Suding, Katharine N; Stein, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    Exotic plant invasions are thought to alter productivity and species richness, yet these patterns are typically correlative. Few studies have experimentally invaded sites and asked how addition of novel species influences ecosystem function and community structure and examined the role of competitors and/or consumers in mediating these patterns. We invaded disturbed and undisturbed subplots in and out of rodent exclosures with seeds of native or exotic species in grasslands in Montana, California and Germany. Seed addition enhanced aboveground biomass and species richness compared with no-seeds-added controls, with exotics having disproportionate effects on productivity compared with natives. Disturbance enhanced the effects of seed addition on productivity and species richness, whereas rodents reduced productivity, but only in Germany and California. Our results demonstrate that experimental introduction of novel species can alter ecosystem function and community structure, but that local filters such as competition and herbivory influence the magnitude of these impacts.

  13. Determination of nitrate, nitrite and perchlorate anions in meat, milk and their products consumed in Hatay region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sungur, Şana; Atan, Muhammet Meriç

    2013-01-01

    Nitrates and nitrites added to food can cause formation of cancerous N-nitroso compounds, whereas exposure to perchlorate is especially emphasised as an important risk factor for newborns' health. In this study, nitrate, nitrite and perchlorate concentrations in meat and milk products consumed in the Hatay region of Turkey were determined. Nitrate and nitrite were analysed with a spectrophotometric method, and perchlorate analysed via ion chromatography. The detected sodium nitrate and nitrite amounts in meat consumed in the Hatay region are less than the maximum levels as declared in the Turkish Food Codex. The amount of perchlorate was considered not to pose a threat as well. However, in 50% of the cheese samples, sodium nitrate amounts were found to be more than the maximum acceptable level in the Turkish Food Codex.

  14. 77 FR 55214 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of its Consumer Advisory Committee... within the jurisdiction of the Commission and to facilitate the participation of all consumers...

  15. 76 FR 3633 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This document announces the rechartering of the Consumer Advisory Committee (hereinafter ``the... ``Commission'') regarding consumer issues within the jurisdiction of the Commission and to facilitate...

  16. 76 FR 45570 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces appointment of members and chairperson to its Consumer Advisory Committee... consumers in proceedings before the Commission. DATES: The meeting of the Committee will take place...

  17. 76 FR 65726 - Consumer Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Advisory Committee AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission announces the next meeting date, time, and agenda of its Consumer Advisory Committee... within the jurisdiction of the Commission and to facilitate the participation of all consumers...

  18. Improving ecological performance of electrical consumer products: the role of design-based measures and user variables.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Jürgen; Wiese, Bettina S; Rüttinger, Bruno

    2002-07-01

    This research is concerned with the ecological performance of electrical consumer products. It examines the influence of design-based measures on various ecological performance parameters and the relationship of user variables and performance. In the experimental scenario, 40 users were asked to clean a room with a vacuum cleaner under different conditions. In a multi-factorial design, the following independent variables were employed: on-product information, enhanced display-control labelling and proximity of controls. Measures of user variables (environmental concern, knowledge, habits) of ecological behaviour were also taken. The results showed that enhanced display-control labelling improved ecological performance but only when the label was placed close to the user. On-product information only resulted in behavioural change when it was in close spatial proximity to the control device. A positive effect on ecological performance was also observed when controls were in a proximal rather than distal position. Among user variables, habits were found to have an influence on behaviour shown in experimental scenarios. A practical implication of the findings for environmentally friendly design of consumer products is that there should be a stronger focus on system-based measures rather than information-based measures. Finally, the article discusses the theoretical implications of using operational scenarios rather than the information display board paradigm.

  19. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  20. Efficacy and acceptance of a commercial Hoodia parviflora product for support of appetite and weight control in a consumer trial.

    PubMed

    Landor, Michael; Benami, Ari; Segev, Nitzan; Loberant, Beth

    2015-02-01

    Species of Hoodia Sweet ex Decne., family Apocynaceae, a southern African succulent plant, have been recognized for their appetite suppressing properties. Products that support appetite and weight control have been developed in Israel from locally cultivated Hoodia spp. To study consumer acceptance, efficacy of, and tolerance for a frozen product based on whole aerial parts of Hoodia parviflora N.E. Br., we initiated and conducted this single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled consumer trial. Volunteer participants ingested flavored 3 g frozen Hoodia or placebo cubes for 40 days. Subjects were weighed and measured and baseline body-mass index was determined. Adverse events were monitored and eight mild, transient, possible treatment-emergent events were reported. No moderate, severe, or chronic events were reported. On days 1, 10, and 40, subjects self-reported their perceptions of food consumption, hunger development, incidence and control of food cravings, and efficacy of the product. On day 40, the treatment group demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in measured quantitative parameters against the placebo and reported a positive perception of the product.

  1. Thumbnail Sketches: EDTA-Type Chelating Agents in Everyday Consumer Products: Some Medicinal and Personal Care Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, J. Roger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)-type chelating agents found in ophthalmic products, personal care products, and disinfectants. Also discusses the properties and action of these EDTA agents. (JN)

  2. Distinct Anaerobic Bacterial Consumers of Cellobiose-Derived Carbon in Boreal Fens with Different CO2/CH4 Production Ratios.

    PubMed

    Juottonen, Heli; Eiler, Alexander; Biasi, Christina; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Yrjälä, Kim; Fritze, Hannu

    2017-02-15

    Northern peatlands in general have high methane (CH4) emissions, but individual peatlands show considerable variation as CH4 sources. Particularly in nutrient-poor peatlands, CH4 production can be low and exceeded by carbon dioxide (CO2) production from unresolved anaerobic processes. To clarify the role anaerobic bacterial degraders play in this variation, we compared consumers of cellobiose-derived carbon in two fens differing in nutrient status and the ratio of CO2 to CH4 produced. After [(13)C]cellobiose amendment, the mesotrophic fen produced equal amounts of CH4 and CO2 The oligotrophic fen had lower CH4 production but produced 3 to 59 times more CO2 than CH4 RNA stable-isotope probing revealed that in the mesotrophic fen with higher CH4 production, cellobiose-derived carbon was mainly assimilated by various recognized fermenters of Firmicutes and by Proteobacteria The oligotrophic peat with excess CO2 production revealed a wider variety of cellobiose-C consumers, including Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, but also more unconventional degraders, such as Telmatobacter-related Acidobacteria and subphylum 3 of Verrucomicrobia Prominent and potentially fermentative Planctomycetes and Chloroflexi did not appear to process cellobiose-C. Our results show that anaerobic degradation resulting in different levels of CH4 production can involve distinct sets of bacterial degraders. By distinguishing cellobiose degraders from the total community, this study contributes to defining anaerobic bacteria that process cellulose-derived carbon in peat. Several of the identified degraders, particularly fermenters and potential Fe(III) or humic substance reducers in the oligotrophic peat, represent promising candidates for resolving the origin of excess CO2 production in peatlands.

  3. [Quality control of gene therapy products: approach of the French Agency for the Safety of Health Products].

    PubMed

    Chenivesse, Xavier; Ridoux, Valérie; Tissier, Marie-Hélène

    2003-04-01

    Gene therapy is a new therapeutic strategy which can constitute in some diseases a true alternative or a complement to the "classical treatments". Regarding the innovative features, the complexity and the extreme diversity of the gene therapy products (naked DNA, synthetic vectors, viral vectors, genetically modified cells), these new products presently in clinical trials have to be precisely evaluated and controlled for their medicine quality as well as their biological origin and/or their specific characteristics of genetically modified organisms. The French Agency for the Safety of Health Products engaged an in-depth scientific review concerning the control of this very heterogeneous class of potential therapeutics through the creation of a working group. The objectives of this group were to determine the testings to be performed by a national authority for each type of gene therapy products and to select the appropriate techniques or methods to be developed. Controls considered as essential are listed and include the verification of the identity, the purity, the transfer and expression efficiency as well as the microbiological and viral safety of the products. This implies the development of diverse techniques of molecular biology, cellular biology, physico-chemistry, animal testing, histology and microbiology. Finally, in order to define the basis of testings of these emerging products, the marketing of which should be effective for some of them in the next years, it appears extremely important to harmonize the quality, efficiency and safety criteria, to develop specific references and standards and to create specific guidelines for the control of gene therapy products.

  4. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deng-kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-feng; Yu, Sui-huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design. PMID:27630709

  5. Cost-benefit study of consumer product take-back programs using IBM's WIT reverse logistics optimization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerakamolmal, Pitipong; Lee, Yung-Joon; Fasano, J. P.; Hale, Rhea; Jacques, Mary

    2002-02-01

    In recent years, there has been increased focus by regulators, manufacturers, and consumers on the issue of product end of life management for electronics. This paper presents an overview of a conceptual study designed to examine the costs and benefits of several different Product Take Back (PTB) scenarios for used electronics equipment. The study utilized a reverse logistics supply chain model to examine the effects of several different factors in PTB programs. The model was done using the IBM supply chain optimization tool known as WIT (Watson Implosion Technology). Using the WIT tool, we were able to determine a theoretical optimal cost scenario for PTB programs. The study was designed to assist IBM internally in determining theoretical optimal Product Take Back program models and determining potential incentives for increasing participation rates.

  6. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Pu; Chen, Deng-Kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-Feng; Yu, Sui-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design.

  7. Irrigated urban vegetable production in Ghana: microbiological contamination in farms and markets and associated consumer risk groups.

    PubMed

    Amoah, P; Drechsel, P; Henseler, M; Abaidoo, R C

    2007-09-01

    Ghana is a typical low-income sub-Saharan African country facing significant sanitation challenges. In Ghana, fresh salads are not part of the normal diet, but have become a common supplement to urban fast food served in streets, canteens and restaurants. In Accra, about 200 000 people consume from such supplements every day. The figure also describes the size of the risk group from contamination, which comprises all income classes including the poor and children. The purpose of this study was to investigate widespread water pollution in urban and peri-urban areas, where 95% of the lettuce consumed in the city is produced. Over 12 months (April 2004-June 2005), lettuce samples from the same production sites in two cities were followed and analyzed along the "farm to fork" pathway for total and faecal coliform (FC) and helminth egg numbers. Questionnaire surveys were conducted among producers, sellers and consumers to quantify lettuce flows to the final risk group. The study identified the farm as the main point of lettuce contamination. Besides the irrigation water, contamination was also attributed to manure application and already contaminated soil. Despite poor sanitary conditions in markets, post-harvest handling and marketing did not further increase the farm-gate contamination levels. To reduce the health risk associated with the consumption of contaminated lettuce; safer farming and irrigation practices are required while the remaining risk could best be addressed where lettuce is prepared for consumption.

  8. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001).

  9. Lake secondary production fueled by rapid transfer of low molecular weight organic carbon from terrestrial sources to aquatic consumers.

    PubMed

    Berggren, M; Ström, L; Laudon, H; Karlsson, J; Jonsson, A; Giesler, R; Bergström, A-K; Jansson, M

    2010-07-01

    Carbon of terrestrial origin often makes up a significant share of consumer biomass in unproductive lake ecosystems. However, the mechanisms for terrestrial support of lake secondary production are largely unclear. By using a modelling approach, we show that terrestrial export of dissolved labile low molecular weight carbon (LMWC) compounds supported 80% (34-95%), 54% (19-90%) and 23% (7-45%) of the secondary production by bacteria, protozoa and metazoa, respectively, in a 7-km(2) boreal lake (conservative to liberal estimates in brackets). Bacterial growth on LMWC was of similar magnitude as that of primary production (PP), and grazing on bacteria effectively channelled the LMWC carbon to higher trophic levels. We suggest that rapid turnover of forest LMWC pools enables continuous export of fresh photosynthates and other labile metabolites to aquatic systems, and that substantial transfer of LMWC from terrestrial sources to lake consumers can occur within a few days. Sequestration of LMWC of terrestrial origin, thus, helps explain high shares of terrestrial carbon in lake organisms and implies that lake food webs can be closely dependent on recent terrestrial PP.

  10. Consumer drop-in centers: operations, services, and consumer involvement.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Carol T; Robinson, Elizabeth A R; Holter, Mark C

    2002-11-01

    Interest in involvement of consumers in mental health and psychiatric rehabilitation services delivery has expanded in recent years, encompassing self-help approaches, consumers employed as providers in formal agencies, and consumers operating their own services. This study reports results from in-depth phone surveys conducted with 32 consumer drop-in centers in Michigan. Results indicate that centers operate in many ways like other human services businesses, albeit with much smaller budgets. Funding levels, salaries, and services showed great heterogeneity among the centers and in comparison with reports in the literature. Centers autonomously run by consumers and centers with consumer involvement (operated by a non-consumer agency) were found to differ significantly on several variables, including consumer control, funding and service levels, and challenges. Implications for the growth and increased use of consumer drop-in centers are discussed.

  11. Measurements of radon exhalation rate in NORM used as consumer products in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwaoka, Kazuki; Hosoda, Masahiro; Yajima, Kazuaki; Tokonami, Shinji

    2017-01-25

    Twenty-five beauty products known to contain natural radionuclides were collected, and their (222)Rn mass exhalation rates were measured. The effective doses to workers due to (222)Rn exhaled from these products were estimated. The (222)Rn mass exhalation rates of these products were below 177 μBq kg(-1) s(-1) and were almost identical to those of natural rocks in Japan. The maximum effective dose of (222)Rn exhaled from these products was 71 μSv y(-1).

  12. Importance of Vascular Plant and Algal Production to Macro-invertebrate Consumers in a Southern California Salt Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, H. M.

    1997-12-01

    The dietary importance of marsh vascular plants (primarilySalicornia virginica), algae and upland particulate inputs to macro-invertebrate consumers was studied in Carpinteria Salt Marsh, southern California, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. This marsh is predominantly a marine or hypersaline system and succulents are the most common vascular plant species. Of invertebrates collected from the vegetated marsh, tidal flats and channels, only detritivores from the vegetated marsh (Traskorchestia traskiana,Melampus olivaceus) had isotope values (δ13C=-20‰) that suggested some use ofSalicornia-derived carbon.T. traskianacultured in the laboratory on decomposingS. virginicaor blue-green micro-algal mat had distinctive isotopic signatures, reflecting the capability of this consumer to assimilate carbon and nitrogen derived from these sources. The δ13C values (generally -16‰ to -15‰) of species from tidal flats and channels (e.g.Cerithidea californica,Protothaca staminea,Mytilus galloprovincialis,Neotrypaea californiensis) were most similar to values for benthic algae and phytoplankton. Specimens ofM. galloprovincialisalong a gradient of presumed increase in marine influence had similar isotope values, suggesting little contribution to diet from upland runoff. The present results differ most noticeably from published values in the13C enrichment of suspension-feeders, suggesting the use of resuspended13C-enriched benthic microalgae in tidal channels by these consumers, and in the13C depletion and15N enrichment of plants and consumers along a portion of the marsh boundary receiving inputs of nutrient-enriched perched groundwater. In general, the isotopic composition of macro-invertebrates indicated the incorporation of algal production rather than ofS. virginicaor upland sources into the marsh food web.

  13. Image Advertisements for Alcohol Products: Is Their Appeal Associated with Adolescents' Intention to Consume Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to determine if adolescents who drink, or have intentions to drink, find image advertisements for alcohol more appealing than product advertisements. Results indicate that image advertising was preferred to product advertising, particularly by younger adolescents. Evidence of an association between preference for image advertisements and…

  14. 78 FR 40388 - Inadmissibility of Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Noncompliant With Applicable Energy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... equipment is proposed for importation that the goods meet the applicable efficiency standards and labeling... ``covered import.'' For example, products and equipment may be entered into customs bonded warehouses and... been filed, including those products and equipment withdrawn from warehouse for consumption or...

  15. 75 FR 75289 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-02

    ...In order to implement recent amendments to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to amend its test procedures for residential dishwashers, dehumidifiers, and conventional cooking products (which include cooktops, ovens, and ranges) to provide for measurement of standby mode and off mode energy use by these products. The proposed......

  16. Consumer Health: Does Advertising Work on You? and Evaluating a Product's Health Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carolyn C.

    This paper describes lessons for teaching middle and high school students how to determine if they are influenced by the power of advertising and how to evaluate a product's health claims. To determine the influence of advertising, teachers have high school students discuss what their latest health product/service purchase was, why they bought it,…

  17. 75 FR 81236 - Consumer Product Safety Act: Notice of Commission Action Lifting Stay of Enforcement of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ...-children's products subject to CPSC regulations pertaining to vinyl plastic film, carpets and rugs, and... expires for non-children's products subject to CPSC regulations pertaining to vinyl plastic film, carpets... 28, 2009 notice included: Carpets and rugs (16 CFR parts 1630 and 1631); Vinyl plastic film (16...

  18. Consumer Demand for Dairy Products. A Summary Analysis. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 537.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidacher, Richard C.; And Others

    This study analyzes the 1980s upturn in per capita consumption of dairy products in the United States. The study found that per capita consumption of total dairy products in the United States first trended downward then stagnated for the two decades prior to the early 1980s. Per capita consumption of items such as whole milk declined, whereas…

  19. 78 FR 19606 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... devices that circulate air through ductwork in HVAC systems with heating input capacities less than 225... heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) products to circulate air through ductwork, hereafter... Energy Consumption F. Reference System Product Types IV. Procedural Issues and Regulatory Review...

  20. 77 FR 76831 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Comments 2. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute Comments IV. Effective Date and... issued similar test procedure amendments for other heating products (water heaters, direct heating... as applied to the other heating products. The second edition of IEC Standard 62301 has now...

  1. Demand Estimation with Heterogeneous Consumers and Unobserved Product Characteristics: A Hedonic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajari, Patrick; Benkard, C. Lanier

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the identification and estimation of Gorman-Lancaster-style hedonic models of demand for differentiated products in the spirit of Sherwin Rosen. We generalize Rosen's first stage to account for product characteristics that are not observed and to allow the hedonic pricing function to have a general nonseparable form. We take an…

  2. 78 FR 41609 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... 8. Definitions Associated with Defrost Cycles 9. Elimination of Reporting of Product Height 10... Alliance for Water Efficiency, the Appliance Standards Awareness Project, the Northwest Power and... product during a representative average use cycle or period of use, as determined by the Secretary ,...

  3. Priming thoughts about extravagance: implications for consumer decisions about luxury products.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongwon; Kim, Kyeongheui; Kwak, Junsik; Wyer, Robert S

    2014-03-01

    If a semantic concept is accessible in memory, it can direct attention to the attributes of a target that exemplify this concept. When these attributes have both affective and utilitarian implications that are evaluatively opposite, the relative impact of these different implications depends on an individual's ability and motivation to expend the cognitive effort required to evaluate them. These assumptions were confirmed in six experiments on the impact of priming the concept of extravagance on attention to a product's luxury-related features and consequent reactions to it. Priming this concept decreased the choice of a luxury product if participants were both motivated and able to construe the utilitarian implications of the product's extravagance-related features. When participants were either distracted from deliberating on their choices or were asked to recommend a product to others, however, priming extravagance led them to base their judgments on the affective reactions that the features spontaneously elicited and consequently increased their choice of the product.

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  7. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  8. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  9. Research strategies for safety evaluation of nanomaterials, part VII: evaluating consumer exposure to nanoscale materials.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Treye; Thomas, Karluss; Sadrieh, Nakissa; Savage, Nora; Adair, Patricia; Bronaugh, Robert

    2006-05-01

    Considerable media attention has recently been given to novel applications for products that contain nanoscale materials. These products could have utility in several industries that market consumer products, including textiles, sporting equipment, cosmetics, consumer electronics, and household cleaners. Some of the purported benefits of these products include improved performance, convenience, lower cost, as well as other desirable features, when compared to the conventional products that do not contain nanoscale materials. Although there are numerous likely consumer advantages from products containing nanoscale materials, there is very little information available regarding consumer exposure to the nanoscale materials in these products or any associated risks from these exposures. This paper seeks to review a limited subset of products that contain nanoscale materials, assess the available data for evaluating the consumer exposures and potential hazards associated with these products, and discuss the capacity of U.S. regulatory agencies to address the potential risks associated with these products.

  10. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  11. Translation and validation of the Farage Quality of Life (FQoL™) instrument for consumer products into traditional Chinese.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Rodenberg, Cindy; Chen, Jasmine

    2012-10-16

    The Farage Quality of Life™ questionnaire (FQoL™) was developed specifically to assess the impact of consumer products. The objective of this investigation was to achieve a Chinese language instrument. The FQoL™ underwent a forward and backward translation, with cognitive testing by 13 subjects. Slight modifications were made to the instrument, and an implementation study was conducted with 800 participants having a mean (±SD) age of 34.22 (±9.28) years. The subjects were randomly assigned to use 1 of 4 ultra absorbency pad products for the length of one menstrual cycle. Three pads (coded N, S and C) were products currently available on the retail market, a fourth (coded M) was an experimental product improvement on Product N. Subjects were asked to complete the FQoL™ once before (T1) and once after (T2) the start of their period, and the Least Square (LS) Means were determined. Within group comparisons for each item and FQoL™ subscale were conducted by comparing the LS Means for T1 vs. T2. Participants using Product N showed the highest number of significant (p<0.05) changes (11 items), demonstrating these subjects felt worse about items mainly in the subdomains for Emotions, Personal Pleasure, and Physical State. Participants using Product C showed significant changes in 7 items mainly in the subdomains for Emotion and Physical State. Participants using Product S and the experimental Product M showed significant changes in only 4 and 3 individual items, respectively. These were not associated with any particular domain or subdomain. Between group comparisons were conducted by comparing the LS Means for the T2 responses for each group. The group using Product N had LS Mean responses that were significantly worse than the group using Product M for the Emotion, Personal Pleasure and Physical State subdomains, the Energy/Vitality domain, and 2 individual items. The Product S group was worse than the Product M group for 2 individual items. The Product C

  12. 78 FR 41868 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ...-automotive product ``which, to any significant extent, is distributed in commerce for personal use or.... Estimating the Energy Use and Efficiency Potential of U.S. Data Centers. Proceedings of the IEEE 99 (8),...

  13. Probabilistic approach for assessing infants' health risks due to ingestion of nanoscale silver released from consumer products.

    PubMed

    Pang, Chengfang; Hristozov, Danail; Zabeo, Alex; Pizzol, Lisa; Tsang, Michael P; Sayre, Phil; Marcomini, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (n-Ag) are widely used in consumer products and many medical applications because of their unique antibacterial properties. Their use is raising concern about potential human exposures and health effects. Therefore, it is informative to assess the potential human health risks of n-Ag in order to ensure that nanotechnology-based consumer products are deployed in a safe and sustainable way. Even though toxicity studies clearly show the potential hazard of n-Ag, there have been few attempts to integrate hazard and exposure assessments to evaluate risks. The underlying reason for this is the difficulty in characterizing exposure and the lack of toxicity studies essential for human health risk assessment (HHRA). Such data gaps introduce significant uncertainty into the risk assessment process. This study uses probabilistic methods to assess the relative uncertainty and potential risks of n-Ag exposure to infants. In this paper, we estimate the risks for infants potentially exposed to n-Ag through drinking juice or milk from sippy cups or licking baby blankets containing n-Ag. We explicitly evaluate uncertainty and variability contained in available dose-response and exposure data in order to make the risk characterization process transparent. Our results showed that individual margin of exposures for oral exposure to sippy cups and baby blankets containing n-Ag exhibited minimal risk.

  14. Determination of 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in toothpaste and mouthwash consumer products using GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianlin; Hu, Chuanqin; Li, Charlie; Cai, Zongwei; Hu, Di

    2015-12-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was developed for the identification and quantification of 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,8-DCDD) in toothpaste and mouthwash consumer products. Liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase extraction were used in the sample preparation. The limit of detection was 0.96 ng/g in toothpaste and 0.83 ng/g in mouthwash. The accuracy represented by relative errors was less than 12.5%. The intra-day and inter-day precision, which are represented by the relative standard deviation values, were within 11.2 and 10.6%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to analyze 2,8-DCDD in toothpaste and mouthwash products, as well as that from the photo-degradation of triclosan spiked in both sample matrix.

  15. Guide to Federal Consumer Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This publication lists the consumer services of every Federal agency or bureau that is either directly of indirectly concerned with consumer issues. Services covered include agricultural research service, consumer and marketing service, extension service, food and nutrition service, rural development and conservation, farm credit, environmental…

  16. 76 FR 35721 - Consumer Leasing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ...] Consumer Leasing AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule, staff... requirements of Regulation M, which implements the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA). Effective July 21, 2011, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) amends the CLA by...

  17. Perceptions and choices of Brazilian children as consumers of food products.

    PubMed

    Mazzonetto, A C; Fiates, G M R

    2014-07-01

    In order to identify children's perceptions about food choices and their behavior as consumers and influencers of food purchases, 16 focus groups were conducted with 71 students aged 8-10 years. Transcriptions were submitted to lexical analysis using the Alceste software. The initial contextual unit broke down into 1469 elementary contextual units, 84% of which were retained in the descending hierarchical classification. Results from the larger and more specific classes are reported here. Children were students from public schools where energy-dense nutrient-poor (EDNP) food consumption was severely restricted, but these foods were still bought by the children themselves or requested from their parents. Television shows and advertisements motivated food consumption in general, and consumption of EDNP foods was associated with social events and eating outside the home. Situations that emphasize the pleasure and satisfaction of not eating according to food guidelines are being addressed by traditional educational strategies directed at the individual. Appealing to the senses and employing visual stimuli to get to the affective component of children's attitudes seems to be an alternative tool for promoting healthy eating, instead of the traditional approach based on recommendations and restrictions.

  18. Withholding differential risk information on legal consumer nicotine/tobacco products: The public health ethics of health information quarantines.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Lynn T; Sweanor, David

    2016-06-01

    The United States provides an example of a country with (a) legal tobacco/nicotine products (e.g., snus, other smokeless tobacco, cigarettes) differing greatly in risks to health and (b) respected health information websites that continue to omit or provide incorrect differential risk information. Concern for the principles of individual rights, health literacy, and personal autonomy (making decisions for oneself), which are key principles of public health ethics, has been countered by utilitarian arguments for the use of misleading or limited information to protect public health overall. We argue that omitting key health relevant information for current or prospective consumers represents a kind of quarantine of health-relevant information. As with disease quarantines, the coercive effects of quarantining information on differential risks need to be justified, not merely by fears of net negative public health effects, but by convincing evidence that such measures are actually warranted, that public health overall is in imminent danger and that the danger is sufficient to override principles of individual autonomy. Omitting such health-relevant information for consumers of such products effectively blindfolds them and impairs their making informed personal choices. Moral psychological issues that treat all tobacco/nicotine products similarly may also be influencing the reluctance to inform on differential risks. In countries where tobacco/nicotine products are legally sold and also differ greatly in disease risks compared to cigarettes (e.g., smokeless tobacco and vape), science-based, comprehensible, and actionable health information (consistent with health literacy principles) on differential risks should be available and only reconsidered if it is established that this information is causing losses to population health overall.

  19. Consumer acceptable risk: how cigarette companies have responded to accusations that their products are defective

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, K Michael; Brown, Anthony; Douglas, Clifford E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe arguments used by cigarette companies to defend themselves against charges that their cigarettes were defective and that they could and should have done more to make cigarettes less hazardous. Methods The data for this paper come from the opening statements made by defendants in four court cases: two class action lawsuits (Engle 1999, and Blankenship 2001) and two individual cases (Boeken 2001, and Schwarz 2002). The transcripts of opening statements were reviewed and statements about product defect claims, product testing, and safe cigarette research were excerpted and coded. Results Responses by cigarette companies to charges that their products were defective has been presented consistently across different cases and by different companies. Essentially the arguments made by cigarette companies boil down to three claims: (1) smoking is risky, but nothing the companies have done has made cigarettes more dangerous than might otherwise be the case; (2) nothing the companies have done or said has kept someone from stopping smoking; and (3) the companies have spent lots of money to make the safest cigarette acceptable to the smoker. Conclusions Cigarette companies have argued that their products are inherently dangerous but not defective, and that they have worked hard to make their products safer by lowering the tar and nicotine content of cigarettes as recommended by members of the public health community. As a counter argument, plaintiff attorneys should focus on how cigarette design changes have actually made smoking more acceptable to smokers, thereby discouraging smoking cessation. PMID:17130628

  20. 'I'm a consumer, I'm not a scientist': Cultivating Student Domain Identification, Agency, and Affect through Engagement in Scientific Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalone, Giovanna

    This study investigates the potential benefits of redesigning hands-on, commercial inquiry science kits for fifth grade that afford agency and the development of science identities by leveraging youth's interests, personal or shared concerns, challenges or desires. Science identification is considered in relation to learning processes of being, becoming, knowing and doing. As identities are constructed dialogically through engagement, emotion, intentionality, innovation, and solidarity, students' agency is mediated and conceptualized as it develops in practice. The study is introduced in Chapter 1 by acknowledging how agency and identity are constructed from an ideological frame, thus problematizing the current neo-liberal policies undergirding educational reform. The conceptual argument in Chapter 2 outlines a theoretical synthesis of agency and learning. Subsequently, I leveraged a theory of semiosis to highlight how these perspectives on agency and identity contribute to the meaning-making processes of language, culture, and mind. Finally, conceptualizations of agency and identity are mapped to the sociology of scientific knowledge perspective. Chapter 3 situates the study context within a design-based implementation research model where the existing science curriculum units serve as comparisons (Inquiry group) to the experimental units (Agency group). The findings first demonstrate how student and teacher positioning are revealed during the turns of exchange by using functional grammar as a method to analyze how discourse works to construe experience and enact social relationships. Secondly, I analyze youth positioning across conditions highlighting the importance of raising student consciousness to the variegated ways scientists practice science and inducts students into how scientists intentionally and purposefully employ genres to engage in scientific ways of communicating. Student's perspectives, positioning, and emotional investments are then analyzed