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Sample records for agency consumer product

  1. Consumer Product Safety Bills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Enterprise Inst. for Public Policy Research, Washington, DC.

    This legislative analysis of the actions of the 92nd Congress concerning consumer product safety bills, current as of March 20, 1972, presents briefly the background of Congressional investigations in this area. Describing in detail four major bills which focus on the establishment of an independent government agency regulating consumer products…

  2. 75 FR 19953 - Agency Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Survey of Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Information Collection: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Survey of Field Energy Consumption... support characterization of energy consumption for current and future DOE energy conservation standard rulemakings. The use of tested energy consumption data is not sufficient due to the potentially wide range...

  3. Consumer Health: Products and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Jessie Helen

    This book presents a general overview of consumer health, its products and services. Consumer health is defined as those topics dealing with a wise selection of health products and services, agencies concerned with the control of these products and services, evaluation of quackery and health misconceptions, health careers, and health insurance.…

  4. Federal Law on Consumer Deception: An Agency by Agency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibel, George J.

    A comprehensive analysis of statutes and regulations on consumer deception administered by thirty government agencies is provided in this report. Each agency's chapter includes a brief description of the agency, and a detailed listing of all deceptive trade practices prohibited by that agency's enabling legislation, regulations, or other sources…

  5. Consumer Product Safety Commission

    MedlinePlus

    ... En español Samsung Expands Recall of Galaxy Note7 Smartphones Based on Additional Incidents with Replacement Phones Serious ... for Failure to Report Defective Single Cup Coffeemakers Business Education Small businesses can determine which consumer product ...

  6. Nanomaterials in Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. Foss; Baun, A.; Michelson, E. S.; Kamper, A.; Borling, P.; Stuer-Lauridsen, F.

    Exposure assessment is crucial for risk assessment for nanomaterials. We propose a framework to aid exposure assessment in consumer products. We determined the location of the nanomaterials and the chemical identify of the 580 products listed in the inventory maintained by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. It was found that in 19% of the products the nanomaterial were nanoparticles bound to the surfaces. Nanoparticles suspended in liquids were used in 37% of the products, whereas 13% used nanoparticles suspended in solids. One percent were powders containing free potentially airborne nanoparticles. Based on the location of the nanostructure we were able to further group the products into categories of: (1) Expected to cause exposure; (2) May cause exposure; and (3) No expected exposure to the consumer. Most products fall into the category of expected exposure, but we were not able to complete the quantitative exposure assessment mainly due to the lack of information on the concentration of the nanomaterial in the products — a problem that regulators and industry will have to address if we are to have realistic exposure assessment in the future. To illustrate the workability of our procedure, we applied it to a product scenario — the application of sun lotion — using best estimates available and/or worst case assumptions.

  7. 5 CFR 845.207 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... report to the consumer reporting agency whenever it has knowledge of events that substantially change the... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 845... § 845.207 Use of consumer reporting agencies. (a) Notice. If a debtor's response to the notice...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1307 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Collection of Debts § 831.1307 Use of consumer reporting agencies. (a... report the debtor to a consumer reporting agency. In addition, a debtor's failure to make...

  9. Radioactivity of Consumer Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, David; Jokisch, Derek; Fulmer, Philip

    2006-11-01

    A variety of consumer products and household items contain varying amounts of radioactivity. Examples of these items include: FiestaWare and similar glazed china, salt substitute, bananas, brazil nuts, lantern mantles, smoke detectors and depression glass. Many of these items contain natural sources of radioactivity such as Uranium, Thorium, Radium and Potassium. A few contain man-made sources like Americium. This presentation will detail the sources and relative radioactivity of these items (including demonstrations). Further, measurements of the isotopic ratios of Uranium-235 and Uranium-238 in several pieces of china will be compared to historical uses of natural and depleted Uranium. Finally, the presenters will discuss radiation safety as it pertains to the use of these items.

  10. 29 CFR 1450.16 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Administrative Offset-Consumer Reporting Agencies-Contracting for... that they are complying with all laws of the United States related to providing consumer credit... identification number; (2) The amount, status, and history of the claim; and (3) The agency or program...

  11. Consumer Product Safety Commission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lumber Liquidators Agrees To Not Resume Sales of Inventory of Chinese-Made Laminate Flooring, Continue Comprehensive Testing ... Safety Report an Unsafe Product Join Neighborhood Safety Network View Injury Statistics Put CPSC Recalls on Your ...

  12. 5 CFR 845.207 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., address, taxpayer identification number, and any other information necessary to establish the identity of... report to the consumer reporting agency whenever it has knowledge of events that substantially change...

  13. Consumer participation and influence in a Health Systems Agency.

    PubMed

    Steckler, A; Dawson, L; Dellinger, N; Williams, A

    1981-01-01

    Consumer participation and influence were studied in one Health Systems Agency in the southeastern United States over a 20-month period (July 1976--February 1978). Consumer board members were found to be significantly less influential in agency decision making than were provider board members. This difference in influence existed even though virtually no difference existed between consumers' and providers' levels of participation. Consumer board members, while representing minority and nonminority, and both rural and nonrural groups, tended nevertheless also to be middle-class, middle-income individuals. Low-income and working-class groups were underrepresented on the board of the Health Systems Agency. Furthermore, consumer representatives tended to be satisfied with and have access to health care.

  14. Consumer protection act for digital products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampel, Viktor E.

    1996-03-01

    This report proposes a `Consumer Protection Act for Digital Products' to support electronic commerce and to control the increasing abuse and lack of security on the national information highways. Patterned after the `Food and Drug Act of 1906 (21 USC)' and subsequent legislation, a new agency similar to that of the FDA would have the authority `to develop administrative policy with regard to the safety, effectiveness, and labeling of digital products and their communications for human use, and to review and evaluate new applications of such products.' Specifically, it is proposed that standards, originally developed by the defense industry for the labeling, enveloping, and authentication of digital products delivered to the Government, be extended to promote global electronic commerce by protecting the intellectual property rights of producers, establishing their liability for the end-use of digital products, and give consumers means for informed decision making and purchase.

  15. 47 CFR 1.1918 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by Random Selection Collection of Claims Owed the United States Administrative Offset-Consumer... individual means a natural person, and the term consumer reporting agency has the meaning provided in the... relating to a debtor other than a natural person. Such commercial debt accounts are not covered by...

  16. 47 CFR 1.1918 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by Random Selection Collection of Claims Owed the United States Administrative Offset-Consumer... individual means a natural person, and the term consumer reporting agency has the meaning provided in the... relating to a debtor other than a natural person. Such commercial debt accounts are not covered by...

  17. Consumer oriented product noise testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomberg, Les

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the need for product noise measurements and how best to meet that need in the near future. Currently there is only a small market place for quieter consumer products. This is not because of lack of interest. No one really wants to announce to everyone in their house that they just flushed the toilet, few really want the entire neighborhood to know they are mowing their yard, etc. The small market place is primarily due to a lack of regulations on product noise, a lack of information easily available to consumers about which products are quieter, and market consolidation resulting in fewer manufacturers, most of whom are unwilling to emphasize their quieter products at the risk of eroding sales of their noisier ones (that currently have greater market share). In the absence of the EPA fulfilling its statutory requirement to regulate and label product noise under the Noise Control Act of 1972, and with the unwillingness of most industries to voluntarily publish accurate product noise data, there is a significant role for ``Consumer Oriented Product Noise Testing.'' This paper explores the Noise Pollution Clearinghouse's ongoing and planned product noise testing, evaluating its advantages, disadvantages, and limitations.

  18. Biotechnology products and European consumers.

    PubMed

    Moses, V

    1999-12-30

    More than 100 interviews conducted during 1997 with European food manufacturers and retailers, trade associations, government departments, consumer groups, environmental organizations and some individual academic scientists revealed how differences in the perceived attitudes of consumers gave rise to varying approaches by suppliers to the possible introduction of transgenic foods. European consumers generally are not against the pharmaceutical products of biotechnology but are much less willing to accept food and food ingredients, especially when derived from genetically modified plants. Objections are mainly based on fears for the health and safety of the consumer, worries about the possibility of deleterious effects on the environment, and a range of moral and ethical concerns often deriving from a distaste, however expressed, at the concept of interfering with nature. Consumer understanding of the science underlying biotechnology is patchy; in no country does more than a small proportion of the population claim a good grasp. Partly no doubt as a consequence of these attitudes, the introduction of genetically modified foods into Europe has occurred slowly and, during the period of this study, perhaps only in the Netherlands and the UK.

  19. 14 CFR 1261.408 - Use of consumer reporting agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 1261.408 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION PROCESSING OF... the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) § 1261.408 Use of consumer reporting agency..., status, and history of the claim; (iv) Program or pertinent activity under which the claim arose....

  20. 47 CFR 1.1918 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... consumer reporting agency from a system of records, information that an individual is responsible for a claim. System information includes, for example, name, taxpayer identification number, business and home...) Provide notice required by section 5 U.S.C. 552a(e)(4) that information in the system may be disclosed...

  1. Beauty Products and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    GRADES OR AGES: High school. SUBJECT MATTER: Consumer education especially as it concerns the consumer's desire for beauty. Included are considerations of cosmetics, health spas, reducing salons, wigs, and jewelry. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is discursively organized through the topics listed above. The physical appearance of…

  2. 38 CFR 1.916 - Disclosure of debt information to consumer reporting agencies (CRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information to consumer reporting agencies (CRA). 1.916 Section 1.916 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... debt information to consumer reporting agencies (CRA). (a) The Department of Veterans Affairs may... Affairs file number, Social Security number, and date of birth, to consumer reporting agencies for...

  3. PHARMACOKINETIC MODELING FOR PERFLUORINATED CHEMICALS USED IN HOUSEHOLD CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PHARMACOKINETIC MODELING FOR PERFLUORONATED CHEMICALS USED IN HOUSEHOLD CONSUMER PRODUCTS
    Leona H. Clark and Hugh A. Barton
    US Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NHEERL, ETD, Research Triangle Park, NC

    The physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model to be presente...

  4. Extraterrestrial consumables production and utilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, A. P.

    1972-01-01

    Potential oxygen requirements for lunar-surface, lunar-orbit, and planetary missions are presented with emphasis on: (1) emergency survival of the crew, (2) provision of energy consumables for vehicles, and (3) nondependency on an earth supply of oxygen. Although many extraterrestrial resource processes are analytically feasible, this study has considered hydrogen and fluorine processing concepts to obtain oxygen or water (or both). The results are quite encouraging and are extrapolatable to other processes. Preliminary mission planning and sequencing analysis has enabled the programmatic evaluation of using lunar-derived oxygen relative to transportation cost as a function of vehicle delivery and operational capability.

  5. 77 FR 10358 - Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Chapter II Acceptance of ASTM F963-11 as a Mandatory Consumer Product Safety Standard AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Acceptance of standard. SUMMARY: The Consumer...

  6. NANOMATERIALS, NANOTECHNOLOGY: APPLICATIONS, CONSUMER PRODUCTS, AND BENEFITS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanotechnology is a platform technology that is finding more and more applications daily. Today over 600 consumer products are available globally that utilize nanomaterials. This chapter explores the use of nanomaterials and nanotechnology in three areas, namely Medicine, Environ...

  7. 77 FR 59013 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ...; Consumer Price Index Housing Survey ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL) is submitting... Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by consumers for... submission of responses. Agency: DOL-BLS. Title of Collection: Consumer Price Index Housing......

  8. 78 FR 52606 - Agency Information Collection (uSPEQ Consumer Survey Experience (Rehabilitation)) Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (uSPEQ Consumer Survey Experience (Rehabilitation)) Under OMB Review...-0752''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: uSPEQ Consumer Survey Experience (Rehabilitation), VA Form...

  9. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    SciTech Connect

    Steinemann, Anne C.; MacGregor, Ian C.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Davis, Amy L.; Ribeiro, Daniel S.; Wallace, Lance A.

    2011-04-15

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  10. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development.

  11. Consumer acceptance of ginseng food products.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hee Sook; Lee, Young-Chul; Rhee, Young Kyung; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng has been utilized less in food products than in dietary supplements in the United States. Sensory acceptance of ginseng food products by U.S. consumers has not been reported. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine the sensory acceptance of commercial ginseng food products and (2) assess influence of the addition of sweeteners to ginseng tea and ginseng extract to chocolate on consumer acceptance. Total of 126 consumers participated in 3 sessions for (1) 7 commercial red ginseng food products, (2) 10 ginseng teas varying in levels of sugar or honey, and (3) 10 ginseng milk or dark chocolates varying in levels of ginseng extract. Ginseng candy with vitamin C and ginseng crunchy white chocolate were the most highly accepted, while sliced ginseng root product was the least accepted among the seven commercial products. Sensory acceptance increased in proportion to the content of sugar and honey in ginseng tea, whereas acceptance decreased with increasing content of ginseng extract in milk and dark chocolates. Findings demonstrate that ginseng food product types with which consumers have been already familiar, such as candy and chocolate, will have potential for success in the U.S. market. Chocolate could be suggested as a food matrix into which ginseng can be incorporated, as containing more bioactive compounds than ginseng tea at a similar acceptance level. Future research may include a descriptive analysis with ginseng-based products to identify the key drivers of liking and disliking for successful new product development. PMID:22416723

  12. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Kotthoff, Matthias; Müller, Josef; Jürling, Heinrich; Schlummer, Martin; Fiedler, Dominik

    2015-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in a wide range of products of all day life. Due to their toxicological potential, an emerging focus is directed towards their exposure to humans. This study investigated the PFAS load of consumer products in a broad perspective. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C4, C6-C8, C10-PFSA), carboxylic acids (C4-C14-PFCA) and fluorotelomer alcohols (4:2, 6:2; 8:2 and 10:2 FTOH) were analysed in 115 random samples of consumer products including textiles (outdoor materials), carpets, cleaning and impregnating agents, leather samples, baking and sandwich papers, paper baking forms and ski waxes. PFCA and PFSA were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS, whereas FTOH were detected by GC/CI-MS. Consumer products such as cleaning agents or some baking and sandwich papers show low or negligible PFSA and PFCA contents. On the other hand, high PFAS levels were identified in ski waxes (up to about 2000 μg/kg PFOA), leather samples (up to about 200 μg/kg PFBA and 120 μg/kg PFBS), outdoor textiles (up to 19 μg/m(2) PFOA) and some other baking papers (up to 15 μg/m(2) PFOA). Moreover, some test samples like carpet and leather samples and outdoor materials exceeded the EU regulatory threshold value for PFOS (1 μg/m(2)). A diverse mixture of PFASs can be found in consumer products for all fields of daily use in varying concentrations. This study proves the importance of screening and monitoring of consumer products for PFAS loads and the necessity for an action to regulate the use of PFASs, especially PFOA, in consumer products.

  13. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Kotthoff, Matthias; Müller, Josef; Jürling, Heinrich; Schlummer, Martin; Fiedler, Dominik

    2015-10-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are used in a wide range of products of all day life. Due to their toxicological potential, an emerging focus is directed towards their exposure to humans. This study investigated the PFAS load of consumer products in a broad perspective. Perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (C4, C6-C8, C10-PFSA), carboxylic acids (C4-C14-PFCA) and fluorotelomer alcohols (4:2, 6:2; 8:2 and 10:2 FTOH) were analysed in 115 random samples of consumer products including textiles (outdoor materials), carpets, cleaning and impregnating agents, leather samples, baking and sandwich papers, paper baking forms and ski waxes. PFCA and PFSA were analysed by HPLC-MS/MS, whereas FTOH were detected by GC/CI-MS. Consumer products such as cleaning agents or some baking and sandwich papers show low or negligible PFSA and PFCA contents. On the other hand, high PFAS levels were identified in ski waxes (up to about 2000 μg/kg PFOA), leather samples (up to about 200 μg/kg PFBA and 120 μg/kg PFBS), outdoor textiles (up to 19 μg/m(2) PFOA) and some other baking papers (up to 15 μg/m(2) PFOA). Moreover, some test samples like carpet and leather samples and outdoor materials exceeded the EU regulatory threshold value for PFOS (1 μg/m(2)). A diverse mixture of PFASs can be found in consumer products for all fields of daily use in varying concentrations. This study proves the importance of screening and monitoring of consumer products for PFAS loads and the necessity for an action to regulate the use of PFASs, especially PFOA, in consumer products. PMID:25854201

  14. Use of nanosilver in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Lem, K W; Choudhury, A; Lakhani, A A; Kuyate, P; Haw, J R; Lee, D S; Iqbal, Z; Brumlik, C J

    2012-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNP; many other names such as nanosilver and colloidal silver) have already been used in everyday consumer products requiring broad spectrum antibiotic performance because of their enormous surface area and reactivity. Faunce and Watal [1] recently have critically analyzed the international regulatory issues for medical and domestic use in USA, EU, UK, and Australia. They found that in spite of the fact numerous studies have been made in the past decades, but many scientists are still uncertain of its safety. Very recently, Powers mentioned in her dissertation that her results showed positive that Ag+ and AgNP are developmental neurotoxicants in vitro and in vivo [2]. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a study to identify a global landscape of AgNPs and their products, and their manufacturers. A market- based intellectual property (IP) study has been conducted to examine the current global patent landscape of companies using AgNP in their consumer product development and production from 1980 to 2010. Detailed information in the compositions and formulations is extracted using a "two-stage" stage-gate process from the IP activity in the use of nanosilver. The first stage is in commercial products and the second stage is in consumer products. In the first stage for AgNP and AgNP-based commercial products, there were 7,422 patent families from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2010. In the second stage for AgNP-based consumer products, 932 patent families from January 1, 1980 to December 31, 2010 were found. Korea, China and USA were found to be the major players in AgNP and AgNP-based commercial and consumer products. However, the recent patenting downturn was observed probably due to rising price in silver metal, regulatory uncertainty, public perception, and health safety & environmental (HS&E) issues.

  15. 38 CFR 1.916 - Disclosure of debt information to consumer reporting agencies (CRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... order to conduct program evaluation studies as required by 38 U.S.C. 527 or any other law. (b... information to consumer reporting agencies (CRA). 1.916 Section 1.916 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... debt information to consumer reporting agencies (CRA). (a) The Department of Veterans Affairs...

  16. 38 CFR 1.916 - Disclosure of debt information to consumer reporting agencies (CRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... order to conduct program evaluation studies as required by 38 U.S.C. 527 or any other law. (b... information to consumer reporting agencies (CRA). 1.916 Section 1.916 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... debt information to consumer reporting agencies (CRA). (a) The Department of Veterans Affairs...

  17. 38 CFR 1.916 - Disclosure of debt information to consumer reporting agencies (CRA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... order to conduct program evaluation studies as required by 38 U.S.C. 527 or any other law. (b... information to consumer reporting agencies (CRA). 1.916 Section 1.916 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... debt information to consumer reporting agencies (CRA). (a) The Department of Veterans Affairs...

  18. 20 CFR 422.305 - Report of overdue program overpayment debts to consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Report of overdue program overpayment debts to consumer reporting agencies. 422.305 Section 422.305 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES Claims Collection § 422.305 Report of overdue program overpayment debts to consumer reporting agencies. (a) Debts...

  19. 47 CFR 1.1918 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by Random Selection Collection of Claims Owed the United States Administrative Offset-Consumer... laws of the United States relating to providing consumer credit information. (d) The Commission shall..., the amount of unpaid principle, the late period, and the payment history. Before the...

  20. 16 CFR 1031.3 - Consumer Product Safety Act amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. 1031.3 Section 1031.3 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION... Consumer Product Safety Act amendments. The Consumer Product Safety Act, as amended, contains...

  1. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

    SciTech Connect

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    2009-01-15

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects.

  2. 75 FR 32161 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Consumer Focus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ..., product use, and perceptions regarding safety issues. Through participation in certain focus groups... perceptions on the use or pattern of use of a specific product or type of product, including recalled products... of consumer products and product use by providing insight and information into consumer...

  3. Human exposure to phthalates via consumer products.

    PubMed

    Schettler, Ted

    2006-02-01

    Phthalate exposures in the general population and in subpopulations are ubiquitous and widely variable. Many consumer products contain specific members of this family of chemicals, including building materials, household furnishings, clothing, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, medical devices, dentures, children's toys, glow sticks, modelling clay, food packaging, automobiles, lubricants, waxes, cleaning materials and insecticides. Consumer products containing phthalates can result in human exposures through direct contact and use, indirectly through leaching into other products, or general environmental contamination. Historically, the diet has been considered the major source of phthalate exposure in the general population, but all sources, pathways, and their relative contributions to human exposures are not well understood. Medical devices containing di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are a source of significant exposure in a susceptible subpopulation of individuals. Cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, herbal remedies and insecticides, may result in significant but poorly quantified human exposures to dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, or dimethyl phthalate. Oven baking of polymer clays may cause short-term, high-level inhalation exposures to higher molecular weight phthalates. PMID:16466533

  4. Which Efficient Products Must Federal Agencies Buy

    SciTech Connect

    2010-08-24

    Fact sheet prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to help Federal agencies comply with FEMP Designated, Low Standby Power, ENERGY STAR Qualified, and Water Sense Labeled product purchasing requirements.

  5. 76 FR 6813 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Consolidated Consumers' Report...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ..., 2010, we published a Federal Register notice (75 FR 64349) announcing that we would submit this ICR to... Consumers' Report (1 Form) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension... paperwork requirements for the USGS Consolidated Consumers' Report. This collection consists of one...

  6. 20 CFR 422.305 - Report of overdue program overpayment debts to consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... giving us evidence showing that he or she does not owe all or part of the amount of the debt or that we... debt to a consumer reporting agency, we will send the debtor written notice of the following: (1) We have determined that payment of the debt is overdue; (2) We will refer the debt to a consumer...

  7. 20 CFR 422.305 - Report of overdue program overpayment debts to consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... giving us evidence showing that he or she does not owe all or part of the amount of the debt or that we... debt to a consumer reporting agency, we will send the debtor written notice of the following: (1) We have determined that payment of the debt is overdue; (2) We will refer the debt to a consumer...

  8. 20 CFR 422.305 - Report of overdue program overpayment debts to consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... giving us evidence showing that he or she does not owe all or part of the amount of the debt or that we... debt to a consumer reporting agency, we will send the debtor written notice of the following: (1) We have determined that payment of the debt is overdue; (2) We will refer the debt to a consumer...

  9. 20 CFR 422.305 - Report of overdue program overpayment debts to consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... giving us evidence showing that he or she does not owe all or part of the amount of the debt or that we... debt to a consumer reporting agency, we will send the debtor written notice of the following: (1) We have determined that payment of the debt is overdue; (2) We will refer the debt to a consumer...

  10. 45 CFR 608.2 - Collection, compromise, and use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collection, compromise, and use of consumer...) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLAIMS COLLECTION AND ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET § 608.2 Collection, compromise, and use of consumer reporting agencies. (a) Subject to the specific limitations and procedures of 31...

  11. 45 CFR 608.2 - Collection, compromise, and use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection, compromise, and use of consumer...) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CLAIMS COLLECTION AND ADMINISTRATIVE OFFSET § 608.2 Collection, compromise, and use of consumer reporting agencies. (a) Subject to the specific limitations and procedures of 31...

  12. Effects of carbon fibers on consumer products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, R. A.; Lovett, C. D.

    1980-01-01

    The potential effects of carbon fibers on consumer products such as dishwashers, microwave ovens, and smoke detectors were investigated. The investigation was divided into two categories to determine the potential faults and hazards that could occur if fibers should enter the electrical circuits of the selected appliances. The categories were a fault analysis and a hazard analysis. Hazards considered were fire, flood, physical harm, explosion, and electrical shock. Electrical shock was found to be a possible occurrence related to carbon fibers. Faults were considered to be any effect on the performance of an appliance which would result in complaint or require service action.

  13. Consumers' use of written product information.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Bettina S; Sauer, Jürgen; Rüttinger, Bruno

    2004-09-15

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the predictive role of person-specific, product-specific, and situation-specific influences on the use of instruction manuals in the field of electrical consumer products. In a laboratory study, 42 participants were observed while putting a vacuum cleaner into operation. Situational primes (i.e., receiving a verbal cue that the packaging contains an instruction manual) increased the probability of the user manual being read. Additional verbal information that the manual contains information on energy-saving behaviours was especially motivating for persons with high environmental concern. Self-report data, collected on a wide range of products, suggest that product complexity is the best predictor of instruction manual use. In a second study with 30 participants, different positions of product labels were compared, i.e. placing the information on the packaging or directly onto the product. Information placed directly onto the product had a significantly higher influence on participants' actual behaviour than providing the same information on the packaging.

  14. The Consumer Product Safety Commission: Benefit or Boondoggle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Laurence P.

    1977-01-01

    The Consumer Product Safety Commission has been subject to the criticism of all parties involved in the regulation of the safety of consumer products. Evaluates the Commission's performance, examining both the sources of the Commission's regulatory problems and the extent to which recent amendments to the Consumer Product Safety Act will solve…

  15. Product Safety: "An Ounce of Prevention". Health and the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Elementary and Secondary Education.

    Secondary level students learn about product safety in this consumer education learning activity package, which is one of a series. While the majority of products are safe, there remains a small percentage of consumer goods which reach the market place containing a real or potential hazard to the consumer's safety. This module is designed to make…

  16. 76 FR 38059 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Products and Services Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...-reloadable open loop payment cards, closed- loop gift or store cards,\\27\\ electronic benefits transfer cards... Financial Products and Services Markets AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION: Notice and... supervision coverage varies for different product markets. Section 1024 of the Act provides that the CFPB...

  17. Consumers' perception of organic product characteristics. A review.

    PubMed

    Schleenbecker, Rosa; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    Consumer interest in organic products is growing alongside a diversification of the supply. In order to serve consumers actual needs and wants regarding organic products, those involved in the market need to be informed about consumers' perception of organic products. Therefore, the state of research as regards consumers' perception of organic product characteristics, including basic and additional characteristics, product labelling, product innovations and the range of products on the market is displayed in this contribution. A comprehensive literature analysis was performed uncovering not only the state of the art in the field including employed methodology, but also research needs. Most studies are published on consumers' perception of organic products' design and labelling. A trend towards the so called 'organic-plus' positioning can be perceived, with many consumers expecting an extensive orientation towards sustainability. The diversity of product labels features prominently in related studies. The demand for reliable information, as well as the low degree of awareness of many labels amongst consumers becomes clear in these studies. To date, few results are available on consumers' perception of packaging and design of organic products, and even fewer for consumers' perception of range design. Both consumers' perception of organic product innovation and valued added services are untouched so far. PMID:24012637

  18. Consumers' perception of organic product characteristics. A review.

    PubMed

    Schleenbecker, Rosa; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-12-01

    Consumer interest in organic products is growing alongside a diversification of the supply. In order to serve consumers actual needs and wants regarding organic products, those involved in the market need to be informed about consumers' perception of organic products. Therefore, the state of research as regards consumers' perception of organic product characteristics, including basic and additional characteristics, product labelling, product innovations and the range of products on the market is displayed in this contribution. A comprehensive literature analysis was performed uncovering not only the state of the art in the field including employed methodology, but also research needs. Most studies are published on consumers' perception of organic products' design and labelling. A trend towards the so called 'organic-plus' positioning can be perceived, with many consumers expecting an extensive orientation towards sustainability. The diversity of product labels features prominently in related studies. The demand for reliable information, as well as the low degree of awareness of many labels amongst consumers becomes clear in these studies. To date, few results are available on consumers' perception of packaging and design of organic products, and even fewer for consumers' perception of range design. Both consumers' perception of organic product innovation and valued added services are untouched so far.

  19. Empowering consumers as contributors for health product safety: lessons from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Hartigan-Go, Kenneth

    2015-04-01

    Empowering consumers to contribute to adverse drug reaction reporting seems a sensible innovation, particularly when traditional reports emanating from healthcare professionals are neither increasing nor improving. This work, inspired by an EU-FP7-funded project, describes an attempt by the Philippines to introduce a consumer reporting system through education and an online platform for reporting, and the lessons that were captured in the process. While participating consumers did not contribute to the adverse drug reporting process in the traditional sense as originally expected, the reports received by the drug regulatory agency revealed consumers' concerns regarding health product legitimacy, quality and market claims, as well as the lack of available and accessible information. These reports led regulators to take action. Initial insights on consumer behavior are proposed for regulators and industry to consider in greater depth and how this may impact on consumers providing valued information that will promote other aspects of product safety.

  20. Smart consumer products with a pathfinder product development strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Alec

    1994-09-01

    It is generally acknowledged that technologies diffuse through industry and that the rate of diffusion varies both within different industries and according to the circumstances. Innovation is a process involving risk, especially during the adoption and adaptation of a powerful new technology. Central to a consumer products success using new technology is the quality of their designs and the nature of their forms. Form is of prime importance in influencing the purchasing decisions of consumers and it is also influential in determining the relationships between people in its use environment. The acceptance of a new product into the world is often unduly ad hoc. Many failures are created for each success and there are few guidelines to assist the formulation of a strategy for creating an appropriate form. It is suggested below that success of consumer products incorporating 'smart structures' may be determined not only by the function of products and systems, but also by the form they take. The definition of a desirable product form depends entirely on the point of view taken: technological, commercial, ecological, cultural, and social. However any design using new will incorporate the old and the new. The probability of acceptance of a new product is enhanced by maintaining a fine balance between imaginative and creative form and that with which people are familiar and prefer: a new design may be rejected if it is too novel and unfamiliar, or too traditional. The acceptance of a new product and its subsequent development depends on the success designers and engineers have when dealing with the initial forms, particularly using new technology such as 'smart structures'.

  1. Directory of Government Agencies Safeguarding Consumer and Environment, Third Edition 1970-71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    This directory is intended to help people who want to contact Federal and/or State officials for advice, assistance, information, and action in a variety of fields associated with consumer and environmental protection in any of the fifty states and the District of Columbia. Agencies are listed in eleven categories: food and drugs, meat and poultry…

  2. 75 FR 64349 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Consolidated Consumers' Report

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR U.S. Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Consolidated..., and the general public. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1028-0070. Title: Consolidated Consumers'...

  3. 75 FR 64173 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ... September 16, 2010 (75 FR 56796) is extended to October 29, 2010. ADDRESSES: Interested persons are... notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR) published in the Federal Register on September 16, 2010. 75 FR 56796..., Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment AGENCY: Office...

  4. 75 FR 57410 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... document FR 2010-22353 appearing on page 56796, in the issue of Thursday, September 16, 2010, the following..., Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment; Correction AGENCY... and Commercial and Industrial Equipment. This correction revises the dates relating to a...

  5. 76 FR 56347 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB95 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters (Standby Mode and Off Mode) AGENCY... residential water heaters, direct heating equipment, and pool heaters to include provisions for...

  6. 78 FR 73737 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for General...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AD09 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for General Service Lamps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable......

  7. 76 FR 13169 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision... Residential Clothes Washer Test Procedure AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Michael G. Raymond, U.S. Department of Energy, Building...

  8. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mohammed Khan, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency...

  9. Presence in, and release of, nanomaterials from consumer products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Westerhoff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products has led to concerns about their potential impact on humans and the environment. In order to fully assess the impacts and release of ENMs from consumer products, this chapter provides an overview of the types of consumer products that contain nanomaterials, the potential release mechanisms of these ENMs from consumer products, and the associated human exposure. Information from two large datasets on consumer goods associated with ENMs, namely, the U.S.-based Project for Emerging Nanotechnologies from the Woodrow Wilson International Center, and the European-based National Institute for Public Health and the Environment of Netherlands, have been summarized. These databases reveal that silver, titanium, carbon-based ENMs are the major nanomaterials associated with consumer products. The presence and potential release of silver, titanium, carbon-based, and other nanomaterials from consumer goods available in published literature are also summarized, as well as the potential human exposure scenarios of inhalation, ingestion, dermal, and combination of all means. The prospecting of nanomaterial in water and biosolids provides further evidence of ENM occurrence, which could be linked to the use of nanomaterials containing consumer goods. Finally, this overview provides guidelines on toxicity studies, which calls for further efforts to analyze the biological effects of ENMs on human beings and their exposure pathways in consumer products.

  10. Presence in, and release of, nanomaterials from consumer products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yu; Westerhoff, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products has led to concerns about their potential impact on humans and the environment. In order to fully assess the impacts and release of ENMs from consumer products, this chapter provides an overview of the types of consumer products that contain nanomaterials, the potential release mechanisms of these ENMs from consumer products, and the associated human exposure. Information from two large datasets on consumer goods associated with ENMs, namely, the U.S.-based Project for Emerging Nanotechnologies from the Woodrow Wilson International Center, and the European-based National Institute for Public Health and the Environment of Netherlands, have been summarized. These databases reveal that silver, titanium, carbon-based ENMs are the major nanomaterials associated with consumer products. The presence and potential release of silver, titanium, carbon-based, and other nanomaterials from consumer goods available in published literature are also summarized, as well as the potential human exposure scenarios of inhalation, ingestion, dermal, and combination of all means. The prospecting of nanomaterial in water and biosolids provides further evidence of ENM occurrence, which could be linked to the use of nanomaterials containing consumer goods. Finally, this overview provides guidelines on toxicity studies, which calls for further efforts to analyze the biological effects of ENMs on human beings and their exposure pathways in consumer products. PMID:24683024

  11. Consumer Product Safety Commission. Consumer Education Efforts for Revised Children's Sleepwear Safety Standard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    A study examined the type and extent of consumer education that occurred since the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) amended the 1972 federal safety standards (effective January 1997) to permit marketing of snug-fitting, nonflame-resistant cotton garments as sleepwear. Three voluntary point-of-sale (POS) practices recognized as important…

  12. . Cheminformatic exploration of the chemical landscape of consumer products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, little information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which they are present. To address this data gap, we have created a database of chemicals in consumer pro...

  13. Using Ingredient Lists to Quantitatively Characterize Composition of Consumer Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing exposure to substances in consumer products requires data on the composition of the products. This is a challenge since product composition data are rarely available. Many products, however, provide a list of ingredients. In many cases the list is presented in descendin...

  14. Environmental assessment for the Consumer Products Efficiency Standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978, requires the DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers the following products: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers; freezers;clothes dryers;water heaters; room air conditioners; home heating equipment (not including furnaces); kitchen ranges and ovens; central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps); furnaces; dishwashers; television sets; clothes washers; and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. DOE is proposing two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. The thirteen consumer products account for approximately 90% of all the energy consumed in the nation's residences, or more than 20% of the nation's energy needs. Increases in the energy efficiency of these consumer products can help to narrow the gap between the nation's increasing demand for energy and decreasing supplies of domestic oil and natural gas. Improvements in the efficiency of consumer products can thus help to solve the nation's energy crisis.

  15. Quarternary Amines as Nitrosamine Precursors: A Role for Consumer Products?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrosamine formation is associated with wastewater-impacted water supplies, but the specific precursors within municipal wastewater effluents have not been identified. Quaternary amines are significant constituents of consumer products, including shampoos, detergents and fabric softeners. Experimen...

  16. Cost Benefit Analysis of Consumer Product Safety Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Betty F.; Dardis, Rachel

    1977-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of cost-benefit analysis in evaluating consumer product safety standards and applys such analysis to an evaluation of flammability standards for children's sleepwear. (Editor)

  17. Evaluation of the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation and the impact on consumers and product manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Dallas M; Kingsbury, Tony; Perez, Angela L; Woods, Tyler A; Kovochich, Michael; Hill, Denise S; Madl, Amy K; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2014-02-01

    Chemistry enables more than 95% of products in the marketplace. Over the past 20 years, various entities began to generate inventories of chemicals ("chemical watch lists") potentially associated with human or environmental health risks. Some lists included thousands of chemicals, while others listed only a few chemistries with limited properties or toxicological endpoints (e.g., neurotoxicants). Enacted on October 1, 2013, the California Safer Consumer Products Regulation (SCP) utilized data from chemical inventory lists to create one master list. This paper aims to discuss the background and requirements of this regulation. Additionally, we wanted to understand the universe of Candidate Chemicals identified by the Regulation. Data from all 23 chemical lists identified in the SCP Regulation were entered into a database. The most prevalent chemicals among the ∼2900 chemicals are identified, including the most prevalent chemical, lead, appearing on 65% of lists, followed by DEHP (52%), perchloroethylene (48%), and benzene (48%). Our results indicated that the most prevalent Candidate Chemicals were either persistent, bioaccumulative, carcinogenic, or reprotoxic. This regulation will have wide-ranging impact in California and throughout the global supply chain, which is highlighted through selected examples and case studies.

  18. Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, we, or the Agency) is issuing this final rule establishing that certain active ingredients used in over-the-counter (OTC) consumer antiseptic products intended for use with water (referred to throughout this document as consumer antiseptic washes) are not generally recognized as safe and effective (GRAS/GRAE) and are misbranded. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering the recommendations of the Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee (NDAC); public comments on the Agency's notices of proposed rulemaking; and all data and information on OTC consumer antiseptic wash products that have come to the Agency's attention. This final rule amends the 1994 tentative final monograph (TFM) for OTC antiseptic drug products that published in the Federal Register of June 17, 1994 (the 1994 TFM). The final rule is part of the ongoing review of OTC drug products conducted by FDA.

  19. Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, we, or the Agency) is issuing this final rule establishing that certain active ingredients used in over-the-counter (OTC) consumer antiseptic products intended for use with water (referred to throughout this document as consumer antiseptic washes) are not generally recognized as safe and effective (GRAS/GRAE) and are misbranded. FDA is issuing this final rule after considering the recommendations of the Nonprescription Drugs Advisory Committee (NDAC); public comments on the Agency's notices of proposed rulemaking; and all data and information on OTC consumer antiseptic wash products that have come to the Agency's attention. This final rule amends the 1994 tentative final monograph (TFM) for OTC antiseptic drug products that published in the Federal Register of June 17, 1994 (the 1994 TFM). The final rule is part of the ongoing review of OTC drug products conducted by FDA. PMID:27632802

  20. Aerogels Insulate Missions and Consumer Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Aspen Aerogels, of Northborough, Massachusetts, worked with NASA through an SBIR contract with Kennedy Space Center to develop a robust, flexible form of aerogel for cryogenic insulation for space shuttle launch applications. The company has since used the same manufacturing process developed under the SBIR award to expand its product offerings into the more commercial realms, making the naturally fragile aerogel available for the first time as a standard insulation that can be handled and installed just like standard insulation.

  1. Risk assessment of low-level chemical exposures from consumer products under the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission chronic hazard guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Babich, M A

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is an independent regulatory agency that was created in 1973. The CPSC has jurisdiction over more the 15,000 types of consumer products used in and around the home or by children, except items such as food, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, pesticides, certain radioactive materials, products that emit radiation (e.g., microwave ovens), and automobiles. The CPSC has investigated many low-level exposures from consumer products, including formaldehyde emissions from urea-formaldehyde foam insulation and pressed wood products, CO and NO2 emmissions from combustion appliances, and dioxin in paper products. Many chemical hazards are addressed under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA), which applies to acute and chronic health effects resulting from high- or low-level exposures. In 1992 the Commission issued guidelines for assessing chronic hazards under the FHSA, including carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, reproductive/developmental toxicity, exposure, bioavailability, risk assessment, and acceptable risk. The chronic hazard guidelines describe a series of default assumptions, which are used in the absence of evidence to the contrary. However, the guidelines are intended to be sufficiently flexible to incorporate the latest scientific information. The use of alternative procedures is permissible, on a case-by-case basis, provided that the procedures used are scientifically defensible and supported by appropriate data. The application of the chronic hazard guidelines in assessing the risks from low-level exposures is discussed. PMID:9539035

  2. Consumer motivation towards purchasing fruit from integrated production in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers.

  3. Consumer motivation towards purchasing fruit from integrated production in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vannoppen, J; Verbeke, W; Van Huylenbroeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Consumer concerns about food safety have been steadily growing during the last decade. Along with the recognition of the increasing power from the consumer side of food chains, this has forced agricultural producers to innovate and adapt their production methods. One of those developments is integrated production of pip fruit (IFP). This research analyses and presents motivational structures of consumers towards purchasing IP fruit in Belgium. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews with consumers. A hierarchical value map, indicating motivational structures for farm shop purchase of IP-labelled apples, is presented. IP-apple buyers pursue typical values, with health being paramount. The findings reveal interactions between market channel characteristics and product attributes, including characteristics that refer to production methods. Also, the study shows how outlet choice influences the perception and the motivation structure of the respondents for the specific product, fresh fruit in this case. From the findings, two sets of implications are set forth. First, marketing implications pertaining to advertising through the application of the "Means-End Conceptualization of the Components of Advertising Strategy" or MECCAS model. Second, implications to producers with respect to adapting their production methods to the needs and wants of the present end consumers. PMID:12425106

  4. Agency Decision-Making Control and Employment Outcomes by Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Bernard A.; Kwan, Ngai; Boeltzig-Brown, Heike; Haines, Kelly; Halliday, John; Foley, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We hypothesized that consumers who are blind or visually impaired (that is, those who have low vision) who were served by state vocational rehabilitation agencies with decision-making control over administrative functions would experience better vocational rehabilitation outcomes than consumers served by vocational rehabilitation…

  5. Environmental assessment. Energy efficiency standards for consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    McSwain, Berah

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires DOE to prescribe energy efficiency standards for 13 consumer products. The Consumer Products Efficiency Standards (CPES) program covers: refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners (cooling and heat pumps), furnaces, dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers. This Environmental Assessment evaluates the potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts expected as a result of setting efficiency standards for all of the consumer products covered by the CPES program. DOE has proposed standards for eight of the products covered by the Program in a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NOPR). DOE expects to propose standards for home heating equipment, central air conditioners (heat pumps only), dishwashers, television sets, clothes washers, and humidifiers and dehumidifiers in 1981. No significant adverse environmental or socioeconomic impacts have been found to result from instituting the CPES.

  6. Firearm Advertising: Product Depiction in Consumer Gun Magazines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylor, Elizabeth A.; Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to tobacco, alcohol, and other consumer products associated with health risks, we know very little about how firearm manufacturers advertise their products. The authors examined advertisements for firearms in all 27 ad-accepting magazines listed in "Bacon's Magazine Directory" "guns and shooting" category. Sixty-three manufacturers…

  7. Consumer choice: Linking consumer intentions to actual purchase of GM labeled food products.

    PubMed

    Sleenhoff, Susanne; Osseweijer, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    With a mandatory labeling scheme for GM food in Europe since 2004 measuring actual consumer choice in practice has become possible. Anticipating Europeans negative attitude toward GM food, the labeling was enforced to allow consumers to make an informed choice. We studied consumers actual purchase behavior of GM food products and compared this with their attitude and behavioral intention for buying GM food. We found that despite a majority of consumers voicing a negative attitude toward GM food over 50% of our European respondents stated that they did not actively avoid the purchase of GM food and 6% actually purchased one of the few available GM labeled food products in the period between September 2006 and October 2007. Our results imply that a voiced negative attitude of consumers in responses to questionnaires about their intentions is not a reliable guide for what they actually do in supermarkets. We conclude that the assumption of a negative attitude with regard to GM food is at least in part construed. PMID:24051512

  8. Integrating asthma hazard characterization methods for consumer products.

    PubMed

    Maier, A; Vincent, M J; Gadagbui, B; Patterson, J; Beckett, W; Dalton, P; Kimber, I; Selgrade, M J K

    2014-10-01

    Despite extensive study, definitive conclusions regarding the relationship between asthma and consumer products remain elusive. Uncertainties reflect the multi-faceted nature of asthma (i.e., contributions of immunologic and non-immunologic mechanisms). Many substances used in consumer products are associated with occupational asthma or asthma-like syndromes. However, risk assessment methods do not adequately predict the potential for consumer product exposures to trigger asthma and related syndromes under lower-level end-user conditions. A decision tree system is required to characterize asthma and respiratory-related hazards associated with consumer products. A system can be built to incorporate the best features of existing guidance, frameworks, and models using a weight-of-evidence (WoE) approach. With this goal in mind, we have evaluated chemical hazard characterization methods for asthma and asthma-like responses. Despite the wealth of information available, current hazard characterization methods do not definitively identify whether a particular ingredient will cause or exacerbate asthma, asthma-like responses, or sensitization of the respiratory tract at lower levels associated with consumer product use. Effective use of hierarchical lines of evidence relies on consideration of the relevance and potency of assays, organization of assays by mode of action, and better assay validation. It is anticipated that the analysis of existing methods will support the development of a refined WoE approach.

  9. Endocrine Disruptors and Asthma-Associated Chemicals in Consumer Products

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Marcia; Standley, Laurel J.; Perovich, Laura J.; Brody, Julia Green; Rudel, Ruthann A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Laboratory and human studies raise concerns about endocrine disruption and asthma resulting from exposure to chemicals in consumer products. Limited labeling or testing information is available to evaluate products as exposure sources. Objectives: We analytically quantified endocrine disruptors and asthma-related chemicals in a range of cosmetics, personal care products, cleaners, sunscreens, and vinyl products. We also evaluated whether product labels provide information that can be used to select products without these chemicals. Methods: We selected 213 commercial products representing 50 product types. We tested 42 composited samples of high-market-share products, and we tested 43 alternative products identified using criteria expected to minimize target compounds. Analytes included parabens, phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, ethanolamines, alkylphenols, fragrances, glycol ethers, cyclosiloxanes, and ultraviolet (UV) filters. Results: We detected 55 compounds, indicating a wide range of exposures from common products. Vinyl products contained > 10% bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and could be an important source of DEHP in homes. In other products, the highest concentrations and numbers of detects were in the fragranced products (e.g., perfume, air fresheners, and dryer sheets) and in sunscreens. Some products that did not contain the well-known endocrine-disrupting phthalates contained other less-studied phthalates (dicyclohexyl phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-propyl phthalate; also endocrine-disrupting compounds), suggesting a substitution. Many detected chemicals were not listed on product labels. Conclusions: Common products contain complex mixtures of EDCs and asthma-related compounds. Toxicological studies of these mixtures are needed to understand their biological activity. Regarding epidemiology, our findings raise concern about potential confounding from co-occurring chemicals and misclassification due to variability in

  10. 77 FR 74616 - Amendments and Correction to Petitions for Waiver and Interim Waiver for Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... requirements since they were enacted on November 26, 1986. 51 FR 42826. In addition, the new waiver..., certify and market their products. The new proposal to clarify that DOE would not change the established... and Interim Waiver for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment AGENCY: Office...

  11. Consumers of natural health products: natural-born pharmacovigilantes?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Natural health products (NHPs), such as herbal medicines and vitamins, are widely available over-the-counter and are often purchased by consumers without advice from a healthcare provider. This study examined how consumers respond when they believe they have experienced NHP-related adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in order to determine how to improve current safety monitoring strategies. Methods Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve consumers who had experienced a self-identified NHP-related ADR. Key emergent themes were identified and coded using content analysis techniques. Results Consumers were generally not comfortable enough with their conventional health care providers to discuss their NHP-related ADRs. Consumers reported being more comfortable discussing NHP-related ADRs with personnel from health food stores, friends or family with whom they had developed trusted relationships. No one reported their suspected ADR to Health Canada and most did not know this was possible. Conclusion Consumers generally did not report their suspected NHP-related ADRs to healthcare providers or to Health Canada. Passive reporting systems for collecting information on NHP-related ADRs cannot be effective if consumers who experience NHP-related ADRs do not report their experiences. Healthcare providers, health food store personnel, manufacturers and other stakeholders also need to take responsibility for reporting ADRs in order to improve current pharmacovigilance of NHPs. PMID:20184759

  12. Consumer acceptance and sensory profiling of reengineered kitoza products.

    PubMed

    Pintado, Ana I E; Monteiro, Maria J P; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Scislowski, Valérie; Fliedel, Geneviève; Rakoto, Danielle; Maraval, Isabelle; Costa, Ana I A; Silva, Ana P; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela M E

    2016-05-01

    Kitoza refers to a traditional way of preparing beef and pork in Madagascar. However, in order to improve some drawbacks previous identified, the product was submitted to a reengineering process. The acceptance and sensory profiling of improved Kitoza products among Portuguese consumers was investigated. A local smoked loin sausage was selected as basis for comparison. Firstly, a Focus Group study was performed to identify sensory descriptors for Kitoza products and explore product perception. Subsequently, a Flash Profile and a consumer sensory acceptance study were conducted. Flash Profile's results showed that beef- and pork-based Kitoza products investigated differed considerably in all sensory dimensions. The Portuguese sausage was characterized as having a more intense and lasting after taste, as well as displaying a higher degree of (meat) doneness. The acceptance study yielded higher overall liking ratings for pork- than for beef-based Kitoza, although the Portuguese sausage remained the most appreciated product.

  13. Consumer acceptance and sensory profiling of reengineered kitoza products.

    PubMed

    Pintado, Ana I E; Monteiro, Maria J P; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine; Scislowski, Valérie; Fliedel, Geneviève; Rakoto, Danielle; Maraval, Isabelle; Costa, Ana I A; Silva, Ana P; Pallet, Dominique; Tomlins, Keith; Pintado, Manuela M E

    2016-05-01

    Kitoza refers to a traditional way of preparing beef and pork in Madagascar. However, in order to improve some drawbacks previous identified, the product was submitted to a reengineering process. The acceptance and sensory profiling of improved Kitoza products among Portuguese consumers was investigated. A local smoked loin sausage was selected as basis for comparison. Firstly, a Focus Group study was performed to identify sensory descriptors for Kitoza products and explore product perception. Subsequently, a Flash Profile and a consumer sensory acceptance study were conducted. Flash Profile's results showed that beef- and pork-based Kitoza products investigated differed considerably in all sensory dimensions. The Portuguese sausage was characterized as having a more intense and lasting after taste, as well as displaying a higher degree of (meat) doneness. The acceptance study yielded higher overall liking ratings for pork- than for beef-based Kitoza, although the Portuguese sausage remained the most appreciated product. PMID:26769507

  14. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds...

  15. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds...

  16. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds...

  17. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. 1304.4 Section 1304.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds...

  18. EPHECT II: Exposure assessment to household consumer products.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulopoulou, C; Trantallidi, M; Carrer, P; Efthimiou, G C; Bartzis, J G

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU), irritative and respiratory health effects were assessed in relation to acute and long-term exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. In this context, inhalation exposure assessment was carried out for six selected 'target' compounds (acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene). This paper presents the methodology and the outcomes from the micro-environmental modelling of the 'target' pollutants following single or multiple use of selected consumer products and the subsequent exposure assessment. The results indicate that emissions from consumer products of benzene and α-pinene were not considered to contribute significantly to the EU indoor background levels, in contrast to some cases of formaldehyde and d-limonene emissions in Eastern Europe (mainly from cleaning products). The group of housekeepers in East Europe appears to experience the highest exposures to acrolein, formaldehyde and benzene, followed by the group of the retired people in North, who experiences the highest exposures to naphthalene and α-pinene. High exposure may be attributed to the scenarios developed within this project, which follow a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' strategy for exposure and health risk assessment. Despite the above limitations, this is the first comprehensive study that provides exposure estimates for 8 population groups across Europe exposed to 6 priority pollutants, as a result of the use of 15 consumer product classes in households, while accounting for regional differences in uses, use scenarios and ventilation conditions of each region.

  19. EPHECT II: Exposure assessment to household consumer products.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulopoulou, C; Trantallidi, M; Carrer, P; Efthimiou, G C; Bartzis, J G

    2015-12-01

    Within the framework of the EPHECT project (Emissions, exposure patterns and health effects of consumer products in the EU), irritative and respiratory health effects were assessed in relation to acute and long-term exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. In this context, inhalation exposure assessment was carried out for six selected 'target' compounds (acrolein, formaldehyde, benzene, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene). This paper presents the methodology and the outcomes from the micro-environmental modelling of the 'target' pollutants following single or multiple use of selected consumer products and the subsequent exposure assessment. The results indicate that emissions from consumer products of benzene and α-pinene were not considered to contribute significantly to the EU indoor background levels, in contrast to some cases of formaldehyde and d-limonene emissions in Eastern Europe (mainly from cleaning products). The group of housekeepers in East Europe appears to experience the highest exposures to acrolein, formaldehyde and benzene, followed by the group of the retired people in North, who experiences the highest exposures to naphthalene and α-pinene. High exposure may be attributed to the scenarios developed within this project, which follow a 'most-representative worst-case scenario' strategy for exposure and health risk assessment. Despite the above limitations, this is the first comprehensive study that provides exposure estimates for 8 population groups across Europe exposed to 6 priority pollutants, as a result of the use of 15 consumer product classes in households, while accounting for regional differences in uses, use scenarios and ventilation conditions of each region. PMID:26173853

  20. Consumer Online Search and New-Product Marketing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ho

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation contains three essays that study the implications of online search activity for new-product marketing. Using the U.S. motion picture industry as a test case, the first essay examines the dynamic causal relationship between traditional media, consumers' media generation activity, media consumption activity, and market demand…

  1. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Scruggs, Caroline E.; Van Buren, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood. PMID:27471326

  2. The Extent of Consumer Product Involvement in Paediatric Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Catchpoole, Jesani; Walker, Sue; Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    A challenge in utilising health sector injury data for Product Safety purposes is that clinically coded data have limited ability to inform regulators about product involvement in injury events, given data entry is bound by a predefined set of codes. Text narratives collected in emergency departments can potentially address this limitation by providing relevant product information with additional accompanying context. This study aims to identify and quantify consumer product involvement in paediatric injuries recorded in emergency department-based injury surveillance data. A total of 7743 paediatric injuries were randomly selected from Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit database and associated text narratives were manually reviewed to determine product involvement in the injury event. A Product Involvement Factor classification system was used to categorise these injury cases. Overall, 44% of all reviewed cases were associated with consumer products, with proximity factor (25%) being identified as the most common involvement of a product in an injury event. Only 6% were established as being directly due to the product. The study highlights the importance of utilising injury data to inform product safety initiatives where text narratives can be used to identify the type and involvement of products in injury cases. PMID:27399744

  3. The Extent of Consumer Product Involvement in Paediatric Injuries.

    PubMed

    Catchpoole, Jesani; Walker, Sue; Vallmuur, Kirsten

    2016-07-07

    A challenge in utilising health sector injury data for Product Safety purposes is that clinically coded data have limited ability to inform regulators about product involvement in injury events, given data entry is bound by a predefined set of codes. Text narratives collected in emergency departments can potentially address this limitation by providing relevant product information with additional accompanying context. This study aims to identify and quantify consumer product involvement in paediatric injuries recorded in emergency department-based injury surveillance data. A total of 7743 paediatric injuries were randomly selected from Queensland Injury Surveillance Unit database and associated text narratives were manually reviewed to determine product involvement in the injury event. A Product Involvement Factor classification system was used to categorise these injury cases. Overall, 44% of all reviewed cases were associated with consumer products, with proximity factor (25%) being identified as the most common involvement of a product in an injury event. Only 6% were established as being directly due to the product. The study highlights the importance of utilising injury data to inform product safety initiatives where text narratives can be used to identify the type and involvement of products in injury cases.

  4. 78 FR 68027 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity, Revlon Consumer Products Corporation, Subzone 93G...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Corporation, Subzone 93G, (Cosmetics and Personal Care Products), Oxford, North Carolina Revlon Consumer... currently has authority to produce certain cosmetics and personal care products under FTZ procedures using... sulfate, cosmetic wax, oligopeptide, cetearyl alcohol polysorbate, calcium aluminum...

  5. 78 FR 43974 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... new range for instantaneous electric water heaters based on data submitted by industry. \\10\\ 77 FR... CFR Part 305 Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Energy Labeling Rule) AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission (``FTC'' or ``Commission'')....

  6. Analysis of consumer cosmetic products for phthalate esters.

    PubMed

    Hubinger, Jean C; Havery, Donald C

    2006-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive reverse-phase HPLC method with UV detection was developed for the quantitation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in cosmetic preparations. Average recoveries of the phthalate esters were better than 90%. In a survey of 48 consumer cosmetic products, including hair care products, deodorants, lotions and creams, nail products, fragrances, and body washes, most products were found to contain at least one phthalate ester. DEP was detected most frequently at concentrations up to 38,663 ppm. DBP was found in fewer products, but at levels up to 59,815 ppm. Based on the available exposure and toxicity data, the FDA has concluded that there is insufficient data to conclude that a human health hazard exists from exposure to phthalate esters from cosmetic products.

  7. 75 FR 62127 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ..., discussed below. Whirlpool claims that water softeners can prevent consumer behaviors that consume... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision... for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles.'' 42 U.S.C. 6291-6309. Part A includes definitions,...

  8. 76 FR 27665 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ...; Consumer Price Index Commodities and Services Survey ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor (DOL... request (ICR) titled, ``Consumer Price Index Commodities and Services Survey,'' to the Office of... at DOL_PRA_PUBLIC@dol.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure...

  9. Probabilistic modelling of European consumer exposure to cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    McNamara, C; Rohan, D; Golden, D; Gibney, M; Hall, B; Tozer, S; Safford, B; Coroama, M; Leneveu-Duchemin, M C; Steiling, W

    2007-11-01

    In this study, we describe the statistical analysis of the usage profile of the European population to seven cosmetic products. The aim of the study was to construct a reliable model of exposure of the European population from use of the selected products: body lotion, shampoo, deodorant spray, deodorant non-spray, facial moisturiser, lipstick and toothpaste. The first step in this process was to gather reliable data on consumer usage patterns of the products. These data were sourced from a combination of market information databases and a controlled product use study by the trade association Colipa. The market information study contained a large number of subjects, in total 44,100 households and 18,057 habitual users (males and females) of the studied products, in five European countries. The data sets were then combined to generate a realistic distribution of frequency of use of each product, combined with distribution of the amount of product used at each occasion using the CREMe software. A Monte Carlo method was used to combine the data sets. This resulted in a new model of European exposure to cosmetic products being constructed.

  10. Designing low-complexity electrical consumer products for ecological use.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Wiese, Bettina S; Rüttinger, Bruno

    2003-11-01

    This study examined the environmental impact of low-complexity electrical consumer products during their use in a domestic context. In the experimental scenario, 48 users were asked to use a kettle under different conditions. On-product information (OPI), task instruction, and kettle design were employed as independent variables in a mixed multi-factorial design to examine their effects on different parameters of ecological performance (e.g., water and electricity consumption). Measures of user variables (environmental concern, knowledge, domestic habits, environmental control beliefs) were also taken to examine their relationship with performance parameters. The results revealed main effects of ecological task instruction, OPI and (partly) kettle design on ecological user behaviour. Habits, environmental concern and control beliefs were found to be related to performance parameters whereas knowledge was not. The implications of the results for product design are discussed against the background of a strong prevalence of habits and low ecological user motivation.

  11. Models for oral uptake of nanoparticles in consumer products

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Eleonore; Roblegg, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Presently, many consumer products contain nano-sized materials (NMs) to improve material properties, product quality and ease of use. NMs in food additives and in cosmetic articles (e.g., tooth paste) may be taken up by the oral route. As adverse effects of environmental nanoparticles, like ultrafine particles, have been reported, consumers worry about potential risks when using products containing NMs. The review focuses on metal and metal oxide NMs as common additives in tooth paste and in food industry and exposure by the oral route. Testing of NMs for oral exposure is very complex because differences in the diet, in mucus secretion and composition, in pH, in gastrointestinal transit time and in gastrointestinal flora influence NM uptake. Acellular (mucus, saliva) and epithelial layer of the orogastrointestinal barrier are described. Expected exposure doses, interaction of the NMs with mucus and permeation through the epithelium as well as in vivo data are mentioned. The role of in vitro models for the study of parameters relevant for ingested NMs is discussed. PMID:22120540

  12. Modeling Population Exposures to Silver Nanoparticles Present in Consumer Products

    PubMed Central

    Royce, Steven G.; Mukherjee, Dwaipayan; Cai, Ting; Xu, Shu S.; Alexander, Jocelyn A.; Mi, Zhongyuan; Calderon, Leonardo; Mainelis, Gediminas; Lee, KiBum; Lioy, Paul J.; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Zhang, Junfeng; Georgopoulos, Panos G.

    2014-01-01

    Exposures of the general population to manufactured nanoparticles (MNPs) are expected to keep rising due to increasing use of MNPs in common consumer products (PEN 2014). The present study focuses on characterizing ambient and indoor population exposures to silver MNPs (nAg). For situations where detailed, case-specific exposure-related data are not available, as in the present study, a novel tiered modeling system, Prioritization/Ranking of Toxic Exposures with GIS (Geographic Information System) Extension (PRoTEGE), has been developed: it employs a product Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) approach coupled with basic human Life Stage Analysis (LSA) to characterize potential exposures to chemicals of current and emerging concern. The PRoTEGE system has been implemented for ambient and indoor environments, utilizing available MNP production, usage, and properties databases, along with laboratory measurements of potential personal exposures from consumer spray products containing nAg. Modeling of environmental and microenvironmental levels of MNPs employs Probabilistic Material Flow Analysis combined with product LCA to account for releases during manufacturing, transport, usage, disposal, etc. Human exposure and dose characterization further employs screening Microenvironmental Modeling and Intake Fraction methods combined with LSA for potentially exposed populations, to assess differences associated with gender, age, and demographics. Population distributions of intakes, estimated using the PRoTEGE framework, are consistent with published individual-based intake estimates, demonstrating that PRoTEGE is capable of capturing realistic exposure scenarios for the US population. Distributions of intakes are also used to calculate biologically-relevant population distributions of uptakes and target tissue doses through human airway dosimetry modeling that takes into account product MNP size distributions and age-relevant physiological parameters. PMID:25745354

  13. Consumer product branding strategy and the marketing of physicians' services.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, H; Witt, J

    1995-01-01

    Hospitals have traditionally maintained physician referral programs as a means of attracting physicians to their network of affiliated providers. The advent of managed care and impending healthcare reform has altered the relationship of hospitals and physicians. An exploratory study of marketing approaches used by twelve healthcare organizations representing twenty-five hospitals in a large city was conducted. Strategies encountered in the study ranged from practice acquisition to practice promotion. This study suggests that healthcare providers might adopt consumer product branding strategies to secure market-share, build brand equity, and improve profitability.

  14. Principle considerations for the risk assessment of sprayed consumer products.

    PubMed

    Steiling, W; Bascompta, M; Carthew, P; Catalano, G; Corea, N; D'Haese, A; Jackson, P; Kromidas, L; Meurice, P; Rothe, H; Singal, M

    2014-05-16

    In recent years, the official regulation of chemicals and chemical products has been intensified. Explicitly for spray products enhanced requirements to assess the consumers'/professionals' exposure to such product type have been introduced. In this regard the Aerosol-Dispensers-Directive (75/324/EEC) with obligation for marketing aerosol dispensers, and the Cosmetic-Products-Regulation (1223/2009/EC) which obliges the insurance of a safety assessment, have to be mentioned. Both enactments, similar to the REACH regulation (1907/2006/EC), require a robust chemical safety assessment. From such assessment, appropriate risk management measures may be identified to adequately control the risk of these chemicals/products to human health and the environment when used. Currently, the above-mentioned regulations lack the guidance on which data are needed for preparing a proper hazard analysis and safety assessment of spray products. Mandatory in the process of inhalation risk and safety assessment is the determination and quantification of the actual exposure to the spray product and more specifically, its ingredients. In this respect the current article, prepared by the European Aerosol Federation (FEA, Brussels) task force "Inhalation Toxicology", intends to introduce toxicological principles and the state of the art in currently available exposure models adapted for typical application scenarios. This review on current methodologies is intended to guide safety assessors to better estimate inhalation exposure by using the most relevant data. PMID:24657525

  15. Principle considerations for the risk assessment of sprayed consumer products.

    PubMed

    Steiling, W; Bascompta, M; Carthew, P; Catalano, G; Corea, N; D'Haese, A; Jackson, P; Kromidas, L; Meurice, P; Rothe, H; Singal, M

    2014-05-16

    In recent years, the official regulation of chemicals and chemical products has been intensified. Explicitly for spray products enhanced requirements to assess the consumers'/professionals' exposure to such product type have been introduced. In this regard the Aerosol-Dispensers-Directive (75/324/EEC) with obligation for marketing aerosol dispensers, and the Cosmetic-Products-Regulation (1223/2009/EC) which obliges the insurance of a safety assessment, have to be mentioned. Both enactments, similar to the REACH regulation (1907/2006/EC), require a robust chemical safety assessment. From such assessment, appropriate risk management measures may be identified to adequately control the risk of these chemicals/products to human health and the environment when used. Currently, the above-mentioned regulations lack the guidance on which data are needed for preparing a proper hazard analysis and safety assessment of spray products. Mandatory in the process of inhalation risk and safety assessment is the determination and quantification of the actual exposure to the spray product and more specifically, its ingredients. In this respect the current article, prepared by the European Aerosol Federation (FEA, Brussels) task force "Inhalation Toxicology", intends to introduce toxicological principles and the state of the art in currently available exposure models adapted for typical application scenarios. This review on current methodologies is intended to guide safety assessors to better estimate inhalation exposure by using the most relevant data.

  16. On organic emissions testing from indoor consumer products' use.

    PubMed

    Bartzis, J; Wolkoff, P; Stranger, M; Efthimiou, G; Tolis, E I; Maes, F; Nørgaard, A W; Ventura, G; Kalimeri, K K; Goelen, E; Fernandes, O

    2015-03-21

    A wide range of consumer and personal care products may, during their use, release significant amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the air. The identification and quantification of the emissions from such sources is typically performed in emission test chambers. A major question is to what degree the obtained emissions are reproducible and directly applicable to real situations. The present work attempts partly to address this question by comparison of selected VOC emissions in specific consumer products tested in chambers of various dimensions. The measurements were performed in three test chambers of different volumes (0.26-20 m(3)). The analytic performance of the laboratories was rigorously assessed prior to chamber testing. The results show emission variation for major VOC (terpenes); however, it remains in general, within the same order of magnitude for all tests. This variability does not seem to correlate with the chamber volume. It rather depends on the overall testing conditions. The present work is undertaken in the frame of EPHECT European Project.

  17. Quaternary amines as nitrosamine precursors: a role for consumer products?

    PubMed

    Kemper, Jerome M; Walse, Spencer S; Mitch, William A

    2010-02-15

    Nitrosamine formation has been associated with wastewater-impacted waters, but specific precursors within wastewater effluents have not been identified. Experiments indicated that nitrosamines form in low yields from quaternary amines, and that the nitrosamines form from the quaternary amines themselves, not just lower order amine impurities. Polymeric and benzylated quaternary amines were more potent precursors than monomeric quaternary alkylamines. Pretreatment of quaternary amines with ozone or free chlorine, which deactivate lower order amine impurities, did not significantly reduce nitrosamine formation. The nitrosamine formation pathway is unclear but experiments indicated that transformation of quaternary amines to lower order amine precursors via Hofmann elimination was not involved. Experiments suggest that the pathway may involve quaternary amine degradation by amidogen or chloramino radicals formed from chloramines. Quaternary amines are significant constituents of consumer products, including shampoos, detergents, and fabric softeners. Although quaternary amines may be removed by sedimentation during wastewater treatment, their importance should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. The high loadings from consumer products may enable the portion not removed to serve as precursors. PMID:20085252

  18. Scenario building as an ergonomics method in consumer product design.

    PubMed

    Suri, J F; Marsh, M

    2000-04-01

    The role of human factors in design appears to have broadened from data analysis and interpretation into application of discovery and "user experience" design. The human factors practitioner is continually in search of ways to enhance and to better communicate their contributions, as well as to raise the prominence of the user at all stages of the design process. In work with design teams on the development of many consumer products, scenario building has proved to be a valuable addition to the repertoire of more traditional human factors methods. It is a powerful exploration, prototyping and communication tool, and is particularly useful early on in the product design process. This paper describes some advantages and potential pitfalls in using scenarios, and provides examples of how and where they can be usefully applied.

  19. Firearm advertising: product depiction in consumer gun magazines.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Elizabeth A; Vittes, Katherine A; Sorenson, Susan B

    2004-10-01

    In contrast to tobacco, alcohol, and other consumer products associated with health risks, we know very little about how firearm manufacturers advertise their products. The authors examined advertisements for firearms in all 27 ad-accepting magazines listed in Bacon's Magazine Directory "guns and shooting" category. Sixty-three manufacturers spent an estimated $1,195,680 on firearm advertising during the month studied. Annual advertising costs ranged widely; manufacturers spent an estimated $28.16 in advertising per firearm produced. Firearms generally were presented as a part of a lifestyle. Self-protection was noted infrequently in the advertisements. By contrast, attributes of the gun, typically technological characteristics, were noted in almost every advertisement. PMID:15358905

  20. Defining Product Intake Fraction to Quantify and Compare Exposure to Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Jolliet, Olivier; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Csiszar, Susan A; Fantke, Peter

    2015-08-01

    There is a growing consciousness that exposure studies need to better cover near-field exposure associated with products use. To consistently and quantitatively compare human exposure to chemicals in consumer products, we introduce the concept of product intake fraction, as the fraction of a chemical within a product that is eventually taken in by the human population. This metric enables consistent comparison of exposures during consumer product use for different product-chemical combinations, exposure duration, exposure routes and pathways and for other life cycle stages. We present example applications of the product intake fraction concept, for two chemicals in two personal care products and two chemicals encapsulated in two articles, showing how intakes of these chemicals can primarily occur during product use. We demonstrate the utility of the product intake fraction and its application modalities within life cycle assessment and risk assessment contexts. The product intake fraction helps to provide a clear interface between the life cycle inventory and impact assessment phases, to identify best suited sentinel products and to calculate overall exposure to chemicals in consumer products, or back-calculate maximum allowable concentrations of substances inside products.

  1. Nanomaterials in consumer products: a challenging analytical problem

    PubMed Central

    Contado, Catia

    2015-01-01

    Many products used in everyday life are made with the assistance of nanotechnologies. Cosmetic, pharmaceuticals, sunscreen, powdered food are only few examples of end products containing nano-sized particles (NPs), generally added to improve the product quality. To evaluate correctly benefits vs. risks of engineered nanomaterials and consequently to legislate in favor of consumer's protection, it is necessary to know the hazards connected with the exposure levels. This information implies transversal studies and a number of different competences. On analytical point of view the identification, quantification and characterization of NPs in food matrices and in cosmetic or personal care products pose significant challenges, because NPs are usually present at low concentration levels and the matrices, in which they are dispersed, are complexes and often incompatible with analytical instruments that would be required for their detection and characterization. This paper focused on some analytical techniques suitable for the detection, characterization and quantification of NPs in food and cosmetics products, reports their recent application in characterizing specific metal and metal-oxide NPs in these two important industrial and market sectors. The need of a characterization of the NPs as much as possible complete, matching complementary information about different metrics, possible achieved through validate procedures, is what clearly emerges from this research. More work should be done to produce standardized materials and to set-up methodologies to determine number-based size distributions and to get quantitative date about the NPs in such a complex matrices. PMID:26301216

  2. 75 FR 61490 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... distribution channels that have the greatest potential to influence the target audience's attitudes and... the agency and the entities it regulates is appropriately reaching targeted audiences in...

  3. Product Safety, It's No Accident. A Consumer Product Safety Monthly Planning Guide for Community Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    A consumer product safety monthly planning guide for community organizations is provided. The material is organized into suggested monthly topics with seasonal emphasis. Each section highlights selected information about how to identify potential hazards associated with categories of products. Each section also includes recommendaitons of ways to…

  4. Consumer-Product and Socio-Political Messages for Use in Studies of Persuasion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratkanis, Anthony R.; And Others

    Developed as part of a research program directed at obtaining reliable persuasive effects, the two sets of persuasive messages provided in this report--consumer messages and sociopolitical messages--discuss fictitious brands of consumer products and various sociopolitical issues. The consumer messages were developed for the following 12 products:…

  5. 16 CFR 1304.4 - Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consumer patching compounds as banned... PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS BAN OF CONSUMER PATCHING COMPOUNDS CONTAINING RESPIRABLE FREE-FORM ASBESTOS § 1304.4 Consumer patching compounds as banned hazardous products. On the basis that airborne...

  6. 75 FR 14429 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act; Consumer Product Conformity Assessment...

  7. 75 FR 36637 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Requirements for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Consumer Product Safety Commission (``CPSC'' or ``Commission'') is announcing an opportunity for...

  8. 75 FR 53278 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...; Comment Request; Procedures for Export of Noncomplying Goods AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Consumer Product Safety Commission (``CPSC'' or ``Commission'')...

  9. 78 FR 27958 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...; Comment Request; Registration Card Effectiveness Survey AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission) is announcing that...

  10. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.30 Textile fiber products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended...

  11. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.30 Textile fiber products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended...

  12. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.30 Textile fiber products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended...

  13. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.30 Textile fiber products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended...

  14. 16 CFR 303.30 - Textile fiber products in form for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Textile fiber products in form for consumer... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.30 Textile fiber products in form for consumer. A textile fiber product shall be considered to be in the form intended...

  15. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  16. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  17. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  18. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  19. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  20. Potential exposure of German consumers to engineered nanoparticles in cosmetics and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Christiane; Von Goetz, Natalie; Scheringer, Martin; Wormuth, Matthias; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-03-01

    The rapid increase in the number of consumer products containing engineered nanoparticles (ENP) raises concerns about an appropriate risk assessment of these products. Along with toxicological data, exposure estimates are essential for assessing risk. Currently, cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCP) represent the largest ENP-containing consumer product class on the market. We analyzed factors influencing the likelihood that ENP-containing products are available to consumers. We modelled potential external exposure of German consumers, assuming a maximum possible case where only ENP-containing products are used. The distribution of exposure levels within the population due to different behavior patterns was included by using data from an extensive database on consumer behavior. Exposure levels were found to vary significantly between products and between consumers showing different behavior patterns. The assessment scheme developed here represents a basis for refined exposure modelling as soon as more specific information about ENPs in C&PCP becomes available.

  1. 75 FR 80817 - Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight; Agency Information Collection Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... eligible under a temporary program to receive a tax- free reimbursement for the costs of certain health... for health care benefits, which consists of documentation of actual costs for the items and services... comments. 2. By regular mail. Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of...

  2. Development and application of risk management system for consumer products in compliance with global harmonization.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Bin; Ahn, Il Young; Cho, Keun Tae; Kim, Yeon Joo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to the wide variety of chemicals used for manufacturing consumer products commonly occurs daily and the consequences to health are beneficial. However, some of these products are hazardous and exert deleterious effects on humans and the ecosystem. To protect consumers from exposure to hazardous chemicals, appropriate risk management systems are needed. Developed countries such as the United States and Canada have developed their own risk management systems for regulating hazardous agents. However, the risk management systems prepared by developed countries may not be readily applicable to developing or underdeveloped countries because of certain economic, political, cultural, or social factors in each country. In general, a risk management framework includes evaluation components of risk assessment, risk confrontation, risk intervention, risk communication, and risk management, but these may differ in specifics. The European Commission (EC) requires a socioeconomic analysis for formulating restrictions suggested by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA). The EC has an early warning system for safety management termed the Rapid Alert System (RAPEX). Korea, Australia, and Japan also developed integrated network systems for risk management of consumer products. Monitoring entails the collection of information and evaluation. The risk assessment process includes scientific evaluation of potential adverse health effects. Risk communication tasks are to (1) identify stakeholders, (2) develop stakeholder analysis, (3) assess stakeholder acceptability, (4) consult with stakeholders, (5) inform stakeholders about their options, (6) evaluate control options, and (7) monitor changing issues. The risk management process involves weighing policy options and selecting regulatory options. The decision-making step is related to the determination of governmental or voluntary actions. This review examines the critical points of risk management system in Korea to effectively

  3. Nanosilver in consumer products and human health: more information required!

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Bernd; Tentschert, Jutta; Luch, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    Commenting on "120 Years of Nanosilver History: Implications for Policy Makers" (Environ. Sci. Technol.2011, 45, 1177-1183). The title of the article seduces readers to the impression that we can look back at more than a century of safe use of nanosilver. In this context, colloidal silver and nanosilver have been sometimes used as synonyms. Historically, the term "colloidal silver" refers to dispersed silver particles encompassing a size range of 10-1000 nm. Following scientific definitions, "colloid" stands for freely dispersed particles in a fluid (heterogenic) phase irrespective of its size distribution, while the term "nanosilver" is used for categorization by size. Of course, just the labeling as such neither necessarily implies new hazard properties nor any specific risks; however, uncertainties and data gaps at many levels call for careful consideration and usually should take effect as alert signal for regulatory toxicologists all over the world. Within the frame of this short commentary, we would like to focus on some unclarified issues related to consumer products.

  4. 78 FR 25746 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Product Jurisdiction: Assignment of Agency Component for Review of Premarket... of information technology. Product Jurisdiction: Assignment of Agency Component for Review of... primary jurisdiction for the premarket review and regulation of products that are comprised of...

  5. Bacillus cereus in personal care products: risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Pitt, T L; McClure, J; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; McClure, P J

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is ubiquitous in nature and thus occurs naturally in a wide range of raw materials and foodstuffs. B. cereus spores are resistant to desiccation and heat and able to survive dry storage and cooking. Vegetative cells produce several toxins which on ingestion in sufficient numbers can cause vomiting and/or diarrhoea depending on the toxins produced. Gastrointestinal disease is commonly associated with reheated or inadequately cooked foods. In addition to being a rare cause of several acute infections (e.g. pneumonia and septicaemia), B. cereus can also cause localized infection of post-surgical or trauma wounds and is a rare but significant pathogen of the eye where it may result in severe endophthalmitis often leading to loss of vision. Key risk factors in such cases are trauma to the eye and retained contaminated intraocular foreign bodies. In addition, rare cases of B. cereus-associated keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) have been linked to contact lens use. Bacillus cereus is therefore a microbial contaminant that could adversely affect product safety of cosmetic and facial toiletries and pose a threat to the user if other key risk factors are also present. The infective dose in the human eye is unknown, but as few as 100 cfu has been reported to initiate infection in a susceptible animal model. However, we are not aware of any reports in the literature of B. cereus infections in any body site linked with use of personal care products. Low levels of B. cereus spores may on occasion be present in near-eye cosmetics, and these products have been used by consumers for many years. In addition, exposure to B. cereus is more likely to occur through other routes (e.g. dustborne contamination) due to its ubiquity and resistance properties of spores. The organism has been recovered from the eyes of healthy individuals. Therefore, although there may be a perceived hazard, the risk of severe eye infections as a consequence of exposure through

  6. Bacillus cereus in personal care products: risk to consumers.

    PubMed

    Pitt, T L; McClure, J; Parker, M D; Amézquita, A; McClure, P J

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is ubiquitous in nature and thus occurs naturally in a wide range of raw materials and foodstuffs. B. cereus spores are resistant to desiccation and heat and able to survive dry storage and cooking. Vegetative cells produce several toxins which on ingestion in sufficient numbers can cause vomiting and/or diarrhoea depending on the toxins produced. Gastrointestinal disease is commonly associated with reheated or inadequately cooked foods. In addition to being a rare cause of several acute infections (e.g. pneumonia and septicaemia), B. cereus can also cause localized infection of post-surgical or trauma wounds and is a rare but significant pathogen of the eye where it may result in severe endophthalmitis often leading to loss of vision. Key risk factors in such cases are trauma to the eye and retained contaminated intraocular foreign bodies. In addition, rare cases of B. cereus-associated keratitis (inflammation of the cornea) have been linked to contact lens use. Bacillus cereus is therefore a microbial contaminant that could adversely affect product safety of cosmetic and facial toiletries and pose a threat to the user if other key risk factors are also present. The infective dose in the human eye is unknown, but as few as 100 cfu has been reported to initiate infection in a susceptible animal model. However, we are not aware of any reports in the literature of B. cereus infections in any body site linked with use of personal care products. Low levels of B. cereus spores may on occasion be present in near-eye cosmetics, and these products have been used by consumers for many years. In addition, exposure to B. cereus is more likely to occur through other routes (e.g. dustborne contamination) due to its ubiquity and resistance properties of spores. The organism has been recovered from the eyes of healthy individuals. Therefore, although there may be a perceived hazard, the risk of severe eye infections as a consequence of exposure through

  7. Exposure-Relevant Consumer Product Usage Information Derived from Longitudinal Purchasing Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consumer products that are used in and around the home are a dominant source for anthropogenic chemical exposure. Prediction of the population distribution of chemical exposures encountered due to the residential use of consumer products (such as personal care products, cleaning ...

  8. 76 FR 72439 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Receipt of... received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products... electronics and display devices and products containing same. The complaint names Research In Motion Ltd....

  9. A Study on Product Diffusion with Externality Introducing Consumers' Heterogeneity in Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eda, Takashi; Fujii, Nobutada; Kaihara, Toshiya

    In product market with network externalities, outperformed products do not always prevail. Therefore, the product market is often modeled and examined by simulations to clarify those phenomena. In previous researches, multiagent system simulations in complex networks are often used and the feasibilities are confirmed. In this paper, it is proposed that threshold models are introduced into the multiagent system simulations in complex networks to consider consumers' heterogeneity. Computer simulations are conducted to verify the relationship between consumer network structure and heterogeneity affect product diffusion. In the results, it is revealed that consumers tend to purchase a product followed by the network externality effect although the consumers have little preference for buying a product, and consumers with high betweenness play an important role to product diffusion.

  10. The Influence of Purchasing Context and Reversibility of Choice on Consumer Responses Toward Personalized Products and Standardized Products.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jieun; Lee, Doo-Hee; Taylor, Charles R

    2016-04-01

    Existing research on personalization has found that consumers generally prefer personalized products over standardized ones. This study argued that consumer preference for personalized products is dependent on purchasing context and reversibility of choice. Results of an experiment conducted in this study found that consumers preferred personalized products when purchasing an item for personal use but preferred standardized products when purchasing an item as a gift. However, the effects of purchasing context were negated when consumers were given the assurance that personalized products could be returned (reversibility of choice); when presented with reversibility of choice, consumers preferred personalized products over standardized products regardless of purchasing context. Theoretical and managerial implications of these results were discussed.

  11. 75 FR 68782 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental...: National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products (Renewal). ICR numbers: EPA ICR... to ensure compliance with Federal standards for volatile organic compounds in consumer...

  12. 77 FR 61513 - Information Disclosure Under Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1101 Information Disclosure Under Section 6(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Act CFR..., on page 147, in Sec. 1101.25 (a) and (b), the words ``5 working'' are corrected to read...

  13. Evaluation of Consumer Product Co-occurrence to Inform Chemical Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consumer products are an important target of chemical innovation. Used daily for personal hygiene, home care, disinfection and cleaning, consumer products provide a host of benefits, and also an efficient delivery vehicle for a variety of chemicals into our homes and bodies. Al...

  14. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children's potential exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their phy...

  15. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  16. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  17. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  18. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  19. 48 CFR 52.223-15 - Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. 52.223-15 Section 52.223-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.223-15 Energy Efficiency in Energy-Consuming Products. As prescribed in...

  20. Dangerous Products, Dangerous Places: An AARP Report on Home Safety and Older Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fise, Mary Ellen R.

    This report was written to identify the safety problems confronting older persons and to educate readers about product and home hazards and appropriate preventive measures. It was written for older consumers, their families, policymakers, and manufacturers. Information on the incidence of home accidents and consumer product accidents among the…

  1. Intervention model for contaminated consumer products: a multifaceted tool for protecting public health.

    PubMed

    Hore, Paromita; Ahmed, Munerah; Nagin, Deborah; Clark, Nancy

    2014-08-01

    Lead-based paint and occupational lead hazards remain the primary exposure sources of lead in New York City (NYC) children and men, respectively. Lead poisoning has also been associated with the use of certain consumer products in NYC. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed the Intervention Model for Contaminated Consumer Products, a comprehensive approach to identify and reduce exposure to lead and other hazards in consumer products. The model identifies hazardous consumer products, determines their availability in NYC, enforces on these products, and provides risk communication and public education. Implementation of the model has resulted in removal of thousands of contaminated products from local businesses and continues to raise awareness of these hazardous products.

  2. Intervention Model for Contaminated Consumer Products: A Multifaceted Tool for Protecting Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Munerah; Nagin, Deborah; Clark, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Lead-based paint and occupational lead hazards remain the primary exposure sources of lead in New York City (NYC) children and men, respectively. Lead poisoning has also been associated with the use of certain consumer products in NYC. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed the Intervention Model for Contaminated Consumer Products, a comprehensive approach to identify and reduce exposure to lead and other hazards in consumer products. The model identifies hazardous consumer products, determines their availability in NYC, enforces on these products, and provides risk communication and public education. Implementation of the model has resulted in removal of thousands of contaminated products from local businesses and continues to raise awareness of these hazardous products. PMID:24922141

  3. Correlation of in vitro challenge testing with consumer use testing for cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Brannan, D K; Dille, J C; Kaufman, D J

    1987-08-01

    An in vitro microbial challenge test has been developed to predict the likelihood of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. The challenge test involved inoculating product at four concentrations (30, 50, 70, and 100%) with microorganisms known to contaminate cosmetics. Elimination of these microorganisms at each concentration was followed over a 28-day period. The test was used to classify products as poorly preserved, marginally preserved, or well preserved. Consumer use testing was then used to determine whether the test predicted the risk of actual consumer contamination. Products classified by the challenge test as poorly preserved returned 46 to 90% contaminated after use. Products classified by the challenge test as well preserved returned with no contamination. Marginally preserved products returned with 0 to 21% of the used units contaminated. As a result, the challenge test described can be accurately used to predict the risk of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. PMID:3662517

  4. Correlation of in vitro challenge testing with consumer use testing for cosmetic products.

    PubMed Central

    Brannan, D K; Dille, J C; Kaufman, D J

    1987-01-01

    An in vitro microbial challenge test has been developed to predict the likelihood of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. The challenge test involved inoculating product at four concentrations (30, 50, 70, and 100%) with microorganisms known to contaminate cosmetics. Elimination of these microorganisms at each concentration was followed over a 28-day period. The test was used to classify products as poorly preserved, marginally preserved, or well preserved. Consumer use testing was then used to determine whether the test predicted the risk of actual consumer contamination. Products classified by the challenge test as poorly preserved returned 46 to 90% contaminated after use. Products classified by the challenge test as well preserved returned with no contamination. Marginally preserved products returned with 0 to 21% of the used units contaminated. As a result, the challenge test described can be accurately used to predict the risk of consumer contamination of cosmetic products. PMID:3662517

  5. Buying higher welfare poultry products? Profiling Flemish consumers who do and do not.

    PubMed

    Vanhonacker, F; Verbeke, W

    2009-12-01

    A substantial number of studies has already investigated differences within the consumer market with regard to attitudes and perceptions in relation to farm animal welfare. Likewise, several studies focused on the gap that exists between positive attitudes and reported consumption or purchase intentions for sustainable food products in general and higher welfare products more specific, and on the factors influencing this attitude-behavior gap. Little or no studies, however, have started from reported pro-welfare behavior to distinguish between consumer groups and to explore the motivations of the respective behavior. With this study, we aim to group consumers according to their reported buying frequency of higher welfare eggs and higher welfare chicken meat. Similarities and dissimilarities between these groups are mapped in terms of individual characteristics, product attribute importance, perceived consumer effectiveness, perception of higher welfare products, and attitude toward a welfare label. The research methodology applied was a quantitative study with cross-sectional consumer survey data collected in Flanders in spring 2007 (n = 469). Pro-welfare behavior was unevenly distributed across different consumer segments, despite a general interest and concern for bird welfare. A consistent choice for standard (no welfare premium) poultry products was related to strong perceived price and availability barriers, to a low importance attached to ethical issues as product attributes, and to a low perceived consumer effectiveness. A consistent choice for products with higher welfare standards to the contrast associated with a high importance attached to ethical issues; a low effect of price and availability perception; a strong association of higher welfare products with product attributes like health, taste, and quality; and a high perceived consumer effectiveness. The identification of market segments with common characteristics is essential for positioning higher

  6. Quantifying the Release of Silver from Nanotechnology-Based Consumer Products for Children

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the potential for children’s exposure to bioavailable silver during the realistic use of selected nanotechnology-based consumer products (plush toy, fabric products, breast milk storage bags, sippy cups, cleaning products). All products had at least one componen...

  7. Consumer perceptions: pork and pig production. Insights from France, England, Sweden and Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ngapo, T M; Dransfield, E; Martin, J-F; Magnusson, M; Bredahl, L; Nute, G R

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems in use today were expressed, but rationalised in terms of consumer demands, market competition and by comparisons to previous systems of production. Knowledge of production systems appeared of little consequence in terms of any meat market potential as several groups freely remarked that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence. PMID:22063940

  8. Postreinforcement Pause in Grocery Shopping: Comparing Interpurchase Times across Products and Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.; James, Victoria K.; Foxall, Gordon R.

    2007-01-01

    Purchase probability as a function of interpurchase time was examined through comparison of findings from laboratory experiments on reinforcement schedules and from marketing investigations of consumers' interpurchase time. Panel data, based on a sample of 80 consumers who purchased nine supermarket food products during 16 weeks, were used. For…

  9. 76 FR 51281 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... to expand the energy use and emissions information made available to consumers. Specifically, DOE... greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of specific products to enable consumers to make cross-class comparisons of... (referred to herein as ``Notice'' or ``NOPP'') (75 FR 51423), the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)...

  10. Safety in the Marketplace: A Program for the Improvement of Consumer Product Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Business Council for Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    Prepared under the auspices of the National Business Council for Consumer Affairs by its Sub-Council on Product Safety, this report is part of a program to advise the federal government on voluntary activities by the business community which would help consumers. Contents include analysis, conclusions and recommendations relating to manufacturers,…

  11. Habitat, not resource availability, limits consumer production in lake ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craig, Nicola; Jones, Stuart E.; Weidel, Brian C.; Solomon, Christopher T.

    2015-01-01

    Food web productivity in lakes can be limited by dissolved organic carbon (DOC), which reduces fish production by limiting the abundance of their zoobenthic prey. We demonstrate that in a set of 10 small, north temperate lakes spanning a wide DOC gradient, these negative effects of high DOC concentrations on zoobenthos production are driven primarily by availability of warm, well-oxygenated habitat, rather than by light limitation of benthic primary production as previously proposed. There was no significant effect of benthic primary production on zoobenthos production after controlling for oxygen, even though stable isotope analysis indicated that zoobenthos do use this resource. Mean whole-lake zoobenthos production was lower in high-DOC lakes with reduced availability of oxygenated habitat, as was fish biomass. These insights improve understanding of lake food webs and inform management in the face of spatial variability and ongoing temporal change in lake DOC concentrations.

  12. Formaldehyde release from selected consumer products: influence of chamber loading, multiple products, relative humidity, and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, J.A.; Griffis, L.C.; Mokler, B.V.; Kanapilly, G.M.; Hobbs, C.H.

    1984-09-01

    Formaldehyde release rates were measured for one sample each of a variety of consumer products under various conditions of temperature, humidity, and mass loading in a ventilated chamber. The rate of formaldehyde released from pressed wood products was much greater than from insulation material or carpeting, whether measured in a dynamic (ventilated) or static (nonventilated) chamber. Formaldehyde was released from wood products at a more rapid rate when chamber loadings (product surface area/chamber volume) and chamber concentrations of formaldehyde were reduced. Formaldehyde release from particle board and plywood was not substantially affected by the different temperatures (25-35/sup 0/C) and humidities (40-90%) tested. When particle board was paired with plywood, insulation, or carpet, the formaldehyde released was less than the sum of that released when each product was tested alone. These data suggest that these samples of plywood, insulation, or carpet (slow releasers of formaldehyde) absorbed formaldehyde released from the higher emitting particle board. Consequently, the surface area of carpet, insulation, and/or wood in a ventilated room relative to that of pressed wood products may be an important determinant of formaldehyde concentrations in the air of that room.

  13. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    PubMed

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially.

  14. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries. PMID:27046434

  15. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries.

  16. Consumers' purchase of organic food products. A matter of convenience and reflexive practices.

    PubMed

    Hjelmar, Ulf

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into the purchase of organic food products by consumers and to explore the main factors driving this process. This paper uses evidence from 16 in-depth interviews with consumers in Denmark carried out in 2008-2009. On the basis of the analysis two broad concepts are suggested: convenience behaviours and reflexive practices. Convenience behaviours are characteristic of pragmatic organic consumers. This type of shopping behaviour requires organic foods to be available in the local supermarket, they have to be clearly visible (preferably with an eco-label), and the price differential vis-à-vis conventional products have to be minimal. The analysis also showed that politically/ethically minded consumers have reflexive practices when purchasing organic food products: health considerations, ethical considerations (animal welfare), political considerations (environmentalism) and quality considerations (taste) play an important part for these consumers. Reflexive shopping practices can be sparked by life events (e.g. having children), "shocking" news about conventional food products and similar events, and news capable of creating a "cognitive dissonance" among consumers. The Danish case illustrates that the government needs to actively implement reforms and promote activities which make organic products a convenient choice for the pragmatic oriented consumer if their market share is to increase substantially. PMID:21192997

  17. The Influence of Consumer Goals and Marketing Activities on Product Bundling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haijun, Wang

    Upon entering a store, consumers are faced with the questions of whether to buy, what to buy, and how much to buy. Consumers include products from different categories in their decision process. Product categories can be related in different ways. Product bundling is a process that involves the choice of at least two non-substitutable items. In this research, the consumers' explicit product bundling activity at the point of sale is focused. We focuses on the retailers' perspective and therefore leaves out consumers' brand choice decisions, concentrating on purchase incidence and quantity. At the base of the current model of the exist researches, we integrate behavioural choice analysis and predictive choice modelling through the underlying behavioural models, called random utility maximization (RUM) models. The methodological contribution of this research lies therein to combine a nested logit choice model with a latent variable factor model. We point out several limitations for both theory and practice at the end.

  18. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,'' including residential water heaters... to consider amended energy conservation standards for residential water heaters, direct heating... conservation standards for residential water heaters, direct heating equipment, and pool heaters on March...

  19. Preliminary Study on Willingness to Pay for Environmentally Certified Wood Products Among Consumers in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Shukri; Lukhman Ibrahim, Muhamad

    Consumers are expected to demand and would be willing to pay a price premium for environment-friendly products stemming from the growing global environmental consumerism. While consumers in the developed countries are reported to be willing to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products, there is hardly any study on consumers` willingness in other markets. This preliminary study examines consumer willingness to pay a price premium for environmentally certified wood products in Malaysia. Data were obtained using a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 100 systematically-sampled, mall-intercepted respondents. Results indicated that some 38% of the respondents would be willing to pay an average of 14.4% more for environmentally certified wood products.

  20. Consumer satisfaction with pork meat and derived products in five European countries.

    PubMed

    Resano, Helena; Perez-Cueto, Federico J A; de Barcellos, Marcia D; Veflen-Olsen, Nina; Grunert, Klaus G; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-02-01

    This paper investigates consumers' satisfaction level with pork meat and derived products in five European countries. Data were collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey in Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Greece, and Poland during January 2008 with a total sample of 2437 consumers. Data included socio-demographics and questions regarding satisfaction with 27 common pork-based products; classified into fresh pork, processed pork and pork meat products. Satisfaction was evaluated in terms of overall satisfaction, as well as satisfaction with health-giving qualities, price, convenience and taste. Logistic regression analyses showed taste as the main determinant of satisfaction, followed by convenience. Healthfulness is not a significant driver of overall satisfaction. Price influences satisfaction with fresh pork more than with processed products. Tasty pork, easy to prepare and consume, with adequate promotion of its healthfulness, and with a good price/quality relationship appears to be the key factor to satisfy pork consumers. PMID:21029759

  1. Which perceived characteristics make product innovations appealing to the consumer? A study on the acceptance of fruit innovations using cross-cultural consumer segmentation.

    PubMed

    Onwezen, Marleen C; Bartels, Jos

    2011-08-01

    In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the first two years, due to a lack of consumer acceptance. Consumer segmentation may be a useful research tool to increase the success rates of new fruit products. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on individual importance rankings of fruit choice motives. We conducted a cross-national, online panel survey on fresh fruit innovations in four European countries: the Netherlands (n=251), Greece (n=246), Poland (n=250), and Spain (n=250). Our cluster analysis revealed three homogeneous consumer segments: Average Joe, the Naturally conscious consumer, and the Health-oriented consumer. These consumer segments differed with respect to their importance ratings for fruit choice motives. Furthermore, the willingness to buy specific fruit innovations (i.e., genetically modified, functional food and convenience innovation) and the perceived product characteristics that influence this willingness differed across the segments. Our study could lead to more tailored marketing strategies aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of fruit product innovations based on consumer segmentation. PMID:21477633

  2. Which perceived characteristics make product innovations appealing to the consumer? A study on the acceptance of fruit innovations using cross-cultural consumer segmentation.

    PubMed

    Onwezen, Marleen C; Bartels, Jos

    2011-08-01

    In general, fruit consumption in the EU does not meet governments' recommended levels, and innovations in the fruit industry are thought to be useful for increasing fruit consumption. Despite the enormous number of product innovations, the majority of new products in the market fail within the first two years, due to a lack of consumer acceptance. Consumer segmentation may be a useful research tool to increase the success rates of new fruit products. The current study aims to identify consumer segments based on individual importance rankings of fruit choice motives. We conducted a cross-national, online panel survey on fresh fruit innovations in four European countries: the Netherlands (n=251), Greece (n=246), Poland (n=250), and Spain (n=250). Our cluster analysis revealed three homogeneous consumer segments: Average Joe, the Naturally conscious consumer, and the Health-oriented consumer. These consumer segments differed with respect to their importance ratings for fruit choice motives. Furthermore, the willingness to buy specific fruit innovations (i.e., genetically modified, functional food and convenience innovation) and the perceived product characteristics that influence this willingness differed across the segments. Our study could lead to more tailored marketing strategies aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of fruit product innovations based on consumer segmentation.

  3. Impact of Federal Legislation and Policy on VR Services for Consumers Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing: Perspectives of Agency Administrators and Program Specialists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Glenn B.; Boone, Steven E.; Watson, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    The authors report on a national survey of administrators and program specialists at 43 state vocational rehabilitation (VR) agencies concerning the impact of federal employment legislation and rehabilitation policies on the provision of services to consumers who are deaf or hard of hearing. The article focuses on 5 initiatives enacted to enhance…

  4. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  5. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  6. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  7. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  8. 16 CFR 301.24 - Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur... UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER FUR PRODUCTS LABELING ACT Regulations § 301.24 Repairing, restyling and remodeling fur products for consumer. When fur products owned by and...

  9. Release of silver from nanotechnology-based consumer products for children

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the potential for children’s exposure to bioavailable silver during the realistic use of selected nanotechnology-based consumer products (plush toy, fabric products, breast milk storage bags, sippy cups, cleaning products, humidifiers, and humidifier accessory). We me...

  10. 19 CFR 12.50 - Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Consumer products and industrial equipment subject... MERCHANDISE Consumer Products and Industrial Equipment Subject to Energy Conservation Or Labeling Standards § 12.50 Consumer products and industrial equipment subject to energy conservation or labeling...

  11. Nanomaterials in consumer products: a challenging analytical problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contado, Catia

    2015-08-01

    Many products used in everyday life are made with the assistance of nanotechnologies. Cosmetic, pharmaceuticals, sunscreen, powdered food are only few examples of end products containing nano-sized particles (NPs), generally added to improve the product quality. To evaluate correctly benefits versus risks of engineered nanomaterials and consequently to legislate in favor of consumer’s protection, it is necessary to know the hazards connected with the exposure levels. This information implies transversal studies and a number of different competences. On analytical point of view the identification, quantification and characterization of NPs in food matrices and in cosmetic or personal care products pose significant challenges, because NPs are usually present at low concentration levels and the matrices, in which they are dispersed, are complexes and often incompatible with analytical instruments that would be required for their detection and characterization. This paper focused on some analytical techniques suitable for the detection, characterization and quantification of NPs in food and cosmetics products, reports their recent application in characterizing specific metal and metal-oxide NPs in these two important industrial and market sectors. The need of a characterization of the NPs as much as possible complete, matching complementary information about different metrics, possible achieved through validate procedures, is what clearly emerges from this research. More work should be done to produce standardized materials and to set-up methodologies to determine number-based size distributions and to get quantitative date about the NPs in such a complex matrices.

  12. A survey of phthalate esters in consumer cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Hubinger, Jean C

    2010-01-01

    Certain phthalate esters have been shown to cause reproductive toxicity in animal models. For this reason, the FDA has been monitoring the use of phthalate esters in cosmetics. In this study, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducted a limited survey of 84 adult-use and baby-care cosmetic products for the presence of five phthalate esters: dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (Figure 1). The analytes were extracted from a cosmetic product/Celite mixture with hexane, and the extract was then analyzed using reversed-phase high-performance chromatography (HPLC) on an instrument equipped with an ultraviolet radiation (UV) detector set at 230 nm. The analytes were separated on a Partisil octadecylsilane (ODS)-3 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5μm). The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of 50% water, 34% acetonitrile, 13% 2-propanol, and 3% methanol that was changed linearly (35 minutes) to 15% water, 55% acetonitrile, 25% 2-propanol, and 5% methanol and held for an additional ten minutes. Spiked recoveries in antiperspirant and nail color ranged from 88% to 104%. Thirty-one of the 60 adult-use cosmetic products were found to contain at least one phthalate ester. Twenty products contained DEP and 11 nail products contained DBP. Concentrations of DBP ranged from 123 μg/g to 62,607 μg/g. Concentrations of DEP ranged from 80 μg/g to 36,006 μg/g. Five of the 24 baby-care products contained DEP at concentrations ranging from 10 μg/g to 274 μg/g.

  13. Productivity, consumers, and the structure of a river food chain.

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J T; Power, M E

    1993-01-01

    We tested models of food chain dynamics in experimentally manipulated channels within a natural river. As light levels increased, primary productivity and the biomass of algae and primary predators increased, but the biomass of grazers remained relatively constant. In the presence of a fourth trophic level, algae and primary predators decreased, but grazers increased. These results match predictions of food chain models based on classical predator-prey theory and suggest that simple models of multitrophic level interactions are sometimes sufficient to predict the responses of natural communities to changes in environmental productivity and predators. PMID:11607368

  14. 75 FR 29155 - Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... information from the public through its Internet Web site through forms reporting on product-related injuries.... The proposal would describe four methods (internet, telephone, electronic mail, and paper) for.... 1102.10(b)(1) would explain that submitters using the Internet will use an electronic form...

  15. Survey of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors present in Japanese consumer products.

    PubMed

    Ye, Feng; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2015-05-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their precursors have been used in various consumer products. However, limited information regarding their occurrence and concentration levels in products is available. In this study, we investigated 18 PFAAs and 14 PFAA precursors in various categories of consumer products purchased in Japan. Relatively high total concentrations of PFAAs and their precursors were found in sprays for fabrics and textiles (products (consumer products is required. Furthermore, the amount of PFAAs emitted from consumer products may be underestimated if the occurrence of PFAA precursors is not considered. In addition to PFAA precursors, long chain perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (carbon chain length⩾7) were also detected in greater concentrations than short chain PFCAs (⩽6). This result suggests that consumer products are one of the important sources of long-chain PFCAs in the environment.

  16. End-of-life flows of multiple cycle consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiliyannis, C.A.

    2011-11-15

    Explicit expressions for the end-of-life flows (EOL) of single and multiple cycle products (MCPs) are presented, including deterministic and stochastic EOL exit. The expressions are given in terms of the physical parameters (maximum lifetime, T, annual cycling frequency, f, number of cycles, N, and early discard or usage loss). EOL flows are also obtained for hi-tech products, which are rapidly renewed and thus may not attain steady state (e.g. electronic products, passenger cars). A ten-step recursive procedure for obtaining the dynamic EOL flow evolution is proposed. Applications of the EOL expressions and the ten-step procedure are given for electric household appliances, industrial machinery, tyres, vehicles and buildings, both for deterministic and stochastic EOL exit, (normal, Weibull and uniform exit distributions). The effect of the physical parameters and the stochastic characteristics on the EOL flow is investigated in the examples: it is shown that the EOL flow profile is determined primarily by the early discard dynamics; it also depends strongly on longevity and cycling frequency: higher lifetime or early discard/loss imply lower dynamic and steady state EOL flows. The stochastic exit shapes the overall EOL dynamic profile: Under symmetric EOL exit distribution, as the variance of the distribution increases (uniform to normal to deterministic) the initial EOL flow rise becomes steeper but the steady state or maximum EOL flow level is lower. The steepest EOL flow profile, featuring the highest steady state or maximum level, as well, corresponds to skew, earlier shifted EOL exit (e.g. Weibull). Since the EOL flow of returned products consists the sink of the reuse/remanufacturing cycle (sink to recycle) the results may be used in closed loop product lifecycle management operations for scheduling and sizing reverse manufacturing and for planning recycle logistics. Decoupling and quantification of both the full age EOL and of the early discard flows is

  17. Environmental assessment for the consumer-products efficiency-standards program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-23

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 requires the Department of Energy to prescribe energy efficiency standards for thirteen consumer products. The purpose and need of the proposed action are described. DOE proposes two sets of standards for all thirteen consumer products: intermediate standards to become effective in 1981 for the first nine products and in 1982 for the second four products, and final standards to become effective in 1986 and 1987, respectively. The final standards are more restrictive than the intermediate standards and will provide manufacturers with the maximum time permitted under the Act to plan and develop extensive new lines of efficient consumer products. The final standards proposed by DOE require the maximum improvements in efficiency which are technologically feasible and economically justified, as required by Section 325(c) of EPCA. Alternatives to the proposed action and the potential impacts of the proposed action are discussed.

  18. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products.

    PubMed

    Isley, Steven C; Stern, Paul C; Carmichael, Scott P; Joseph, Karun M; Arent, Douglas J

    2016-08-30

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers' incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products' environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers' contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the "soft costs" to consumers of proenvironmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make proenvironmental action difficult.

  19. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products.

    PubMed

    Isley, Steven C; Stern, Paul C; Carmichael, Scott P; Joseph, Karun M; Arent, Douglas J

    2016-08-30

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers' incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products' environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers' contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the "soft costs" to consumers of proenvironmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make proenvironmental action difficult. PMID:27528670

  20. The release of nanosilver from consumer products used in the home.

    PubMed

    Benn, Troy; Cavanagh, Bridget; Hristovski, Kiril; Posner, Jonathan D; Westerhoff, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Nanosilver has become one of the most widely used nanomaterials in consumer products because of its antimicrobial properties. Public concern over the potential adverse effects of nanosilver's environmental release has prompted discussion of federal regulation. In this paper, we assess several classes of consumer products for their silver content and potential to release nanosilver into water, air, or soil. Silver was quantified in a shirt, a medical mask and cloth, toothpaste, shampoo, detergent, a towel, a toy teddy bear, and two humidifiers. Silver concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 270,000 microg Ag g product(-1). Products were washed in 500 mL of tap water to assess the potential release of silver into aqueous environmental matrices (wastewater, surface water, saliva, etc.). Silver was released in quantities up to 45 microg Ag g product(-1), and size fractions were both larger and smaller than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of nanoparticle silver in most products as well as in the wash water samples. Four products were subjected to a toxicity characterization leaching procedure to assess the release of silver in a landfill. The medical cloth released an amount of silver comparable to the toxicity characterization limit. This paper presents methodologies that can be used to quantify and characterize silver and other nanomaterials in consumer products. The quantities of silver in consumer products can in turn be used to estimate real-world human and environmental exposure levels. PMID:21284285

  1. Determination of fluorotelomer alcohols in selected consumer products and preliminary investigation of their fate in the indoor environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Guo, Zhishi; Folk, Edgar E; Roache, Nancy F

    2015-06-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established an ongoing effort to identify the major perfluorocarboxylic acid (PFCA) sources in nonoccupational indoor environments and characterize their transport and fate. This study determined the concentrations of fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), which are the precursors to PFCAs, in fifty-four consumer products collected from the U.S. open market in the years of 2011 and 2013. The products included carpet, commercial carpet-care liquids, household carpet/fabric-care liquids, treated apparel, treated home textiles, treated non-woven medical garments, floor waxes, food-contact paper, membranes for apparel, and thread-sealant tapes. The FTOHs quantified were 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-1-octanol (6:2 FTOH), 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-1-decanol (8:2 FTOH), and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluoro-1-dodecanol (10:2 FTOH). The content of 6:2 FTOH ranged from non-delectable to 331μgg(-1), 8:2 FTOH from non-delectable to 92μgg(-1), and 10:2 FTOH from non-detectable to 24μgg(-1). In addition, two consumer products from the home textile category were tested in the washing-drying process. One product from the treated apparel category and one from the home textile category were tested in the micro-scale chamber under elevated temperatures. The experimental data show that the washing-drying process with one cycle did not significantly reduce the FTOH concentrations in the tested consumer products. FTOH off-gassing was observed under accelerated aging conditions. Future tests should include air sampling to allow determination of the absolute emission rates at different temperatures. The results of this study should be informative to exposure assessment and risk management. PMID:24997516

  2. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    PubMed

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand.

  3. Development of a Consumer Product Ingredient Database for Chemical ExposureScreening and Prioritization

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consumer products are a primary source of chemical exposures, yet little structured information is available on the chemical ingredients of these products and the concentrations at which ingredients are present. To address this data gap, we created a database of chemicals in cons...

  4. Understanding the Role of Neuroscience in Brain Based Products: A Guide for Educators and Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylvan, Lesley J.; Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2010-01-01

    The term "brain" based is often used to describe learning theories, principles, and products. Although there have been calls urging educators to be cautious in interpreting and using such material, consumers may find it challenging to understand the role of the brain and to discriminate among brain based products to determine which would be…

  5. Storage shelf-life and consumer acceptance of pre-cooked reindeer meat products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential for production of premium reindeer meat in Alaska is high and pre-cooked reindeer meat products are of great interest to producers and processors. There has been limited work on process, development and consumer acceptance of pre-cooked reindeer meat. Our objective was to assess consu...

  6. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children's potential exposures.

    PubMed

    Tulve, Nicolle S; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Vance, Marina E; Rogers, Kim; Mwilu, Samuel; LeBouf, Ryan F; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willis, Robert; Thomas, Treye A; Marr, Linsey C

    2015-05-01

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their physiological functions, developmental stage, and activities and behaviors. Despite much research to date, children's potential exposures to AgNPs are not well characterized. Our objectives were to characterize selected consumer products containing AgNPs and to use the data to estimate a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure. We identified and cataloged 165 consumer products claiming to contain AgNPs that may be used by or near children or found in the home. Nineteen products (textile, liquid, plastic) were selected for further analysis. We developed a tiered analytical approach to determine silver content, form (particulate or ionic), size, morphology, agglomeration state, and composition. Silver was detected in all products except one sippy cup body. Among products in a given category, silver mass contributions were highly variable and not always uniformly distributed within products, highlighting the need to sample multiple areas of a product. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Using this data, a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure to AgNPs when drinking milk formula from a sippy cup is 1.53 μg Ag/kg. Additional research is needed to understand the number and types of consumer products containing silver and the concentrations of silver in these products in order to more accurately predict children's potential aggregate and cumulative exposures to AgNPs.

  7. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children's potential exposures.

    PubMed

    Tulve, Nicolle S; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Vance, Marina E; Rogers, Kim; Mwilu, Samuel; LeBouf, Ryan F; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willis, Robert; Thomas, Treye A; Marr, Linsey C

    2015-05-01

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their physiological functions, developmental stage, and activities and behaviors. Despite much research to date, children's potential exposures to AgNPs are not well characterized. Our objectives were to characterize selected consumer products containing AgNPs and to use the data to estimate a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure. We identified and cataloged 165 consumer products claiming to contain AgNPs that may be used by or near children or found in the home. Nineteen products (textile, liquid, plastic) were selected for further analysis. We developed a tiered analytical approach to determine silver content, form (particulate or ionic), size, morphology, agglomeration state, and composition. Silver was detected in all products except one sippy cup body. Among products in a given category, silver mass contributions were highly variable and not always uniformly distributed within products, highlighting the need to sample multiple areas of a product. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Using this data, a child's potential non-dietary ingestion exposure to AgNPs when drinking milk formula from a sippy cup is 1.53 μg Ag/kg. Additional research is needed to understand the number and types of consumer products containing silver and the concentrations of silver in these products in order to more accurately predict children's potential aggregate and cumulative exposures to AgNPs. PMID:25747543

  8. Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Lahaniatis, Majlinda; Papameletiou, Demosthenes; Del Pozo, Carlos; Reina, Vittorio; Van Engelen, Jacqueline; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Viso, Anne Catherine; Rodriguez, Carlos; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains. PMID:17609687

  9. Risk management measures for chemicals in consumer products: documentation, assessment, and communication across the supply chain.

    PubMed

    Bruinen de Bruin, Yuri; Hakkinen, Pertti Bert; Lahaniatis, Majlinda; Papameletiou, Demosthenes; Del Pozo, Carlos; Reina, Vittorio; Van Engelen, Jacqueline; Heinemeyer, Gerhard; Viso, Anne Catherine; Rodriguez, Carlos; Jantunen, Matti

    2007-12-01

    This paper analyzes the way risk management measures (RMMs) for consumer products have been used to date in authority and industry risk assessments. A working concept for consumer product RMMs is developed, aimed at controlling, limiting or avoiding exposures, and helping to insure the safe use (or handling) of a substance as part of a consumer product. Particular focus is placed on new requirements introduced by REACH (registration, evaluation, and authorization of chemicals). A RMMs categorization approach is also developed, dividing consumer product RMMs into those that are product integrated and those that are communicated to consumers. For each of these categories, RMMs for normal use, accidental use or misuse need to be distinguished. The level of detail for documenting, assessing and communicating RMMs across supply chains can vary, depending on the type of the assessment (tiered approach). Information on RMMs was collected from published sources to demonstrate that a taxonomical approach using standard descriptors for RMMs libraries is needed for effective information exchange across supply chains.

  10. 78 FR 7761 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Registration Card...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Effectiveness Survey AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Consumer Product...), preferably in five copies, to: Office of the Secretary, Consumer Product Safety Commission, Room 820,...

  11. 77 FR 38303 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-27

    ...-Consumer Prescription Drug Print Advertisements on Consumer Product Perceptions AGENCY: Food and Drug... Prescription Drug Print Advertisements on Consumer Product Perceptions'' has been approved by the Office of... Product Perceptions'' to OMB for review and clearance under 44 U.S.C. 3507. An Agency may not conduct...

  12. The Release of Nanosilver from Consumer Products Used in the Home

    PubMed Central

    Benn, Troy; Cavanagh, Bridget; Hristovski, Kiril; Posner, Jonathan D.; Westerhoff, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Nanosilver has become one of the most widely used nanomaterials in consumer products because of its antimicrobial properties. Public concern over the potential adverse effects of nanosilver's environmental release has prompted discussion of federal regulation. In this paper, we assess several classes of consumer products for their silver content and potential to release nanosilver into water, air, or soil. Silver was quantified in a shirt, a medical mask and cloth, toothpaste, shampoo, detergent, a towel, a toy teddy bear, and two humidifiers. Silver concentrations ranged from 1.4 to 270,000 μg Ag g product−1. Products were washed in 500 mL of tap water to assess the potential release of silver into aqueous environmental matrices (wastewater, surface water, saliva, etc.). Silver was released in quantities up to 45 μg Ag g product−1, and size fractions were both larger and smaller than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of nanoparticle silver in most products as well as in the wash water samples. Four products were subjected to a toxicity characterization leaching procedure to assess the release of silver in a landfill. The medical cloth released an amount of silver comparable to the toxicity characterization limit. This paper presents methodologies that can be used to quantify and characterize silver and other nanomaterials in consumer products. The quantities of silver in consumer products can in turn be used to estimate real-world human and environmental exposure levels. PMID:21284285

  13. Consumer acceptance of vegetarian sweet potato products intended for space missions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C D; Pace, R D; Bromfield, E; Jones, G; Lu, J Y

    1998-01-01

    Sweet potato is one of the crops selected for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for potential long-duration lunar/Mars missions. This article presents recipes of products made from sweet potato and determines the consumer acceptability of products containing from 6% to 20% sweet potato on a dry weight basis. These products were developed for use in nutritious and palatable meals for future space explorers. Sensory evaluation (appearance/color, aroma, texture, flavor/taste, and overall acceptability) studies were conducted to determine the consumer acceptability of vegetarian products made with sweet potato using panelists at NASA/Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. None of these products including the controls, contained any ingredient of animal origin with the exception of sweet potato pie. A 9-point hedonic scale (9 being like extremely and 1 being dislike extremely) was used to evaluate 10 products and compare them to similar commercially available products used as controls. The products tested were pancakes, waffles, tortillas, bread, pie, pound cake, pasta, vegetable patties, doughnuts, and pretzels. All of the products were either liked moderately or liked slightly with the exception of the sweet potato vegetable patties, which were neither liked nor disliked. Mean comparisons of sensory scores of sweet potato recipes and their controls were accomplished by using the Student t-test. Because of their nutritional adequacy and consumer acceptability, these products are being recommended to NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for inclusion in a vegetarian menu plan designed for lunar/Mars space missions.

  14. Consumer acceptance of vegetarian sweet potato products intended for space missions.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C D; Pace, R D; Bromfield, E; Jones, G; Lu, J Y

    1998-01-01

    Sweet potato is one of the crops selected for NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for potential long-duration lunar/Mars missions. This article presents recipes of products made from sweet potato and determines the consumer acceptability of products containing from 6% to 20% sweet potato on a dry weight basis. These products were developed for use in nutritious and palatable meals for future space explorers. Sensory evaluation (appearance/color, aroma, texture, flavor/taste, and overall acceptability) studies were conducted to determine the consumer acceptability of vegetarian products made with sweet potato using panelists at NASA/Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. None of these products including the controls, contained any ingredient of animal origin with the exception of sweet potato pie. A 9-point hedonic scale (9 being like extremely and 1 being dislike extremely) was used to evaluate 10 products and compare them to similar commercially available products used as controls. The products tested were pancakes, waffles, tortillas, bread, pie, pound cake, pasta, vegetable patties, doughnuts, and pretzels. All of the products were either liked moderately or liked slightly with the exception of the sweet potato vegetable patties, which were neither liked nor disliked. Mean comparisons of sensory scores of sweet potato recipes and their controls were accomplished by using the Student t-test. Because of their nutritional adequacy and consumer acceptability, these products are being recommended to NASA's Advanced Life Support Program for inclusion in a vegetarian menu plan designed for lunar/Mars space missions. PMID:11876201

  15. Nutritional properties and consumer evaluation of donkey bresaola and salami: comparison with conventional products.

    PubMed

    Marino, R; Albenzio, M; Della Malva, A; Muscio, A; Sevi, A

    2015-03-01

    Nutritional properties and consumer evaluation were performed in bresaola and salami from donkey meat compared with respective conventional products. Donkey bresaola and salami showed higher content of protein and lower content of fat than beef bresaola and pork salami. Significant differences in the unsaturation level of fatty acids were found. Particularly, donkey meat products showed lower saturated fatty acids, higher polyunsatured fatty acid content and better nutritional indices than conventional beef bresaola and pork salami. Furthermore, donkey meat products, especially bresaola, showed the highest content of essential amino acids. Both donkey meat products resulted to be more tender than conventional products, in addition donkey bresaola showed also higher consumer acceptability. Our investigation demonstrates the possibility of processing donkey meat into products comparable to traditional ones with a high nutritional value.

  16. Involving consumers in product design through collaboration: the case of online role-playing games.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Shu-Yu

    2010-12-01

    The release of software attributes to users by software designers for the creation of user-designed forms is regarded as a producer-consumer collaboration, leading consumers to expend significant effort on a specific product. This article identifies such software/product attributes within online role-playing games and then explores how consumers' prior experience affects the evaluation of such attributes. In this article, product attributes comprise customized, content, and interactive externality-sensitive and complementary externality-sensitive attributes, with the value of each attribute being greater for experts than for novices. In Study 1, data were collected and analyzed for the purpose of identifying such features in online role-playing games. The results can also be generalized to convergent products, such as TV games that have been redesigned as online games or mobile games found in Study 2. For the introduction of a convergent product to be successful, our research suggests that the potential market-segment focus should be on knowledgeable consumers who accept such products more readily.

  17. Consumer product in vitro digestion model: Bioaccessibility of contaminants and its application in risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Esther F A; Oomen, Agnes G; Rompelberg, Cathy J M; Versantvoort, Carolien H M; van Engelen, Jacqueline G M; Sips, Adrienne J A M

    2006-03-01

    This paper describes the applicability of in vitro digestion models as a tool for consumer products in (ad hoc) risk assessment. In current risk assessment, oral bioavailability from a specific product is considered to be equal to bioavailability found in toxicity studies in which contaminants are usually ingested via liquids or food matrices. To become bioavailable, contaminants must first be released from the product during the digestion process (i.e. become bioaccessible). Contaminants in consumer products may be less bioaccessible than contaminants in liquid or food. Therefore, the actual risk after oral exposure could be overestimated. This paper describes the applicability of a simple, reliable, fast and relatively inexpensive in vitro method for determining the bioaccessibility of a contaminant from a consumer product. Different models, representing sucking and/or swallowing were developed. The experimental design of each model can be adjusted to the appropriate exposure scenarios as determined by the risk assessor. Several contaminated consumer products were tested in the various models. Although relevant in vivo data are scare, we succeeded to preliminary validate the model for one case. This case showed good correlation and never underestimated the bioavailability. However, validation check needs to be continued.

  18. Energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products: public meeting clarification, questions and answers

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-01

    Eighteen corporations and manufacturers provided answers to many questions posed at a public meeting on energy efficiency standards for eight consumer products. Questions on the regulations concerning the manufacturing standards, performance standards, and testing standards are included. Questions were posed about air conditioners, refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, stoves (ranges), ovens, clothes dryers, oil fired burners, water heaters, furnaces, etc. A presentation containing information pertaining to the values of average annual energy consumption per unit used by DOE in its analysis leading to proposed energy efficiency standards for nine types of consumer products is included. (MCW)

  19. Emission characteristics of VOCs emitted from consumer and commercial products and their ozone formation potential.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Kim, Su-Yeon; Son, Youn-Suk; Choi, In-Young; Park, Seong-Ryong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from several consumer and commercial products (body wash, dishwashing detergent, air freshener, windshield washer fluid, lubricant, hair spray, and insecticide) were studied and compared. The spray products were found to emit the highest amount of VOCs (~96 wt%). In contrast, the body wash products showed the lowest VOC contents (~1.6 wt%). In the spray products, 21.6-96.4 % of the VOCs were propane, iso-butane, and n-butane, which are the components of liquefied petroleum gas. Monoterpene (C10H16) was the dominant component of the VOCs in the non-spray products (e.g., body wash, 53-88 %). In particular, methanol was present with the highest amount of VOCs in windshield washer fluid products. In terms of the number of carbon, the windshield washer fluids, lubricants, insecticides, and hair sprays comprised >95 % of the VOCs in the range C2-C5. The VOCs in the range C6-C10 were predominantly found in the body wash products. The dishwashing detergents and air fresheners contained diverse VOCs from C2 to C11. Besides comprising hazardous VOCs, VOCs from consumer products were also ozone precursors. The ozone formation potential of the consumer and commercial spray products was estimated to be higher than those of liquid and gel materials. In particular, the hair sprays showed the highest ozone formation potential.

  20. Emission characteristics of VOCs emitted from consumer and commercial products and their ozone formation potential.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Trieu-Vuong; Kim, Su-Yeon; Son, Youn-Suk; Choi, In-Young; Park, Seong-Ryong; Sunwoo, Young; Kim, Jo-Chun

    2015-06-01

    The characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from several consumer and commercial products (body wash, dishwashing detergent, air freshener, windshield washer fluid, lubricant, hair spray, and insecticide) were studied and compared. The spray products were found to emit the highest amount of VOCs (~96 wt%). In contrast, the body wash products showed the lowest VOC contents (~1.6 wt%). In the spray products, 21.6-96.4 % of the VOCs were propane, iso-butane, and n-butane, which are the components of liquefied petroleum gas. Monoterpene (C10H16) was the dominant component of the VOCs in the non-spray products (e.g., body wash, 53-88 %). In particular, methanol was present with the highest amount of VOCs in windshield washer fluid products. In terms of the number of carbon, the windshield washer fluids, lubricants, insecticides, and hair sprays comprised >95 % of the VOCs in the range C2-C5. The VOCs in the range C6-C10 were predominantly found in the body wash products. The dishwashing detergents and air fresheners contained diverse VOCs from C2 to C11. Besides comprising hazardous VOCs, VOCs from consumer products were also ozone precursors. The ozone formation potential of the consumer and commercial spray products was estimated to be higher than those of liquid and gel materials. In particular, the hair sprays showed the highest ozone formation potential. PMID:25601614

  1. 16 CFR Appendix to Part 1115 - Voluntary Standards on Which the Commission Has Relied Under Section 9 of the Consumer Product...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Has Relied Under Section 9 of the Consumer Product Safety Act Appendix to Part 1115 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SUBSTANTIAL PRODUCT... Relied Under Section 9 of the Consumer Product Safety Act The following are the voluntary standards...

  2. Use of consumer insight in the new product development process in the meat sector.

    PubMed

    Grunert, Klaus G; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens O; Saeed, Faiza; Scholderer, Joachim

    2011-11-01

    Successful new product development requires input from the market throughout the product development process, from identification of opportunities via screening of ideas, development of concepts, development of physical prototypes and to launch. Drawing on work done in the EU FP6 projects PROSAFEBEEF and Q-PORKCHAINS and a Danish project, all dealing with new product development in the meat sector, it is shown how the use of consumer insight techniques can a) support the identification of market opportunities, b) make sure that technologies applied are acceptable to consumers, c) aid the selection and optimisation of new product concepts and related communication, and d) be used to test product prototypes before final launch. PMID:21605939

  3. Consumer behaviour and attitudes towards low-calorie products in Europe.

    PubMed

    Bakker, D J

    1999-01-01

    A number of observations and conclusions can be made based on the data we have just seen: (1) There are large differences across the countries in terms of penetration of 'light' products. (2) The penetration of low-fat products is higher than that of low-sugar products. (3) Penetration of both low fat and low sugar products is higher among women than among men. (4) Penetration of both low-fat and low-sugar products is not dependent on age. (5) Consumption relates to penetration. (6) Consumer concerns about fat are greater than about sugar. (7) Consumer concerns about fat are at approximately the same level across Europe. (8) Concern about fat and sugar seems to increase with age. (9) Overweight is a problem for a third of the population across Europe. (10) Overweight is higher among men than among women. (11) Overweight increases with age.

  4. Sustainable sheep production and consumer preference trends: compatibilities, contradictions, and unresolved dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Montossi, F; Font-i-Furnols, M; del Campo, M; San Julián, R; Brito, G; Sañudo, C

    2013-12-01

    There are increasing concerns of society towards the consumption of animal products which have been produced and transformed in a sustainable manner. This trend influences consumer purchasing decision making, particularly in developed countries. On the other hand, in the next years, the pressure to increase the volume and efficiency of meat production will be much higher to cope with the expected unsatisfied demand. At least in part, current and future technologies could contribute to solve this challenge. However, the use of some of these innovations could have a negative effect on consumer preferences. There is no consensus in our society about this dilemma. The objective of this paper is to review the scientific evidence related to these topics and to analyze and discuss the effect of some of the extrinsic and intrinsic factors linked with the sheep industry which could affect the acceptability of lamb meat by consumers. PMID:23769133

  5. Sustainable sheep production and consumer preference trends: compatibilities, contradictions, and unresolved dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Montossi, F; Font-i-Furnols, M; del Campo, M; San Julián, R; Brito, G; Sañudo, C

    2013-12-01

    There are increasing concerns of society towards the consumption of animal products which have been produced and transformed in a sustainable manner. This trend influences consumer purchasing decision making, particularly in developed countries. On the other hand, in the next years, the pressure to increase the volume and efficiency of meat production will be much higher to cope with the expected unsatisfied demand. At least in part, current and future technologies could contribute to solve this challenge. However, the use of some of these innovations could have a negative effect on consumer preferences. There is no consensus in our society about this dilemma. The objective of this paper is to review the scientific evidence related to these topics and to analyze and discuss the effect of some of the extrinsic and intrinsic factors linked with the sheep industry which could affect the acceptability of lamb meat by consumers.

  6. A methodology for evaluating the usability of audiovisual consumer electronic products.

    PubMed

    Kwahk, Jiyoung; Han, Sung H

    2002-09-01

    Usability evaluation is now considered an essential procedure in consumer product development. Many studies have been conducted to develop various techniques and methods of usability evaluation hoping to help the evaluators choose appropriate methods. However, planning and conducting usability evaluation requires considerations of a number of factors surrounding the evaluation process including the product, user, activity, and environmental characteristics. In this perspective, this study suggested a new methodology of usability evaluation through a simple, structured framework. The framework was outlined by three major components: the interface features of a product as design variables, the evaluation context consisting of user, product, activity, and environment as context variables, and the usability measures as dependent variables. Based on this framework, this study established methods to specify the product interface features, to define evaluation context, and to measure usability. The effectiveness of this methodology was demonstrated through case studies in which the usability of audiovisual products was evaluated by using the methods developed in this study. This study is expected to help the usability practitioners in consumer electronics industry in various ways. Most directly, it supports the evaluators' plan and conduct usability evaluation sessions in a systematic and structured manner. In addition, it can be applied to other categories of consumer products (such as appliances, automobiles, communication devices, etc.) with minor modifications as necessary.

  7. Does environmental friendliness equal healthiness? Swiss consumers' perception of protein products.

    PubMed

    Lazzarini, Gianna A; Zimmermann, Jasmin; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Food production and consumption have major impacts on the environment. At the same time, changes in human diets worldwide are increasingly leading to health problems. Both issues are highly influenced by consumers' everyday food choices and could be addressed by reducing consumption of meat and other animal products. To promote sustainable food consumption, we need to know how consumers perceive the environmental friendliness and healthiness of food products, on which criteria they base their evaluations of environmental friendliness and healthiness, and how their estimations relate to life cycle assessments and nutrient profiling. We presented 30 protein products, which varied in provenance, production methods, and processing, to 85 participants from Switzerland. They were asked to sort the products once according to their perceived environmental friendliness and once according to their perceived healthiness. The mean distances between the products were compared to the products' life cycle assessments and nutrient profiles. The results showed that perceived environmental friendliness and healthiness are highly correlated. The main predictors of the products' perceived environmental friendliness were product category, presence of an organic label, and provenance; and for perceived healthiness, these predictors were product category, fat content, processing, and presence of an organic label. Environmental friendliness and healthiness estimations were significantly correlated to the life cycle assessments and the nutrient profiles of the products, respectively. Hence, to promote healthy and environmentally friendly food choices, motivators related to environmental friendliness and healthiness could be used in synergy. Awareness about meat's environmental impact should be increased and better information is needed for consumers to make an accurate environmental impact and healthiness assessments of protein products. PMID:27378749

  8. Does environmental friendliness equal healthiness? Swiss consumers' perception of protein products.

    PubMed

    Lazzarini, Gianna A; Zimmermann, Jasmin; Visschers, Vivianne H M; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Food production and consumption have major impacts on the environment. At the same time, changes in human diets worldwide are increasingly leading to health problems. Both issues are highly influenced by consumers' everyday food choices and could be addressed by reducing consumption of meat and other animal products. To promote sustainable food consumption, we need to know how consumers perceive the environmental friendliness and healthiness of food products, on which criteria they base their evaluations of environmental friendliness and healthiness, and how their estimations relate to life cycle assessments and nutrient profiling. We presented 30 protein products, which varied in provenance, production methods, and processing, to 85 participants from Switzerland. They were asked to sort the products once according to their perceived environmental friendliness and once according to their perceived healthiness. The mean distances between the products were compared to the products' life cycle assessments and nutrient profiles. The results showed that perceived environmental friendliness and healthiness are highly correlated. The main predictors of the products' perceived environmental friendliness were product category, presence of an organic label, and provenance; and for perceived healthiness, these predictors were product category, fat content, processing, and presence of an organic label. Environmental friendliness and healthiness estimations were significantly correlated to the life cycle assessments and the nutrient profiles of the products, respectively. Hence, to promote healthy and environmentally friendly food choices, motivators related to environmental friendliness and healthiness could be used in synergy. Awareness about meat's environmental impact should be increased and better information is needed for consumers to make an accurate environmental impact and healthiness assessments of protein products.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF AN INNOVATIVE SPRAY DISPENSER TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM AEROSOL CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the operating principles and performance of a new type of spray nozzle. This nozzle, termed a "ligament-controlled effervescent atomizer," was developed to allow consumer product manufacturers to replace volatile organic compound (VOC) solvents with water, and...

  10. 76 FR 9328 - Public Availability of Consumer Product Safety Commission FY 2010 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ..., Division of Procurement Services, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East West Highway, Bethesda... work location of contractor and subcontractor employees, expressed as full-time equivalents for direct.../sites/default/files/omb/procurement/memo/service-contract-inventories-guidance-11052010.pdf .) The...

  11. 78 FR 26301 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... resolves the issues raised in the June 7, 2012 (77 FR 33659) conditional approval of Illinois' rules. EPA is also proposing to approve volatile organic compound (VOC) content limits and associated provisions for additional consumer products categories into the State's SIP. Finally, EPA is proposing to...

  12. 77 FR 49701 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... to estimating the FFC energy and emission impacts of alternative energy conservation standards levels... / Friday, August 17, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 430 and 431 RIN 1904-AC24 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and...

  13. 77 FR 71167 - Foreign-Trade Zone 59-Lincoln, Nebraska, Authorization of Production Activity, Novartis Consumer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ..., Novartis Consumer Health, Inc. (Pharmaceutical and Related Preparations Production), Lincoln, Nebraska... with the regulations of the FTZ Board (15 CFR part 400), including notice in the Federal Register inviting public comment (77 FR 50462, August 21, 2012). The FTZ Board has determined that no further...

  14. 76 FR 66663 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and AIM Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... proposing to approve Illinois' volatile organic compound (VOC) emission limits for consumer products and..., ``Standards and Limitations for Organic material Emissions for Area Sources'' of Title 35 of the IAC (35 IAC... limitations for the sale, supply, offered for sale, use, or manufacture for sale of aerosol adhesives,...

  15. 76 FR 46202 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 RIN 1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment; Correction Correction In rule...

  16. 75 FR 31223 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... method for crediting heat pumps that provide a demand defrost capability. 53 FR 8304. The next revision... Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No. 105... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Central Air Conditioners and...

  17. 77 FR 8818 - Public Availability of Consumer Product Safety Commission FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Public Availability of Consumer Product Safety Commission FY 2011 Service Contract Inventory... contract inventory for fiscal year (``FY'') 2011. This inventory provides information on service contract..., MD 20814. Telephone: 301-504-7009; email dhutton@cpsc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On December...

  18. 78 FR 33392 - Public Availability of Consumer Product Safety Commission FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Public Availability of Consumer Product Safety Commission FY 2012 Service Contract Inventory... contract inventory for fiscal year (FY) 2012. This inventory provides information on service contract..., MD 20814. Telephone: 301-504-7009; email: dhutton@cpsc.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On...

  19. 78 FR 44895 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: First Co. Petition for Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... Southwestern Region includes a requirement for minimum EER. 76 FR 37408 (June 27, 2011). However, the direct... evaluating the energy efficiency of a covered product or covered equipment.'' 75 FR 56798 (Sept. 16, 2010... necessary to prevent harm to manufacturers and consumers. To the extent that the collection of...

  20. 76 FR 1137 - Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database: Notice of Public Web Conferences

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... site. In the Federal Register of December 9, 2010 (75 FR 76832), we published a final rule to establish... COMMISSION Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database: Notice of Public Web Conferences... Commission (``Commission,'' ``CPSC,'' or ``we'') is announcing two Web conferences to demonstrate...

  1. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  2. 76 FR 56678 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington, DC... Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC43 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Public Meeting and...

  3. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW.... Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC88 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation......

  4. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ..., U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies... Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building... Part 430 RIN 1904-AB57 Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation...

  5. 76 FR 24761 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ..., and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment.'' 76 FR 12421. Since... sections of the regulatory text have internal referencing errors. II. Need for Correction In FR Doc. 2011...) to read as follows: Sec. 429.22 Direct heating equipment. (a) * * * (2)(i) * * * (A) * * * (2)...

  6. 76 FR 39989 - Guidance on Deposit-Related Consumer Credit Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Russell, Director, Retail Credit Risk, (202) 874-5170, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, 250 E... potential operational, reputational, compliance, and credit risks. The request for comment stated that the... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency Guidance on Deposit-Related Consumer Credit Products...

  7. A Century of Graduate Research Productivity in Extension Family and Consumer Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    For many years, overall graduate research productivity has been reported annually by several authors in the December issue of the "Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal." The knowledge gleaned from a century's worth of Extension studies is valuable because it can improve our ability to build on prior research, particularly…

  8. Investigating Greek consumers' attitudes towards low-fat food products: a segmentation study.

    PubMed

    Krystallis, Athanasios; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Kapirti, A

    2003-05-01

    The present study aims at gaining a first insight into Greek consumers' attitudes towards low-fat food products. Although Greece, and in particular Crete, have enjoyed a great popularity in terms of the Mediterranean diet, there has been an almost complete lack of low-fat-related surveys concerning the Greek food consumer. Using this as a research trigger, the current investigation evolves around the conflict between 'sensory appeal' and 'healthiness' of low-fat products, widely described in the international literature. Other crucial factors examined are consumers' awareness, occasional use and conscious purchase of, and willingness to pay for, food products with the 'low-fat' claim. Overall, the study has the objective to segment the Greek market in terms of users' perceptions of light products and to identify a number of well-described clusters with clear-cut socio-demographic and behavioural profile. Three clusters are identified, comprised of consumers with favourable attitudes towards low-fat foods and willing to pay premiums to purchase them.

  9. Consumer Product Safety: What's It All About? Teacher's Guide. No. 8-T.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC.

    Designed as a flexible resource, this material may be used independently or in conjunction with existing safety, health, consumer education, economics, or social studies units. To facilitate the incorporation of product safety information into the curriculum, the suggested activities section lists major concepts to be developed and indicates…

  10. 77 FR 33659 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ..., or decomposition. AIM coatings are paints, varnishes, and other similar coatings that are meant for... means to consumer products. See EPA's October 27, 2011, proposed approval at 76 FR 66663 for discussion.... On October 27, 2011, we proposed to approve 35 IAC Part 223 into the Illinois SIP (76 FR 66663)....

  11. 78 FR 26258 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... generally paints, varnishes, and other similar materials that are meant for use on external surfaces of...' consumer products and AIM rules into the State's SIP (77 FR 33659). In our June 7, 2012, rulemaking, we... that were affected by the rule as approved by EPA at 77 FR 33659), and July 1, 2012 (for...

  12. 76 FR 14101 - Meadwestvaco Corporation, Consumer and Office Products Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... published in the Federal Register on September 3, 2008 (73 FR 51529). In order to avoid an overlap in worker... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on December 22, 2010, applicable to workers of MeadWestvaco... assistance was issued for all workers of MeadWestvaco, Consumer and Office Products Division, Sidney,...

  13. 78 FR 76443 - Safety and Effectiveness of Consumer Antiseptics; Topical Antimicrobial Drug Products for Over...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... encompassed products for both health care and consumer use (39 FR 33103, September 13, 1974). The ANPR covered... handwash or health care personnel handwash (59 FR 31402 at 31442). Isopropyl alcohol 70 to 91.3 percent was... December 17, 2013 Part III Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration 21...

  14. 77 FR 31876 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same Determination Not To... correct the name of respondent Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AB to Sony Mobile Communications AB; to correct the name of respondent Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications, Inc. to Sony Mobile...

  15. Raman spectroscopy based identification of flame retardants in consumer products using an acquired reference spectral library.

    PubMed

    Ghosal, Sutapa; Fang, Huiting

    2015-01-01

    Flame retardants (FRs), a class of commonly used chemical additives in consumer products such as polyurethane foams, are well known for their persistence in the environment, bioaccumulation and potential toxicity [1]. In order to address the potential health concerns and environmental impacts associated with the wide-spread use these chemicals, it is essential to identify them efficiently in the environment and consumer products. Raman spectroscopy (RS) offers an attractive option for the non-invasive, in-situ identification of flame retardants in a variety of sample formats [2-4]. RS based chemical identification relies on the availability of spectral libraries for identification through spectral matching with reference chemicals. Here we present the application of Raman spectroscopy for identifying FR additives in select consumer products using an acquired spectral library of commonly used FRs. The RS based method described here enables simultaneous identification of multiple components within a sample, which can offer important insights into the sources of FR contamination, in addition to identification of the FR component itself. The availability of Raman spectral library of commercially used FRs, such as the one presented here, will facilitate the identification of these chemicals in consumer products.

  16. 77 FR 35110 - Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Production Plan Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... updated future product plans, as well as production data through the recent past, including data about... manufacturers, as well as production data through the recent past, including data about engines and...: Production Plan Reports AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department...

  17. Subsidy or subtraction: how do terrestrial inputs influence consumer production in lakes?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Stuart E.; Solomon, Christopher T.; Weidel, Brian C.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-ecosystem fluxes are ubiquitous in food webs and are generally thought of as subsidies to consumer populations. Yet external or allochthonous inputs may in fact have complex and habitat-specific effects on recipient ecosystems. In lakes, terrestrial inputs of organic carbon contribute to basal resource availability, but can also reduce resource availability via shading effects on phytoplankton and periphyton. Terrestrial inputs might therefore either subsidise or subtract from consumer production. We developed and parameterised a simple model to explore this idea. The model estimates basal resource supply and consumer production given lake-level characteristics including total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, and consumer-level characteristics including resource preferences and growth efficiencies. Terrestrial inputs diminished primary production and total basal resource supply at the whole-lake level, except in ultra-oligotrophic systems. However, this system-level generalisation masked complex habitat-specific effects. In the pelagic zone, dissolved and particulate terrestrial carbon inputs were available to zooplankton via several food web pathways. Consequently, zooplankton production usually increased with terrestrial inputs, even as total whole-lake resource availability decreased. In contrast, in the benthic zone the dominant, dissolved portion of the terrestrial carbon load had predominantly negative effects on resource availability via shading of periphyton. Consequently, terrestrial inputs always decreased zoobenthic production except under extreme and unrealistic parameterisations of the model. Appreciating the complex and habitat-specific effects of allochthonous inputs may be essential for resolving the effects of cross-habitat fluxes on consumers in lakes and other food webs.

  18. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory.

    PubMed

    Vance, Marina E; Kuiken, Todd; Vejerano, Eric P; McGinnis, Sean P; Hochella, Michael F; Rejeski, David; Hull, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    To document the marketing and distribution of nano-enabled products into the commercial marketplace, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies created the Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory (CPI) in 2005. The objective of this present work is to redevelop the CPI by leading a research effort to increase the usefulness and reliability of this inventory. We created eight new descriptors for consumer products, including information pertaining to the nanomaterials contained in each product. The project was motivated by the recognition that a diverse group of stakeholders from academia, industry, and state/federal government had become highly dependent on the inventory as an important resource and bellweather of the pervasiveness of nanotechnology in society. We interviewed 68 nanotechnology experts to assess key information needs. Their answers guided inventory modifications by providing a clear conceptual framework best suited for user expectations. The revised inventory was released in October 2013. It currently lists 1814 consumer products from 622 companies in 32 countries. The Health and Fitness category contains the most products (762, or 42% of the total). Silver is the most frequently used nanomaterial (435 products, or 24%); however, 49% of the products (889) included in the CPI do not provide the composition of the nanomaterial used in them. About 29% of the CPI (528 products) contain nanomaterials suspended in a variety of liquid media and dermal contact is the most likely exposure scenario from their use. The majority (1288 products, or 71%) of the products do not present enough supporting information to corroborate the claim that nanomaterials are used. The modified CPI has enabled crowdsourcing capabilities, which allow users to suggest edits to any entry and permits researchers to upload new findings ranging from human and environmental exposure data to complete life cycle assessments. There

  19. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, Todd; Vejerano, Eric P; McGinnis, Sean P; Hochella, Michael F; Rejeski, David; Hull, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    Summary To document the marketing and distribution of nano-enabled products into the commercial marketplace, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies created the Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory (CPI) in 2005. The objective of this present work is to redevelop the CPI by leading a research effort to increase the usefulness and reliability of this inventory. We created eight new descriptors for consumer products, including information pertaining to the nanomaterials contained in each product. The project was motivated by the recognition that a diverse group of stakeholders from academia, industry, and state/federal government had become highly dependent on the inventory as an important resource and bellweather of the pervasiveness of nanotechnology in society. We interviewed 68 nanotechnology experts to assess key information needs. Their answers guided inventory modifications by providing a clear conceptual framework best suited for user expectations. The revised inventory was released in October 2013. It currently lists 1814 consumer products from 622 companies in 32 countries. The Health and Fitness category contains the most products (762, or 42% of the total). Silver is the most frequently used nanomaterial (435 products, or 24%); however, 49% of the products (889) included in the CPI do not provide the composition of the nanomaterial used in them. About 29% of the CPI (528 products) contain nanomaterials suspended in a variety of liquid media and dermal contact is the most likely exposure scenario from their use. The majority (1288 products, or 71%) of the products do not present enough supporting information to corroborate the claim that nanomaterials are used. The modified CPI has enabled crowdsourcing capabilities, which allow users to suggest edits to any entry and permits researchers to upload new findings ranging from human and environmental exposure data to complete life cycle

  20. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory.

    PubMed

    Vance, Marina E; Kuiken, Todd; Vejerano, Eric P; McGinnis, Sean P; Hochella, Michael F; Rejeski, David; Hull, Matthew S

    2015-01-01

    To document the marketing and distribution of nano-enabled products into the commercial marketplace, the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies created the Nanotechnology Consumer Products Inventory (CPI) in 2005. The objective of this present work is to redevelop the CPI by leading a research effort to increase the usefulness and reliability of this inventory. We created eight new descriptors for consumer products, including information pertaining to the nanomaterials contained in each product. The project was motivated by the recognition that a diverse group of stakeholders from academia, industry, and state/federal government had become highly dependent on the inventory as an important resource and bellweather of the pervasiveness of nanotechnology in society. We interviewed 68 nanotechnology experts to assess key information needs. Their answers guided inventory modifications by providing a clear conceptual framework best suited for user expectations. The revised inventory was released in October 2013. It currently lists 1814 consumer products from 622 companies in 32 countries. The Health and Fitness category contains the most products (762, or 42% of the total). Silver is the most frequently used nanomaterial (435 products, or 24%); however, 49% of the products (889) included in the CPI do not provide the composition of the nanomaterial used in them. About 29% of the CPI (528 products) contain nanomaterials suspended in a variety of liquid media and dermal contact is the most likely exposure scenario from their use. The majority (1288 products, or 71%) of the products do not present enough supporting information to corroborate the claim that nanomaterials are used. The modified CPI has enabled crowdsourcing capabilities, which allow users to suggest edits to any entry and permits researchers to upload new findings ranging from human and environmental exposure data to complete life cycle assessments. There

  1. Food and sustainability: do consumers recognize, understand and value on-package information on production standards?

    PubMed

    Hoogland, Carolien T; de Boer, Joop; Boersema, Jan J

    2007-07-01

    We tested how consumers recognize, understand and value on-package information about food production methods that may contribute to a more sustainable agriculture. Nine copy tests were formed, each containing one out of three products and one out of three panels of information. The products were (1) fillet of chicken, (2) semi-skimmed milk and (3) fillet of salmon. The panels of information were (a) a certified organic logo and details about the animal welfare standards of organic products, (b) just the logo, or (c) a statement in which the product was attributed to the world market. About 371 customers of a supermarket in the city of Amsterdam filled in a questionnaire, which included a subset of three copy tests. The results showed that many consumers did not realize that the organic logo already covers all the standards. They were inclined to underestimate the distinctive advantage of the logo; products with logo and details got higher ratings of positive attributes but were also considered more expensive. As a consequence, the detailed information panels enabled consumers to choose more in agreement with their personal values but the net impacts on purchase intentions were small. PMID:17303285

  2. Autochthonous resources are the main driver of consumer production in dystrophic boreal lakes.

    PubMed

    Lau, Danny C P; Sundh, Ingvar; Vrede, Tobias; Pickova, Jana; Goedkoop, Willem

    2014-06-01

    Dystrophic lakes are widespread in temperate regions and intimately interact with surrounding terrestrial ecosystems in energy and nutrient dynamics, yet the relative importance of autochthonous and allochthonous resources to consumer production in dystrophic lakes remains controversial. We argue that allochthonous organic matter quantitatively dominates over photosynthetic autotrophs in dystrophic lakes, but that autotrophs are higher in diet quality and more important for consumers as they contain essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). In a field study, we tested the hypotheses that (1) autochthonous primary production is the main driver for consumer production, despite being limited by light availability and low nutrient supplies, and greater supply of allochthonous carbon, (2) the relative contribution of autotrophs to consumers is directly related to their tissue PUFA concentrations, and (3) methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) provide an energy alternative for consumers. Pelagic and benthic consumer taxa representing different trophic levels were sampled from five dystrophic lakes: isopod Asellus aquaticus, megalopteran Sialis lutaria, dipteran Chaoborus flavicans, and perch Perca fluviatilis. Based on carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes, the relative contributions of autochthonous (biofilms and seston) and allochthonous (coarse particulate and dissolved organic matter) resources and MOB to these taxa were 47-79%, 9-44% and 7-12% respectively. Results from fatty acid (FA) analyses show that the relative omega3-FA and PUFA concentrations increased with trophic level (Asellus < Sialis and Chaoborus < Perca). Also, eicosapentaenoic-acid (EPA), omega3-FA and PUFA concentrations increased with the autochthonous contribution in consumers, i.e., a 47-79% biofilm and/or seston diet resulted in tissue EPA of 4.2-18.4, omega3 FAs of 11.6-37.0 and PUFA of 21.6-61.0 mg/g dry mass. The results indicate that consumers in dystrophic lakes predominantly rely on energy

  3. Evaluating Product-Related Hazards at the Consumer Product Safety Commission: The Case of All-Terrain Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Gregory B.

    1990-01-01

    Application of multivariate qualitative response models, such as logit regression models, to analysis of risks of all-terrain vehicles is discussed. Data are from national exposure and injury surveys and records of fatalities of the Consumer Product Safety Commission. Suggestions are made for further applications of the method. (SLD)

  4. Light quality and efficiency of consumer grade solid state lighting products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Corell, Dennis Dan; Thorseth, Anders; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff

    2013-03-01

    The rapid development in flux and efficiency of Light Emitting Diodes (LED) has resulted in a flooding of the lighting market with Solid State Lighting (SSL) products. Many traditional light sources can advantageously be replaced by SSL products. There are, however, large variations in the quality of these products, and some are not better than the ones they are supposed to replace. A lack of quality demands and standards makes it difficult for consumers to get an overview of the SSL products. Here the results of a two year study investigating SSL products on the Danish market are presented. Focus has been on SSL products for replacement of incandescent lamps and halogen spotlights. The warm white light and good color rendering properties of these traditional light sources are a must for lighting in Denmark and the Nordic countries. 266 SSL replacement lamps have been tested for efficiency and light quality with respect to correlated color temperature and color rendering properties. This shows a trade-off between high color rendering warm white light and energy efficiency. The lumen and color maintenance over time has been investigated and results for products running over 11000 h will be presented. A new internet based SSL product selection tool will be shown. Here the products can be compared on efficiency, light quality parameters, thus providing a better basis for the selection of SSL products for consumers.

  5. Functional or constructive attitudes: Which type drives consumers' evaluation of meat products?

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Consumer attitudes towards meat can be divided up into two types: Functional attitudes which are stable and exist over long periods of time, and constructive attitudes which are ephemeral and usually constructed at the point of sale. This research investigated the temporal and situational stability of meat consumers' attitudes by using the same established functional, multidimensional attitude instrument to generate attitude profiles for the four meat types: chicken/beef/lamb/poultry both as an abstracted construct and as a cue on a range of meat and meat-based products. The results showed that strong attitude profile was generated by the meat types as abstracted constructs, but that this profile broke down completely when the food products carrying the same meat types were evaluated. This result indicates that consumer attitudes may not be temporally or situationally stable, which in turn suggests that consumers' evaluation and choice of meat products may be driven to a greater or lesser extent by constructive rather than functional attitudes. PMID:26970290

  6. Reducing microplastics from facial exfoliating cleansers in wastewater through treatment versus consumer product decisions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Microplastics (<5mm) have been discovered in fresh and saltwater ecosystems, sediments, and wastewater effluent around the world. Their ability to persist and accumulate up food chains should be a concern as research is still experimenting with techniques to assess their long-term effects on the environment. I sought to characterize the microbeads found in facial exfoliating cleansers so as to better understand how to reduce this source of pollution through consumer use and wastewater treatment solutions. By sampling products from national-grossing cosmetic personal care brands, I was able to gather information on the size, color, volume, mass, and concentration of polyethylene beads in the cleansers. From that data, I modeled onto a consumer survey the estimated volume of microplastics entering a wastewater stream. Through inquiry, I learned the practices of two local wastewater treatment facilities. My findings show that consumer decisions and treatment protocols both play crucial parts in minimizing microplastic pollution.

  7. Reducing microplastics from facial exfoliating cleansers in wastewater through treatment versus consumer product decisions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Michelle

    2015-12-15

    Microplastics (<5mm) have been discovered in fresh and saltwater ecosystems, sediments, and wastewater effluent around the world. Their ability to persist and accumulate up food chains should be a concern as research is still experimenting with techniques to assess their long-term effects on the environment. I sought to characterize the microbeads found in facial exfoliating cleansers so as to better understand how to reduce this source of pollution through consumer use and wastewater treatment solutions. By sampling products from national-grossing cosmetic personal care brands, I was able to gather information on the size, color, volume, mass, and concentration of polyethylene beads in the cleansers. From that data, I modeled onto a consumer survey the estimated volume of microplastics entering a wastewater stream. Through inquiry, I learned the practices of two local wastewater treatment facilities. My findings show that consumer decisions and treatment protocols both play crucial parts in minimizing microplastic pollution. PMID:26563542

  8. Literacy demands of product information intended to supplement television direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertisements.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Rudd, Rima E; DeJong, William; Daltroy, Lawren H

    2004-11-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) allows television direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertisements that do not fully disclose drug risks if the ads include "adequate provision" for dissemination of the drug's approved labeling. This requirement can be met in part by referring consumers to multiple text sources of product labeling. This study was designed to assess the materials to which consumers were referred in 23 DTC television advertisements. SMOG assessments showed that the average reading grade levels were in the high school range for the main body sections of the materials and college-level range for the brief summary sections. The Suitability Assessment of Materials (SAM) instrument identified specific difficulties with the materials, including content, graphics, layout, and typography features. Stronger plain language requirements are recommended. Health care providers should be aware that patients who ask about an advertised drug might not have the full information required to make an informed decision. PMID:15530767

  9. The voice of the customer--Part 2: Benchmarking battery chargers against the Consumer's Ideal Product.

    PubMed

    Bauer, S M; Lane, J P; Stone, V I; Unnikrishnan, N

    1998-01-01

    The Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center on Technology Evaluation and Transfer is exploring how the end users of assistive technology devices define the ideal device. This work is called the Consumer Ideal Product program. In this work, end users identify and establish the importance of a broad range of product design features, along with the related product support and service provided by manufacturers and vendors. This paper describes a method for systematically transforming end-user defined requirements into a form that is useful and accessible to product designers, manufacturers, and vendors. In particular, product requirements, importance weightings, and metrics are developed from the Consumer Ideal Product battery charger outcomes. Six battery charges are benchmarked against these product requirements using the metrics developed. The results suggest improvements for each product's design, service, and support. Overall, the six chargers meet roughly 45-75% of the ideal product's requirements. Many of the suggested improvements are low-cost changes that, if adopted, could provide companies a competitive advantage in the marketplace.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories/Production Agency Weapon Waste Minimization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Skinrood, A.C.; Radosevich, L.G.

    1991-07-01

    This Plan describes activities to reduce the usage of hazardous materials and the production of hazardous material waste during the development, production, stockpile, and retirement phases of war reserve nuclear weapons and nuclear weapon test units. Activities related to the development and qualification of more benign materials and processes for weapon production and the treatment and disposal of these materials from weapon retirement are described in separate plans.

  11. Labeling of nanotechnology consumer products can influence risk and benefit perceptions.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, Michael; Keller, Carmen

    2011-11-01

    Currently, there is no mandatory labeling for products containing synthetic nanoparticles. The public as well as other stakeholders have positive views about mandatory labeling. However, little is known how such a label influences the risk and benefit perception of a product. Consumers may infer that a label is a signal that there are risks associated with this technology. Data were collected in a survey experiment (N= 1,382). Participants were randomly assigned to one of six conditions. The control group received a picture of a sunscreen container without a label. One experimental group received a picture of a sunscreen container with a label. The other groups received, in addition to the sunscreen container with a label, some risk or benefit information. Results suggest that labeling of products may reduce consumers' benefit perception and increase risk perception. Labeling nanotechnology consumer products may change the public perception of the products. Respondents may have relied on the affect heuristic for assessing the risks and benefits of the sunscreen.

  12. Arsenic content in smokeless tobacco products consumed by the population of Pakistan: related health risk.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Gul Kazi, Tasneem; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; NaEemuliah; Shah, Faheem; Mughal, Moina Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Extensive investigation has shown that smokeless tobacco (SLT) may cause inflammation of the oral cavity. In this study, the concentration of arsenic (As) was determined in SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and dry and moist snuff). Scalp hair samples of males aged 20-30 years who consumed different types of SLT products available in Pakistan were analyzed for As contents. Total As in different SLT products and in scalp hair was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave-assisted extraction. The validity of the methodology was tested by simultaneously analyzing certified reference materials and spike recovery studies. The range of As concentrations in moist snuff, dry snuff, gutkha, and mainpuri were 0.574-1.53, 0.642-1.07, 0.246-0.622, and 0.419-0.874 μg/g, respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 10 g of all SLT products could contribute 2.0-12.2% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake for As in adults. The As concentration in scalp hair of SLT consumers was higher than that of referents who had not consumed any type of tobacco products. PMID:25632442

  13. 76 FR 40285 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ..., U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies... Product AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of.... Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue,...

  14. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products

    DOE PAGES

    Isley, Steven C.; Stern, Paul C.; Carmichael, Scott P.; Joseph, Karun M.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2016-08-30

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers' incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products' environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers' contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement withmore » existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the 'soft costs' to consumers of pro-environmental choices. Lastly, opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make pro-environmental action difficult.« less

  15. 76 FR 15953 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Announcement of Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Federal Register of May 24, 2010, 75 FR 29156, the agency announced that the proposed information... published in the Federal Register of December 9, 2010, 75 FR 76832. An agency may not conduct or sponsor...; Publicly Available Consumer Product Safety Information Database AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety...

  16. Release of primary microplastics from consumer products to wastewater in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Wezel, Annemarie; Caris, Inez; Kools, Stefan A E

    2016-07-01

    The authors estimate the release of primary microplastics from consumer products-cosmetics and personal care products, cleaning agents, and paint and coatings-via sewage effluent as an expected relevant route to the marine environment. Total estimated concentrations in the 3 scenarios are 0.2 μg/L, 2.7 μg/L, and 66 μg/L in sewage-treatment plant (STP) effluent, respectively. All product categories relevantly contribute. Predicted concentrations are compared with reported actual concentrations in STP effluents. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1627-1631. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Consumer product safety: Risk assessment of exposure to asbestos emissions from hand-held hair dryers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallenbeck, William H.

    1981-01-01

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is concerned that consumer exposure to asbestos from consumer products may present an unreasonable risk of injury. Recently, CPSC has obtained agreement by industry to cease production and distribution of hair dryers containing asbestos heat insulation. CPSC intends to broaden its investigation by selecting consumer products containing asbestos for “priority attention.” The Commission does not intend to make quantitative estimates of cancer risks posed by exposure to asbestos fibers in making regulatory decisions. This position may lead to a serious waste of resources for the Commission, industry, and society. The Commission should focus its initial attention on those products for which the release of asbestos is significant enough to cause an unreasonable health risk. To make a risk assessment for a particular use of asbestos, CPSC must acquire or request data on asbestos emissions and define “unreasonable risk to health.” In an attempt to give some meaning to the phrase “risk assessment,” the primary goal of this paper is to present a detailed risk assessment of exposure to asbestos from hand-held hair dryers. Several scenarios of use are presented using various assumptions regarding time of operation, mixing of fibers in a small room, rate of fiber emission, and time of exposure. The worst case analysis of the health risk of exposure to hair dryer emissions is based on several conservative assumptions and shows that the increased number of deaths per year due to respiratory cancer is 4 for the entire United States population. A more representative case analysis shows the increased number of deaths to be on the order of 0.15 per year.

  18. 78 FR 76838 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements AGENCY... requirements for tobacco products. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments on the collection of... for Tobacco Products (OMB Control Number 0910-0684)--Extension On June 22, 2009, the President...

  19. Made with Renewable Energy: How and Why Companies are Labeling Consumer Products

    SciTech Connect

    Baker Brannan, D.; Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-03-01

    Green marketing--a marketing strategy highlighting the environmental attributes of a product, often through the use of labels or logos--dates back to the 1970s. It did not proliferate until the 1990s, however, when extensive market research identified a rapidly growing group of consumers with a heightened concern for the environment. This group expressed not only a preference for green products but also a willingness to pay a premium for such products. The response was a surge in green marketing that lasted through the early 1990s. This report discusses the experience of companies that communicate to consumers that their products are 'made with renewable energy.' For this report, representatives from 20 companies were interviewed and asked to discuss their experiences marketing products produced using renewable energy. The first half of this report provides an overview of the type of companies that have labeled products or advertised them as being made with renewable energy. It also highlights the avenues companies use to describe their use of renewable energy. The second half of the report focuses on the motivations for making on-product claims about the use of renewable energy and the challenges in doing so.

  20. Tobacco Industry Consumer Research on Smokeless Tobacco Users and Product Development

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Adrienne B.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, RJ Reynolds (RJR) and Philip Morris have both introduced new smokeless “snus” tobacco products. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents describing the history of RJR and Philip Morris's consumer research, smokeless product development, and marketing strategies. We found that RJR had invested in smokeless research, development, and marketing since 1968. RJR first targeted low-income males through sampling and sponsorship at fishing, rodeo, and baseball events, and through advertising portraying the user as “hard working.” In the early 1990s, Philip Morris and RJR hoped to attract more urban, female smokeless users. The current “snus” campaigns appear to appeal to these targeted consumers and smokers in smoke-free environments. These efforts may expand the tobacco market and undermine smoking cessation. PMID:19910355

  1. Tobacco industry consumer research on smokeless tobacco users and product development.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Adrienne B; Ling, Pamela M

    2010-01-01

    Since 2006, RJ Reynolds (RJR) and Philip Morris have both introduced new smokeless "snus" tobacco products. We analyzed previously secret tobacco industry documents describing the history of RJR and Philip Morris's consumer research, smokeless product development, and marketing strategies. We found that RJR had invested in smokeless research, development, and marketing since 1968. RJR first targeted low-income males through sampling and sponsorship at fishing, rodeo, and baseball events, and through advertising portraying the user as "hard working." In the early 1990s, Philip Morris and RJR hoped to attract more urban, female smokeless users. The current "snus" campaigns appear to appeal to these targeted consumers and smokers in smoke-free environments. These efforts may expand the tobacco market and undermine smoking cessation.

  2. Balancing consumer and societal requirements for sheep meat production: an Australasian perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, D M; Schreurs, N M; Kenyon, P R; Jacob, R H

    2014-11-01

    Although there has been a decline in sheep numbers in Australia and New Zealand, both countries remain significant producers and exporters of sheep meat. The ongoing demand for more sustainable and ethical animal farming systems and practices requires sheep production industries to be both vigilant and responsive to consumer and the broader societal needs. Demonstration of continuous improvement in animal welfare is paramount and the welfare risks and challenges confronting Australasian sheep industries now and into the future are discussed.

  3. The impact of broiler production system practices on consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-12-01

    This research explores the extent to which different farm management practices influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that were described on the basis of 7 animal welfare-related practices. It was found that practices in the area of outdoor access, stocking density, and day-night rhythm were overall perceived to have a larger impact on perceptions of animal friendliness than other practices, such as transport duration or the type of breed used. However, individuals differed regarding the extent to which they believed the different farm management practices influenced the animal friendliness of the production system. Differences between individuals regarding their knowledge about and familiarity with livestock farming, degree of anthropomorphism, and their moral beliefs regarding animal welfare partly explained the relative importance individuals attached to farm management practices. The obtained insight into which welfare-related farm management practices, in consumers' minds, most strongly contribute to animal welfare, and the existence of differences between consumers, can be helpful in the development of animal welfare-based certification schemes that are appealing to consumers, as well as the positioning of welfare concepts in the market. PMID:24235215

  4. The impact of broiler production system practices on consumer perceptions of animal welfare.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Janneke; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2013-12-01

    This research explores the extent to which different farm management practices influence the perceived animal friendliness of broiler production systems, and how this differs between individuals. Using a conjoint design with paired comparisons, respondents evaluated broiler production systems that were described on the basis of 7 animal welfare-related practices. It was found that practices in the area of outdoor access, stocking density, and day-night rhythm were overall perceived to have a larger impact on perceptions of animal friendliness than other practices, such as transport duration or the type of breed used. However, individuals differed regarding the extent to which they believed the different farm management practices influenced the animal friendliness of the production system. Differences between individuals regarding their knowledge about and familiarity with livestock farming, degree of anthropomorphism, and their moral beliefs regarding animal welfare partly explained the relative importance individuals attached to farm management practices. The obtained insight into which welfare-related farm management practices, in consumers' minds, most strongly contribute to animal welfare, and the existence of differences between consumers, can be helpful in the development of animal welfare-based certification schemes that are appealing to consumers, as well as the positioning of welfare concepts in the market.

  5. 77 FR 37616 - Disclosure of Consumer Complaint Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Chapter X Disclosure of Consumer Complaint Data AGENCY... statement regarding the Bureau's disclosure of data from consumer complaints about financial products and... complaint data. The present notice (the ``Concurrent Notice'') describes the Bureau's plan to duplicate...

  6. EPHECT III: Health risk assessment of exposure to household consumer products.

    PubMed

    Trantallidi, M; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Wolkoff, P; Kephalopoulos, S; Carrer, P

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios

  7. EPHECT III: Health risk assessment of exposure to household consumer products.

    PubMed

    Trantallidi, M; Dimitroulopoulou, C; Wolkoff, P; Kephalopoulos, S; Carrer, P

    2015-12-01

    In the framework of the EU EPHECT project (Emissions, Exposure Patterns and Health Effects of Consumer Products in the EU), irritative and respiratory effects were assessed in relation to acute (30-min) and long-term (24-h) inhalation exposure to key and emerging indoor air pollutants emitted during household use of selected consumer products. A detailed Health Risk Assessment (HRA) was performed for five selected pollutants of respiratory health relevance, namely acrolein, formaldehyde, naphthalene, d-limonene and α-pinene. For each pollutant, the Critical Exposure Limit (CEL) was compared to indoor air concentrations and exposure estimates for the use of 15 selected consumer products by two population groups (housekeepers and retired people) in the four geographical regions of Europe (North, West, South, East), which were derived previously based on microenvironmental modelling. For the present HRA, health-based CELs were derived for certain compounds in case indoor air quality guidelines were not available by the World Health Organization for end-points relevant to the current study. For each pollutant, the highest indoor air concentrations in each microenvironment and exposure estimates across home microenvironments during the day were lower than the corresponding acute and long-term CELs. However, considerable contributions, especially to acute exposures, were obtained in some cases, such as formaldehyde emissions resulting from single product use of a floor cleaning agent (82% CEL), a candle (10% CEL) and an electric air freshener (17% CEL). Regarding multiple product use, the case of 30-min formaldehyde exposure reaching 34% CEL when eight product classes were used across home microenvironments, i.e. all-purpose/kitchen/floor cleaning agents, furniture/floor polish, combustible/electric air fresheners, and perfume, needs to be highlighted. Such estimated values should be evaluated with caution, as these may be attributed to the exposure scenarios

  8. 78 FR 49480 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... communications efforts to achieve a greater impact on consumer behavior among a broad range of consumers with... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY...; Comment Request; CPSC National Awareness Survey AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION:...

  9. Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations-a review.

    PubMed

    Hathwar, Swapna C; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2012-12-01

    Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of "functional foods" which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared to the foods that conventionally have a high health image. This review gives the overall perception about importance of using meat/meat products as a functional food.

  10. Product Warranties: Business Guidelines to Meet Consumer Needs. Report of the Sub-Council on Warranties and Guarantees of the National Business Council for Consumer Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Business Council for Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    In this report prepared to assist the business community in undertaking its responsibility to reexamine warranty policies and practices in the light of consumer expectations, it is recommended that the following policies and practices be adopted by businesses and trade associations: (1) Product warranties should be effective for a period…

  11. Internal cycle modeling and environmental assessment of multiple cycle consumer products

    SciTech Connect

    Tsiliyannis, C.A.

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic flow models are presented for remanufactured, reused or recycled products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early loss and stochastic return are included for fast and slow cycling products. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The reuse-to-input flow ratio (Internal Cycle Factor, ICF) is determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cycle rate, which is increasing with the ICF, monitors eco-performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Early internal cycle losses diminish the ICF, the cycle rate and performance. - Abstract: Dynamic annual flow models incorporating consumer discard and usage loss and featuring deterministic and stochastic end-of-cycle (EOC) return by the consumer are developed for reused or remanufactured products (multiple cycle products, MCPs), including fast and slow cycling, short and long-lived products. It is shown that internal flows (reuse and overall consumption) increase proportionally to the dimensionless internal cycle factor (ICF) which is related to environmental impact reduction factors. The combined reuse/recycle (or cycle) rate is shown capable for shortcut, albeit effective, monitoring of environmental performance in terms of waste production, virgin material extraction and manufacturing impacts of all MCPs, a task, which physical variables (lifetime, cycling frequency, mean or total number of return trips) and conventional rates, via which environmental policy has been officially implemented (e.g. recycling rate) cannot accomplish. The cycle rate is shown to be an increasing (hyperbolic) function of ICF. The impact of the stochastic EOC return characteristics on total reuse and consumption flows, as well as on eco-performance, is assessed: symmetric EOC return has a small, positive effect on performance compared to deterministic, while early shifted EOC return is more beneficial. In order to be efficient, environmental policy should set higher minimum reuse targets for higher trippage MCPs. The

  12. Characterizing isotopic variability of primary production and consumers in Great Plains ecosystems during protracted regional drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haveles, A. W.; Fox-Dobbs, K.; Talmadge, K. A.; Fetrow, A.; Fox, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last few years (2010-2012), the Great Plains of the central USA experienced protracted drought conditions, including historically severe drought during Summer, 2011. Drought severity in the region generally decreases with increasing latitude, but episodic drought is a fundamental trait of grassland ecosystems. Documenting above ground energy and nutrient flow with current drought is critical to understanding responses of grassland ecosystems in the region to predicted increased episodicity of rainfall and recurrence of drought due to anthropogenic climate change. Characterization of biogeochemical variability of modern ecosystems at the microhabitat, local landscape, and regional scales is also necessary to interpret biogeochemical records of ancient grasslands based on paleosols and fossil mammals. Here, we characterize three grassland ecosystems that span the drought gradient in the Great Plains (sites in the Texas panhandle, southwest Kansas, and northwest Nebraska). We measured δ13C and δ15N values of plants and consumers to characterize the biogeochemical variability within each ecosystem. Vegetation at each site is a mix of trees, shrubs, herbs, and cool- and warm-growing season grasses (C3 and C4, respectively). Thus, consumers have access to isotopically distinct sources of forage that vary in abundance with microhabitat (e.g., open grassland, shrub thicket, riparian woodland). Observations indicate herbivorous arthropod (grasshoppers and crickets) abundance follows drought severity, with high abundance of many species in Texas, and low abundance of few species in Nebraska. Small mammal (rodents) abundance follows the inverse pattern with 0.8%, 3.2% and 17.2% capture success in Texas, Kansas and Nebraska, respectively. The inverse abundance patterns of consumer groups may result from greater sensitivity of small mammal consumers with high metabolic needs to lower local net primary productivity and forage quality under drought conditions. As a

  13. Determination of the total level of nitrosamines in select consumer products in Lagos area of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, H.A.B.; Thomas, A.E.; Akintonwa, A. )

    1991-11-01

    For some time there has been a considerable interest and growing concern in the extent of contamination of food items by N-nitrosamines because of the known carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of these compounds. Nitrosamines can be derived from the interaction of organic secondary and tertiary amines with nitrite, nitrate under reducing conditions, low pH values or nitrous gases. In Nigeria, the present harsh economic conditions have somewhat influenced the emergence of different kinds of socioeconomic attitude in Nigerians. There is now high incidence of adulteration of many consumer products. Faking of assorted consumables and pharmaceuticals, notably drugs, is a common feature, all in attempt to cut corners. It is a common practice amongst the local people to use certain chemicals as preservatives, colorants and flavorants without taking cognizance of the long-term health and toxicological hazards posed to the citizenry by these foreign agents. Recent work in the authors' laboratory had shown the presence of N-nitrosamines in some consumer products and it was therefore thought that a more thorough investigation and survey of as many foods and drinks as possible in the Lagos metropolis for contamination by nitrosamines might present a more revealing picture.

  14. School Meal Programs: Changes to Federal Agencies' Procedures Could Reduce Risk of School Children Consuming Recalled Food. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-09-649

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Government Accountability Office, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few years, several food recalls, such as for beef and peanut products, have affected schools. It is especially important that recalls affecting schools be carried out efficiently and effectively because young children have a higher risk of complications from food-borne illnesses. GAO was asked to determine how federal agencies (1)…

  15. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S; Fan, Jung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research. PMID:27375358

  16. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S; Fan, Jung-Wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research.

  17. Mining Health-Related Issues in Consumer Product Reviews by Using Scalable Text Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Manabu; Tilak, Sameer S.; Doan, Son; Zisook, Daniel S.; Fan, Jung-wei

    2016-01-01

    In an era when most of our life activities are digitized and recorded, opportunities abound to gain insights about population health. Online product reviews present a unique data source that is currently underexplored. Health-related information, although scarce, can be systematically mined in online product reviews. Leveraging natural language processing and machine learning tools, we were able to mine 1.3 million grocery product reviews for health-related information. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) conduct quantitative and qualitative analysis on the types of health issues found in consumer product reviews; (2) develop a machine learning classifier to detect reviews that contain health-related issues; and (3) gain insights about the task characteristics and challenges for text analytics to guide future research. PMID:27375358

  18. Alternative methods of processing bio-feedstocks in formulated consumer product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peremezhney, Nicolai; Jacob, Philipp-Maximilian; Lapkin, Alexei

    2014-05-01

    In this work new methods of processing bio-feedstocks in the formulated consumer products industry are discussed. Our current approach to formulated products design is based on heuristic knowledge of formulators that allows selecting individual compounds from a library of available materials with known properties. We speculate that most of the compounds (or functions) that make up the product to be designed can potentially be obtained from a few bio-sources. In this case, it may be possible to design a sequence of transformations required to convert feedstocks into products with desired properties, analogous to a metabolic pathway of a complex organism. We conceptualize some novel approaches to processing bio-feedstocks with the aim of bypassing the step of a fixed library of ingredients. Two approaches are brought forward: one making use of knowledge-based expert systems and the other making use of applications of metabolic engineering and dynamic combinatorial chemistry.

  19. Trends in Exposure to Chemicals in Personal Care and Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Antonia M; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Ye, Xiaoyun

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic organic chemicals can be used in personal care and consumer products. Data on potential human health effects of these chemicals are limited-sometimes even contradictory-but because several of these chemicals are toxic in experimental animals, alternative compounds are entering consumer markets. Nevertheless, limited information exists on consequent exposure trends to both the original chemicals and their replacements. Biomonitoring (measuring concentrations of chemicals or their metabolites in people) provides invaluable information for exposure assessment. We use phthalates and bisphenol A-known industrial chemicals-and organophosphate insecticides as case studies to show exposure trends to these chemicals and their replacements (e.g., other phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers, various bisphenols, pyrethroid insecticides) among the US general population. We compare US trends to national trends from Canada and Germany. Exposure to the original compounds is still prevalent among these general populations, but exposures to alternative chemicals may be increasing.

  20. Trends in Exposure to Chemicals in Personal Care and Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Calafat, Antonia M; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Ye, Xiaoyun

    2015-12-01

    Synthetic organic chemicals can be used in personal care and consumer products. Data on potential human health effects of these chemicals are limited-sometimes even contradictory-but because several of these chemicals are toxic in experimental animals, alternative compounds are entering consumer markets. Nevertheless, limited information exists on consequent exposure trends to both the original chemicals and their replacements. Biomonitoring (measuring concentrations of chemicals or their metabolites in people) provides invaluable information for exposure assessment. We use phthalates and bisphenol A-known industrial chemicals-and organophosphate insecticides as case studies to show exposure trends to these chemicals and their replacements (e.g., other phthalates, non-phthalate plasticizers, various bisphenols, pyrethroid insecticides) among the US general population. We compare US trends to national trends from Canada and Germany. Exposure to the original compounds is still prevalent among these general populations, but exposures to alternative chemicals may be increasing. PMID:26342608

  1. From Structural Chaos to a Model of Consumer Support: Understanding the Roles of Structure and Agency in Mental Health Recovery for the Formerly Homeless

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Dennis P.

    2012-01-01

    Current understandings of the effect that mental health services on consumers’ daily lives are still heavily informed by research conducted during the era of institutional treatment. This is problematic considering that changes to mental health care have shifted the locus of treatment to community settings for the majority of those living with serious and persistent mental illness (SPMI). With this shift there has been a greater focus on consumer-centered recovery in mental health care. In this paper I seek to develop a deeper understanding of the effect that the organization of mental health services offered in community settings has on the recovery process. I do this by presenting findings from the analysis of focus group and interview data collected from research informants (consumers and staff) at four Housing First programs located in a large Midwestern city. Housing First is based in a human rights approach to services that has been demonstrated to be more successful at housing chronically homeless consumers with dual diagnoses than traditional approaches to housing. My findings highlight the importance of understanding the connection that exists between social structure and personal agency and the recovery process. PMID:23275760

  2. Categorization framework to aid exposure assessment of nanomaterials in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steffen Foss; Michelson, Evan S; Kamper, Anja; Borling, Pernille; Stuer-Lauridsen, Frank; Baun, Anders

    2008-07-01

    Exposure assessment is crucial for risk assessment for nanomaterials. We propose a framework to aid exposure assessment in consumer products. We determined the location of the nanomaterials and the chemical identify of the 580 products listed in the inventory maintained by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, of which 37% used nanoparticles suspended in liquids, whereas <1% contained "free airborne nanoparticles". C(60) is currently only used as suspended nanoparticles in liquids and nanosilver is used more as surface bound nanoparticles than as particles suspended in liquids. Based on the location of the nanostructure we were able to further group the products into categories of: (1) expected, (2) possible, and (3) no expected exposure. Most products fall into the category of expected exposure, but we were not able to complete a quantitative exposure assessment mainly due to the lack of information on the concentration of the nanomaterial in the products--a problem that regulators and industry will have to address if we are to have realistic exposure assessment in the future. To illustrate the workability of our procedure, we applied it to four product scenarios using the best estimates available and/or worst-case assumptions. Using the best estimates available and/or worst-case assumptions we estimated the consumer exposure to be 26, 15, and 44 microg kg(-1) bw year(-1) for a facial lotion, a fluid product, and a spray product containing nanoparticles, respectively. The application of sun lotion containing 2% nanoparticles result in an exposure of 56.7 mg kg(-1) bw d(-1) for a 2-year-old child, if the amounts applied correspond to the European Commission recommendations on use of sunscreen.

  3. Why people drink shampoo? Food Imitating Products are fooling brains and endangering consumers for marketing purposes.

    PubMed

    Basso, Frédéric; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Hayek, Maryvonne; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Oullier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A Food Imitating Product (FIP) is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related phone calls at a poison control center followed by a behavioral experiment. Unintentional self-poisoning in the home following the accidental ingestion of a hygiene product by a healthy adult is very likely to result from these products being packaged like foodstuffs. Our hypothesis is that FIPs are non-verbal food metaphors that could fool the brain of consumers. We therefore conducted a subsequent functional neuroimaging (fMRI) experiment that revealed how visual processing of FIPs leads to cortical taste inferences. Considered in the grounded cognition perspective, the results of our studies reveal that healthy adults can unintentionally categorize a personal care product as something edible when a food-like package is employed to market nonedible and/or dangerous products. Our methodology combining field (qualitative) and laboratory (behavioral and functional neuroimaging) findings could be of particular relevance for policy makers, as it can help screening products prior to their market release--e.g. the way they are packaged and how they can potentially confuse the mind of consumers--and therefore save lives.

  4. Why people drink shampoo? Food Imitating Products are fooling brains and endangering consumers for marketing purposes.

    PubMed

    Basso, Frédéric; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Hayek, Maryvonne; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Oullier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A Food Imitating Product (FIP) is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related phone calls at a poison control center followed by a behavioral experiment. Unintentional self-poisoning in the home following the accidental ingestion of a hygiene product by a healthy adult is very likely to result from these products being packaged like foodstuffs. Our hypothesis is that FIPs are non-verbal food metaphors that could fool the brain of consumers. We therefore conducted a subsequent functional neuroimaging (fMRI) experiment that revealed how visual processing of FIPs leads to cortical taste inferences. Considered in the grounded cognition perspective, the results of our studies reveal that healthy adults can unintentionally categorize a personal care product as something edible when a food-like package is employed to market nonedible and/or dangerous products. Our methodology combining field (qualitative) and laboratory (behavioral and functional neuroimaging) findings could be of particular relevance for policy makers, as it can help screening products prior to their market release--e.g. the way they are packaged and how they can potentially confuse the mind of consumers--and therefore save lives. PMID:25207971

  5. Why People Drink Shampoo? Food Imitating Products Are Fooling Brains and Endangering Consumers for Marketing Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Frédéric; Robert-Demontrond, Philippe; Hayek, Maryvonne; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Roth, Muriel; Oullier, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    A Food Imitating Product (FIP) is a household cleaner or a personal care product that exhibits food attributes in order to enrich consumption experience. As revealed by many cases worldwide, such a marketing strategy led to unintentional self-poisonings and deaths. FIPs therefore constitute a very serious health and public policy issue. To understand why FIPs are a threat, we first conducted a qualitative analysis on real-life cases of household cleaners and personal care products-related phone calls at a poison control center followed by a behavioral experiment. Unintentional self-poisoning in the home following the accidental ingestion of a hygiene product by a healthy adult is very likely to result from these products being packaged like foodstuffs. Our hypothesis is that FIPs are non-verbal food metaphors that could fool the brain of consumers. We therefore conducted a subsequent functional neuroimaging (fMRI) experiment that revealed how visual processing of FIPs leads to cortical taste inferences. Considered in the grounded cognition perspective, the results of our studies reveal that healthy adults can unintentionally categorize a personal care product as something edible when a food-like package is employed to market nonedible and/or dangerous products. Our methodology combining field (qualitative) and laboratory (behavioral and functional neuroimaging) findings could be of particular relevance for policy makers, as it can help screening products prior to their market release – e.g. the way they are packaged and how they can potentially confuse the mind of consumers – and therefore save lives. PMID:25207971

  6. Consumption-weighted life cycle assessment of a consumer electronic product community.

    PubMed

    Ryen, Erinn G; Babbitt, Callie W; Williams, Eric

    2015-02-17

    A new approach for quantifying the net environmental impact of a "community" of interrelated products is demonstrated for consumer electronics owned by an average U.S. household over a 15-year period (1992-2007). This consumption-weighted life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology accounts for both product consumption (number of products per household) and impact (cumulative energy demand (MJ) and greenhouse gas emissions (MT CO2 eq) per product), analyzed using a hybrid LCA framework. Despite efficiency improvements in individual devices from 1992 to 2007, the net impact of the entire product community increased, due primarily to increasing ownership and usage. The net energy impact for the product community is significant, nearly 30% of the average gasoline use in a U.S. passenger vehicle in 2007. The analysis points to a large contribution by legacy products (cathode ray tube televisions and desktop computers), due to historically high consumption rates, although impacts are beginning to shift to smaller mobile devices. This method is also applied to evaluate prospective intervention strategies, indicating that environmental impact can be reduced by strategies such as lifespan extension or energy efficiency, but only when applied to all products owned, or by transforming consumption trends toward fewer, highly multifunctional products.

  7. Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance--a review.

    PubMed

    Siró, István; Kápolna, Emese; Kápolna, Beáta; Lugasi, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    It was mainly the advances in understanding the relationship between nutrition and health that resulted in the development of the concept of functional foods, which means a practical and new approach to achieve optimal health status by promoting the state of well-being and possibly reducing the risk of disease. Functional foods are found virtually in all food categories, however products are not homogeneously scattered over all segments of the growing market. The development and commerce of these products is rather complex, expensive and risky, as special requirements should be answered. Besides potential technological obstacles, legislative aspects, as well as consumer demands need to be taken into consideration when developing functional food. In particular, consumer acceptance has been recognized as a key factor to successfully negotiate market opportunities. This paper offers a brief overview of the current functional food market situation in USA, Japan and some European countries completed with some comments on functional food future potential. It explores the main challenges of such product development focusing on the different factors determining the acceptance of functional food. Furthermore it discusses some prominent types of these food products currently on the market.

  8. Consumer preferences for household water treatment products in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    PubMed

    Poulos, Christine; Yang, Jui-Chen; Patil, Sumeet R; Pattanayak, Subhrendu; Wood, Siri; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gonzalez, Juan Marcos

    2012-08-01

    Over 5 billion people worldwide are exposed to unsafe water. Given the obstacles to ensuring sustainable improvements in water supply infrastructure and the unhygienic handling of water after collection, household water treatment and storage (HWTS) products have been viewed as important mechanisms for increasing access to safe water. Although studies have shown that HWTS technologies can reduce the likelihood of diarrheal illness by about 30%, levels of adoption and continued use remain low. An understanding of household preferences for HWTS products can be used to create demand through effective product positioning and social marketing, and ultimately improve and ensure commercial sustainability and scalability of these products. However, there has been little systematic research on consumer preferences for HWTS products. This paper reports the results of the first state-of-the-art conjoint analysis study of HWTS products. In 2008, we conducted a conjoint analysis survey of a representative sample of households in Andhra Pradesh (AP), India to elicit and quantify household preferences for commercial HWTS products. Controlling for attribute non-attendance in an error components mixed logit model, the study results indicate that the most important features to respondents, in terms of the effect on utility, were the type of product, followed by the extent to which the product removes pathogens, the retail outlet and, the time required to treat 10 L. Holding all other product attributes constant, filters were preferred to combination products and chemical additives. Department stores and weekly markets were the most favorable sales outlets, followed by mobile salespeople. In general, households do not prefer to purchase HWTS products at local shops. Our results can inform the types of products and sales outlets that are likely to be successful in commercial HWTS markets in AP, as well as the influence of different pricing and financing strategies on product demand

  9. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided. PMID:21332721

  10. The influence of an online auction's product price and e-retailer reputation on consumers' perception, attitude, and behavioral intention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wann-Yih; Huang, Po-Ching; Fu, Chen-Su

    2011-06-01

    Online auctions combine the conventional auction model with information technology. However, information asymmetry within such auctions causes risks and uncertainties that influence consumer purchase intentions. In this study, a 2 (product price: high vs. low) × 2 (e-retailer reputation: high vs. low) experimental design was used to understand whether the product price and e-retailer reputation will influence consumers' perceived risk, attitude toward the website and purchase intention. The results of this study indicate that perceived risk negatively influences consumer attitude toward the website and online purchase intention, while consumer attitude toward the website positively influences purchase intention. Moreover, involvement moderates the influence of product price and e-retailer reputation only on social risk but does not have a significant effect on consumer attitude toward the website. This study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of online auction users' behavior. Finally, the managerial implications, limitations and future research directions are also provided.

  11. Impacts of glutathione Maillard reaction products on sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup.

    PubMed

    Hong, J H; Jung, D W; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2010-10-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup with added glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs on beef-soup flavor compared to soups made with glutathione (GSH) and monosodium glutamate (MSG), a control (CON), or a control soup made with 150% beef content (CON150). The sensory characteristics of the beef soups were examined by descriptive analysis. The overall acceptabilities of the beef soups were rated by consumers. Principal component analysis was performed on descriptive data as explanatory variables with overall acceptability as a supplementary variable to observe the relationships between the descriptive data and consumer acceptability, as well as the relationships between the beef-soup samples and their sensory attributes. The samples containing GMRPs had "beef flavor" that was stronger than the CON and MSG samples, and comparable to that of the GSH sample and CON150. The GMRP samples had stronger "green onion flavor,"garlic flavor," and "boiled egg white flavor" than the other samples. The beef soup containing MSG was preferred to CON, CON150, and GSH. The samples with GMRPs were least favored because of their pronounced metallic and astringent notes. The results of this study imply the feasibility of GMRPs as a flavor enhancer since the soups containing these compounds showed more complex flavor profiles than GSH. However, future studies are required to optimize the MR conditions that produce GMRPs without undesirable characteristics. Practical Application: This study examined the practicability of the Maillard reaction products between glutathione (GSH) and glucose (GP) or fructose (FP) as a flavor enhancer by investigating the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability evoked by them in a beef-soup system. This study helps flavor and food industry to develop a new flavor enhancer by providing practical information, such as beef flavor-enhancing effect of FP and

  12. Suburban Family Sitcoms and Consumer Product Design: Addressing the Social Subjectivity of Homemakers in the 1950s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haralovich, Mary Beth

    Suburban middle class American situation comedies of the 1950s and 1960s idealized the postwar family ensemble with its unproblematic achievement of quality family life. The homemaker as portrayed in these sitcoms was positioned at the center of the postwar consumer economy by the consumer product industry, which built its economy on defining the…

  13. European consumer exposure to cosmetic products, a framework for conducting population exposure assessments.

    PubMed

    Hall, B; Tozer, S; Safford, B; Coroama, M; Steiling, W; Leneveu-Duchemin, M C; McNamara, C; Gibney, M

    2007-11-01

    Access to reliable exposure data is essential to evaluate the toxicological safety of ingredients in cosmetic products. This study was carried out by European cosmetic manufacturers acting within the trade association Colipa, with the aim to construct a probabilistic European population model of exposure. The study updates, in distribution form, the current exposure data on daily quantities of six cosmetic products. Data were collected using a combination of market information databases and a controlled product use study. In total 44,100 households and 18,057 individual consumers in five European countries provided data using their own products. All product use occasions were recorded, including those outside of home. The raw data were analysed using Monte Carlo simulation and a European Statistical Population Model of exposure was constructed. A significant finding was an inverse correlation between frequency of product use and quantity used per application for body lotion, facial moisturiser, toothpaste and shampoo. Thus it is not appropriate to calculate daily exposure to these products by multiplying the maximum frequency value by the maximum quantity per event value. The results largely confirm the exposure parameters currently used by the cosmetic industry. Design of this study could serve as a model for future assessments of population exposure to chemicals in products other than cosmetics.

  14. Savings estimates for the United States Environmental Protection Agency?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory; Webber, Carrie

    2008-06-03

    ENERGY STAR is a voluntary energy efficiency-labeling program operated jointly by the United States Department of Energy and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Since the program inception in 1992, ENERGY STAR has become a leading international brand for energy efficient products. ENERGY STAR's central role in the development of regional, national, and international energy programs necessitates an open process whereby its program achievements to date as well as projected future savings are shared with committed stakeholders. Through 2006, US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products saved 4.8 EJ of primary energy and avoided 82 Tg C equivalent. We project that US EPA?S ENERGY STAR labeled products will save 12.8 EJ and avoid 203 Tg C equivalent over the period 2007-2015. A sensitivity analysis examining two key inputs (carbon factor and ENERGY STAR unit sales) bounds the best estimate of carbon avoided between 54 Tg C and 107 Tg C (1993 to 2006) and between 132 Tg C and 278 Tg C (2007 to 2015).

  15. Influence of the reformulation of ingredients in bakery products on healthy characteristics and acceptability of consumers.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Asensi, G; Merola, N; López-Fernández, A; Ros-Berruezo, G; Frontela-Saseta, C

    2016-01-01

    Bakery products are highly consumed by children and adults and as cereal-derived foods are considered a fundamental part of a balanced diet, but they are usually high in sugar and saturated and trans fat and low in fibre. This study aimed to develop four different bakery products (cookies, croissants, Spanish muffins and Spanish sponge cake) with healthier properties, such as lower fat and sugar content, healthy fatty acid profile and higher fibre content. Margarine and sunflower oil were replaced with high oleic sunflower oil, and inulin was also added. After the modifications, a significant reduction of fat content and kilocalories in all cases, an increment of monounsaturated fat and a decrease in saturated fatty acids in three products were observed. The sensory analysis resulted similar results in both recipes for cookies and lower acceptability in sponge cake, croissants and muffins. Purchase intention only decreased in sponge cake.

  16. Influence of the reformulation of ingredients in bakery products on healthy characteristics and acceptability of consumers.

    PubMed

    Doménech-Asensi, G; Merola, N; López-Fernández, A; Ros-Berruezo, G; Frontela-Saseta, C

    2016-01-01

    Bakery products are highly consumed by children and adults and as cereal-derived foods are considered a fundamental part of a balanced diet, but they are usually high in sugar and saturated and trans fat and low in fibre. This study aimed to develop four different bakery products (cookies, croissants, Spanish muffins and Spanish sponge cake) with healthier properties, such as lower fat and sugar content, healthy fatty acid profile and higher fibre content. Margarine and sunflower oil were replaced with high oleic sunflower oil, and inulin was also added. After the modifications, a significant reduction of fat content and kilocalories in all cases, an increment of monounsaturated fat and a decrease in saturated fatty acids in three products were observed. The sensory analysis resulted similar results in both recipes for cookies and lower acceptability in sponge cake, croissants and muffins. Purchase intention only decreased in sponge cake. PMID:26706903

  17. Plant traits mediate consumer and nutrient control on plant community productivity and diversity.

    PubMed

    Eskelinen, Anu; Harrison, Susan; Tuomi, Maria

    2012-12-01

    The interactive effects of consumers and nutrients on terrestrial plant communities, and the role of plant functional traits in mediating these responses, are poorly known. We carried out a six-year full-factorial field experiment using mammalian herbivore exclusion and fertilization in two habitat types (fertile and infertile alpine tundra heaths) that differed in plant functional traits related to resource acquisition and palatability. Infertile habitats were dominated by species with traits indicative of a slow-growing strategy: high C:N ratio, low specific leaf area, and high condensed tannins. We found that herbivory counteracted the effect of fertilization on biomass, and that this response differed between the two habitats and was correlated with plant functional traits. Live biomass dominated the treatment responses in infertile habitats, whereas litter accumulation dominated the treatment responses in fertile habitats and was strongly negatively associated with resident community tannin concentration. Species richness declined under herbivore exclusion and fertilization in fertile habitats, where litter accumulation was greatest. Community means of plant C:N ratio predicted treatment effects on diversity: fertilization decreased and herbivory increased dominance in communities originally dominated by plants with high C:N, while fertilization increased and herbivory diminished dominance in communities where low C:N species were abundant. Our results highlight the close interdependence between consumer effects, soil nutrients, and plant functional traits and suggest that plant traits may provide an improved understanding of how consumers and nutrients influence plant community productivity and diversity.

  18. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea. PMID:23909609

  19. Identification of sensory attributes that drive consumer liking of commercial orange juice products in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mina K; Lee, Young-Jin; Kwak, Han Sub; Kang, Myung-woo

    2013-09-01

    Orange juice is a well-accepted fruit juice, and its consumption increases steadily. Many studies have been conducted to understand the sensory characteristics of orange juice throughout its varying processing steps. Sensory language and consumer likings of food can be influenced by culture. The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juices in Korea and identify drivers of liking for orange juices in Korea. A quantitative descriptive analysis was conducted using a trained panel (n = 10) to evaluate 7 orange juice samples in triplicates, followed by consumer acceptance tests (n = 103). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted for data analysis. The sensory characteristics of commercially available orange juice were documented and grouped: group 1 samples were characterized by high in natural citrus flavors such as orange peel, orange flesh, citrus fruit, and grape fruit, whereas group 2 samples were characterized by processed orange-like flavors such as over-ripe, cooked-orange, and yogurt. Regardless of orange flavor types, a high intensity of orange flavor in orange juice was identified as a driver of liking for orange juices in Korea. Three distinct clusters were segmented by varying sensory attributes that were evaluated by likes and dislikes. Overall, many similarities were noticed between Korean market segment and global orange juice market. By knowing the drivers of liking and understanding the distinct consumer clusters present in the Korean orange juice market, the orange juice industry could improve the strategic marketing of its products in Korea.

  20. Linking PBDEs in house dust to consumer products using X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; McClean, Michael D; Stapleton, Heather M; Webster, Thomas F

    2008-06-01

    The indoor environment is an important source of exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of fire retardants used in many household products. Previous attempts to link PBDE concentrations in house dust to consumer products have been hampered by the inability to determine the presence of PBDEs in otherwise similar products. We used a portable X-rayfluorescence (XRF) analyzer to nondestructively quantify bromine concentrations in consumer goods. In the validation phase, XRF-measured bromine was highly correlated with GC/MS-measured bromine for furniture foam and plastic from electronics (n = 29, r = 0.93, p < 0.0001). In the field study phase, the XRF-measured bromine in room furniture was associated with pentaBDE concentrations in room dust in the bedroom (r = 0.68, p = 0.001) and main living area (r = 0.51, p = 0.02). We also found an association between XRF-measured bromine levels in electronics and decaBDE levels in dust, largely driven by the high levels in televisions (r = 0.64, p = 0.003 for bedrooms). For the main living area, predicting decaBDE in dust improved when we included an interaction effect between the bromine content of televisions and the number of persons in the house (p < 0.005), a potential surrogate for television usage. PMID:18589991

  1. Indoor fine particles: the role of terpene emissions from consumer products.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, Golam; Olson, David A; Corsi, Richard L; Weschler, Charles J

    2004-03-01

    Consumer products can emit significant quantities of terpenes, which can react with ozone (O3). Resulting byproducts include compounds with low vapor pressures that contribute to the growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). The focus of this study was to evaluate the potential for SOA growth, in the presence of O3, following the use of a lime-scented liquid air freshener, a pine-scented solid air freshener, a lemon-scented general-purpose cleaner, a wood floor cleaner, and a perfume. Two chamber experiments were performed for each of these five terpene-containing agents, one at an elevated O3 concentration and-the other at a lower O3 concentration. Particle number and mass concentrations increased and O3 concentrations decreased during each experiment. Experiments with terpene-based air fresheners produced the highest increases in particle number and mass concentrations. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that homogeneous reactions between O3 and terpenes from various consumer products can lead to increases in fine particle mass concentrations when these products are used indoors. Particle increases can occur during periods of elevated outdoor O3 concentrations or indoor O3 generation, coupled with elevated terpene releases. Human exposure to fine particles can be reduced by minimizing indoor terpene concentrations or O3 concentrations.

  2. The identification of polar organic compounds found in consumer products and their toxicological properties.

    PubMed

    Cooper, S D; Raymer, J H; Pellizzari, E D; Thomas, K W

    1995-01-01

    Exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the indoor environment has received substantial research attention in the past several years, with the goal of better understanding the impact of such exposures on human health and well-being. Many VOCs can arise from consumer products used within the indoor environment. The VOCs emitted from five representative consumer products were collected onto Tenax-GC and subjected to thermal desorption and analysis by gas chromatography, in combination with low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS), high-resolution MS, and matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for structural characterization. An emphasis was placed on the polar organic compounds often used to provide fragrance in these products. The structures of a number of these compounds were confirmed, and an electronic literature search was carried out on them to determine any known toxic properties. The search revealed that many of the VOCs possess toxic properties when studied at acute, relatively high-level exposures. In addition, toxic effects were reported for a few of the chemicals, such as benzaldehyde, alpha-terpineol, benzyl acetate, and ethanol, at relatively low dose levels of 9-14 mg/kg. In general, the data were unclear as to the effect of chronic, low-level exposures. The widespread use of such chemicals suggests that the health effects of chronic exposures need to be determined. Validated analytical methods for the quantitative characterization of polar organic compounds at low concentrations will be required to make such work possible.

  3. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  4. Milk production, quality, and consumption in Jimma (Ethiopia): Facts and producers', retailers', and consumers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Tolosa, T; Verbeke, J; Piepers, S; Tefera, M; Getachew, Y; Supré, K; DeVliegher, S

    2016-02-01

    Four studies were performed to quantify milk production, quality and consumption in the town Jimma, Ethiopia. First, 47 dairy farmers and 44 milk retailers were interviewed to gain more insights in dairy farming and marketing, and associated constraints. Second, bulk milk samples (n=188) were collected for 4 consecutive weeks to investigate milk quality [Total Bacterial Counts (TBC), Coliform Counts (CC), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC), and antimicrobial residues]. Third, (bulk) milk samples from 32 farms, 46 milk retailers and the 3 local milk collection centers were collected to determine the presence of oxacillin susceptible-and oxacillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Fourth, 208 adult inhabitants were interviewed to gain more insight in milk consumption and associated concerns of consumers. The average dairy farm included in the studies consisted of 5 lactating cows, produced 43 liters of milk per day and was owned by male, literate adults. Milk was sold to retailers (71% of the production) and directly to customers (25%) without any quality control, whereas 4% was self-consumed. Shortage of animal nutrition and adulteration of the milk were the main constraints for farmers and retailers, respectively. The median TBC, CC and SCC were 122,500CFU/mL, 1,005CFU/mL and 609,500cells/mL, respectively. Antimicrobial residues were detected in 20% of all samples. In general, the milk quality was considered to be poor (TBC>10,000CFU/mL, and/or CC>100CFU/mL, and/or SCC>400,000cells/mL and/or presence of antimicrobial residues) in 97% of all samples. S. aureus was isolated from 12 (38%), 13 (33%), and 2 out of 3 of the milk samples originating from the dairy farms, the milk retailers, and the milk collection centers, respectively. Seven (26%) of the isolates were resistant to oxacillin suggesting the presence of MRSA (Lee, 2003). Local milk is occasionally consumed by adults but more frequently by children. Adults mainly drink spontaneously fermented milk (57% of 105

  5. The application of models to the assessment of fire hazard from consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukowski, R. W.

    1985-08-01

    The differences among models of fire, fire hazard, and fire risk are described. The use of field, zone, and network models for fire hazard assessment is discussed. A number of available single and multiple compartment models are described. Key considerations with respect to the use of the current models by the Consumer Product Safety Commission for hazard assessment from upholstered furniture and mattress fires is presented. Modifications necessary to improve the capability of these models for hazard assessments are identified. Model validation, output presentation, and data sources are discussed. Recommendations on specific models for the sponsor to consider for further study and use are provided.

  6. 76 FR 52333 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Tobacco Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... smartphone application for use with iPhones, Android, etc. to allow consumers to report potential violations to FDA via their smartphone. Others may simply choose to send a letter to FDA with their information... smartphone application, and sending a letter to FDA's Center for Tobacco Products. FDA estimates the...

  7. Aflatoxins in food products consumed in Brazil: a preliminary dietary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Andrade, P D; de Mello, M Homem; França, J A; Caldas, E D

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary dietary exposure assessment for aflatoxins (AFs; AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2) was conducted to evaluate the potential carcinogenic risks for the Brazilian population. AF concentration data in food were obtained from analysis reports issued by the Central Public Health Laboratory of the Federal District (LACEN-DF) and from published work. Food consumption and body weight (bw) data were obtained from a national survey conducted in 2008/2009. Cancer risks arising from exposure to aflatoxins were assessed using the carcinogenic potency of AFs estimated by the JECFA, and hepatitis B virus prevalence in the Brazilian population. Additionally, margins of exposure (MOE) were also calculated for the various scenarios investigated. A total of 942 food samples were analysed for AFs in the Federal District between 2002 and 2011 with 4.5% of them being positive for at least one aflatoxin (LOQ = 2 µg kg(-1)). The highest percentage of contamination was found in peanuts (8.1%) and Brazil nuts (6.0%), with mean levels ranging from 6.7 µg kg(-1) in peanut products to 36.9 µg kg(-1) in Brazil nuts. Most of the studies conducted elsewhere in Brazil found similar results. Total AF intake for the total Brazilian population and high consumers of food relevant for AF contamination in Brazil (upper bound; samples < LOQ = 0.5 LOQ) were 6.8 and 27.6 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. Cancer risk reached 0.0753 cancers year(-1) per 10(5) individuals for the total population and 0.3056 cancers year(-1) per 10(5) individuals for high consumers. MOE reached 25 and 6 for the total population and high consumers, respectively, indicating a potential risk for consumers. Aflatoxins are genotoxic carcinogens, and government action should be maintained and continuously improved in order to guarantee that human exposure levels are kept as low as possible.

  8. Product safety in Great Britain and the Consumer Protection Act 1987.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D W; Davies, B T

    1989-09-01

    The Consumer Protection Act 1987 imposes new demands on manufacturers regarding the safety of their products. They can be sued directly by any person injured by their defective goods and prosecuted if they fail to meet the new comprehensive general safety requirement and any other safety provision. Product designers and ergonomists need a sound understanding of and involvement in the legal aspects of product safety. It is now essential to take into account what may reasonably be done with goods, or foreseeable conditions of use, in order to satisfy the test of what is "reasonably safe" and meet the level of safety which "persons generally are entitled to expect" under the law. Any significant progress in product safety will now come through developments in technical standards which will be harmonised throughout the European Community. It is essential that ergonomics considerations be taken into account during the drafting of product specifications if users' interests are to be safeguarded more effectively. Ergonomists will be required to make an even greater contribution in the field of product safety, therefore, by assisting in the determination of the new statutory safety criteria. They are uniquely qualified to ensure that the product user is fully considered at the design and assessment stages which can now be looked upon as an essential pre-requisite of the law and not just sound engineering policy. PMID:15676737

  9. Coupled near-field and far-field exposure assessment framework for chemicals in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Huang, Lei; Csiszar, Susan A; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products through product use and environmental emissions over the product life cycle. Exposure pathways are often complex, where chemicals can transfer directly from products to humans during use or exchange between various indoor and outdoor compartments until sub-fractions reach humans. To consistently evaluate exposure pathways along product life cycles, a flexible mass balance-based assessment framework is presented structuring multimedia chemical transfers in a matrix of direct inter-compartmental transfer fractions. By matrix inversion, we quantify cumulative multimedia transfer fractions and exposure pathway-specific product intake fractions defined as chemical mass taken in by humans per unit mass of chemical in a product. Combining product intake fractions with chemical mass in the product yields intake estimates for use in life cycle impact assessment and chemical alternatives assessment, or daily intake doses for use in risk-based assessment and high-throughput screening. Two illustrative examples of chemicals used in personal care products and flooring materials demonstrate how this matrix-based framework offers a consistent and efficient way to rapidly compare exposure pathways for adult and child users and for the general population. This framework constitutes a user-friendly approach to develop, compare and interpret multiple human exposure scenarios in a coupled system of near-field ('user' environment), far-field and human intake compartments, and helps understand the contribution of individual pathways to overall human exposure in various product application contexts to inform decisions in different science-policy fields for which exposure quantification is relevant. PMID:27318619

  10. Coupled near-field and far-field exposure assessment framework for chemicals in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Huang, Lei; Csiszar, Susan A; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products through product use and environmental emissions over the product life cycle. Exposure pathways are often complex, where chemicals can transfer directly from products to humans during use or exchange between various indoor and outdoor compartments until sub-fractions reach humans. To consistently evaluate exposure pathways along product life cycles, a flexible mass balance-based assessment framework is presented structuring multimedia chemical transfers in a matrix of direct inter-compartmental transfer fractions. By matrix inversion, we quantify cumulative multimedia transfer fractions and exposure pathway-specific product intake fractions defined as chemical mass taken in by humans per unit mass of chemical in a product. Combining product intake fractions with chemical mass in the product yields intake estimates for use in life cycle impact assessment and chemical alternatives assessment, or daily intake doses for use in risk-based assessment and high-throughput screening. Two illustrative examples of chemicals used in personal care products and flooring materials demonstrate how this matrix-based framework offers a consistent and efficient way to rapidly compare exposure pathways for adult and child users and for the general population. This framework constitutes a user-friendly approach to develop, compare and interpret multiple human exposure scenarios in a coupled system of near-field ('user' environment), far-field and human intake compartments, and helps understand the contribution of individual pathways to overall human exposure in various product application contexts to inform decisions in different science-policy fields for which exposure quantification is relevant.

  11. 76 FR 24476 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Volatile...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Manufacturing''. Title: National Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings (40 CFR... volatile organic compounds emissions from the use of consumer and commercial products. Pursuant to...

  12. New Trends in Pesticide Residue Analysis in Cereals, Nutraceuticals, Baby Foods, and Related Processed Consumer Products.

    PubMed

    Raina-Fulton, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide residue methods have been developed for a wide variety of food products including cereal-based foods, nutraceuticals and related plant products, and baby foods. These cereal, fruit, vegetable, and plant-based products provide the basis for many processed consumer products. For cereal and nutraceuticals, which are dry sample products, a modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) method has been used with additional steps to allow wetting of the dry sample matrix and subsequent cleanup using dispersive or cartridge format SPE to reduce matrix effects. More processed foods may have lower pesticide concentrations but higher co-extracts that can lead to signal suppression or enhancement with MS detection. For complex matrixes, GC/MS/MS or LC/electrospray ionization (positive or negative ion)-MS/MS is more frequently used. The extraction and cleanup methods vary with different sample types particularly for cereal-based products, and these different approaches are discussed in this review. General instrument considerations are also discussed.

  13. Advanced glycation endproducts in 35 types of seafood products consumed in eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zhenxing; Pavase, Ramesh Tushar; Lin, Hong; Zou, Long; Wen, Jie; Lv, Liangtao

    2016-08-01

    Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) have been recognized as hazards in processed foods that can induce chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the AGEs contents of 35 types of industrial seafood products that are consumed frequently in eastern China. Total fluorescent AGEs level and Nɛ-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) content were evaluated by fluorescence spectrophotometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. The level of total fluorescent AGEs in seafood samples ranged from 39.37 to 1178.3 AU, and was higher in canned and packaged instant aquatic products that were processed at high temperatures. The CML content in seafood samples ranged from 44.8 to 439.1 mg per kg dried sample, and was higher in roasted seafood samples. The total fluorescent AGEs and CML content increased when seafood underwent high-temperature processing, but did not show an obvious correlation. The present study suggested that commonly consumed seafood contains different levels of AGEs, and the seafood processed at high temperatures always displays a high level of either AGEs or CML.

  14. Performance-based regulation: enterprise responsibility for reducing death, injury, and disease caused by consumer products.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Stephen D

    2009-12-01

    This article offers a bold new idea for confronting the staggering level of death, injury, and disease caused by five consumer products: cigarettes, alcohol, guns, junk food, and motor vehicles. Business leaders try to frame these negative outcomes as "collateral damage" that is someone else's problem. That framing not only is morally objectionable but also overlooks the possibility that, with proper prodding, industry could substantially lessen these public health disasters. I seek to reframe the public perception of who is responsible and propose to deploy a promising approach called "performance-based regulation" to combat the problem. Performance-based regulation would impose on manufacturers a legal obligation to reduce the negative social costs of their products. Rather than involving them in litigation or forcing them to operate differently (as "command-and-control" regimes do), performance-based regulation allows the firms to determine how best to decrease bad public health consequences. Like other public health strategies, performance-based regulation focuses on those who are far more likely than individual consumers to achieve real gains. Analogous to a tax on causing harm that exceeds a threshold level, performance-based regulation seeks to harness private initiative in pursuit of the public good.

  15. Ecological performance of electrical consumer products: the influence of automation and information-based measures.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Juergen; Wiese, Bettina S; Rüttinger, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    Being concerned with the environmental impact of electrical consumer products, this article examines possibilities of influencing ecological user performance through design features. Furthermore, it looks at the relationship of user characteristics and ecological performance. The impact of level of automation and type of control labelling on ecological user performance was examined in a lab-based experimental scenario with 36 users. In addition to performance indicators, a range of user variables (e.g., self-reported domestic behaviour, environmental knowledge and attitude) was measured to assess their influence on user behaviour. The results showed that low-level automation improved ecological performance whereas no such positive effect was observed for enhanced display-control labelling. Furthermore, the results suggested that the user's mental model of ecological performance was rather limited. No relationship was found between environmental knowledge, attitude and performance. The findings pointed at the strong prevalence of habits in the domestic domain. The implications of the results for designers of consumer products are discussed.

  16. Performance-based regulation: enterprise responsibility for reducing death, injury, and disease caused by consumer products.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Stephen D

    2009-12-01

    This article offers a bold new idea for confronting the staggering level of death, injury, and disease caused by five consumer products: cigarettes, alcohol, guns, junk food, and motor vehicles. Business leaders try to frame these negative outcomes as "collateral damage" that is someone else's problem. That framing not only is morally objectionable but also overlooks the possibility that, with proper prodding, industry could substantially lessen these public health disasters. I seek to reframe the public perception of who is responsible and propose to deploy a promising approach called "performance-based regulation" to combat the problem. Performance-based regulation would impose on manufacturers a legal obligation to reduce the negative social costs of their products. Rather than involving them in litigation or forcing them to operate differently (as "command-and-control" regimes do), performance-based regulation allows the firms to determine how best to decrease bad public health consequences. Like other public health strategies, performance-based regulation focuses on those who are far more likely than individual consumers to achieve real gains. Analogous to a tax on causing harm that exceeds a threshold level, performance-based regulation seeks to harness private initiative in pursuit of the public good. PMID:20018990

  17. Consumer Product Chemicals in Indoor Dust: A Quantitative Meta-analysis of U.S. Studies

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Indoor dust is a reservoir for commercial consumer product chemicals, including many compounds with known or suspected health effects. However, most dust exposure studies measure few chemicals in small samples. We systematically searched the U.S. indoor dust literature on phthalates, replacement flame retardants (RFRs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), synthetic fragrances, and environmental phenols and estimated pooled geometric means (GMs) and 95% confidence intervals for 45 chemicals measured in ≥3 data sets. In order to rank and contextualize these results, we used the pooled GMs to calculate residential intake from dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal uptake from air, and then identified hazard traits from the Safer Consumer Products Candidate Chemical List. Our results indicate that U.S. indoor dust consistently contains chemicals from multiple classes. Phthalates occurred in the highest concentrations, followed by phenols, RFRs, fragrance, and PFASs. Several phthalates and RFRs had the highest residential intakes. We also found that many chemicals in dust share hazard traits such as reproductive and endocrine toxicity. We offer recommendations to maximize comparability of studies and advance indoor exposure science. This information is critical in shaping future exposure and health studies, especially related to cumulative exposures, and in providing evidence for intervention development and public policy. PMID:27623734

  18. 78 FR 73504 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Standard for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: As required by the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. Chapter 35), the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or...

  19. Chemical Products in the Home, Workshop and Garden. Proceed with Caution; Consumer Safety in the Home, II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    The average home has chemical products to clean floors, kill insects, clean ovens, thin paint, remove grease, and perform countless other chores. Many consumers remain unaware of the dangers these products bring into the home. This booklet provides information on the safe use, storage, and disposal of these products. The compounds found in…

  20. 78 FR 79638 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Hearth Products as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-31

    ..., including public comments, in the docket. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. John Cymbalsky, U.S... . For information on how to submit or review public comments, contact Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S... could not have intended. Hearth products are gas-fired equipment that provide space heating...

  1. A tiered asthma hazard characterization and exposure assessment approach for evaluation of consumer product ingredients.

    PubMed

    Maier, Andrew; Vincent, Melissa J; Parker, Ann; Gadagbui, Bernard K; Jayjock, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a complex syndrome with significant consequences for those affected. The number of individuals affected is growing, although the reasons for the increase are uncertain. Ensuring the effective management of potential exposures follows from substantial evidence that exposure to some chemicals can increase the likelihood of asthma responses. We have developed a safety assessment approach tailored to the screening of asthma risks from residential consumer product ingredients as a proactive risk management tool. Several key features of the proposed approach advance the assessment resources often used for asthma issues. First, a quantitative health benchmark for asthma or related endpoints (irritation and sensitization) is provided that extends qualitative hazard classification methods. Second, a parallel structure is employed to include dose-response methods for asthma endpoints and methods for scenario specific exposure estimation. The two parallel tracks are integrated in a risk characterization step. Third, a tiered assessment structure is provided to accommodate different amounts of data for both the dose-response assessment (i.e., use of existing benchmarks, hazard banding, or the threshold of toxicological concern) and exposure estimation (i.e., use of empirical data, model estimates, or exposure categories). Tools building from traditional methods and resources have been adapted to address specific issues pertinent to asthma toxicology (e.g., mode-of-action and dose-response features) and the nature of residential consumer product use scenarios (e.g., product use patterns and exposure durations). A case study for acetic acid as used in various sentinel products and residential cleaning scenarios was developed to test the safety assessment methodology. In particular, the results were used to refine and verify relationships among tiered approaches such that each lower data tier in the approach provides a similar or greater margin of safety for a given

  2. 24 CFR 3282.362 - Production Inspection Primary Inspection Agencies (IPIAs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Production Inspection Primary Inspection Agencies (IPIAs). 3282.362 Section 3282.362 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL...

  3. 75 FR 27574 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Production Estimate, Quarterly...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Comments On October 9, 2009, we published a Federal Register notice (74 FR 52254) announcing that we would..., Minerals Information Team, U.S. Geological Survey. FR Doc. 2010-11617 Filed 5-14-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE... Geological Survey Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Production...

  4. 78 FR 13886 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Production Estimate (2 Forms)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-01

    ... Estimate (2 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of a... furnish estimates covering the previous year's nonfuel mineral industry. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1028-0065. Form Numbers: 9-4042-A and 9-4124-A. Title: Production Estimate. Type of Request: Extension of...

  5. 78 FR 46597 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request for the Production Estimate (2 Forms)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Estimate (2 Forms) AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of an extension of a... preliminary publication to furnish estimates covering the previous year's nonfuel mineral industry. II. Data OMB Control Number: 1028-0065. Form Numbers: 9-4042-A and 9-4124-A. Title: Production Estimate....

  6. Consumer Protection--Who Protects You? How Can You Protect Yourself? Proceed with Caution: Consumer Safety In the Home, I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Consumer and Commercial Affairs, Regina.

    The enormous and rapidly-increasing number of goods on the market makes it difficult to ensure that all consumer products are safe to use. Public concern about product safety has caused the enactment of a wide range of consumer protection laws. The result of this legislation has been that many agencies have been established to protect the public.…

  7. The production of consuming less: Energy efficiency, climate change, and light bulbs in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoyre, Autumn

    In this research, I have analyzed the production of consuming less electricity through a case study of promotions of compact fluorescent light bulbs (CFLs). I focused on the CFL because it has been heavily promoted by environmentalists and electricity companies as a key tool for solving climate change, yet such promotions appear counter-intuitive. The magnitude of CFL promotions by environmentalists is surprising because CFLs can only impact less than 1% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. CFL promotions by electricity providers are surprising given such companies' normal incentives to sell more of their product. I used political ecological and symbolic interactionist theories, qualitative methods of data collection (including interviews, participant-observation, texts, and images), and a grounded theory analysis to understand this case. My findings suggest that, far from being a self-evident technical entity, energy efficiency is produced as an idea, a part of identities, a resource, and a source of value through social, political, and economic processes. These processes include identity formation and subjectification; gender-coded household labor; and corporate appropriation of household value resulting from environmental governance. I show how environmentalists use CFLs to make and claim neoliberal identities, proposing the concept of green neoliberal identity work as a mechanism through which neoliberal ideologies are translated into practices. I analyze how using this seemingly easy energy efficient technology constitutes labor that is gendered in ways that reflect and reproduce inequalities. I show how electricity companies have used environmental governance to valorize and appropriate home energy efficiency as an accumulation strategy. I conclude by discussing the symbolic power of CFLs, proposing a theory of green obsolescence, and framing the production of energy efficiency as a global production network. I found that promoting energy efficiency involves

  8. The meaning of colours in nutrition labelling in the context of expert and consumer criteria of evaluating food product healthfulness.

    PubMed

    Wąsowicz, Grażyna; Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted to explore the effect of front-of-pack nutrition labels on the perceived healthfulness of food products. Consumers were found to hold beliefs about colours and their fit to product categories that influence the assessment process. Consumers associate certain colours with product healthfulness. Yellow, blue, green and red were found to be evocative of health. Heather, pink and celadon suggested an artificial thus unhealthful product. The impact of labels on healthfulness assessment was observed only in the unhealthful category. The findings show the complexity of psychological processes in the perception of food healthfulness.

  9. The meaning of colours in nutrition labelling in the context of expert and consumer criteria of evaluating food product healthfulness.

    PubMed

    Wąsowicz, Grażyna; Styśko-Kunkowska, Małgorzata; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-06-01

    Qualitative and quantitative studies were conducted to explore the effect of front-of-pack nutrition labels on the perceived healthfulness of food products. Consumers were found to hold beliefs about colours and their fit to product categories that influence the assessment process. Consumers associate certain colours with product healthfulness. Yellow, blue, green and red were found to be evocative of health. Heather, pink and celadon suggested an artificial thus unhealthful product. The impact of labels on healthfulness assessment was observed only in the unhealthful category. The findings show the complexity of psychological processes in the perception of food healthfulness. PMID:26032806

  10. Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2006-07-01

    Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers' attitude and acceptance of these products. Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution of NaCl by six different mixtures of KCl (0-50%) and K-lactate (0-50%) and the control (22g NaCl/kg) was determined by 98 consumers. The preference of the previous best two treatments was compared to the batch control by 279 consumers. In general consumers had a positive attitude towards low salt meat products, being higher for women than for men. Women showed stronger ideas and higher Perceived Control on the Behaviour towards reduced sodium meat products than men. Smokers showed lower intense beliefs than non-smokers. Consumers with a basic level of education were more affected by what other people important for them thought they should do. The final model obtained using the Theory of Planned Behaviour showed a good predictive capacity (R(2)=0.60) and a good internal consistency. Regarding the acceptability study, batches with substitution levels of 50% and 40% by K-lactate, showed lower overall acceptance than the control batch. Significant differences in acceptability were found regarding the gender and place of residence of the consumers. The preference study showed no differences between the batch control and batches with 50% KCl and 40% KCl + 10% of K-lactate substitution levels. According to these results and from a sensorial point of view, it is possible to reduce NaCl content in small calibre fermented sausages by 50% and obtain a product acceptable for consumers.

  11. Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2006-07-01

    Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers' attitude and acceptance of these products. Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution of NaCl by six different mixtures of KCl (0-50%) and K-lactate (0-50%) and the control (22g NaCl/kg) was determined by 98 consumers. The preference of the previous best two treatments was compared to the batch control by 279 consumers. In general consumers had a positive attitude towards low salt meat products, being higher for women than for men. Women showed stronger ideas and higher Perceived Control on the Behaviour towards reduced sodium meat products than men. Smokers showed lower intense beliefs than non-smokers. Consumers with a basic level of education were more affected by what other people important for them thought they should do. The final model obtained using the Theory of Planned Behaviour showed a good predictive capacity (R(2)=0.60) and a good internal consistency. Regarding the acceptability study, batches with substitution levels of 50% and 40% by K-lactate, showed lower overall acceptance than the control batch. Significant differences in acceptability were found regarding the gender and place of residence of the consumers. The preference study showed no differences between the batch control and batches with 50% KCl and 40% KCl + 10% of K-lactate substitution levels. According to these results and from a sensorial point of view, it is possible to reduce NaCl content in small calibre fermented sausages by 50% and obtain a product acceptable for consumers. PMID:22062487

  12. Perception of oyster-based products by French consumers. The effect of processing and role of social representations.

    PubMed

    Debucquet, Gervaise; Cornet, Josiane; Adam, Isabelle; Cardinal, Mireille

    2012-12-01

    The search for new markets in the seafood sector, associated with the question of the continuity of raw oyster consumption over generations can be an opportunity for processors to extend their ranges with oyster-based products. The twofold aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of processing and social representation on perception of oyster-based products by French consumers and to identify the best means of development in order to avoid possible failure in the market. Five products with different degrees of processing (cooked oysters in a half-shell, hot preparation for toast, potted oyster, oyster butter and oyster-based soup) were presented within focus groups and consumer tests, at home and in canteens with the staff of several companies in order to reach consumers with different ages and professional activities. The results showed that social representation had a strong impact and that behaviours were contrasted according to the initial profile of the consumer (traditional raw oyster consumers or non-consumers) and their age distribution (younger and older people). The degree of processing has to be adapted to each segment. It is suggested to develop early exposure to influence the food choices and preferences of the youngest consumers on a long-term basis.

  13. Consumer-phase Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis risk assessment for egg-containing food products.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Amirhossein; Moore, Christina M; Yang, Hong; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Morales, Roberta; Cates, Sheryl C; Cowen, Peter

    2006-06-01

    We describe a one-dimensional probabilistic model of the role of domestic food handling behaviors on salmonellosis risk associated with the consumption of eggs and egg-containing foods. Six categories of egg-containing foods were defined based on the amount of egg contained in the food, whether eggs are pooled, and the degree of cooking practiced by consumers. We used bootstrap simulation to quantify uncertainty in risk estimates due to sampling error, and sensitivity analysis to identify key sources of variability and uncertainty in the model. Because of typical model characteristics such as nonlinearity, interaction between inputs, thresholds, and saturation points, Sobol's method, a novel sensitivity analysis approach, was used to identify key sources of variability. Based on the mean probability of illness, examples of foods from the food categories ranked from most to least risk of illness were: (1) home-made salad dressings/ice cream; (2) fried eggs/boiled eggs; (3) omelettes; and (4) baked foods/breads. For food categories that may include uncooked eggs (e.g., home-made salad dressings/ice cream), consumer handling conditions such as storage time and temperature after food preparation were the key sources of variability. In contrast, for food categories associated with undercooked eggs (e.g., fried/soft-boiled eggs), the initial level of Salmonella contamination and the log10 reduction due to cooking were the key sources of variability. Important sources of uncertainty varied with both the risk percentile and the food category under consideration. This work adds to previous risk assessments focused on egg production and storage practices, and provides a science-based approach to inform consumer risk communications regarding safe egg handling practices.

  14. Detection of nanomaterials in food and consumer products: bridging the gap from legislation to enforcement.

    PubMed

    Stamm, H; Gibson, N; Anklam, E

    2012-08-01

    This paper describes the requirements and resulting challenges for the implementation of current and upcoming European Union legislation referring to the use of nanomaterials in food, cosmetics and other consumer products. The European Commission has recently adopted a recommendation for the definition of nanomaterials. There is now an urgent need for appropriate and fit-for-purpose analytical methods in order to identify nanomaterials properly according to this definition and to assess whether or not a product contains nanomaterials. Considering the lack of such methods to date, this paper elaborates on the challenges of the legislative framework and the type of methods needed, not only to facilitate implementation of labelling requirements, but also to ensure the safety of products coming to the market. Considering the many challenges in the analytical process itself, such as interaction of nanoparticles with matrix constituents, potential agglomeration and aggregation due to matrix environment, broad variety of matrices, etc., there is a need for integrated analytical approaches, not only for sample preparation (e.g. separation from matrix), but also for the actual characterisation. Furthermore, there is an urgent need for quality assurance tools such as validated methods and (certified) reference materials, including materials containing nanoparticles in a realistic matrix (food products, cosmetics, etc.).

  15. Energy and materials use in the production and recycling of consumer-goods packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.

    1981-02-01

    A comparison is made of the energy consumed annually in the United States to produce paper, glass, steel, aluminum, and plastic for consumer-goods packaging and types of energy used for production are examined. Energy saved through recycling and combustion for energy recovery also is considered. A maximum of 1.5 quad could be saved if this packaging material were recycled, and about 0.6 quad could be recovered if it were burned as part of municipal solid waste. Paper and plastic compete in several markets, including bags and milk containers: in almost all cases, the plastic container requires less energy to produce and recycle. However, the major energy input to paper manufacture is wood, rather than oil and natural gas. Glass bottles require less energy to produce than aluminum or steel cans. On the other hand, aluminum cans take less energy to recycle than bottles, and recycled aluminum cans are the least energy intensive of the single-serving beverage containers, except for refillable glass bottles that are reused several times. For family-sized beverage bottles, a plastic bottle uses less energy to make and to recycle than a glass bottle. In addition, plastic bottles are combustible. However, glass bottles could be made with no oil or natural gas input, and they can be reused.

  16. Consumer preferences regarding the introduction of new organic products. The case of the Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mauracher, C; Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of new products on the market poses several challenges; in particular, whether the characteristics of the proposed product will be judged positively by potential consumers. This paper analyses the preferences of consumers regarding the introduction on the Italian market of a new product: organic Mediterranean sea bass. The aim of this study is to assess the importance given by consumers to four main characteristics of sea bass (country of origin, size, production method - organic or conventional - and price) so as to be able to formulate marketing strategies. We applied a choice experiment (CE) in order to define not only the ordinal ranking of preferences but also the willingness to pay (WTP) for the key characteristics of the newly-introduced product. We found that consumers show a higher WTP for the sea bass country of origin than for the breeding method used. Our results suggest that while organic aquaculture might be a new and important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication, either from a public policy or commercial perspective, and labelling/certification are not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by the final consumers. PMID:23268110

  17. Consumer preferences regarding the introduction of new organic products. The case of the Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in Italy.

    PubMed

    Mauracher, C; Tempesta, T; Vecchiato, D

    2013-04-01

    The introduction of new products on the market poses several challenges; in particular, whether the characteristics of the proposed product will be judged positively by potential consumers. This paper analyses the preferences of consumers regarding the introduction on the Italian market of a new product: organic Mediterranean sea bass. The aim of this study is to assess the importance given by consumers to four main characteristics of sea bass (country of origin, size, production method - organic or conventional - and price) so as to be able to formulate marketing strategies. We applied a choice experiment (CE) in order to define not only the ordinal ranking of preferences but also the willingness to pay (WTP) for the key characteristics of the newly-introduced product. We found that consumers show a higher WTP for the sea bass country of origin than for the breeding method used. Our results suggest that while organic aquaculture might be a new and important strategy for diversification, if suitable communication, either from a public policy or commercial perspective, and labelling/certification are not taken into consideration, the added value of the production method might not be perceived by the final consumers.

  18. Consumer attitude and purchase intention towards processed meat products with natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung; de Kok, Theo M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates consumer attitude and purchase intention towards processed meat products with added natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite. The rationale for such innovation relates to nitrite's negative health image as a chemical additive among consumers, versus the perception of compounds from fruits and vegetables as being natural and healthy. Cross-sectional data were collected through online questionnaires on knowledge about, interest in, attitude and intentions towards such new type of processed meat products in Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy and Germany (n=2057). Consumers generally had limited knowledge about nitrite being added to meat products. Yet, they expressed favourable attitudes and purchase intentions towards the new processed meat products. Purchase intention associated positively with: attitude; preference for natural over chemical additives; perceived harmfulness of chemical additives; risk importance; domain specific innovativeness; awareness of nitrite added; education; general health interest; and processed meat consumption frequency. Consumers from Italy and Germany had a lower level of purchase intention compared to Belgium. Four consumer segments were identified based on attitude and purchase intention: 'enthusiasts' (39.3% of the sample), 'accepters' (11.9%), 'half-hearted' (42.3%) and 'uninterested' (6.6%). This study provides valuable insight for further product development and effective tailoring of marketing communication strategies of innovative processed meat products. PMID:27310600

  19. Consumer attitude and purchase intention towards processed meat products with natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yung; de Kok, Theo M; Verbeke, Wim

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates consumer attitude and purchase intention towards processed meat products with added natural compounds and a reduced level of nitrite. The rationale for such innovation relates to nitrite's negative health image as a chemical additive among consumers, versus the perception of compounds from fruits and vegetables as being natural and healthy. Cross-sectional data were collected through online questionnaires on knowledge about, interest in, attitude and intentions towards such new type of processed meat products in Belgium, The Netherlands, Italy and Germany (n=2057). Consumers generally had limited knowledge about nitrite being added to meat products. Yet, they expressed favourable attitudes and purchase intentions towards the new processed meat products. Purchase intention associated positively with: attitude; preference for natural over chemical additives; perceived harmfulness of chemical additives; risk importance; domain specific innovativeness; awareness of nitrite added; education; general health interest; and processed meat consumption frequency. Consumers from Italy and Germany had a lower level of purchase intention compared to Belgium. Four consumer segments were identified based on attitude and purchase intention: 'enthusiasts' (39.3% of the sample), 'accepters' (11.9%), 'half-hearted' (42.3%) and 'uninterested' (6.6%). This study provides valuable insight for further product development and effective tailoring of marketing communication strategies of innovative processed meat products.

  20. Risk assessment of volatile organic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seong Kwang; Shin, Han Seung; Yoon, Kyung Sil; Kwack, Seung Jun; Um, Yoon Mi; Hyeon, Ji Hyeon; Kwak, Hyo Min; Kim, Ji Yun; Kim, Tae Young; Kim, Yeon Joo; Roh, Tae Hyun; Lim, Duck Soo; Shin, Min Kyung; Choi, Seul Min; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Byung-Mu

    2014-01-01

    Exposure and risk assessment was performed by evaluating levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) in 207 consumer products. The products were categorized into 30 different items, consisting of products of different brands. Samples were analyzed for BTEX by headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (headspace-GC/MS) with limit of detection (LOD) of 1 ppm. BTEX were detected in 59 consumer products from 18 item types. Benzene was detected in whiteout (ranging from not detected [ND] to 3170 ppm), glue (1486 ppm), oil-based ballpoint pens (47 ppm), and permanent (marking) pens (2 ppm). Toluene was detected in a leather cleaning product (6071 ppm), glue (5078 ppm), whiteout (1130 ppm), self-adhesive wallpaper (15-1012 ppm), shoe polish (806 ppm), permanent pen (609 ppm), wig adhesive (372 ppm), tapes (2-360 ppm), oil-based ballpoint pen (201 ppm), duplex wallpaper (12-52 ppm), shoes (27 ppm), and air freshener (13 ppm). High levels of ethylbenzene were detected in permanent pen (ND-345,065 ppm), shoe polish (ND-277,928 ppm), leather cleaner (42,223 ppm), whiteout (ND-2,770 ppm), and glue (ND-792 ppm). Xylene was detected in permanent pen (ND-285,132 ppm), shoe polish (ND-87,298 ppm), leather cleaner (12,266 ppm), glue (ND-3,124 ppm), and whiteout (ND-1,400 ppm). Exposure assessment showed that the exposure to ethylbenzene from permanent pens ranged from 0 to 3.11 mg/kg/d (men) and 0 to 3.75 mg/kg/d (women), while for xylene, the exposure ranges were 0-2.57 mg/kg/d and 0-3.1 mg/kg/d in men and women, respectively. The exposure of women to benzene from whiteout ranged from 0 to 0.00059 mg/kg/d. Hazard index (HI), defined as a ratio of exposure to reference dose (RfD), for ethylbenzene was 31.1 (3.11 mg/kg/d/0.1 mg/kg/d) and for xylene (2.57 mg/kg/d/0.2 mg/kg/d) was 12.85, exceeding 1 for both compounds. Cancer risk for benzene was calculated to be 3.2 × 10(-5) based on (0.00059 mg/kg/d × 0.055 mg/kg-d(-1), cancer

  1. Demographic and psychographic associations of consumer intentions to purchase healthier food products

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Melissa; Wang, Wei Chun; Worsley, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations of nutrition concerns, demographics, universalism (community oriented) values, perceived control over personal health and food buying, and perceived influence over the food system with intentions to purchase low fat, sugar and salt (LFSS) food products. Methods A national online survey of 2204 Australian consumers administered in November 2011. Structural equation modeling was used to examine associations of LFSS purchasing intentions with demographic, values, perceived control, and influence factors. Results Nutrition concern, perceived influence over the food system, and universalism values were key predictors of LFSS purchasing intentions. Almost two thirds (64.6%) of the variance associated with LFSS purchasing was explained by the structural equation model. Conclusion Communication programs which focus on universalism values, nutrition concern and perceived influence over the food system are likely to increase LFSS purchasing and perhaps reduce the demand for energy dense, nutrient poor foods. PMID:26844047

  2. Investigation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in old consumer products in India.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Kanchan; Sharma, Jitendra K; Kanade, Gajanan S; Kashyap, Sanjay M; Juwarkar, Asha A; Wate, Satish R

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used extensively over the past 3 decades as flame retardants in most types of polymers, all over the world, have been identified as global pollutants. PBDEs pose various health problems such as thyroid hormone disruption, permanent learning and memory impairment, behavioral changes, hearing deficits, delayed puberty onset, fetal malformations, and possibly cancer. Many measurements of PBDEs in various matrices from Sweden, Holland, Japan, the USA, and elsewhere have been reported, but few measurements are available for India. In this study, a preliminary screening of different congeners of PBDEs has been performed in different old electronic and consumer products with an objective to build capacity in order to analyze PBDEs and BFRs. Six different samples, foam from upholstery, motherboard of a computer, children toy composite sample, old vanishing window blind sample, electrical wire sample, and PVC flooring sample, were collected and analyzed for the presence of the following PBDE congeners: BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-154, BDE-183, and BDE-209. It was found that three out of six samples were positive for the presence of PBDEs. Three congeners were detected in the samples, i.e., BDE-47, BDE-153, and BDE-209, of which, highest concentration was of BDE-209. Among the samples, motherboard of computer showed the highest concentration of BDE-209 followed by window blind and foam from upholstery. The results of this preliminary investigation indicate that PBDEs are still present in the old consumer products which can be an important additional source of exposure to the population. PMID:24497080

  3. Common In-Situ Consumable Production Plant for Robotic Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, G. B.; Trevathan, J. R.; Peters, T. A.; Baird, R. S.

    2000-01-01

    Utilization of extraterrestrial resources, or In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), is viewed by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Enterprise as an enabling technology for the exploration and commercial development of space. A key subset of ISRU which has significant cost, mass, and risk reduction benefits for robotic and human exploration, and which requires a minimum of infrastructure, is In-Situ Consumable Production (ISCP). ISCP involves acquiring, manufacturing, and storing mission consumables from in situ resources, such as propellants, fuel cell reagents, and gases for crew and life support, inflation, science and pneumatic equipment. One of the four long-term goals for the Space Science Enterprise (SSE) is to 'pursue space science programs that enable and are enabled by future human exploration beyond low-Earth orbit - a goal exploiting the synergy with the human exploration of space'. Adequate power and propulsion capabilities are critical for both robotic and human exploration missions. Minimizing the mass and volume of these systems can reduce mission cost or enhance the mission by enabling the incorporation of new science or mission-relevant equipment. Studies have shown that in-situ production of oxygen and methane propellants can enhance sample return missions by enabling larger samples to be returned to Earth or by performing Direct Earth Return (DER) sample return missions instead of requiring a Mars Orbit Rendezvous (MOR). Recent NASA and Department of Energy (DOE) work on oxygen and hydrocarbon-based fuel cell power systems shows the potential of using fuel cell power systems instead of solar arrays and batteries for future rovers and science equipment. The development and use of a common oxygen/methane ISCP plant for propulsion and power generation can extend and enhance the scientific exploration of Mars while supporting the development and demonstration of critical technologies and systems for the human exploration of Mars.

  4. Analysis provided to assist the development of a certification and enforcement program for consumer-product efficiency standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-16

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) authorized DOE to implement an energy-conservation program for major household consumer products. Included in this legislation is a mandate to establish minimum energy-efficiency standards for each type or class of covered consumer product. In order to assure compliance by all manufacturers, procedures must be developed and implemented to permit DOE to verify that each manufacturer's products meet or exceed the prescribed efficiency standard. Vitro Laboratories performed analysis to assist DOE in developing a Certification/Enforcement Program for Consumer-Product Efficiency Standards meeting the requirements of EPCA. The specific work performed was defined by three tasks under the orginal contract and five tasks under a subsequent modification of the contract. Each task is described.

  5. Co-Existence of Service and Productiveness of Education from Consumers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Fengchun

    2007-01-01

    Neither of the "Three Industry" Theory nor the "General Agreement of Trading Service" (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO) can be the essential criteria to analyze the property of education. The property of education can be defined from consumers' perspective. The direct consumers of education are students; but the ultimate consumers of…

  6. Increasing donor ecosystem productivity decreases terrestrial consumer reliance on a stream resource subsidy.

    PubMed

    Davis, John M; Rosemond, Amy D; Small, Gaston E

    2011-11-01

    Because nutrient enrichment can increase ecosystem productivity, it may enhance resource flows to adjacent ecosystems as organisms cross ecosystem boundaries and subsidize predators in recipient ecosystems. Here, we quantified the biomass and abundance of aquatic emergence and terrestrial spiders in a reference and treatment stream that had been continuously enriched with nitrogen and phosphorus for 5 years. Because we previously showed that enrichment increased secondary production of stream consumers, we predicted that aquatic emergence flux would be higher in the treatment stream, subsequently increasing the biomass and abundance of terrestrial spiders. Those increases were predicted to be greatest for spiders specializing on aquatic emergence subsidies (e.g., Tetragnathidae). By adding a (15)N stable isotope tracer to both streams, we also quantified nitrogen flow from the stream into the riparian community. Emergence biomass, but not abundance, was higher in the treatment stream. The average body size of emerging adult insects and the relative dominance of Trichoptera adults were also greater in the treatment stream. However, spider biomass did not differ between streams. Spiders also exhibited substantially lower reliance on aquatic emergence nitrogen in the treatment stream. This reduced reliance likely resulted from shifts in the body size distributions and community composition of insect emergence that may have altered predator consumption efficiency in the treatment stream. Despite nutrient enrichment approximately doubling stream productivity and associated cross-ecosystem resource flows, the response of terrestrial predators depended more on the resource subsidy's characteristics that affected the predator's ability to capitalize on such increases.

  7. Common Commercial and Consumer Products Contain Activators of the Aryl Hydrocarbon (Dioxin) Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bin; Bohonowych, Jessica E. S.; Timme-Laragy, Alicia; Jung, Dawoon; Affatato, Alessandra A.; Rice, Robert H.; Di Giulio, Richard T.; Denison, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the Ah receptor (AhR) by halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (HAHs), such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, dioxin), can produce a wide variety of toxic and biological effects. While recent studies have shown that the AhR can bind and be activated by structurally diverse chemicals, how widespread of these AhR agonists are in environmental, biological and synthetic materials remains to be determined. Using AhR-based assays, we demonstrate the presence of potent AhR agonists in a variety of common commercial and consumer items. Solvent extracts of paper, rubber and plastic products contain chemicals that can bind to and stimulate AhR DNA binding and/or AhR-dependent gene expression in hepatic cytosol, cultured cell lines, human epidermis and zebrafish embryos. In contrast to TCDD and other persistent dioxin-like HAHs, activation of AhR-dependent gene expression by these extracts was transient, suggesting that the agonists are metabolically labile. Solvent extracts of rubber products produce AhR-dependent developmental toxicity in zebrafish in vivo, and inhibition of expression of the metabolic enzyme CYP1A, significantly increased their toxic potency. Although the identity of the responsible AhR-active chemicals and their toxicological impact remain to be determined, our data demonstrate that AhR active chemicals are widely distributed in everyday products. PMID:23441220

  8. Consumer perception of the use of high-pressure processing and pulsed electric field technologies in food production.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henriette Boel; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Grunert, Klaus G; Banati, Diana; Pollák-Tóth, Annamária; Lakner, Zoltán; Olsen, Nina Veflen; Zontar, Tanja Pajk; Peterman, Marjana

    2009-02-01

    The success of new food processing technologies is highly dependent on consumers' acceptance. The purpose of this paper is to study consumers' perceptions of two new processing technologies and food products produced by means of these novel technologies. To accomplish this, a qualitative study on consumer attitudes towards high-pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of food was carried out. In all 97 adults between 20 and 71 years of age participated in 12 focus groups conducted in Slovenia, Hungary, Serbia, Slovakia, Norway and Denmark using a common guideline. Participants were introduced to the HPP and PEF technologies and then to the effect of the two new technologies on two specific product categories: juice and baby food. The transcribed data was content analysed and the coded data was transformed into diagrams using UCINET 5 and NETDRAW. The results show that consumers perceived the main advantages of HPP and PEF products to be the products' naturalness, improved taste and their high nutritional value, whereas the main disadvantage was the lack of information about the PEF and HPP products. The results of the participants' evaluation of the PEF and HPP processes showed that environmental friendliness and the more natural products were seen as the main advantages, while they were concerned about body and health, the higher price of the products, the lack of information about the technologies and a general scepticism. The study also shows that North European participants were a bit more sceptical towards PEF and HPP products than the East European participants.

  9. Validation of an aggregate exposure model for substances in consumer products: a case study of diethyl phthalate in personal care products

    PubMed Central

    Delmaar, Christiaan; Bokkers, Bas; ter Burg, Wouter; Schuur, Gerlienke

    2015-01-01

    As personal care products (PCPs) are used in close contact with a person, they are a major source of consumer exposure to chemical substances contained in these products. The estimation of realistic consumer exposure to substances in PCPs is currently hampered by the lack of appropriate data and methods. To estimate aggregate exposure of consumers to substances contained in PCPs, a person-oriented consumer exposure model has been developed (the Probabilistic Aggregate Consumer Exposure Model, PACEM). The model simulates daily exposure in a population based on product use data collected from a survey among the Dutch population. The model is validated by comparing diethyl phthalate (DEP) dose estimates to dose estimates based on biomonitoring data. It was found that the model's estimates compared well with the estimates based on biomonitoring data. This suggests that the person-oriented PACEM model is a practical tool for assessing realistic aggregate exposures to substances in PCPs. In the future, PACEM will be extended with use pattern data on other product groups. This will allow for assessing aggregate exposure to substances in consumer products across different product groups. PMID:25352161

  10. Characterization of silver nanoparticles in selected consumer products and its relevance for predicting children’s potential exposures

    PubMed Central

    Tulve, Nicolle S.; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.; Vance, Marina E.; Rogers, Kim; Mwilu, Samuel; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Willis, Robert; Thomas, Treye A.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, and antimicrobial properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in consumer products intended for use by children or in the home. Children may be especially affected by the normal use of consumer products because of their physiological functions, developmental stage, and activities and behaviors. Despite much research to date, children’s potential exposures to AgNPs are not well characterized. Our objectives were to characterize selected consumer products containing AgNPs and to use the data to estimate a child’s potential non-dietary ingestion exposure. We identified and cataloged 165 consumer products claiming to contain AgNPs that may be used by or near children or found in the home. Nineteen products (textile, liquid, plastic) were selected for further analysis. We developed a tiered analytical approach to determine silver content, form (particulate or ionic), size, morphology, agglomeration state, and composition. Silver was detected in all products except one sippy cup body. Among products in a given category, silver mass contributions were highly variable and not always uniformly distributed within products, highlighting the need to sample multiple areas of a product. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of AgNPs. Using this data, a child’s potential non-dietary ingestion exposure to AgNPs when drinking milk formula from a sippy cup is 1.53 μg Ag/kg. Additional research is needed to understand the number and types of consumer products containing silver and the concentrations of silver in these products in order to more accurately predict children’s potential aggregate and cumulative exposures to AgNPs. PMID:25747543

  11. Evaporation of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) from selected cosmetic products: Implications for consumer exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Dudzina, Tatsiana; Garcia Hidalgo, Elena; von Goetz, Natalie; Bogdal, Christian; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Consumer exposure to leave-on cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCPs) ingredients of low or moderate volatility is often assumed to occur primarily via dermal absorption. In reality they may volatilize from skin and represent a significant source for inhalation exposure. Often, evaporation rates of pure substances from inert surfaces are used as a surrogate for evaporation from more complex product matrices. Also the influence of partitioning to skin is neglected and the resulting inaccuracies are not known. In this paper we describe a novel approach for measuring chemical evaporation rates from C&PCPs under realistic consumer exposure conditions. Series of experiments were carried out in a custom-made ventilated chamber fitted with a vapor trap to study the disposition of a volatile cosmetic ingredient, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), after its topical application on either aluminum foil or porcine skin in vitro. Single doses were applied neat and in commercial deodorant and face cream formulations at normal room (23°C) and skin temperature (32°C). The condition-specific evaporation rates were determined as the chemical mass loss per unit surface area at different time intervals over 1-1.25h post-dose. Product weight loss was monitored gravimetrically and the residual D5 concentrations were analyzed with GC/FID. The release of D5 from exposed surfaces of aluminum occurred very fast with mean rates of 0.029 mg cm(-2)min(-1) and 0.060 mg cm(-2)min(-1) at 23°C and 32°C, respectively. Statistical analysis of experimental data confirmed a significant effect of cosmetic formulations on the evaporation of D5 with the largest effect (2-fold decrease of the evaporation rate) observed for the neat face cream pair at 32°C. The developed approach explicitly considers the initial penetration and evaporation of a substance from the Stratum Corneum and has the potential for application in dermal exposure modeling, product emission tests and the formulation of C

  12. Evaporation of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) from selected cosmetic products: Implications for consumer exposure modeling.

    PubMed

    Dudzina, Tatsiana; Garcia Hidalgo, Elena; von Goetz, Natalie; Bogdal, Christian; Hungerbuehler, Konrad

    2015-11-01

    Consumer exposure to leave-on cosmetics and personal care products (C&PCPs) ingredients of low or moderate volatility is often assumed to occur primarily via dermal absorption. In reality they may volatilize from skin and represent a significant source for inhalation exposure. Often, evaporation rates of pure substances from inert surfaces are used as a surrogate for evaporation from more complex product matrices. Also the influence of partitioning to skin is neglected and the resulting inaccuracies are not known. In this paper we describe a novel approach for measuring chemical evaporation rates from C&PCPs under realistic consumer exposure conditions. Series of experiments were carried out in a custom-made ventilated chamber fitted with a vapor trap to study the disposition of a volatile cosmetic ingredient, decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5), after its topical application on either aluminum foil or porcine skin in vitro. Single doses were applied neat and in commercial deodorant and face cream formulations at normal room (23°C) and skin temperature (32°C). The condition-specific evaporation rates were determined as the chemical mass loss per unit surface area at different time intervals over 1-1.25h post-dose. Product weight loss was monitored gravimetrically and the residual D5 concentrations were analyzed with GC/FID. The release of D5 from exposed surfaces of aluminum occurred very fast with mean rates of 0.029 mg cm(-2)min(-1) and 0.060 mg cm(-2)min(-1) at 23°C and 32°C, respectively. Statistical analysis of experimental data confirmed a significant effect of cosmetic formulations on the evaporation of D5 with the largest effect (2-fold decrease of the evaporation rate) observed for the neat face cream pair at 32°C. The developed approach explicitly considers the initial penetration and evaporation of a substance from the Stratum Corneum and has the potential for application in dermal exposure modeling, product emission tests and the formulation of C&PCPs.

  13. Information for Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Credit Union National Association, Inc., Madison, WI.

    This revised pamphlet was developed by a national association of credit unions for the purpose of directing consumer complaints to appropriate agencies or heads of agencies for action. Suggestions to aid the consumer are included, such as trying to solve problems at the local level before complaining to top officials. Addresses and phone numbers…

  14. Toxin production and growth of pathogens subjected to temperature fluctuations simulating consumer handling of cold cuts.

    PubMed

    Røssvoll, Elin; Rønning, Helene Thorsen; Granum, Per Einar; Møretrø, Trond; Hjerpekjøn, Marianne Røine; Langsrud, Solveig

    2014-08-18

    It is crucial for the quality and safety of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods to maintain the cold chain from production to consumption. The effect of temperature abuse related to daily meals and elevated refrigerator temperatures on the growth and toxin production of Bacillus cereus, Bacillus weihenstephanensis and Staphylococcus aureus and the growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica was studied. A case study with temperature loggings in the domestic environment during Easter and Christmas holidays was performed to select relevant time and temperature courses. A model for bacterial surface growth on food using nutrient agar plates exposed to variations in temperatures was used to simulate food stored at different temperatures and exposed to room temperature for short periods of time. The results were compared with predicted growth using the modeling tool ComBase Predictor. The consumers exposed their cold cuts to room temperatures as high as 26.5°C with an average duration of meals was 47 min daily for breakfast/brunch during the vacations. Short (≤ 2 h) daily intervals at 25°C nearly halved the time the different pathogens needed to reach levels corresponding to the levels associated with human infection or intoxication, compared with the controls continuously stored at refrigerator temperature. Although the temperature fluctuations affected growth of both B. weihenstephanensis and S. aureus, toxin production was only detected at much higher cell concentrations than what has been associated with human intoxications. Therefore, growth of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica was found to be the limiting factor for safety. In combination with data on temperature abuse in the domestic environment, modeling programs such as ComBase Predictor can be efficient tools to predict growth of some pathogens but will not predict toxin production.

  15. Consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products. Patterns and insights from a sample of international studies.

    PubMed

    Carlucci, Domenico; Nocella, Giuseppe; De Devitiis, Biagia; Viscecchia, Rosaria; Bimbo, Francesco; Nardone, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The present systematic review was performed to assess consumer purchasing behaviour towards fish and seafood products in the wide context of developed countries. Web of Science, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar engines were used to search the existing literature and a total of 49 studies were identified for inclusion. These studies investigated consumer purchasing behaviour towards a variety of fish and seafood products, in different countries and by means of different methodological approaches. In particular, the review identifies and discusses the main drivers and barriers of fish consumption as well as consumers' preferences about the most relevant attributes of fish and seafood products providing useful insights for both practitioners and policy makers. Finally, main gaps of the existing literature and possible trajectories for future research are also discussed.

  16. Consumer inhalation exposure to formaldehyde from the use of personal care products/cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Marc-André; Meuling, Wim J A; Engel, Roel; Coroama, Manuela C; Renner, Gerald; Pape, Wolfgang; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2012-06-01

    We measured consumer exposure to formaldehyde (FA) from personal care products (PCP) containing FA-releasing preservatives. Six study subjects applied facial moisturiser, foundation, shower gel, shampoo, deodorant, hair conditioner, hair styling gel or body lotion at the 90th percentile amount of EU PCP consumer use. FA air concentrations were measured in the empty room, in the presence of study subjects prior to PCP use, and for one hour (breathing zone, area monitoring) after PCP use. The mean FA air concentration in the empty bathroom was 1.32 ± 0.67 μg/m³, in the presence of subjects it was 2.33 ± 0.86 μg/m³). Except for body lotion and hair conditioner (6.2 ± 0.1.9 or 4.5 ± 0.1.5 μg/m³, respectively), mean 1-h FA air concentrations after PCP use were similar to background. Peak FA air concentrations, ranging from baseline values (2.2 μg/m³; shower gel) to 11.5 μg/m³ (body lotion), occurred during 0-5 to 5-10 min after PCP use. Despite of exaggerated exposure conditions, FA air levels were a fraction of those considered to be safe (120 μg/m³), occurring in indoor air (22-124 μg/m³) or expired human breath (1.4-87 μg/m³). Overall, our data yielded evidence that inhalation of FA from the use of PCP containing FA-releasers poses no risk to human health. PMID:22406137

  17. DNA barcoding for identification of consumer-relevant mushrooms: A partial solution for product certification?

    PubMed

    Raja, Huzefa A; Baker, Timothy R; Little, Jason G; Oberlies, Nicholas H

    2017-01-01

    One challenge in the dietary supplement industry is confirmation of species identity for processed raw materials, i.e. those modified by milling, drying, or extraction, which move through a multilevel supply chain before reaching the finished product. This is particularly difficult for samples containing fungal mycelia, where processing removes morphological characteristics, such that they do not present sufficient variation to differentiate species by traditional techniques. To address this issue, we have demonstrated the utility of DNA barcoding to verify the taxonomic identity of fungi found commonly in the food and dietary supplement industry; such data are critical for protecting consumer health, by assuring both safety and quality. By using DNA barcoding of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of the rRNA gene with fungal specific ITS primers, ITS barcodes were generated for 33 representative fungal samples, all of which could be used by consumers for food and/or dietary supplement purposes. In the majority of cases, we were able to sequence the ITS region from powdered mycelium samples, grocery store mushrooms, and capsules from commercial dietary supplements. After generating ITS barcodes utilizing standard procedures accepted by the Consortium for the Barcode of Life, we tested their utility by performing a BLAST search against authenticate published ITS sequences in GenBank. In some cases, we also downloaded published, homologous sequences of the ITS region of fungi inspected in this study and examined the phylogenetic relationships of barcoded fungal species in light of modern taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. We anticipate that these data will motivate discussions on DNA barcoding based species identification as applied to the verification/certification of mushroom-containing dietary supplements. PMID:27507489

  18. Consumer inhalation exposure to formaldehyde from the use of personal care products/cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Marc-André; Meuling, Wim J A; Engel, Roel; Coroama, Manuela C; Renner, Gerald; Pape, Wolfgang; Nohynek, Gerhard J

    2012-06-01

    We measured consumer exposure to formaldehyde (FA) from personal care products (PCP) containing FA-releasing preservatives. Six study subjects applied facial moisturiser, foundation, shower gel, shampoo, deodorant, hair conditioner, hair styling gel or body lotion at the 90th percentile amount of EU PCP consumer use. FA air concentrations were measured in the empty room, in the presence of study subjects prior to PCP use, and for one hour (breathing zone, area monitoring) after PCP use. The mean FA air concentration in the empty bathroom was 1.32 ± 0.67 μg/m³, in the presence of subjects it was 2.33 ± 0.86 μg/m³). Except for body lotion and hair conditioner (6.2 ± 0.1.9 or 4.5 ± 0.1.5 μg/m³, respectively), mean 1-h FA air concentrations after PCP use were similar to background. Peak FA air concentrations, ranging from baseline values (2.2 μg/m³; shower gel) to 11.5 μg/m³ (body lotion), occurred during 0-5 to 5-10 min after PCP use. Despite of exaggerated exposure conditions, FA air levels were a fraction of those considered to be safe (120 μg/m³), occurring in indoor air (22-124 μg/m³) or expired human breath (1.4-87 μg/m³). Overall, our data yielded evidence that inhalation of FA from the use of PCP containing FA-releasers poses no risk to human health.

  19. Characterization of organophosphorus flame retardants' sorption on building materials and consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Allen, Matthew R.; Roache, Nancy F.

    2016-09-01

    Better understanding the transport mechanisms of organophosphorus flame-retardants (OPFRs) in the residential environment is important to more accurately estimate their indoor exposure and develop risk management strategies that protect human health. This study describes an improved dual small chamber testing method to characterize the sorption of OPFRs on indoor building materials and consumer products. The OPFRs studied were tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP). The test materials and products used as sinks include concrete, ceiling tile, vinyl flooring, carpet, latex painted gypsum wallboard, open cell polyurethane foam, mattress pad and liner, polyester clothing, cotton clothing, and uniform shirt. During the tests, the amount of OPFRs absorbed by the materials at different exposure times was determined simultaneously. OPFRs air concentrations at the inlet and inside the test chamber were monitored. The data were used to rank the sorption strength of the OPFRs on different materials. In general, building materials exhibited relatively stronger sorption strength than clothing textiles. The material-air partition and material phase diffusion coefficients were estimated by fitting a sink model to the sorption concentration data for twelve materials with three OPFRs. They are in the range of 2.72 × 105 to 3.99 × 108 (dimensionless) for the material-air partition coefficients and 1.13 × 10-14 to 5.83 × 10-9 (m2/h) for the material phase diffusion coefficients.

  20. Cytochrome P450-inhibitory activity of parabens and phthalates used in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hitomi; Sugihara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yoko; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP)-inhibitory effects of 11 parabens and 7 phthalates used in consumer products, as well as their hydrolytic metabolites, were investigated, using rat liver microsomes as an enzyme source. The effects on individual CYP isozymes were evaluated by assaying inhibition of activities towards specific substrates, i.e., ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (MROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (BFCD), 7-methoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (MFCD) and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (EFCD) activities. These activities were dose-dependently inhibited, most potently by medium-side-chain parabens (C6-9) and phthalates (C4-6), and less potently by shorter- and longer-side-chain esters. The hydrolytic product of parabens, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, was not inhibitory, while those of phthalates, phthalic acid monoesters, showed lower inhibitory activity than the parent phthalates. Parabens showed relatively potent inhibition of MFCD activity, considered to be mainly due to CYP2C, and phthalates showed relatively potent inhibition of PROD activity, considered to be mainly due to CYP2B. PMID:27432241

  1. Cytochrome P450-inhibitory activity of parabens and phthalates used in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hitomi; Sugihara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yoko; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP)-inhibitory effects of 11 parabens and 7 phthalates used in consumer products, as well as their hydrolytic metabolites, were investigated, using rat liver microsomes as an enzyme source. The effects on individual CYP isozymes were evaluated by assaying inhibition of activities towards specific substrates, i.e., ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (MROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (BFCD), 7-methoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (MFCD) and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (EFCD) activities. These activities were dose-dependently inhibited, most potently by medium-side-chain parabens (C6-9) and phthalates (C4-6), and less potently by shorter- and longer-side-chain esters. The hydrolytic product of parabens, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, was not inhibitory, while those of phthalates, phthalic acid monoesters, showed lower inhibitory activity than the parent phthalates. Parabens showed relatively potent inhibition of MFCD activity, considered to be mainly due to CYP2C, and phthalates showed relatively potent inhibition of PROD activity, considered to be mainly due to CYP2B.

  2. Dempster-Shafer theory applied to regulatory decision process for selecting safer alternatives to toxic chemicals in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Jin; Ogunseitan, Oladele A; Lejano, Raul P

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory agencies often face a dilemma when regulating chemicals in consumer products-namely, that of making decisions in the face of multiple, and sometimes conflicting, lines of evidence. We present an integrative approach for dealing with uncertainty and multiple pieces of evidence in toxics regulation. The integrative risk analytic framework is grounded in the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory that allows the analyst to combine multiple pieces of evidence and judgments from independent sources of information. We apply the integrative approach to the comparative risk assessment of bisphenol-A (BPA)-based polycarbonate and the functionally equivalent alternative, Eastman Tritan copolyester (ETC). Our results show that according to cumulative empirical evidence, the estimated probability of toxicity of BPA is 0.034, whereas the toxicity probability for ETC is 0.097. However, when we combine extant evidence with strength of confidence in the source (or expert judgment), we are guided by a richer interval measure, (Bel(t), Pl(t)). With the D-S derived measure, we arrive at various intervals for BPA, with the low-range estimate at (0.034, 0.250), and (0.097,0.688) for ETC. These new measures allow a reasonable basis for comparison and a justifiable procedure for decision making that takes advantage of multiple sources of evidence. Through the application of D-S theory to toxicity risk assessment, we show how a multiplicity of scientific evidence can be converted into a unified risk estimate, and how this information can be effectively used for comparative assessments to select potentially less toxic alternative chemicals.

  3. Post-consumer use efficacies of preservatives in personal care and topical drug products: relationship to preservative category.

    PubMed

    Ravita, Timothy D; Tanner, Ralph S; Ahearn, Donald G; Arms, Erin L; Crockett, Patrick W

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-six used personal care and topical OTC drug items collected from consumers in the USA were examined for the presence of microbial contaminants. Of the eye and face product type containing global preservative chemistries (i.e., acceptable for use in Japan without major restrictions), 55% yielded numbers of microorganisms in excess of 500 CFU/g (P < 0.1814). For the mascara products with global preservative chemistries, 79% yielded numbers of microorganisms in excess of 500 CFU/g (P < 0.024). Products containing global preservative chemistries accounted for 88% (n = 14) of the products that had microbial contents above 10(4) CFU/g (P < 0.001). Prominent contaminants were species of Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Streptococcus, Lactobacillus, Bacillus, Corynebacterium, and yeast. In general, under the stress of consumer use, products preserved with global preservative chemistries did not maintain as adequate preservation as products with non-global preservatives. PMID:18802729

  4. Narrow-and-sharp or broad-and-blunt--regulations of hazardous chemicals in consumer products in the European Union.

    PubMed

    Molander, Linda; Rudén, Christina

    2012-04-01

    Chemicals are incorporated into a vast number of consumer products, and it has been recognized that considerable exposures of humans and the environment to chemicals are due to diffuse emissions from everyday products. Different approaches to the management of risks concerning chemicals in products are discussed on the international arena, but no general strategy has yet been adopted. The aim of this study is to investigate how health and environmental risks associated with chemicals in consumer products are currently managed in European Union legislations, mainly by the Toys Directive, the RoHS Directive, and REACH. Significant differences were found between the risk reduction strategies in these legislations, including substance prioritization, type of restrictions and requirements, and information dissemination to consumers. REACH regulates chemicals in products to a limited extent, and via quite complicated processes. Product-specific rules are therefore useful supplements to REACH for regulating chemicals in products. The combined effects of the RoHS and WEEE directives seem to be effective in promoting substitution of substances identified as problematic in electrical and electronic equipment, and it is recommended that the possibility to develop similar systems should be considered also for other product categories.

  5. Use of an aggregate exposure model to estimate consumer exposure to fragrance ingredients in personal care and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Smith, B; Thomas, R; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA.

  6. Use of an aggregate exposure model to estimate consumer exposure to fragrance ingredients in personal care and cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Safford, B; Api, A M; Barratt, C; Comiskey, D; Daly, E J; Ellis, G; McNamara, C; O'Mahony, C; Robison, S; Smith, B; Thomas, R; Tozer, S

    2015-08-01

    Ensuring the toxicological safety of fragrance ingredients used in personal care and cosmetic products is essential in product development and design, as well as in the regulatory compliance of the products. This requires an accurate estimation of consumer exposure which, in turn, requires an understanding of consumer habits and use of products. Where ingredients are used in multiple product types, it is important to take account of aggregate exposure in consumers using these products. This publication investigates the use of a newly developed probabilistic model, the Creme RIFM model, to estimate aggregate exposure to fragrance ingredients using the example of 2-phenylethanol (PEA). The output shown demonstrates the utility of the model in determining systemic and dermal exposure to fragrances from individual products, and aggregate exposure. The model provides valuable information not only for risk assessment, but also for risk management. It should be noted that data on the concentrations of PEA in products used in this article were obtained from limited sources and not the standard, industry wide surveys typically employed by the fragrance industry and are thus presented here to illustrate the output and utility of the newly developed model. They should not be considered an accurate representation of actual exposure to PEA. PMID:26071898

  7. THE ROLE OF CONSUMER VALUES AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS IN GREEN PRODUCT SATISFACTION: THE CASE OF HYBRID CARS.

    PubMed

    Hur, Won-Moo; Woo, Jeong; Kim, Yeonshin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between consumer value and customer satisfaction, seeking a better understanding of the motivations underlying "green product" purchases. Based on the influence of demographic factors, it further explores the moderation effects of buyers' socio-demographics on the link between value and satisfaction. Data were collected through a mail survey of American hybrid car buyers. Consumer value, satisfaction, and socio-demographic information were measured, and the proposed relationships among them were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. This study's findings reveal that values (i.e., functional and social) significantly impact hybrid satisfaction and that the effects vary by sex and age. This research provides insight into the motivations of green product purchases by incorporating important consumer characteristics.

  8. THE ROLE OF CONSUMER VALUES AND SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHICS IN GREEN PRODUCT SATISFACTION: THE CASE OF HYBRID CARS.

    PubMed

    Hur, Won-Moo; Woo, Jeong; Kim, Yeonshin

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the relationship between consumer value and customer satisfaction, seeking a better understanding of the motivations underlying "green product" purchases. Based on the influence of demographic factors, it further explores the moderation effects of buyers' socio-demographics on the link between value and satisfaction. Data were collected through a mail survey of American hybrid car buyers. Consumer value, satisfaction, and socio-demographic information were measured, and the proposed relationships among them were tested using hierarchical multiple regression analysis. This study's findings reveal that values (i.e., functional and social) significantly impact hybrid satisfaction and that the effects vary by sex and age. This research provides insight into the motivations of green product purchases by incorporating important consumer characteristics. PMID:26444836

  9. Pharmaceuticals and consumer products in four wastewater treatment plants in urban and suburb areas of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qian; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Wentao; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Cao, Xuqi; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lu, Shuguang

    2015-04-01

    Ten pharmaceuticals and two consumer products were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influents ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 9340 ng/L, with the frequency of detection of 31-100%, and the removal efficiencies were observed to be -82 to 100% in the four WWTPs. Concentrations of most target compounds (i.e. diclofenac, caffeine, metoprolol, sulpiride) in the wastewater influents were around three to eight times higher in urban WWTPs than in suburb ones, probably due to the different population served and lifestyles. Mean concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influent generally decreased by 5-76% after rainfall due to the dilution of raw sewage by rainwater, which infiltrated into the sewer system. In the WWTPs located in the suburb area, the increased flow of wastewater influent led to a shortened hydraulic retention time (HRT) and decreased removal efficiencies of some compounds. On the contrary, the influence of rainfall was not significant on the removal efficiencies of investigated compounds in urban WWTPs, probably due to the almost unchanged influent flow, good removal performance, or bypass system employed. PMID:25391230

  10. Pharmaceuticals and consumer products in four wastewater treatment plants in urban and suburb areas of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qian; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Wentao; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Cao, Xuqi; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lu, Shuguang

    2015-04-01

    Ten pharmaceuticals and two consumer products were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influents ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 9340 ng/L, with the frequency of detection of 31-100%, and the removal efficiencies were observed to be -82 to 100% in the four WWTPs. Concentrations of most target compounds (i.e. diclofenac, caffeine, metoprolol, sulpiride) in the wastewater influents were around three to eight times higher in urban WWTPs than in suburb ones, probably due to the different population served and lifestyles. Mean concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influent generally decreased by 5-76% after rainfall due to the dilution of raw sewage by rainwater, which infiltrated into the sewer system. In the WWTPs located in the suburb area, the increased flow of wastewater influent led to a shortened hydraulic retention time (HRT) and decreased removal efficiencies of some compounds. On the contrary, the influence of rainfall was not significant on the removal efficiencies of investigated compounds in urban WWTPs, probably due to the almost unchanged influent flow, good removal performance, or bypass system employed.

  11. Mutagenic Effects of Nanosilver Consumer Products: a new Approach to Physicochemical Properties.

    PubMed

    Heshmati, Masomeh; ArbabiBidgoli, Sepideh; Khoei, Samideh; Rezayat, Seyed Mahdi; Parivar, Kazem

    2015-01-01

    Serious concerns have been expressed about potential health risks of Nano silver containing consumer products (AgNPs) therefore regulatory health risk assessment on such nanoparticles has become mandatory for the safe use of AgNPsinbiomedicalproducts with special concerns to the mutagenic potentials. In this study, we examined the inhibitory and mutagenicity effects of AgNPs in three different sizes of three colloidal AgNPs by Minimal Inhibitory concentration (MIC), Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) and Bacterial Reverse Mutation Assay (Ames test).All samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS). DLS analysis showed lack of large agglomeration of the AgNPs and TEM results showed the spherical AgNPswith the average sizes of 15, 19.6, 21.8 nms. Furthermore the XRD analysis showed the crystalline samples with a face centered cubic structure of pure silver.AmestestresultsonColloidal silver nanoparticles showed lack of any mutation in TA100, TA98, YG1029S. typhymuriumstrains.In addition colloidal silver nanoparticles reduced the mutation ratesin all three strains in a concentration dependent manner .This finding creates a new issue in the possible antimutagenic effects of colloidal AgNPsas a new pharmaceutical productwhich should be consideredinfuture studiesby focusing onthephysicochemical properties of AgNPs. PMID:26664384

  12. Policy options to reduce consumer waste to zero: comparing product stewardship and extended producer responsibility for refrigerator waste.

    PubMed

    Nicol, Scott; Thompson, Shirley

    2007-06-01

    Today, over-consumption, pollution and resource depletion threaten sustainability. Waste management policies frequently fail to reduce consumption, prevent pollution, conserve resources and foster sustainable products. However, waste policies are changing to focus on lifecycle impacts of products from the cradle to the grave by extending the responsibilities of stakeholders to post-consumer management. Product stewardship and extended producer responsibility are two policies in use, with radically different results when compared for one consumer product, refrigerators. North America has enacted product stewardship policies that fail to require producers to take physical or financial responsibility for recycling or for environmentally sound disposal, so that releases of ozone depleting substances routinely occur, which contribute to the expanding the ozone hole. Conversely, Europe's Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive requires extended producer responsibility, whereby producers collect and manage their own post-consumer waste products. WEEE has resulted in high recycling rates of greater than 85%, reduced emissions of ozone-depleting substances and other toxins, greener production methods, such as replacing greenhouse gas refrigerants with environmentally friendly hydrocarbons and more reuse of refrigerators in the EU in comparison with North America. PMID:17612322

  13. Validation of the Consumer Values versus Perceived Product Attributes Model Measuring the Purchase of Athletic Team Merchandise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Donghun; Byon, Kevin K.; Schoenstedt, Linda; Johns, Gary; Bussell, Leigh Ann; Choi, Hwansuk

    2012-01-01

    Various consumer values and perceived product attributes trigger consumptive behaviors of athletic team merchandise (Lee, Trail, Kwon, & Anderson, 2011). Likewise, using a principal component analysis technique on a student sample, a measurement scale was proposed that consisted of nine factors affecting the purchase of athletic team merchandise.…

  14. Oxytocin increases liking for a country's people and national flag but not for other cultural symbols or consumer products.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaole; Luo, Lizhu; Geng, Yayuan; Zhao, Weihua; Zhang, Qiong; Kendrick, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin enhances in-group favoritism and ethnocentrism in males. However, whether such effects also occur in women and extend to national symbols and companies/consumer products is unclear. In a between-subject, double-blind placebo controlled experiment we have investigated the effect of intranasal oxytocin on likeability and arousal ratings given by 51 adult Chinese males and females for pictures depicting people or national symbols/consumer products from both strong and weak in-groups (China and Taiwan) and corresponding out-groups (Japan and South Korea). To assess duration of treatment effects subjects were also re-tested after 1 week. Results showed that although oxytocin selectively increased the bias for overall liking for Chinese social stimuli and the national flag, it had no effect on the similar bias toward other Chinese cultural symbols, companies, and consumer products. This enhanced bias was maintained 1 week after treatment. No overall oxytocin effects were found for Taiwanese, Japanese, or South Korean pictures. Our findings show for the first time that oxytocin increases liking for a nation's society and flag in both men and women, but not that for other cultural symbols or companies/consumer products. PMID:25140135

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A METHOD FOR MEASURING EXEMPT VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development and validation of a method for measuring exempt volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon dioxide in consumer products. (NOTE: Ground-level ozone can cause a variety of adverse health effects as well as agricultural and ecological damage. C...

  16. Oxytocin increases liking for a country's people and national flag but not for other cultural symbols or consumer products

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiaole; Luo, Lizhu; Geng, Yayuan; Zhao, Weihua; Zhang, Qiong; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin enhances in-group favoritism and ethnocentrism in males. However, whether such effects also occur in women and extend to national symbols and companies/consumer products is unclear. In a between-subject, double-blind placebo controlled experiment we have investigated the effect of intranasal oxytocin on likeability and arousal ratings given by 51 adult Chinese males and females for pictures depicting people or national symbols/consumer products from both strong and weak in-groups (China and Taiwan) and corresponding out-groups (Japan and South Korea). To assess duration of treatment effects subjects were also re-tested after 1 week. Results showed that although oxytocin selectively increased the bias for overall liking for Chinese social stimuli and the national flag, it had no effect on the similar bias toward other Chinese cultural symbols, companies, and consumer products. This enhanced bias was maintained 1 week after treatment. No overall oxytocin effects were found for Taiwanese, Japanese, or South Korean pictures. Our findings show for the first time that oxytocin increases liking for a nation's society and flag in both men and women, but not that for other cultural symbols or companies/consumer products. PMID:25140135

  17. 16 CFR 1500.88 - Exemptions from lead limits under section 101 of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exemptions from lead limits under section... 1500.88 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT... stripe, the address electrode, the barrier ribs, the seal frit and frit ring as well as in print...

  18. Effect of Low-Carbohydrate Claims on Consumer Perceptions about Food Products' Healthfulness and Helpfulness for Weight Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labiner-Wolfe, Judith; Lin, Chung-Tung Jordan; Verrill, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate effect of low-carbohydrate claims on consumer perceptions about food products' healthfulness and helpfulness for weight management. Design: Experiment in which participants were randomly assigned 1 of 12 front-of-package claim conditions on bread or a frozen dinner. Seven of the 12 conditions also included Nutrition Facts (NF)…

  19. Product Performance and Servicing: An Examination of Consumer Problems and Business Responses. Report of the Sub-Council on Performance and Service of the National Business Council for Consumer Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Business Council for Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This report discusses consumer and corporate problems associated with product performance and servicing of consumer durables (such as automobiles, large and small appliances, and televisions and phonographs), and outlines action which should be taken by manufacturers, trade and professional associations, and government to assure quality and…

  20. Consumer perception of the use of high-pressure processing and pulsed electric field technologies in food production.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Henriette Boel; Sonne, Anne-Mette; Grunert, Klaus G; Banati, Diana; Pollák-Tóth, Annamária; Lakner, Zoltán; Olsen, Nina Veflen; Zontar, Tanja Pajk; Peterman, Marjana

    2009-02-01

    The success of new food processing technologies is highly dependent on consumers' acceptance. The purpose of this paper is to study consumers' perceptions of two new processing technologies and food products produced by means of these novel technologies. To accomplish this, a qualitative study on consumer attitudes towards high-pressure processing (HPP) and pulsed electric field (PEF) processing of food was carried out. In all 97 adults between 20 and 71 years of age participated in 12 focus groups conducted in Slovenia, Hungary, Serbia, Slovakia, Norway and Denmark using a common guideline. Participants were introduced to the HPP and PEF technologies and then to the effect of the two new technologies on two specific product categories: juice and baby food. The transcribed data was content analysed and the coded data was transformed into diagrams using UCINET 5 and NETDRAW. The results show that consumers perceived the main advantages of HPP and PEF products to be the products' naturalness, improved taste and their high nutritional value, whereas the main disadvantage was the lack of information about the PEF and HPP products. The results of the participants' evaluation of the PEF and HPP processes showed that environmental friendliness and the more natural products were seen as the main advantages, while they were concerned about body and health, the higher price of the products, the lack of information about the technologies and a general scepticism. The study also shows that North European participants were a bit more sceptical towards PEF and HPP products than the East European participants. PMID:18845196

  1. 76 FR 19978 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... collection of information to OMB for review and clearance: Durable Nursery Products Exposure Survey. On... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget...

  2. 76 FR 54998 - Request for Information on Consumer Financial Products and Services Offered to Servicemembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Request for Information. SUMMARY: Section 1013(e)(1) of the Consumer Financial Protection Act of 2010... servicemembers that will inform the office's planning with respect to education and outreach initiatives,...

  3. Online purchasing creates opportunities to lower the life cycle carbon footprints of consumer products

    PubMed Central

    Isley, Steven C.; Stern, Paul C.; Carmichael, Scott P.; Joseph, Karun M.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    A major barrier to transitions to environmental sustainability is that consumers lack information about the full environmental footprints of their purchases. Sellers’ incentives do not support reducing the footprints unless customers have such information and are willing to act on it. We explore the potential of modern information technology to lower this barrier by enabling firms to inform customers of products’ environmental footprints at the point of purchase and easily offset consumers’ contributions through bundled purchases of carbon offsets. Using online stated choice experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of several inexpensive features that firms in four industries could implement with existing online user interfaces for consumers. These examples illustrate the potential for firms to lower their overall carbon footprints while improving customer satisfaction by lowering the “soft costs” to consumers of proenvironmental choices. Opportunities such as these likely exist wherever firms possess environmentally relevant data not accessible to consumers or when transaction costs make proenvironmental action difficult. PMID:27528670

  4. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from building materials and consumer products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Lance A.; Pellizzari, Edo; Leaderer, Brian; Zelon, Harvey; Sheldon, Linda

    EPA's TEAM Study of personal exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOC) in air and drinking water of 650 residents of seven U.S. cities resulted in the identification of a number of possible sources encountered in peoples' normal daily activities and in their homes. A follow-up EPA study of publicaccess buildings implicated other potential sources of exposure. To learn more about these potential sources, 15 building materials and common consumer products were analyzed using a headspace technique to detect organic emissions and to compare relative amounts. About 10-100 organic compounds were detected offgassing from each material. Four mixtures of materials were then chosen for detailed study: paint on sheetrock; carpet and carpet glue; wallpaper and adhesives; cleansers and a spray pesticide. The materials were applied as normally used, allowed to age 1 week (except for the cleansers and pesticides, which were used normally during the monitoring period), and placed in an environmentally controlled chamber. Organic vapors were collected on Tenax-GC over a 4-h period and analyzed by GC-MS techniques. Emission rates and chamber concentrations were calculated for 17 target chemicals chosen for their toxic, carcinogenic or mutagenic properties. Thirteen of the 17 chemicals were emitted by one or more of the materials. Elevated concentrations of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, n-decane, n-undecane, p-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichloroethane and styrene were produced by the four mixtures of materials tested. For some chemicals, these amounts were sufficient to account for a significant fraction of the elevated concentrations observed in previous indoor air studies. We conclude that common materials found in nearly every home and place of business may cause elevated exposures to toxic chemicals.

  5. What's (in) a real smoothie. A division of linguistic labour in consumers' acceptance of name-product combinations?

    PubMed

    Smith, Viktor; Green-Petersen, Ditte; Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Qvistgaard, Françoise; Hyldig, Grethe

    2013-04-01

    Is being, say, a macaroon or a smoothie a matter of what these products look and taste like and how they feel in the mouth? Or is it a matter of which ingredients have been used and how they have been processed? Will ordinary consumers always rely on their own judgment in such matters, or delegate the final judgment to experts of some sort? The present experimental study addressed these issues in combination by testing the limits for consumers' acceptance of three different name-product combinations when exposed to taste samples alone (sensory product attributes), taste samples in combination with ingredients lists and nutrition facts (adding factual information), and both, in combination with authoritative definitions (adding experts' final judgments). The examples were modelled around authentic cases from the Danish food market which have been subject to vast legal as well as public concern. The results provide new insights into the socio-cognitive dynamics behind consumers' acceptance or rejection of specific name-product combinations and new leads for supporting the fairness of food naming practices with a view also to the product type, the stage it has reached in its life-cycle, and its degree of familiarity on the market.

  6. Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Products and Biological Samples of Oral Cancer Patients and Control Consumers.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Kamboh, Muhammad A

    2015-12-01

    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p<0.001). It was also observed that the values of As were two- to threefolds higher in biological samples of controls subjects, consuming SLT products as compared to those have none of these habits (p>0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer.

  7. Correlation of Arsenic Levels in Smokeless Tobacco Products and Biological Samples of Oral Cancer Patients and Control Consumers.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Afridi, Hassan I; Talpur, Farah N; Kazi, Atif G; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Kamboh, Muhammad A

    2015-12-01

    It has been extensively reported that chewing of smokeless tobacco (SLT) can lead to cancers of oral cavity. In present study, the relationship between arsenic (As) exposure via chewing/inhaling different SLT products in oral cancer patients have or/not consumed SLT products was studied. The As in different types of SLT products (gutkha, mainpuri, and snuff) and biological (scalp hair and blood) samples of different types of oral cancer patients and controls were analyzed. Both controls and oral cancer patients have same age group (ranged 30-60 years), socio-economic status, localities, and dietary habits. The concentrations of As in SLT products and biological samples were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked by certified reference materials. The resulted data of present study indicates that the concentration of As was significantly higher in scalp hair and blood samples of oral cancer patients than those of controls (p<0.001). It was also observed that the values of As were two- to threefolds higher in biological samples of controls subjects, consuming SLT products as compared to those have none of these habits (p>0.01). The intake of As via consuming different SLT may have synergistic effects, in addition to other risk factors associated with oral cancer. PMID:25975948

  8. Consumer perceptions of the sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and grocery stores among U.S. adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pharmacy-based tobacco sales are a rapidly increasing segment of the U.S. retail tobacco market. Growing evidence links easy access to tobacco retail outlets such as pharmacies to increased tobacco use. This mixed-mode survey was the first to employ a nationally representative sample of consumers (n = 3057) to explore their opinions on sale of tobacco products in pharmacies and grocery stores. Results The majority reported that sale of tobacco products should be either ‘allowed if products hidden from view’ (29.9%, 25.6%) or ‘not allowed at all’ (24.0%, 31.3%) in grocery stores and pharmacies, respectively. Significantly fewer smokers, compared to non-smokers, reported agreement on point-of-sale restrictions on sales of tobacco products (grocery stores: 27.1% vs. 59.6%, p < .01; pharmacy: 32.8% vs. 62.0%, p < .01). Opinions also varied significantly by demographic characteristics and factors such as presence of a child in the household and urban/rural location of residence. Conclusions Overall, a majority of consumers surveyed either supported banning sales of tobacco in grocery stores and pharmacies or allowing sales only if the products are hidden from direct view. Both policy changes would represent a departure from the status quo. Consistent with the views of practicing pharmacists and professional pharmacy organizations, consumers are also largely supportive of more restrictive policies. PMID:23837647

  9. Triclosan: a critical review of the experimental data and development of margins of safety for consumer products.

    PubMed

    Rodricks, Joseph V; Swenberg, James A; Borzelleca, Joseph F; Maronpot, Robert R; Shipp, Annette M

    2010-05-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether) is an antibacterial compound that has been used in consumer products for about 40 years. The tolerability and safety of triclosan has been evaluated in human volunteers with little indication of toxicity or sensitization. Although information in humans from chronic usage of personal care products is not available, triclosan has been extensively studied in laboratory animals. When evaluated in chronic oncogenicity studies in mice, rats, and hamsters, treatment-related tumors were found only in the liver of male and female mice. Application of the Human Relevance Framework suggested that these tumors arose by way of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activation, a mode of action not considered to be relevant to humans. Consequently, a Benchmark Dose (BMDL(10)) of 47 mg/kg/day was developed based on kidney toxicity in the hamster. Estimates of the amount of intake from in the use of representative personal care products for men, women, and children were derived in two ways: (1) using known or assumed triclosan levels in various consumer products and assumed usage patterns (product-based estimates); and (2) using upper bound measured urinary triclosan levels from human volunteers (biomonitoring-based estimates) using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For the product-based estimates, the margin of safety (MOS) for the combined exposure estimates of intake from the use of all triclosan-containing products considered were approximately 1000, 730, and 630 for men, women, and children, respectively. The MOS calculated from the biomonitoring-based estimated intakes were 5200, 6700, and 11,750 for men, women, and children, respectively. Based on these results, exposure to triclosan in consumer products is not expected to cause adverse health effects in children or adults who use these products as intended. PMID:20377306

  10. Triclosan: a critical review of the experimental data and development of margins of safety for consumer products.

    PubMed

    Rodricks, Joseph V; Swenberg, James A; Borzelleca, Joseph F; Maronpot, Robert R; Shipp, Annette M

    2010-05-01

    Triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxy-diphenyl ether) is an antibacterial compound that has been used in consumer products for about 40 years. The tolerability and safety of triclosan has been evaluated in human volunteers with little indication of toxicity or sensitization. Although information in humans from chronic usage of personal care products is not available, triclosan has been extensively studied in laboratory animals. When evaluated in chronic oncogenicity studies in mice, rats, and hamsters, treatment-related tumors were found only in the liver of male and female mice. Application of the Human Relevance Framework suggested that these tumors arose by way of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activation, a mode of action not considered to be relevant to humans. Consequently, a Benchmark Dose (BMDL(10)) of 47 mg/kg/day was developed based on kidney toxicity in the hamster. Estimates of the amount of intake from in the use of representative personal care products for men, women, and children were derived in two ways: (1) using known or assumed triclosan levels in various consumer products and assumed usage patterns (product-based estimates); and (2) using upper bound measured urinary triclosan levels from human volunteers (biomonitoring-based estimates) using data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For the product-based estimates, the margin of safety (MOS) for the combined exposure estimates of intake from the use of all triclosan-containing products considered were approximately 1000, 730, and 630 for men, women, and children, respectively. The MOS calculated from the biomonitoring-based estimated intakes were 5200, 6700, and 11,750 for men, women, and children, respectively. Based on these results, exposure to triclosan in consumer products is not expected to cause adverse health effects in children or adults who use these products as intended.

  11. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Larson, James H; Richardson, William B; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, John C; Vallazza, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the USA and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: (1) How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and (2) Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee river mouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee river mouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee river mouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content

  12. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Richardson, William B.; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, J. C.; Vallazza, Jon M.

    2016-01-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the U.S. and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee rivermouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee rivermouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee rivermouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content in the

  13. Measuring spatial variation in secondary production and food quality using a common consumer approach in Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Larson, James H; Richardson, William B; Evans, Mary Anne; Schaeffer, Jeff; Wynne, Timothy; Bartsch, Michelle; Bartsch, Lynn; Nelson, John C; Vallazza, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Lake Erie is a large lake straddling the border of the USA and Canada that has become increasingly eutrophic in recent years. Eutrophication is particularly focused in the shallow western basin. The western basin of Lake Erie is hydrodynamically similar to a large estuary, with riverine inputs from the Detroit and Maumee Rivers mixing together and creating gradients in chemical and physical conditions. This study was driven by two questions: (1) How does secondary production and food quality for consumers vary across this large mixing zone? and (2) Are there correlations between cyanobacterial abundance and secondary production or food quality for consumers? Measuring spatial and temporal variation in secondary production and food quality is difficult for a variety of logistical reasons, so here a common consumer approach was used. In a common consumer approach, individuals of a single species are raised under similar conditions until placed in the field across environmental gradients of interest. After some period of exposure, the response of that common consumer is measured to provide an index of spatial variation in conditions. Here, a freshwater mussel (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was deployed at 32 locations that spanned habitat types and a gradient in cyanobacterial abundance in the western basin of Lake Erie to measure spatial variation in growth (an index of secondary production) and fatty acid (FA) content (an index of food quality). We found secondary production was highest within the Maumee river mouth and lowest in the open waters of the lake. Mussel tissues in the Maumee river mouth also included more eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic fatty acids (EPA and DPA, respectively), but fewer bacterial FAs, suggesting more algae at the base of the food web in the Maumee river mouth compared to open lake sites. The satellite-derived estimate of cyanobacterial abundance was not correlated to secondary production, but was positively related to EPA and DPA content

  14. Experimental and mathematical modelling of the consumer influence on the productivity of algae in a model aquatic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisman, T. I.; Galayda, Y. V.; Shirobokova, I. M.

    Based upon the experimental and theoretical results the possibility of increasing the microalgal productivity in the "producer - consumer" aquatic biotic cycle (Chlorella vulgaris - Paramecium caudatum) has been considered. The experiment was held on the device with spatially divided links, which consists of a fermenter for Chlorella cultivation (the "producer" link) and a fermenter for Paramecia growing (the "consumer" link). The direct relation between the reproduction of Paramecia at consuming Chlorella and emission of nitrogen in ammonium form, which is the most preferable for growing Chlorella, has been revealed. In the result of theoretical study of the model of the "producer - consumer" aquatic biotic cycle with spatially divided links the contribution of Paramecia to the nitrogen cycle has been proved. It was shown that simultaneously with the increase of concentration of nitrogen evolved in the process of Paramecia metabolism, the biomass of Chlorella increases as well. The possibility of increasing the productivity of agal growth in the presence of a predator in a different way (due to decrease of limitation on light) has been considered. A laboratory growth experiment revealed a positive effect of Gammarus presence on Ulva spp. growth, probably caused by removal of epiphytic diatoms from the Ulva spp. thalli.

  15. Identifying consumer preferences for specific beef flavor characteristics in relation to cattle production and postmortem processing parameters.

    PubMed

    O'Quinn, T G; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Chapman, P L; Legako, J F; Brooks, J C; Belk, K E; Tatum, J D

    2016-02-01

    Sensory analysis of ground LL samples representing 12 beef product categories was conducted in 3 different regions of the U.S. to identify flavor preferences of beef consumers. Treatments characterized production-related flavor differences associated with USDA grade, cattle type, finishing diet, growth enhancement, and postmortem aging method. Consumers (N=307) rated cooked samples for 12 flavors and overall flavor desirability. Samples were analyzed to determine fatty acid content. Volatile compounds produced by cooking were extracted and quantified. Overall, consumers preferred beef that rated high for beefy/brothy, buttery/beef fat, and sweet flavors and disliked beef with fishy, livery, gamey, and sour flavors. Flavor attributes of samples higher in intramuscular fat with greater amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids and lesser proportions of saturated, odd-chain, omega-3, and trans fatty acids were preferred by consumers. Of the volatiles identified, diacetyl and acetoin were most closely correlated with desirable ratings for overall flavor and dimethyl sulfide was associated with an undesirable sour flavor. PMID:26560806

  16. Consumer and health literacy: The need to better design tobacco-cessation product packaging, labels, and inserts.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Stephanie M; Smith-Simone, Stephanie Y

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco-cessation product packaging and instruction materials may not be appropriate for some smokers and may contribute to the underuse and misuse of evidence-based treatments. The dual goals of this project are to analyze literacy levels of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved and non-approved tobacco-cessation product packaging, directions, and claims, and to identify and categorize claims found on product packaging. The Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids (CTFK) maintains the Quitting and Reducing Tobacco Use Inventory of Products (QuiTIP) database, which catalogs products marketed and sold to consumers to reduce or quit use of tobacco products. It also includes all medications approved by the FDA for tobacco cessation as well as a sample of non-approved products such as homeopathic, herbal, nutritional, or dietary supplements commonly marketed as either cessation aids or alternative tobacco/nicotine products. This paper assesses the reading levels required to understand product packaging, labeling, and instructions using the Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and identifies claims on the product package labels using standard qualitative methods. Key findings show that the average reading levels needed to understand instructions for both FDA-approved and non-approved cessation products are above the reading levels recommended to ensure maximum comprehension. Improving the packaging and directions of evidence-based tobacco-cessation products so that they are preferably at or below a fifth-grade reading level, along with using consumer-based design principles to develop packaging, may help smokers take advantage of and correctly use products that will greatly increase their chances of successful quitting. PMID:20176315

  17. Analysis of odour compounds from scented consumer products using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Jennifer; Uhde, Erik; Salthammer, Tunga

    2016-01-21

    Scented consumer products are being bought in increasing amounts and gaining more popularity. There is, however, relatively little information available about their ingredients, emissions and allergenic potential. Frequently, a mixture of different fragrance substances and not solely an individual substance contributes to the overall desired smell. The aim of this study was to investigate the odorous volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) in consumer products containing fragrances. Over 44 products were selected: various scented candles, printing products with different scent types and other products types particularly meant to be used indoors. Measurements were carried out in a desiccator. Air samples were collected on thermal desorption tubes to determine the released fragrance substances by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) was used to obtain sensory data and to ensure no important odorant was overlooked. Using both methods it was possible to distinguish between odour active and inactive compounds and subsequently to identify almost 300 different odorants across all scented products. Besides the advantage of differentiation, as the human nose is a very sensitive detector, GC-O was found to be a useful tool for detecting traces and chosen target compounds. One focus in this study lay on the 26 EU-regulated fragrance allergens to prove their relevance in scented consumer goods. In total, 18 of them were identified, with at least one substance being present in almost every product. Benzyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, citronellol, eugenol, linalool and limonene were the prevalently detected allergens. Particularly linalool and limonene were observed in over 50% of the products. In addition, eugenol appeared to be one of the most frequently detected compounds in trace-level concentrations in the candle emissions.

  18. Analysis of odour compounds from scented consumer products using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Jennifer; Uhde, Erik; Salthammer, Tunga

    2016-01-21

    Scented consumer products are being bought in increasing amounts and gaining more popularity. There is, however, relatively little information available about their ingredients, emissions and allergenic potential. Frequently, a mixture of different fragrance substances and not solely an individual substance contributes to the overall desired smell. The aim of this study was to investigate the odorous volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) in consumer products containing fragrances. Over 44 products were selected: various scented candles, printing products with different scent types and other products types particularly meant to be used indoors. Measurements were carried out in a desiccator. Air samples were collected on thermal desorption tubes to determine the released fragrance substances by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) was used to obtain sensory data and to ensure no important odorant was overlooked. Using both methods it was possible to distinguish between odour active and inactive compounds and subsequently to identify almost 300 different odorants across all scented products. Besides the advantage of differentiation, as the human nose is a very sensitive detector, GC-O was found to be a useful tool for detecting traces and chosen target compounds. One focus in this study lay on the 26 EU-regulated fragrance allergens to prove their relevance in scented consumer goods. In total, 18 of them were identified, with at least one substance being present in almost every product. Benzyl alcohol, cinnamaldehyde, citronellol, eugenol, linalool and limonene were the prevalently detected allergens. Particularly linalool and limonene were observed in over 50% of the products. In addition, eugenol appeared to be one of the most frequently detected compounds in trace-level concentrations in the candle emissions. PMID:26724768

  19. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume Commercial Equipment A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy...—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume Commercial Equipment A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy...—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Covered Consumer Products and Certain High-Volume...

  1. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p < 0.001) with lesser correlations between knowledge and behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.593, p < 0.001) and knowledge and attitudes (Pearson's r = 0.413, p < 0.001). GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions. PMID:25519248

  2. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Giarlotta, Alfio; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling’s differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge. PMID:26784700

  3. Consumer knowledge and attitudes about genetically modified food products and labelling policy.

    PubMed

    Vecchione, Melissa; Feldman, Charles; Wunderlich, Shahla

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between consumer knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards foods containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and the prevalence of GMO labelling in northern New Jersey supermarkets. This cross-sectional study surveyed 331 adults, New Jersey supermarket customers (mean age 26 years old, 79.8% women). The results show a strong, positive correlation between consumer attitudes towards foods not containing GMOs and purchasing behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.701, p < 0.001) with lesser correlations between knowledge and behaviour (Pearson's r = 0.593, p < 0.001) and knowledge and attitudes (Pearson's r = 0.413, p < 0.001). GMO labelling would assist consumers in making informed purchase decisions.

  4. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Giarlotta, Alfio; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling's differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge. PMID:26784700

  5. Perfect Information vs Random Investigation: Safety Guidelines for a Consumer in the Jungle of Product Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Giarlotta, Alfio; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We present a graph-theoretic model of consumer choice, where final decisions are shown to be influenced by information and knowledge, in the form of individual awareness, discriminating ability, and perception of market structure. Building upon the distance-based Hotelling's differentiation idea, we describe the behavioral experience of several prototypes of consumers, who walk a hypothetical cognitive path in an attempt to maximize their satisfaction. Our simulations show that even consumers endowed with a small amount of information and knowledge may reach a very high level of utility. On the other hand, complete ignorance negatively affects the whole consumption process. In addition, rather unexpectedly, a random walk on the graph reveals to be a winning strategy, below a minimal threshold of information and knowledge.

  6. 75 FR 7568 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... the Federal Register of November 13, 2009 (74 FR 58610), the CPSC published a 60-day notice requesting...; Comment Request; Consumer Opinion Forum AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice... collection of information to OMB for review and clearance. Consumer Opinion Forum (OMB Control Number...

  7. Consumer-reported handling of raw poultry products at home: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter cause an estimated combined total of 1.8 million foodborne infections each year in the United States. Most cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are associated with eating raw or undercooked poultry or with cross-contamination. Between 1998 and 2008, 20% of Salmonella and 16% of Campylobacter foodborne disease outbreaks were associated with food prepared inside the home. A nationally representative Web survey of U.S. adult grocery shoppers (n = 1,504) was conducted to estimate the percentage of consumers who follow recommended food safety practices when handling raw poultry at home. The survey results identified areas of low adherence to current recommended food safety practices: not washing raw poultry before cooking, proper refrigerator storage of raw poultry, use of a food thermometer to determine doneness, and proper thawing of raw poultry in cold water. Nearly 70% of consumers reported washing or rinsing raw poultry before cooking it, a potentially unsafe practice because "splashing" of contaminated water may lead to the transfer of pathogens to other foods and other kitchen surfaces. Only 17.5% of consumers reported correctly storing raw poultry in the refrigerator. Sixty-two percent of consumers own a food thermometer, and of these, 26% or fewer reported using one to check the internal temperature of smaller cuts of poultry and ground poultry. Only 11% of consumers who thaw raw poultry in cold water reported doing so correctly. The study results, coupled with other research findings, will inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella and Campylobacter. PMID:25581194

  8. Consumer-reported handling of raw poultry products at home: results from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kosa, Katherine M; Cates, Sheryl C; Bradley, Samantha; Chambers, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella and Campylobacter cause an estimated combined total of 1.8 million foodborne infections each year in the United States. Most cases of salmonellosis and campylobacteriosis are associated with eating raw or undercooked poultry or with cross-contamination. Between 1998 and 2008, 20% of Salmonella and 16% of Campylobacter foodborne disease outbreaks were associated with food prepared inside the home. A nationally representative Web survey of U.S. adult grocery shoppers (n = 1,504) was conducted to estimate the percentage of consumers who follow recommended food safety practices when handling raw poultry at home. The survey results identified areas of low adherence to current recommended food safety practices: not washing raw poultry before cooking, proper refrigerator storage of raw poultry, use of a food thermometer to determine doneness, and proper thawing of raw poultry in cold water. Nearly 70% of consumers reported washing or rinsing raw poultry before cooking it, a potentially unsafe practice because "splashing" of contaminated water may lead to the transfer of pathogens to other foods and other kitchen surfaces. Only 17.5% of consumers reported correctly storing raw poultry in the refrigerator. Sixty-two percent of consumers own a food thermometer, and of these, 26% or fewer reported using one to check the internal temperature of smaller cuts of poultry and ground poultry. Only 11% of consumers who thaw raw poultry in cold water reported doing so correctly. The study results, coupled with other research findings, will inform the development of science-based consumer education materials that can help reduce foodborne illness from Salmonella and Campylobacter.

  9. Variations in mature market consumer behavior within a health care product: implications for marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Hopper, J A; Busbin, J W

    1995-01-01

    America is undergoing a profound age shift in its demographic make-up with people 55 and over comprising an increasing proportion of the population. Marketers may need to increase their response rate to this shift, especially in refining the application of marketing theory and practice to older age consumers. To this end, a survey of older couple buying behavior for health insurance coverage is reported here. Results clarify evaluative criteria and the viability of multiple market segmentation for health care coverage among older consumers as couples. Commentary on the efficacy of present health coverage marketing programs is provided.

  10. Consuming algal products: trophic interactions of bacteria and a diatom species determined by RNA stable isotope probing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapp, Melanie; Gerdts, Gunnar; Wellinger, Marco; Wichels, Antje

    2008-09-01

    Heterotrophic marine bacteria utilise a wide range of carbon sources. Recently, techniques were developed to link bacterial identity and physiological capacity of microorganisms within natural communities. One of these methods is stable isotope probing (SIP) which allows an identification of active microorganisms using particular growth substrates. In this study, we present the first attempt to analyse bacterial communities associated with microalgae by rRNA-SIP. This approach was used to analyse bacterial populations consuming algal products of Thalassiosira rotula by applying SIP followed by reverse transcription of 16S rRNA and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Generally, our results indicate that bacteria which consume algal products can be detected by isotope arrays coupled with fingerprinting methods.

  11. Consumer Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    This guide to consumer health contains two parts, the first of which covers consumerism, cosmetics (aids for skin problems, dandruff, deodorants, dentifrices), food shopping, and clothes shopping. Part 2 discusses health quackery, including arthritis quackery, and mail-order "doctoring", food quackery, weight-reducing products, and how to…

  12. Linking precipitation and C3-C4 plant production to resource dynamics in higher-trophic-level consumers.

    PubMed

    Warne, Robin W; Pershall, Alaina D; Wolf, Blair O

    2010-06-01

    In many ecosystems, seasonal shifts in temperature and precipitation induce pulses of primary productivity that vary in phenology, abundance, and nutritional quality. Variation in these resource pulses could strongly influence community composition and ecosystem function, because these pervasive bottom-up forces play a primary role in determining the biomass, life cycles, and interactions of organisms across trophic levels. The focus of this research is to understand how consumers across trophic levels alter resource use and assimilation over seasonal and interannual timescales in response to climatically driven changes in pulses of primary productivity. We measured the carbon isotope ratios (delta(13)C) of plant, arthropod, and lizard tissues in the northern Chihuahuan Desert to quantify the relative importance of primary production from plants using C3 and C4 photosynthesis for consumers. Summer monsoonal rains on the Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in New Mexico support a pulse of C4 plant production that has tissue delta(13)C values distinct from C3 plants. During a year when precipitation patterns were relatively normal, delta(13)C measurements showed that consumers used and assimilated significantly more C4-derived carbon over the course of a summer, tracking the seasonal increase in abundance of C4 plants. In the following spring, after a failure in winter precipitation and the associated failure of spring C3 plant growth, consumers showed elevated assimilation of C4-derived carbon relative to a normal rainfall regime. These findings provide insight into how climate, pulsed resources, and temporal trophic dynamics may interact to shape semiarid grasslands such as the Chihuahuan Desert in the present and future.

  13. Comparative modeling of exposure to airborne nanoparticles released by consumer spray products.

    PubMed

    Riebeling, Christian; Luch, Andreas; Götz, Mario Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Consumer exposure to sprays containing nano-objects is a continuing concern as a potential health hazard. One potential hazard has been formulated in the overload hypothesis. It describes a volume fraction of the macrophages that is occupied by deposited nanoparticles that leads to reduced macrophage mobility. Subsequent chronic inflammation may then lead to severe health consequences including cancer. To calculate lung deposition of spherical particles, the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD) model (ARA, Albuquerque, NM) provides different kinds of lung models and age settings. Using the MPPD v 2.11 software, we modeled several consumer-related exposure scenarios. Different body orientations and age groups were investigated. Moreover, a number of materials representing different densities were used, and the exposure calculated using MPPD is compared to the hazard derived from the overload hypothesis. Conditions leading to macrophage overload were found for exposures to high particle doses for prolonged times and repeated exposure. Such conditions are unlikely in the context of regular consumer exposure. The overload hypothesis assumes the particles to be inert and biopersistent, a condition that currently lacks a clear regulatory definition and is valid only for a few selected materials. Furthermore, because of material-specific effects and the possibility of surface adsorption of hazardous chemicals, nano-objects in propellant sprays remain of concern for consumer health.

  14. 75 FR 7550 - Requirements for Consumer Registration of Durable Infant or Toddler Products; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... Register of December 29, 2009 (74 FR 68668). The document issued a final rule under section 104(d) of the... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In FR Doc. E9-30485 appearing on page 68668 in the Federal Register of Tuesday... COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 1130 Requirements for Consumer Registration of Durable Infant or Toddler...

  15. 75 FR 23191 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... energy savings (NES) and the net present value (NPV) of total consumer costs and savings expected to... present-value terms. The PBP represents the number of years needed to recover the increase in purchase... initially concluded that it lacked authority to set standards for the exempt IRLs. 74 FR 16920, 16930...

  16. 75 FR 1121 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... 1. Specific Criteria a. Economic Impact on Commercial Consumers and Manufacturers b. Life-Cycle.... Engineering Analysis 1. Efficiency Levels 2. Manufacturing Costs D. Life-Cycle Cost and Payback Period... Savings C. Economic Justification 1. Economic Impacts on Commercial Customers a. Life-Cycle Cost...

  17. Consumer Advertising: Its Role in Bringing a Product to Market. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procter and Gamble Educational Services, Cincinnati, OH.

    This kit, designed for high school classes, considers advertising from both consumers' and manufacturers' perspectives. The role of advertising in relation to free enterprise principles is discussed in chapter 1, while chapter 2 provides a history of U.S. advertising processes and development. Chapter 3 describes advertising's role in bringing a…

  18. The Trade-Off: Consumer Privacy for Technology Products and Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scibelli, David B.

    2013-01-01

    With the Internet advancements of information systems and social media channels, consumer data has become a valuable source for companies and social networking communities. These Internet businesses are allowed to use and share their customers' information, with minimal regulatory intervention other than in health and financial areas. This…

  19. Designing Social Production Models to Support Producer-Consumer Collaboration and Innovation in Digital Social Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arakji, Reina Y.

    2009-01-01

    The first decade of the twenty-first century has seen dramatic advances in Internet technologies. Digital social spaces have emerged as popular Internet applications that are radically changing how firms and consumers of digital content interact. In the first chapter "Research Agenda" I introduce my research and the context within which it is…

  20. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans C M; Luning, Pieternel

    2005-06-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary analysis of 10 different health claims systematically combined with 10 different food carriers to evaluate their combined suitability for functional food positioning. The results show that consumers tend to prefer functional food concepts that primarily communicate disease-related health benefits in carriers with a healthy image or health positioning history. Study 2 examines health claim format and systematically varies the way in which specific health benefits are being communicated to the consumer. Two physiologically oriented claims (heart disease and osteoporosis) and two psychologically oriented food claims (stress and lack of energy) are expressed in enhanced function format versus disease risk reduction format. Also, it includes the individual difference variable of 'regulatory focus' and the health status of the respondent to explore how these factors impact health claim evaluation. The results show that consumer evaluations primarily differ to the extent that health claims are personally relevant in addressing an experienced disease state. Framing is important, but its effect differs by health benefit. No strong effects for consumers' regulatory focus were found. Underlying mechanisms of these effects and their implications for the development of functional foods are discussed. PMID:15894404

  1. Functional foods: health claim-food product compatibility and the impact of health claim framing on consumer evaluation.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans C M; Luning, Pieternel

    2005-06-01

    Two studies are reported, which aim to strengthen the scientific underpinning of strategic decisions regarding functional food development, as to (1) which health benefits to claim, (2) with which product (category), and (3) in which communication format. The first exploratory study is a secondary analysis of 10 different health claims systematically combined with 10 different food carriers to evaluate their combined suitability for functional food positioning. The results show that consumers tend to prefer functional food concepts that primarily communicate disease-related health benefits in carriers with a healthy image or health positioning history. Study 2 examines health claim format and systematically varies the way in which specific health benefits are being communicated to the consumer. Two physiologically oriented claims (heart disease and osteoporosis) and two psychologically oriented food claims (stress and lack of energy) are expressed in enhanced function format versus disease risk reduction format. Also, it includes the individual difference variable of 'regulatory focus' and the health status of the respondent to explore how these factors impact health claim evaluation. The results show that consumer evaluations primarily differ to the extent that health claims are personally relevant in addressing an experienced disease state. Framing is important, but its effect differs by health benefit. No strong effects for consumers' regulatory focus were found. Underlying mechanisms of these effects and their implications for the development of functional foods are discussed.

  2. Toxicants in Consumer Products. Household Hazardous Waste Disposal Project. Metro Toxicant Program No. 1B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgley, Susan M.

    Four general product classes (pesticides, paint products, household cleaners, and automotive products) are reviewed in this document. Each product class is described, and several aspects of the problem associated with product use or disposal are examined, including estimates of volumes used and environmental impacts. Technical data on the specific…

  3. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  4. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  5. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  6. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  7. 41 CFR 101-26.602 - Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense Logistics Agency. 101-26.602 Section 101-26.602... Other Than GSA § 101-26.602 Fuels and packaged petroleum products obtained from or through the Defense... requirements for coal, natural gas from sources other than a public utility, petroleum fuels, and...

  8. Predicting Consumer Biomass, Size-Structure, Production, Catch Potential, Responses to Fishing and Associated Uncertainties in the World's Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Simon; Collingridge, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Existing estimates of fish and consumer biomass in the world's oceans are disparate. This creates uncertainty about the roles of fish and other consumers in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem processes, the extent of human and environmental impacts and fishery potential. We develop and use a size-based macroecological model to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on predicted consumer biomass, production and distribution. Resulting uncertainty is large (e.g. median global biomass 4.9 billion tonnes for consumers weighing 1 g to 1000 kg; 50% uncertainty intervals of 2 to 10.4 billion tonnes; 90% uncertainty intervals of 0.3 to 26.1 billion tonnes) and driven primarily by uncertainty in trophic transfer efficiency and its relationship with predator-prey body mass ratios. Even the upper uncertainty intervals for global predictions of consumer biomass demonstrate the remarkable scarcity of marine consumers, with less than one part in 30 million by volume of the global oceans comprising tissue of macroscopic animals. Thus the apparently high densities of marine life seen in surface and coastal waters and frequently visited abundance hotspots will likely give many in society a false impression of the abundance of marine animals. Unexploited baseline biomass predictions from the simple macroecological model were used to calibrate a more complex size- and trait-based model to estimate fisheries yield and impacts. Yields are highly dependent on baseline biomass and fisheries selectivity. Predicted global sustainable fisheries yield increases ≈4 fold when smaller individuals (< 20 cm from species of maximum mass < 1 kg) are targeted in all oceans, but the predicted yields would rarely be accessible in practice and this fishing strategy leads to the collapse of larger species if fishing mortality rates on different size classes cannot be decoupled. Our analyses show that models with minimal parameter demands that are based on a few established ecological principles

  9. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef stock containing glutathione Maillard reaction products prepared at various conditions.

    PubMed

    Kwon, G Y; Hong, J H; Kim, Y S; Lee, S M; Kim, K O

    2011-01-01

    The sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of beef soup samples containing 9 types of glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) were investigated to examine the effects of the GMRPs produced under different reaction conditions on the flavor of the beef soup. The sensory characteristics of the beef stocks were examined using descriptive analysis. In consumer testing, 50 consumers evaluated the overall acceptability and flavor intensities of beef odor, salty taste, beef flavor, and seasoning flavor in the beef soup samples. It was found that the reaction conditions, including sugar type and pH, affected the sensory characteristics of the beef stock containing the GMRPs. The samples containing the GMRPs reacted at pH 7 were characterized with strong beef flavor, chestnut flavor, and cooked rice flavor. However, the GMRP reacted with xylose at pH 7 (XM7) was significantly stronger in beef-related sensory characteristics than the GMRPs reacted with glucose or fructose at pH 7 (GM7 and FM7). The samples containing the GMRPs reacted at pH 3 had strong acid-related attributes whereas the GMRPs reacted at pH 11 exhibited strong sulfur-related attributes and a bitter taste. Overall, the beef soup containing XM7, which was perceived as having a strong beef odor and flavor, was rated the highest consumer acceptability score. This suggests that XM7 has feasibility as a flavor enhancer. To elucidate its effectiveness further, it is required to apply XM7 in various food systems at varying levels and to compare its flavor enhancing effects with other flavor enhancers such as monosodium L-glutamate in future studies. Practical Application: This study characterized sensory attributes of glutathione Maillard reaction products (GMRPs) reacted under various conditions and evaluated their potential as a flavor enhancer by examining consumer acceptability of beef stock containing the GMRPs. This study showed that the GMRP reacted with xylose at pH 7 had strong 71 beef

  10. Predicting Consumer Biomass, Size-Structure, Production, Catch Potential, Responses to Fishing and Associated Uncertainties in the World's Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Simon; Collingridge, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Existing estimates of fish and consumer biomass in the world's oceans are disparate. This creates uncertainty about the roles of fish and other consumers in biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem processes, the extent of human and environmental impacts and fishery potential. We develop and use a size-based macroecological model to assess the effects of parameter uncertainty on predicted consumer biomass, production and distribution. Resulting uncertainty is large (e.g. median global biomass 4.9 billion tonnes for consumers weighing 1 g to 1000 kg; 50% uncertainty intervals of 2 to 10.4 billion tonnes; 90% uncertainty intervals of 0.3 to 26.1 billion tonnes) and driven primarily by uncertainty in trophic transfer efficiency and its relationship with predator-prey body mass ratios. Even the upper uncertainty intervals for global predictions of consumer biomass demonstrate the remarkable scarcity of marine consumers, with less than one part in 30 million by volume of the global oceans comprising tissue of macroscopic animals. Thus the apparently high densities of marine life seen in surface and coastal waters and frequently visited abundance hotspots will likely give many in society a false impression of the abundance of marine animals. Unexploited baseline biomass predictions from the simple macroecological model were used to calibrate a more complex size- and trait-based model to estimate fisheries yield and impacts. Yields are highly dependent on baseline biomass and fisheries selectivity. Predicted global sustainable fisheries yield increases ≈4 fold when smaller individuals (< 20 cm from species of maximum mass < 1 kg) are targeted in all oceans, but the predicted yields would rarely be accessible in practice and this fishing strategy leads to the collapse of larger species if fishing mortality rates on different size classes cannot be decoupled. Our analyses show that models with minimal parameter demands that are based on a few established ecological principles

  11. Consumer hazards of plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, G S

    1976-01-01

    The modern consumer is exposed to a wide variety of plastic and rubber products in his day to day life: at home, work, school, shopping, recreation and play, and transport. A large variety of toxic sequellae have resulted from untoward exposures by many different routes: oral, dermal, inhalation, and parenteral. Toxic change may result from the plastic itself, migration of unbound components and additives, chemical decomposition or toxic pyrolysis products. The type of damage may involve acute poisoning, chronic organ damage, reproductive disorders, and carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic episodes. Typical examples for all routes are cited along with the activites of Canadian regulatory agencies to reduce both the incidence and severity of plastic-induced disease. PMID:1026409

  12. 77 FR 1649 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps. (76 FR 37408). The NIA... section 3(f) of Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735 (Oct. 4, 1993.... 13272, ``Proper Consideration of Small Entities in Agency Rulemaking'' 67 FR 53461 (August 16,...

  13. 76 FR 30555 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... proposed rulemaking (SNOPR), 76 FR 18105, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) proposed amendments to those... released in a June 2010 notice of proposed rulemaking (NOPR). 75 FR 31224. The proposed amendments in the... Procedures for Residential Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  14. 76 FR 56125 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... proposed rulemaking (NOPR) in the Federal Register (76 FR 43941) which proposed amendments to DOE's... Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy... rulemaking for direct heating equipment is extended to October 14, 2011. ] DATES: DOE will accept...

  15. 78 FR 41873 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ..., Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735 (Oct. 4, 1993). Accordingly, this proposed action was not subject..., as required by E.O. 13272, ``Proper Consideration of Small Entities in Agency Rulemaking'' 67 FR.... 68 FR 7990 (February 19, 2003). DOE makes its procedures and policies available on the Office of...

  16. 76 FR 61999 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...: (202) 586-5827. E-mail: Eric.Stas@hq.doe.gov . Corrections In FR Doc. 2011-23286, published in the Federal Register on September 13, 2011 (76 FR 56339) make the following correction in the ADDRESSES... Procedures for Residential Furnaces and Boilers (Standby Mode and Off Mode); Correction AGENCY: Office...

  17. 78 FR 26711 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... Register (78 FR 20832) to propose amendments to its May 2012 notice of proposed rulemaking related to test..., Urinals and Commercial Prerinse Spray Valves AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... test procedures for showerheads, faucets, water closets, urinals and commercial prerinse spray...

  18. 78 FR 62970 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ...)) EPCA states that the test procedure for measuring the flow rate for commercial prerinse spray valves... spray valves at 10 CFR 431.264. 71 FR 71340. DOE last amended test procedures for showerheads, faucets... Commercial Prerinse Spray Valves AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department...

  19. 75 FR 51423 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Adopting Full-Fuel-Cycle Analyses Into Energy Conservation Standards Program AGENCY: Office of Energy..., DOE proposes to use full-fuel-cycle (FFC) measures of energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions... Policy for Full-Fuel-Cycle Analysis Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-NOA-0028 and/or RIN 1904-AC24,...

  20. 75 FR 62115 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... requirements cited by Massachusetts include its Global Warming Solutions Act (2008 Mass. Acts, Ch. 298) and... and to solicit public comment. 75 FR 4548 (Jan. 28, 2010). As required under EPCA, the agency provided... subsequent rebuttal period of 30 ] days, which closed on July 7, 2010. 75 FR 32177 (June 7, 2010). The...

  1. 75 FR 17075 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Residential Furnaces and Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... efficiency descriptor that incorporates standby mode and off mode energy consumption into the statutorily... Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000...

  2. 78 FR 72533 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... 430.2. 78 FR 62988, 62989-62990. The AEMTCA amendments also established that SDHV units manufactured... Entities in Agency Rulemaking,'' 67 FR 53461 (August 16, 2002), DOE published procedures and policies on... considered during the rulemaking process. 68 FR 7990. DOE has made its procedures and policies available...

  3. 77 FR 76972 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... actions'' under section 3(f) of Executive Order 12866, Regulatory Planning and Review, 58 FR 51735 (Oct. 4... required by E.O. 13272, ``Proper Consideration of Small Entities in Agency Rulemaking'' 67 FR 53461 (August... impact of its rules on small entities are properly considered during the DOE rulemaking process. 68...

  4. 78 FR 77607 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... conservation standards for residential furnace fans published on October 25, 2013 (78 FR 64067) is extended to... (78 FR 64067) to make available and invite comments on the proposed rule regarding energy conservation... Standards for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  5. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... meeting and availability of the Framework Document in the Federal Register (78 FR 16443) to make available... for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... conservation standards for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal Register....

  6. Analysis of Ingredient Lists to Quantitatively Characterize Chemicals in Consumer Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA’s ExpoCast program is developing high throughput (HT) approaches to generate the needed exposure estimates to compare against HT bioactivity data generated from the US inter-agency Tox21 and the US EPA ToxCast programs. Assessing such exposures for the thousands of...

  7. Investigating the Role of State Permitting and Agriculture Agencies in Addressing Public Health Concerns Related to Industrial Food Animal Production

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Jillian P.; Laestadius, Linnea I.; Grechis, Clare; Nachman, Keeve E.; Neff, Roni A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Industrial food animal production (IFAP) operations adversely impact environmental public health through air, water, and soil contamination. We sought to determine how state permitting and agriculture agencies respond to these public health concerns. Methods We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with staff at 12 state agencies in seven states, which were chosen based on high numbers or rapid increase of IFAP operations. The interviews served to gather information regarding agency involvement in regulating IFAP operations, the frequency and type of contacts received about public health concerns, how the agency responds to such contacts, and barriers to additional involvement. Results Permitting and agriculture agencies’ responses to health-based IFAP concerns are constrained by significant barriers including narrow regulations, a lack of public health expertise within the agencies, and limited resources. Conclusions State agencies with jurisdiction over IFAP operations are unable to adequately address relevant public health concerns due to multiple factors. Combining these results with previously published findings on barriers facing local and state health departments in the same states reveals significant gaps between these agencies regarding public health and IFAP. There is a clear need for regulations to protect public health and for public health professionals to provide complementary expertise to agencies responsible for regulating IFAP operations. PMID:24587087

  8. How do consumer attitudes influence acceptance of a novel wild blueberry-soy product?

    PubMed

    Teh, T; Dougherty, M P; Camire, M E

    2007-09-01

    Acceptance of healthful foods by consumers is not yet well understood. In this study, 3 formulations of frozen dessert bars were prepared containing both soy and wild blueberries. Soy content was controlled to provide an amount of soy protein that qualified for the health claim for soy and reduced risks for cardiovascular disease. Consumers were asked to complete the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) and then evaluate the acceptability of the 3 frozen bar types using a 9-point hedonic scale. One week after the 1st session, the participants returned. Approximately half were given information to read regarding the health benefits of soy protein, the other participants were given no information. The samples were then presented a 2nd time and labeled with their soy protein content. Changes in hedonic scores between sessions were compared and correlated with HTAS ratings. Nutrition information generally did not affect acceptability scores.

  9. How do consumer attitudes influence acceptance of a novel wild blueberry-soy product?

    PubMed

    Teh, T; Dougherty, M P; Camire, M E

    2007-09-01

    Acceptance of healthful foods by consumers is not yet well understood. In this study, 3 formulations of frozen dessert bars were prepared containing both soy and wild blueberries. Soy content was controlled to provide an amount of soy protein that qualified for the health claim for soy and reduced risks for cardiovascular disease. Consumers were asked to complete the Health and Taste Attitude Scales (HTAS) and then evaluate the acceptability of the 3 frozen bar types using a 9-point hedonic scale. One week after the 1st session, the participants returned. Approximately half were given information to read regarding the health benefits of soy protein, the other participants were given no information. The samples were then presented a 2nd time and labeled with their soy protein content. Changes in hedonic scores between sessions were compared and correlated with HTAS ratings. Nutrition information generally did not affect acceptability scores. PMID:17995666

  10. Changes in plasma and oral mucosal lycopene isomer concentrations in healthy adults consuming standard servings of processed tomato products.

    PubMed

    Allen, Charlotte M; Schwartz, Steven J; Craft, Neal E; Giovannucci, Edward L; De Groff, Valerie L; Clinton, Steven K

    2003-01-01

    The consumption of tomato products is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and several cancers. It is hypothesized that lycopene, the major carotenoid in tomato products, may mediate this relationship. We designed a study to examine changes in plasma and buccal mucosal cell (BMC) lycopene concentrations in healthy adults consuming standard daily servings of processed tomato products: spaghetti sauce, tomato soup, or vegetable juice. Thirty-six healthy subjects consumed a lycopene-free diet for 2 wk and were then assigned to one of three (n = 12) intervention groups consuming daily, single servings of sauce (21 mg lycopene per (1/2) cup), soup (12 mg lycopene per 1 cup), or juice (17 mg lycopene per 8 oz) for 4 wk. Fasting blood and BMC samples were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis for carotenoids and lycopene isomers. Total plasma lycopene concentrations (Mean +/- SEM) decreased from 1.05 +/- 0.07 to 0.54 +/- 0.05 micromol/l (49%, P < 0.0001) during the 2-wk washout period. Following intervention, plasma lycopene concentrations increased significantly for those consuming sauce, soup, and juice (compared with washout baseline) to 2.08 (192%, P < 0.0001), 0.91 (122%, P < 0.0001), and 0.99 (92%, P < 0.0001) micromol/l, respectively. Plasma isomer concentrations show a 61:39 ratio of cis:all-trans at the start of the study. During the 2-wk washout the decrease in plasma all-trans-lycopene was greater than that for pooled cis isomers (70:30 cis:trans ratio, P < 0.001). After 2 wk of dietary intervention isomer ratios returned to those observed at the start of the study. Total BMC lycopene concentrations did not significantly change during the brief washout. During the 4-wk intervention period, BMC total lycopene concentrations increased (P < 0.005) by 165, 42, and 48% nmol/mg protein for those consuming sauce, soup, and juice, respectively. This study demonstrates that plasma lycopene decreases by 50% after approximately 2

  11. Thumbnail Sketches: EDTA-Type Chelating Agents in Everyday Consumer Products: Some Medicinal and Personal Care Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, J. Roger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)-type chelating agents found in ophthalmic products, personal care products, and disinfectants. Also discusses the properties and action of these EDTA agents. (JN)

  12. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  13. Efficacy and acceptance of a commercial Hoodia parviflora product for support of appetite and weight control in a consumer trial.

    PubMed

    Landor, Michael; Benami, Ari; Segev, Nitzan; Loberant, Beth

    2015-02-01

    Species of Hoodia Sweet ex Decne., family Apocynaceae, a southern African succulent plant, have been recognized for their appetite suppressing properties. Products that support appetite and weight control have been developed in Israel from locally cultivated Hoodia spp. To study consumer acceptance, efficacy of, and tolerance for a frozen product based on whole aerial parts of Hoodia parviflora N.E. Br., we initiated and conducted this single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled consumer trial. Volunteer participants ingested flavored 3 g frozen Hoodia or placebo cubes for 40 days. Subjects were weighed and measured and baseline body-mass index was determined. Adverse events were monitored and eight mild, transient, possible treatment-emergent events were reported. No moderate, severe, or chronic events were reported. On days 1, 10, and 40, subjects self-reported their perceptions of food consumption, hunger development, incidence and control of food cravings, and efficacy of the product. On day 40, the treatment group demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in measured quantitative parameters against the placebo and reported a positive perception of the product.

  14. 76 FR 34914 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Proposed Determination of Set-Top Boxes and Network Equipment... tentatively that set-top boxes and network equipment qualify as a covered product under Part A of Title III of... network equipment meet the criteria for covered products because classifying products of such type...

  15. Does eating local food reduce the environmental impact of food production and enhance consumer health?

    PubMed

    Edwards-Jones, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    The concept of local food has gained traction in the media, engaged consumers and offered farmers a new marketing tool. Positive claims about the benefits of local food are probably not harmful when made by small-scale producers at the local level; however, greater concern would arise should such claims be echoed in policy circles. This review examines the evidence base supporting claims about the environmental and health benefits of local food. The results do not offer any support for claims that local food is universally superior to non-local food in terms of its impact on the climate or the health of consumers. Indeed several examples are presented that demonstrate that local food can on occasions be inferior to non-local food. The analysis also considers the impact on greenhouse gas emissions of moving the UK towards self-sufficiency. Quantitative evidence is absent on the changes in overall emissions that would occur if the UK switched to self-sufficiency. A qualitative assessment suggests the emissions per item of food would probably be greater under a scenario of self-sufficiency than under the current food system. The review does not identify any generalisable or systematic benefits to the environment or human health that arise from the consumption of local food in preference to non-local food.

  16. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deng-kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-feng; Yu, Sui-huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design.

  17. Cost-benefit study of consumer product take-back programs using IBM's WIT reverse logistics optimization tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veerakamolmal, Pitipong; Lee, Yung-Joon; Fasano, J. P.; Hale, Rhea; Jacques, Mary

    2002-02-01

    In recent years, there has been increased focus by regulators, manufacturers, and consumers on the issue of product end of life management for electronics. This paper presents an overview of a conceptual study designed to examine the costs and benefits of several different Product Take Back (PTB) scenarios for used electronics equipment. The study utilized a reverse logistics supply chain model to examine the effects of several different factors in PTB programs. The model was done using the IBM supply chain optimization tool known as WIT (Watson Implosion Technology). Using the WIT tool, we were able to determine a theoretical optimal cost scenario for PTB programs. The study was designed to assist IBM internally in determining theoretical optimal Product Take Back program models and determining potential incentives for increasing participation rates.

  18. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deng-kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-feng; Yu, Sui-huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design. PMID:27630709

  19. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Pu; Chen, Deng-Kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-Feng; Yu, Sui-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design.

  20. Consumers' Kansei Needs Clustering Method for Product Emotional Design Based on Numerical Design Structure Matrix and Genetic Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Pu; Chen, Deng-Kai; Gu, Rong; Gu, Yu-Feng; Yu, Sui-Huai

    2016-01-01

    Consumers' Kansei needs reflect their perception about a product and always consist of a large number of adjectives. Reducing the dimension complexity of these needs to extract primary words not only enables the target product to be explicitly positioned, but also provides a convenient design basis for designers engaging in design work. Accordingly, this study employs a numerical design structure matrix (NDSM) by parameterizing a conventional DSM and integrating genetic algorithms to find optimum Kansei clusters. A four-point scale method is applied to assign link weights of every two Kansei adjectives as values of cells when constructing an NDSM. Genetic algorithms are used to cluster the Kansei NDSM and find optimum clusters. Furthermore, the process of the proposed method is presented. The details of the proposed approach are illustrated using an example of electronic scooter for Kansei needs clustering. The case study reveals that the proposed method is promising for clustering Kansei needs adjectives in product emotional design. PMID:27630709

  1. Irrigated urban vegetable production in Ghana: microbiological contamination in farms and markets and associated consumer risk groups.

    PubMed

    Amoah, P; Drechsel, P; Henseler, M; Abaidoo, R C

    2007-09-01

    Ghana is a typical low-income sub-Saharan African country facing significant sanitation challenges. In Ghana, fresh salads are not part of the normal diet, but have become a common supplement to urban fast food served in streets, canteens and restaurants. In Accra, about 200 000 people consume from such supplements every day. The figure also describes the size of the risk group from contamination, which comprises all income classes including the poor and children. The purpose of this study was to investigate widespread water pollution in urban and peri-urban areas, where 95% of the lettuce consumed in the city is produced. Over 12 months (April 2004-June 2005), lettuce samples from the same production sites in two cities were followed and analyzed along the "farm to fork" pathway for total and faecal coliform (FC) and helminth egg numbers. Questionnaire surveys were conducted among producers, sellers and consumers to quantify lettuce flows to the final risk group. The study identified the farm as the main point of lettuce contamination. Besides the irrigation water, contamination was also attributed to manure application and already contaminated soil. Despite poor sanitary conditions in markets, post-harvest handling and marketing did not further increase the farm-gate contamination levels. To reduce the health risk associated with the consumption of contaminated lettuce; safer farming and irrigation practices are required while the remaining risk could best be addressed where lettuce is prepared for consumption. PMID:17878560

  2. Lake secondary production fueled by rapid transfer of low molecular weight organic carbon from terrestrial sources to aquatic consumers.

    PubMed

    Berggren, M; Ström, L; Laudon, H; Karlsson, J; Jonsson, A; Giesler, R; Bergström, A-K; Jansson, M

    2010-07-01

    Carbon of terrestrial origin often makes up a significant share of consumer biomass in unproductive lake ecosystems. However, the mechanisms for terrestrial support of lake secondary production are largely unclear. By using a modelling approach, we show that terrestrial export of dissolved labile low molecular weight carbon (LMWC) compounds supported 80% (34-95%), 54% (19-90%) and 23% (7-45%) of the secondary production by bacteria, protozoa and metazoa, respectively, in a 7-km(2) boreal lake (conservative to liberal estimates in brackets). Bacterial growth on LMWC was of similar magnitude as that of primary production (PP), and grazing on bacteria effectively channelled the LMWC carbon to higher trophic levels. We suggest that rapid turnover of forest LMWC pools enables continuous export of fresh photosynthates and other labile metabolites to aquatic systems, and that substantial transfer of LMWC from terrestrial sources to lake consumers can occur within a few days. Sequestration of LMWC of terrestrial origin, thus, helps explain high shares of terrestrial carbon in lake organisms and implies that lake food webs can be closely dependent on recent terrestrial PP.

  3. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001). PMID:25930204

  4. Importance of Vascular Plant and Algal Production to Macro-invertebrate Consumers in a Southern California Salt Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, H. M.

    1997-12-01

    The dietary importance of marsh vascular plants (primarilySalicornia virginica), algae and upland particulate inputs to macro-invertebrate consumers was studied in Carpinteria Salt Marsh, southern California, using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. This marsh is predominantly a marine or hypersaline system and succulents are the most common vascular plant species. Of invertebrates collected from the vegetated marsh, tidal flats and channels, only detritivores from the vegetated marsh (Traskorchestia traskiana,Melampus olivaceus) had isotope values (δ13C=-20‰) that suggested some use ofSalicornia-derived carbon.T. traskianacultured in the laboratory on decomposingS. virginicaor blue-green micro-algal mat had distinctive isotopic signatures, reflecting the capability of this consumer to assimilate carbon and nitrogen derived from these sources. The δ13C values (generally -16‰ to -15‰) of species from tidal flats and channels (e.g.Cerithidea californica,Protothaca staminea,Mytilus galloprovincialis,Neotrypaea californiensis) were most similar to values for benthic algae and phytoplankton. Specimens ofM. galloprovincialisalong a gradient of presumed increase in marine influence had similar isotope values, suggesting little contribution to diet from upland runoff. The present results differ most noticeably from published values in the13C enrichment of suspension-feeders, suggesting the use of resuspended13C-enriched benthic microalgae in tidal channels by these consumers, and in the13C depletion and15N enrichment of plants and consumers along a portion of the marsh boundary receiving inputs of nutrient-enriched perched groundwater. In general, the isotopic composition of macro-invertebrates indicated the incorporation of algal production rather than ofS. virginicaor upland sources into the marsh food web.

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Product-Weighted Reactivity Limits by Coating Category

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Product-Weighted Reactivity Limits by Coating Category

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Product-Weighted Reactivity Limits by Coating Category

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol...

  8. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Product-Weighted Reactivity Limits by Coating Category

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol...

  9. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart E of... - Product-Weighted Reactivity Limits by Coating Category

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION STANDARDS FOR CONSUMER AND COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol...

  10. 75 FR 37432 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings (Renewal) AGENCY... . Title: National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Automobile Refinish Coatings (Renewal... regulate volatile organic compound emissions from the use of consumer and commercial products. Pursuant...

  11. Demand Estimation with Heterogeneous Consumers and Unobserved Product Characteristics: A Hedonic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajari, Patrick; Benkard, C. Lanier

    2005-01-01

    We reconsider the identification and estimation of Gorman-Lancaster-style hedonic models of demand for differentiated products in the spirit of Sherwin Rosen. We generalize Rosen's first stage to account for product characteristics that are not observed and to allow the hedonic pricing function to have a general nonseparable form. We take an…

  12. 77 FR 76952 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... dishwashers, dehumidifiers and conventional cooking products (77 FR 65942 (Oct. 31, 2012)) and its direct final rule to amend the energy conservation standards applicable to dishwashers (77 FR 31918 (May 30... Cooking Products, Docket No. EERE-2010- BT-TP-0039, RIN 1904-AC01, 77 FR 65942 (Oct. 31, 2012)...

  13. 75 FR 56795 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... impact the water or energy characteristics of a product. For example, DOE could add a sampling provision... systematically enforce applicable energy and water conservation standards for covered products and covered equipment and provide for more accurate, comprehensive information about the energy and water...

  14. 75 FR 42579 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens; Repeal of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... first cycle of these rulemakings and issued a final rule on September 8, 1998 (63 FR 48038), in which... cost of a covered product during a representative average use cycle or period of use. Test procedures... products to measure their efficiency and energy use more accurately. 62 FR 51976. The microwave oven...

  15. 78 FR 41609 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ...) responding to two waiver petitions from Samsung addressing products with multiple defrost cycle types. 77 FR... 8. Definitions Associated with Defrost Cycles 9. Elimination of Reporting of Product Height 10... manufactured on or after January 1, 1993. 54 FR 47916. DOE subsequently published a correction to revise...

  16. 77 FR 3559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... the default values of maximum and minimum compressor run time for products with variable defrost... link to the docket web page can be found at: http://www.regulations.gov/#!docketDetail ;dct=FR%252BPR... performance standards for products manufactured on or after January 1, 1993. 54 FR 47916. DOE...

  17. Image Advertisements for Alcohol Products: Is Their Appeal Associated with Adolescents' Intention to Consume Alcohol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.

    1998-01-01

    Seeks to determine if adolescents who drink, or have intentions to drink, find image advertisements for alcohol more appealing than product advertisements. Results indicate that image advertising was preferred to product advertising, particularly by younger adolescents. Evidence of an association between preference for image advertisements and…

  18. Consumer Demand for Dairy Products. A Summary Analysis. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 537.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haidacher, Richard C.; And Others

    This study analyzes the 1980s upturn in per capita consumption of dairy products in the United States. The study found that per capita consumption of total dairy products in the United States first trended downward then stagnated for the two decades prior to the early 1980s. Per capita consumption of items such as whole milk declined, whereas…

  19. Consumer Health: Does Advertising Work on You? and Evaluating a Product's Health Claims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carolyn C.

    This paper describes lessons for teaching middle and high school students how to determine if they are influenced by the power of advertising and how to evaluate a product's health claims. To determine the influence of advertising, teachers have high school students discuss what their latest health product/service purchase was, why they bought it,…

  20. 'I'm a consumer, I'm not a scientist': Cultivating Student Domain Identification, Agency, and Affect through Engagement in Scientific Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalone, Giovanna

    This study investigates the potential benefits of redesigning hands-on, commercial inquiry science kits for fifth grade that afford agency and the development of science identities by leveraging youth's interests, personal or shared concerns, challenges or desires. Science identification is considered in relation to learning processes of being, becoming, knowing and doing. As identities are constructed dialogically through engagement, emotion, intentionality, innovation, and solidarity, students' agency is mediated and conceptualized as it develops in practice. The study is introduced in Chapter 1 by acknowledging how agency and identity are constructed from an ideological frame, thus problematizing the current neo-liberal policies undergirding educational reform. The conceptual argument in Chapter 2 outlines a theoretical synthesis of agency and learning. Subsequently, I leveraged a theory of semiosis to highlight how these perspectives on agency and identity contribute to the meaning-making processes of language, culture, and mind. Finally, conceptualizations of agency and identity are mapped to the sociology of scientific knowledge perspective. Chapter 3 situates the study context within a design-based implementation research model where the existing science curriculum units serve as comparisons (Inquiry group) to the experimental units (Agency group). The findings first demonstrate how student and teacher positioning are revealed during the turns of exchange by using functional grammar as a method to analyze how discourse works to construe experience and enact social relationships. Secondly, I analyze youth positioning across conditions highlighting the importance of raising student consciousness to the variegated ways scientists practice science and inducts students into how scientists intentionally and purposefully employ genres to engage in scientific ways of communicating. Student's perspectives, positioning, and emotional investments are then analyzed