Science.gov

Sample records for agency continued ocean

  1. Implementing the National Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS): from the federal agency perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassett, R.; Beard, R.; Burnett, W.; Crout, R.; Griffith, B.; Jensen, R.; Signell, R.

    2010-01-01

    The national Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS??) is responsible for coordinating a network of people, resources, and technology to disseminate continuous data, information, models, products, and services made throughout our coastal waters, Great Lakes, and the oceans. There are many components of the IOOS-including government, academic, and private entities. This article will focus on some of the federal contributions to IOOS and describe the capabilities of several agency partners.

  2. Ensuring Continuity of Coastal Ocean Optical Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crout, Richard L.; Ladner, Sherwin; Lawson, Adam; Martinolich, Paul; Arnone, Bob; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Bowers, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Satellite ocean colour remote sensing evolved rapidly following the 1978 launch of the Color Zone Coastal Scanner (CZCS). Since that launch, the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) has developed and transitioned tactical ocean optical products (diver visibility, laser penetration depth, chlorophyll concentration, and inherent optical products) from polar-orbiting ocean color sensors to the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO). Beginning with CZCS, NRL exploited the succession of ocean color sensors, including Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (Aqua MODIS), MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS), and the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infra Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (S-NPP VIIRS). Additionally, the geostationary Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (COMS GOCI) is also being exploited. Future sensors of interest include the Sentinel-3 series Ocean and Land Color Imager (OLCI) and the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) VIIRS. NRL’s Automated Optical Processing System (AOPS) processes ocean color satellite data to provide an operational near-real time depiction of the bio-optical ocean environment. These products are also used for validation of/or assimilation into ocean forecast models and to predict the impact of the environment on Navy coastal operations. NRL contributes to advancements in satellite processing techniques, atmospheric correction for coastal waters, enhanced resolution optical properties using imaging bands, cloud masking, and sensor merging for optimal operational products. Multiple satellites are necessary to provide changing conditions throughout the day allowing for detection of rapid optical temporal and spatial changes due to tides, winds, and river outflow. The Sentinel-3A and -3B OLCIs are critical to Navy coastal operations due to the quality of the data and the morning orbit that complements MODIS Aqua and

  3. Continued increases in Arctic Ocean primary production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.; van Dijken, Gert L.

    2015-08-01

    Dramatic declines in sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean in recent decades have the potential to fundamentally alter marine ecosystems. Here we investigate changes in sea ice between the years 1998 and 2012 at regional and basin scales and how these have impacted rates of phytoplankton net primary production (NPP). Annual NPP increased 30% over the Arctic Ocean during our study period, with the largest increases on the interior shelves and smaller increases on inflow shelves. Increased annual NPP was often, but not always, associated with reduced sea-ice extent and a longer phytoplankton growing season (fewer days of ice cover). Spatial patterns of increased annual NPP suggest that increased nutrient fluxes may also play an important role. Outflow shelves either exhibited no change in annual NPP during our study period or a significant decline, perhaps indicating that nutrients had been consumed by increased NPP farther upstream.

  4. Oceanic turbulence - Big bangs or continuous creation?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A hypothesis concerning the turbulence characteristics of 'microstructure' patches in the ocean is proposed in which a turbulence field is driven at the same time and scale at which it is observed. The driving energy is converted into turbulence kinetic energy in such a way that the observed overturning thickness scale is linearly related to the length scale. This hypothesis is contrasted with that of Gibson (1982), in which the 'patches' are produced by rare, powerful turbulence generators that have 'fossilized' prior to their observation. Careful attention is given to the sampling process and its assumptions.

  5. Continuing Professional Education Programs of Voluntary Health Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    Organizational objectives and professional continuing education programs of ten voluntary health agencies--Allergy Foundation of America, American Cancer Society, American Heart Association, Arthritis Foundation, National Association for Mental Health, National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, National Society for the Prevention of Blindness,…

  6. Oceans: Our Continuing Frontier. A Courses by Newspaper Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, H. William, Ed.; Scheiber, Jane L., Ed.

    This reader is one of several supplementary materials for a 16-week newspaper course about oceans. Six units contain 77 readings from primary sources such as personal diaries, historical documents, novels and poems. The readings present a mosaic of viewpoints, concerns, and controversial issues about the sea. "Our Continuing Frontier" provides a…

  7. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jesse M; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±8.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1) standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±7.32 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±45.6 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±13.9 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  8. Ocean-Scale Patterns in Community Respiration Rates along Continuous Transects across the Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jesse M.; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m−3 d−1±8.0 mmol m−3 d−1 standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m−3 d−1±7.32 mmol m−3 d−1 between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m−3 d−1±45.6 mmol m−3 d−1 between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m−3 d−1±13.9 mmol m−3 d−1 between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements. PMID:25048960

  9. 78 FR 55280 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (ADPs). This is a proposed... forms of information. Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected...

  10. 75 FR 36106 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... existing information collection: 1651-0086. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of...

  11. Sourcebook for Oceans: Our Continuing Frontier. Courses by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Mary, Ed.

    This sourcebook is one of several supplementary materials for a 16-week newspaper course about oceans. Program ideas and sources of related resources compiled in this sourcebook are designed to help civic and group leaders and educators plan educational community programs based on the course topics. Section one describes ways in which the…

  12. 75 FR 16493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This request for comment is being made... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). OMB Number: 1651-0086....

  13. Effects of the oceans on polar motion: Continued investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickman, S. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Data on the pole tide, the oceanic response to the Chandler wobble were presented. Observed North Sea pole tide enhancement (i.e., larger amplitudes than a static tide would possess) resulted from bottom friction, with the drag coefficient, in combination with the depth of the North Sea decreasing southward. Computer programs were written for the boundary conditions. Dissipation of the energy by North Sea pole tide currents was also computed; preliminary results indicate that such dissipation may explain a significant fraction of Chandler wobble energy loss.

  14. Excitation of Earth's continuous free oscillations by atmosphere-ocean-seafloor coupling.

    PubMed

    Rhie, Junkee; Romanowicz, Barbara

    2004-09-30

    The Earth undergoes continuous oscillations, and free oscillation peaks have been consistently identified in seismic records in the frequency range 2-7 mHz (refs 1, 2), on days without significant earthquakes. The level of daily excitation of this 'hum' is equivalent to that of magnitude 5.75 to 6.0 earthquakes, which cannot be explained by summing the contributions of small earthquakes. As slow or silent earthquakes have been ruled out as a source for the hum (except in a few isolated cases), turbulent motions in the atmosphere or processes in the oceans have been invoked as the excitation mechanism. We have developed an array-based method to detect and locate sources of the excitation of the hum. Our results demonstrate that the Earth's hum originates mainly in the northern Pacific Ocean during Northern Hemisphere winter, and in the Southern oceans during Southern Hemisphere winter. We conclude that the Earth's hum is generated by the interaction between atmosphere, ocean and sea floor, probably through the conversion of storm energy to oceanic infragravity waves that interact with seafloor topography.

  15. Freak Waves In The Ocean A~é­ We Need Continuous Measurements!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Teng, C.; Mori, N.

    Freak waves, sometimes also known as rogue waves, are a particular kind of ocean waves that displays a singular, unexpected, and unusually high wave profile with an extraordinarily large and steep trough or crest. The existence of freak waves has be- come widely accepted while it always poses severe hazard to the navy fleets, merchant marines, offshore structures, and virtually all oceanic ventures. Multitudes of seagoing vessels and mariners have encountered freak waves over the years, many had resulted in disasters. The emerging interest in freak waves and the quest to grasp an understand- ing of the phenomenon have inspired numerous theoretical conjectures in recent years. But the practical void of actual field observation on freak waves renders even the well- developed theories remain unverified. Furthermore, the present wave measurement systems, which have been in practice for the last 5 decades, are not at all designed to capture freak waves. We wish therefore to propose and petition to all oceanic scientist and engineers to consider undertaking an unprecedented but technologically feasible practice of making continuous and uninterrupted wave measurements. As freak waves can happen anywhere in the ocean and at anytime, the continuous and uninterrupted measurements at a fixed station would certainly be warranted to document the occur- rence of freak waves, if present, and thus lead to basic realizations of the underlying driving mechanisms.

  16. Sense of agency in continuous action: Assistance-induced performance improvement is self-attributed even with knowledge of assistance.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kazuya; Takeda, Yuji; Kimura, Motohiro

    2017-02-01

    In a task involving continuous action to achieve a goal, the sense of agency increases with an improvement in task performance that is induced by unnoticed computer assistance. This study investigated how explicit instruction about the existence of computer assistance affects the increase of sense of agency that accompanies performance improvement. Participants performed a continuous action task in which they controlled the direction of motion of a dot to a goal by pressing keys. When instructions indicated the absence of assistance, the sense of agency increased with performance improvement induced by computer assistance, replicating previous findings. Interestingly, this increase of sense of agency was also observed even when instructions indicated the presence of assistance. These results suggest that even when a plausible cause of performance improvement other than one's own action exists, the improvement can be misattributed to one's own control of action, resulting in an increased sense of agency.

  17. Continuous transport of Pacific-derived anthropogenic radionuclides towards the Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Pittauer, Daniela; Tims, Stephen G.; Froehlich, Michaela B.; Fifield, L. Keith; Wallner, Anton; McNeil, Steven D.; Fischer, Helmut W.

    2017-01-01

    Unusually high concentrations of americium and plutonium have been observed in a sediment core collected from the eastern Lombok Basin between Sumba and Sumbawa Islands in the Indonesian Archipelago. Gamma spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry data together with radiometric dating of the core provide a high-resolution record of ongoing deposition of anthropogenic radionuclides. A plutonium signature characteristic of the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) dominates in the first two decades after the start of the high yield atmospheric tests in 1950’s. Approximately 40–70% of plutonium at this site in the post 1970 period originates from the PPG. This sediment record of transuranic isotopes deposition over the last 55 years provides evidence for the continuous long-distance transport of particle-reactive radionuclides from the Pacific Ocean towards the Indian Ocean. PMID:28304374

  18. Continuous transport of Pacific-derived anthropogenic radionuclides towards the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittauer, Daniela; Tims, Stephen G.; Froehlich, Michaela B.; Fifield, L. Keith; Wallner, Anton; McNeil, Steven D.; Fischer, Helmut W.

    2017-03-01

    Unusually high concentrations of americium and plutonium have been observed in a sediment core collected from the eastern Lombok Basin between Sumba and Sumbawa Islands in the Indonesian Archipelago. Gamma spectrometry and accelerator mass spectrometry data together with radiometric dating of the core provide a high-resolution record of ongoing deposition of anthropogenic radionuclides. A plutonium signature characteristic of the Pacific Proving Grounds (PPG) dominates in the first two decades after the start of the high yield atmospheric tests in 1950’s. Approximately 40–70% of plutonium at this site in the post 1970 period originates from the PPG. This sediment record of transuranic isotopes deposition over the last 55 years provides evidence for the continuous long-distance transport of particle-reactive radionuclides from the Pacific Ocean towards the Indian Ocean.

  19. SeaWiFS-2: an ocean color data continuity mission to address climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammann, M. Gregory; Puschell, Jeffery J.

    2009-08-01

    Existing ocean color sensors are near or beyond the end of their mission lives and there will likely be a gap in climate quality Environmental Data Records (EDRs) until planned missions are launched. GeoEye's OrbView2 satellite with the SeaWiFS sensor has provided a 11+ year climatology of global chlorophyll a and other EDRs important for climate change and global warming studies. Upcoming sensors will not provide sufficient accuracy to provide continuity for the EDR time series and global monitoring. A 'stop-gap' mission is required, and we propose using the existing spare SeaWiFS sensor and a dedicated mission.

  20. 40 CFR 227.14 - Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping. 227.14 Section 227.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.14 Criteria for evaluating the need for...

  1. 40 CFR 227.14 - Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping. 227.14 Section 227.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.14 Criteria for evaluating the need for...

  2. 40 CFR 227.14 - Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping. 227.14 Section 227.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.14 Criteria for evaluating the need for...

  3. 40 CFR 227.14 - Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping. 227.14 Section 227.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.14 Criteria for evaluating the need for...

  4. 40 CFR 227.14 - Criteria for evaluating the need for ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ocean dumping and alternatives to ocean dumping. 227.14 Section 227.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.14 Criteria for evaluating the need for...

  5. 76 FR 37809 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Continuous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Reporting Regulations (CRRR) Under CERCLA 1980 (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... CERCLA 1980 (Renewal). ICR numbers: EPA ICR No. 1445.11, OMB Control No. 2050-0086. ICR status: This ICR... consolidated in 40 CFR part 9. Abstract: Section 103(a) of CERCLA, as amended, requires the person in charge...

  6. 41 CFR 102-85.205 - What happens if a customer agency continues occupancy after the expiration of an OA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assignments. However, provisions are necessary to cover the GSA and customer relationship if an OA expires... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if a customer agency continues occupancy after the expiration of an OA? 102-85.205 Section 102-85.205...

  7. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  8. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Cetacean and Sound Mapping Effort: Continuing Forward with an Integrated Ocean Noise Strategy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jolie; Ferguson, Megan; Gedamke, Jason; Hatch, Leila; Southall, Brandon; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To help manage chronic and cumulative impacts of human activities on marine mammals, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) convened two working groups, the Underwater Sound Field Mapping Working Group (SoundMap) and the Cetacean Density and Distribution Mapping Working Group (CetMap), with overarching effort of both groups referred to as CetSound, which (1) mapped the predicted contribution of human sound sources to ocean noise and (2) provided region/time/species-specific cetacean density and distribution maps. Mapping products were presented at a symposium where future priorities were identified, including institutionalization/integration of the CetSound effort within NOAA-wide goals and programs, creation of forums and mechanisms for external input and funding, and expanded outreach/education. NOAA is subsequently developing an ocean noise strategy to articulate noise conservation goals and further identify science and management actions needed to support them.

  9. Continuous, high-resolution spatial mapping of water isotopes in oceanic environment using a CRDS analyzer combined with a continuous water sampler.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim-Hak, David; Huang, Kuan; Winkler, Renato

    2016-04-01

    The recent advancements of the laser-based technology -in particular Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy, CRDS- gave birth to a new generation of water stable isotope analyzers that are user-friendly, compact and field deployable providing in-situ measurements. Furthermore, with last year's launch of the Continuous Water Sampler front-end, CWS, the analyzer system added two additional dimensions to liquid water measurements: real-time and continuous. These features enable the user to construct high resolution water isotope data sets through time and space. Campaigns on the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta with the US Geological Survey where the CWS-CRDS system was deployed onto a boat to spatially map sections of the delta, validated the CWS performance and demonstrated its durability on brackish water. The next step for the CWS is to explore oceanic applications with seawater. Early in-house laboratory experiments showed stable performance with brine waters (3% concentration). For the field experiment, we have collaborated with the China State Oceanic Administration to deploy the CWS-CRDS in oceanic environments on cruises along the costal China and Antarctic. Here, we present the results of the analysis collected onboard and compared them with discrete sampling measurements. The long-term test has also allowed us to assess the durability and expected lifetime of the CWS membrane and to recommend the proper maintenance procedure for optimum performance under oceanic conditions.

  10. Bolivian Teachers' Agency: Soldiers of Liberation or Guards of Coloniality and Continuation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the problems and promises of teachers' agency associated with Bolivia's current "decolonising" education reform. The Avelino Siñani Elizardo Pérez (ASEP) education reform is part of a counter-hegemonic and anti-neoliberal policy that aims to advance the political project of the government of Evo Morales, with…

  11. 77 FR 59421 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Continued Collection; Comment Request: Vocational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Employment Tracking Report; Jobs for Veterans State Grant Budget Information Summary; Jobs for Veterans State... comment on the proposed collection of certain information by the agency. Under the Paperwork Reduction Act... ``Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (Chapter 31) Tracking Report'' and identified by VETS ICR No....

  12. 40 CFR 227.16 - Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ocean dumping. 227.16 Section 227.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.16 Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping. (a) A need for...

  13. 40 CFR 227.16 - Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ocean dumping. 227.16 Section 227.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.16 Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping. (a) A need for...

  14. 40 CFR 227.16 - Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ocean dumping. 227.16 Section 227.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.16 Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping. (a) A need for...

  15. 40 CFR 227.16 - Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ocean dumping. 227.16 Section 227.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.16 Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping. (a) A need for...

  16. 40 CFR 227.16 - Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ocean dumping. 227.16 Section 227.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Need for Ocean Dumping § 227.16 Basis for determination of need for ocean dumping. (a) A need for...

  17. Monthly oceanic rainfall based on METH techniques: DMSP SSM/I V6 and SSMIS continuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, L. S.; Gao, S.; Shin, D.-B.; Cho, Y.-J.; Adler, R. F.; Huffman, G.; Bolvin, D.; Nelkin, E.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), our group have been producing oceanic rainfall over 2.5 and 5 degree boxes by applying the Microwave Emission brightness Temperature (Tb) Histogram, or METH technique to the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data taken on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite series. Recently, the rainfall series have been updated using the V6 SSM/I provided by RSS (Chiu and Chokngamwong., 2010). With the demise of the F15 SSM/I sensor, we examine the use of the SSMIS series to continue the DMSP time series. With its long duration, the DMSP satellite sensors constitute a unique data set capable of producing microwave-based products for climate studies. We compared the F13 SSM/I and F17 SSMIS for the period January 2008 - September 2009. The METH technique matches the histogram of Tb (twice 19V minus 22V) to a mixed-distribution of rain rates and estimates the parameters of the rain rate distribution. Mathematical convergence of the matching procedure is reached when a certain Chi-square threshold is reached. The important parameters are the Tb of the non-raining pixels (To) and the freezing level (FL) of the grid box considered. The sample size of the SSMIS is much larger than the SSM/I, hence the convergence criteria is relaxed by changing the Chi-square threshold. Preliminary results show a slight shift of the To (~0.8K). By adjusting To by a constant, the domain average SSMIS rain rates and FL are computed to within 2% and 1% of the SSM/I rain rates, respectively. Further investigation of the SSMIS METH rain rate will involve the comparison of the 19V and 22V and fine tuning the Chi-square parameter.

  18. Continued Development of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    Council, that improve information exchange between user groups and data providers, promote ocean literacy, and provide materials for the public, such as...fisheries), and facilitate safe and efficient marine transportation. Quality of Life The potential future impact of the project is that the GCOOS...hypoxia, excessive nutrient loading and eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and beach conditions. Science Education and Communication Materials and

  19. Oceans: Our Continuing Frontier. A Study Guide for Courses by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Helen S.

    This study guide is one of several supplementary materials for a 16-week newspaper course about oceans. Learning objectives are to help students understand the potential value of the sea, major sources of pollution, contribution of marine archaeology to knowledge of ancient civilizations, and the decline in fictional writing about the sea. Content…

  20. Oceans: Our Continuing Frontier. Newspaper Articles for the Fifth Course by Newspaper. Courses by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Univ., San Diego. Univ. Extension.

    Sixteen newspaper articles comprise this document, which served as the basis for a course by newspaper about oceans in 1976. United Press International and the National Newspaper Association helped distribute the articles to participating newspapers throughout the country. The articles, written by journalists, marine professors, oceanographic…

  1. Continued Development of the Look-up-table (LUT) Methodology for Interpretation of Remotely Sensed Ocean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    environmental information such as water -column optical properties, bathymetry, and bottom classification. OBJECTIVES My colleagues at the...Florida Environmental Research Institute and I are developing and evaluating techniques for the extraction of environmental information including water ...column inherent optical properties (IOPs) and shallow- water bathymetry and bottom classification from remotely-sensed hyperspectral ocean-color

  2. 41 CFR 102-85.200 - Can customer agencies continue occupancy of space or must they relocate at the end of an OA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Relocation and Forced Moves § 102-85.200 Can customer agencies continue occupancy of space or must they... may execute a succeeding lease with the incumbent lessor, in which case there is no move. (c) GSA...

  3. NEPTUNE Canada Regional Cabled Ocean Observatory Network: Scientific results across the earth/ocean sciences from two years of continuous real-time data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, M.; Johnson, F.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Founding Scientists Of Neptune Canada

    2011-12-01

    NEPTUNE Canada completed the installation and is now operating an 800 km, 5-node, regional cabled ocean network that spans the northern Juan de Fuca tectonic plate and continental shelf/slope in the northeastern Pacific. The NEPTUNE Canada network is part of the Ocean Networks Canada Observatory. Public data flow started in 2009 and interactive instruments continue to be added to this technically advanced system which provides continuous power and high bandwidth for enabling the collection of real-time physical, chemical, geological, and biological oceanographic data at resolutions relevant for furthering our understanding of the dynamics of the earth-ocean system. Here we present an overview and some initial results of the early installed real-time experiments, developed through workshops and international competitions, at five offshore locations. Inshore at Folger Passage, Barkley Sound, observations are focused on understanding biological productivity and the effects that marine processes have on fish and marine mammals. Experiments around Barkley Canyon allow quantification of changes in benthic activity with nutrient and sediment transport. There and north along the mid-continental slope near ODP Site 889, instruments are monitoring changes in the distribution, structure, related biotas and venting of gas hydrates. A Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) at our mid-plate site (ODP 1026) monitors real-time changes in crustal temperature and pressure, particularly related to events such as earthquakes, tsunamis, hydrothermal convection; these data are also important for understanding regional plate strain. At Endeavour on the Juan de Fuca Ridge, complex interactions among volcanic, tectonic, hydrothermal and biological processes are being observed. Across the NEPTUNE Canada network, high resolution acoustic and seismic monitoring elucidates tectonic processes such as earthquakes, and a tsunami detection system allows for the determination of open ocean

  4. Continuous Seafloor Gas Hydrate Monitoring on the Ocean Networks Canada NEPTUNE Cabled Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherwath, M.; Heesemann, M.; Moran, K.; Insua, T. L.; Roemer, M.; Riedel, M.; Spence, G.; Thomsen, L.; Purser, A.

    2014-12-01

    Long-term seafloor experiments provide high-resolution data that allow new kinds of observations on the dynamics and variability of gas hydrates. In the north-east Pacific, Canadian as well as US efforts on building cabled seafloor observatories enable the scientific community to study the Cascadia margin gas hydrates at various locations independent of dedicated ship cruises and unstable weather, without power saving restrictions and with near realtime access to the data and the ability to influence the in-situ data acquisition in reaction to events. We show scientific highlights from Barkley Canyon and Clayoquot Slope off Vancouver Island on of the gas hydrate stability and variability on and below the seafloor as well as gas release into the water column, using some standard measurements from core instruments such as temperature, salinity, bottom pressure, currents, as well as sonar, seismometer and camera image data. Correlations of these various data sets shed light on the dependence of the observed gas hydrate dynamics on various environmental factors, some still subject to debate and longer-term monitoring requirements. Global efforts on cabling the seafloor elsewhere are underway and an exciting future on gas hydrate research lies ahead. Ocean Networks Canada invites the research community to participate, propose experiments, download data and collaborate (www.oceannetworks.ca).

  5. 40 CFR 228.13 - Guidelines for ocean disposal site baseline or trend assessment surveys under section 102 of the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guidelines for ocean disposal site... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF DISPOSAL SITES FOR OCEAN DUMPING § 228.13 Guidelines for ocean disposal site baseline or trend assessment...

  6. Mendeleev rise (arctic ocean) as a geological continuation of the continental margin of Eastern Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poselov, V. A.; Butsenko, V. V.; Kaminsky, V. D.; Sakulina, T. S.

    2012-03-01

    The implemented deep seismic soundings have provided records of refracted and reflected P-waves up to offsets of 200-250 km, whereas the modern technique of ray-tracing and synthetic modelling enabled the wave fields to be decoded and the direct seismic problem about selection of velocity models of the crust to be solved correctly. The data acquired through the multichannel seismic reflection method have allowed us to identify the Late Paleozoic sedimentary unit on the shelf and trace it to the Mendeleev Rise as an intermediate complex. It has been shown that the principal structural elements of the consolidated crust and sedimentary cover of the East Siberian shelf are continued to the Mendeleev Rise, which has obvious tectonic features of an extended continental crust.

  7. The continuous plankton recorder survey: A long-term, basin-scale oceanic time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamble, John C.; Hunt, Harold G.

    1992-01-01

    In the 1920s, before the advent of echo sounders, fishery biologists were greatly concerned with assisting the fisherman to locate schools of pelagic fish. One of the approaches they developed was to relate the distribution of the planktonic food organisms to the presence of the schools of predators such as herring (Clupea harengus). The British planktologist, Alister Hardy, who had already carried out extensive studies on the feeding preferences of herring (Hardy, 1926a), initiated a program to examine the fishermen's contention that herring schools avoided 'green', i.e., phytoplankton-rich, water but could be correlated with high concentrations of zooplankton. This practical program was centered on the use of a specially developed instrument, the 'Plankton Indicator', designed to be used by the fisherman to assist in the search for suitable waters. It had limited success in its main aim but, as a collecting device, it embodied several profoundly important features. It was a simple instrument which was robust enough to be deployed and recovered by the crew of commercial vessels (in this case fishing vessels) while they were underway. The Indicator however, was no more than a high speed net which integrated the plankton over the area of sampling, but Hardy had also become interested in describing the patchiness of planktonic populations. He thus developed the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) where he substituted the fixed filter screen of the Indicator by a continually moving length of silk mesh. The screen traversed at constant speed across the path of the incoming water and the trapped organisms were retained in place by sandwiching beneath an additional second mesh screen. Thus, knowing the speed of the towing vessel and the shooting and hauling positions, the spatial patterns of the plankton could be determined. Hardy took the first CPR to the Antarctic where he used it in the Southern Atlantic (Hardy, 1926b) and later deployed it in the North Sea to make

  8. 20 CFR 411.375 - Does a State VR agency continue to provide services under the requirements of the State plan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... approved under title I of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended (29 U.S.C. 720 et seq.), even when... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does a State VR agency continue to provide services under the requirements of the State plan approved under title I of the Rehabilitation Act of...

  9. SIMS and NanoSIMS analyses of Mesoproterozoic individual microfossils indicating continuous oxygen-producing photosynthesis in Proterozoic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, X.; Guo, Z.; House, C. H.; Chen, S.; Ta, K.

    2015-12-01

    Well-preserved microfossils in the stromatolites from the Gaoyuzhuang Formation (~1500Ma), which is younger than the Gunflint Formation (~1880Ma) and older than the Bitter Springs Formation (~850Ma), may play key roles in systematizing information about the evolution of early life and environmental changes in the Proterozoic Ocean. Here, a combination of light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused ion beam (FIB), nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) were employed to characterize the morphology, elemental distributions and carbon isotope values of individual microfossils in the stromatolites from the Gaoyuahzuang Formation. Light microscopy analyses show that abundant filamentous and coccoid microfossils are exceptionally well preserved in chert. NanoSIMS analyses show that metabolically important elements such as 12C-, 13C-, 12C14N-, 32S-, and 34S- are concentrated in these microfossils and that the variations in the concentrations of these elements are similar, establishing the elemental distributions in incontestably biogenic microstructures. Carbon isotope (δ13C) values of individual microfossils range from -32.2‰ ± 0.9‰ to -23.3‰ ± 1.0‰ (weighted mean= -28.9‰ ± 0.1‰), consistent with carbon fixation via the Calvin cycle. The elevated δ13C values of the microfossils from Early-, Meso- to Late Proterozoic Era, possibly indicate decreasing CO2 and increasing O2 concentrations in the Proterozoic atmosphere. Our results, for the first time, provided the element distributions and cell specific carbon isotope values on convincing Mesoproterozoic cyanobacterial fossils, supporting continuous oxygen-producing photosynthesis in the Proterozoic Ocean.

  10. The Effect of Continuing Education on Earning and Job Security of Employees of the Former Milwaukee Model Cities Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, W. George

    The Milwaukee Model Cities Agency was established to achieve, through citizen participation, substantial improvement in the quality of life of the people living in the inner cities. Basically this study examined the present employment and earning status of 78 former employees of the administrative section of the program. Data collected included…

  11. 41 CFR 102-85.205 - What happens if a customer agency continues occupancy after the expiration of an OA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What happens if a... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Continued...

  12. Education of State Library Personnel: A Report With Recommendations Relating to the Continuing Education of State Library Agency Professional Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Peter; And Others

    The committee reviewed the continuing education needs of state library professional personnel, although the report has applicability for all levels of personnel in all libraries. The greatest immediate need was for the continuing education for consultants and consultant techniques. The state library administration must understand the consultant…

  13. Downward continued multichannel seismic refraction analysis of Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex, 30°N, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henig, A. S.; Blackman, D. K.; Harding, A. J.; Canales, J.-P.; Kent, G. M.

    2012-05-01

    Detailed seismic refraction results show striking lateral and vertical variability of velocity structure within the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex (OCC), contrasting notably with its conjugate ridge flank. Multichannel seismic (MCS) data are downward continued using the Synthetic On Bottom Experiment (SOBE) method, providing unprecedented detail in tomographic models of the P-wave velocity structure to subseafloor depths of up to 1.5 km. Velocities can vary up to 3 km/s over several hundred meters and unusually high velocities (˜5 km/s) are found immediately beneath the seafloor in key regions. Correlation within situand dredged rock samples, video and records from submersible dives, and a 1.415 km drill core, allow us to infer dominant lithologies. A high velocity body(ies) found to shoal near to the seafloor in multiple locations is interpreted as gabbro and is displaced along isochrons within the OCC, indicating a propagating magmatic source as the origin for this pluton(s). The western two-thirds of the Southern Ridge is capped in serpentinite that may extend nearly to the base of our ray coverage. The distribution of inferred serpentinite indicates that the gabbroic pluton(s) was emplaced into a dominantly peridotitic host rock. Presumably the mantle host rock was later altered via seawater penetration along the detachment zone, which controlled development of the OCC. The asymmetric distribution of seismic velocities and morphology of Atlantis Massif are consistent with a detachment fault with a component of dip to the southeast. The lowest velocities observed atop the eastern Central Dome and conjugate crust are most likely volcanics. Here, an updated model of the magmatic and extensional faulting processes at Atlantis Massif is deduced from the seismic results, contributing more generally to understanding the processes controlling the formation of heterogeneous lithosphere at slow-rate spreading centers.

  14. Capacity building in Developing Countries: a challenge ahead for the European Space Agency to continue its successful experience to date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fea, M.

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has built a long tradition and a large experience in the domain of education, training and capacity building throughout its space programmes. As an example, the ESA Science Programme dedicates 1% of its budget to these activities. One of the key reasons for it is the need of closing the loop along the chain from the provider to the user, that is to say between the space and the users elements. In fact, besides the obvious need for technology development, there is actually not very much justification in the long term for a space programme if the user communities are not able to make good use of programme outputs and provide feedback and proper requirements to space agencies. The case of ESA Earth Observation programmes is described to illustrate these considerations, as a way to also implement the European Space Policy and UNISPACE III recommendations. Since its foundation in 1975 and the implementation of its EO programme with the launch of Meteosat-1 in 1977 and the birth of the Earthnet Programme Office in 1978, the European Space Agency is very active in the field of capacity building in developing countries. That is performed through both ESA's specific projects and international co-operation activities. In the latter domain, ESA enjoys a long-standing collaboration with many entities, such as the Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), and organisations, such as WMO, UN and its specialised agencies (FAO, UNESCO, UNEP, and so on). In that respect, the Agency is an active member of the CEOS Working Group on Education (WGEdu) and of the World Summit for Sustainable Development Follow-Up (WSSD) Module 1 group dedicated to education, training and capacity building. The overall ESA strategy targets various citizen communities and takes into account the fact that today's young generations will become tomorrow's professionals and decision makers. ESA's activities in this domain are in particular based on an end-to-end concept

  15. Methane at Ascension Island, southern tropical Atlantic Ocean: continuous ground measurement and vertical profiling above the Trade-Wind Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, David; Brownlow, Rebecca; Fisher, Rebecca; Nisbet, Euan; Lanoisellé, Mathias; France, James; Thomas, Rick; Mackenzie, Rob; Richardson, Tom; Greatwood, Colin; Freer, Jim; Cain, Michelle; Warwick, Nicola; Pyle, John

    2015-04-01

    δ13CCH4. The marine boundary layer at the surface has CH4 mixing ratios below 1800ppb. In the mixing layer of the TWI, values increase, and above 2000m, methane is above 1820ppb. Back trajectory analysis shows that these inputs are from African savanna and wetland emissions. After vertical mixing events the difference across the TWI reduces to less than 10ppb. The experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of UAV work to observe methane at Ascension. In effect, Ascension becomes a 'virtual mountain observatory' - measurements here can both use the Trade Winds to monitor the wide South Atlantic and Southern Ocean, and also the air above the TWI to assess inputs from tropical Africa and S. America. Comparison of continuous ground measurements, vertical UAV profiles and data from the Ascension TCCON site, potentially allows observation of a complete atmospheric profile. Acknowledgement This work is supported by the Natural Environment Research Council Grant NE/K005979/1

  16. National Science Foundation Division of Ocean Sciences: new opportunities for ocean research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoder, J. A.; Tenney, A. B.

    2003-04-01

    The mission of the NSF Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) is to support basic, curiosity-driven research, using a competitive process based on peer-review to guide selection of grants for financial support. OCE is the leading U.S. government source of ocean science funding for academic institutions. OCE supports research in biological, chemical and physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics; ocean technology development; dedicated educational activities; large shipboard equipment and shared-use instruments; the U.S. academic research fleet, submersibles, and scientific ocean drilling (ODP/IODP). In our poster, we describe OCE plans for new infrastructure projects to support research, and some of the new research and education programs being developed. Two large ocean science infrastructure projects -- a drilling vessel conversion and the ocean observatories initiative -- have already been approved for possible inclusion in a future NSF budget request. The drilling vessel will contribute to a new international scientific ocean drilling program to replace the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), which ends in 2003. We continue to refine our plan for the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), another large infrastructure program that will provide a continuous ocean presence to advance research and education. We are also working closely with the Office of Naval Research and other agency partners to implement a federal plan to renew the academic fleet. We continue to initiate new research and education programs. Two recent examples are Centers for Ocean Science Education Excellence (COSEE) and Centers for Oceans and Human Health; the latter supported jointly with the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences. COSEE is building a nationally coordinated effort in ocean science education designed to integrate ocean science research into delivery of high-quality education programs in the ocean sciences. The Centers for Oceans and Human Health program

  17. Continuous Monitoring of Fish Population and Behavior by Instantaneous Continental-Shelf-Scale Imaging with Ocean-Waveguide Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Nero, Mike Jech, Olav Rune Godø, Sunwoong Lee, Purnima Ratilal, and Nicholas Makris, “Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS) of Marine...Srinivasan Jagannathan, Deanelle Symonds, Ioannis Bertsatos, Tianrun Chen, Hector Pena, Ruben Patel, Olav Rune Godø, Redwood W. 6 7 Nero, J

  18. 15 CFR 930.95 - Guidance provided by the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... coastal zone but with reasonably foreseeable coastal effects, the State agency shall develop a federal..., depending on the nature of the activity and its effects on any coastal use or resource. For example,...

  19. Continuous supply of recycled Pacific oceanic materials in the source of Cenozoic basalts in SE China: the Zhejiang case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shao-Chen; Xia, Qun-Ke; Choi, Sung Hi; Deloule, Etienne; Li, Pei; Liu, Jia

    2016-12-01

    Various enriched recycled oceanic components in the source of Cenozoic intra-plate alkaline basalts from eastern China were identified by previous studies. Due to the existence of a stagnant subducted Pacific slab in the mantle transition zone beneath eastern China, it is logical to connect the stagnant slab to the recycled oceanic materials. However, the recycled oceanic materials could also result from ancient subduction events (e.g., Paleo-Tethyan, Paleo-Asian or Izanagi plate subduction) because enriched geochemical signatures of a recycled slab can be preserved in the mantle for longer than 1 Gyr. Investigating the temporal variations of the recycled oceanic materials in the mantle source is a useful way to trace the origin of the basalts. In this article, we have conducted a detailed geochemical study, including major and trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes, on two alkaline basalt groups from Zhejiang, SE China, which erupted 26-17 Ma and after 11 Ma, respectively. In particular, we recovered the H2O content of the initial magmas based on the H2O content of the clinopyroxene (cpx) phenocrysts and the partition coefficients of H2O between cpx and basaltic melts. The H2O contents of the Zhejiang basalts range from 1.3 to 2.6 (wt.%), which fall within the range of back-arc basin or island arc basalts. The older basalts are more alkaline and have lower Si and Al contents; higher trace element concentrations; higher La/Yb, Ce/Pb and Nb/La ratios; lower H2O/Ce and Ba/Th ratios; and stronger negative K, Pb, Hf and Ti anomalies than the younger ones. The co-relationships between Ba/La, H2O/Ce, Nb/La, Ce/Pb and Ba/Th in the two groups of the Zhejiang basalts indicate that a recycled dehydrated oceanic alkaline basalt component is needed in the source of the older rocks, along with a depleted mantle component. Meanwhile, an additional recycled dehydrated sediment component was required in the source of the younger rocks. The temporal change in the recycled oceanic

  20. 76 FR 65183 - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Climate Assessment and Development Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research (OAR), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. BILLING...

  1. Continuous assimilation of simulated Geosat altimetric sea level into an eddy-resolving numerical ocean model. I - Sea level differences. II - Referenced sea level differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Warren B.; Tai, Chang-Kou; Holland, William R.

    1990-01-01

    The optimal interpolation method of Lorenc (1981) was used to conduct continuous assimilation of altimetric sea level differences from the simulated Geosat exact repeat mission (ERM) into a three-layer quasi-geostrophic eddy-resolving numerical ocean box model that simulates the statistics of mesoscale eddy activity in the western North Pacific. Assimilation was conducted continuously as the Geosat tracks appeared in simulated real time/space, with each track repeating every 17 days, but occurring at different times and locations within the 17-day period, as would have occurred in a realistic nowcast situation. This interpolation method was also used to conduct the assimilation of referenced altimetric sea level differences into the same model, performing the referencing of altimetric sea sevel differences by using the simulated sea level. The results of this dynamical interpolation procedure are compared with those of a statistical (i.e., optimum) interpolation procedure.

  2. 77 FR 22523 - Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2012 Ocean City Air Show; Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of the Atlantic Ocean in Ocean City, MD....

  3. 75 FR 18778 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show 2010, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard proposes establishing a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City,...

  4. 76 FR 31235 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will establish a temporary safety zone on the Atlantic Ocean in the vicinity of Ocean City, MD to support...

  5. Ocean Fertilization and Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2008-12-01

    It has been suggested that ocean fertilization could help diminish ocean acidification. Here, we quantitatively evaluate this suggestion. Ocean fertilization is one of several ocean methods proposed to mitigate atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The basic idea of this method is to enhance the biological uptake of atmospheric CO2 by stimulating net phytoplankton growth through the addition of iron to the surface ocean. Concern has been expressed that ocean fertilization may not be very effective at reducing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and may produce unintended environmental consequences. The rationale for thinking that ocean fertilization might help diminish ocean acidification is that dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in the near-surface equilibrate with the atmosphere in about a year. If ocean fertilization could reduce atmospheric CO2 concentrations, it would also reduce surface ocean dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations, and thus diminish the degree of ocean acidification. To evaluate this line of thinking, we use a global ocean carbon cycle model with a simple representation of marine biology and investigate the maximum potential effect of ocean fertilization on ocean carbonate chemistry. We find that the effect of ocean fertilization on ocean acidification depends, in part, on the context in which ocean fertilization is performed. With fixed emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere, ocean fertilization moderately mitigates changes in ocean carbonate chemistry near the ocean surface, but at the expense of further acidifying the deep ocean. Under the SRES A2 CO2 emission scenario, by year 2100 simulated atmospheric CO2, global mean surface pH, and saturation state of aragonite is 965 ppm, 7.74, and 1.55 for the scenario without fertilization and 833 ppm, 7.80, and 1.71 for the scenario with 100-year (between 2000 and 2100) continuous fertilization for the global ocean (For comparison, pre-industrial global mean surface pH and saturation state of

  6. 20 CFR 411.582 - Can a State VR agency receive payment under the cost reimbursement payment system if a continuous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a State VR agency receive payment under... Systems § 411.582 Can a State VR agency receive payment under the cost reimbursement payment system if a...? Yes. If a State VR agency provides services to a beneficiary under 34 CFR part 361, and elects...

  7. 20 CFR 411.582 - Can a State VR agency receive payment under the cost reimbursement payment system if a continuous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a State VR agency receive payment under... Systems § 411.582 Can a State VR agency receive payment under the cost reimbursement payment system if a...? Yes. If a State VR agency provides services to a beneficiary under 34 CFR part 361, and elects...

  8. Continuous Remote Measurements of Atmospheric O2 Concentrations in Relation to Interannual Variations in Biological Production and Carbon Cycling in the Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Campbell, J. A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We successfully initiated a program to obtain continuous time series of atmospheric O2 concentrations at a semi-remote coastal site, in Trinidad, California. The installation, which was completed in September 1999, consists of a commercially-available O2 and CO2 analyzers interfaced to a custom gas handling system and housed in a dedicated building at the Trinidad site. Ultimately, the data from this site are expected to provide constraints, complementing satellite data, on variations in ocean productivity and carbon exchange on annual and interannual time scales, in the context of human-induced changes in global climate and other perturbations. The existing time-series, of limited duration, have been used in support of studies of the O2/CO2 exchange from a wild fire (which fortuitously occurred nearby in October 1999) and to quantify air-sea N2O and O2 exchanges related to coastal upwelling events. More generally, the project demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining semi-continuous O2 time series at moderate cost from strategic locations globally.

  9. 28 CFR 83.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 83.645 Section 83.645 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  10. 78 FR 32556 - Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; 2013 Ocean City Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is... City, MD to support the Ocean City Air Show. This action is intended to restrict vessel...

  11. 75 FR 56467 - Safety Zone; Ocean City Beachfront Air Show, Ocean City, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Ocean City Beachfront Air Show, Ocean City, NJ AGENCY: Coast... zone in an area of the Atlantic Ocean, Ocean City, NJ. The temporary safety zone will restrict vessel traffic from a portion of the Atlantic Ocean during the Ocean City Beachfront Air Show, which is an...

  12. U.S. federal budget requests for science agencies on the rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The Clinton Administration has proposed some significant increases for U.S. federal science agencies for fiscal year 2000. Last weeks issue of Eos provided an overview of the federal budget request and reported on some specific agencies NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and part of the National Science Foundation (NSF).In this issue, Eos continues its review of agency budgets, including the Department of Energy (DOE), Department of the Interior (DOI),the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and other accounts within NSEDOE has been besieged over the past year with reports concerning potential national security breaches. When Energy Secretary Bill Richardson announced the agency budget request in February, he tried to change that recent public image of the agency. Based on news stories last year, some people may think that the department is solely a national security agency, he said. But the fact is that the Department of Energy is at its heart a science agency.

  13. Long-term investigations of summertime chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and continuously observations of vertical particle flux in Fram Strait and the central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Bracher, Astrid; Cherkasheva, Alexandra; Fahl, Kirsten; Lalande, Catherine; Metfies, Katja; Peeken, Ilka; Salter, Ian; Boetius, Antje; Soltwedel, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is one of the key regions where the effect of climate change is most pronounced due to massive reduction of sea ice volume and extent. Most of the sea ice is transported out of the Arctic Ocean with the cold East Greenland Current (EGC) in the western Fram Strait, while warm Atlantic water enters the Arctic Ocean with the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) in the eastern Fram Strait. In this scenario we conducted several cruises to Fram Strait and the central Arctic Ocean (CAO) between 1991 and 2015 to monitor phytoplankton biomass, particulate organic carbon standing stocks during summer at discrete depth using water bottle samples, and the sedimentation of organic matter by means of moored sediment traps throughout the year. With our study we aim at tracing effects of environmental changes in the pelagic system and impacts on the fate of organic matter produced in the upper water column in a region that is anticipated to react rapidly to climate change. We will present data sets of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) and particulate organic carbon (POC) from the upper 100 m of the water column as well as results from vertical particle flux measurements with yearly deployed sediment traps at the LTER (Long-Term Ecological Research) observatory HAUSGARTEN in eastern Fram Strait (79°/4°E) between 2000 and 2012 and from two locations in the CAO close to the Lomonosov Ridge (1995/96) and the Gakkel Ridge (2011/12). Analyses of the material collected by the sediment traps allowed us to track seasonal and inter-annual changes in the upper water column at HAUSGARTEN and in the CAO. Whereas chlorophyll a (integrated values 0 -100 m) showed only a slight increase in eastern Fram Strait, it stayed more or less constant in the CAO and western Fram Strait, with the exception of 2015 exhibiting less biomass during late summer in the CAO. Highest biomass was found in the eastern Fram Strait and lowest in the heavily ice-covered regions. POC distribution

  14. 10 CFR 607.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 607.645 Section 607.645 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the...

  15. Report to Congress on ocean dumping, 1987-1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The Report to Congress summarizes the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) activities in carrying out its responsibilities under Title I of the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and its 1988 amendment, the Ocean Dumping Ban Act (ODBA). ODBA makes the ocean dumping of industrial waste and municipal sewage sludge unlawful after December 31, 1991. EPA's Office of Water (OW) in conjunction with EPA Regional Offices have responsibilities under MPRSA to regulate and monitor ocean disposal of municipal sewage sludge, industrial waste, and dredged materials as well as incineration-at-sea. In addition to administering MPRSA and ODBA, OW: (1) continued its participation in the work of the London Dumping Convention (LDC), the international agreement that addresses the dumping of wastes into the marine environment; (2) continued monitoring and public education activities aboard the Ocean Survey Vessel PETER W. ANDERSON; and (3) collaborated in programs with other organizations involved in marine protection.

  16. Assistance to Oil and Gas State Agencies and Industry through Continuation of Environmental and Production Data Management and a Water Regulatory Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Grunewald, Ben; Arthur, Dan; Langhus, Bruce; Gillespie, Tom; Binder, Ben; Warner, Don; Roberts, Jim; Cox, D.O.

    2002-05-31

    This grant project was a major step toward completion of the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) project. Additionally the project addresses the needs identified during the projects initial phases. By implementing this project, the following outcomes were sought: (1) State regulatory agencies implemented more formalized environmental risk management practices as they pertain to the production of oil and gas, and injection via Class II wells. (2) Enhancement of oil and gas production by implementing a management system supporting the saving of abandoned or idle wells located in areas with a relatively low environmental risk of endangering underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) in a particular state. (3) Verification that protection of USDWs is adequate and additional restrictions of requirements are not necessary in areas with a relatively low environmental risk. (4) Standardization of data and information maintained by state regulatory agencies and decrease the regulatory cost burden on producers operating in multiple states, and (5) Development of a system for electronic data transfer among operators and state regulatory agencies and reduction of overall operator reporting burdens.

  17. 49 CFR Attachment 3 - Offices Within Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies for Information Regarding the Agencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Attachment 3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC.... Attachment 3—Offices Within Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies for Information Regarding...

  18. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  19. Ethane ocean on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, J. I.; Stevenson, D. J.; Yung, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager I radio occultation data is employed to develop a qualitative model of an ethane ocean on Titan. It is suggested that the ocean contains 25 percent CH4 and that the ocean is in dynamic equilibrium with an N2 atmosphere. Previous models of a CH4 ocean are discounted due to photolysis rates of CH4 gas. Tidal damping of Titan's orbital eccentricity is taken as evidence for an ocean layer approximately 1 km deep, with the ocean floor being covered with a solid C2H2 layer 100 to 200 m thick. The photolytic process disrupting the CH4, if the estimates of the oceanic content of CH4 are correct, could continue for at least one billion years. Verification of the model is dependent on detecting CH4 clouds in the lower atmosphere, finding C2H6 saturation in the lower troposphere, or obtaining evidence of a global ocean.

  20. (Support of the board on ocean science and policy)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences, through the Ocean Studies Board of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Resources, proposes to provide guidance on major ocean sciences and policy issues to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Science Foundation, the Department of the Navy, the US Geological Survey, the Minerals Management Service of the Department of the Interior, the US Coast Guard, the Department of State, the Department of Energy, The Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The work plan for this activity is presented in the program plan section of this proposal. Work plans for subsequent years will be submitted prior to the commencement of work. Financial support is requested for continued support of the Ocean Studies Board activities from 1 June 1987 through 31 May 1989. Funds in the amount of $513,400 are requested for the period 1 June 1987 through 31 May 1988, as indicated in the attached estimate of costs.

  1. [Support of the board on ocean science and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-31

    The National Academy of Sciences, through the Ocean Studies Board of the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics and Resources, proposes to provide guidance on major ocean sciences and policy issues to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Science Foundation, the Department of the Navy, the US Geological Survey, the Minerals Management Service of the Department of the Interior, the US Coast Guard, the Department of State, the Department of Energy, The Environmental Protection Agency, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The work plan for this activity is presented in the program plan section of this proposal. Work plans for subsequent years will be submitted prior to the commencement of work. Financial support is requested for continued support of the Ocean Studies Board activities from 1 June 1987 through 31 May 1989. Funds in the amount of $513,400 are requested for the period 1 June 1987 through 31 May 1988, as indicated in the attached estimate of costs.

  2. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 9: Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    The impact of remote sensing upon marine activities and oceanography is presented. The present capabilities of the current Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS-1), as demonstrated by the principal investigators are discussed. Cost savings benefits are quantified in the area of nautical and hygrographic mapping and charting. Benefits are found in aiding coastal zone management and in the fields of weather (marine) prediction, fishery harvesting and management, and potential uses for ocean vegetation. Difficulties in quantification are explained, the primary factor being that remotely sensed information will be of greater benefit as input to forecasting models which have not yet been constructed.

  3. 77 FR 2514 - National Ocean Council-National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... QUALITY National Ocean Council--National Ocean Policy Draft Implementation Plan AGENCY: Council on..., President Obama signed Executive Order 13547 establishing a National Policy for the Stewardship of the Ocean, our Coasts, and the Great Lakes (National Ocean Policy). As part of the President's charge for...

  4. 78 FR 37759 - Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Designation... designate the Atchafalaya-West Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site pursuant to the draft EIS, ``Designation of the Atchafalaya River Bar Channel Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site Pursuant to Section...

  5. Atlantic and Indian Oceans Pollution in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, B.

    2007-05-01

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  6. Continuous measurements of nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, methane and carbon dioxide in the surface ocean with novel laser-absorption analysers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Jan; Grefe, Imke; Wager, Natalie; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Lee, Gareth A.

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, improvements in spectroscopic technology have revolutionised atmospheric trace gas research. In particular, cavity-based optical absorption analysers allow determination of gas concentrations with high frequency, repeatability, reproducibility and long-term stability. These qualities make them particularly suitable for autonomous measurements on voluntary observing ships (VOS). Here, we present results from three of the first deployments of such analysers on research ships, as a first step towards VOS installations. Los Gatos off-axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) analysers were used to measure nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios in ocean surface water during research cruises in 2010, 2011 and 2012. The analysers were coupled to an equilibrator fed by the scientific seawater supply in the ship's laboratories. The equilibrator measurements were alternated with regular measurements of marine air and calibrated standard gases. Short-term precision for 10 s-average N2O mole fractions at an acquisition rate of 1 Hz was better than 0.2 nmol mol-1. The same value was achieved for duplicate measurements of a standard gas analysed within 1 hour of each other. The response time to concentration changes in water was 142-203 s, depending on the headspace flow rate. During the first deployment on the AMT20 cruise (Atlantic Meridional Transect, Southampton to Punta Arenas, 12 October to 25 November 2010), we unexpectedly found the subtropical gyres to be slightly undersaturated in N2O, implying that this region acted as a sink for this greenhouse gas. In contrast, the equatorial region was supersaturated and a source of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere. Mean sea-to-air fluxes were overall small and ranged between -1.6 and 0.11 μmol m-2 d-1 (negative fluxes imply an net uptake by the ocean). Despite the good short-term repeatability, significant calibration drift occurred between the six

  7. A new method for continuous measurements of oceanic and atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2: performance of off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) coupled to non-dispersive infrared detection (NDIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo-Martínez, D. L.; Beyer, M.; Krumbholz, M.; Piller, I.; Kock, A.; Steinhoff, T.; Körtzinger, A.; Bange, H. W.

    2013-12-01

    A new system for continuous, highly resolved oceanic and atmospheric measurements of N2O, CO and CO2 is described. The system is based upon off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR), both coupled to a Weiss-type equilibrator. Performance of the combined setup was evaluated by testing its precision, accuracy, long-term stability, linearity and response time. Furthermore, the setup was tested during two oceanographic campaigns in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean in order to explore its potential for autonomous deployment onboard voluntary observing ships (VOS). Improved equilibrator response times for N2O (2.5 min) and CO (45 min) were achieved in comparison to response times from similar chamber designs used by previous studies. High stability of the OA-ICOS analyzer was demonstrated by low optimal integration times of 2 and 4 min for N2O and CO respectively, as well as detection limits of < 40 ppt and precision better than 0.3 ppb Hz-1/2. Results from a direct comparison of the method presented here and well-established discrete methods for oceanic N2O and CO2 measurements showed very good consistency. The favorable agreement between underway atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2 measurements and monthly means at Ascension Island (7.96° S 14.4° W) further suggests a reliable operation of the underway setup in the field. The potential of the system as an improved platform for measurements of trace gases was explored by using continuous N2O and CO2 data to characterize the development of the seasonal equatorial upwelling in the Atlantic Ocean during two R/V Maria S. Merian cruises. A similar record of high-resolution CO measurements was simultaneously obtained, offering, for the first time, the possibility of a comprehensive view of the distribution and emissions of these climate-relevant gases in the area studied. The relatively simple underway N2O/CO/CO2 setup is suitable for long-term deployment onboard research

  8. A new method for continuous measurements of oceanic and atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2: performance of off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) coupled to non-dispersive infrared detection (NDIR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo-Martínez, D. L.; Beyer, M.; Krumbholz, M.; Piller, I.; Kock, A.; Steinhoff, T.; Körtzinger, A.; Bange, H. W.

    2013-07-01

    A new system for continuous, highly-resolved oceanic and atmospheric measurements of N2O, CO and CO2 is described. The system is based upon off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS) and a non-dispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR) both coupled to a Weiss-type equilibrator. Performance of the combined setup was evaluated by testing its precision, accuracy, long-term stability, linearity and response time. Furthermore, the setup was tested during two oceanographic campaigns in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean in order to explore its potential for autonomous deployment onboard voluntary observing ships (VOS). Improved equilibrator response times for N2O (2.5 min) and CO (45 min) were achieved in comparison to response times from similar chamber designs used by previous studies. High stability of the OA-ICOS analyzer was demonstrated by low optimal integration times of 2 and 4 min for N2O and CO respectively, as well as detection limits of < 40 ppt and precision better than 0.3 ppb Hz-1/2. Results from a direct comparison of the method presented here and well-established discrete methods for oceanic N2O and CO2 measurements showed very good consistency. The favorable agreement between underway atmospheric N2O, CO and CO2 measurements and monthly means at Ascension Island (7.96° S 14.4° W) further suggests a reliable operation of the underway setup in the field. The potential of the system as an improved platform for measurements of trace gases was explored by using continuous N2O and CO2 data to characterize the development of the seasonal equatorial upwelling in the Atlantic Ocean during two R/V Maria S. Merian cruises. A similar record of high-resolution CO measurements was simultaneously obtained offering for the first time the possibility of a comprehensive view on the distribution and emissions of these climate relevant gases on the area. The relatively simple underway N2O/CO/CO2 setup is suitable for long-term deployment on board of research and

  9. Continuous pCO2 Time Series from Ocean Networks Canada cabled observatories on the northeast Pacific shelf-edge/upper slope and in the sub-tidal Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juniper, S. Kim; Sastri, Akash; Mihaly, Steven; Whitehead, Jeremy; Else, Brent; Thomas, Helmuth; Miller, Lisa

    2016-04-01

    Continuous monitoring platforms contribute to our understanding of ocean change by resolving variability that can be a defining component of long-term change and a confounding factor in its detection by occasional measurements. The reliability of pCO2 sensors technologies has progressed to the point where months-long field recordings from autonomous and cabled sensor platforms can be used to document seasonal and higher frequency variability in pCO2 and its relationship to oceanographic processes. We will present pCO2 time-series data from deployments on two Ocean Networks Canada cabled platforms: a bottom-moored, vertical profiler at the edge of the continental shelf off Vancouver Island, Canada, and a seafloor platform at subtidal depth in the Canadian Arctic at Cambridge Bay, Nunavut. Both platforms support Pro-Oceanus pCO2 sensors together with other oceanographic instruments, and streamed continuous data to a shore-based archive. The vertical profiler deployment yielded a 7-month time series of pCO2 and corresponding oceanographic sensor data from 5 vertical profiles per data, from 400m depth to surface waters, centered around local noon. Step-wise profiles during the downcast provided the most reliable pCO2 data, permitting the sensor to equilibrate to the broad range of pCO2 concentrations encountered over this depth interval. The Arctic sensor platform was deployed in August 2015 and has been recording increasing pCO2 concentrations since the formation of sea ice. We will review the major characteristics of these two time series and the performance of the sensors in relation to the operational conditions encountered in vertical profiling and continuous operation in subzero seawater. We will also review the under-ice performance of a pH sensor and a prototype optical CO2 sensor that are deployed on the same Arctic platform.

  10. Agencies Collaborate, Develop a Cyanobacteria Assessment Network

    EPA Science Inventory

    This collaborative effort integrates the efforts of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide an approach for mainstrea...

  11. Fine-scale velocity structure of upper oceanic crust from full waveform inversion of downward continued seismic reflection data at the Lucky Strike Volcano, Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnulf, A. F.; Harding, A. J.; Singh, S. C.; Kent, G. M.; Crawford, W.

    2012-04-01

    We present a fine-scale 2D velocity structure beneath the Lucky Strike Volcano on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) using an elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) method. The FWI is a data driven procedure that allows simultaneous exploitation of both reflections and refractions energy in multi-channel seismic data to create a single self-consistent, high-resolution velocity image of the upper crust that can be used for geologic interpretation. The long-wavelength background P-wave velocity model required by the local optimization approach was created using a combination of downward continuation and 3D first-arrival travel-time tomography. The elastic waveform inversion was applied to carefully windowed downward continued data, where wide-angle reflections and refractions arrive in front of the water-wave and are thus isolated from the high-amplitude seafloor scattering energy that is particularly acute in areas of rough igneous seafloor. Waveform inversion reduces the misfit of the initial model by 76% after 19 iterations and strongly reduced the size of the residuals relative to the signal size. The final model shows fine scale structure beneath the northern part of the Lucky Strike volcano on a resolution of tens of meters. Evidence for successive lava sequences testifies to the constructional origin of the upper section of layer 2A. Normal faults are revealed within the shallow crust and are strongly correlated with seafloor observations.

  12. 5 CFR 919.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency. 919.910 Section 919.910 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.910 Agency. Agency means any...

  13. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  14. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  15. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  16. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  17. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  18. 78 FR 53465 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent...

  19. 78 FR 48697 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent...

  20. 75 FR 24726 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request, 1660-0086...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection...) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice; 60-day notice and request for comments... Emergency Management Agency, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent...

  1. Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    manufacturers. The Navy has a major in- house design capability for ships; the government does not possess such a capability for aircraft or other weapon systems...the Coast Guard, government agencies acquire a wide variety of ships, ranging from sophisticated submarines and nuclear aircraft carriers to much...the initial phase a review was made of written material relating to government procedures in U.S. Government agencies for acquiring vessels, aircraft

  2. Transport processes near coastal ocean outfalls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Noble, M.A.; Sherwood, C.R.; Lee, Hooi-Ling; Xu, Jie; Dartnell, P.; Robertson, G.; Martini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The central Southern California Bight is an urbanized coastal ocean where complex topography and largescale atmospheric and oceanographic forcing has led to numerous sediment-distribution patterns. Two large embayments, Santa Monica and San Pedro Bays, are connected by the short, very narrow shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula. Ocean-sewage outfalls are located in the middle of Santa Monica Bay, on the Palos Verdes shelf and at the southeastern edge of San Pedro Bay. In 1992, the US Geological Survey, together with allied agencies, began a series of programs to determine the dominant processes that transport sediment and associated pollutants near the three ocean outfalls. As part of these programs, arrays of instrumented moorings that monitor currents, waves, water clarity, water density and collect resuspended materials were deployed on the continental shelf and slope information was also collected on the sediment and contaminant distributions in the region. The data and models developed for the Palos Verdes shelf suggest that the large reservoir of DDT/DDE in the coastal ocean sediments will continue to be exhumed and transported along the shelf for a long time. On the Santa Monica shelf, very large internal waves, or bores, are generated at the shelf break. The near-bottom currents associated with these waves sweep sediments and the associated contaminants from the shelf onto the continental slope. A new program underway on the San Pedro shelf will determine if water and contaminants from a nearby ocean outfall are transported to the local beaches by coastal ocean processes. The large variety of processes found that transport sediments and contaminants in this small region of the continental margin suggest that in regions with complex topography, local processes change markedly over small spatial scales. One cannot necessarily infer that the dominant transport processes will be similar even in adjacent regions.

  3. 75 FR 2535 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... State Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA..., Office of Wetlands Oceans and Watersheds, Mail Code 4503-T, Environmental Protection Agency, 1200... . Title: Approval of State Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Programs (Renewal). ICR numbers: EPA ICR...

  4. Ocean-atmospheric linkages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rintoul, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the role of the ocean in the global carbon cycle on the time scale of decades to centuries. The input rate of CO2 to the atmosphere due to fossil fuel burning and deforestation has continued to increase over the last century. To balance the global carbon budget, a sink is required whose magnitude is changing on similar time scales. We have sought to identify aspects of the ocean system that are capable of responding on decadal time scales, to examine our present ability to model such changes, and to pinpoint ways in which this ability could be improved. Many other important aspects of the ocean's role in global change are not addressed, including the importance of oceanic heat transport and thermal inertia to the climate system, biogeochemical cycling of elements other than carbon, and the importance of the ocean as a source or sink of trace gases.

  5. 50 CFR 296.10 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agency review. 296.10 Section 296.10 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.10 Agency review. (a) Within...

  6. 50 CFR 296.10 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agency review. 296.10 Section 296.10 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.10 Agency review. (a) Within...

  7. 78 FR 8575 - Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee AGENCY: Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), Interior. ACTION: Notice of Renewal of the Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: Following... Interior is renewing the Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee. The Ocean Energy Safety Advisory...

  8. 76 FR 65180 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application to Shuck Surf Clams/Ocean Quahogs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Application to Shuck Surf Clams/Ocean Quahogs at Sea AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  9. 78 FR 26617 - National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC661 National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; Northwest Fisheries Science Center; Online Webinar AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA),...

  10. 76 FR 15952 - National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA310 National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY:...

  11. 78 FR 5717 - Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Military Ocean Terminal Concord Safety Zone, Suisun Bay, Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Interim rule and... Suisun Bay near Military Ocean Terminal Concord, CA in support of military onload and offload...

  12. 77 FR 32994 - Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Geological and Geophysical Exploration on the Atlantic Outer Continental Shelf; Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management... and gas exploration and development; renewable energy; and marine minerals. BOEM is extending...

  13. 77 FR 33443 - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce... Assessment Methods for Data-Moderate Stocks will be held at the National Marine Fisheries Service's...

  14. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine phytoplankton are responsible for roughly half the net primary production (NPP) on Earth, fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels global ocean ecosystems and drives the ocean's biogeochemical cycles. Phytoplankton growth is highly sensitive to variations in ocean physical properties, such as upper ocean stratification and light availability within this mixed layer. Satellite ocean color sensors, such as the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS; McClain 2009) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS; Esaias 1998), provide observations of sufficient frequency and geographic coverage to globally monitor physically-driven changes in phytoplankton distributions. In practice, ocean color sensors retrieve the spectral distribution of visible solar radiation reflected upward from beneath the ocean surface, which can then be related to changes in the photosynthetic phytoplankton pigment, chlorophyll- a (Chla; measured in mg m-3). Here, global Chla data for 2013 are evaluated within the context of the 16-year continuous record provided through the combined observations of SeaWiFS (1997-2010) and MODIS on Aqua (MODISA; 2002-present). Ocean color measurements from the recently launched Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS; 2011-present) are also considered, but results suggest that the temporal calibration of the VIIRS sensor is not yet sufficiently stable for quantitative global change studies. All MODISA (version 2013.1), SeaWiFS (version 2010.0), and VIIRS (version 2013.1) data presented here were produced by NASA using consistent Chla algorithms.

  15. OceanSITES format and Ocean Observatory Output harmonisation: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnani, Maureen; Galbraith, Nan; Diggs, Stephen; Lankhorst, Matthias; Hidas, Marton; Lampitt, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) initiative was launched in 1991, and was the first step in creating a global view of ocean observations. In 1999 oceanographers at the OceanObs conference envisioned a 'global system of eulerian observatories' which evolved into the OceanSITES project. OceanSITES has been generously supported by individual oceanographic institutes and agencies across the globe, as well as by the WMO-IOC Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (under JCOMMOPS). The project is directed by the needs of research scientists, but has a strong data management component, with an international team developing content standards, metadata specifications, and NetCDF templates for many types of in situ oceanographic data. The OceanSITES NetCDF format specification is intended as a robust data exchange and archive format specifically for time-series observatory data from the deep ocean. First released in February 2006, it has evolved to build on and extend internationally recognised standards such as the Climate and Forecast (CF) standard, BODC vocabularies, ISO formats and vocabularies, and in version 1.3, released in 2014, ACDD (Attribute Convention for Dataset Discovery). The success of the OceanSITES format has inspired other observational groups, such as autonomous vehicles and ships of opportunity, to also use the format and today it is fulfilling the original concept of providing a coherent set of data from eurerian observatories. Data in the OceanSITES format is served by 2 Global Data Assembly Centres (GDACs), one at Coriolis, in France, at ftp://ftp.ifremer.fr/ifremer/oceansites/ and one at the US NDBC, at ftp://data.ndbc.noaa.gov/data/oceansites/. These two centres serve over 26,800 OceanSITES format data files from 93 moorings. The use of standardised and controlled features enables the files held at the OceanSITES GDACs to be electronically discoverable and ensures the widest access to the data. The Ocean

  16. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  17. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  18. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  19. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  20. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  1. 49 CFR 222.17 - How can a State agency become a recognized State agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can a State agency become a recognized State agency? 222.17 Section 222.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS General § 222.17 How can a State agency become a recognized State agency? (a)...

  2. 49 CFR 222.17 - How can a State agency become a recognized State agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can a State agency become a recognized State agency? 222.17 Section 222.17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued...-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS General § 222.17 How can a State agency become a recognized State agency? (a)...

  3. Microradiometers Reveal Ocean Health, Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA researcher Stanford Hooker is in the field, he pays close attention to color. For Hooker, being in the field means being at sea. On one such research trip to the frigid waters of the Arctic, with a Coast Guard icebreaker looming nearby and the snow-crusted ice shelf a few feet away, Hooker leaned over the edge of his small boat and lowered a tethered device into the bright turquoise water, a new product devised by a NASA partner and enabled by a promising technology for oceanographers and atmospheric scientists alike. Color is a function of light. Pure water is clear, but the variation in color observed during a visit to the beach or a flight along a coastline depends on the water s depth and the constituents in it, how far down the light penetrates and how it is absorbed and scattered by dissolved and suspended material. Hooker cares about ocean color because of what it can reveal about the health of the ocean, and in turn, the health of our planet. "The main thing we are interested in is the productivity of the water," Hooker says. The seawater contains phytoplankton, microscopic plants, which are the food base for the ocean s ecosystems. Changes in the water s properties, whether due to natural seasonal effects or human influence, can lead to problems for delicate ecosystems such as coral reefs. Ocean color can inform researchers about the quantities and distribution of phytoplankton and other materials, providing clues as to how the world ocean is changing. NASA s Coastal Zone Color Scanner, launched in 1978, was the first ocean color instrument flown on a spacecraft. Since then, the Agency s ocean color research capabilities have become increasingly sophisticated with the launch of the SeaWiFS instrument in 1997 and the twin MODIS instruments carried into orbit on NASA s Terra (1999) and Aqua (2002) satellites. The technology provides sweeping, global information on ocean color on a scale unattainable by any other means. One issue that arises from

  4. Ocean energy program summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    The oceans are the world's largest solar energy collector and storage system. Covering 71 percent of the earth's surface, they collect and store this energy as waves, currents, and thermal and salinity gradients. The purpose of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Ocean Energy Technology (OET) Program is to develop techniques that harness this ocean energy cost effectively and in a way that does not harm the environment. The program seeks to develop ocean energy technology to a point where industry can accurately assess whether the technology is a viable energy conversion alternative, or supplement, to current power generating systems. In past studies, DOE identified ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), which uses the temperature difference between warm surface water and cold deep water, as the most promising of the ocean energy technologies. As a result, the OET Program is concentrating on research that advances the OTEC technology. The program also continues to monitor and study developments in wave energy, ocean current, and salinity gradient concepts; but it is not actively developing these technologies now.

  5. 42 CFR 441.60 - Continuing care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Continuing care provider. For purposes of this subpart, a continuing care provider means a.... A continuing care provider must provide to the agency any reports that the agency may reasonably require. (c) State monitoring. If the State plan provides for agreements with continuing care...

  6. Planet Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    A more adequate name for Planet Earth could be Planet Ocean, seeing that ocean water covers more than seventy percent of the planet's surface and plays a fundamental role in the survival of almost all living species. Actually, oceans are aqueous solutions of extraordinary importance due to its direct implications in the current living conditions of our planet and its potential role on the continuity of life as well, as long as we know how to respect the limits of its immense but finite capacities. We may therefore state that natural aqueous solutions are excellent contexts for the approach and further understanding of many important chemical concepts, whether they be of chemical equilibrium, acid-base reactions, solubility and oxidation-reduction reactions. The topic of the 2014 edition of GIFT ('Our Changing Planet') will explore some of the recent complex changes of our environment, subjects that have been lately included in Chemistry teaching programs. This is particularly relevant on high school programs, with themes such as 'Earth Atmosphere: radiation, matter and structure', 'From Atmosphere to the Ocean: solutions on Earth and to Earth', 'Spring Waters and Public Water Supply: Water acidity and alkalinity'. These are the subjects that I want to develop on my school project with my pupils. Geographically, our school is located near the sea in a region where a stream flows into the sea. Besides that, our school water comes from a borehole which shows that the quality of the water we use is of significant importance. This project will establish and implement several procedures that, supported by physical and chemical analysis, will monitor the quality of water - not only the water used in our school, but also the surrounding waters (stream and beach water). The samples will be collected in the borehole of the school, in the stream near the school and in the beach of Carcavelos. Several physical-chemical characteristics related to the quality of the water will

  7. 48 CFR 53.303 - Agency forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency forms. 53.303 Section 53.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.303 Agency forms. This section illustrates agency forms...

  8. 48 CFR 53.303 - Agency forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Agency forms. 53.303 Section 53.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.303 Agency forms. This section illustrates agency forms...

  9. 48 CFR 53.303 - Agency forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agency forms. 53.303 Section 53.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.303 Agency forms. This section illustrates agency forms...

  10. 48 CFR 53.303 - Agency forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agency forms. 53.303 Section 53.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.303 Agency forms. This section illustrates agency forms...

  11. 48 CFR 53.303 - Agency forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agency forms. 53.303 Section 53.303 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.303 Agency forms. This section illustrates agency forms...

  12. 34 CFR 303.22 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead agency. 303.22 Section 303.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.22 Lead agency. Lead agency means the...

  13. 34 CFR 303.22 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead agency. 303.22 Section 303.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.22 Lead agency. Lead agency means the...

  14. 34 CFR 303.22 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Lead agency. 303.22 Section 303.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.22 Lead agency. Lead agency means the...

  15. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1988 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council monitors the status and needs of ocean sciences and assists U.S. government agencies in the development and maintenance of ocean research programs. The major activities of 1988 are reviewed on the following: Navy Review Panel, NOAA Review Panel, CO2 Panel, International Ocean Science Policy Group, Ocean Climate Research Committee, The Continental Margins Workshop Committee, and the Exclusive Economic Zone.

  16. Ocean Studies Board annual report 1988 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-31

    The Ocean Studies Board of the National Research Council monitors the status and needs of ocean sciences and assists U.S. government agencies in the development and maintenance of ocean research programs. The major activities of 1988 are reviewed on the following: Navy Review Panel, NOAA Review Panel, CO2 Panel, International Ocean Science Policy Group, Ocean Climate Research Committee, The Continental Margins Workshop Committee, and the Exclusive Economic Zone.

  17. Interagency Ocean Observing Committee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rome, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    Decades of focused investment in ocean observing and prediction have produced many examples of substantive societal and economic benefit resulting from improved knowledge of ocean and coastal waters and their behavior. Many complex and difficult questions about the ocean remain, including many that have implications for the lives and livelihoods of millions of Americans. The United States has embarked on a series of efforts to develop an ocean observing system capable of addressing broad societal needs. This system is known as the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (U.S. IOOS). The activities and members of the U.S. IOOS community are broad and complex. There are 18 Federal agencies involved in the U.S. IOOS program, as well as 11 U.S. IOOS Regional Associations that encompass efforts focused in U.S. coastal waters, the Great Lakes, and U.S. territories and their waters in the Pacific and the Caribbean. In addition, there are many Federal and academic scientists representing the U.S. Government in various United Nations-sponsored groups that plan and oversee global ocean observation programs. This diverse community is managed largely through cooperation rather than clear directive or budgetary authority, which has contributed to both the strong growth, and the integration weaknesses, of the U.S. IOOS program. The Interagency Ocean Observation Committee (IOOC) is a dynamic group of federal leaders required by Congress to implement procedural, technical, and scientific requirements to ensure full execution of U.S. IOOS. A major focus for the next decade of the IOOC is to help guide comprehensive processes that more fully integrate the requirements, technologies, data/product development and dissemination, testing and modeling efforts across the regional, national, and global sectors of the U.S. IOOS program. This poster/presentation will increase awareness of IOOC efforts to coordinate physical, chemical, and biological observations -- a complementary objective

  18. 15 CFR 930.95 - Guidance provided by the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... bodies, river basins, boundaries defined under the coastal nonpoint pollution control program, or...

  19. 15 CFR 930.95 - Guidance provided by the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... bodies, river basins, boundaries defined under the coastal nonpoint pollution control program, or...

  20. 15 CFR 930.95 - Guidance provided by the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... bodies, river basins, boundaries defined under the coastal nonpoint pollution control program, or...

  1. 15 CFR 930.95 - Guidance provided by the State agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... bodies, river basins, boundaries defined under the coastal nonpoint pollution control program, or...

  2. 22 CFR 228.21 - Ocean transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ocean transportation. 228.21 Section 228.21 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES... § 228.21 Ocean transportation. When transporting commodities subject to the provisions of the...

  3. 22 CFR 228.21 - Ocean transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ocean transportation. 228.21 Section 228.21 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES... § 228.21 Ocean transportation. When transporting commodities subject to the provisions of the...

  4. 22 CFR 228.21 - Ocean transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ocean transportation. 228.21 Section 228.21 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES FOR PROCUREMENT OF COMMODITIES AND SERVICES... § 228.21 Ocean transportation. When transporting commodities subject to the provisions of the...

  5. Scientific development of a massively parallel ocean climate model. Progress report for 1992--1993 and Continuing request for 1993--1994 to CHAMMP (Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics)

    SciTech Connect

    Semtner, A.J. Jr.; Chervin, R.M.

    1993-05-01

    During the second year of CHAMMP funding to the principal investigators, progress has been made in the proposed areas of research, as follows: investigation of the physics of the thermohaline circulation; examination of resolution effects on ocean general circulation; and development of a massively parallel ocean climate model.

  6. The Global Ocean Observing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Dana

    1992-01-01

    A Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS) should be established now with international coordination (1) to address issues of global change, (2) to implement operational ENSO forecasts, (3) to provide the data required to apply global ocean circulation models, and (4) to extract the greatest value from the one billion dollar investment over the next ten years in ocean remote sensing by the world's space agencies. The objectives of GOOS will focus on climatic and oceanic predictions, on assessing coastal pollution, and in determining the sustainability of living marine resources and ecosystems. GOOS will be a complete system including satellite observations, in situ observations, numerical modeling of ocean processes, and data exchange and management. A series of practical and economic benefits will be derived from the information generated by GOOS. In addition to the marine science community, these benefits will be realized by the energy industries of the world, and by the world's fisheries. The basic oceanic variables that are required to meet the oceanic and predictability objectives of GOOS include wind velocity over the ocean, sea surface temperature and salinity, oceanic profiles of temperature and salinity, surface current, sea level, the extent and thickness of sea ice, the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters, and the chlorophyll concentration of surface waters. Ocean circulation models and coupled ocean-atmosphere models can be used to evaluate observing system design, to assimilate diverse data sets from in situ and remotely sensed observations, and ultimately to predict future states of the system. The volume of ocean data will increase enormously over the next decade as new satellite systems are launched and as complementary in situ measuring systems are deployed. These data must be transmitted, quality controlled, exchanged, analyzed, and archived with the best state-of-the-art computational methods.

  7. Continual improvement plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  8. Sharing Data in the Global Ocean Observing System (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, E. J.; McCurdy, A.; Young, J.; Fischer, A. S.

    2010-12-01

    We examine the evolution of data sharing in the field of physical oceanography to highlight the challenges now before us. Synoptic global observation of the ocean from space and in situ platforms has significantly matured over the last two decades. In the early 1990’s the community data sharing challenges facing the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) largely focused on the behavior of individual scientists. Satellite data sharing depended on the policy of individual agencies. Global data sets were delivered with considerable delay and with enormous personal sacrifice. In the 2000’s the requirements for global data sets and sustained observations from the likes of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change have led to data sharing and cooperation at a grander level. It is more effective and certainly more efficient. The Joint WMO/IOC Technical Commission on Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) provided the means to organize many aspects of data collection and data dissemination globally, for the common good. In response the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites organized Virtual Constellations to enable the assembly and sharing of like kinds of satellite data (e.g., sea surface topography, ocean vector winds, and ocean color). Individuals in physical oceanography have largely adapted to the new rigors of sharing data for the common good, and as a result of this revolution new science has been enabled. Primary obstacles to sharing have shifted from the individual level to the national level. As we enter into the 2010’s the demands for ocean data continue to evolve with an expanded requirement for more real-time reporting and broader disciplinary coverage, to answer key scientific and societal questions. We are also seeing the development of more numerous national contributions to the global observing system. The drivers for the establishment of global ocean observing systems are expanding beyond climate to include biological and

  9. Ocean Acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias-Rodriguez, Maria Debora

    The oceans play a central role in the maintenance of life on Earth. Oceans provide extensive ecosystems for marine animals and plants covering two-thirds of the Earth's surface, are essential sources of food, economic activity, and biodiversity, and are central to the global biogeochemical cycles. The oceans are the largest reservoir of carbon in the Planet, and absorb approximately one-third of the carbon emissions that are released to the Earth's atmosphere as a result of human activities. Since the beginning of industrialization, humans have been responsible for the increase in one greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide (CO2), from approximately 280 parts per million (ppm) at the end of the nineteenth century to the current levels of 390ppm. As well as affecting the surface ocean pH, and the organisms living at the ocean surface, these increases in CO2 are causing global mean surface temperatures to rise.

  10. Anthropogenic modification of the oceans.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Toby

    2011-03-13

    Human activities are altering the ocean in many different ways. The surface ocean is warming and, as a result, it is becoming more stratified and sea level is rising. There is no clear evidence yet of a slowing in ocean circulation, although this is predicted for the future. As anthropogenic CO(2) permeates into the ocean, it is making sea water more acidic, to the detriment of surface corals and probably many other calcifiers. Once acidification reaches the deep ocean, it will become more corrosive to CaCO(3), leading to a considerable reduction in the amount of CaCO(3) accumulating on the deep seafloor. There will be a several thousand-year-long interruption to CaCO(3) sedimentation at many points on the seafloor. A curious feedback in the ocean, carbonate compensation, makes it more likely that global warming and sea-level rise will continue for many millennia after CO(2) emissions cease.

  11. Continuing Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, K. A.; Fenwick, P. R.

    In 1978, a national survey was conducted in New Zealand to determine the extent of participation in continuing education and the level of unmet need for these activities. A questionnaire was developed dealing with respondent characteristics, spare time and interests, agency-directed learning activities (ADLAS), and unmet needs, and administered to…

  12. Transformative ocean science through the VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada ocean observing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin Taylor, S.

    2009-04-01

    The health of the world's oceans and their impact on global environmental and climate change make the development of cabled observing systems vital and timely as a data source and archive of unparalleled importance for new discoveries. The VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada observatories are on the forefront of a new generation of ocean science and technology. Funding of over $100M, principally from the Governments of Canada and BC, for these two observatories supports integrated ocean systems science at a regional scale enabled by new developments in powered sub-sea cable technology and in cyber-infrastructure that streams continuous real-time data to Internet-based web platforms. VENUS is a coastal observatory supporting two instrumented arrays in the Saanich Inlet, near Victoria, and in the Strait of Georgia, off Vancouver. NEPTUNE Canada is an 800 km system on the Juan de Fuca Plate off the west coast of British Columbia, which will have five instrumented nodes in operation over the next 18 months. This paper describes the development and management of these two observatories, the principal research themes, and the applications of the research to public policy, economic development, and public education and outreach. Both observatories depend on partnerships with universities, government agencies, private sector companies, and NGOs. International collaboration is central to the development of the research programs, including partnerships with initiatives in the EU, US, Japan, Taiwan and China.

  13. 77 FR 72831 - Meeting of the Ocean Research Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... held at the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, 1201 New York Avenue NW., 4th Floor, Washington DC 2005... Department of the Navy Meeting of the Ocean Research Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Ocean Research Advisory Panel will hold a...

  14. Ocean thermal energy conversion: report to congress - fiscal year 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-31

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) activities related to ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) during fiscal year 1982 are described. The agency focus has been in the areas of providing ocean engineering and technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE), in streamlining the administration of the Federal OTEC licensing system, and in environmental assistance.

  15. Coalition releases declaration for healthy and productive oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-06-01

    Coalition releases declaration for healthy and productive oceans A coalition of 13 countries or federal agencies participating in a new Global Partnership for Oceans (GPO) indicated its support for a “Declaration for Healthy and Productive Oceans to Help Reduce Poverty” on 16 June, just prior to the Rio+20 conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  16. Ocean deoxygenation in a warming world.

    PubMed

    Keeling, Ralph E; Körtzinger, Arne; Gruber, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Ocean warming and increased stratification of the upper ocean caused by global climate change will likely lead to declines in dissolved O2 in the ocean interior (ocean deoxygenation) with implications for ocean productivity, nutrient cycling, carbon cycling, and marine habitat. Ocean models predict declines of 1 to 7% in the global ocean O2 inventory over the next century, with declines continuing for a thousand years or more into the future. An important consequence may be an expansion in the area and volume of so-called oxygen minimum zones, where O2 levels are too low to support many macrofauna and profound changes in biogeochemical cycling occur. Significant deoxygenation has occurred over the past 50 years in the North Pacific and tropical oceans, suggesting larger changes are looming. The potential for larger O2 declines in the future suggests the need for an improved observing system for tracking ocean 02 changes.

  17. Ocean drilling surveys planned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As a continuation of the International Phase of Ocean Drilling (IPOD), the Glomar Challenger is slated to drill in the Pacific and North Atlantic oceans during 1982-83. In preparation for the drilling, the Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Inc. will manage the site survey program during 1981-82. These site surveys will be focused to support four programs: a hydrogeology study on the equatorial East Pacific Rise flank; a study of Mesozoic sediments in the western Pacific; a study in sedimentation of the equatorial Pacific basin; and a study of the geochemistry of the North Atlantic ocean crust.JOI has issued a request for proposals for the United States site survey program. Proposal deadline is March 5. For additional information, contact JOI, Inc., 2600 Virginia Avenue, N.W., Suite 512, Washington, D.C. 20037.

  18. Ocean Acidification

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ocean and coastal acidification is an emerging issue caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide being absorbed by seawater. Changing seawater chemistry impacts marine life, ecosystem services, and humans. Learn what EPA is doing and what you can do.

  19. 77 FR 22837 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in California AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Limitation on Claims for Judicial..., and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration--National Marine Fisheries Service....

  20. Ocean dumping

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The regulation of the dumping of materials into the ocean is reviewed. Criteria to be applied in reviewing and evaluating permit applications for the transportation and dumping of materials into the ocean are established. A definition of monitoring of dumping sites, the assessment of fees to cover permit processing costs, and a moratorium is placed on the issuance of permits for the disposal of radioactive waste are included.

  1. Acquiring Marine Data in the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Jackson, H. Ruth; Shimeld, John W.; Chapman, C. Borden; Childs, Jonathan R.; Funck, Thomas; Rowland, Robert W.

    2009-06-01

    Despite the record minimum ice extent in the Arctic Ocean for the past 2 years, collecting geophysical data with towed sensors in ice-covered regions continues to pose enormous challenges. Significant parts of the Canada Basin in the western Arctic Ocean have remained largely unmapped because thick multiyear ice has limited access even by research vessels strengthened against ice [Jackson et al., 1990]. Because of the resulting paucity of data, the western Arctic Ocean is one of the few areas of ocean in the world where major controversies still exist with respect to its origin and tectonic evolution [Grantz et al., 1990; Lawver and Scotese, 1990; Lane, 1997; Miller et al., 2006]. This article describes the logistical challenges and initial data sets from geophysical seismic reflection, seismic refraction, and hydrographic surveys in the Canada Basin conducted by scientists with U.S. and Canadian government agencies (Figure 1a) to fulfill the requirements of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea to determine sediment thickness, geological origin, and basin evolution in this unexplored part of the world. Some of these data were collected using a single ship, but the heaviest ice conditions necessitated using two icebreakers, similar to other recent Arctic surveys [e.g., Jokat, 2003].

  2. Fukushima and the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buesseler, Ken

    2013-04-01

    The triple disaster of the March 11, 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and subsequent radiation releases at Fukushima Dai-ichi were unprecedented events for the ocean and society. The earthquake was the fourth largest ever recorded; the tsunami resulted in over 20,000 dead or missing and destroyed entire towns; and the radiation releases from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plants created the largest accidental release of man-made radionuclides to the oceans in history— a release that continues to this day. Compared to monitoring on land, studies of the ocean are far fewer, yet the area impacted and quantity delivered- 80% of all radioactivity released- is far greater. For oceanographers, this presents a challenge of unprecedented scope and complexity: to understand exactly how these events played out, how radiation continues to move through the marine system (including important seafood items), and, in turn, how best to communicate scientific findings that will inform public policy decisions far into the future. This presentation will provide an overview of the sources and fate of radionuclides released from Fukushima to the ocean. An emphasis will be given on the sources of cesium, its transport in waters, and fluxes associated with sinking particles and accumulation in sediments.

  3. Oceanic oxygenation events in the anoxic Ediacaran ocean.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S K; Planavsky, N J; Jiang, G; Kendall, B; Owens, J D; Wang, X; Shi, X; Anbar, A D; Lyons, T W

    2016-09-01

    The ocean-atmosphere system is typically envisioned to have gone through a unidirectional oxygenation with significant oxygen increases in the earliest (ca. 635 Ma), middle (ca. 580 Ma), or late (ca. 560 Ma) Ediacaran Period. However, temporally discontinuous geochemical data and the patchy metazoan fossil record have been inadequate to chart the details of Ediacaran ocean oxygenation, raising fundamental debates about the timing of ocean oxygenation, its purported unidirectional rise, and its causal relationship, if any, with the evolution of early animal life. To better understand the Ediacaran ocean redox evolution, we have conducted a multi-proxy paleoredox study of a relatively continuous, deep-water section in South China that was paleogeographically connected with the open ocean. Iron speciation and pyrite morphology indicate locally euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) environments throughout the Ediacaran in this section. In the same rocks, redox sensitive element enrichments and sulfur isotope data provide evidence for multiple oceanic oxygenation events (OOEs) in a predominantly anoxic global Ediacaran-early Cambrian ocean. This dynamic redox landscape contrasts with a recent view of a redox-static Ediacaran ocean without significant change in oxygen content. The duration of the Ediacaran OOEs may be comparable to those of the oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) in otherwise well-oxygenated Phanerozoic oceans. Anoxic events caused mass extinctions followed by fast recovery in biologically diversified Phanerozoic oceans. In contrast, oxygenation events in otherwise ecologically monotonous anoxic Ediacaran-early Cambrian oceans may have stimulated biotic innovations followed by prolonged evolutionary stasis.

  4. A Decade of Satellite Ocean Color Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    After the successful Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS, 1978-1986), demonstration that quantitative estimations of geophysical variables such as chlorophyll a and diffuse attenuation coefficient could be derived from top of the atmosphere radiances, a number of international missions with ocean color capabilities were launched beginning in the late 1990s. Most notable were those with global data acquisition capabilities, i.e., the Ocean Color and Temperature Sensor (OCTS 1996-1997), the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS, United States, 1997-present), two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometers, (MODIS, United States, Terra/2000-present and Aqua/2002-present), the Global Imager (GLI, Japan, 2002-2003), and the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS, European Space Agency, 2002-present). These missions have provided data of exceptional quality and continuity, allowing for scientific inquiries into a wide variety of marine research topics not possible with the CZCS. This review focuses on the scientific advances made over the past decade using these data sets.

  5. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  6. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  7. 40 CFR 791.85 - Availablity of final Agency order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Availablity of final Agency order. 791.85 Section 791.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Final Order § 791.85 Availablity of final Agency...

  8. Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Arctic Ocean is the smallest of the Earth's four major oceans, covering 14x10(exp 6) sq km located entirely within the Arctic Circle (66 deg 33 min N). It is a major player in the climate of the north polar region and has a variable sea ice cover that tends to increase its sensitivity to climate change. Its temperature, salinity, and ice cover have all undergone changes in the past several decades, although it is uncertain whether these predominantly reflect long-term trends, oscillations within the system, or natural variability. Major changes include a warming and expansion of the Atlantic layer, at depths of 200-900 m, a warming of the upper ocean in the Beaufort Sea, a considerable thinning (perhaps as high as 40%) of the sea ice cover, a lesser and uneven retreat of the ice cover (averaging approximately 3% per decade), and a mixed pattern of salinity increases and decreases.

  9. 46 CFR 535.304 - Agency agreements-exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency agreements-exemption. 535.304 Section 535.304 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF 1984 Exemptions §...

  10. 76 FR 27019 - Interagency Ocean Observation Committee, Meeting of the Data Management and Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Data Management and Communications Steering Team AGENCY: National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic... technical guidance with respect to the management of ocean data collected under the U.S. ] IOOS. The IOOC's... of the Interagency Ocean Observation Committee (IOOC) to announce a formal meeting of the IOOC's...

  11. 75 FR 63441 - Notice of Availability for Public Comment on the Interagency Ocean Observation; Committee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Interagency Ocean Observation; Committee Proposed Certification Design Process AGENCY: National Ocean Service...). ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: The NOAA Integrated Ocean Observing System... Integrated Coastal and Ocean Observation System Act of 2009 (ICOOS Act). The IOOC will use the...

  12. Perspectives: The Continuous Improvement Trap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Accrediting agencies, legislators, pundits, and even higher educational professionals have become enamored with applying the language of continuous improvement to learning outcomes. The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges specifically uses the term "continuing improvement" in Core Standard 2.5, one of its…

  13. 77 FR 76077 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION...)), and as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, the National...

  14. The Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broecker, Wallace S.

    1983-01-01

    The chemistry of the ocean, whose constituents interact with those of air and land to support life and influence climate, is known to have undergone changes since the last glacial epoch. Changes in dissolved oxygen, calcium ions, phosphate, carbon dioxide, carbonate ions, and bicarbonate ions are discussed. (JN)

  15. Ocean Acidification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Claudia; Orellana, Mónica V.; DeVault, Megan; Simon, Zac; Baliga, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The curriculum module described in this article addresses the global issue of ocean acidification (OA) (Feely 2009; Figure 1). OA is a harmful consequence of excess carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) in the atmosphere and poses a threat to marine life, both algae and animal. This module seeks to teach and help students master the cross-disciplinary…

  16. Ocean nutrients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Philip W.; Hurd, Catriona L.

    Nutrients provide the chemical life-support system for phytoplankton in the ocean. Together with the carbon fixed during photosynthesis, nutrients provide the other elements, such as N and P, needed to synthesize macromolecules to build cellular constituents such as ribosomes. The makeup of these various biochemicals, such as proteins, pigments, and nucleic acids, together determine the elemental stoichiometry of an individual phytoplankton cell. The stoichiometry of different phytoplankton species or groups will vary depending on the proportions of distinct cellular machinery, such as for growth or resource acquisition, they require for their life strategies. The uptake of nutrients by phytoplankton helps to set the primary productivity, and drives the biological pump, of the global ocean. In the case of nitrogen, the supply of nutrients is categorized as either new or regenerated. The supply of new nitrogen, such as nitrate upwelled from the ocean' interior or biological nitrogen fixation, is equal to the vertical export of particular organic matter from the upper ocean on a timescale of years. Nutrients such as silica can also play a structural role in some phytoplankton groups, such as diatoms, where they are used to synthesize a siliceous frustule that offers some mechanical protection from grazers. In this chapter, we also explore nutrient uptake kinetics, patterns in nutrient distributions in space and time, the biogeochemical cycle of nitrogen, the atmospheric supply of nutrients, departures from the Redfield ratio, and whether nutrient distributions and cycling will be altered in the future

  17. Enhanced ocean observational capability

    SciTech Connect

    Volpe, A M; Esser, B K

    2000-01-10

    Coastal oceans are vital to world health and sustenance. Technology that enables new observations has always been the driver of discovery in ocean sciences. In this context, we describe the first at sea deployment and operation of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICPMS) for continuous measurement of trace elements in seawater. The purpose of these experiments was to demonstrate that an ICPMS could be operated in a corrosive and high vibration environment with no degradation in performance. Significant advances occurred this past year due to ship time provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography (UCSD), as well as that funded through this project. Evaluation at sea involved performance testing and characterization of several real-time seawater analysis modes. We show that mass spectrometers can rapidly, precisely and accurately determine ultratrace metal concentrations in seawater, thus allowing high-resolution mapping of large areas of surface seawater. This analytical capability represents a significant advance toward real-time observation and understanding of water mass chemistry in dynamic coastal environments. In addition, a joint LLNL-SIO workshop was convened to define and design new technologies for ocean observation. Finally, collaborative efforts were initiated with atmospheric scientists at LLNL to identify realistic coastal ocean and river simulation models to support real-time analysis and modeling of hazardous material releases in coastal waterways.

  18. 40 CFR 166.25 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) The use of the pesticide under the exemption will not cause unreasonable adverse effects on the... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and...

  19. 40 CFR 166.25 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) The use of the pesticide under the exemption will not cause unreasonable adverse effects on the... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and...

  20. 40 CFR 166.25 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) The use of the pesticide under the exemption will not cause unreasonable adverse effects on the... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and...

  1. 40 CFR 166.25 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) The use of the pesticide under the exemption will not cause unreasonable adverse effects on the... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and...

  2. 40 CFR 166.25 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) The use of the pesticide under the exemption will not cause unreasonable adverse effects on the... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and...

  3. 32 CFR 701.24 - Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal agency. 701.24 Section 701.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  4. 32 CFR 701.24 - Federal agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency. 701.24 Section 701.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND... President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  5. 14 CFR 73.85 - Using agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Using agency. 73.85 Section 73.85 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE Prohibited Areas § 73.85 Using agency. For the purpose of this subpart, the...

  6. 14 CFR 73.17 - Controlling agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Controlling agency. 73.17 Section 73.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE Restricted Areas § 73.17 Controlling agency. For the purposes of this part,...

  7. 14 CFR 73.15 - Using agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Using agency. 73.15 Section 73.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE Restricted Areas § 73.15 Using agency. (a) For the purposes of this subpart,...

  8. 29 CFR 1614.102 - Agency program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... eliminate discriminatory practices and policies. In support of this program, the agency shall: (1) Provide..., practices and working conditions; (4) Communicate the agency's equal employment opportunity policy and... assistance on a continuing basis; (5) Review, evaluate and control managerial and supervisory performance...

  9. 5 CFR 846.203 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-ELECTIONS OF COVERAGE Elections § 846.203 Agency responsibilities. (a) Employing offices must distribute the election forms provided by OPM to each...

  10. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military department... (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  11. 41 CFR 105-74.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department... the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent...

  12. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    SciTech Connect

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean expanse greater than the land area of all fifty states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean's role in an integrated Earth system, but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance our still-incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council (NRC)'s Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council's Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprised of 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; issues brought to the nation's attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. A 15-member committee of experts identified four themes that encompass 32 future ocean research questions enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions in the report (e.g., sea level rise, sustainable fisheries, the global water cycle) reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant today, and are likely to take decades of effort to solve. As such, U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations or autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales. Consequently, a

  13. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  14. 29 CFR 1954.11 - Visits to State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF APPROVED STATE PLANS State Monitoring Reports and Visits to State Agencies § 1954.11 Visits to State agencies. As a part of the continuing monitoring...

  15. Ocean Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    sensing and lidar , through measurements and models. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Remote sensing , ocean optics, lidar , underwater imaging, underwater turbulence...scanning system taking advantage of compressive sensing imaging techniques (B. O^ang et al.). Modeling is key in system design and performance...effect has been simulated using a fvlonte Carlo method (Z. Xu and D. K. P. Yue). Active sensing by the means of lidar eliminates many of the issues

  16. Oceans '88

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the following papers: Solid waste disposal crisis; Plastics in Ocean; Continental shelf environmental research; Seafood technology advancements; Gulf of Mexico chemosynthetic petroleum seep communities; Water reuse on onshore mariculture and processing facilities; Oil and gas industry conflicts on the outer continental shelf; Cumulative environmental effects of the oil and gas leasing program; Oil and gas exploration; and Oil and gas resource management; Aids to navigation systems and equipment; and Surveillance experiments.

  17. Oceanic Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, K. L. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Instrument concepts which measure ocean temperature, chlorophyll, sediment and Gelbstoffe concentrations in three dimensions on a quantitative, quasi-synoptic basis were considered. Coastal zone color scanner chlorophyll imagery, laser stimulated Raman temperaure and fluorescence spectroscopy, existing airborne Lidar and laser fluorosensing instruments, and their accuracies in quantifying concentrations of chlorophyll, suspended sediments and Gelbstoffe are presented. Lidar applications to phytoplankton dynamics and photochemistry, Lidar radiative transfer and signal interpretation, and Lidar technology are discussed.

  18. Calibration and Validation for VIIRS Ocean Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, R.; Davis, C.; May, D.

    2008-12-01

    Satellite data products for ocean color and SST both require precise calibration and validation to meet the continuity of present satellite ocean products. Here we outline the proposed plan for calibration and validation of VIIRS ocean data. The primary ocean color Environmental Data Records (EDRs) are Remote Sensing Reflectances (RSRs); the other EDRs such as chlorophyll are derived from the RSRs. RSRs are derived from the VIIRS Sensor Data Records (SDR) by applying an atmospheric correction that removes the gas absorptions and Rayleigh, aerosol and sea-surface reflectances. Ocean color products require highly accurate calibration and refinement of the sensor calibration using highly accurate in-situ measurements of RSRs (vicarious calibration). Similarly, the SST EDR is strongly dependent on accurate "tuning" algorithm coefficients based on large ocean match-up data sets of buoy and skin temperatures. Ocean products require both a short term and long term monitoring of the sensor "calibration" in order to provide real time ocean products for Navy and NOAA operations. Validation of EDR ocean products requires characterizing the product uncertainty based on match up ocean data from various water and atmospheric types, spanning seasonal and latitudinal variability. Product validation includes matchups with AERONET SeaPRISM above water RSRs combined with in-situ measurements of optical properties, chlorophyll, SST (bulk and skin), and other products. Ocean product validation plans are exploring using an automated network of ocean data for assessing algorithm stability and product uncertainty in order to meet the present need for real-time operational products.

  19. Lindstrom Receives 2013 Ocean Sciences Award: Citation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Lagerloef, Gary S. E.

    2014-09-01

    Eric J. Lindstrom's record over the last 3 decades exemplifies both leadership and service to the ocean science community. Advancement of ocean science not only depends on innovative research but is enabled by support of government agencies. As NASA program scientist for physical oceanography for the last 15 years, Eric combined his proven scientific knowledge and skilled leadership abilities with understanding the inner workings of our government bureaucracy, for the betterment of all. He is a four-time NASA headquarters medalist for his achievements in developing a unified physical oceanography program that is well integrated with those of other federal agencies.

  20. Ocean Electric Field for Oceanography and Surveillance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    learn about ONR concerns and provide feedback on issues, such as opportunities and priorities for Arctic Ocean research. I will continue to...University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory 1013 NE 40th Street Box 355640 Seattle, WA 98105-6698 Final Report Ocean Electric...I supervised. Both were awarded MS degrees by the UW School of Oceanography and are currently employed in ocean studies at APL-JHU and NOAA

  1. Continuation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremont Unified School District, CA.

    The Fremont, California Unified School District organized a continuing education program through a workshop held in the summer of 1968. This paper presents the results of that workshop. Following a statement of philosophy, an outline of the characteristics of the continuation student, and an outline of the functions of the program, an overview of…

  2. Ocean processes underlying surface clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Gregg A.; Huntley, Helga S.; Kirwan, A. D.; Lipphardt, Bruce L.; Campbell, Timothy; Smith, Travis; Edwards, Kacey; Bartels, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Ageostrophic ocean processes such as frontogenesis, submesoscale mixed-layer instabilities, shelf break fronts, and topographic interactions on the continental shelf produce surface-divergent flows that affect buoyant material over time. This study examines the ocean processes leading to clustering, i.e., the increase of material density over time, on the ocean surface. The time series of divergence along a material trajectory, the Lagrangian divergence (LD), is the flow property driving clustering. To understand the impacts of various ocean processes on LD, numerical ocean model simulations at different resolutions are analyzed. Although the relevant processes differ, patterns in clustering evolution from the deep ocean and the continental shelf bear similarities. Smaller-scale ocean features are associated with stronger surface divergence, and the surface material clustering is initially dominated by these features. Over time, the effect of these small-scale features becomes bounded, as material traverses small-scale regions of both positive and negative divergence. Lower-frequency flow phenomena, however, continue the clustering. As a result, clustering evolves from initial small-scale to larger-scale patterns.

  3. Seeking the True Antarctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. G.

    2007-12-01

    With World Ocean warming a corrected name use is recommend with a universal adoption of the name, "Antarctic Ocean. This one large body of circumpolar water lies adjacent to - and south of - the Antarctic Convergence, on its northern perimeter, and is bordered to the south by the shoreline of the Antarctic continent. The Antarctic Ocean has a distinct water mass, with a true perimeter, and with a homogeneity, comprizing a unique environment for a specialized flora and fauna. It is recognized generally by its surface waters, ranging from 3.5 - 4.5 degrees Celsius (summer) and one degree C (winter).While its northern boundary, ' The Antarctic Convergence', has a water quality and thermal difference, this polar front is continuous and circumpolar, and it abuts -- and streams along with -- the ultimate southern extremities of the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Ocean waters. Parameters, characteristics and dynamics of water exchange are considered, here, with some water exchanges, with Intermediate and Antarctic Bottom water noted. It maintains its own forceful 'West Wind Drift', a current driven and emboldened by Earth's Geostrophic West Wind. Features defining the Antarctic Ocean: (1)Washing all shores of the continent named Antarctica; it is .the only ocean reaching this Antarctic Continent.; (2) it is one of Earth's two Polar (and coldest) oceans, the other, named Arctic Ocean, of which it is the opposite (the Anti); (3) its distinctive cold waters of the Antarctic Ocean and its peripheral seas, floating ice tongues, the frigid stamp of Antarctica's continental glaciers and ice fields; (4) the Antarctic Continent is the source of continual replenishment from her ice cap and melt-water derived from the great mountains, valleys and the massive polar dome of ice. Further, in the literature the present usage, 'Southern Ocean', by some authors, confuses the true Antarctic environmental waters (i.e. south of - and within the South Polar Front - Convergence) with southern

  4. Aquantis Ocean Current Turbine Development Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fleming, Alex J.

    2014-08-23

    The Aquantis® Current Plane (“C-Plane”) technology developed by Dehlsen Associates, LLC (DA) and Aquantis, Inc. is an ocean current turbine designed to extract kinetic energy from ocean currents. The technology is capable of achieving competitively priced base-load, continuous, and reliable power generation from a source of renewable energy not before possible in this scale or form.

  5. 40 CFR 36.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military... executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any independent regulatory agency....

  6. 75 FR 45606 - Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force-Final Recommendations of the Interagency Ocean Policy Task Force

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL... Force AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability, Interagency Ocean Policy... Council on Environmental Quality. The Task Force was charged with developing, with appropriate...

  7. 5 CFR 792.105 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency responsibilities. 792.105 Section 792.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and...

  8. 5 CFR 792.105 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency responsibilities. 792.105 Section 792.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and...

  9. 5 CFR 792.105 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency responsibilities. 792.105 Section 792.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH, COUNSELING, AND WORK/LIFE PROGRAMS Alcoholism and Drug Abuse...

  10. 5 CFR 792.105 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency responsibilities. 792.105 Section 792.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and...

  11. 5 CFR 792.105 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency responsibilities. 792.105 Section 792.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH, COUNSELING, AND WORK/LIFE PROGRAMS Alcoholism and Drug Abuse...

  12. 7 CFR 247.35 - Local agency appeals of State agency actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Local agency appeals of State agency actions. 247.35 Section 247.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM §...

  13. 7 CFR 247.35 - Local agency appeals of State agency actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Local agency appeals of State agency actions. 247.35 Section 247.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM §...

  14. 7 CFR 247.35 - Local agency appeals of State agency actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Local agency appeals of State agency actions. 247.35 Section 247.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM §...

  15. 7 CFR 247.35 - Local agency appeals of State agency actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Local agency appeals of State agency actions. 247.35 Section 247.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM §...

  16. 42 CFR 488.11 - State survey agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false State survey agency functions. 488.11 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.11 State survey agency functions. State and local agencies that have agreements under section...

  17. 42 CFR 488.11 - State survey agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State survey agency functions. 488.11 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.11 State survey agency functions. State and local agencies that have agreements under section...

  18. 42 CFR 488.11 - State survey agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State survey agency functions. 488.11 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.11 State survey agency functions. State and local agencies that have agreements under section...

  19. 42 CFR 488.11 - State survey agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State survey agency functions. 488.11 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.11 State survey agency functions. State and local agencies that have agreements under section...

  20. 42 CFR 488.11 - State survey agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State survey agency functions. 488.11 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.11 State survey agency functions. State and local agencies that have agreements under section...

  1. 7 CFR 765.501 - Agency exception authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency exception authority. 765.501 Section 765.501 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Exception Authority § 765.501 Agency...

  2. 7 CFR 767.251 - Agency exception authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency exception authority. 767.251 Section 767.251 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Exception Authority § 767.251 Agency...

  3. 7 CFR 766.401 - Agency exception authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency exception authority. 766.401 Section 766.401 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Exception Authority § 766.401 Agency...

  4. 7 CFR 767.251 - Agency exception authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency exception authority. 767.251 Section 767.251 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INVENTORY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Exception Authority § 767.251 Agency...

  5. 7 CFR 766.401 - Agency exception authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency exception authority. 766.401 Section 766.401 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Exception Authority § 766.401 Agency...

  6. 7 CFR 765.501 - Agency exception authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency exception authority. 765.501 Section 765.501 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN SERVICING-REGULAR Exception Authority § 765.501 Agency...

  7. 40 CFR 51.162 - Identification of responsible agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 51.162 Section 51.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Sources and Modifications § 51.162 Identification of responsible agency. Each plan must identify the State or local agency which will be responsible for meeting the requirements of this subpart in each...

  8. 34 CFR 682.419 - Guaranty agency Federal Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Administration of the Federal Family Education Loan Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.419 Guaranty agency Federal... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guaranty agency Federal Fund. 682.419 Section...

  9. 34 CFR 682.423 - Guaranty agency Operating Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Administration of the Federal Family Education Loan Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.423 Guaranty agency... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guaranty agency Operating Fund. 682.423 Section...

  10. 34 CFR 682.419 - Guaranty agency Federal Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Administration of the Federal Family Education Loan Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.419 Guaranty agency Federal... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guaranty agency Federal Fund. 682.419 Section...

  11. 34 CFR 682.423 - Guaranty agency Operating Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Administration of the Federal Family Education Loan Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.423 Guaranty agency... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guaranty agency Operating Fund. 682.423 Section...

  12. 34 CFR 682.419 - Guaranty agency Federal Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Administration of the Federal Family Education Loan Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.419 Guaranty agency Federal... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guaranty agency Federal Fund. 682.419 Section...

  13. 34 CFR 682.419 - Guaranty agency Federal Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Administration of the Federal Family Education Loan Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.419 Guaranty agency Federal... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guaranty agency Federal Fund. 682.419 Section...

  14. 34 CFR 682.423 - Guaranty agency Operating Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Administration of the Federal Family Education Loan Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.423 Guaranty agency... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guaranty agency Operating Fund. 682.423 Section...

  15. 34 CFR 682.423 - Guaranty agency Operating Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION (CONTINUED) FEDERAL FAMILY EDUCATION LOAN (FFEL) PROGRAM Administration of the Federal Family Education Loan Programs by a Guaranty Agency § 682.423 Guaranty agency... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guaranty agency Operating Fund. 682.423 Section...

  16. 40 CFR 166.30 - Notice of Agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 166.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.30 Notice of Agency decision. (a) Notification of...

  17. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728.58 Section 728.58 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air...

  18. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728.58 Section 728.58 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air...

  19. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728.58 Section 728.58 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air...

  20. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728.58 Section 728.58 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air...

  1. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728.58 Section 728.58 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air...

  2. 5 CFR 831.1307 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Collection of Debts § 831.1307 Use of consumer reporting agencies. (a... report the debtor to a consumer reporting agency. In addition, a debtor's failure to make...

  3. 34 CFR 303.201 - Designation of lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Designation of lead agency. 303.201 Section 303.201 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... of lead agency. Each application must include the name of the State lead agency, as designated...

  4. 34 CFR 303.201 - Designation of lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designation of lead agency. 303.201 Section 303.201 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... of lead agency. Each application must include the name of the State lead agency, as designated...

  5. 34 CFR 303.142 - Designation of lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of lead agency. 303.142 Section 303.142 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION....142 Designation of lead agency. Each application must include a designation of the lead agency in...

  6. 34 CFR 303.142 - Designation of lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Designation of lead agency. 303.142 Section 303.142 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION....142 Designation of lead agency. Each application must include a designation of the lead agency in...

  7. 34 CFR 303.201 - Designation of lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of lead agency. 303.201 Section 303.201 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... of lead agency. Each application must include the name of the State lead agency, as designated...

  8. 12 CFR 261b.3 - Conduct of agency business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conduct of agency business. 261b.3 Section 261b... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.3 Conduct of agency business. Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of official agency business other than in accordance...

  9. 28 CFR 115.271 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.271 Section 115.271 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE... Criminal and administrative agency investigations. (a) When the agency conducts its own investigations...

  10. 28 CFR 115.271 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.271 Section 115.271 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE... Criminal and administrative agency investigations. (a) When the agency conducts its own investigations...

  11. 28 CFR 115.271 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.271 Section 115.271 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE... Criminal and administrative agency investigations. (a) When the agency conducts its own investigations...

  12. 34 CFR 300.222 - LEA and State agency compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true LEA and State agency compliance. 300.222 Section 300.222 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.222 LEA and State agency...

  13. 34 CFR 300.222 - LEA and State agency compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false LEA and State agency compliance. 300.222 Section 300.222 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.222 LEA and State agency...

  14. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... served in a senior employee position in the Agency for Medical Research, an agency within Department X... from the position, the mission of the Agency for Medical Research is narrowed and it is renamed the... various other parts of the Department to continue their work on medical research unrelated to cancer....

  15. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... served in a senior employee position in the Agency for Medical Research, an agency within Department X... from the position, the mission of the Agency for Medical Research is narrowed and it is renamed the... various other parts of the Department to continue their work on medical research unrelated to cancer....

  16. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... served in a senior employee position in the Agency for Medical Research, an agency within Department X... from the position, the mission of the Agency for Medical Research is narrowed and it is renamed the... various other parts of the Department to continue their work on medical research unrelated to cancer....

  17. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... served in a senior employee position in the Agency for Medical Research, an agency within Department X... from the position, the mission of the Agency for Medical Research is narrowed and it is renamed the... various other parts of the Department to continue their work on medical research unrelated to cancer....

  18. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... served in a senior employee position in the Agency for Medical Research, an agency within Department X... from the position, the mission of the Agency for Medical Research is narrowed and it is renamed the... various other parts of the Department to continue their work on medical research unrelated to cancer....

  19. 5 CFR 831.1307 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Collection of Debts § 831.1307 Use of consumer reporting agencies. (a... report the debtor to a consumer reporting agency. In addition, a debtor's failure to make...

  20. 22 CFR 226.1004 - Ocean shipment of goods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ocean shipment of goods. 226.1004 Section 226.1004 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1004 Ocean shipment of goods....

  1. 22 CFR 226.1004 - Ocean shipment of goods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ocean shipment of goods. 226.1004 Section 226.1004 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1004 Ocean shipment of goods....

  2. 22 CFR 226.1004 - Ocean shipment of goods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ocean shipment of goods. 226.1004 Section 226.1004 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1004 Ocean shipment of goods....

  3. 78 FR 46932 - Meeting of the Ocean Research Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... Department of the Navy Meeting of the Ocean Research Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Ocean Research Advisory Panel (ORAP) will hold a regularly..., Arlington, VA, 22203. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Joan S. Cleveland, Office of Naval Research,...

  4. 22 CFR 226.1004 - Ocean shipment of goods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ocean shipment of goods. 226.1004 Section 226.1004 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1004 Ocean shipment of goods....

  5. 22 CFR 226.1004 - Ocean shipment of goods. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ocean shipment of goods. 226.1004 Section 226.1004 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1004 Ocean shipment of goods....

  6. Guaranty Agency Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifman, Steven

    The extent to which guaranty agencies, lenders, and state secondary markets impose restrictions on Guaranteed Student Loan (GSL) borrowing that go beyond federal regulations was assessed through a survey of 53 guaranty agencies. Seventeen of the agencies imposed restrictions on GSLs that go beyond federal regulations, including not loaning to…

  7. Mitigating Local Causes of Ocean Acidification with Existing Laws

    EPA Science Inventory

    The oceans continue to absorb CO2 in step with the increasing atmospheric concentration of CO2. The dissolved CO2 reacts with seawater to form carbonic acid (H2CO3) and liberate hydrogen ions, causing the pH of the oceans to decrease. Ocean acidification is thus an inevitable a...

  8. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean. Volume 2: Overview and invited papers

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-15

    This document is a compilation of summaries of papers presented at the Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems workshop. Topics include; marine forecasting, regulatory agencies and regulations, research and application models, research and operational observing, oceanic and atmospheric data assimilation, and coastal physical processes.

  9. 78 FR 11820 - Interagency Ocean Observation Committee, Meeting of the Data Management and Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ... Data Management and Communications Steering Team AGENCY: National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic... the IOOC's Data Management and Communications Steering Team (DMAC-ST). The DMAC-ST membership is comprised of IOOC-approved federal agency representatives and non-federal participants representing...

  10. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, John

    2011-08-16

    The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species.

  11. Learn about Ocean Dumping

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ocean dumping is regulated by the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA). Learn about ocean dumping regulation including what materials can and cannot be dumped, the Ocean Dumping Management Program, and MPRSA history and accomplishments.

  12. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  17. 40 CFR 40.165 - Continuation grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuation grants. 40.165 Section 40.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.165 Continuation grants. To be eligible for a continuation...

  18. 40 CFR 40.165 - Continuation grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Continuation grants. 40.165 Section 40.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.165 Continuation grants. To be eligible for a continuation...

  19. 40 CFR 40.165 - Continuation grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continuation grants. 40.165 Section 40.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.165 Continuation grants. To be eligible for a continuation...

  20. 78 FR 21245 - Continuity of Operations Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-10

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission 18 CFR Part 376 Continuity of Operations Plan AGENCY: Federal Energy... Continuity of Operations Plan regulations to revise its hierarchy of delegation of Commission authority... Rule revises the Commission's Continuity of Operations Plan (COOP) regulations to incorporate...

  1. 5 CFR 731.103 - Delegation to agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delegation to agencies. 731.103 Section 731.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.103 Delegation to agencies. (a) Subject to the limitations...

  2. 5 CFR 731.103 - Delegation to agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Delegation to agencies. 731.103 Section 731.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.103 Delegation to agencies. (a) Subject to the limitations...

  3. 5 CFR 731.103 - Delegation to agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delegation to agencies. 731.103 Section 731.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.103 Delegation to agencies. (a) Subject to the limitations...

  4. 5 CFR 731.103 - Delegation to agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Delegation to agencies. 731.103 Section 731.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.103 Delegation to agencies. (a) Subject to the limitations...

  5. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhongyi; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  6. The oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans.

    PubMed

    Holland, Heinrich D

    2006-06-29

    The last 3.85 Gyr of Earth history have been divided into five stages. During stage 1 (3.85-2.45 Gyr ago (Ga)) the atmosphere was largely or entirely anoxic, as were the oceans, with the possible exception of oxygen oases in the shallow oceans. During stage 2 (2.45-1.85 Ga) atmospheric oxygen levels rose to values estimated to have been between 0.02 and 0.04 atm. The shallow oceans became mildly oxygenated, while the deep oceans continued anoxic. Stage 3 (1.85-0.85 Ga) was apparently rather 'boring'. Atmospheric oxygen levels did not change significantly. Most of the surface oceans were mildly oxygenated, as were the deep oceans. Stage 4 (0.85-0.54 Ga) saw a rise in atmospheric oxygen to values not much less than 0.2 atm. The shallow oceans followed suit, but the deep oceans were anoxic, at least during the intense Neoproterozoic ice ages. Atmospheric oxygen levels during stage 5 (0.54 Ga-present) probably rose to a maximum value of ca 0.3 atm during the Carboniferous before returning to its present value. The shallow oceans were oxygenated, while the oxygenation of the deep oceans fluctuated considerably, perhaps on rather geologically short time-scales.

  7. NOAA administrator reviews agency progress and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-12-01

    The approach of the new year is a traditional time to tally up successes, failures, and the path ahead. Jane Lubchenco, administrator of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), examined some agency advances and significant challenges during the 7 December Union Agency Lecture at the AGU Fall Meeting, during a press briefing, and in an interview with Eos. Lubchenco focused on several key areas including the concern about monitoring, mitigating, and managing extreme events; budgetary pressures the agency faces in current fiscal year (FY) 2012 and in FY 2013, with President Barack Obama on 18 November having signed into law a bill, HR 2112, following congressional agreement on a budget legislation conference report; and NOAA's newly released scientific integrity policy (see "NOAA issues scientific integrity policy," Eos Trans. AGU, 92(50), 467, doi:10.1029/2011EO500004, 2011).

  8. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  9. 29 CFR 94.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 94.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive... establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any...

  10. 29 CFR 94.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  11. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  12. 36 CFR 1212.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Definitions § 1212.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive... establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or any...

  13. 29 CFR 94.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 94.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States... other establishment in the executive branch (including the Executive Office of the President), or...

  14. 78 FR 34879 - Special Local Regulations for Marine Events, Atlantic City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... City Offshore Race, Atlantic Ocean; Atlantic City, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... to only one recurring marine event, held on the Atlantic Ocean, offshore of Atlantic City, New Jersey... Atlantic Ocean near Atlantic City, New Jersey, during the event. DATES: This rule will be effective on...

  15. 76 FR 13999 - Meeting of the Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Consortium for Ocean Leadership, 1201 New York Avenue, NW., 4th Floor, Washington, DC 2005. FOR FURTHER... Department of the Navy Meeting of the Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Ocean Research and Resources Advisory...

  16. 76 FR 16391 - Meeting of the Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Department of the Navy Meeting of the Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Panel... Contact. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, ] 1201 New...

  17. 76 FR 12088 - Meeting of the Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Consortium for Ocean Leadership, 1201 New York Avenue, NW., 4th Floor, Washington, DC 2005. FOR FURTHER... Department of the Navy Meeting of the Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Ocean Research and Resources Advisory...

  18. 75 FR 11870 - Meeting of the Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... the Consortium of Ocean Leadership, 1201 New York Avenue NW., 4th Floor, Washington, DC. FOR FURTHER... Department of the Navy Meeting of the Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The Ocean Research and Resources Advisory...

  19. 75 FR 33747 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site and...

  20. 75 FR 33708 - Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final Rule for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 228 Ocean Dumping; Correction of Typographical Error in 2006 Federal Register Final... typographical error in the Final Rule for the Ocean Dumping; De-designation of Ocean Dredged Material Disposal... amended by revising paragraphs (n)(3) and (n)(4) to read as follows: Sec. 228.15 Dumping sites...

  1. 78 FR 64918 - Interagency Ocean Observation Committee, Meeting of the Data Management and Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... Data Management and Communications Steering Team AGENCY: National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic... of the Interagency Ocean Observation Committee (IOOC) to announce a formal meeting of the IOOC's Data Management and Communications Steering Team (DMAC-ST). The DMAC-ST membership is comprised of...

  2. 76 FR 71322 - Interagency Ocean Observation Committee, Meeting of the Data Management and Communications...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Data Management and Communications Steering Team AGENCY: National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic... of the Interagency Ocean Observation Committee (IOOC) to announce a formal meeting of the IOOC's Data Management and Communications Steering Team (DMAC-ST). The DMAC-ST membership is comprised of...

  3. 76 FR 18232 - Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... findings and recommendations of recent investigations of U.S. offshore drilling regulation. The meeting is... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Ocean Energy Safety Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement...

  4. Some species tolerate ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    Increasing carbon dioxide levels lead to rising ocean acidity, which can harm corals and many other species of ocean life. Acidification causes calcium carbonate, which corals usually need to build skeletons, to dissolve. “Every day, ocean acidification is taking up the weight of 6 million midsize cars' worth of carbon, said Nina Keul, a graduate student at the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Germany during a 7 December press conference at the AGU Fall Meeting. Somewhat surprising, though, is that some species are more tolerant of acidic conditions than scientists had expected. For instance, Keul exposed a species of foraminifera, Ammonia tepida, to seawater with varying acidity and varying carbonate ion concentrations. Previous studies had found that foraminifera growth declined with decreasing carbonate levels, but Keul's foraminifera continued to grow in the acidic conditions. She said that the mechanism that allows this species to tolerate the low carbonate conditions is as yet unknown.

  5. Overview of Continuing Education Financing and Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipp, Travis

    1982-01-01

    Continuing education agencies have cycles of financial activities that are all parts of financial management, including obtaining funding and venture capital, setting fees, and controlling costs for cost recovery. (Author/SSH)

  6. 34 CFR 84.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 84.645 Section 84.645... WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 84.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency.... 1082, 1094, 1221e-3 and 3474; and Sec. 2455, Pub. L. 103-355, 108 Stat. 3243 at 3327.)...

  7. 22 CFR 210.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 210.645 Section 210.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  8. 22 CFR 210.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 210.645 Section 210.645 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 210.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  9. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...

  10. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...

  11. 22 CFR 312.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 312.645 Section 312.645 Foreign Relations PEACE CORPS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 312.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United...

  12. Agency and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roskies, Adina L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  13. Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-19

    Brookings Review, vol. 6 (summer 1988), p . 30. GAO also has discussed how incentives for policymakers “to negotiate seriously and reach agreement” may be...the Budget Enforcement Act, GAO-01-991T, July 19, 2001, p . 12. For further analysis, see CRS Report RL30339, Preventing Federal Government Shutdowns...05, p . 4 (attachment, Section 6). OMB might apportion funds at, essentially, greater than a daily rate, as the period of time covered by an interim

  14. Interim Continuing Resolutions (CRs): Potential Impacts on Agency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-16

    1988), p . 30. GAO also has discussed how incentives for policymakers “to negotiate seriously and reach agreement” may be affected by proposals for...GAO-01-991T, July 19, 2001, p . 12. For further analysis, see CRS Report RL30339, Preventing Federal Government Shutdowns: Proposals for an Automatic...OMB Bulletin No. 07-05, p . 4 (attachment, Sec. 6). OMB might apportion funds at, essentially, greater than a daily rate, as the period of time covered

  15. Federal Emergency Management Agency Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Carter, John R. [R-TX-31

    2013-10-03

    10/07/2013 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 210. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol

    2012-09-13

    Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H(+) concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO(2); they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO(2), although with additional temperature-related effects on CO(2) and CaCO(3) solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration.

  17. Ocean acidification in a geoengineering context

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Phillip; Turley, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental changes to marine chemistry are occurring because of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Ocean acidity (H+ concentration) and bicarbonate ion concentrations are increasing, whereas carbonate ion concentrations are decreasing. There has already been an average pH decrease of 0.1 in the upper ocean, and continued unconstrained carbon emissions would further reduce average upper ocean pH by approximately 0.3 by 2100. Laboratory experiments, observations and projections indicate that such ocean acidification may have ecological and biogeochemical impacts that last for many thousands of years. The future magnitude of such effects will be very closely linked to atmospheric CO2; they will, therefore, depend on the success of emission reduction, and could also be constrained by geoengineering based on most carbon dioxide removal (CDR) techniques. However, some ocean-based CDR approaches would (if deployed on a climatically significant scale) re-locate acidification from the upper ocean to the seafloor or elsewhere in the ocean interior. If solar radiation management were to be the main policy response to counteract global warming, ocean acidification would continue to be driven by increases in atmospheric CO2, although with additional temperature-related effects on CO2 and CaCO3 solubility and terrestrial carbon sequestration. PMID:22869801

  18. Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, N. R.; Best, M. H. P.; Neely, K.; Garley, R.; Dickson, A. G.; Johnson, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    Fossil fuel use, cement manufacture and land-use changes are the primary sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, with the ocean absorbing 30 %. Ocean uptake and chemical equilibration of anthropogenic CO2with seawater results in a gradual reduction in seawater pH and saturation states (Ω) for calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals in a process termed ocean acidification. Assessing the present and future impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems requires detection of the multi-decadal rate of change across ocean basins and at ocean time-series sites. Here, we show the longest continuous record of ocean CO2 changes and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre near Bermuda from 1983-2011. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) increased in surface seawater by ~40 μmol kg-1 and ~50 μatm (~20 %), respectively. Increasing Revelle factor (β) values imply that the capacity of North Atlantic surface waters to absorb CO2 has also diminished. As indicators of ocean acidification, seawater pH decreased by ~0.05 (0.0017 yr-1) and Ω values by ~7-8 %. Such data provide critically needed multi-decadal information for assessing the North Atlantic Ocean CO2sink and the pH changes that determine marine ecosystem responses to ocean acidification.

  19. Detecting anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, N. R.; Best, M. H. P.; Neely, K.; Garley, R.; Dickson, A. G.; Johnson, R. J.

    2012-07-01

    Fossil fuel use, cement manufacture and land-use changes are the primary sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere, with the ocean absorbing approximately 30% (Sabine et al., 2004). Ocean uptake and chemical equilibration of anthropogenic CO2 with seawater results in a gradual reduction in seawater pH and saturation states (Ω) for calcium carbonate (CaCO3) minerals in a process termed ocean acidification. Assessing the present and future impact of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems requires detection of the multi-decadal rate of change across ocean basins and at ocean time-series sites. Here, we show the longest continuous record of ocean CO2 changes and ocean acidification in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre near Bermuda from 1983-2011. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) increased in surface seawater by ~40 μmol kg-1 and ~50 μatm (~20%), respectively. Increasing Revelle factor (β) values imply that the capacity of North Atlantic surface waters to absorb CO2 has also diminished. As indicators of ocean acidification, seawater pH decreased by ~0.05 (0.0017 yr-1) and ω values by ~7-8%. Such data provide critically needed multi-decadal information for assessing the North Atlantic Ocean CO2 sink and the pH changes that determine marine ecosystem responses to ocean acidification.

  20. Global View of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    together to create a time-lapsed view of this remote and inhospitable region. So far, they have processed one season's worth of images.

    'We can see large cracks in the ice cover, where most ice grows, ' said Kwok. 'These cracks are much longer than previously thought, some as long as 2,000 kilometers (1,200 miles),' Kwok continued. 'If the ice is thinning due to warming, we'll expect to see more of these long cracks over the Arctic Ocean. '

    Scientists believe this is one of the most significant breakthroughs in the last two decades of ice research. 'We are now in a position to better understand the sea ice cover and the role of the Arctic Ocean in global climate change, ' said Kwok.

    Radar can see through clouds and any kind of weather system, day or night, and as the Arctic regions are usually cloud-covered and subject to long, dark winters, radar is proving to be extremely useful. However, compiling these data into extremely detailed pictures of the Arctic is a challenging task.

    'This is truly a major innovation in terms of the quantities of data being processed and the novelty of the methods being used, ' said Verne Kaupp, director of the Alaska SAR Facility at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.

    The mission is a joint project between JPL, the Alaska SAR Facility, and the Canadian Space Agency. Launched by NASA in 1995, the Radarsat satellite is operated by the Canadian Space Agency. JPL manages the Sea Ice Thickness Derived From High Resolution Radar Imagery project for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, DC. The Earth Science Enterprise is dedicated to studying how natural and human-induced changes affect our global environment.

  1. Spatial-temporal analysis of sea level changes in China seas and neighboring oceans by merged altimeter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yao; Zhou, Bin; Yu, Zhifeng; Lei, Hui; Sun, Jiamin; Zhu, Xingrui; Liu, Congjin

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of sea level changes is critical important for social, economic and scientific development in coastal areas. Satellite altimeter makes it possible to observe long term and large scale dynamic changes in the ocean, contiguous shelf seas and coastal zone. In this paper, 1993-2015 altimeter data of Topex/Poseidon and its follow-on missions is used to get a time serious of continuous and homogeneous sea level anomaly gridding product. The sea level rising rate is 0.39 cm/yr in China Seas and the neighboring oceans, 0.37 cm/yr in the Bo and Yellow Sea, 0.29 cm/yr in the East China Sea and 0.40 cm/yr in the South China Sea. The mean sea level and its rising rate are spatial-temporal non-homogeneous. The mean sea level shows opposite characteristics in coastal seas versus open oceans. The Bo and Yellow Sea has the most significant seasonal variability. The results are consistent with in situ data observation by the Nation Ocean Agency of China. The coefficient of variability model is introduced to describe the spatial-temporal variability. Results show that the variability in coastal seas is stronger than that in open oceans, especially the seas off the entrance area of the river, indicating that the validation of altimeter data is less reasonable in these seas.

  2. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-19

    OASIS, INC. 1 Report No. QSR-14C0172-Ocean Acoustics-093015 Quarterly Progress Report Technical and Financial Deep Water Ocean Acoustics...number. 1. REPORT DATE OCT 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2015 to 30-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Deep Water Ocean Acoustics...understanding of the impact of the ocean and seafloor environmental variability on deep- water (long-range) ocean acoustic propagation and to develop

  3. Bio-Optical Measurement and Modeling of the California Current and Polar Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg; Fargion, Giulietta S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The principal goals of our research are to validate standard or experimental products through detailed bio-optical and biogeochemical measurements, and to combine ocean optical observations with advanced radiative transfer modeling to contribute to satellite vicarious radiometric calibration and advanced algorithm development. To achieve our goals requires continued efforts to execute complex field programs globally, as well as development of advanced ocean optical measurement protocols. We completed a comprehensive set of ocean optical observations in the California Current, Southern Ocean, Indian Ocean requiring a large commitment to instrument calibration, measurement protocols, data processing and data merger. We augmented separately funded projects of our own, as well as others, to acquire ill situ data sets we have collected on various global cruises supported by separate grants or contracts. In collaboration with major oceanographic ship-based observation programs funded by various agencies (CalCOFI, US JGOFS, NOAA AMLR, INDOEX and Japan/East Sea) our SIMBIOS effort has resulted in data from diverse bio-optical provinces. For these global deployments we generate a high-quality, methodologically consistent, data set encompassing a wide-range of oceanic conditions. Global data collected in recent years have been integrated with our on-going CalCOFI database and have been used to evaluate SeaWiFS algorithms and to carry out validation studies. The combined database we have assembled now comprises more than 700 stations and includes observations for the clearest oligotrophic waters, highly eutrophic blooms, red-tides and coastal case 2 conditions. The data has been used to validate water-leaving radiance estimated with SeaWiFS as well as bio-optical algorithms for chlorophyll pigments. The comprehensive data is utilized for development of experimental algorithms (e.g. high-low latitude pigment transition, phytoplankton absorption, and cDOM). During this period

  4. Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System: The Gulf Component of the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, L. J.; Moersdorf, P. F.

    2005-05-01

    The United States is developing an Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) as the U.S. component of the international Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). IOOS consists of: (1) a coastal observing system for the U.S. EEZ, estuaries, and Great Lakes; and (2) a contribution to the global component of GOOS focused on climate and maritime services. The coastal component will consist of: (1) a National Backbone of observations and products from our coastal ocean supported by federal agencies; and (2) contributions of Regional Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (RCOOS). The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System (GCOOS) is one of eleven RCOOS. This paper describes how GCOOS is progressing as a system of systems to carry out data collection, analysis, product generation, dissemination of information, and data archival. These elements are provided by federal, state, and local government agencies, academic institutions, non-government organization, and the private sector. This end-to-end system supports the seven societal goals of the IOOS, as provided by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy: detect and forecast oceanic components of climate variability, facilitate safe and efficient marine operations, ensure national security, manage marine resources, preserve and restore healthy marine ecosystems, mitigate natural hazards, and ensure public health. The initial building blocks for GCOOS include continuing in situ observations, satellite products, models, and other information supported by federal and state government, private industry, and academia. GCOOS has compiled an inventory of such activities, together with descriptions, costs, sources of support, and possible out-year budgets. These activities provide information that will have broader use as they are integrated and enhanced. GCOOS has begun that process by several approaches. First, GCOOS has established a web site (www.gcoos.org) which is a portal to such activities and contains pertinent information

  5. Negotiating with Subscription Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQueen, Judy; Basch, N. Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This first in a two-part series on how librarians can negotiate services and prices with subscription agencies focuses on how vendors operate. Factors that influence agency costs, revenues, and service charges are described, including economies of scale, discounts from publishers, and prepayment and cash flow. (seven references) (LRW)

  6. Ocean Commissions: Ocean Policy Review and Outlook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-05

    favorably of its recommendations.12 Articles and editorials in regional media generally focused on selected issues of local relevance,13 and interest...of Texas posted at [http://www.governor.state.tx.us/divisions/ bpp /files/ ocean_policy.pdf], visited on July 7, 2004. 16 For example, see [http...Broaden ocean education and awareness through a commitment to teach and learn about our oceans, at all levels of society. Comments on the Pew Commission’s

  7. Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) partnership with the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Breaker Healey and its United Nations Convention Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) cruises has produced new synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This framework of foundational geochemical information will help inform our understanding of potential risks to Arctic resources due to ocean acidification.

  8. Societal Benefits of Ocean Altimetry Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasen, Margaret; Leben, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/CNES Jason satellite, follow-on to the highly successful TOPEX/Poseidon mission, continues to provide oceanographers and marine operators across the globe with a continuous twelve-year, high quality stream of sea surface height data. The mission is expected to extend through 2007, when the NASA/NOAA/CNES follow-on mission, OSTM, will be launched with the wide-swath ocean altimeter on board. This unprecedented resource of valuable ocean data is being used to map sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, significant wave height, and wind speed over the global oceans. Altimeter data products are currently used by hundreds of researchers and operational users to monitor ocean circulation and improve our understanding of the role of the oceans in climate and weather. Ocean altimeter data has many societal benefits and has proven invaluable in many practical applications including; a) Ocean forecasting systems; b) Climate research and forecasting; c) Ship routing; d) Fisheries management; e) Marine mammal habitat monitoring; f) Hurricane forecasting and tracking; g) Debris tracking; and h) Precision marine operations such as cable-laying and oil production. The data has been cited in nearly 2,000 research and popular articles since the launch of TOPEX/Poseidon in 1992, and almost 200 scientific users receive the global coverage altimeter data on a monthly basis. In addition to the scientific and operational uses of the data, the educational community has seized the unique concepts highlighted by these altimeter missions as a resource for teaching ocean science to students from grade school through college. This presentation will highlight societal benefits of ocean altimetry data in the areas of climate studies, marine operations, marine research, and non-ocean investigations.

  9. The National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence Network: Building Bridges Between Ocean Scientists and Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scowcroft, G.; Hotaling, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2002 the National Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Network, funded by the National Science Foundation with support from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, has worked to increase the understanding of the ocean and its relevance to society. The Network is currently comprised of twelve Centers located throughout the United States and a Central Coordinating Office. COSEE focuses on innovative activities that transform and broaden participation in the ocean science education enterprise. A key player in the national ocean literacy movement, COSEE’s objectives are to develop partnerships between ocean scientists and educators and foster communication and coordination among ocean science education programs nationwide. COSEE has grown into the nation's most comprehensive ocean science and education network with over 200 partners, including universities and research institutions, community colleges, school districts, informal science education institutions, and state/federal agencies. Each Center is a consortium of one or more ocean science research institutions, informal science education organizations, and formal education entities. The mission of the National COSEE Network is to engage scientists and educators to transform ocean sciences education. Center activities include the development of catalytic partnerships among diverse institutions, the integration of ocean science research into high-quality educational materials, and the establishment of pathways that enable ocean scientists to interact with educators, students, and the public. In addition to the work and projects implemented locally and regionally by the Centers, Network-level efforts occur across Centers, such as the national promotion of Ocean Literacy Principals and encouragement of our nation’s youth to pursue ocean related areers. This presentation will offer several examples of how the National COSEE Network is playing an important and evolving role in

  10. Recent increase in oceanic carbon uptake driven by weaker upper-ocean overturning.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Tim; Holzer, Mark; Primeau, Francois

    2017-02-08

    The ocean is the largest sink for anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), having absorbed roughly 40 per cent of CO2 emissions since the beginning of the industrial era. Recent data show that oceanic CO2 uptake rates have been growing over the past decade, reversing a trend of stagnant or declining carbon uptake during the 1990s. Here we show that ocean circulation variability is the primary driver of these changes in oceanic CO2 uptake over the past several decades. We use a global inverse model to quantify the mean ocean circulation during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, and then estimate the impact of decadal circulation changes on the oceanic CO2 sink using a carbon cycling model. We find that during the 1990s an enhanced upper-ocean overturning circulation drove increased outgassing of natural CO2, thus weakening the global CO2 sink. This trend reversed during the 2000s as the overturning circulation weakened. Continued weakening of the upper-ocean overturning is likely to strengthen the CO2 sink in the near future by trapping natural CO2 in the deep ocean, but ultimately may limit oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2.

  11. Recent increase in oceanic carbon uptake driven by weaker upper-ocean overturning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devries, Tim; Holzer, Mark; Primeau, Francois

    2017-02-01

    The ocean is the largest sink for anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2), having absorbed roughly 40 per cent of CO2 emissions since the beginning of the industrial era. Recent data show that oceanic CO2 uptake rates have been growing over the past decade, reversing a trend of stagnant or declining carbon uptake during the 1990s. Here we show that ocean circulation variability is the primary driver of these changes in oceanic CO2 uptake over the past several decades. We use a global inverse model to quantify the mean ocean circulation during the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, and then estimate the impact of decadal circulation changes on the oceanic CO2 sink using a carbon cycling model. We find that during the 1990s an enhanced upper-ocean overturning circulation drove increased outgassing of natural CO2, thus weakening the global CO2 sink. This trend reversed during the 2000s as the overturning circulation weakened. Continued weakening of the upper-ocean overturning is likely to strengthen the CO2 sink in the near future by trapping natural CO2 in the deep ocean, but ultimately may limit oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2.

  12. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  13. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  14. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  15. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  16. 22 CFR 1509.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Federal agency or agency. 1509.645 Section 1509.645 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 1509.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  17. 40 CFR 63.9922 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary... demonstrate continuous compliance? (a) Except for monitoring malfunctions, associated repairs, and...

  18. 40 CFR 63.9633 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous compliance? (a) Except for monitoring malfunctions, associated repairs, and required quality... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Taconite Iron...

  19. Changing Arctic Ocean freshwater pathways.

    PubMed

    Morison, James; Kwok, Ron; Peralta-Ferriz, Cecilia; Alkire, Matt; Rigor, Ignatius; Andersen, Roger; Steele, Mike

    2012-01-04

    Freshening in the Canada basin of the Arctic Ocean began in the 1990s and continued to at least the end of 2008. By then, the Arctic Ocean might have gained four times as much fresh water as comprised the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1970s, raising the spectre of slowing global ocean circulation. Freshening has been attributed to increased sea ice melting and contributions from runoff, but a leading explanation has been a strengthening of the Beaufort High--a characteristic peak in sea level atmospheric pressure--which tends to accelerate an anticyclonic (clockwise) wind pattern causing convergence of fresh surface water. Limited observations have made this explanation difficult to verify, and observations of increasing freshwater content under a weakened Beaufort High suggest that other factors must be affecting freshwater content. Here we use observations to show that during a time of record reductions in ice extent from 2005 to 2008, the dominant freshwater content changes were an increase in the Canada basin balanced by a decrease in the Eurasian basin. Observations are drawn from satellite data (sea surface height and ocean-bottom pressure) and in situ data. The freshwater changes were due to a cyclonic (anticlockwise) shift in the ocean pathway of Eurasian runoff forced by strengthening of the west-to-east Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation characterized by an increased Arctic Oscillation index. Our results confirm that runoff is an important influence on the Arctic Ocean and establish that the spatial and temporal manifestations of the runoff pathways are modulated by the Arctic Oscillation, rather than the strength of the wind-driven Beaufort Gyre circulation.

  20. 42 CFR 431.713 - Continuing study and investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Programs for Licensing Nursing Home Administrators § 431.713 Continuing study and investigation. The agency or board must conduct a continuing study of nursing homes and administrators within the State...

  1. 42 CFR 431.713 - Continuing study and investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Programs for Licensing Nursing Home Administrators § 431.713 Continuing study and investigation. The agency or board must conduct a continuing study of nursing homes and administrators within the State...

  2. 26 CFR 1.597-4 - Bridge Banks and Agency Control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bridge Banks and Agency Control. 1.597-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.597-4 Bridge Banks and Agency Control. (a) Scope. This section provides rules that apply to a Bridge Bank or other Institution under Agency...

  3. 26 CFR 1.597-4 - Bridge Banks and Agency Control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bridge Banks and Agency Control. 1.597-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.597-4 Bridge Banks and Agency Control. (a) Scope. This section provides rules that apply to a Bridge Bank or other Institution under Agency...

  4. 26 CFR 1.597-4 - Bridge Banks and Agency Control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Bridge Banks and Agency Control. 1.597-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.597-4 Bridge Banks and Agency Control. (a) Scope. This section provides rules that apply to a Bridge Bank or other Institution under Agency...

  5. 26 CFR 1.597-4 - Bridge Banks and Agency Control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Bridge Banks and Agency Control. 1.597-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.597-4 Bridge Banks and Agency Control. (a) Scope. This section provides rules that apply to a Bridge Bank or other Institution under Agency...

  6. 26 CFR 1.597-4 - Bridge Banks and Agency Control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Bridge Banks and Agency Control. 1.597-4 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.597-4 Bridge Banks and Agency Control. (a) Scope. This section provides rules that apply to a Bridge Bank or other Institution under Agency...

  7. 31 CFR 800.218 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lead agency. 800.218 Section 800.218 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF INVESTMENT SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS, AND TAKEOVERS...

  8. 29 CFR 1604.6 - Employment agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION... their services to furnishing employees for particular jobs for which sex is a bona fide occupational qualification. (b) An employment agency that receives a job order containing an unlawful sex specification...

  9. 7 CFR 981.17 - Inspection agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection agency. 981.17 Section 981.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  10. 7 CFR 981.17 - Inspection agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection agency. 981.17 Section 981.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  11. 7 CFR 981.17 - Inspection agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection agency. 981.17 Section 981.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  12. 7 CFR 981.17 - Inspection agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection agency. 981.17 Section 981.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  13. 7 CFR 981.17 - Inspection agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection agency. 981.17 Section 981.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA...

  14. 7 CFR 247.3 - Administering agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.3 Administering agencies. (a... Department's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), which provides commodities, assigns caseload, and...

  15. 7 CFR 247.3 - Administering agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.3 Administering agencies. (a... Department's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), which provides commodities, assigns caseload, and...

  16. 7 CFR 247.3 - Administering agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.3 Administering agencies. (a... Department's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), which provides commodities, assigns caseload, and...

  17. 7 CFR 247.3 - Administering agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.3 Administering agencies. (a... Department's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), which provides commodities, assigns caseload, and...

  18. 7 CFR 247.3 - Administering agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.3 Administering agencies. (a... Department's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), which provides commodities, assigns caseload, and...

  19. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on...

  20. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on...

  1. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on...

  2. 31 CFR 306.1 - Official agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... securities and requests for appropriate forms may be addressed to the Division of Customer Service... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Official agencies. 306.1 Section 306.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL...

  3. 31 CFR 306.1 - Official agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... securities and requests for appropriate forms may be addressed to the Division of Customer Service... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Official agencies. 306.1 Section 306.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL...

  4. 31 CFR 306.1 - Official agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... securities and requests for appropriate forms may be addressed to the Division of Customer Service... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Official agencies. 306.1 Section 306.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL...

  5. 31 CFR 306.1 - Official agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... securities and requests for appropriate forms may be addressed to the Division of Customer Service... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Official agencies. 306.1 Section 306.1 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL...

  6. 34 CFR 300.33 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Public agency. 300.33 Section 300.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  7. 34 CFR 300.33 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public agency. 300.33 Section 300.33 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  8. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  9. National Marine Pollution Orogram: federal plan for ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring, fiscal years 1988-1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The National Marine Pollution Program is the composite of all programs funded by the Federal Government that conduct marine pollution research, development, or monitoring activities. In FY 1988, the Federal Government expended an estimated $107.2 million for marine pollution research and monitoring activities. These activities were funded by 11 Federal departments and independent agencies and included studies pertaining to pollution in coastal areas, estuaries, open oceans, and the Great Lakes. The Plan represents the fourth such document in the continuing interagency planning process called for in the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-273), as amended. As required by the Act, a comprehensive 5-year Plan for the overall Federal effort is prepared and updated every 3 years. The Plan identifies national marine pollution needs and problems, describes the existing Federal capability for conducting marine pollution research and monitoring.

  10. National Marine Pollution Program: federal plan for ocean pollution research, development, and monitoring, Fiscal Uears 1985-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    The National Marine Pollution Program is the composite of all programs funded by the Federal Government that conduct research, development, or monitoring activities related to marine pollution. In FY 1985, the Program consisted of about 650 projects with a total Federal expenditure of about $122.7 million. These projects were funded by eleven Federal departments and independent agencies and included studies pertaining to pollution in coastal areas, estuaries, open oceans, and the Great Lakes. This plan is intended to guide and coordinate the overall Federal effort in marine pollution research, development, and monitoring during FY 1985-1989 and represents the third such document in the continuing interagency planning process called for in the National Ocean Pollution Planning Act of 1978 (P.L. 95-273), as amended. As required by the Act, this plan identifies and establishes priorities for national marine pollution needs and problems.

  11. Harvesting the Ocean: 1. The Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caton, Albert, Ed.; And Others

    This booklet is the first in a series of three interdisciplinary units which focus specifically on the Pacific Ocean and its surrounding countries. The booklet, designed for lower secondary students, provides an introduction to the ocean environment such that students can understand the physical factors underlying issues raised by the other two…

  12. Accreditation of Continuing Education in Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Nurses' Association, Kansas City, MO.

    The American Nursing Association accreditation mechanism for continuing education in nursing is outlined. The mechanism encompasses local, state, regional, and national levels and identifies criteria for accrediting other agencies and associations and for the approval of continuing education offerings and programs. It includes programs in nursing…

  13. Federal Emergency Management Agency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Updates Emergency Management Agencies Emergency Management Institute El Niño Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Program Exercise Fact ... Local, State, Tribal and Non-Profit Recovery Resources Region I Region II Region III Region IV Region ...

  14. School Service Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leachen, Sylvia; Lipschitz, Beverly

    1970-01-01

    Describes school employment" agency to secure school jobs for interested students. They filled out applications, had interviews and secured recommendations. Program attempted to relieve hall congestion and improve tone of school. (Author/CJ)

  15. Ocean Robotic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, Oscar

    2012-05-23

    We live on an ocean planet which is central to regulating the Earth’s climate and human society. Despite the importance of understanding the processes operating in the ocean, it remains chronically undersampled due to the harsh operating conditions. This is problematic given the limited long term information available about how the ocean is changing. The changes include rising sea level, declining sea ice, ocean acidification, and the decline of mega fauna. While the changes are daunting, oceanography is in the midst of a technical revolution with the expansion of numerical modeling techniques, combined with ocean robotics. Operating together, these systems represent a new generation of ocean observatories. I will review the evolution of these ocean observatories and provide a few case examples of the science that they enable, spanning from the waters offshore New Jersey to the remote waters of the Southern Ocean.

  16. People and Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)

  17. Ocean Disposal Site Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is responsible for managing all designated ocean disposal sites. Surveys are conducted to identify appropriate locations for ocean disposal sites and to monitor the impacts of regulated dumping at the disposal sites.

  18. Ocean and Seafloor Dynamics From the Ocean Networks Canada VENUS and NEPTUNE Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherwath, M.; Heesemann, M.; Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Mihaly, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    Cabled observatories allow the acquisition of long-term high-resolution time series that enable the detection of short-lived or rare events, allow the interaction with experiments in reaction to such events, as well as generate well-established base-line parameters over a long period of time. Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) has been operating the coastal observatory VENUS with continuous data streaming since 2006 and the regional ocean observatory NEPTUNE Canada since 2009. We present data from the major sites and show how dynamic the system can be. For example, the two gas hydrate nodes at Barkley Canyon and Clayoquot Slope show changes over various time ranges that are important to include in the analysis of gas hydrate dynamics and stability, including environmental changes and microbial activity. Standard conductivity, temperature and bottom pressure data are correlated with sonar and video data to show the inter- and intra-disciplinary aspects of ocean sciences and the need for continuous ocean presence. With a planned operating life span of 25 years Ocean Networks Canada aims to offer the ocean community a unique but necessary high quality data set and hopes to establish a new standard for ocean based sciences, together with new emerging ocean observatories enabling sciences in a way that has not been possible before.

  19. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-17

    under-ice scattering , bathymetric diffraction and the application of the ocean acoustic Parabolic Equation to infrasound. 2. Tasks a. Task 1...QSR-14C0172-Ocean Acoustics -063015 Figure 10. Estimated reflection coefficient as a function of frequency by taking the difference of downgoing and...OASIS, INC. 1 Report No. QSR-14C0172-Ocean Acoustics -063015 Quarterly Progress Report Technical and Financial Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

  20. Deep Water Ocean Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    OASIS, INC. 1 Report No. QSR-14C0172-Ocean Acoustics-043016 Quarterly Progress Report Technical and Financial Deep Water Ocean Acoustics...understanding of the impact of the ocean and seafloor environmental variability on deep- water (long-range) ocean acoustic propagation and to...improve our understanding. During the past few years, the physics effects studied have been three-dimensional propagation on global scales, deep water

  1. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  2. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  3. The Physical Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Examines the physical properties of the ocean (including the composition of seawater; waves, currents, and tides) and the topography of the ocean floor. Included are (1) activities on oceans, saltwater, and the sea floor; and (2) questions, and a puzzle which can be copied. (Author/RT)

  4. A history of ocean disposal of packaged low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, W.F.

    1982-03-01

    Two methods are practiced throughout the world for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes-ground burial and ocean dumping. Ocean dumping was used by the United States from 1946 to 1970; European nations have been ocean dumping since 1951, with the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development supervising the international ocean dumping operations since 1967. The European nations have dumped wastes containing over 700 000 Ci of radioactivity, whereas the United States has dumped wastes containing over 94 000 Ci. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has surveyed some of the U. S. ocean dump sites and retrieved three drums of waste to assess the condition of the radioactive waste packaging. The NEA has published guidelines for packaging requirements for ocean disposal, and the EPA has a program to prepare regulations to complement the existing international and domestic broad-based regulations for packaging of radioactive wastes for ocean disposal.

  5. 50 CFR 80.64 - How does an agency allocate costs in multipurpose projects and facilities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE AND SPORT FISH... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.64 How does an agency allocate...

  6. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III

    2013-04-01

    observational science programs can encourage or require standard formats for data storage; scientific journals can require that data in support of publication be deposited in a standard format; and finally, communities of scientists can recognize that observational or model-developed data sets are professional contributions deserving citation. Even with standards for exchange, the availability of data and models can limited by cultural and policy issues. Investigators on NSF grants are expected to share with other researchers the primary data, samples, physical collections and other supporting materials created under their grants. Broader approaches to data availability are seen in the model of the human genome project; according to the Bermuda Agreement (1996), the funding agencies required that all scientists working on the human genome make the data quickly and openly available. Is this a model for ocean data? This presentation will examine the steps forward in stimulating interdisciplinary research through data exchange and better addressing the gaps in communication and approaches that are still common across the ocean sciences.

  7. 78 FR 25574 - Special Local Regulations; Third Annual Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Super Boat Grand Prix, Atlantic Ocean; Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final... Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida during the Space Coast Super Boat Grand Prix, a series of high-speed... Ocean east of Cocoa Beach, Florida. Approximately 30 high-speed power boats are anticipated...

  8. 78 FR 20093 - Notice of Availability for Public Comment on the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System Advisory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    .... Integrated Ocean Observing System Advisory Committee; Committee Proposed Draft ``IOOS Vision'' AGENCY.... ACTION: Request for Public Comments. SUMMARY: The U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) Program... signed into law the Integrated Coastal and Ocean Observation System (ICOOS) Act of 2009 (the Act)....

  9. 78 FR 42718 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... exceeding the 2013 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in this area allocated to...

  10. 78 FR 39631 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... the 2013 total allowable catch of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the GOA....

  11. 75 FR 39183 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Ocean Perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the Gulf of Alaska AGENCY.... ACTION: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific ocean perch in... the 2010 total allowable catch (TAC) of Pacific ocean perch in the Western Regulatory Area of the...

  12. 77 FR 43158 - Special Local Regulation; Battle on the Bay Powerboat Race Atlantic Ocean, Fire Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Race Atlantic Ocean, Fire Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY... Atlantic Ocean off Smith Point Park, Fire Island, NY during the Battle on the Bay Powerboat Race. This... on the Atlantic Ocean off Smith Point Park, Fire Island, NY and will feature six classes of...

  13. Regional ocean data assimilation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher A; Moore, Andrew M; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  14. 42 CFR 488.12 - Effect of survey agency certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of survey agency certification. 488.12... SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.12 Effect of survey agency certification. Certifications by the State survey...

  15. 29 CFR 1981.108 - Role of Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Role of Federal agencies. 1981.108 Section 1981.108 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.108 Role of Federal agencies. (a)(1) The complainant and the...

  16. 29 CFR 1981.108 - Role of Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Role of Federal agencies. 1981.108 Section 1981.108 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.108 Role of Federal agencies. (a)(1) The complainant and the...

  17. 29 CFR 1981.108 - Role of Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Role of Federal agencies. 1981.108 Section 1981.108 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.108 Role of Federal agencies. (a)(1) The complainant and the...

  18. 29 CFR 1981.108 - Role of Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Role of Federal agencies. 1981.108 Section 1981.108 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.108 Role of Federal agencies. (a)(1) The complainant and the...

  19. 29 CFR 1981.108 - Role of Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Role of Federal agencies. 1981.108 Section 1981.108 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 2002 Litigation § 1981.108 Role of Federal agencies. (a)(1) The complainant and the...

  20. 29 CFR 1450.16 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 1450.16 Section 1450.16 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE COLLECTIONS OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Administrative Offset-Consumer Reporting Agencies-Contracting...

  1. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  2. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  3. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  4. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  5. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  6. 10 CFR 501.14 - Notice to Environmental Protection Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. 501.14 Section 501.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS General Provisions § 501.14 Notice to Environmental Protection Agency. A copy of any proposed rule...

  7. 7 CFR 1944.69 - Agency point of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency point of contact. 1944.69 Section 1944.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... contact. Grantees must submit packages to the appropriate Agency office serving the designated county...

  8. 7 CFR 1944.69 - Agency point of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency point of contact. 1944.69 Section 1944.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... contact. Grantees must submit packages to the appropriate Agency office serving the designated county...

  9. 7 CFR 1944.69 - Agency point of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Agency point of contact. 1944.69 Section 1944.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... contact. Grantees must submit packages to the appropriate Agency office serving the designated county...

  10. 7 CFR 1944.69 - Agency point of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Agency point of contact. 1944.69 Section 1944.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... contact. Grantees must submit packages to the appropriate Agency office serving the designated county...

  11. 7 CFR 1944.69 - Agency point of contact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Agency point of contact. 1944.69 Section 1944.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... contact. Grantees must submit packages to the appropriate Agency office serving the designated county...

  12. 45 CFR 1211.1-9 - Access to agency records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to agency records. 1211.1-9 Section 1211.1-9 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-9 Access to agency records. (a) A volunteer is entitled to review any material in his or...

  13. 7 CFR 248.5 - Selection of new State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of new State agencies. 248.5 Section 248.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) State Agency...

  14. 7 CFR 249.5 - Selection of new State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of new State agencies. 249.5 Section 249.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) State Agency...

  15. 7 CFR 249.5 - Selection of new State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of new State agencies. 249.5 Section 249.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) State Agency...

  16. 7 CFR 249.5 - Selection of new State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of new State agencies. 249.5 Section 249.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) State Agency...

  17. 7 CFR 248.5 - Selection of new State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of new State agencies. 248.5 Section 248.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) State Agency...

  18. 7 CFR 249.5 - Selection of new State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection of new State agencies. 249.5 Section 249.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) State Agency...

  19. 7 CFR 249.5 - Selection of new State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of new State agencies. 249.5 Section 249.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) State Agency...

  20. 7 CFR 248.5 - Selection of new State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of new State agencies. 248.5 Section 248.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) State Agency...

  1. 7 CFR 248.5 - Selection of new State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of new State agencies. 248.5 Section 248.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) State Agency...

  2. 7 CFR 248.5 - Selection of new State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection of new State agencies. 248.5 Section 248.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) State Agency...

  3. 40 CFR 82.180 - Agency review of SNAP submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... evaluate: (i) Atmospheric effects and related health and environmental impacts; (ii) General population... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Agency review of SNAP submissions. 82.180 Section 82.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  4. 40 CFR 82.180 - Agency review of SNAP submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluate: (i) Atmospheric effects and related health and environmental impacts; (ii) General population... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agency review of SNAP submissions. 82.180 Section 82.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  5. 40 CFR 82.180 - Agency review of SNAP submissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluate: (i) Atmospheric effects and related health and environmental impacts; (ii) General population... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency review of SNAP submissions. 82.180 Section 82.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  6. 10 CFR 601.200 - Agency and legislative liaison.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency and legislative liaison. 601.200 Section 601.200 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING Activities by Own Employees § 601.200 Agency and legislative liaison. (a) The prohibition on the use of...

  7. Nitrogen cycle of the open ocean: from genes to ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Zehr, Jonathan P; Kudela, Raphael M

    2011-01-01

    The marine nitrogen (N) cycle controls the productivity of the oceans. This cycle is driven by complex biogeochemical transformations, including nitrogen fixation, denitrification, and assimilation and anaerobic ammonia oxidation, mediated by microorganisms. New processes and organisms continue to be discovered, complicating the already complex picture of oceanic N cycling. Genomics research has uncovered the diversity of nitrogen metabolism strategies in phytoplankton and bacterioplankton. The elemental ratios of nutrients in biological material are more flexible than previously believed, with implications for vertical export of carbon and associated nutrients to the deep ocean. Estimates of nitrogen fixation and denitrification continue to be modified, and anaerobic ammonia oxidation has been identified as a new process involved in denitrification in oxygen minimum zones. The nitrogen cycle in the oceans is an integral feature of the function of ocean ecosystems and will be a central player in how oceans respond during global environmental change.

  8. Status of Federal Agency Support for K-12 and Undergraduate Math/Science Education Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Richard

    1997-04-01

    This presentation will review recent trends in Federal support for K-12 and undergraduate math/science education programs. The status and key features of current math/science education initiatives, by Federal agency, will be presented specifically including opportunities for science teachers to participate in research internships or related programs at Federal and university research laboratories. Agencies which will be covered in this presentation include the National Science Foundation, NASA, the Department of Energy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency, and the Defense research agencies. Cross-agency initiatives in math/science education will be highlighted including the potential for new K-12 and undergraduate science initiatives developing from the recently enacted National Oceanic Partnership legislation administered by the Office of Naval Research and involving nine Federal research agencies.

  9. Research Collaboration with State Environment and Public Health Agencies

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Reseach staff holds Tools Cafes for specific Agency partners and stakeholders. At these Tools Cafes, we share and demonstrate tools, talk with users and potential users, and solicit feedback to continually improve and update our resources.

  10. 75 FR 63485 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Informatics, Division of Integrated Surveillance Systems and Services (DISSS). States will continue to use..., Integrating Public Health Information and Surveillance Systems, NEDSS includes data standards, an Internet... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork...

  11. The Mercator-Ocean forecasting service: a 4D vision of the global ocean, serving the ocean services.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, F.

    2006-12-01

    Mercator Ocean is a public consortium formed in Toulouse in early 2002 by the six major players in the French oceanography community: the space agency CNES, the scientific research centre CNRS, IFREMER (the institute of marine research and exploration), the development research institute IRD, the Meo France weather service, and SHOM (the French Navy's hydrography & oceanography department). In 1995, these same organizations gave themselves seven years to achieve a challenging objective: to conceive, develop and implement France's first operational oceanography system. The unique system would be capable of describing, analysing and predicting conditions at the ocean surface and subsurface in real time, anytime, anywhere in the world, even in the most inhospitable seas. That objective was met on 17 January 2001 with the release of the first Mercator ocean bulletin, providing a two-week forecast for the entire North Atlantic. More than three thousands new forecast charts are now added to the MERCATOR bulletin every week. Building on these successes, a dedicated operational oceanography team, Mercator Ocean, was set up in 2002. Mercator-Ocean's mission is to deliver incremental improvements in the service provided by this new operational oceanography capability by increasing the resolution and the geographic coverage of the models used. The current high-resolution model offers a 6 km grid resolution, and the first models offering global ocean coverage has been implemented early 2004. A ¼° model is operated since October 2005. The services offered by Mercator-Ocean consist in a real-time general description of the physical state of the ocean (3D currents, temperature, salinity ). This is exactly in line with the so called Marine Core Service initiative developed by the operational oceanography community within the programs funded by the European Commission and the European Space Agency (Marcoast, Mersea, BOSS4GMES projects ). The downstream activities are now in

  12. Enhancing Ocean Research Data Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Shepherd, Adam; Allison, Molly; Arko, Robert; Chen, Yu; Fox, Peter; Glover, David; Hitzler, Pascal; Leadbetter, Adam; Narock, Thomas; West, Patrick; Wiebe, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) works in partnership with ocean science investigators to publish data from research projects funded by the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Office of Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms & Ecosystems Program at the U.S. National Science Foundation. Since 2006, researchers have been contributing data to the BCO-DMO data system, and it has developed into a rich repository of data from ocean, coastal and Great Lakes research programs. While the ultimate goal of the BCO-DMO is to ensure preservation of NSF funded project data and to provide open access to those data, achievement of those goals is attained through a series of related phases that benefits from active collaboration and cooperation with a large community of research scientists as well as curators of data and information at complementary data repositories. The BCO-DMO is just one of many intermediate data management centers created to facilitate long-term preservation of data and improve access to ocean research data. Through partnerships with other data management professionals and active involvement in local and global initiatives, BCO-DMO staff members are working to enhance access to ocean research data available from the online BCO-DMO data system. Continuing efforts in use of controlled vocabulary terms, development of ontology design patterns and publication of content as Linked Open Data are contributing to improved discovery and availability of BCO-DMO curated data and increased interoperability of related content available from distributed repositories. We will demonstrate how Semantic Web technologies (e.g. RDF/XML, SKOS, OWL and SPARQL) have been integrated into BCO-DMO data access and delivery systems to better serve the ocean research community and to contribute to an expanding global knowledge network.

  13. 40 CFR 144.37 - Continuation of expiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Continuation of expiring permits. 144.37 Section 144.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization by Permit § 144.37 Continuation...

  14. 40 CFR 144.37 - Continuation of expiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continuation of expiring permits. 144.37 Section 144.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization by Permit § 144.37 Continuation...

  15. 40 CFR 144.37 - Continuation of expiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Continuation of expiring permits. 144.37 Section 144.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization by Permit § 144.37 Continuation...

  16. 40 CFR 144.37 - Continuation of expiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuation of expiring permits. 144.37 Section 144.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization by Permit § 144.37 Continuation...

  17. 40 CFR 144.37 - Continuation of expiring permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuation of expiring permits. 144.37 Section 144.37 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization by Permit § 144.37 Continuation...

  18. 38 CFR 48.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 48.645 Section 48.645 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department, military department, government corporation, government controlled corporation, any other establishment in...

  19. Federal Law on Consumer Deception: An Agency by Agency Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweibel, George J.

    A comprehensive analysis of statutes and regulations on consumer deception administered by thirty government agencies is provided in this report. Each agency's chapter includes a brief description of the agency, and a detailed listing of all deceptive trade practices prohibited by that agency's enabling legislation, regulations, or other sources…

  20. Exploring the Oceans With OOI and IODP: A New Partnership in Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gröschel, H.; Robigou, V.; Whitman, J.; Jagoda, S. K.; Randle, D.

    2003-12-01

    The Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI), a new program supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF), will investigate ocean and Earth processes using deep-sea and coastal observatories, as well as a lithospheric plate-scale cabled observatory that spans most of the geological and oceanographic processes of our planet. October 2003 marked the beginning of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), the third phase of a scientific ocean drilling effort known for its international cooperation, multidisciplinary research, and technological innovation. A workshop exploring the scientific, technical, and educational linkages between OOI and IODP was held in July 2003. Four scientific thematic groups discussed and prioritized common goals of the two programs, and identified experiments and technologies needed to achieve these objectives. The Education and Outreach (E&O) group attended the science sessions and presented seed ideas on activities for all participants to discuss and evaluate. A multidisciplinary dialogue between E&O facilitators, research scientists, and technology specialists was initiated. OOI/IODP participants support the recommendation of the IODP Education Workshop (May 2003) that the IODP and US Science Support Program (USSSP)-successor program have clear commitments to education and outreach. Specific organizational recommendations for OOI/IODP are: (1) E&O should have equal status with science and engineering in the OOI management/planning structure, and enjoy adequate staffing at a US program office; (2) an E&O Advisory Committee of scientists, engineers, technology experts, and educators should be established to develop and implement a viable, vibrant E&O plan; (3) E&O staff and advisors should (a) provide assistance to researchers in fulfilling E&O proposal requirements from preparation to review stages, (b) promote submittal of proposals to government agencies specifically for OOI/IODP-related E&O activities, and (c) identify and foster

  1. Reconstructing vanished ocean basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Sdrolias, M.; Gaina, C.

    2006-05-01

    The large-scale patterns of mantle convection are mainly dependent on the history of subduction. Therefore some of the primary constraints for subduction models are given by of the location of subduction zones through time, and of the convergence vectors and age of subducted lithosphere. This requires the complete reconstruction of ocean floor through time, including the main ocean basins, back-arc basins, and now subducted ocean crust, and tying these kinematic models to geodynamic simulations. We reconstruct paleo- oceans by creating "synthetic plates", the locations and geometry of which is established on the basis of preserved ocean crust (magnetic lineations and fracture zones), geological data, paleogeography, and the rules of plate tectonics. We use a merged moving hotspot (Late Cretaceous-present) and palaeomagnetic/fixed hotspot (Early Cretaceous) reference frame, coupled with reconstructed spreading histories of the Pacific, Phoenix and Farallon plates and the plates involved in the Tethys oceanic domain. Based on this approach we have created a set of global oceanic paleo-isochrons and paleo-oceanic age grids. The grids also provide the first complete global set of paleo-basement depth maps, including now subducted ocean floor, for the last 130 million years based on a depth-age relationship. We show that the mid-Cretaceous sealevel highstand was primarily caused by two main factors: (1) the "supercontinent breakup effect", which resulted in the creation of the mid-Atlantic and Indian Ocean ridges at the expense of subducting old ocean floor in the Tethys and (2) by a changing age-area distribution of Pacific ocean floor through time, resulting from the subduction of the Pacific-Izanagi, Pacific-Phoenix and Pacific-Farallon ridges. These grids provide model constraints for subduction dynamics through time and represent a framework for backtracking biogeographic and sediment data from ocean drilling and for constraining the opening/closing of oceanic

  2. 28 CFR 81.4 - Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency. 81.4 Section 81.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.4 Referral...

  3. 28 CFR 81.4 - Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency. 81.4 Section 81.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.4 Referral...

  4. 28 CFR 81.4 - Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency. 81.4 Section 81.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.4 Referral...

  5. 28 CFR 81.4 - Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency. 81.4 Section 81.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.4 Referral...

  6. 28 CFR 81.4 - Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency. 81.4 Section 81.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.4 Referral...

  7. NANOOS, the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems: a regional Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) for the Pacific Northwest US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, J.; Martin, D.; Kosro, M.

    2012-12-01

    NANOOS is the Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observing Systems, the Pacific Northwest Regional Association of the United States Integrated Ocean Observing System (US IOOS). User driven since its inception in 2003, this regional observing system is responding to a variety of scientific and societal needs across its coastal ocean, estuaries, and shorelines. Regional priorities have been solicited and re-affirmed through active engagement with users and stakeholders. NANOOS membership is composed of an even mix of academic, governmental, industry, and non-profit organizations, who appoint representatives to the NANOOS Governing Council who confirm the priority applications of the observing system. NANOOS regional priorities are: Maritime Operations, Regional Fisheries, Ecosystem Assessment, Coastal Hazards, and Climate. NANOOS' regional coastal ocean observing system is implemented by seven partners (three universities, three state agencies, and one industry). Together, these partners conduct the observations, modeling, data management and communication, analysis products, education and outreach activities of NANOOS. Observations, designed to span coastal ocean, shorelines, and estuaries, include physical, chemical, biological and geological measurements. To date, modeling has been more limited in scope, but has provided the system with increased coverage for some parameters. The data management and communication system for NANOOS, led by the NANOOS Visualization System (NVS) is the cornerstone of the user interaction with NANOOS. NVS gives users access to observational data, both real time and archived, as well as modeling output. Given the diversity of user needs, measurements, and the complexity of the coastal environment, the challenge for the system is large. NANOOS' successes take advantage of technological advances, including real-time data transmission, profiling buoys, gliders, HF radars, and modeling. The most profound challenges NANOOS faces stem

  8. The Mercator-Ocean Forecasting Service: a 4D vision of the Global Ocean, Serving the Ocean Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumazou, V.; Baudel, S.; Vinay, G.; Nouel, L.

    2005-12-01

    Mercator-Ocean is a public interest grouping formed in Toulouse in early 2002 by six major players in the French oceanography community: the space agency CNES, the scientific research centre CNRS, IFREMER (the institute of marine research and exploration), the development research institute IRD, the Meteo-France weather service, and SHOM (the French Navy's hydrography & oceanography department). In 1995, these same organizations gave themselves seven years to achieve a challenging objective: to conceive, develop and implement France's first operational oceanography system. The unique system would be capable of describing, analysing and predicting conditions at the ocean surface and subsurface in real time, anytime, anywhere in the world, even in the most inhospitable seas. That objective was met on 17 January 2001 with the release of the first Mercator ocean bulletin, providing a two-week forecast for the entire North Atlantic. Two thousands new forecast charts are now added to the MERCATOR bulletin every week. Building on these successes, a dedicated operational oceanography team, Mercator Ocean, was set up in 2002. Mercator-Ocean's mission is to deliver incremental improvements in the service provided by this new operational oceanography capability by increasing the resolution and the geographic coverage of the models used. The current high-resolution model offers a 6 km grid resolution, and the first models offering global ocean coverage has been implemented early 2004. A 1/4(°) model will be operated by the end of 2006. Objective 1- Develop an operational oceanography system using three-dimensional simulation and a high-resolution primitive-equation model capable of assimilating satellite data (from the Jason altimetry satellite in particular) and in-situ ocean observation data (particularly those gathered by the CORIOLIS centre). 2- Support applications for commercial shipping and naval forces, promote sustainable stewardship of the world's oceans

  9. FLIPPER: Validation for Remote Ocean Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    one of the determining factors in the planet s ability to support life is the same factor that makes the Blue Planet blue: water. Therefore, NASA researchers have a focused interest in understanding Earth s oceans and their ability to continue sustaining life. A critical objective in this study is to understand the global processes that control the changes of carbon and associated living elements in the oceans. Since oceans are so large, one of the most widely used methods of this research is remote sensing, using satellites to observe changes in the ocean color that may be indicative of changes occurring at the surface. Major changes in carbon are due to photosynthesis conducted by phytoplankton, showing, among other things, which areas are sustaining life. Although valuable for large-scale pictures of an ocean, remote sensing really only provides a surface, and therefore incomplete, depiction of that ocean s sustainability. True and complete testing of the water requires local testing in conjunction with the satellite images in order to generate the necessary algorithm parameters to calculate ocean health. For this reason, NASA has spearheaded research to provide onsite validation for its satellite imagery surveys.

  10. Bats of the Western Indian Ocean Islands

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, John

    2011-01-01

    Simple Summary The purpose of this paper is to review the literature pertaining to the bat faunas of the western Indian Ocean islands, particularly in light of the identification of many new species on Madagascar and the taxonomic reassignment of others, and to summarise details of their general biology, feeding ecology, reproduction and conservation. Abstract The natural colonisation of many remote oceanic islands by bats, including those of the western Indian Ocean, has been facilitated by their unique capability among mammals for powered flight. In the western Indian Ocean region, only the Malagasy islands of Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago have been naturally colonised by non-volant mammals. Despite their greater potential for inter-island dispersal, and thus gene transfer, endemicity of Chiroptera in the western Indian Ocean islands is high. Given their vulnerability to stochastic and anthropogenic disturbances, greater focus needs to be placed on investigating the demographic and ecological history of bats on Western Indian Ocean islands to safeguard not only their future, but also the ecosystem functioning on these islands, for which they are undoubtedly such an integral part. Here, I summarise the taxonomic and life history information available on bats from Western Indian Ocean islands and highlight knowledge gaps and conservation issues that threaten the continued persistence of some species. PMID:26486500

  11. Achieving Global Ocean Color Climate Data Records

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Ocean color, or the spectral distribution of visible light upwelling from beneath the ocean surface, carries information on the composition and concentration of biological constituents within the water column. The CZCS mission in 1978 demonstrated that quantitative ocean color measurements could be. made from spaceborne sensors, given sufficient corrections for atmospheric effects and a rigorous calibration and validation program. The launch of SeaWiFS in 1997 represents the beginning of NASA's ongoing efforts to develop a continuous ocean color data record with sufficient coverage and fidelity for global change research. Achievements in establishing and maintaining the consistency of the time-series through multiple missions and varying instrument designs will be highlighted in this talk, including measurements from NASA'S MODIS instruments currently flying on the Terra and Aqua platforms, as well as the MERIS sensor flown by ESA and the OCM-2 sensor recently launched by ISRO.

  12. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu

    1993-12-31

    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean CO{sub 2} disposal.

  13. Atmospheric, Non-Tidal Oceanic and Hydrological Loading Effects Observed with GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boy, J. P.; Memin, A.; Watson, C.; Tregoning, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The Sentinel-3 missions will be jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT for the marine products. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products. Sentinel-3A is foreseen to be launched at the beginning of November 2015. The paper will give an overview on the mission, its instruments and objectives, the data products provided, the mechanisms to access the mission's data, and if available first results.

  14. U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction With the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    and ocean prediction system developers. The main goal of the first coastal application was to assess the impact of open boundary conditions from...Keys when hurricane Katrina crossed South Florida in late August 2005. IMPACT In summary, 25 institutions (nine from academia, nine from...Ocean and Coastal ENviromental Sensing, http://www.ocens.com) for their customers who continually provide posi- tive feedback on their accuracy

  15. Satellite Ocean Color: Present Status, Future Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; McClain, Charles R.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We are midway into our 5th consecutive year of nearly continuous, high quality ocean color observations from space. The Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner/Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances (OCTS/POLDER: Nov. 1996 - Jun. 1997), the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS: Sep. 1997 - present), and now the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS: Sep. 2000 - present) have and are providing unprecedented views of chlorophyll dynamics on global scales. Global synoptic views of ocean chlorophyll were once a fantasy for ocean color scientists. It took nearly the entire 8-year lifetime of limited Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) observations to compile seasonal climatologies. Now SeaWIFS produces comparably complete fields in about 8 days. For the first time, scientists may observe spatial and temporal variability never before seen in a synoptic context. Even more exciting, we are beginning to plausibly ask questions of interannual variability. We stand at the beginning of long-time time series of ocean color, from which we may begin to ask questions of interdecadal variability and climate change. These are the scientific questions being addressed by users of the 18-year Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer time series with respect to terrestrial processes and ocean temperatures. The nearly 5-year time series of ocean color observations now being constructed, with possibilities of continued observations, can put us at comparable standing with our terrestrial and physical oceanographic colleagues, and enable us to understand how ocean biological processes contribute to, and are affected by global climate change.

  16. The Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan (Ocean SAMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Fugate, Grover J.

    2012-06-01

    In 2010, the University of Rhode Island (URI) secured $2,000,000 from the Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources (OER) to support research studies for the identification of preferred sites for offshore renewable energy development in Rhode Island’s offshore waters. This research will provide the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council (CRMC) with sound technical information to assist in the siting of wind turbines in Rhode Island’s offshore waters. CRMC is the state agency with jurisdiction over development, preservation and restoration of Rhode Island’s coasts out to the three-mile limit, and is the state’s authority for federal consistency. With technical support from URI, CRMC is currently leading the implementation of the Rhode Island Ocean Special Area Management Plan (Ocean SAMP) with the purpose of developing policies and standards to guide the development of offshore renewable energy. The justification behind renewable energy development in Rhode Island includes diversifying the energy sources supplying electricity consumed in the state, stabilizing long-term energy prices, enhancing environmental quality – including the reduction of air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions – reducing the state’s reliance on fossil fuels, and creating jobs in Rhode Island in the renewable energy sector.

  17. Metacognition of Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Janet; Greene, Matthew Jason

    2007-01-01

    The feeling that we are agents, intentionally making things happen by our own actions, is foundational to our understanding of ourselves as humans. People's metacognitions of agency were investigated in 4 experiments. Participants played a game in which they tried to touch downward scrolling Xs and avoid touching Os. Variables that affected…

  18. Youth Media and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauge, Chelsey

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses how capacity is conceived of and understood in youth media/civic education programming, and how beliefs about agency, development, relationality and youth manifests in the discourses, programmes, and practices of organizations operating youth media programmes. Through attention to a youth media and development programme in…

  19. Cooperation Among State Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenbarger, James L.; Hansen, Dean M.

    1975-01-01

    Most states have separate agencies to deal with vocational education, adult education, and community colleges. Because current procedures for interagency cooperation are inadequate and often nonproductive, there is a need for a national or extra-state catalyst to encourage cooperation in a positive way. Five strategies for cooperation are…

  20. 76 FR 33726 - National Ocean Council; Strategic Action Plan Content Outlines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... QUALITY National Ocean Council; Strategic Action Plan Content Outlines AGENCY: Council on Environmental Quality. ACTION: Notice of Availability, Strategic Action Plan Content Outlines; Request for Comments... priority objectives. As a first step, Federal interagency writing teams have developed content outlines...

  1. Normativity, agency, and life.

    PubMed

    Barham, James

    2012-03-01

    There is an immense philosophical literature dealing with the notions of normativity and agency, as well as a sizeable and rapidly growing scientific literature on the topic of autonomous agents. However, there has been very little cross-fertilization between these two literatures. As a result, the philosophical literature tends to assume a somewhat outdated mechanistic image of living things, resulting in a quasi-dualistic picture in which only human beings, or the higher animals, can be normative agents properly speaking. From this perspective, the project of 'naturalizing normativity' becomes almost a contradiction in terms. At the same time, the scientific literature tends to misuse 'normativity,' 'agency,' and related terms, assuming that it is meaningful to ascribe these concepts to 'autonomous agents' conceived of as physical systems whose behavior is to be explained in terms of ordinary physical law. From this perspective, the true depth of the difficulty involved in understanding what makes living systems distinctive qua physical systems becomes occluded. In this essay, I begin the attempt to remedy this situation. After some preliminary discussion of terminology and situating of my project within the contemporary philosophical landscape, I make a distinction between two different aspects of the project of naturalizing normativity: (1) the 'Scope Problem,' which consists in saying how widely in nature our concept of normative agency may properly be applied; and (2) the 'Ground Problem,' which consists in rationalizing the phenomenon of normative agency in terms of the rest of our knowledge of nature. Then, in the remainder of this paper, I argue that the Scope Problem ought to be resolved in favor of attributing normative agency, in the proper sense of those words, to living things as such. The Ground Problem will be discussed in a companion paper at a later time.

  2. Southern Ocean cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Collins, Martin A; Rodhouse, Paul G K

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Ocean cephalopod fauna is distinctive, with high levels of endemism in the squid and particularly in the octopodids. Loliginid squid, sepiids and sepiolids are absent from the Southern Ocean, and all the squid are oceanic pelagic species. The octopodids dominate the neritic cephalopod fauna, with high levels of diversity, probably associated with niche separation. In common with temperate cephalopods, Southern Ocean species appear to be semelparous, but growth rates are probably lower and longevity greater than temperate counterparts. Compared with equivalent temperate species, eggs are generally large and fecundity low, with putative long development times. Reproduction may be seasonal in the squid but is extended in the octopodids. Cephalopods play an important role in the ecology of the Southern Ocean, linking the abundant mesopelagic fish and crustaceans with higher predators such as albatross, seals and whales. To date Southern Ocean cephalopods have not been commercially exploited, but there is potential for exploitation of muscular species of the Family Ommastrephidae.

  3. The U.S. National Ocean Policy: Science for Sustaining Ocean Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. L.; Babb-Brott, D.

    2012-12-01

    The United States' National Ocean Policy recognizes the need to advance fundamental scientific knowledge through exploration and research that will enhance stewardship of our ocean, coasts, and Great Lakes. Created by Executive Order in July 2010, it strongly affirms the critical role of robust science, research, monitoring, modeling, and assessments in effectively sustaining our ocean resources regionally, nationally, and globally. The National Ocean Council drafted, and made available for public comment earlier this year, an Implementation Plan designed to address the nine priority objectives of the Policy. These include five areas of special emphasis: 1) Resiliency and Adaptation to Climate Change and Ocean Acidification, 2) Regional Ecosystem Protection and Restoration, 3) Water Quality and Sustainable Practices on Land, 4) Changing Conditions in the Arctic, and 5) Ocean, Coastal, and Great Lakes Observations, Mapping, and Infrastructure. Each of these requires a solid scientific basis to ensure sustainable approaches to ocean resource management and is underpinned by two of the other priority objectives (Ecosystem-Based Management and Inform Decisions and Improve Understanding). Ecosystem-based management is viewed as a foundational principle for comprehensive ocean management and it, in turn, must be based on increased knowledge to continually inform and improve management and policy decisions as well as to respond to change and challenges. This paper reviews plans for ensuring the necessary scientific basis.

  4. Requirements to Sustain Global Ocean Color Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengelt, C.; Yoder, J. A.; Antoine, D.; Del Castillo, C. E.; Evans, R. H.; Mobley, C.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Sathyendranath, S.; Schueler, C. F.; Siegel, D. A.; Wilson, C.

    2011-12-01

    Satellite measurements of ocean color provide a unique vantage point to measure global phytoplankton abundance and their contribution to the health of marine ecosystems, the global cycle of nutrients, oxygen, and carbon, and their response to long-term climate change. However, the United States is at risk of losing access to ocean color data because the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has ceased operation, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is aging and planned new satellite missions might not be able to acquire data at the accuracy levels required for climate research. Given the importance of maintaining the ocean color time-series, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, and the Office of Naval Research requested the National Research Council (NRC) convene a committee of experts to review the minimum requirements to sustain global ocean color measurements for research and operational applications, and identify options to minimize the risk of a data gap. This poster summarizes the NRC report's findings. In particular, it reviews the minimum mission requirements to sustain at least the current capabilities for measuring ocean color at a global scale such as the need for post-launch vicarious calibration and monitoring of the sensor's stability. The poster will also summarize the report's recommendations regarding the options to improve the VIIRS/NPP mission. Moreover, it details how a data-centric planning effort could ensure that ocean color research can be advanced and maintained over the long term. The poster concludes that the ever broadening user community that depends on accurate and timely ocean color data highlights the urgency for fixing the VIIRS sensor and developing the next generation capability. In particular, NASA's climate continuity and decadal survey missions PACE/ACE, GEOCAPE and HyspIRI are required to advance ocean

  5. Nanoparticles and Ocean Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    Nanoparticles and Ocean Optics William M. Balch Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, POB 475, W. Boothbay Harbor, ME...Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, POB 475, W. Boothbay Harbor, ME 04575 phone: (207) 633-9600 fax: (207) 633-9641 email: jgoes@bigelow.org Award Number...characterization of virus/host assemblages for use in lab -based dilution experiments. We tested methods for the separation of naturally occurring virus and host

  6. Nanoparticles and Ocean Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-30

    Nanoparticles and Ocean Optics William M. Balch Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, POB 475 W. Boothbay Harbor, ME 04575 phone: (207) 633...Ocean Sciences, POB 475 W. Boothbay Harbor, ME 04575 phone: (207) 633-9600 fax: (207) 633-9641 email: jgoes@bigelow.org Award Number...and characterization of virus/host assemblages for use in lab -based dilution experiments. We tested methods for the separation of naturally occurring

  7. Nanoparticles and Ocean Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    Nanoparticles and Ocean Optics William M. Balch Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, POB 475 W. Boothbay Harbor, ME 04575 phone: (207) 633...Ocean Sciences, POB 475 W. Boothbay Harbor, ME 04575 phone: (207) 633-9600 fax: (207) 633-9641 email: jgoes@bigelow.org Award Number...and characterization of virus/host assemblages for use in lab -based dilution experiments. We tested methods for the separation of naturally occurring

  8. 7 CFR 247.35 - Local agency appeals of State agency actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 247.35 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.35... participation in CSFP—e.g., the termination of a local agency's participation in the program. The adverse...

  9. 7 CFR 247.22 - Allocation and disbursement of administrative funds to State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.22 Allocation and disbursement of administrative funds to State agencies....

  10. 7 CFR 247.22 - Allocation and disbursement of administrative funds to State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.22 Allocation and disbursement of administrative funds to State agencies....

  11. 7 CFR 247.22 - Allocation and disbursement of administrative funds to State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.22 Allocation and disbursement of administrative funds to State agencies....

  12. 7 CFR 247.22 - Allocation and disbursement of administrative funds to State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.22 Allocation and disbursement of administrative funds to State agencies....

  13. 7 CFR 247.22 - Allocation and disbursement of administrative funds to State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.22 Allocation and disbursement of administrative funds to State agencies....

  14. 20 CFR 670.760 - How will Job Corps coordinate with other agencies?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... in developing and maintaining cooperative relationships with other agencies and institutions... learning; (5) Job search, occupational, and basic skills training; and (6) Provision of continued...

  15. 31 CFR 315.87 - Payment to governmental agencies, units, or their officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Private Organizations (Corporations, Associations, Partnerships, etc.) and Governmental Agencies, Units... Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC...

  16. 31 CFR 315.87 - Payment to governmental agencies, units, or their officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Private Organizations (Corporations, Associations, Partnerships, etc.) and Governmental Agencies, Units... Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC...

  17. Ocean acoustic reverberation tomography.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wide-angle imaging using ship-towed acoustic sources and networks of ocean bottom seismographs is a common technique for exploring earth structure beneath the oceans. In these studies, the recorded data are dominated by acoustic waves propagating as reverberations in the water column. For surveys with a small receiver spacing (e.g., <10 km), the acoustic wave field densely samples properties of the water column over the width of the receiver array. A method, referred to as ocean acoustic reverberation tomography, is developed that uses the travel times of direct and reflected waves to image ocean acoustic structure. Reverberation tomography offers an alternative approach for determining the structure of the oceans and advancing the understanding of ocean heat content and mixing processes. The technique has the potential for revealing small-scale ocean thermal structure over the entire vertical height of the water column and along long survey profiles or across three-dimensional volumes of the ocean. For realistic experimental geometries and data noise levels, the method can produce images of ocean sound speed on a smaller scale than traditional acoustic tomography.

  18. Ejecta from Ocean Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kyte, Frank T.

    2003-01-01

    Numerical simulations of deep-ocean impact provide some limits on the size of a projectile that will not mix with the ocean floor during a deep-ocean impact. For a vertical impact at asteroidal velocities (approx. 20 km/s), mixing is only likely when the projectile diameter is greater than 112 of the water depth. For oblique impacts, even larger projectiles will not mix with ocean floor silicates. Given the typical water depths of 4 to 5 km in deep-ocean basins, asteroidal projectiles with diameters as large as 2 or 3 km may commonly produce silicate ejecta that is composed only of meteoritic materials and seawater salts. However, the compressed water column beneath the projectile can still disrupt and shock metamorphose the ocean floor. Therefore, production of a separate, terrestrial ejecta component is not ruled out in the most extreme case. With increasing projectile size (or energy) relative to water depths, there must be a gradation between oceanic impacts and more conventional continental impacts. Given that 60% of the Earth's surface is covered by oceanic lithosphere and 500 m projectiles impact the Earth on 10(exp 5) y timescales, there must be hundreds of oceanic impact deposits in the sediment record awaiting discovery.

  19. World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, R. Allyn

    1992-01-01

    The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

  20. Global Ocean Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franz, B. A.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Siegel, D. A.; Werdell, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton are free-floating algae that grow in the euphotic zone of the upper ocean, converting carbon dioxide, sunlight, and available nutrients into organic carbon through photosynthesis. Despite their microscopic size, these photoautotrophs are responsible for roughly half the net primary production on Earth (NPP; gross primary production minus respiration), fixing atmospheric CO2 into food that fuels our global ocean ecosystems. Phytoplankton thus play a critical role in the global carbon cycle, and their growth patterns are highly sensitive to environmental changes such as increased ocean temperatures that stratify the water column and prohibit the transfer of cold, nutrient richwaters to the upper ocean euphotic zone.

  1. 40 CFR 63.7541 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance under the emission averaging provision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compliance under the emission averaging provision? 63.7541 Section 63.7541 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous...

  2. 40 CFR 63.9035 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... monitoring malfunctions, associated repairs, and required quality assurance or control activities in data... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Hydrochloric...

  3. 40 CFR 63.9808 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Refractory... times, you must maintain your monitoring systems including, but not limited to, maintaining...

  4. 40 CFR 63.6135 - How do I monitor and collect data to demonstrate continuous compliance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Stationary Combustion... continuous compliance? (a) Except for monitor malfunctions, associated repairs, and required...

  5. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meter, steam flow meter, and each pressure or temperature measurement device shall be installed... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS...

  6. Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands: an ocean testbed for ocean energy converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Javier; Hernández-Brito, Joaquín.; Llinás, Octavio

    2010-05-01

    The Oceanic Platform of the Canary Islands (PLOCAN) is a Governmental Consortium aimed to build and operate an off-shore infrastructure to facilitate the deep sea research and speed up the technology associated. This Consortium is overseen by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation and the Canarian Agency for Research and Innovation. The infrastructure consists of an oceanic platform located in an area with depths between 50-100 meters, close to the continental slope and four kilometers off the coast of Gran Canaria, in the archipelago of the Canary Islands. The process of construction will start during the first months of 2010 and is expected to be finished in mid-year 2011. PLOCAN serves five strategic lines: an integral observatory able to explore from the deep ocean to the atmosphere, an ocean technology testbed, a base for underwater vehicles, an innovation platform and a highly specialized training centre. Ocean energy is a suitable source to contribute the limited mix-energy conformed in the archipelago of the Canary Islands with a total population around 2 million people unequally distributed in seven islands. Islands of Gran Canaria and Tenerife support the 80% of the total population with 800.000 people each. PLOCAN will contribute to develop the ocean energy sector establishing a marine testbed allowing prototypes testing at sea under a meticulous monitoring network provided by the integral observatory, generating valuable information to developers. Reducing costs throughout an integral project management is an essential objective to be reach, providing services such as transportation, customs and administrative permits. Ocean surface for testing activities is around 8 km2 with a depth going from 50 to 100 meters, 4km off the coast. Selected areas for testing have off-shore wind power conditions around 500-600 W/m2 and wave power conditions around 6 kW/m in the East coast and 10 kW/m in the North coast. Marine currents in the Canary Islands are

  7. Ocean engineering for ocean thermal energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The panel on OTEC Ocean Engineering of the National Research Council was formed to assess the state of ocean engineering knowledge, technology, and practice necessary to design, construct, and operate OTEC plants. The panel concentrated its study on platforms, moorings, and foundations; the cold water pipe; and submarine cables for electric power transmission. The panel did not address the design and engineering of power plants; institutional and management issues or the commercial feasibility of OTEC; or its environmental impacts. The panel focused instead on determining the state of development of several of the ocean engineering technologies needed to design and construct a 40-MWe OTEC plant; it also examined the technical feasibility and advantages of larger and smaller plants.

  8. Agency, time, and causality

    PubMed Central

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition. PMID:25414683

  9. Agency, time, and causality.

    PubMed

    Widlok, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive Scientists interested in causal cognition increasingly search for evidence from non-Western Educational Industrial Rich Democratic people but find only very few cross-cultural studies that specifically target causal cognition. This article suggests how information about causality can be retrieved from ethnographic monographs, specifically from ethnographies that discuss agency and concepts of time. Many apparent cultural differences with regard to causal cognition dissolve when cultural extensions of agency and personhood to non-humans are taken into account. At the same time considerable variability remains when we include notions of time, linearity and sequence. The article focuses on ethnographic case studies from Africa but provides a more general perspective on the role of ethnography in research on the diversity and universality of causal cognition.

  10. The changing carbon cycle of the coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Bauer, James E; Cai, Wei-Jun; Raymond, Peter A; Bianchi, Thomas S; Hopkinson, Charles S; Regnier, Pierre A G

    2013-12-05

    The carbon cycle of the coastal ocean is a dynamic component of the global carbon budget. But the diverse sources and sinks of carbon and their complex interactions in these waters remain poorly understood. Here we discuss the sources, exchanges and fates of carbon in the coastal ocean and how anthropogenic activities have altered the carbon cycle. Recent evidence suggests that the coastal ocean may have become a net sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide during post-industrial times. Continued human pressures in coastal zones will probably have an important impact on the future evolution of the coastal ocean's carbon budget.

  11. Suomi NPP VIIRS Ocean Color Data Product Early Mission Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turpie, Kevin R.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Franz, Bryan A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Meister, Gerhard; Fireman, Gwyn F.; Patt, Frederick S.; Barnes, Robert A.; McClain, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Following the launch of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard the Suomi National Polarorbiting Partnership (NPP) spacecraft, the NASA NPP VIIRS Ocean Science Team (VOST) began an evaluation of ocean color data products to determine whether they could continue the existing NASA ocean color climate data record (CDR). The VOST developed an independent evaluation product based on NASA algorithms with a reprocessing capability. Here we present a preliminary assessment of both the operational ocean color data products and the NASA evaluation data products regarding their applicability to NASA science objectives.

  12. NATO Agency Reform

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    and tested to determine its value. We take seriously the pernicious effects of the so-called “ theory – practice” gap, which would separate the...organized around a specific product or service, there are several that fill purely functional roles , such as the Research and Technology Agency...point, strategy development theory had focused on the forces of technology, size of an organization, and structural variation. In reviewing the

  13. Color of the ocean.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Humphreys, T J; Kattawar, G W

    1978-05-01

    The color of the ocean is calculated from a model that realistically takes into account the various types of scattering and absorption events that occur in both the atmosphere and ocean. Solar photons are followed through the atmosphere and into the ocean by a Monte Carlo technique. The reflection and refraction at the ocean surface are included in the calculation. The upward and downward flux is calculated at several different heights in the atmosphere, at thirteen different wavelengths from 0.4 mum to 0.7 mum. These results are compared with two approximate theories: (1) one-dimensional; (2) single scattering. The first of these theories gives results which are accurate within 10% in most cases and are easy to calculate. The chromaticity coordinates as well as the dominant wavelength and purity of the color are calculated from the Monte Carlo results for the variation of upward flux with wavelength. The ocean color near the horizon is almost entirely determined by the color of the sky reflected by the ocean surface. The upwelling light from the ocean can be observed near the nadir if precautions are taken to exclude as much light as possible reflected from the ocean surface. The color of this upwelling light from the ocean contains much information about the hydrosol, chlorophyll, and yellow substance amounts in the ocean water. The model calculations show how the ocean color changes from a deep blue of high purity for relatively pure water to a greenish blue and then to green of low purity as the cholorphyll and yellow substance amounts increase. Further increases in these substances cause the color to change to yellow green of a higher purity. A large increase in the hydrosol amount usually causes a marked decrease in the purity of the color.

  14. Blue ocean strategy.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Chan; Mauborgne, Renée

    2004-10-01

    Despite a long-term decline in the circus industry, Cirque du Soleil profitably increased revenue 22-fold over the last ten years by reinventing the circus. Rather than competing within the confines of the existing industry or trying to steal customers from rivals, Cirque developed uncontested market space that made the competition irrelevant. Cirque created what the authors call a blue ocean, a previously unknown market space. In blue oceans, demand is created rather than fought over. There is ample opportunity for growth that is both profitable and rapid. In red oceans--that is, in all the industries already existing--companies compete by grabbing for a greater share of limited demand. As the market space gets more crowded, prospects for profits and growth decline. Products turn into commodities, and increasing competition turns the water bloody. There are two ways to create blue oceans. One is to launch completely new industries, as eBay did with online auctions. But it's much more common for a blue ocean to be created from within a red ocean when a company expands the boundaries of an existing industry. In studying more than 150 blue ocean creations in over 30 industries, the authors observed that the traditional units of strategic analysis--company and industry--are of limited use in explaining how and why blue oceans are created. The most appropriate unit of analysis is the strategic move, the set of managerial actions and decisions involved in making a major market-creating business offering. Creating blue oceans builds brands. So powerful is blue ocean strategy, in fact, that a blue ocean strategic move can create brand equity that lasts for decades.

  15. Ocean worlds exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2017-02-01

    Ocean worlds is the label given to objects in the solar system that host stable, globe-girdling bodies of liquid water-"oceans". Of these, the Earth is the only one to support its oceans on the surface, making it a model for habitable planets around other stars but not for habitable worlds elsewhere in the solar system. Elsewhere in the solar system, three objects-Jupiter's moon Europa, and Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan-have subsurface oceans whose existence has been detected or inferred by two independent spacecraft techniques. A host of other bodies in the outer solar system are inferred by a single type of observation or by theoretical modeling to have subsurface oceans. This paper focusses on the three best-documented water oceans beyond Earth: those within Europa, Titan and Enceladus. Of these, Europa's is closest to the surface (less than 10 km and possibly less than 1 km in places), and hence potentially best suited for eventual direct exploration. Enceladus' ocean is deeper-5-40 km below its surface-but fractures beneath the south pole of this moon allow ice and gas from the ocean to escape to space where it has been sampled by mass spectrometers aboard the Cassini Saturn Orbiter. Titan's ocean is the deepest-perhaps 50-100 km-and no evidence for plumes or ice volcanism exist on the surface. In terms of the search for evidence of life within these oceans, the plume of ice and gas emanating from Enceladus makes this the moon of choice for a fast-track program to search for life. If plumes exist on Europa-yet to be confirmed-or places can be located where ocean water is extruded onto the surface, then the search for life on this lunar-sized body can also be accomplished quickly by the standards of outer solar system exploration.

  16. 78 FR 18235 - Special Local Regulations; 2013 Lauderdale Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Fort Lauderdale, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Fort Lauderdale, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a special local regulation on the Atlantic Ocean and the entrance of Port... effective from 10 a.m. on April 18, 2013, until 5:30 p.m. on Sunday, April 21, 2013. The Atlantic...

  17. 78 FR 31840 - Safety Zone; USO Patriotic Festival Air Show, Atlantic Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Ocean; Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Beach, VA. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the USO... Concerts Entertainment, Inc. will host an air show event over the Atlantic Ocean in Virginia Beach, VA....

  18. 77 FR 50019 - Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Cocoa Beach Air Show, Atlantic Ocean, Cocoa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located east of Cocoa Beach,...

  19. 75 FR 76688 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Isle of Wight (Sinepuxent) Bay, Ocean City, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-09

    ... (Sinepuxent) Bay, Ocean City, MD AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The... of Wight (Sinepuxent) Bay, mile 0.5, at Ocean City, MD. This proposed rule will require any mariner... opening. The Coast Guard also proposes to change the waterway location from Isle of Wight Bay to Isle...

  20. 77 FR 42297 - Meeting of the Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Panel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... Department of the Navy Meeting of the Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Panel AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Ocean Research and Resources Advisory Panel... meeting to the meeting Point of Contact. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Consortium for...