Science.gov

Sample records for agency continued sewage

  1. Thc continuous emission monitoring guidance for part 503 sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-30

    The Envrionmental Protection Agency's guidance document for monitoring of total hydrocarbons (THCs) at sewage sludge incinerators was finalized in response to comments received from Federal, State and local government agencies. The document contains recommendations for compliance with these requirements. It addresses installation, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for sewage sludge incinerators in the following areas: (1) THC continuous emissions monitoring (CEM); (2) oxygen CEM; (3) moisture CEM; (4) quality assurance; and (5) recordkeeping and reporting. The document will provide guidance for both the interim and long-term sludge permitting programs.

  2. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  3. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  4. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  5. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  6. 40 CFR 503.7 - Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sewage sludge. 503.7 Section 503.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.7 Requirement for a person who prepares sewage sludge. Any person who prepares sewage sludge shall ensure that...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 503 - Procedure To Determine the Annual Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Whole Sludge Application Rate for a Sewage Sludge A Appendix A to Part 503 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pt... a Sewage Sludge Section 503.13(a)(4)(ii) requires that the product of the concentration for...

  11. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A million gallon-a-day sewage treatment plant in Huntington Beach, CA converts solid sewage to activated carbon which then treats incoming waste water. The plant is scaled up 100 times from a mobile unit NASA installed a year ago; another 100-fold scale-up will be required if technique is employed for widespread urban sewage treatment. This unique sewage-plant employed a serendipitous outgrowth of a need to manufacture activated carbon for rocket engine insulation. The process already exceeds new Environmental Protection Agency Standards Capital costs by 25% compared with conventional secondary treatment plants.

  12. Continuing Professional Education Programs of Voluntary Health Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    Organizational objectives and professional continuing education programs of ten voluntary health agencies--Allergy Foundation of America, American Cancer Society, American Heart Association, Arthritis Foundation, National Association for Mental Health, National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, National Society for the Prevention of Blindness,…

  13. [Emissions of greenhouse gas and ammonia from sewage sludge composting by continuous aerated turning pile].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen-Yang; Wei, Yuan-Song; Ge, Zhen; Zhong, Jia; Cai, Xing; Zhang, Yuan-Li; Li, Hong-Mei

    2014-07-01

    There is a lack of observation data on greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia emissions from sewage sludge composting, though the emissions can result in environmental issue and nitrogen loss. In this study, GHG and ammonia emissions were monitored under different operating parameters during sludge composting with continuous aerated turning pile at full scale. Results illustrated that the reduction of amendment addition could result in low organic matter transformation (1.38% and 8.85% for the test group and the control group, respectively). Though low C/N ratio might slightly increase the ammonia emission (8.68% higher than the control group), it was helpful to reduce both GHG emission (1.70 g x kg(-1)) DC for the test group and 2.85 g x kg(-1) DC for the control group, respectively) and total nitrogen loss (16.1% and 21.8% for the test and control groups, respectively). Through applying an aertion strategy in which the airflow rate was lower in the beginning and higher in the end of sludge composting, a higher GHG emission and a lower ammonia emission were observed in the test group, e. g., 55.1% higher of GHG emission than the control, and 66.86 g x m(-2) and 72.04 g x m(-2) of ammonia emission in the test and the control, respectively. And a good conversation of total nitrogen thus occurred in the test as a result of such aeration strategy, with only 51.34% of TN loss as compared to the control.

  14. [Process Optimization of Aerobic Granular Sludge Continuous-Flow System for the Treatment of Low COD/N Ratio Sewage].

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Xin, Xin; Lu, Hang; Zhu, Liao-dong; Xie, Si-jian; Wu, Yong

    2015-10-01

    The mature aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was inoculated in a continuous-flow joint constructor reactor to treat low chemical oxygen demand/nitrogen (COD/N) ratio sewage. The effects of aeration intensity and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the denitrification and phosphorus removal efficiencies and the granular sludge stabilization were investigated. When the aeration intensity was 300 mL x min(-1) (superficial air upflow velocity of 1.2 cm x s(-1)) and the HRT was 7.5 h, the average removal efficiencies of COD, TN and TP were 76.34%, 51.23% and 53.70%, respectively. The mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) was only about 2 000 mg x L(-1), the sludge volume index ( SVI) was below 50 mL x g(-1), and the AGS exhibited complete forms and good settling performances. Additionally, the low COD/N ratios sewage could promote the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of AGS, and the PN proteins in EPS played a pivotal role in the maintenance of AGS stabilization. PMID:26841612

  15. 15 CFR 930.84 - Continuing State agency objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.84 Continuing State...

  16. 15 CFR 930.84 - Continuing State agency objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.84 Continuing State...

  17. 15 CFR 930.84 - Continuing State agency objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.84 Continuing State...

  18. 15 CFR 930.84 - Continuing State agency objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.84 Continuing State...

  19. 15 CFR 930.84 - Continuing State agency objections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.84 Continuing State...

  20. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... incineration unit? 60.4775 Section 60.4775 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? (a) A new SSI unit is a SSI unit that meets either of the...

  1. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... incineration unit? 60.4775 Section 60.4775 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? (a) A new SSI unit is a SSI unit that meets either of the...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... incineration unit? 60.4775 Section 60.4775 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? (a) A new SSI unit is a SSI unit that meets either of the...

  3. 40 CFR 60.4775 - What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... incineration unit? 60.4775 Section 60.4775 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of Authority § 60.4775 What is a new sewage sludge incineration unit? (a) A new SSI unit is a SSI unit that meets either of the...

  4. 78 FR 36560 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). This request for... concerning the following information collection: Title: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy...

  5. 75 FR 36106 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... Federal Register (75 FR 16493) on April 1, 2010, allowing for a 60-day comment period. One comment was... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This is a...

  6. 75 FR 16493 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Distribution of Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Procedures. This request for comment is being made... Continued Dumping and Subsidy Offset to Affected Domestic Producers (CDSOA). OMB Number: 1651-0086....

  7. Sewage Monitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Every U.S. municipality must determine how much waste water it is processing and more importantly, how much is going unprocessed into lakes and streams either because of leaks in the sewer system or because the city's sewage facilities were getting more sewer flow than they were designed to handle. ADS Environmental Services, Inc.'s development of the Quadrascan Flow Monitoring System met the need for an accurate method of data collection. The system consists of a series of monitoring sensors and microcomputers that continually measure water depth at particular sewer locations and report their findings to a central computer. This provides precise information to city managers on overall flow, flow in any section of the city, location and severity of leaks and warnings of potential overload. The core technology has been expanded upon in terms of both technical improvements, and functionality for new applications, including event alarming and control for critical collection system management problems.

  8. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  9. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  10. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  11. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  12. 33 CFR 159.307 - Untreated sewage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Untreated sewage. 159.307 Section 159.307 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Operations § 159.307 Untreated sewage. No person shall discharge any untreated sewage from a cruise...

  13. The Sense of Agency during Continuous Action: Performance Is More Important than Action-Feedback Association

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Wen; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    The sense of agency refers to the feeling that one is controlling events through one’s own behavior. This study examined how task performance and the delay of events influence one’s sense of agency during continuous action accompanied by a goal. The participants were instructed to direct a moving dot into a square as quickly as possible by pressing the left and right keys on a keyboard to control the direction in which the dot traveled. The interval between the key press and response of the dot (i.e., direction change) was manipulated to vary task difficulty. Moreover, in the assisted condition, the computer ignored participants’ erroneous commands, resulting in improved task performance but a weaker association between the participants’ commands and actual movements of the dot relative to the condition in which all of the participants’ commands were executed (i.e., self-control condition). The results showed that participants’ sense of agency increased with better performance in the assisted condition relative to the self-control condition, even though a large proportion of their commands were not executed. We concluded that, when the action-feedback association was uncertain, cognitive inference was more dominant relative to the process of comparing predicted and perceived information in the judgment of agency. PMID:25893992

  14. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  15. Influence of Continuous Flow Microwave Pre-Treatment on Anaerobic Digestion of Secondary Thickened Sludge for Sustainable Energy Recovery in Sewage Treatment Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hephzibah, D.; Kumaran, P.; Saifuddin, N. M.

    2016-03-01

    This work elucidates the effects of pre-treatment of secondary thickened sludge (STS) for enhancement of biogas production that has great potential to generate energy for the utilization of the sewage treatment plant (STP) itself. Microwave pre-treatment has been adopted for this study. Experiment works have been designed and conducted to examine the effectiveness of continuous flow microwave pre-treatment on the solubility of STS, digestibility of STS and biogas production at a power level of 80 W for 5, 10 and 15 minutes. A few characteristics of the sewage sludge were monitored daily to identify the effect of pre-treatment on the sludge. The soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD)/total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) ratio increased by 0.1, 1.0 and 1.8%, while the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of the pre-treated sludge improved by 4.4, 5.1, 5.9% at the irradiation time of 5, 10 and 15 minutes, respectively at a microwave power level of 80 W. Besides that, the digestate also indicates that the pre-treated sludge undergoes efficient VS removal and TCOD removal after anaerobic digestion compared to the untreated sludge. Moreover, the biogas quantity increased by an average of 19.2, 24.1 and 32.2% in 5, 10 and 15 minutes irradiation time respectively compared to the untreated sludge. The additional quantity of biogas generated has shown a great potential for sustainable energy generation that can be utilized internally by the STP.

  16. Sewage-sludge-derived carbonaceous materials for catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation of m-cresol in batch and continuous reactors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Wei, Huangzhao; Yu, Li; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Ying; Gu, Bin; Sun, Chenglin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, four sewage-sludge-derived carbonaceous materials (SWs) were evaluated for their catalytic wet hydrogen peroxide oxidation (CWPO) performance of m-cresol in batch reactor and continuous reactor, respectively. The SWs were produced by carbonization (SW); carbonization with the addition of CaO (CaO-SW); HNO3 pretreatment (HNO3-SW) and steam activation (Activated-SW). The properties of SW catalysts were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Fluorescence, Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and zeta potential. The results showed that SW treated by HNO3 (HNO3-SW) had a high conversion of m-cresol in batch reactor and continuous reactor, respectively. Under the conditions of batch reaction (Cm-cresol = 100 mg L(-1), CH2O2 = 15.7 mmol L(-1), initial pH=7.0, 0.5 g L(-1) catalyst, 80°C, 180 min adsorption and 210 min oxidation), the conversion of m-cresol reached 100% and total organic carbon removal was 67.1%. It had a high catalytic activity and stability on the treatment of m-cresol in CWPO for more than 1100 h. Furthermore, a possible reaction mechanism for the oxidation of m-cresol to 2-methyl-p-benzoquinone by CWPO was proposed.

  17. Management of sewage sludge and ash containing radioactive materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Bachmaier, J. T.; Aiello, K.; Bastian, R. K.; Cheng, J.-J.; Chiu, W. A.; Goodman, J.; Hogan, R.; Jones, A. R.; Kamboj, S.; Lenhart, T.; Ott, W. R.; Rubin, A. B.; Salomon, S. N.; Schmidt, D. W.; Setlow, L. W.; Yu, C.; Wolbarst, A. B.; Environmental Science Division; Middlesex County Utilities Authority; U.S. EPA; N.J. Dept of Environmental Protection; NRC

    2007-01-01

    Approximately 50% of the seven to eight million metric tonnes of municipal sewage sludge produced annually in the US is reused. Beneficial uses of sewage sludge include agricultural land application, land reclamation, forestry, and various commercial applications. Excessive levels of contaminants, however, can limit the potential usefulness of land-applied sewage sludge. A recently completed study by a federal inter-agency committee has identified radioactive contaminants that could interfere with the safe reuse of sewage sludge. The study found that typical levels of radioactive materials in most municipal sewage sludge and incinerator ash do not present a health hazard to sewage treatment plant workers or to the general public. The inter-agency committee has developed recommendations for operators of sewage treatment plants for evaluating measured or estimated levels of radioactive material in sewage sludge and for determining whether actions to reduce potential exposures are appropriate.

  18. The Organization and Continuing Education; A Study of Agency Factors Relating to Attendance and Support of Continuing Education in Public Health in California. A Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlaw, Raymond W.; And Others

    A survey of continuing education of health personnel in Southern and Northern California was made to determine if there were differences in attendance, expressed interests, attitudes of health agency directors, recognition of employee participation, presentation of courses, or in financial support. A random sample was drawn from each area…

  19. 76 FR 37809 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Continuous...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Reporting Regulations (CRRR) Under CERCLA 1980 (Renewal) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... CERCLA 1980 (Renewal). ICR numbers: EPA ICR No. 1445.11, OMB Control No. 2050-0086. ICR status: This ICR... consolidated in 40 CFR part 9. Abstract: Section 103(a) of CERCLA, as amended, requires the person in charge...

  20. Sewage Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Stennis Space Center's aquaculture research program has led to an attractive wastewater treatment for private homes. The system consists of a septic tank or tanks for initial sewage processing and a natural secondary treatment facility for further processing of septic tanks' effluent, consisting of a narrow trench, which contains marsh plants and rocks, providing a place for microorganisms. Plants and microorganisms absorb and digest, thus cleansing partially processed wastewater. No odors are evident and cleaned effluent may be discharged into streams or drainage canals. The system is useful in rural areas, costs about $1,900, and requires less maintenance than mechanical systems.

  1. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  2. U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) PROGRAM: MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) program evaluates the performance of innovative air, water, pollution prevention and monitoring technologies that have the potential to improve human health and the environment. This techn...

  3. Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and a lixiviation of sugar beet pulp: optimisation of the semi-continuous process.

    PubMed

    Montañés, Rocio; Pérez, Montserrat; Solera, Rosario

    2013-08-01

    This study examine the effect of an increased organic loading rate on the efficiency of the stirred tank reactor treating sewage sludge and sugar beet pellets and to report on its steady-state performance. The digester was subjected to a program of steady-state operation over a range of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 30 to 6 days and organic loading rates (OLRs) of up to 1.7 kgCOD/m(3)d to evaluate its treatment capacity. The COD removal efficiency was found to be 84.23% COD in the digester when treating mixture sewage sludge/lixiviation of sugar beet pulp at 1.27 kgCOD/m(3)d (10-days SRT). The volumetric methane level produced in the digester reached 0.7 m(3)CH4/m(3)d and the methane yield was 0.64m(3)CH4/kgCODremoval. Therefore, anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge and lixiviation of sugar beet pulp improve the biogas productivity and the organic matter removal in addition to lowering solids retention times in the system.

  4. The Teacher Training Agency, Continuing Professional Development Policy and the Definition of Competences for Serving Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jim

    1996-01-01

    Questions how England's Secretary of State for Education uses the Teacher Training Agency (TTA) to define and control inservice teacher competency requirements, suggesting that this leads to teacher deprofessionalization. Recommends identifying threats to professional autonomy and preventing the TTA from moving to the next phase of regulation. (SM)

  5. 78 FR 16490 - Placer County Water Agency; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Operation On February 23, 2011, the Placer County Water Agency, licensee for the Middle Fork American River... Commission's regulations thereunder. The Middle Fork American River Hydroelectric Project is located on the Middle Fork American River and the Rubicon River and located in Placer and El Dorado Counties,...

  6. Bolivian Teachers' Agency: Soldiers of Liberation or Guards of Coloniality and Continuation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the problems and promises of teachers' agency associated with Bolivia's current "decolonising" education reform. The Avelino Siñani Elizardo Pérez (ASEP) education reform is part of a counter-hegemonic and anti-neoliberal policy that aims to advance the political project of the government of Evo Morales,…

  7. Sewage treatment method and apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, J.A.

    1982-07-13

    A method and apparatus for treating sewage and converting the sewage into organic fertilizer which utilizes equipment for converting the solid material of the sewage into patties and a mixing apparatus for mixing the patties with bulking agents. The mixture of patties and bulking agents is stored in a pile and subjected to a supply of air to enhance the self-combustion or oxidation of the organic material in the patties. The bulking agents provide the patty-bulking agent mixture with air passages and pockets and minimize compaction of the patties. The selfcombustion of the patties continues until the organic material is burned out, leaving a residual ash. A shaker separator having an elongated longitudinal perforated member is reciprocated to separate the ash from the bulking agents. The ash is collected and utilized as organic fertilizer. The bulking agents are recycled back to the mixing apparatus.

  8. 78 FR 7387 - Continuation of Farm Service Agency 2008 Farm Bill Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ... Program (CRP), Upland Cotton and Extra Long Staple Cotton Programs, and Sugar Program. Generally, these... will be announced through the normal process of news releases. Sugar Program The Sugar Program... Sugar Program will continue to operate as specified in the 2008 Farm Bill and in the current...

  9. 41 CFR 102-85.200 - Can customer agencies continue occupancy of space or must they relocate at the end of an OA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... continue occupancy of space or must they relocate at the end of an OA? 102-85.200 Section 102-85.200 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Continued Occupancy, Relocation and Forced Moves § 102-85.200 Can customer agencies continue occupancy of space or must...

  10. 41 CFR 102-85.200 - Can customer agencies continue occupancy of space or must they relocate at the end of an OA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... continue occupancy of space or must they relocate at the end of an OA? 102-85.200 Section 102-85.200 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Continued Occupancy, Relocation and Forced Moves § 102-85.200 Can customer agencies continue occupancy of space or must...

  11. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TANKS AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT, BUILDING 304, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Plant & Tanks, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  12. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  13. Federal register, Volume 60, No. 234, Wednesday, December 6, 1995 proposed rules. Part 2. 40 CFR part 122, et al. National pollutant discharge elimination system permit application requirements for publicly owned treatment works and other treatment works treating domestic sewage; proposed rule

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-06

    The Environmental Protection Agency proposes to amend permit application requirements and application forms for publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) and other treatment works treating domestic sewage (TWTDS). TWTDS include facilities that generate sewage sludge, provide commercial treatment of sewage sludge, manufacture a product derived from sewage sludge, or provide disposal of sewage sludge.

  14. Optimized hydraulic retention time for phosphorus and COD removal from synthetic domestic sewage with granules in a continuous-flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Cao, Meizhong; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In continuous-flow reactor (CFR), suboptimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) can affect the substrate loading, anaerobic time and aerobic time and further affect the performance and characteristics of granules, thus different HRTs (7.5, 6.0, 4.5 and 5.2h) were tested to improve the phosphorus (P) and carbon (COD) removal of the continuous-flow system with granules in this study. When HRT was below 6.0h, the COD removal efficiency in anaerobic zone and the P removal efficiency in aerobic zone reduced obviously, and the settling ability of EBPR granules deteriorated. The residual COD in anaerobic zone resulted in the proliferation of filamentous bacteria on the granules surface. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in this system. The dominant class transformed from Betaproteobacteria to Gammaproteobacteria when HRT was reduced from 6.0h to 4.5h. PMID:27265087

  15. Optimized hydraulic retention time for phosphorus and COD removal from synthetic domestic sewage with granules in a continuous-flow reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Cao, Meizhong; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-09-01

    In continuous-flow reactor (CFR), suboptimal hydraulic retention time (HRT) can affect the substrate loading, anaerobic time and aerobic time and further affect the performance and characteristics of granules, thus different HRTs (7.5, 6.0, 4.5 and 5.2h) were tested to improve the phosphorus (P) and carbon (COD) removal of the continuous-flow system with granules in this study. When HRT was below 6.0h, the COD removal efficiency in anaerobic zone and the P removal efficiency in aerobic zone reduced obviously, and the settling ability of EBPR granules deteriorated. The residual COD in anaerobic zone resulted in the proliferation of filamentous bacteria on the granules surface. Pyrosequencing analysis revealed that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in this system. The dominant class transformed from Betaproteobacteria to Gammaproteobacteria when HRT was reduced from 6.0h to 4.5h.

  16. Marine sewage disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, D.W.

    1981-03-03

    An activated sludge marine sewage disposal apparatus is described that includes an aeration chamber immediately adjacent to a flooded settling tank, rising above a disinfectant chamber and a holding chamber disposed around the lower part of the tank. Flow from the aeration chamber to the settling tank is through a port in the common wall between the aeration chamber and settling tank, and up inside a pond separated from the rest of the tank by a downwardly flaring baffle of skirt depending from the top of the tank. A single shimmer at the center of the area at the top of the pond picks up floating solids and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber. A vent disposed directly over the shimmer continuously draws off air and gas to the aeration chamber. A sludge return line picks up heavy solids for the bottom of the tank and returns them to the top of the aeration chamber through a riser located in the aeration chamber. Liquid in the settling tank flows out through a submerged perforated pipe into a standpipe in the aeration chamber, with is located centrally in the aeration chamber, and overflows through an inverted U tube, vented to the aeration chamber, the tube connecting to a downcomer sending the liquid back through the common wall to the disinfectant compartment. When sufficient volume of fluid accumulates in the disinfectant compartment, it overflows into a holding tank, from which it emerges via a port.

  17. Lockport Sewage Lagoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John

    1995-01-01

    Describes a student initiated stewardship project that resulted in the transformation of a sewage lagoon near the school into a place to study nature. Contains a list of 20 things that discourage a successful stewardship project. (LZ)

  18. 41 CFR 102-85.200 - Can customer agencies continue occupancy of space or must they relocate at the end of an OA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Continued Occupancy... underlying lease and will specify whether or not renewal options are available. If the OA does not include a renewal option, customer agencies should assume relocation would be necessary upon OA expiration,...

  19. 41 CFR 102-85.200 - Can customer agencies continue occupancy of space or must they relocate at the end of an OA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Continued Occupancy... underlying lease and will specify whether or not renewal options are available. If the OA does not include a renewal option, customer agencies should assume relocation would be necessary upon OA expiration,...

  20. 41 CFR 102-85.200 - Can customer agencies continue occupancy of space or must they relocate at the end of an OA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 85-PRICING POLICY FOR OCCUPANCY IN GSA SPACE Continued Occupancy... underlying lease and will specify whether or not renewal options are available. If the OA does not include a renewal option, customer agencies should assume relocation would be necessary upon OA expiration,...

  1. Comparative performance of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion for high-solid sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Wang, Feng; Togari, Taketo; Uchida, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Yutaka

    2013-12-01

    In local cities, many small sewage and waste treatment facilities are operated independently. To encourage processing by anaerobic digestion at a centralized sewage treatment plant (STP), high-solid sewage sludge is helpful because it reduces the energy and cost required for transporting the sludge from other STPs. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge at total solids concentrations (TS) of 7.5% and 10% were evaluated using laboratory-scale continuous reactors. Under the mesophilic condition, sewage sludge of 10% TS was successfully treated. Under the thermophilic condition, sewage sludge of 7.5% TS was not successfully treated when the total ammonia concentration was over 2000 mg N/L. Batch experiments showed that it takes a few weeks for the methane fermentation activity to recover after being inhibited. The effectiveness of adding easily biodegradable organic matter was confirmed. These results show that high-solid sewage sludge is suitable for small facilities by controlling the operating conditions.

  2. Basic Sewage Treatment Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto.

    This manual was developed for use at workshops designed to introduce operators to the fundamentals of sewage plant operation. The course consists of lecture-discussions and hands-on activities. Each of the lessons has clearly stated behavioral objectives to tell the trainee what he should know or do after completing that topic. Areas covered in…

  3. Plumbing and Sewage Disposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine enlisted personnel with the principles of plumbing and sewage disposal used by Marine Hygiene Equipment Operators to perform their mission. The course contains three study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the…

  4. Capacity building in Developing Countries: a challenge ahead for the European Space Agency to continue its successful experience to date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fea, M.

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has built a long tradition and a large experience in the domain of education, training and capacity building throughout its space programmes. As an example, the ESA Science Programme dedicates 1% of its budget to these activities. One of the key reasons for it is the need of closing the loop along the chain from the provider to the user, that is to say between the space and the users elements. In fact, besides the obvious need for technology development, there is actually not very much justification in the long term for a space programme if the user communities are not able to make good use of programme outputs and provide feedback and proper requirements to space agencies. The case of ESA Earth Observation programmes is described to illustrate these considerations, as a way to also implement the European Space Policy and UNISPACE III recommendations. Since its foundation in 1975 and the implementation of its EO programme with the launch of Meteosat-1 in 1977 and the birth of the Earthnet Programme Office in 1978, the European Space Agency is very active in the field of capacity building in developing countries. That is performed through both ESA's specific projects and international co-operation activities. In the latter domain, ESA enjoys a long-standing collaboration with many entities, such as the Committee of Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), and organisations, such as WMO, UN and its specialised agencies (FAO, UNESCO, UNEP, and so on). In that respect, the Agency is an active member of the CEOS Working Group on Education (WGEdu) and of the World Summit for Sustainable Development Follow-Up (WSSD) Module 1 group dedicated to education, training and capacity building. The overall ESA strategy targets various citizen communities and takes into account the fact that today's young generations will become tomorrow's professionals and decision makers. ESA's activities in this domain are in particular based on an end-to-end concept

  5. 41 CFR 102-85.205 - What happens if a customer agency continues occupancy after the expiration of an OA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... assignments. However, provisions are necessary to cover the GSA and customer relationship if an OA expires... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if a... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued)...

  6. Hydrogen utilization by clostridia in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Ohwaki, K; Hungate, R E

    1977-06-01

    A sporeformer morphologically different but physiologically similar to Clostridium aceticum Wieringa was isolated from sewage sludge. It used large amounts of H2 and CO2, converting them chiefly to acetic acid. Growth occurs anaerobically on yeast extract alone, but after the nutrients in yeast extract are used, growth continues at a reduced rate, supported by the conversion of the gases to acetate. PMID:879782

  7. Sewage sludge treatment system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, John J. (Inventor); Mueller, William A. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    Raw sewage may be presently treated by mixing screened raw sewage with activated carbon. The mixture is then allowed to stand in a first tank for a period required to settle the suspended matter to the bottom of the tank as a sludge. Thereafter, the remaining liquid is again mixed with activated carbon and the mixture is transferred to a secondary settling tank, where it is permitted to stand for a period required for the remaining floating material to settle as sludge and for adsorption of sewage carbon as well as other impurities to take place. The sludge from the bottom of both tanks is removed and pyrolyzed to form activated carbon and ash, which is mixed with the incoming raw sewage and also mixed with the liquid being transferred from the primary to the secondary settling tank. It has been found that the output obtained by the pyrolysis process contains an excess amount of ash. Removal of this excess amount of ash usually also results in removing an excess amount of carbon thereby requiring adding carbon to maintain the treatment process. By separately pyrolyzing the respective sludges from the first and second settling tanks, and returning the separately obtained pyrolyzed material to the respective first and second tanks from which they came, it has been found that the adverse effects of the excessive ash buildup is minimized, the carbon yield is increased, and the sludge from the secondary tank can be pyrolyzed into activated carbon to be used as indicated many more times than was done before exhaustion occurs.

  8. Sewage treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Fassbender, Alex G.

    1995-01-01

    The invention greatly reduces the amount of ammonia in sewage plant effluent. The process of the invention has three main steps. The first step is dewatering without first digesting, thereby producing a first ammonia-containing stream having a low concentration of ammonia, and a second solids-containing stream. The second step is sending the second solids-containing stream through a means for separating the solids from the liquid and producing an aqueous stream containing a high concentration of ammonia. The third step is removal of ammonia from the aqueous stream using a hydrothermal process.

  9. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. 1780... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE LOANS AND GRANTS Planning, Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk...

  10. Apparatus for the treatment of sewage

    SciTech Connect

    Kinzer, J.

    1980-12-09

    An apparatus is described for treating sewage to obtain substantially complete organic matter substrate and biological sludge oxidation prior to effluent discharge in a treatment system comprising a series of treatment chambers in a single unit; each treatment chamber has a generally circular peripheral crosssectional configuration, conduit means in each treatment chamber for directing the flow of mixed liquor in each chamber, and gas supply means for supplying an oxygen containing gas to each treatment chamber so as to cause a continuous flow pattern of mixed liquor in the treatment chamber. Inlet means are provided for supplying raw sewage to the first treatment chamber of the series. Outlet means are provided for withdrawing clarified effluent from the last treatment chamber of the series. Fluid communication means are described for providing fluid communication between an intermediate top portion of each successive treatment chamber of the series. The system is preferably designed to provide environments suitable for microorganism growth and development through sewage organic matter consumption in the first treatment of the series, microorganism population maintenance in the next successive treatment chamber of the series and microorganism autodigestion in latter treatment chambers of the series, thereby providing an effluent substantially free of digestable organic matter and biological sludge.

  11. 7 CFR 1940.325 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a cooperating Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... participate in an EIS covering its sewage treatment plans for a community, as well as the community's water... its successor agency under Public Law 103-354's role as the cooperating agency. The State...

  12. 7 CFR 1940.325 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a cooperating Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... participate in an EIS covering its sewage treatment plans for a community, as well as the community's water... its successor agency under Public Law 103-354's role as the cooperating agency. The State...

  13. 7 CFR 1940.325 - FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 as a cooperating Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... participate in an EIS covering its sewage treatment plans for a community, as well as the community's water... its successor agency under Public Law 103-354's role as the cooperating agency. The State...

  14. The dissipation of phosphorus in sewage and sewage effluents.

    PubMed

    Collingwood, R W

    Of the 41 kt of phosphorus reaching the sewage works in England and Wales 15 kt is removed in sewage sludge and the remainder is disposed of to rivers. 60% of the sewage sludge is now used as fertilizer and this proportion will no doubt increase in the future. The total use of sewage sludge, however, represents only about 5% of the current annual usage of artificial phosphorus fertilizer. At present there is no general economic incentive to make better use of the phosphorus in effluents. Phosphorus removal is expensive--about 2--3 pence/m3. If all the sewage effluents in England and Wales were to be so treated the cost would be about 100--150 million pounds annually, that is about 50% of the present costs of sewage treatment. In certain cases, but rarely in the UK, phosphate is removed, not to conserve phosphorus but to minimize the problems it creates in the environment. The phosphorus removed has little value as fertilizer. Alternative methods of using the phosphorus in effluents by the production and harvesting of crops of algae or aquatic plants have so far proved uneconomic. However, these methods need to be reviewed periodically as they may in the future become economically more attractive, especially in warmer climates where plant growth can be maintained throughout the year. PMID:357121

  15. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50...

  16. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50...

  17. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50...

  18. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50...

  19. 21 CFR 211.50 - Sewage and refuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sewage and refuse. 211.50 Section 211.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Buildings and Facilities § 211.50...

  20. Co-digestion of pig slaughterhouse waste with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kubacki, Przemysław

    2015-06-01

    Slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) are potentially very attractive substrates for biogas production. However, mono-digestion of these wastes creates great technological problems associated with the inhibitory effects of ammonia and fatty acids on methanogens as well as with the foaming in the digesters. In the following study, the co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes with sewage sludge (SS) was undertaken. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were performed at 35°C with municipal sewage sludge and pig SHW composed of meat tissue, intestines, bristles and post-flotation sludge. In batch assays, meat tissue and intestinal wastes gave the highest methane productions of 976 and 826 dm(3)/kg VS, respectively, whereas the methane yield from the sludge was only 370 dm(3)/kg VS. The co-digestion of sewage sludge with 50% SHW (weight basis) provided the methane yield exceeding 600 dm(3)/kg VS, which was more than twice as high as the methane production from sewage sludge alone. However, when the loading rate exceeded 4 kg VS/m(3) d, a slight inhibition of methanogenesis was observed, without affecting the digester stability. The experiments showed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge with large amount of slaughterhouse wastes is feasible, and the enhanced methane production does not affect the digester stability.

  1. Co-digestion of pig slaughterhouse waste with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Sebastian; Kubacki, Przemysław

    2015-06-01

    Slaughterhouse wastes (SHW) are potentially very attractive substrates for biogas production. However, mono-digestion of these wastes creates great technological problems associated with the inhibitory effects of ammonia and fatty acids on methanogens as well as with the foaming in the digesters. In the following study, the co-digestion of slaughterhouse wastes with sewage sludge (SS) was undertaken. Batch and semi-continuous experiments were performed at 35°C with municipal sewage sludge and pig SHW composed of meat tissue, intestines, bristles and post-flotation sludge. In batch assays, meat tissue and intestinal wastes gave the highest methane productions of 976 and 826 dm(3)/kg VS, respectively, whereas the methane yield from the sludge was only 370 dm(3)/kg VS. The co-digestion of sewage sludge with 50% SHW (weight basis) provided the methane yield exceeding 600 dm(3)/kg VS, which was more than twice as high as the methane production from sewage sludge alone. However, when the loading rate exceeded 4 kg VS/m(3) d, a slight inhibition of methanogenesis was observed, without affecting the digester stability. The experiments showed that the co-digestion of sewage sludge with large amount of slaughterhouse wastes is feasible, and the enhanced methane production does not affect the digester stability. PMID:25840737

  2. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  3. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  4. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  5. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The device must be designed for efficient removal of nearly all of the liquid and solids in the sewage...

  6. Laboratory measurements of radiance and reflectance spectra of dilute secondary-treated sewage sludge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, W. G.; Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.; Gurganus, E. A.

    1977-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), in cooperation with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), conducted a research program to evaluate the feasibility of remotely monitoring ocean dumping of waste products such as acid and sewage sludge. One aspect of the research program involved the measurements of upwelled spectral signatures for sewage-sludge mixtures of different concentrations in an 11600-liter tank. This paper describes the laboratory arrangement and presents radiance and reflectance spectra in the visible and near-infrared ranges for concentrations ranging from 9.7 to 180 ppm of secondary-treated sewage sludge mixed with two types of base water. Results indicate that upwelled radiance varies in a near-linear manner with concentration and that the sludge has a practically flat signal response between 420 and 970 nm. Reflectance spectra were obtained for the sewage-sludge mixtures at all wavelengths and concentrations.

  7. 28 CFR 83.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 83.645 Section 83.645 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.645 Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or...

  8. Microwave oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Lo, Kwang V; Srinivasan, Asha; Liao, Ping H; Bailey, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Microwave-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge using various oxidants was studied. Two treatment schemes with a combination of hydrogen peroxide and ozone were examined: hydrogen peroxide and ozone were introduced into the sludge simultaneously, followed by microwave heating. The other involved the ozonation first, and then the resulting solution was subjected to microwave and hydrogen peroxide treatment. The set with ozonation followed by hydrogen peroxide plus microwave heating yielded higher soluble materials than those of the set with hydrogen peroxide plus ozone first and then microwave treatment. No settling was observed for all treatments in the batch operation, except ozone/microwave plus hydrogen peroxide set at 120°C. The pilot-scale continuous-flow 915 MHz microwave study has demonstrated that microwave-oxidation process is feasible for real-time industrial application. It would help in providing key data for the design of a full-scale system for treating sewage sludge and the formulation of operational protocols.

  9. State Waste Discharge Permit application, 100-N Sewage Lagoon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order negotiations (Ecology et al. 1994), the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that liquid effluent discharges to the ground on the Hanford Site which affect groundwater or have the potential to affect groundwater would be subject to permitting under the structure of Chapter 173--216 (or 173--218 where applicable) of the Washington Administrative Code, the State Waste Discharge Permit Program. As a result of this decision, the Washington State Department of Ecology and the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office entered into Consent Order No. DE 91NM-177, (Ecology and DOE-RL 1991). This document constitutes the State Waste Discharge Permit application for the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Since the influent to the sewer lagoon is domestic waste water, the State Waste Discharge Permit application for Public Owned Treatment Works Discharges to Land was used. Although the 100-N Sewage Lagoon is not a Public Owned Treatment Works, the Public Owned Treatment Works application is more applicable than the application for industrial waste water. The 100-N Sewage Lagoon serves the 100-N Area and other Hanford Site areas by receiving domestic waste from two sources. A network of sanitary sewer piping and lift stations transfers domestic waste water from the 100-N Area buildings directly to the 100-N Sewage Lagoon. Waste is also received by trucks that transport domestic waste pumped from on site septic tanks and holding tanks. Three ponds comprise the 100-N Sewage Lagoon treatment system. These include a lined aeration pond and stabilization pond, as well as an unlined infiltration pond. Both piped-in and trucked-in domestic waste is discharged directly into the aeration pond.

  10. 20 CFR 411.582 - Can a State VR agency receive payment under the cost reimbursement payment system if a continuous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment...? Yes. If a State VR agency provides services to a beneficiary under 34 CFR part 361, and elects...

  11. 20 CFR 411.582 - Can a State VR agency receive payment under the cost reimbursement payment system if a continuous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Employment Network Payment...? Yes. If a State VR agency provides services to a beneficiary under 34 CFR part 361, and elects...

  12. 20 CFR 411.375 - Does a State VR agency continue to provide services under the requirements of the State plan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM State Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies' Participation Participation in the Ticket to Work Program § 411.375 Does a State...

  13. 20 CFR 411.375 - Does a State VR agency continue to provide services under the requirements of the State plan...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM State Vocational Rehabilitation Agencies' Participation Participation in the Ticket to Work Program § 411.375 Does a State...

  14. Sewage exfiltration as a source of storm drain contamination during dry weather in urban watersheds.

    PubMed

    Sercu, Bram; Van De Werfhorst, Laurie C; Murray, Jill L S; Holden, Patricia A

    2011-09-01

    Separating storm drains and sanitary sewers is expected to control sewage pollution, for example, from combined sewer overflows, and to reduce excessive stormwater flow to wastewater treatment plants. However, sewage contamination has been found in such separated storm drain systems in urban areas during dry-weather flow. To determine whether transmission of sewage is occurring from leaking sanitary sewers directly to leaking separated storm drains, field experiments were performed in three watersheds in Santa Barbara, CA. Areas with high and low risks for sewage exfiltration into storm drains were identified, and rhodamine WT (RWT) dye pulses were added to the sanitary sewers. RWT was monitored in nearby storm drain manholes using optical probes set up for unattended continuous monitoring. Above-background RWT peaks were detected in storm drains in high-risk areas, and multiple locations of sewage contamination were found. Sewage contamination during the field studies was confirmed using the human-specific Bacteroidales HF183 and Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH DNA markers. This study is the first to provide direct evidence that leaking sanitary sewers can directly contaminate nearby leaking storm drains with untreated sewage during dry weather and suggests that chronic sanitary sewer leakage contributes to downstream fecal contamination of coastal beaches.

  15. Microbial quantities and enzyme activity in soil irrigated with sewage for different lengths of time.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoming; Ma, Teng; Chen, Liuzhu; Cui, Yahui; Du, Peng; Liao, Yuan

    2014-12-01

    Sewage is widely used on agricultural soils in peri-urban areas of developing countries to meet shortages of water resource. Although sewage is a good source of plant nutrients, it also increases the heavy metals loads to soils. Microbial responses to these contaminants may serve as early warning indicators of adverse effects of sewage irrigation on soil quality. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of time of sewage irrigation on soil microbial indicators. Soil samples were collected from seven soil sites (S1-S7) irrigated with 0 years, 16 years, 23 years, 25 years, 27 years, 32 years and 52 years, respectively in Shijiazhuang of China and analyzed. For each soil sample, we determined the quantities of bacteria, fungi and actinomycete, and enzyme activities of urease, sucrase, phosphatase, dehydrogenase and catalase. Our results showed that the soils of S2-S7 irrigated with sewage effluents for different times (ranged between 16 and 52 years) exhibited higher densities of bacteria, actinomycete, urease, sucrase and phosphatase but lower densities of fungi when compared with S1 irrigated with sewage effluents for 0 years. The soil S7 irrigated with sewage effluents for longest times (52 years) contained lowest activities of catalase when compared with the soils of S1-S6. The densities of bacteria (R = 0.877, p < 0.01), actinomycete (R = 0.875, p < 0.01), sucrase (R = 0.858, p < 0.01) and phosphatase (R = 0.804, p < 0.05) were significantly correlated in a positive manner with time of sewage irrigation. Soil fungi quantities and urease, dehydrogenase and catalase activities did not change significantly with irrigation time. This study confirms that sewage irrigation had negative effects on microbial properties including fungi, catalase and dehydrogenase in the long term, so there is a need for continuous monitoring for sustainable soil health. PMID:25190356

  16. Guidance for writing permits for the use or disposal of sewage sludge. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    Section 405(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) directs the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop regulations containing guidelines for the use and disposal of sewage sludge. On February 19th, 1993, EPA published final regulations at 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 503 as the culmination of a major effort to develop technical standards in response to Section 405(d). These regulations govern three sewage sludge use and disposal practices: land application, surface disposal, and incineration. A key element in EPA's implementation of the Part 503 regulations is educating Agency and State personnel about these new requirements. Although the regulations are generally directly enforceable against all persons involved in the use and disposal of sewage sludge, they will also be implemented through permits issued to treatment works treating domestic sewage as defined in 40 CFR 122.22. Thus, the primary focus of the manual is to assist permit writers in incorporating the Part 503 requirements into permits; it serves as an update to the Guidance for Writing Case-by-Case Permit Conditions for Municipal Sewage Sludge (PB91-145508/HDM).

  17. Integrated drying and incineration of wet sewage sludge in combined bubbling and circulating fluidized bed units.

    PubMed

    Li, Shiyuan; Li, Yunyu; Lu, Qinggang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yao, Yao; Bao, Shaolin

    2014-12-01

    An original integrated drying and incineration technique is proposed to dispose of sewage sludge with moisture content of about 80% in a circulating fluidized bed. This system combines a bubbling fluidized bed dryer with a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. After drying, sewage sludge with moisture less than 20% is transported directly and continuously from the fluidized bed dryer into a circulating fluidized bed incinerator. Pilot plant results showed that integrated drying and incineration is feasible in a unique single system. A 100 t/d Sewage Sludge Incineration Demonstration Project was constructed at the Qige sewage treatment plant in Hangzhou City in China. The operational performance showed that the main operation results conformed to the design values, from which it can be concluded that the scale-up of this technique is deemed both feasible and successful.

  18. Cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of sewage sludge on Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Corrêa Martins, Maria Nilza; de Souza, Victor Ventura; da Silva Souza, Tatiana

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the cytotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic potential of sewage sludge using Allium cepa bioassay. Solubilized and crude sludge from two sewage treatment stations (STSs), herein named JM and M, were tested. In addition, sanitized, crude and solubilized sludge were also analyzed from STS M. The treatments showed positive response to phytotoxicity, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and/or mutagenicity. Despite negative results for MN F1 (micronuclei counted in F1 root cells, derived from meristematic cells), the monitoring of genotoxic and mutagenic activities of sewage sludge are recommended because in agricultural areas this residue is applied in large scale and continuously. Based on our results we advise caution in the use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils. PMID:26841290

  19. 1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT (BLDG. 769) SOUTH OF STORAGE SHED (BLDG 773). SECURITY FENCE EAST OF SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Sewage Treatment Plant, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. Composition and method for the treatment of sewage

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.

    1981-01-20

    Sewage treatment composition formed by combination of triancontanol with an organic soil improvement agent derived by digestion of milch cow excrement and method of treating sewage are described to reduce sludge by addition of the composition to the sewage.

  1. Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    MedlinePlus

    Biological Hazards in Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plants Hazard Alert During construction and maintenance of sewage and ... Careful work habits can help protect you. Some Biological Hazards That May Be in Sewage Or Wastewater ...

  2. Sewers, sewage treatment, sludge: damage without end.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, Abby A

    2002-01-01

    It is in the nature of sewering and sewage treatment to compound environmental problems in the process of moving sewage and in attempting to remove from sewage the pollutants it carries. Spreading sewage sludge on land is but the latest in the compounding of environmental damage from sewerage. This practice must be banned and there must be a federal reorientation of all technology dealing with human excreta and the waste materials from industry and society that now are carried away by sewers. The reorientation must center on biologically based on-site pollution prevention and resource recycling technologies mandated through a revised Clean Water Act. PMID:17208779

  3. Sewers, sewage treatment, sludge: damage without end.

    PubMed

    Rockefeller, Abby A

    2002-01-01

    It is in the nature of sewering and sewage treatment to compound environmental problems in the process of moving sewage and in attempting to remove from sewage the pollutants it carries. Spreading sewage sludge on land is but the latest in the compounding of environmental damage from sewerage. This practice must be banned and there must be a federal reorientation of all technology dealing with human excreta and the waste materials from industry and society that now are carried away by sewers. The reorientation must center on biologically based on-site pollution prevention and resource recycling technologies mandated through a revised Clean Water Act.

  4. Assistance to Oil and Gas State Agencies and Industry through Continuation of Environmental and Production Data Management and a Water Regulatory Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Grunewald, Ben; Arthur, Dan; Langhus, Bruce; Gillespie, Tom; Binder, Ben; Warner, Don; Roberts, Jim; Cox, D.O.

    2002-05-31

    This grant project was a major step toward completion of the Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) project. Additionally the project addresses the needs identified during the projects initial phases. By implementing this project, the following outcomes were sought: (1) State regulatory agencies implemented more formalized environmental risk management practices as they pertain to the production of oil and gas, and injection via Class II wells. (2) Enhancement of oil and gas production by implementing a management system supporting the saving of abandoned or idle wells located in areas with a relatively low environmental risk of endangering underground sources of drinking water (USDWs) in a particular state. (3) Verification that protection of USDWs is adequate and additional restrictions of requirements are not necessary in areas with a relatively low environmental risk. (4) Standardization of data and information maintained by state regulatory agencies and decrease the regulatory cost burden on producers operating in multiple states, and (5) Development of a system for electronic data transfer among operators and state regulatory agencies and reduction of overall operator reporting burdens.

  5. 10 CFR 607.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 607.645 Section 607.645 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 607.645 Federal agency or agency. Department of Energy means the...

  6. 49 CFR Attachment 3 - Offices Within Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies for Information Regarding the Agencies...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Attachment 3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC.... Attachment 3—Offices Within Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies for Information Regarding...

  7. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  8. BY-PRODUCTS FROM SEWAGE SLUDGE

    PubMed Central

    Weston, Robert Spurr

    1920-01-01

    Economy and conservation have worked for years at the problem of profit from sewage. Mr. Weston notes that many American cities have potential by-products enough to make recovery worth trying. English cities have found the American Miles process profitable. It will at least lessen the cost of sewage disposal. PMID:18010306

  9. Sewage Disposal in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayotamuno, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    This survey of the Port Harcourt, Nigeria, sewage disposal system exemplifies sewage disposal in the developing world. Results reveal that some well-constructed and maintained drains, as well as many open drains and septic tanks, expose women and children to the possibility of direct contact with parasitic organisms and threaten water resources.…

  10. My Town, My Creek, My Sewage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodburn, John H.

    1972-01-01

    After summarizing the ecology of polluted streams as well as the technology and biology of sewage treatment methods, and considering the economic and social aspects of introducing advanced sewage treatment, comments on the role of biology teachers in providing public information are made. (AL)

  11. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  12. Evaluation of sludge characteristics and metals emissions from municipal sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.S.; Conklin, J.A.; Munn, B.G.

    1996-12-31

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has promulgated regulations affecting the disposal of municipal sewage sludge under Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 503. The paper addresses emissions requirements for sewage sludge incineration under 40 CFR Part 503, Subpart E. The paper focuses on factors that may influence sewage sludge characteristics, sewage sludge metals feed rates, and the corresponding metals emission rates. Emissions test programs were conducted at three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), City of Auburn WWTP. City of Glens Falls WWTP, and Saratoga County Sewer District No. 1 WWTP, to determine mass emissions of multiple metals (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn). The influent incinerator sludge was sampled in conjunction with each test program to determine the sludge metals content. The sewage sludge was analyzed in accordance with USEPA Method SW846. Multiple metals emissions were determined in accordance with USEPA 40 CFR 60, Appendix A, Method 29 sampling and analytical procedures. The results from these test programs were analyzed to identify the factors that influence the metals emission rates. The resulting metals removal efficiencies from each of the three pollution control systems are quantified. Unique analytical issues encountered during these test programs are also addressed. 7 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Effect of untreated sewage effluent irrigation on heavy metal content, microbial population and enzymatic activities of soils in Aligarh.

    PubMed

    Bansal, O P; Singh, Gajraj; Katiyar, Pragati

    2014-07-01

    The study pertains to the impact of domestic and industrial sewage water irrigation on the chemical, biological and enzymatic activities in alluvial soils of Aligarh District. Results showed that soil enzymatic [dehydogenase (DHA), acid and alkaline phosphatase, urease and catalase] activities in the soils increased up to 14 days of incubation and thereafter inhibited significantly. The enzymatic activity were in the order sewage effluent > partial sewage effluent > ground water irrigated soils. Increase in soil enzymatic activities up to 2nd week of incubation was due to decomposition of organic matter. Maximum inhibition of enzymatic activities, after 14 days of incubation were found in sewage effluent irrigated soils and minimum in ground water irrigated soils. Similar trend was also seen for microbial population. Soil enzymatic activities and microbial population were significantly and positively correlated with soil organic matter. Results also indicated that the microbial population and enzymatic activities in sewage irrigated soils decreased continually with irrigation period. The average concentration of total heavy metals in sewage irrigated soils and partial sewage irrigated soils increased and was 3 and 2 times higher for Zn; 4.5 and 1.7 times higher for Cu; 3.8 and 2.4 times higher for Cr; 5.7 and 3.5 times higher for Pb; 3.5 and 2.2 times higher for Cd and 2.7 and 2.0 times higher for Ni respectively than that of ground water irrigated soils. Results also showed that though total heavy metals concentration increased with period of sewage irrigation but the concentration of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable heavy metals in partial sewage irrigated and sewage irrigated soils remained almost same, which might be due to deposition of heavy metals in crops grown on the soils.

  14. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145 +/- 5 mW/m2, 470 omega) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190 +/- 5 mW/m2. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency was 78.1 +/- 0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration, while dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The maximum power density was saturated at sludge concentration of 17 g-TCOD/L, where 290 mw/m2 was achieved. When effluents from an anaerobic digester that was fed with raw sludge were used as substrate in the SMFC, a maximum power density of 318 mW/m2, and a final TCOD removal of 71.9 +/- 0.2% were achieved. These results have practical implications for development of an effective system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy.

  15. Submersible microbial fuel cell for electricity production from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yifeng; Olias, Lola Gonzalez; Kongjan, Prawit; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    A submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC) was utilized to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously generate electricity. Stable power generation (145 +/- 5 mW/m2, 470 omega) was produced continuously from raw sewage sludge for 5.5 days. The maximum power density reached 190 +/- 5 mW/m2. The corresponding total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency was 78.1 +/- 0.2% with initial TCOD of 49.7 g/L. The power generation of SMFC was depended on the sludge concentration, while dilution of the raw sludge resulted in higher power density. The maximum power density was saturated at sludge concentration of 17 g-TCOD/L, where 290 mw/m2 was achieved. When effluents from an anaerobic digester that was fed with raw sludge were used as substrate in the SMFC, a maximum power density of 318 mW/m2, and a final TCOD removal of 71.9 +/- 0.2% were achieved. These results have practical implications for development of an effective system to treat sewage sludge and simultaneously recover energy. PMID:22053457

  16. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  17. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  18. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  19. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... existing or planned capacity to adequately treat such collected sewage. Replacement or major rehabilitation... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage collection system. 35.925-13... Sewage collection system. That, if the project involves sewage collection system work, such work (a)...

  20. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  1. 33 CFR 159.121 - Sewage processing test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with this section. There must be no sewage or sewage-treating chemicals remaining on surfaces or in... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage processing test. 159.121...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.121 Sewage processing test....

  2. 40 CFR 35.925-13 - Sewage collection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... existing or planned capacity to adequately treat such collected sewage. Replacement or major rehabilitation... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage collection system. 35.925-13... Sewage collection system. That, if the project involves sewage collection system work, such work (a)...

  3. Sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation: Financial viability case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinwood, Jean F.; Kotler, Jiri

    This paper examines the financial viability of sewage sludge pasteurization by gamma radiation, by examining the following three North American scenarios: 1) Small volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs. 2) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing low sludge disposal costs. 3) Large volume sewage treatment plant experiencing high sludge disposal costs.

  4. Microalgae cultured by sewage and organic constituents.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kenichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-10-01

    The microalgae could be multiplied by supplying only sewage influent or effluent without any additional microalgal stock or nutrient salt. In a semicontinuous culture, the N:P weight ratios consumed were 14:1 and 18:1 for the sewage influent and effluent, respectively. The total cell number and green algae ratio of microalgae cultivated by semicontinuous culture exceeded those of batch culture. No cyanobacterial cells were observed in the semicontinuous culture using the sewage effluent. The organic components in the cultured microalgae using sewage effluent, eluted by n-hexane, were determined. The ratio of unsaturated fatty acid exceeded that of saturated fatty acid, which was possibly attributable to the fluidity of the cell membrane. The squalene was also obtained by the culture using sewage alone, free of any external stock or nutrient salt. The higher heating value of the microalgae of semicontinuous culture using the sewage influent was 25 MJ kg(-1), corresponding to the heating value of lignite and showing the potential of the sewage culture microalgae as a means of power generation and combustion aid.

  5. Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Yoshizo; Nojima, Tomoyuki; Kakuta, Akihiko; Moritomi, Hiroshi

    A conceptual design of an energy recovering system from sewage sludge was proposed. This system consists of a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, a gas turbine, and a heat exchanger for preheating of combustion air. Thermal efficiency was estimated roughly as 10-25%. In order to know the combustion characteristics of the sewage sludge under the elevated pressure condition, combustion tests of the dry and wet sewage sludge were carried out by using laboratory scale pressurized fluidized bed combustors. Combustibility of the sewage sludge was good enough and almost complete combustion was achieved in the combustion of the actual wet sludge. CO emission and NOx emission were marvelously low especially during the combustion of wet sewage sludge regardless of high volatile and nitrogen content of the sewage sludge. However, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very high. Hence, almost all nitrogen oxides were emitted as the form of N2O. From these combustion tests, we judged combustion of the sewage sludge with the pressurized fluidized bed combustor is suitable, and the conceptual design of the power generation system is available.

  6. Microwave Supported Treatment of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janíček, František; Perný, Milan; Šály, Vladimír; Giemza, Markus; Hofmann, Peter

    2016-07-01

    This work is focused on microwave treatment of sewage sludge. The aim of our experiments was to investigate the impact of microwave radiation upon different sewage sludge parameters such as concentration of nitrates and nitrites, phosphates, COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), SVI (Sludge Volume Index) and the microscopic structure of sludge. The experiments with microwave irradiation of sewage sludge indicate that moderate microwave power causes visible effects on the chemical, physical and biological properties of the sludge. The calculation of profitability and energy efficiency is also presented.

  7. Deodorization of sewage sludge-derived oils

    SciTech Connect

    Sawatzky, H.; Giddings, T.; Farnand, B.

    1993-07-06

    A method is described for treating a sewage sludge-derived oil comprising the steps of: (A) providing sewage sludge-derived oil having the following elemental composition: Nitrogen: about 2% to about 8%; Oxygen: about 3% to about 12%; Sulphur: about 0.1 % to about 4%; Hydrogen: about 8% to about 11%; Carbon: about 86.9% to about 65%; (B) distilling said sewage sludge-derived oil to a temperature of about 150 C. to remove water and volatile organic compounds; and (C) circulating a gas consisting essentially of carbon dioxide therethrough.

  8. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems.

  9. Flow characteristics of the raw sewage for the design of sewage-source heat pump systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Wu, Yuebin; Sun, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The flow characteristics of raw sewage directly affect the technical and economic performance of sewage-source heat pump systems. The purpose of this research is to characterize the flow characteristics of sewage by experimental means. A sophisticated and flexible experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. Then the flow characteristics of the raw sewage were studied through laboratorial testing and theoretical analyses. Results indicated that raw sewage could be characterized as a power-law fluid with the rheological exponent n being 0.891 and the rheological coefficient k being 0.00175. In addition, the frictional loss factor formula in laminar flow for raw sewage was deduced by theoretical analysis of the power-law fluid. Furthermore, an explicit empirical formula for the frictional loss factor in turbulent flow was obtained through curve fitting of the experimental data. Finally, the equivalent viscosity of the raw sewage is defined in order to calculate the Reynolds number in turbulent flow regions; it was found that sewage had two to three times the viscosity of water at the same temperature. These results contributed to appropriate parameters of fluid properties when designing and operating sewage-source heat pump systems. PMID:24987735

  10. We Should Expect More out of Our Sewage Sludge.

    PubMed

    Peccia, Jordan; Westerhoff, Paul

    2015-07-21

    Sewage sludge and biosolids production and management are a central component of water and sanitation engineering. The culmination of previous incremental technologies and regulations aimed at solving a current treatment problem, rather than developing the practice for the higher goals of sustainability have resulted in sludge becoming an economic and social liability. Sludge management practice must shift from treatment of a liability toward recovery of the embedded energy and chemical assets, while continuing to protect the environment and human health. This shift will require new research, treatment technologies and infrastructure and must be guided by the application of green engineering principles to ensure economic, social, and environmental sustainability.

  11. 32 CFR 148.6 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency review. 148.6 Section 148.6 National... Inspections of Facilities § 148.6 Agency review. Agencies will continue to review and assess the potential... government. As this review continues, agencies creating or modifying facilities databases will do so in...

  12. A Family Physician's Guide to Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Connop, Peter J.

    1983-01-01

    The potential environmental and personal health effects from the agricultural uses of domestic sewage sludge may increasingly require the guidance of the family physician, especially in farming communities. This article summarizes the potential health hazards and outlines the tripartite risk phenomenon—hazard identification, risk assessment, and social evaluation. For the agricultural use of dewatered sewage sludge, strict adherence to regulated procedures should not increase risk beyond that of agriculture generally. Confirmation by prospective epidemiological studies is recommended. PMID:21283298

  13. Lightweight aggregate from flyash and sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nechvatal, T.M.; Heian, G.A.

    1991-10-15

    This patent describes a method of treating flyash and sewage sludge. It comprises: mixing flyash with sewage sludge having a high fuel value; agglomerating the mixture; drying the agglomerated mixture; heating the agglomerated mixture to a temperature less than the melting point of the mixture in a rotary kiln using the agglomerated mixture as the principal source of fuel in the kiln to form a porous nodular product; and recovering the nodular product from the kiln.

  14. Clean and Efficient Utilization of Sewage Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Zamansky, Vladimir; Rizeq, George

    2002-09-12

    This is the Final Report for the DOE SBIR Phase II project (Grant No. DE-FG03-98ER82573). This report summarizes accomplishments and results for the entire program. In this program an innovative technology has been devised for transforming sewage sludge into a high quality fuel and recovering its energy content. The technology being developed is generally applicable to nearly all municipal sewage sludge management facilities and coal-fired boilers. It will provide economic and environmental benefits.

  15. Treating sewage using coimmobilized system of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Z H; Ma, H J; Huang, G L; Pan, H; Sun, C Z

    2007-01-01

    Chlorella pyrenoidosa was coimmobilized with activated sludge to produce algae-bacteria beads for sewage treatment. Hydrolysis/acidogenesis pretreatment could improve the symbiotic microenvironment of coimmobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa and activated sludge, and as a result, promote the removal of nutrients (COD(cr), inorganic nitrogen and inorganic phosphorus) in the sewage. A photo-bioreactor combining hydrolysis/acidogenesis pretreatment and coimmobilized technique was designed to treat sewage continuously. The results show that, the removal efficiencies of COD(cr), NH4(+)-N and TP reached steady state after 4-days of experiment. The removal efficiencies of COD(cr), NH4(+)-N and TP were 59.6%, 59.0% and 60.3% respectively.

  16. Sewage Contamination under Different Storm and Hydrologic Conditions in Three Urban Waterways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templar, H.; Corsi, S.; McLellan, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Fecal contamination in urban waterways is a major public and environmental health threat. Sanitary sewer and combined sewer overflows are major point sources of fecal pollution. Additionally, stormwater runoff and failing sewer infrastructure contribute fecal contamination and pathogens to urban waterways. Traditionally, fecal indicator bacteria such as E. coli, enterococci, and fecal coliforms are used to gauge fecal contamination in water; however, these general indicators are unable to distinguish fecal sources in the environment. This study used two human-specific fecal indicator bacteria to identify human sewage contamination in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where three rivers form an estuary that discharges to Lake Michigan. Two-hour composite samples were collected at four sites, one in each of the three rivers and one in the estuary, to represent the entire hydrograph before, during, and after a rain event. Samples were collected throughout a variety of conditions, including dry-weather baseline, light and heavy rain events, and combined sewage overflows (CSOs). These samples were analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to determine human sewage loads in each river during each type of event. Low levels of human indicators were found during dry-weather baseline conditions, and loads increased significantly (one to two orders of magnitude) during rain events. Sampling upstream of the estuary indicated sewage contamination was originating in the heavily urbanized part of the watersheds, likely a result of failing infrastructure. CSO events contributed the highest loads, which were on average ten-fold higher than rainfall events with no CSO. This information will be a useful for directing the efforts of local agencies and municipalities to investigate failing infrastructure, as well as agencies at the state and federal levels to create appropriate goals to address the human health concerns that are posed by sewage contamination in urban

  17. Reclamation of acid waters using sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Davison, W; Reynolds, C S; Tipping, E; Needham, R F

    1989-01-01

    An exhausted sand quarry which had filled with acid water (pH 3) from the oxidation of pyrite was treated with calcium hydroxide to neutralize the water (pH 8), and sewage sludge to prevent further ingress of acid. The water remained neutral for 2 years, an appreciable quantity of base being generated by the reduction of sulphate to sulphide in the anoxic sediment formed by the sewage sludge. After this time the water reverted to acid conditions, chiefly because the lake was too shallow to retain the sewage sludge over a sufficiently large area of its bed. Incubation experiments showed that the sewage sludge had a large capacity for sulphate reduction, which was equally efficient in acid or neutral waters and that the areal rate of consumption was sufficiently fast to neutralize all incoming acid, if at least 50% of the lake bed was covered with sludge. Throughout the course of the field investigations there was no foul smell and the lake was quickly colonized by phytoplankton, macrophytes and insects. Although nutrients associated with the sewage sludge stimulated photosynthesis and so caused the generation of additional organic matter, they were exhausted within two years. To ensure permanent reclamation, phosphate fertilizer could be added once the initial supply has been consumed. Neutralization removed trace metals from the system, presumably due to formation of insoluble oxyhydroxide and carbonates. The solubility of aluminium was apparently controlled by a basic aluminium sulphate (jurbanite).

  18. JPL Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) for sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An Activated Carbon Treatment System (ACTS) was developed for sewage treatment and is being applied to a one-million gallon per day sewage treatment pilot plant in Orange County California. Activities reported include pyrolysis and activation of carbon-sewage sludge, and activated carbon treatment of sewage to meet ocean discharge standards. The ACTS Sewage treatment operations include carbon-sewage treatment, primary and secondary clarifiers, gravity (multi-media) filter, filter press dewatering, flash drying of carbon-sewage filter cake, and sludge pyrolysis and activation. Tests were conducted on a laboratory scale, 10,000 gallon per day demonstration plant and pilot test equipment. Preliminary economic studies are favorable to the ACTS process relative to activated sludge treatment for a 175,000,000 gallon per day sewage treatment plant.

  19. 12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Sewage Ejector Pumps, view to the southwest. These pumps are connected to sewage treatment tanks. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  20. 1. EXTERIOR CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 620, THE SEWAGE EJECTOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR CONTEXT VIEW OF BUILDING 620, THE SEWAGE EJECTOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Mill Valley Air Force Station, Sewage Ejector, East Ridgecrest Boulevard, Mount Tamalpais, Mill Valley, Marin County, CA

  1. Sewage sludge to landfill: some pertinent engineering properties.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Brendan C

    2005-06-01

    More stringent controls on the quality of wastewater discharges have given rise to increasing volumes of sewage sludge for disposal, principally to land, using either land-spreading or sludge-to-landfill operations. Current sludge-to-landfill methods generally involve mixing the concentrated sludge with other solid waste in municipal landfills. However, stricter waste disposal legislation and higher landfill taxes are forcing the water industry to look for more efficient disposal strategies. Landfill operators are also increasingly reluctant to accept sludge material in the slurry state because of construction difficulties and the potential for instability of the landfill slopes. The engineering and drying properties of a municipal sewage sludge are presented and applied, in particular, to the design, construction, and performance of sewage sludge monofills. Sludge handling and landfill construction are most effectively conducted within the water content range of 85% water content, the optimum water content for standard proctor compaction, and 95% water content, the sticky limit of the sludge material. Standard proctor compaction of the sludge within this water content range also achieves the maximum dry density of approximately 0.56 tonne/m3, which maximizes the storage capacity and, hence, the operational life of the landfill site. Undrained shear strength-water content data (pertinent to the stability of the landfill body during construction) and effective stress-strength parameters, which take into account the landfill age and the effects of ongoing sludge digestion, are presented. Landfill subsidence, which occurs principally because of creep and decomposition of the solid organic particles, is significant and continues indefinitely but at progressively slower rates.

  2. Biodegradation of Sewage Wastewater Using Autochthonous Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dhall, Purnima; Kumar, Rita; Kumar, Anil

    2012-01-01

    The performance of isolated designed consortia comprising Bacillus pumilus, Brevibacterium sp, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa for the treatment of sewage wastewater in terms of reduction in COD (chemical oxygen demand), BOD (biochemical oxygen demand) MLSS (mixed liquor suspended solids), and TSS (total suspended solids) was studied. Different parameters were optimized (inoculum size, agitation, and temperature) to achieve effective results in less period of time. The results obtained indicated that consortium in the ratio of 1 : 2 (effluent : biomass) at 200 rpm, 35°C is capable of effectively reducing the pollutional load of the sewage wastewaters, in terms of COD, BOD, TSS, and MLSS within the desired discharge limits, that is, 32 mg/L, 8 mg/L, 162 mg/L, and 190 mg/L. The use of such specific consortia can overcome the inefficiencies of the conventional biological treatment facilities currently operational in sewage treatment plants. PMID:22272181

  3. Wastes to Resources: Appropriate Technologies for Sewage Treatment and Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Stephen P.

    Appropriate technology options for sewage management systems are explained in this four-chapter report. The use of appropriate technologies is advocated for its health, environmental, and economic benefits. Chapter 1 presents background information on sewage treatment in the United States and the key issues facing municipal sewage managers.…

  4. Influence of soil fertilization by sewage sludge on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Baran, Stanisław

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was an evaluation of the influence of the addition of different sewage sludge doses on the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fertilized soil. Sewage sludge was introduced into the soil in the following doses: 30, 75, 150, 300, and 600 Mg/ha. The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) was determined by means of HPLC-UV method. The addition of increasing doses of sludge into the soil resulted in a gradual increase in the amount of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contained therein. During the period of the study, continuous changes in the content of all the compounds studied were found in all the experimental variants. Finally, on the last day of the study, the highest degree of degradation (73%) of 16 PAHs' sum (US EPA) was noted for sludge doses of 30 and 300 Mg/ha. In the case of individual PAHs, the change in their content differed and clearly depended on the sewage sludge dose. The introduction of sewage sludge into the soil influenced the increase of the sum of 16 PAHs in the plants grown in this soil. The influence mentioned above depended on the sewage sludge dose and the plant species grown, as well as the PAH content in the soil. The evaluation of individual PAHs in plants showed an increase in their content with the increase of the amount of sewage sludge. A statistically significant increase in their content was most often observed for sewage sludge doses above 150 Mg/ha. Moreover, it was found that fertilization of the soil with sewage sludge resulted in pollution of the plants with PAHs of high molecular weight.

  5. Nitrogen compounds in drain sewage after constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Paweska, K; Malczewska, B

    2009-01-01

    Constructed wetlands, commonly known as ground filters, are well suited mostly for wastewater treatment in areas with no central sewage system. The basic difficulty with exploitation of constructed wetlands is connected with irregular hydraulic overload of its surface. However, irregular wastewater inflow can be reduced by cyclical irrigation which increases efficiency. The unquestionable advantage of the constructed wetlands is inexpensive construction and exploitation as well as low energy consumption. The constructed wetlands also fit very well in surrounding area. The investigation concerned the analysis of two constructed wetlands which are composed of mechanical separation (septic tank) and a filter bed with subsurface flow. The research has been undertaken in a period from July to December 2008, with regard to concentration distribution of nitrogen compounds in municipal sewage after constructed wetlands. The preliminary investigation on constructed wetland which has been exploited for 10 years showed variable removal efficiency of nitrogen compounds. The continuation of the research can indicate the efficiency of wastewater treatment in summer and winter season.

  6. Strengthening Career Human Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Charles P.

    2006-01-01

    Rooted in A. Bandura's (1982, 2001b) social cognitive theory, the notion of human agency has received considerable attention in vocational and career psychology for the last 2 decades, especially with the recent emergence of social constructivist thinking in the field. This article continues in the same direction. In reviewing the notion of human…

  7. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  8. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  9. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section 831.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary...

  10. Home Sewage Disposal. Special Circular 212.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooding, N. Henry

    This circular provides current information for homeowners who must repair or replace existing on-lot sewage disposal systems. Site requirements, characteristics and preparation are outlined for a variety of alternatives such as elevated sand mounds, sand-lined beds and trenches, and oversized absorption area. Diagrams indicating construction…

  11. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1985-08-30

    This invention relates generally to the dewatering of sludge, and more particularly to the dewatering of a sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50 to 80% in the form of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water.

  12. Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yunbo; Wang, Chang; Chen, Hongmei; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming; Pang, Daoxiong; Lu, Pei

    2013-04-01

    Digested sewage sludge gasification in supercritical water was studied. Influences of main reaction parameters, including temperature (623-698 K), pressure (25-35 Mpa), residence time (10-15 min) and dry matter content (5-25 wt%), were investigated to optimize the gasification process. The main gas products were methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and traces of ethene, etc. Results showed that 10 wt% dry matter content digested sewage sludge at a temperature of 698 K and residence time of 50 min, with a pressure of 25 MPa, were the most favorable conditions for the sewage sludge gasification and carbon gasification efficiencies. In addition, potassium carbonate (K2CO3) was also employed as the catalyst to make a comparison between gasification with and without catalyst. When 2.6 g K2CO3 was added, a gasification efficiency of 25.26% and a carbon gasification efficiency of 20.02% were achieved, which were almost four times as much as the efficiencies without catalyst. K2CO3 has been proved to be effective in sewage sludge gasification.

  13. Utilization of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge in agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Petrik, Milivoj

    1954-01-01

    The author reviews the agricultural use of night-soil, sewage, and sewage sludge from two points of view: the purely agricultural and the sanitary. Knowledge of the chemistry and bacteriology of human faecal matter is still rather scant, and much further work has to be done to find practical ways of digesting night-soil in a short time into an end-product of high fertilizing value and free of pathogens, parasites, and weeds. More is known about sewage and sewage sludge, but expert opinion is not unanimous as to the manner or the value of their use in agriculture. The author reviews a number of studies and experiments made in many countries of the world on the content, digestion, composting, agricultural value, and epidemiological importance of sewage and sewage sludge, but draws from these the conclusion that the chemistry, biology, and bacteriology of the various methods of treatment and use of waste matter need further investigation. He also considers that standards of quality might be set up for sludge and effluents used in agriculture and for water conservation. PMID:13160760

  14. Species-Specific Identification of Human Adenoviruses in Sewage.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Magdalena; Krzysztoszek, Arleta; Witek, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Human adenovirus (HAdV) diversity in sewage was assessed by species-specific molecular methods. Samples of raw sewage were collected in 14 sewage disposal systems from January to December 2011, in Poland. HAdVs were detected in 92.1% of the analysed sewage samples and was significantly higher at cities of over 100 000 inhabitants. HAdV DNA was detected in sewage during all seasons. The most abundant species identified were HAdV-F (average 89.6%) and -A (average 19.6%), which are associated with intestine infections. Adenoviruses from B species were not detected. The result of the present study demonstrate that human adenoviruses are consistently present in sewage in Poland, demonstrating the importance of an adequate treatment before the disposal in the environment. Multiple HAdV species identified in raw sewage provide new information about HAdV circulation in the Polish population. PMID:26094312

  15. 78 FR 53465 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent...

  16. 78 FR 47329 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency, as part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent...

  17. 76 FR 46828 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request, OMB No...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Agency Information Collection Activities: Submission for OMB... AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice; 30-day notice and request for comments... for Continued Temporary Housing Assistance). SUMMARY: The Federal Emergency Management Agency...

  18. Preparation of biochar from sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; María Méndez, Ana; Gascó, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    Biomass waste materials appropriate for biochar production include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, bagasse, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Biochar can and should be made from biomass waste materials and must not contain unacceptable levels of toxins such as heavy metals which can be found in sewage sludge and industrial or landfill waste. Making biochar from biomass waste materials should create no competition for land with any other land use option—such as food production or leaving the land in its pristine state. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. They also can pollute local ground and surface waters—a large issue for livestock wastes. Using these materials to make biochar not only removes them from a pollution cycle, but biochar can be obtained as a by-product of producing energy from this biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product from wastewater treatment plants, and contains significant amounts of heavy metals, organic toxins and pathogenic microorganisms, which are considered to be harmful to the environment and all living organisms. Agricultural use, land filling and incineration are commonly used as disposal methods. It was, however, reported that sewage sludge applications in agriculture gives rise to an accumulation of harmful components (heavy metals and organic compounds) in soil. For this reason, pyrolysis can be considered as a promising technique to treat the sewage sludge including the production of fuels. The objective of this work is to study the advantages of the biochar prepared from sewage sludge.

  19. Prevention of sewage pollution by stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayana, J S

    1975-01-01

    Water is polluted when it constitutes a health hazard or when its usefulness is impaired. The major sources of water pollution are municipal, manufacturing, mining, steam, electric power, cooling and agricultural. Municipal or sewage pollution forms a greater part of the man's activity and it is the immediate need of even smaller communities of today to combat sewage pollution. It is needless to stress that if an economic balance of the many varied services which a stream or a body of water is called upon to render is balanced and taken into consideration one could think of ending up in a wise management programme. In order to eliminate the existing water pollutional levels of the natural water one has to think of preventive and treatment methods. Of the various conventional and non-conventional methods of sewage treatment known today, in India, where the economic problems are complex, the waste stabilization ponds have become popular over the last two decades to let Public Health Engineers use them with confidence as a simple and reliable means of treatment of sewage and certain industrial wastes, at a fraction of the cost of conventional waste treatment plants used hitherto. A waste stabilization pond makes use of natural purification processes involved in an ecosystem through the regulating of such processes. The term "waste stabilization pond" in its simplest form is applied to a body of water, artificial or natural, employed with the intention of retaining sewage or organic waste waters until the wastes are rendered stable and inoffensive for discharge into receiving waters or on land, through physical, chemical and biological processes commonly referred to as "self-purification" and involving the symbiotic action of algae and bacteria under the influence of sunlight and air. Organic matter contained in the waste is stabilized and converted in the pond into more stable matter in the form of algal cells which find their way into the effluent and hence the term

  20. 7 CFR 3021.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 3021.645 Section 3021.645 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL...

  1. 7 CFR 3021.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agency or agency. 3021.645 Section 3021.645 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL...

  2. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Federal agency or agency. 630.645 Section 630.645 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.645 Federal...

  3. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Federal agency or agency. 630.645 Section 630.645 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.645 Federal...

  4. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Federal agency or agency. 630.645 Section 630.645 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.645 Federal...

  5. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal agency or agency. 630.645 Section 630.645 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.645 Federal...

  6. 45 CFR 630.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal agency or agency. 630.645 Section 630.645 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 630.645 Federal...

  7. Application of hybrid coagulation microfiltration with air backflushing to direct sewage concentration for organic matter recovery.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhengyu; Gong, Hui; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    The idea of sewage concentration is gradually being accepted as a promising and sustainable way of wastewater resource recovery. In this study, Hybrid coagulation microfiltration (HCM) with air backflushing (AB) was investigated to effectively concentrate organic matter. Compared to direct sewage microfiltration, the addition of coagulation process improved the filtration performance with less fouling trends and better concentration efficiency. The use of AB exhibited even better performance within the same 7-h preliminary concentration period by reducing to one tenth of the resistance and collecting around four times as much organic matter into the product concentrate as in direct sewage microfiltration. During 93-h lab-scale continuous concentration by HCM with AB, a product concentrate with the COD concentration over 15,000 mg/L was achieved and around 70% of total influent organic matter could be recovered. Compared to Direct Membrane Filtration (DMF) with Chemically Enhanced Backwash (CEB), HCM with AB achieved better concentration efficiency with higher concentration extent and concentration velocity along with less organic matter mineralization and the more concentrated product despite with lower organic matter retention. HCM with AB could be a promising effective sewage organic matter concentration for resource recovery under optimization.

  8. Treated sewage effluent (water) potential to be used for horticultural production in Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emongor, V. E.; Ramolemana, G. M.

    Botswana being semi-arid and arid country, the provision of drinking water and water for agricultural production is becoming increasingly scarce and expensive. Measures that can augment the available sources of water or measures that can reduce the demand on potable water should be given serious consideration. Horticulturists have incorporated new technology into many of their production programs, which has enabled them to grow more horticultural crops with less water; however, more effort is needed. Techniques such as drip irrigation, sensors, growing plants with low water requirements, timing and scheduling of irrigation to the growth needs of the plant, mulching, and establishing a minimum water quality standard for horticultural crops must be used to stretch agricultural water supplies. Recycling agricultural water and using treated municipal sewage effluent is a viable option for increasing horticultures’ future water supply in Botswana. Agriculture wastewater and sewage effluents often contain significant quantities of heavy metals and other substances that may be toxic to people but beneficial to horticultural crops. However, before sewage effluent can be used for commercial production of vegetables and fruits, research must be undertaken to determine whether there is accumulation of heavy metals and faecal coliforms in the edible portion of the horticultural produce which may be detrimental to human health 15-20 years later. Research must be undertaken to assess the impact of sewage effluent on soil physical, chemical properties and environment after continued use.

  9. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification.

    PubMed

    Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri; Kimmerle, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures--gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation--are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes. PMID:17919896

  10. Effect of sewage water on mineral nutritive potential of six fodder species grown under semiarid conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Kafeel; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Khan, Zafar Iqbal; Rizwan, Yasir; Ejaz, Abid; Fardsous, Asia; Gondal, Sumaira; Lee, Dong Jin; Al-Yemeni, Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Investigation was performed to assess the effect of different sewage water treatments on the metal status of different fodder species consumed by ruminants under semi-arid conditions. Five samples each of six fodder species viz., Trifolium alexandrinum, Cichorium intybus, Avena sativa, Medicago polymorpha, Brassica campestris and Medicago sativa were collected from three fields irrigated with canal water, mix water (canal water and sewage water) and sewage water, respectively. Fodder samples were analyzed to determine the Mg, Co and Zn concentrations in shoots. Higher values of these metals were found in fodder species irrigated with sewage water relatively. Mg and Zn concentrations in all the fodder species were found to be below the critical level among all treatments. Whereas, concentrations of Co in the different fodder species were significantly different (p < 0.05) and above the critical level. Consequently, ruminants feeding on these fodder species need continued mineral supplementation of Zn and Mg elements to prevent diseases caused by the deficiency of these elements, and to support optimum animal productivity. PMID:23961142

  11. Energy recovery from sewage sludge by means of fluidised bed gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Bodo; Eder, Christian; Grziwa, Peter; Horst, Juri Kimmerle, Klaus

    2008-07-01

    Because of its potential harmful impact on the environment, disposal of sewage sludge is becoming a major problem all over the world. Today the available disposal measures are at the crossroads. One alternative would be to continue its usage as fertiliser or to abandon it. Due to the discussions about soil contamination caused by sewage sludge, some countries have already prohibited its application in agriculture. In these countries, thermal treatment is now presenting the most common alternative. This report describes two suitable methods to directly convert sewage sludge into useful energy on-site at the wastewater treatment plant. Both processes consist mainly of four devices: dewatering and drying of the sewage sludge, gasification by means of fluidised bed technology (followed by a gas cleaning step) and production of useful energy via CHP units as the final step. The process described first (ETVS-Process) is using a high pressure technique for the initial dewatering and a fluidised bed technology utilising waste heat from the overall process for drying. In the second process (NTVS-Process) in addition to the waste heat, solar radiation is utilised. The subsequent measures - gasification, gas cleaning and electric and thermal power generation - are identical in both processes. The ETVS-Process and the NTVS-Process are self-sustaining in terms of energy use; actually a surplus of heat and electricity is generated in both processes.

  12. Sewage impacts coral reefs at multiple levels of ecological organization.

    PubMed

    Reopanichkul, Pasinee; Schlacher, Thomas A; Carter, R W; Worachananant, Suchai

    2009-09-01

    Against a backdrop of rising sea temperatures and ocean acidification which pose global threats to coral reefs, excess nutrients and turbidity continue to be significant stressors at regional and local scales. Because interventions usually require local data on pollution impacts, we measured ecological responses to sewage discharges in Surin Marine Park, Thailand. Wastewater disposal significantly increased inorganic nutrients and turbidity levels, and this degradation in water quality resulted in substantial ecological shifts in the form of (i) increased macroalgal density and species richness, (ii) lower cover of hard corals, and (iii) significant declines in fish abundance. Thus, the effects of nutrient pollution and turbidity can cascade across several levels of ecological organization to change key properties of the benthos and fish on coral reefs. Maintenance or restoration of ecological reef health requires improved wastewater management and run-off control for reefs to deliver their valuable ecosystems services.

  13. Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1982-March 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, J.D.

    1984-11-01

    Gamma irradiation of various commodities in the Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS) and the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) continued during this reporting period. One truck-load of grapefruit was irradiated. Pelletized straw was irradiated to doses of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 40 megarads in SIDSS. Sludge, virus, and fungus samples were irradiated. Infected ground pork and infected pig carcasses were irradiated in the GIF as a method of Trichinella spiralis inactivation. Other experiments conducted in the GIF included irradiation of cut flowers to extend their shelf life and irradiation of kepone to induce its degradation. Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) capsule studies at ORNL and SNLA continued. A purchase order was placed for a prototype sludge solar dryer. Sewage Sludge Irradiation Transportation System (SSITS) cask activities included thermal stress analyses of cask performance following separation from the impact limiters during a fire. Analyses of cask performance, when loaded with six strontium-90 (Sr-90) capsules, also were done.

  14. High Prevalence of Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci in Swedish Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Aina; Kühn, Inger; Franklin, Anders; Möllby, Roland

    2002-01-01

    In Europe the use of the growth promoter avoparcin is considered to have selected for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Sweden ceased using avoparcin in 1986, and only occasional cases of VRE from hospitals have been reported since 1995. Within the framework of a European study, samples from urban raw sewage, treated sewage, surface water, and hospital sewage in Sweden (n = 118) were screened for VRE. Surprisingly, VRE were isolated from 21 of 35 untreated sewage samples (60%), from 5 of 14 hospital sewage samples (36%), from 6 of 32 treated sewage samples (19%), and from 1 of 37 surface water samples. Thirty-five isolates from 33 samples were further characterized by geno- and phenotyping, MIC determination, and PCR analysis. Most isolates (30 of 35) carried the vanA gene, and the majority (24 of 35) of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium. Most of the VRE were multiresistant. The typing revealed high diversity of the isolates. However, one major cluster with seven identical or similar isolates was found. These isolates came from three different sewage treatment plants and were collected at different occasions during 1 year. All VRE from hospital sewage originated from one of the two hospitals studied. That hospital also had vancomycin consumption that was 10-fold that of the other. We conclude that VRE were commonly found in sewage samples in Sweden. The origin might be both healthy individuals and individuals in hospitals. Possibly, antimicrobial drugs or chemicals released into the sewage system may sustain VRE in the system. PMID:12039740

  15. Modeling sewage leakage to surrounding groundwater and stormwater drains.

    PubMed

    Ly, Duy Khiem; Chui, Ting Fong May

    2012-01-01

    Underground sewage pipe systems deteriorate over time resulting in cracks and joint defects. Sewage thus leaks out and contaminates the surrounding groundwater and the surface water in stormwater drains. Many studies have investigated the problem of sewage leakage but no published studies, to the best knowledge of the authors, have examined the hydrologic interactions between leaky sewage pipes, groundwater and stormwater drains. This study numerically models such interactions using generic conditions in Singapore. It first develops accurate representations of weep holes and leaky sewage pipes, and further shows the long-term and short-term system responses to rainfall events. Some of the implications include: (1) quality of water seeping into the drains tends to be low in dry years; (2) complete contaminant attenuation after pipe rehabilitation takes several years; (3) responses to rainfall events at weep holes are immediate but the effects on sewage leakage might only show up a few days later. The simulation results allow us to better understand the local-scale migration of sewage leakage from a sewage pipe to nearby stormwater drains. With calibrations and verifications with local field data, the modeling framework would be applicable and beneficial to the sewage leakage monitoring and sewage pipe rehabilitation worldwide.

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying facility sanitary sewage collection system design description (SYS 27)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-02

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) sanitary sewage collection system. The sanitary sewage collection system provides collection and storage of effluents and raw sewage from the CVDF to support the cold vacuum drying process. This system is comprised of a sanitary sewage holding tank and pipes for collection and transport of effluents to the sanitary sewage holding tank.

  17. Land application of sewage sludge: physicochemical and microbial response.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev Pratap; Singh, Pooja; Ibrahim, M Hakimi; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil physicochemical properties and on soil microbial biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product of sewage treatment processes and is increasingly applied to agricultural lands as a source of fertilizer, and as an alternative to conventional means of disposal. The particular characteristics of sewage sludge depend upon the quality of sewage from which it is made, and the type of treatment processes through which it passes. Sewage sludge may substitute for inorganic fertilizers because it is rich in organic and inorganic plant nutrients. However, the presence of potentially toxic metals and pathogens in sewage sludge often restricts its uses. Ground water and food chain contamination resulting from sewage sludge amendment is one major concern worldwide. The health of soils is represented by a composite of their physical, chemical and biological properties. Amending soil with sewage sludge modifies the physicochemical and biological properties of soils. Perhaps the central constituent of soil that is important in the context of sewage sludge amendment is microbial biomass. Soil microbial biomass, the key living part of the soil, is very closely associated with the content of organic matter that exists in arable agricultural soils. When sewage sludge is land-applied, soil enzyme activities may be directly or indirectly affected by the presence of heavy metals. In several studies, results have shown that sewage sludge amendment increased soil microbial and soil enzyme activities; however, reduction in soil enzyme activity has also been reported. When incubation periods of sewage sludge were longer, heavy metal bioavailability increased. Soil pathogenic activity has also been reported to increase as a result of land application of sewage sludges. The level of pathogens in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) depends on the processes used to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. Agricultural application

  18. Land application of sewage sludge: physicochemical and microbial response.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajeev Pratap; Singh, Pooja; Ibrahim, M Hakimi; Hashim, Rokiah

    2011-01-01

    In the present review, we address the effects of sewage sludge amendment on soil physicochemical properties and on soil microbial biomass. Sewage sludge is a by-product of sewage treatment processes and is increasingly applied to agricultural lands as a source of fertilizer, and as an alternative to conventional means of disposal. The particular characteristics of sewage sludge depend upon the quality of sewage from which it is made, and the type of treatment processes through which it passes. Sewage sludge may substitute for inorganic fertilizers because it is rich in organic and inorganic plant nutrients. However, the presence of potentially toxic metals and pathogens in sewage sludge often restricts its uses. Ground water and food chain contamination resulting from sewage sludge amendment is one major concern worldwide. The health of soils is represented by a composite of their physical, chemical and biological properties. Amending soil with sewage sludge modifies the physicochemical and biological properties of soils. Perhaps the central constituent of soil that is important in the context of sewage sludge amendment is microbial biomass. Soil microbial biomass, the key living part of the soil, is very closely associated with the content of organic matter that exists in arable agricultural soils. When sewage sludge is land-applied, soil enzyme activities may be directly or indirectly affected by the presence of heavy metals. In several studies, results have shown that sewage sludge amendment increased soil microbial and soil enzyme activities; however, reduction in soil enzyme activity has also been reported. When incubation periods of sewage sludge were longer, heavy metal bioavailability increased. Soil pathogenic activity has also been reported to increase as a result of land application of sewage sludges. The level of pathogens in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) depends on the processes used to treat wastewater and sewage sludge. Agricultural application

  19. Integrated odour modelling for sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Gostelow, P; Parsons, S A; Lovell, M

    2004-01-01

    Odours from sewage treatment works are a significant source of environmental annoyance. There is a need for tools to assess the degree of annoyance caused, and to assess strategies for mitigation of the problem. This is the role of odour modelling. Four main stages are important in the development of an odour problem. Firstly, the odorous molecules must be formed in the liquid phase. They must then transfer from the liquid to the gaseous phase. They are then transported through the atmosphere to the population surrounding the odour source, and are then perceived and assessed by that population. Odour modelling as currently practised tends to concentrate on the transportation of odorants through the atmosphere, with the other areas receiving less attention. Instead, odour modelling should consider each stage in an integrated manner. This paper describes the development of integrated odour models for annoyance prediction. The models describe the liquid-phase transformations and emission of hydrogen sulphide from sewage treatment processes. Model output is in a form suitable for integration with dispersion models, the predictions of which can in turn be used to indicate the probability of annoyance. The models have been applied to both hypothetical and real sewage treatment works cases. Simulation results have highlighted the potential variability of emission rates from sewage treatment works, resulting from flow, quality and meteorological variations. Emission rate variations can have significant effects on annoyance predictions, which is an important finding, as they are usually considered to be fixed and only meteorological variations are considered in predicting the odour footprint. Areas for further development of integrated odour modelling are discussed, in particular the search for improved links between analytical and sensory measurements, and a better understanding of dose/response relationships for odour annoyance.

  20. Recovery potential of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is expected to increase in the future due to growing concerns about the direct use of sludge in agriculture. Sewage sludge is the pollutant sink of wastewater treatment and thus loaded with contaminants that might pose environmental hazards. Incineration degrades organic pollutants efficiently, but since the ash is currently mostly disposed of, all valuable component like phosphorus (P) and technologically relevant metals present in the sewage sludge ash (SSA) are removed from the economic cycle entirely. We conducted a complete survey of SSA from German mono-incineration facilities and determined the theoretical recovery potential of 57 elements. German SSA contains up to 19,000 t/a P which equals approximately 13% of phosphorus applied in the German agriculture in form of phosphate rock based mineral fertilizers. Thus, SSA is an important secondary resource of P. However, its P-solubility in ammonium citrate solution, an indicator for the bioavailability, is only about 26%. Treatment of SSA is recommended to enhance P bioavailability and remove heavy metals before it is applied as fertilizer. The recovery potential for technologically relevant metals is generally low, but some of these elements might be recovered efficiently in the course of P recovery exploiting synergies. PMID:25697389

  1. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-01-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

  2. Urban energy mining from sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kwon, E E; Yi, H; Kwon, H H

    2013-01-01

    This work showed that sewage sludge could be a strong candidate for biodiesel production. High lipid content (18-20%) with C(16-18)-carbon range was experimentally identified and measured. These lipids from sewage sludge were converted into biodiesel via the transesterification reaction with MgO-CaO/Al(2)O(3) derived from magnesium slag, and biodiesel conversion was ~98%. The experimental work enabled explaining that temperature is the main driving force for the transesterification reaction, which can be enhanced in the presence of CO(2). This also enables combination of esterification of free fatty acids and transesterification of triglycerides into a single process within 1 min in the temperature range of 350-500°C. Sewage sludge residue after extracting lipids was also a good feedstock for recovering energy via thermo-chemical processes. The impact of CO(2) co-feed on the pyrolysis/gasification process of SS residue was also investigated in this work. The CO(2) injected into the thermo-chemical process remarkably increased the generation of CO by a factor of 2. Moreover, the introduction of CO(2) into the pyrolysis/gasification process enabled reducing condensable hydrocarbons (tar) by expediting cracking; thus, utilizing CO(2) as chemical feedstock for the gasification process not only leads to higher thermal efficiency but also has environmental benefits. PMID:23017593

  3. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-04-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

  4. Recovery potential of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Adam, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Incineration of sewage sludge is expected to increase in the future due to growing concerns about the direct use of sludge in agriculture. Sewage sludge is the pollutant sink of wastewater treatment and thus loaded with contaminants that might pose environmental hazards. Incineration degrades organic pollutants efficiently, but since the ash is currently mostly disposed of, all valuable component like phosphorus (P) and technologically relevant metals present in the sewage sludge ash (SSA) are removed from the economic cycle entirely. We conducted a complete survey of SSA from German mono-incineration facilities and determined the theoretical recovery potential of 57 elements. German SSA contains up to 19,000 t/a P which equals approximately 13% of phosphorus applied in the German agriculture in form of phosphate rock based mineral fertilizers. Thus, SSA is an important secondary resource of P. However, its P-solubility in ammonium citrate solution, an indicator for the bioavailability, is only about 26%. Treatment of SSA is recommended to enhance P bioavailability and remove heavy metals before it is applied as fertilizer. The recovery potential for technologically relevant metals is generally low, but some of these elements might be recovered efficiently in the course of P recovery exploiting synergies.

  5. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  6. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  7. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  8. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  9. 29 CFR 2703.2 - Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designated agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. 2703.2 Section 2703.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... agency ethics official and alternate designated agency ethics official. The Chairman shall appoint...

  10. 40 CFR 707.65 - Submission to agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 707.65 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL... (7407M), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200..., Environmental Protection Agency, 1201 Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC (Attention: TSCA Section...

  11. Co-digestion to support low temperature anaerobic pretreatment of municipal sewage in a UASB-digester.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Kampman, Christel; Temmink, Hardy; Zeeman, Grietje

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate that co-digestion improves soluble sewage COD removal efficiency in treatment of low temperature municipal sewage by a UASB-digester system. A pilot scale UASB-digester system was applied to treat real municipal sewage, and glucose was chosen as a model co-substrate. Co-substrate was added in the sludge digester to produce additional methanogenic biomass, which was continuously recycled to inoculate the UASB reactor. Soluble sewage COD removal efficiency increased from 6 to 23%, which was similar to its biological methane potential (BMP). Specific methanogenic activity of the UASB and of the digester sludge at 15°C tripled to a value respectively of 43 and 39 mg CH4-COD/(g VSS d). Methane production in the UASB reactor increased by more than 90% due to its doubled methanogenic capacity. Therefore, co-digestion is a suitable approach to support a UASB-digester for pretreatment of low temperature municipal sewage.

  12. Mathematical model investigation of long-term transport of ocean-dumped sewage sludge related to remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, C. Y.; Modena, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    An existing, three-dimensional, Eulerian-Lagrangian finite-difference model was modified and used to examine the transport processes of dumped sewage sludge in the New York Bight. Both in situ and laboratory data were utilized in an attempt to approximate model inputs such as mean current speed, horizontal diffusion coefficients, particle size distributions, and specific gravities. The results presented are a quantitative description of the fate of a negatively buoyant sewage sludge plume resulting from continuous and instantaneous barge releases. Concentrations of the sludge near the surface were compared qualitatively with those remotely sensed. Laboratory study was performed to investigate the behavior of sewage sludge dumping in various ambient density conditions.

  13. Assessment of optimum dilution ratio for biohydrogen production by anaerobic co-digestion of press mud with sewage and water.

    PubMed

    Radjaram, B; Saravanane, R

    2011-02-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of press mud with water or sewage at ratios of 1:7.5, 1:10 and 1:12.5 were performed in continuously fed UASB reactors for hydrogen production. At a constant hydraulic retention time of 30 h, the specific hydrogen production rate was 187 mL/g volatile solids (VS) reduced during maximum biohydrogen production of 7960 mL/day at a 1:10 ratio of press mud to sewage. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) and VS reductions of 61% and 59% were noted on peak biohydrogen yield. A pH range of 5-6 was suitable at ambient temperature for entire process; a lower pH was inhibitory. Co-digestion of acidic press mud with sewage controlled pH for fermentation. Hence press mud can be exploited for biohydrogen production.

  14. Carbon dioxide capture and nutrients removal utilizing treated sewage by concentrated microalgae cultivation in a membrane photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Honda, Ryo; Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2012-12-01

    A highly efficient microalgae cultivation process was developed for carbon dioxide capture using nutrients from treated sewage. A submerged-membrane filtration system was installed in a photobioreactor to achieve high nutrient loading and to maintain a high concentration and production of microalgae. Chlorella vulgaris, Botryococcus braunii and Spirulina platensis were continuously cultivated with simulated treated sewage and 1%-CO(2) gas. The optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids retention time (SRT) were explored to achieve the maximum CO(2) capture rate, nutrient removal rate and microalgae biomass productivity. The carbon dioxide capture rate and volumetric microalgae productivity were high when the reactor was operated under 1-day (HRT) and 18-days (SRT) conditions. The independent control of HRT and SRT is effective for efficient microalgae cultivation and carbon dioxide capture using treated sewage.

  15. Water Hyacinths and Alligator Weeds for Final Filtration of Sewage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Gordon, J.

    1976-01-01

    The potential of water hyacinths (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms and alligator weeds (Alternanthera philoxerides) (Mart.) Griesb. as secondary and tertiary filtration systems for domestic sewage was demonstrated. These two vascular aquatic plants reduced the suspended solids, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total phosphorus, BOD sub 5, and total organic carbon levels in domestic sewage from 60 percent to 98 percent within a two week period. These plants grown in domestic sewage were also free of toxic levels of trace heavy metals.

  16. Water Hyacinths for Upgrading Sewage Lagoons to Meet Advanced Wastewater Treatment Standards, Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    Water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, have demonstrated the ability to function as an efficient and inexpensive final filtration system in a secondary domestic sewage lagoon during a three month test period. These plants reduced the suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demanding substances, and other chemical parameters to levels below the standards set by the state pollution control agency. The water hyacinth-covered secondary lagoon utilized in this experiment had a surface area of 0.28 hectare (0.70 acre) with a total capacity of 6.8 million liters (1.5 million gallons), receiving an inflow of 522,100 liters (115,000 gallons) per day from a 1.1 hectare (3.8 acre) aerated primary sewage lagoon. These conditions allowed a retention time of 14 to 21 days depending on the water hyacinth evapotranspiration rates. The desired purity of final sewage effluent can be controlled by the water hyacinth surface area, harvest rate, and the retention time.

  17. Water hyacinths for upgrading sewage lagoons to meet advanced wastewater treatment standards, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Field tests using water hyacinths as biological filtration agents were conducted in the Mississippi gulf coast region. The plants were installed in one single cell and one multiple cell sewage lagoon systems. Water hyacinths demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and total suspended solid (TSS) levels within the Environmental Protection Agency's prescribed limits of 30 mg/lBOD5 and 30 mg/l TSS. A multiple cell sewage lagoon system consisting of two aerated and one water hyacinth covered cell connected in series demonstrated the ability to maintain BOD5 and TSS levels below 30 mg/l year-round. A water hyacinth covered lagoon with a surface area of 0.28 hectare containing a total volume of 6.8 million liters demonstrated the capacity to treat 437,000 to 1,893,000 liters of sewage influent from 2.65 hectares of aerated lagoons daily and produce an effluent that met or exceeded standards year-round.

  18. Project summary: Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    The City of Indianapolis, Indiana, was required to construct advanced wastewater treatment facilities at the existing Belmont Wastewater Treatment Plant. The most cost effective site for these new treatment facilities was the 10 sludge lagoons containing 420,000 cubic meters (111 million gallons) of digested sewage sludge stored for up to 50 years. The project consisted of the following major tasks: (1) obtaining approval from regulatory agencies; (2) obtaining cooperation of landowners and farmers; (3) removing, transporting, and applying the lagooned sludge to soil; and (4) monitoring the impact on crops.

  19. Sewage pollution: mitigation is key for coral reef stewardship.

    PubMed

    Wear, Stephanie L; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2015-10-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 reef geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair coral growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewage-based stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on coral reefs. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive coral reefs is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for coral reef-focused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution. PMID:25959987

  20. Sewage pollution: mitigation is key for coral reef stewardship.

    PubMed

    Wear, Stephanie L; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2015-10-01

    Coral reefs are in decline worldwide, and land-derived sources of pollution, including sewage, are a major force driving that deterioration. This review presents evidence that sewage discharge occurs in waters surrounding at least 104 of 112 reef geographies. Studies often refer to sewage as a single stressor. However, we show that it is more accurately characterized as a multiple stressor. Many of the individual agents found within sewage, specifically freshwater, inorganic nutrients, pathogens, endocrine disrupters, suspended solids, sediments, and heavy metals, can severely impair coral growth and/or reproduction. These components of sewage may interact with each other to create as-yet poorly understood synergisms (e.g., nutrients facilitate pathogen growth), and escalate impacts of other, non-sewage-based stressors. Surprisingly few published studies have examined impacts of sewage in the field, but those that have suggest negative effects on coral reefs. Because sewage discharge proximal to sensitive coral reefs is widespread across the tropics, it is imperative for coral reef-focused institutions to increase investment in threat-abatement strategies for mitigating sewage pollution.

  1. The economics of the disposal of sewage and trade effluents*

    PubMed Central

    Townend, C. B.

    1959-01-01

    In this review of the economics of the disposal of sewage and trade wastes, the author touches on all aspects of the subject, from the annual costs of sewerage and sewage-disposal services in England and Wales, and what he terms the “uneconomics” of pollution of natural waters, to the financing of capital expenditure on the construction of new sewage works and equipment and on alterations to existing works. He discusses the purposes and relative costs of the various processes in the treatment of domestic sewage and outlines the special problems involved in the disposal of trade wastes. PMID:13839093

  2. Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum

  3. Characteristics of sewage sludge and distribution of heavy metal in plants with amendment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jia-yin; Chen, Ling; Zhao, Jian-fu; Ma, Na

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand land application of sewage sludge, the characterization of heavy metals and organic pollutants were investigated in three different sewage sludges in Shanghai City, China. It was found that the total concentrations of Cd in all of sewage sludge and total concentrations of Zn in Jinshan sewage sludge, as well as those of Zn, Cu, and Ni in Taopu sludge are higher than Chinese regulation limit of pollutants for sludge to be used in agriculture. Leachability of Hg in all of studied samples and that of Cd in Taopu sewage sludge exceed the limit values of waste solid extraction standard in China legislation. Based on the characteristics for three kinds of sewage sludge, a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of soil amended with Quyang sewage sludge on the accumulation of heavy metal by Begonia semperflorens-hybr; Ophiopogon japonicus (L.F.) Ker-Gaw; Loropetalum chindense-var. rubrum; Dendranthema morifolium; Viola tricolor; A ntirrhinum majus; Buxus radicans Sieb; Viburnum macrocephalum; Osmanthus fragrans Lour; Cinnamomum camphora siebold and Ligustrum lucidum ait. Results showed that 8 species of plant survived in the amended soil, and moreover they flourished as well as those cultivated in the control soil. The heavy metal concentration in plants varied with species, As, Pb, Cd and Cr concentration being the highest in the four herbaceous species studied, particularly in the roots of D. morifolium. These plants, however, did not show accumulator of As, Pb, Cd and Cr. The highest concentration of Ni and Hg was found in the roots of D. morifolium, followed by the leaves of B. semperflorens-hybr. Levels of Zn and Cu were much higher in D. morifolium than in the other plant species. D. morifolium accumulated Ni, Hg, Cu and Zn, which may contribute to the decrease of heavy metal contents in the amended soil. Treatment with sewage sludge did not significantly affect the uptake of heavy metals by the L. chindense-var. rubrum

  4. Mercury pollution from irrigation with treated sewage water (TSW).

    PubMed

    Pillay, A E; Yaghi, B; Williams, J R; Al-Kindy, S

    2007-06-01

    The lack of potable water in arid countries leads to the use of treated sewage water (TSW) for crop growth. Mercury accumulation (up to 500 ng/g) in agricultural soil originating from daily irrigation with TSW was found at two sites fed separately from a hospital sewage plant and an industrial plant. A control site irrigated with potable water ([Hg] <0.01 ng/ml) had much reduced levels in soil (<12 ng/g). Cold-vapour analysis of TSW revealed that Hg concentrations fluctuated widely, and were between 10-100 times higher than those of potable water. The TSW data originated from a total of 46 samples (1 L each), from both plants, collected over a 6-month period. The Hg levels varied from 0.1 to 1.0 ng/ml, which suggested that the possible source of the accumulation could be found in continuous irrigation with comparatively higher Hg levels. Remedial measures could be approached from the perspective of curbing this inconsistency to produce more consistent Hg concentrations below 0.5 ng/ml. It was found that the electrical conductivity of TSW is a useful indicator to rapidly monitor fluctuations in treatment. A novel development in the study was the potential capacity of the plastic TSW discharge-pipes to behave as crude 'chromatographic' columns for possible Hg adsorption. If this property of the pipes is developed further it could have a considerable mitigating effect on the Hg levels. Possible recommendations for remediation to limit the Hg levels and promote sustainable development are discussed.

  5. Sewage sludge composting maintains momentum

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.

    1986-11-01

    The number of facilities composting municipal sludge is rising gradually in the U.S. after a dramatic surge between 1983 and 1985. Results of BioCycle's 1986 survey show a total of 178 municipalities and counties that are either operating or constructing plants, or that are in the bid, design, planning, or consideration stages. The total number in 1985 was 173, with four facilities shut down. In 1983, the first year a nationwide survey was conducted, there were 90. The aerated static pile method continues to lead the composting pack, with 53 operating facilities. Windrow composting comes in second, with 21 operating facilities. Five more in-vessel systems went into operation this year, bringing the total to eight. When it comes to facilities on the horizon, however, in-vessel is the category leader: there are 11 in-vessel projects under construction, 11 in the planning, design or bid stages, and 14 under consideration. Conversely, there are eight aerated static pile facilities under construction, 10 in the planning, design and bid stages, and 5.5 under consideration. Windrow composting operations comprise the third largest category, followed by aerated windrow composting.

  6. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with shredded grass from public green spaces.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Taira; Arai, Sayuri; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Adding greenery from public spaces to the co-digestion process with sewage sludge was evaluated by shredding experiments and laboratory-scale batch and continuous mesophilic anaerobic fermentation experiments. The ratio of the shredded grass with 20mm or less in length by a commercially available shredder was 93%. The methane production was around 0.2NL/gVS-grass in the batch experiment. The continuous experiment fed with sewage sludge and shredded grass was stably operated for 81days. The average methane production was 0.09NL/gVS-grass when the TS ratio of the sewage sludge and the grass was 10:1. This value was smaller than those of other reports using grass silage, but the grass species in this study were not managed, and the collected grass was just shredded and not ensiled before feeding to the reactor for simple operation. The addition of grass to a digester can improve the carbon/nitrogen ratio, methane production and dewaterability.

  7. Byproducts Utilization Program: Sewage Sludge Irradiation Project. Progress report, July-December 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    Engineering support for a demonstration-scale irradiator design included assisting the City of Albuquerque in preparing a comprehensive site plan for their proposed sludge handling and treatment facilities. The solar sludge dryer has been delivered to SNLA. A preliminary sludge drying experiment indicated the importance of optimizing stirring and air flow. Installation of instrumentation and mechanical equipment continued. The Sandia Irradiator for Dried Sewage Solids (SIDSS) was used to irradiate 23 tons of dried, digested sewage sludge for the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) operations included irradiation of ground pork for Toxoplasma gondii inactivation experiments, irradiation of surgical supplies and soil samples. Beneficial Uses Shipping Systems (BUSS) cask activities included near completion of the two full-scale cask bodies. Work continued on the Cask Safety Analysis Report (SAR) including additional analyses to reconfigure the six strontium fluoride capsules and/or reduce the number of capsules accommodated. NMSU has indicated no regrowth of salmonellae occurred in the irradiated sludge stockpile, while salmonellae did regrow in the unirradiated stockpile. Analyses of raw and digested sewage sludge from the Albuquerque Waste Water Treatment Plant showed levels of Yersinia enterocolitica (a human pathogen of emerging significance) to be below detection limits.

  8. Federal Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, George M.

    1976-01-01

    The status of two of life's necessities, air and water, is of crucial importance to the future of American parks and recreation programs, and continued cooperation among federal, state, local and private sectors is necessary to preserve them. (JD)

  9. Enhanced power generation and energy conversion of sewage sludge by CEA-microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Abourached, Carole; Lesnik, Keaton Larson; Liu, Hong

    2014-08-01

    The production of methane from sewage sludge through the use of anaerobic digestion has been able to effectively offset energy costs for wastewater treatment. However, significant energy reserves are left unrecovered and effluent standards are not met necessitating secondary processes such as aeration. In the current study a novel cloth-electrode assembly microbial fuel cell (CEA-MFC) was used to generate electricity from sewage sludge. Fermentation pretreatment of the sludge effectively increased the COD of the supernatant and improved reactor performance. Using the CEA-MFC design, a maximum power density of 1200 mW m(-2) was reached after a fermentation pre-treatment time of 96 h. This power density represents a 275% increase over those previously observed in MFC systems. Results indicate continued improvements are possible and MFCs may be a viable modification to existing wastewater treatment infrastructure.

  10. Recycled Water Reuse Permit Renewal Application for the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Lewis

    2014-09-01

    This renewal application for a Recycled Water Reuse Permit is being submitted in accordance with the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.17 “Recycled Water Rules” and the Municipal Wastewater Reuse Permit LA-000141-03 for continuing the operation of the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant located at the Idaho National Laboratory. The permit expires March 16, 2015. The permit requires a renewal application to be submitted six months prior to the expiration date of the existing permit. For the Central Facilities Area Sewage Treatment Plant, the renewal application must be submitted by September 16, 2014. The information in this application is consistent with the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality’s Guidance for Reclamation and Reuse of Municipal and Industrial Wastewater and discussions with Idaho Department of Environmental Quality personnel.

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 232: Area 25 Sewage Lagoons Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV Operations Office

    1999-05-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. A CAU consists of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 232, Area 25 Sewage Lagoons. Corrective Action Unit 232 consists of CAS 25-03-01, Sewage Lagoon, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The Area 25 Sewage Lagoons (Figure 1-2) (IT, 1999b) are located approximately 0.3 mi south of the Test Cell 'C' (TCC) Facility and were used for the discharge of sanitary effluent from the TCC facility. For purposes of this discussion, this site will be referred to as either CAU 232 or the sewage lagoons.

  12. 5 CFR 831.1004 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency contributions. 831.1004 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT CSRS Offset § 831.1004 Agency contributions. The employing agency, the Secretary of... instructions issued by OPM, a contribution to the CSRS equal to the amount required to be contributed for...

  13. 40 CFR 166.25 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency review. 166.25 Section 166.25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and...

  14. 7 CFR 3017.910 - Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... means any United States executive department, military department, defense agency, or any other agency... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency. 3017.910 Section 3017.910 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER, DEPARTMENT...

  15. 34 CFR 303.22 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lead agency. 303.22 Section 303.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.22 Lead agency. Lead agency means the...

  16. 34 CFR 303.22 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Lead agency. 303.22 Section 303.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.22 Lead agency. Lead agency means the...

  17. 34 CFR 303.22 - Lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lead agency. 303.22 Section 303.22 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.22 Lead agency. Lead agency means the...

  18. Radioactivity in municipal sewage and sludge.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, J E; Fenner, F D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the environmental consequences of discharges of radioactivity from a large medical research facility into municipal sewage, specifically 131I activity in sewage sludge, and the radiation exposures to workers and the public when sludges are incinerated. METHODS: The authors measured radioactivity levels in the sludge at the Ann Arbor, Michigan, Waste Water Treatment Plant following radioiodine treatments of two patients at the University of Michigan hospital complex and performed a series of calculations to estimate potential radiation doses due to releases of 131I from incineration of sewage sludge. RESULTS: Approximately 1.1% of the radioactive 131I administered therapeutically to patients was measured in the primary sludge. Radiation doses from incineration of sludge were calculated to be 0.048 millirem (mrem) for a worker during a period in which the incinerator filtration system failed, a condition that could be considered to represent maximum exposure conditions, for two nine-hour days. Calculated results for a more typically exposed worker (with the filtration system in operation and a 22-week period of incineration) yielded a committed effective dose equivalent of 0.066 mrem. If a worker were exposed to both conditions during the period of incineration, the dose was calculated to be 0.11 mrem. For a member of the public, the committed effective dose equivalent was calculated as 0.003 mrem for a 22-week incineration period. Exposures to both workers and the public were a very small fraction of a typical annual dose (about 100 mrem excluding radon, or 300 mrem with radon) due to natural background radiation. Transport time to the treatment plant for radioiodine was found to be much longer than that of a normal sewage, possibly due to absorption of iodine by organic material in the sewer lines. The residence time of radioiodine in the sewer also appears to be longer than expected. CONCLUSION: 131I in land-applied sludge presents few

  19. Continual improvement plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  20. [Environmental impacts of sewage treatment system based on emergy analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Yuan-Wei; Zhang, Hong; Zhao, Min; Deng, Shi-Huai

    2013-02-01

    "Integrated sewage treatment system" (ISTS) consists of sewage treatment plant system and their products (treated water and dewatered sludge) disposal facilities, which gives a holistic view of the whole sewage treatment process. During its construction and operation, ISTS has two main impacts on the environment, i.e., the consumption of resources and the damage of discharged pollutants on the environment, while the latter was usually ignored by the previous researchers when they assessed the impacts of wastewater treatment system. In order to more comprehensively understanding the impacts of sewage treatment on the environment, an analysis was made on the ISTS based on the theories of emergy analysis, and, in combining with ecological footprint theory, the sustainability of the ISTS was also analyzed. The results showed that the emergy of the impacts of water pollutants on the environment was far larger than that of the impacts of air pollutants, and NH3-N was the main responsible cause. The emergy consumption of ISTS mainly came from the emergy of wastewater and of local renewable resources. The "sewage treatment plant system + landfill system" had the highest emergy utilization efficiency, while the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + incineration system" had the lowest one. From the aspect of environmental sustainability, the "sewage treatment plant system + reclaimed water reuse system + landfill system" was the best ISTS, while the "sewage treatment plant system + incineration system" was the worst one.

  1. [Assessing environmental and economical benefits of integrated sewage treatment systems].

    PubMed

    Li, Jin-rong; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Zhang, Hang-bin; Pan, Heng-yu; Liu, Qiang

    2015-08-01

    Sewage treatment, treated water treatment and sludge treatment are three basic units of an integrated sewage treatment system. This work assessed the influence of reusing or discharge of treated water and sludge landfill or compost on the sustainability of an integrated sewage treatment system using emergy analysis and newly proposed emergy indicators. This system's value included its environmental benefits and the products. Environmental benefits were the differences of the environmental service values before and after sewage treatment. Due to unavailability of data of the exchanged substance and energy in the internal system, products' values were attained by newly proposed substitution values. The results showed that the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and sludge landfill had the strongest competitiveness, while the combination of sewage treatment, treated water reuse and earthworm compost was the most sustainable. Moreover, treated water reuse and earthworm compost were helpful for improving the sustainability of the integrated sewage treatment system. The quality of treated water and local conditions should be also considered when implementing the treated water reuse or discharge. The resources efficiency of earthworm compost unit needed to be further improved. Improved emergy indices were more suitable for integrated sewage treatment systems. PMID:26685613

  2. Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Credit PSR. Northeast and southwest facades of Sewage Pumping Station (Building 4330). Building retains its World War II construction materials and character. In the background at the extreme left is Building 4305 (Unicon Portable Hangar) - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Sewage Pumping Station, Southwest of E Street, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. Microwave-induced pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, J A; Inguanzo, M; Pis, J J

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a new method for pyrolyzing sewage sludge using a microwave furnace. It was found that if just the raw wet sludge is treated in the microwave, only drying of the sample takes place. However, if the sludge is mixed with a small amount of a suitable microwave absorber (such as the char produced in the pyrolysis itself) temperatures of up to 900 degrees C can be achieved, so that pyrolysis takes place rather than drying. Microwave treatments were also compared with those carried out in a conventional electric furnace, as well as the characteristics of their respective carbonaceous solid residues.

  4. Occurrence and estrogenic potency of eight bisphenol analogs in sewage sludge from the U.S. EPA targeted national sewage sludge survey.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohua; Xue, Jingchuan; Yao, Hong; Wu, Qian; Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-12-15

    As health concerns over bisphenol A (BPA) in consumer products are mounting, this weak estrogen mimicking compound is gradually being replaced with structural analogs, whose environmental occurrence and estrogen risks are not well understood yet. We used high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) to determine the concentrations of eight bisphenol analogs in 76 sewage sludge samples collected by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 2006/2007 from 74 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in 35 states. Bisphenols were detected at the following concentration ranges (ng/g dry weight) and detection frequencies: BPA (6.5-4700; 100%); bisphenol S (BPS; <1.79-1480; 84%); bisphenol F (BPF; <1.79-242; 68%); bisphenol AF (BPAF; <1.79-72.2; 46%); bisphenol P (BPP; <1.79-6.42; <5%), bisphenol B (BPB; <1.79-5.60; <5%), and bisphenol Z (BPZ; <1.79--66.7; <5%). Bisphenol AP (BPAP) was not detected in any of the samples (<1.79 ng/g dw). Concentrations of BPA in sewage sludge were an order of magnitude higher than those reported in China but similar to those in Germany. The calculated 17β-estradiol equivalents (E2EQ) of bisphenols present in sludge samples were 7.74 (0.26-90.5) pg/g dw, which were three orders of magnitude lower than the estrogenic activity contributed by natural estrogens present in the sludge. The calculated mass loading of bisphenols through the disposal of sludge and wastewater was <0.02% of the total U.S. production. As the usage of BPA is expected to decline further, environmental emissions of BPS, BPF, and BPAF are likely to increase in the future. This study establishes baseline levels and estrogenic activity of diverse bisphenol analogs in sewage sludge.

  5. Rural sewage treatment processing in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W. H.; Kuan, T. H.

    2016-08-01

    Issues regarding water pollution in rural areas of China have garnered increased attention over the years. Further discussion on the circumstances and results of existing domestic sewage treatment methods may serve as an appropriate reference in solving these important issues. This article explored the current conditions of water contamination in rural areas of China, introduced the characteristics and effects of applicable sewage treatment technology, and summarized the results of the planning, installation, and operation of rural sewage treatment facilities in Yongjia County in Zhejiang Province. However, relying on a single technical design rule is not adequate for solving the practical problems that these villages face. Instead, methods of planning rural sewage treatment should be adapted to better suit local conditions and different residential forms. It is crucial, ultimately, for any domestic sewage treatment system in a rural area to be commissioned, engineered, and maintained by a market-oriented professional company.

  6. Occupational hepatitis B virus infection in sewage workers.

    PubMed

    Arvanitidou, M; Constantinidis, T C; Doutsos, J; Mandraveli, K; Katsouyannopoulos, V

    1998-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study the employees of a Sewage Company were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers--HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc--to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and assess the risk of exposed sewage workers becoming infected, so as to evaluate the necessity for appropriate vaccination. The overall prevalence of HBV markers was 43.9% and 6.6% of the employees were HBsAg carriers. In the univariate analysis the prevalence of past and current infection was significantly associated with exposure to sewage (p < 0.001), age (p < 0.001) and with educational level (p < 0.001). However, the logistic regression analysis confirmed that only exposure to sewage was independently associated with positivity for HBV infection (p < 0.001). Workers exposed to sewage should therefore be considered for vaccination against hepatitis B virus.

  7. Behaviour and adsorptive removal of siloxanes in sewage sludge biogas.

    PubMed

    Oshita, K; Ishihara, Y; Takaoka, M; Takeda, N; Matsumoto, T; Morisawa, S; Kitayama, A

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the behaviour of siloxanes, which adversely affect biogas engines, as well as their concentration levels in sewage sludge biogas in Japan. We also performed experiments on the absorptive removal of siloxanes using various adsorbents and determined the main adsorbent characteristics required for the removal of siloxanes. The results of our study on the concentration and composition of siloxanes in biogas were similar to previous reports. Moreover, we found that the concentration of siloxanes changes in relation to the outside air temperature based on real-time measurements of siloxanes using a continuous analyser. We further speculated that the continuous analyser would accurately indicate the siloxane concentration in model biogas but overestimate the siloxane concentration in actual biogas because of positive interference by VOCs and other biogas components. In the siloxane adsorption experiment, the equilibrium uptake of both cyclic siloxanes, D4 and D5, was positively related to the BET-specific surface area of the adsorbents and the fraction of the external surface area taken up by relatively large diameter pores. We attributed the adsorption results to the fact that the siloxane molecules are generally larger than micropores; therefore, they are less susceptible to adsorption to micropores. Based on these results, we concluded that adsorbents with large BET-specific surface areas, especially those with a high external specific surface area and pores of relatively large diameters, are desired for the removal of siloxanes.

  8. 29 CFR 1960.39 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED MATTERS Occupational Safety and Health Committees § 1960.39 Agency responsibilities. (a) Agencies...

  9. Continuing Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, K. A.; Fenwick, P. R.

    In 1978, a national survey was conducted in New Zealand to determine the extent of participation in continuing education and the level of unmet need for these activities. A questionnaire was developed dealing with respondent characteristics, spare time and interests, agency-directed learning activities (ADLAS), and unmet needs, and administered to…

  10. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Celary, Piotr; Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with flotation sewage sludge, and 45% v/v and 5% v/v, respectively, for precipitation sewage sludge. These combinations allowed for obtaining products with negligible heavy metal leaching levels and hardness similar to commercial glass, which suggests they could be potentially used as construction aggregate substitutes. Incineration of sewage sludge before the vitrification process lead to

  11. Reduction of Cryptosporidium and Giardia by sewage treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Y A L; Wan Hafiz, W I; Nissapatorn, V

    2007-06-01

    Cryptosporidium and Giardia are two important pathogenic parasites that have caused many waterborne outbreaks which affected hundreds of thousands of people. Contamination from effluent discharged by sewage treatment plants have been implicated in previous waterborne outbreaks of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study evaluated the reduction of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in two sewage treatment plants (STPA and STPB) in Malaysia which employed different treatment processes for a period of a year. Raw sewage influents and treated sewage effluents were concentrated by repeated centrifugation, subjected to sucrose density flotation and concentrated to a minimal volume depending upon the levels of contaminating debris. Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were enumerated using epifluorescence microscopy. The parasite concentrations in raw sewage were 18-8480 of Giardia cysts/litre and 1-80 of Cryptosporidium oocysts/litre. In treated sewage, the concentration of parasites ranged from 1-1462 cysts/litre and 20-80 oocysts/ litre for Giardia and Cryptosporidium respectively. Statistical analysis showed that sewage treatment process which employed extended aeration could reduce the concentration of Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts significantly but treatment process which encompasses aerated lagoon could only reduce the concentration of Giardia cysts but not Cryptosporidium oocysts significantly. This phenomenon is of great concern in areas whereby effluent of sewage treatment plants is discharged into the upstream of rivers that are eventually used for abstraction of drinking water. Therefore, it is important that wastewater treatment authorities rethink the relevance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia contamination levels in wastewater and watersheds and to develop countermeasures in wastewater treatment plants. Further epidemiological studies on the occurrence and removal of pathogenic organisms from excreta and sewage are also recommended, in order

  12. Quality requirements for irrigation with sewage water

    SciTech Connect

    Bouwer, H.; Idelovitch, E. )

    1987-11-01

    Irrigation is an excellent use for sewage effluent because it is mostly water with nutrients. For small flows, the effluent can be used on special, well-supervised sewage farms, where forage, fiber, or seed crops are grown that can be irrigated with standard primary or secondary effluent. Large-scale use of the effluent requires special treatment so that it meets the public health, agronomic, and aesthetic requirements for unrestricted use. Crops in the unrestricted-use category include those that are consumed raw or brought raw into the kitchen. Most state or government standards deal only with public health aspects, and prescribe the treatment processes or the quality parameters that the effluent must meet before it can be used to irrigate a certain category of crops. However, agronomic aspects related to crops and soils must also be taken into account. Quality parameters to be considered include bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens; total salt content and sodium adsorption ratio of the water; nitrogen; phosphorus; chloride and chlorine; bicarbonate; heavy metals, boron, and other trace elements; pH; and synthetic organics. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

  13. [The occurrence of Yersinia enterocolitica in sewage].

    PubMed

    Ziegert, E; Diesterweg, I

    1990-01-01

    Using a modified cold enrichment procedure Yersinia spp. were detected in 90.6% out of 32 raw waste water samples obtained within one year from two municipal sewage treatment plants. Moreover Yersinia were isolated from 50% of 6 effluent samples. Altogether 118 Yersinia strains were isolated and typed biochemically and serologically. 69 out of these isolates belonged to Yersinia enterocolitica, 60 strains to biotype 1, and 9 to biotype 4, serotype 0:3, 8 strains Yersinia enterocolitica serotype 0:3, biotype 4, considered to be a causative agent in human enteritis, harboured an 48 MD plasmid. The remaining isolates were identified as Yersinia frederiksenii (24 strains), Yersinia intermedia (22 strains) and Yersinia kristensenii (3 strains). The frequency of the isolation of Y. enterocolitica serotype 0:3, biotype 4 from sewage showed the same seasonal dependence as known from strains of human origin. In contrast to this, such dependence could not be found among other serovars of Y. enterocolitica and related species.

  14. Complete survey of German sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Grabner, Angela; Adam, Christian

    2014-10-21

    The amount of sewage sludge produced worldwide is expected to further increase due to rising efforts in wastewater treatment. There is a growing concern against its direct use as fertilizer due to contamination of the sludge with heavy metals and organic pollutants. Incinerating the sludge degrades organic compounds almost completely and concentrates heavy metals and phosphorus. However, the sewage sludge ash (SSA) is almost completely disposed of and with it all resources are removed from the economic cycle. Comprehensive knowledge of the composition of SSA is crucial to assess the resource recovery potentials. We conducted a survey of all SSA emerging in Germany and determined the respective mass fractions of 57 elements over a period of one year. The median content of phosphorus was 7.9%, indicating an important recovery potential. Important trace elements were Zn (2.5 g/kg), Mn (1.3 g/kg), and Cu (0.9 g/kg). Mass fractions of technology metals such as V, Cr, Ga, Nb, and rare earths were comparatively low. Considering the possible use of SSA as secondary raw material for fertilizer production it should be noted that its Cd and U content (2.7 mg/kg and 4.9 mg/kg respectively) is significantly lower than that of rock phosphate based mineral fertilizers.

  15. Cogeneration plant serves Prague sewage works

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The new cogeneration plant at the sewage works in Prague, Czech Republic, was commissioned in June of this year. The plant is based on three gas engine modules from Deutz MWM-Gastechnik, which supply power and heat from the sewage gas. Also installed was a central plant control system (CPCS) for automation of the power plant, including long-term data storage for operation optimization. The gas engines are equipped with an individual total electronic management system (TEM) that optimizes engine operation and heat transfer. The TEM system also serves for safety monitoring of the relevant modules. Data communication between the TEM system and the CPCS is realized via a serial interface. The CPCS can thus test the availability of the individual heat generators and, depending on the condition of an individual module, switch over to another. With due consideration to environmental protection, Deutz MWM-Gastechnik guarantees NO{sub x} emissions of less than 500 mg/Nm{sup 3} (at 5% O{sub 2}) and CO emissions of less than 650 mg/Nm{sup 3}. The plant operator has also encapsulated the three gas engine modules in soundproofing enclosures in order to reduce noise emissions from 105 down to 78 dB(A).

  16. Phenol removal efficiencies of sewage treatment processes and ecological risks associated with phenols in effluents.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenjue; Wang, Donghong; Xu, Xiaowei

    2012-05-30

    Phenols pose a risk to the environment and to human health. Phenols found in rivers mainly originate from sewage treatment plants (STPs). In this paper, analytical procedures, based on deconvolution technology and retention time locking technology, were investigated to simultaneously identify and determine the concentrations of fifty different phenols in sewage water and effluents. Seventeen different phenols were found in sewage and five - including two regulated phenols (phenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) and three un-regulated phenols (2-chlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichloro-3-ethyl-6-nitrophenol) - were identified in effluents of five STPs. A number of processes undertaken in five STPs were also investigated. These processes can be used to remove phenols at efficiency levels of between 88.95% and 99.97%. Among the processes tested, a combination of anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O), continuous microfiltration (CMF), ozone oxidation (O(3)), and chlorination, appeared to be the best option for the removal of key phenols. Among the five phenols identified in effluents, 2,5-dichlorophenol (1.89 μg/L) and 2,4-dichloro-3-ethyl-6-nitrophenol (22.6 μg/L) pose the greatest ecological risk to receiving waters.

  17. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge... by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While...

  18. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge... by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While...

  19. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge... by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While...

  20. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge... by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While...

  1. 33 CFR 159.315 - Sewage and graywater discharge record book.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Whether the effluent is treated or untreated sewage, graywater, or a sewage and graywater mixture and type... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage and graywater discharge... by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.315 Sewage and graywater discharge record book. (a) While...

  2. Target and suspect screening of psychoactive substances in sewage-based samples by UHPLC-QTOF.

    PubMed

    Baz-Lomba, J A; Reid, Malcolm J; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-03-31

    The quantification of illicit drug and pharmaceutical residues in sewage has been shown to be a valuable tool that complements existing approaches in monitoring the patterns and trends of drug use. The present work delineates the development of a novel analytical tool and dynamic workflow for the analysis of a wide range of substances in sewage-based samples. The validated method can simultaneously quantify 51 target psychoactive substances and pharmaceuticals in sewage-based samples using an off-line automated solid phase extraction (SPE-DEX) method, using Oasis HLB disks, followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF) in MS(e). Quantification and matrix effect corrections were overcome with the use of 25 isotopic labeled internal standards (ILIS). Recoveries were generally greater than 60% and the limits of quantification were in the low nanogram-per-liter range (0.4-187 ng L(-1)). The emergence of new psychoactive substances (NPS) on the drug scene poses a specific analytical challenge since their market is highly dynamic with new compounds continuously entering the market. Suspect screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) simultaneously allowed the unequivocal identification of NPS based on a mass accuracy criteria of 5 ppm (of the molecular ion and at least two fragments) and retention time (2.5% tolerance) using the UNIFI screening platform. Applying MS(e) data against a suspect screening database of over 1000 drugs and metabolites, this method becomes a broad and reliable tool to detect and confirm NPS occurrence. This was demonstrated through the HRMS analysis of three different sewage-based sample types; influent wastewater, passive sampler extracts and pooled urine samples resulting in the concurrent quantification of known psychoactive substances and the identification of NPS and pharmaceuticals.

  3. Organic contaminants in sewage sludge (biosolids) and their significance for agricultural recycling.

    PubMed

    Smith, S R

    2009-10-13

    Organic chemicals discharged in urban wastewater from industrial and domestic sources, or those entering through atmospheric deposition onto paved areas via surface run-off, are predominantly lipophilic in nature and therefore become concentrated in sewage sludge, with potential implications for the agricultural use of sludge as a soil improver. Biodegradation occurs to varying degrees during wastewater and sludge treatment processes. However, residues will probably still be present in the resulting sludge and can vary from trace values of several micrograms per kilogram up to approximately 1 per cent in the dry solids for certain bulk chemicals, such as linear alkylbenzene sulphonate, which is widely used as a surfactant in detergent formulations. However, the review of the scientific literature on the potential environmental and health impacts of organic contaminants (OCs) in sludge indicates that the presence of a compound in sludge, or of seemingly large amounts of certain compounds used in bulk volumes domestically and by industry, does not necessarily constitute a hazard when the material is recycled to farmland. Furthermore, the chemical quality of sludge is continually improving and concentrations of potentially harmful and persistent organic compounds have declined to background values. Thus, recycling sewage sludge on farmland is not constrained by concentrations of OCs found in contemporary sewage sludges. A number of issues, while unlikely to be significant for agricultural utilization, require further investigation and include: (i) the impacts of chlorinated paraffins on the food chain and human health, (ii) the risk assessment of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, a bulk chemical present in large amounts in sludge, (iii) the microbiological risk assessment of antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms in sewage sludge and sludge-amended agricultural soil, and (iv) the potential significance of personal-care products (e.g. triclosan), pharmaceuticals

  4. Identification of Comamonas testosteroni as an androgen degrader in sewage

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Lung; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Yang, Fu-Chun; Ismail, Wael; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shih, Chao-Jen; Wu, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the masculinization of freshwater wildlife exposed to androgens in polluted rivers. Microbial degradation is a crucial mechanism for eliminating steroid hormones from contaminated ecosystems. The aerobic degradation of testosterone was observed in various bacterial isolates. However, the ecophysiological relevance of androgen-degrading microorganisms in the environment is unclear. Here, we investigated the biochemical mechanisms and corresponding microorganisms of androgen degradation in aerobic sewage. Sewage samples collected from the Dihua Sewage Treatment Plant (Taipei, Taiwan) were aerobically incubated with testosterone (1 mM). Androgen metabolite analysis revealed that bacteria adopt the 9, 10-seco pathway to degrade testosterone. A metagenomic analysis indicated the apparent enrichment of Comamonas spp. (mainly C. testosteroni) and Pseudomonas spp. in sewage incubated with testosterone. We used the degenerate primers derived from the meta-cleavage dioxygenase gene (tesB) of various proteobacteria to track this essential catabolic gene in the sewage. The amplified sequences showed the highest similarity (87–96%) to tesB of C. testosteroni. Using quantitative PCR, we detected a remarkable increase of the 16S rRNA and catabolic genes of C. testosteroni in the testosterone-treated sewage. Together, our data suggest that C. testosteroni, the model microorganism for aerobic testosterone degradation, plays a role in androgen biodegradation in aerobic sewage. PMID:27734937

  5. Plasma chemical gasification of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Balgaranova, Janetta

    2003-02-01

    The possibility for plasma gasification of sewage sludge is investigated. Water steam is used as the plasma generating gas and as a chemical reagent. The experiments are carried out at a sludge to water steam ratio of 1 to 1.5 by weight, and at a plasma torch temperature of up to 2600 degrees C. The calculated average temperature in the reactor after mixing with the sludge particles is up to 1700 degrees C. Proximate and ultimate analyses of the sludge are given. The resulting gases are analysed by gas chromatography. High calorific gas containing mainly carbon monoxide (48% volume) and hydrogen (46% volume), as well as glass-like slag, is obtained. No water-soluble substances are detected within it. The amount of carbon dioxide produced is under 4% mass. No hydrocarbons are observed within the gas. The investigated process is environmentally safe, compact and shows a high rate of conversion.

  6. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  7. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy. PMID:27434305

  8. Radiofrequency-oxidation treatment of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Asha; Young, Chris; Liao, Ping H; Lo, Kwang V

    2015-12-01

    A novel thermal-chemical treatment technology using radiofrequency heating and oxidants (hydrogen peroxide, ozone and a combination of both) was used for the treatment of sewage sludge. This was to evaluate the process effectiveness on cell disintegration and nutrient release of sludge, physical property changes such as particle size distribution, dewaterability and settleability, and their inter-relationships. The effectiveness of treatment processes was in the following order, from the most to least: thermal-oxidation process, oxidation process and thermal process. The thermal-oxidation process greatly increased cell disintegration and nutrient release, improved settleability, and decreased particle sizes. The treatment scheme involving ozone addition followed by hydrogen peroxide and radiofrequency heating yielded the highest soluble chemical oxygen demand, volatile fatty acids, ammonia and metals, while proffering the shortest capillary suction time and excellent settling properties. PMID:26233925

  9. Insight into biological phosphate recovery from sewage.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yuanyao; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Xinbo; Guo, Jianbo; Ni, Bing-Jie; Chang, Soon Woong; Nguyen, Dinh Duc

    2016-10-01

    The world's increasing population means that more food production is required. A more sustainable supply of fertilizers mainly consisting of phosphate is needed. Due to the rising consumption of scarce resources and limited natural supply of phosphate, the recovery of phosphate and their re-use has potentially high market value. Sewage has high potential to recover a large amount of phosphate in a circular economy approach. This paper focuses on utilization of biological process integrated with various subsequent processes to concentrate and recycle phosphate which are derived from liquid and sludge phases. The phosphate accumulation and recovery are discussed in terms of mechanism and governing parameters, recovery efficiency, application at plant-scale and economy.

  10. Thixotropic behaviour of thickened sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Trávníček, Petr; Junga, Petr

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is a description of the rheological behaviour of thickened sewage sludge. The sample of thickened sludge was collected from the wastewater treatment plant, where pressure flotation unit is used for a process of thickening. The value of dry matter of collected sample was 3.52%. Subsequently the sample was diluted and the rheological properties of individual samples were obtained. Several types of rheological tests were used for the determination of the sample. At first the hysteresis loop test was performed. The next test was focused on the time-dependency, i.e. measurement of dependence of dynamic viscosity on the time at constant shear rate. Further dependence dynamic viscosity on the temperature was performed. Then the activation energy was obtained from measured values. Finally, the hysteresis areas were counted and measured values were evaluated with use of Herschel-Bulkley mathematical model. PMID:24860659

  11. Transport and recovery of bacteriophage PRD1 in a sand and gravel aquifer: Effect of sewage-derived organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pieper, A.P.; Ryan, J.N.; Harvey, R.W.; Amy, G.L.; Illangasekare, T.H.; Metge, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    To test the effects of sewage-derived organic matter on virus attachment, 32P-labeled bacteriophage PRD1, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), and tracers were injected into sewage-contaminated (suboxic, elevated organic matter) and uncontaminated (oxic, low organic matter) zones of an iron oxide-coated quartz sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA. In the uncontaminated zone, 83% of the PRD1 were attenuated over the first meter of transport by attachment to aquifer grains. In the contaminated zone, 42% of the PRD1 were attenuated over the first meter of transport. Sewage-derived organic matter contributed to the difference in PRD1 attenuation by blocking attachment sites in the contaminated zone. At greater distances down gradient (to a total transport distance of 3.6 m), a near-constant amount of PRD1 continued to break through, suggesting that aquifer grain heterogeneities allowed a small amount of reversible attachment. Injection of an LAS mixture (25 mg L-1), a common sewage constituent, remobilized 87% of the attached PRD1 in the contaminated zone, but only 2.2% in the uncontaminated zone. LAS adsorption promoted virus recovery in the contaminated zone by altering the PRD1-surface interactions; however, the amount of LAS adsorbed was not sufficient to promote release of the attached PRD1 in the uncontaminated zone.

  12. Impact of sewage contaminated water on soil, vegetables, and underground water of peri-urban Peshawar, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Hidayat; Khan, Ikhtiar; Ullah, Ihsan

    2012-10-01

    The use of sewage-contaminated municipal water for irrigation of crops is an old practice in many big cities of Pakistan. Since the wastewater is rich in nutrients, it increases crops yield substantially but at the cost of food quality. The objective of this study was to investigate sewage water irrigation as a source of accumulation of heavy metals in soil and its subsequent transfer to crops and underground water. Sewage water, soil, groundwater, and crop samples were collected from selected areas around Peshawar city and analyzed for heavy metals concentration by atomic absorption spectroscopic method. Analysis of data revealed a considerable impact of the irrigation practices in the peri-urban Peshawar. Statistical analysis of the data showed a positive correlation between heavy metals concentration and soil carbon contents on the one hand and cation exchange capacity on the other. A strongly negative correlation was observed between metal contents and soil pH. The vertical movement of heavy metals from contaminated soil has polluted crops and underground water. The results indicated higher concentration of toxic metals in soil accumulated due to long-term sewage-contaminated water irrigation and their subsequent transfer to our food chain. The practice, if continued un-noticed may pose a threat of phytotoxicity to the local population.

  13. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  14. Safety use of sewage sludge as soil conditioner.

    PubMed

    El-Naim, M A; El-Housseini, M; Naeem, M H

    2004-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory experiments were conducted during 1994-996 to study the seasonal changes in sewage sludge characteristics and to evaluate the effect of sludge treatment processes and their application to sandy soil on soil-plant heavy metal contents and the numbers of some pathogenic microorganisms in both treated sludge and sludge provided soils. Results of seasonal production of sludge showed wide variation in their chemical and microbiological characteristics. Lime application resulted in an increase in the pH values and temperature degrees. The maximal values of temperature and pH were obtained when sludge treated with 20% lime. No big difference was observed between the sludge treatments received lime at rates of 10, 15, and 20% lime. The 10% limed-sludge treatment was the best for reducing concentrations of heavy metals and numbers of bacterial pathogens in sludge. Stoping addition of sludge to soil for one cropping season after continuous sludge addition for four seasons sharply decreased the soil heavy metal contents and subsequently decreased their accumulation in the edible parts of plants.

  15. Interactions of inorganic oxide nanoparticles with sewage biosolids.

    PubMed

    Rottman, Jeff; Shadman, Farhang; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2012-01-01

    The use of nanoparticles (NPs) in manufacturing continues to increase despite the growing concern over their potential environmental and health effects. Understanding the interaction of NPs and sewage sludge is crucial for determining the ultimate fate of NPs released to municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as those interactions will determine whether the bulk of the material is retained in the sludge or released in the effluent stream. Analyzing the affinity of aluminum oxide, cerium oxide, and silicon oxide NPs, which are commonly used in semiconductor manufacturing processes, for biosolids used in municipal WWTPs provides a basis for estimating their removal efficiency. Batch studies were performed and the NPs were shown to partition onto the cellular surface. At the maximum equilibrium values tested (75-92 mg nanoparticles/L), the concentration of Al(2)O(3), CeO(2) and SiO(2) associated with the sludge was 137, 238, and 28 mg/g-sludge VSS, respectively. These results suggest that electrostatic interactions play a major role in determining NP association with biosolids.

  16. Potentially toxic element release by fenton oxidation of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, J P; Asaadi, M; Clarke, B; Ouki, S

    2006-01-01

    The presence, in sewage sludge, of excess levels of the potentially toxic elements (PTE) copper, zinc, chromium, cadmium, nickel, lead and mercury, could impact on our ability to recycle these residues in the future. Far stricter limits on the levels of PTEs are likely in proposed legislation. A method involving the dosing of Fenton's reagent, a mixture of ferrous iron and hydrogen peroxide, under acidic conditions was evaluated for its potential to reduce metal levels. The [Fe]:[H2O2] (w/w) ratio was found to give a good indication of the percentage copper and zinc elution obtainable. Sites with no iron dosing as part of wastewater treatment required extra iron to be added in order to initiate the Fenton's reaction. A significant reduction, in excess of 70%, of the copper and zinc was eluted from both raw primary and activated sludge solid fractions. Cadmium and nickel could be reduced to below detection limits but elution of mercury, lead and chromium was less than 40%. The iron catalyst concentration was found to be a crucial parameter. This process has the potential to reduce the heavy metal content of the sludge and allow the recycling of sludge to continue in a sustainable manner. PMID:17087386

  17. Application of sewage sludge compost on highway embankments.

    PubMed

    Pengcheng, Gao; Xinbao, Tang; Yanan, Tong; Yingxu, Chen

    2008-01-01

    More and more sewage sludge is being produced in China. Safe and economical methods for sewage sludge disposal should be found considering the increase in sewage treatment. In order to verify the feasibility of sludge disposal on newly built highway embankments, five treatments (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 tons ha(-1)) of sewage sludge compost (SSC) were added to a silty-clay embankment soil on the Xi-Huang highway. The results showed that amendment with SSC increased soil available N, available P, organic matter, cation exchange capacity, and water content, and decreased soil bulk density. Application of SSC enhanced ryegrass growth and reduced runoff and soil erosion. Heavy metal losses from sediments in runoff remained constant or decreased relative to the control until a rate of 60 tons ha(-1) was exceeded, when heavy metal losses appeared to increase.

  18. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sewage samples from seven locations in the United States were analyzed for Escherichia coli isolates which were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT). The prevalence rate of SXT resistant organisms varied between the different geographical locales. The majority of th...

  19. Depletion of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors during sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Vasskog, Terje; Bergersen, Ove; Anderssen, Trude; Jensen, Einar; Eggen, Trine

    2009-11-01

    Sewage and sewage sludge is known to contain pharmaceuticals, and since sewage sludge is often used as fertilizer within agriculture, the reduction of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) Citalopram, Sertraline, Paroxetine, Fluvoxamine and Fluoxetine during composting has been investigated. Sewage sludge was spiked with the SSRIs before the composting experiment started, and the concentration of the SSRIs in the sludge during a 21 day composting period was measured by liquid phase microextraction (LPME) and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All the SSRIs had a significant decrease in concentration during the composting process. The highest reduction rates were measured for Fluoxetine and Paroxetine and the lowest for Citalopram. In addition three out of four known SSRI metabolites were found in all the samples, and two of them showed a significant increase in concentration during the composting period. PMID:19595585

  20. 13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Sewage treatment lagoon, drainage control at center left, looking south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  1. Method for treating sewage to produce a fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leen, C.

    1983-03-29

    A method is disclosed for treating sewage in which the combustible components of the sewage are separated from the sewage and utilized as a primary fuel. Scum is collected, preferably by skimming, from screened sewage. This scum comprises oils, greases, fats, water and intermixed solid material. The collected scum is then transferred to a separation tank. The scum is maintained within the tank in a quiescent and substantially nonagitated state for at least twelve hours, during which the combustible oils, greases, fats and the like are rendered separable from the other components of the scum. The scum is then conveyed from the tank to a processing unit where the fats, oils, greases and the like are separated from the water and solid material remaining in the scum. The resulting product is a combustible product and can be used as a primary fuel.

  2. Sandis irradiator for dried sewage solids. Final safety analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.

    1980-07-01

    Analyses of the hazards associated with the operation of the Sandia irradiator for dried sewage solids, as well as methods and design considerations to minimize these hazards, are presented in accordance with DOE directives.

  3. 38. COMMISSARY STORES #2 HOLD, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD WITH SEWAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. COMMISSARY STORES #2 HOLD, LOOKING TOWARDS STARBOARD WITH SEWAGE TANK IN BACKGROUND. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  4. Vitrification as an alternative to landfilling of tannery sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Celary, Piotr Sobik-Szołtysek, Jolanta

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • The possibility of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge was investigated. • Glass cullet was substituted with different wastes of mineral character. • Component ratio in the processed mixtures was optimized. • Environmental safety of the acquired vitrificates was verified. • An alternative management approach of usually landfilled waste was presented. - Abstract: Due to high content of heavy metals such as chromium, tannery sewage sludge is a material which is difficult to be biologically treated as it is in the case of organic waste. Consequently, a common practice in managing tannery sewage sludge is landfilling. This poses a potential threat to both soil and water environments and it additionally generates costs of construction of landfills that meet specific environment protection requirements. Vitrification of this kind of sewage sludge with the addition of mineral wastes can represent an alternative to landfilling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of obtaining an environmentally safe product by means of vitrification of tannery sewage sludge from a flotation wastewater treatment process and chemical precipitation in order to address the upcoming issue of dealing with sewage sludge from the tannery industry which will be prohibited to be landfilled in Poland after 2016. The focus was set on determining mixtures of tannery sewage sludge with additives which would result in the lowest possible heavy metal leaching levels and highest hardness rating of the products obtained from their vitrification. The plasma vitrification process was carried out for mixtures with various amounts of additives depending on the type of sewage sludge used. Only the materials of waste character were used as additives. One finding of the study was an optimum content of mineral additives in vitrified mixture of 30% v/v waste molding sands with 20% v/v carbonate flotation waste from the zinc and lead industry for the formulations with

  5. Assessment of a potential agricultural application of Bangkok-digested sewage sludge and finished compost products.

    PubMed

    Sreesai, Siranee; Peapueng, Panadda; Tippayamongkonkun, Taninporn; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2013-09-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the levels of plant nutrients, heavy metals, parasites and fecal coliform bacteria in Bangkok-produced sewage sludge and finished compost products for potential agricultural application, as well as to compare the quality of compost under different composting conditions. The results indicated that digested sewage sludge had high fertilizing values for organic matter (19.01 ± 0.09%), total nitrogen (2.17 ± 0.07%), total phosphorus (2.06 ± 0.06%) and total potassium (1.16 ± 0.22%), but it was contaminated with human pathogens, including fecal coliform bacteria, viable helminthes egg and active forms of parasite cysts. Thus, fresh sewage sludge should not be disposed on land unless it has undergone pathogen reduction. It is proven that the quality of the sludge mixed with grass clippings at a ratio of 6:1 volume/volume after having passed a windrow composting process for 8 weeks can be classified as class A biosolids as the levels of remaining fecal coliforms were < 3 most probable number g(-1) dry solid and all human parasites were destroyed. Concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and total potassium in the finished compost were 16.53 ± 1.25%, 1.39 ± 0.06%, 0.42 ± 0.10% and 1.53 ± 0.05% respectively. The total copper concentration was rather high (2291.31 ± 121.77 mg kg(-1)), but all heavy metal concentrations were also well below the United States Environmental Protection Agency pollutant limits for land application. The finished compost products can be considered as a soil conditioner as they have relatively low essential plant nutrient concentrations. It is recommended to be initially used for gardening and landscaping to ensure safety utilization.

  6. 40 CFR 93.154 - Federal agency conformity responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal agency conformity responsibility. 93.154 Section 93.154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... agency conformity responsibility. Any department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal...

  7. 40 CFR 93.154 - Federal agency conformity responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal agency conformity responsibility. 93.154 Section 93.154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... agency conformity responsibility. Any department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal...

  8. 40 CFR 93.154 - Federal agency conformity responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Federal agency conformity responsibility. 93.154 Section 93.154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... agency conformity responsibility. Any department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal...

  9. 40 CFR 93.154 - Federal agency conformity responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal agency conformity responsibility. 93.154 Section 93.154 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... agency conformity responsibility. Any department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal...

  10. 40 CFR 791.85 - Availability of final Agency order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of final Agency order. 791.85 Section 791.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Final Order § 791.85 Availability of final Agency...

  11. 40 CFR 791.85 - Availablity of final Agency order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Availablity of final Agency order. 791.85 Section 791.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Final Order § 791.85 Availablity of final Agency...

  12. 40 CFR 791.85 - Availability of final Agency order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of final Agency order. 791.85 Section 791.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Final Order § 791.85 Availability of final Agency...

  13. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  14. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  15. 40 CFR 791.85 - Availablity of final Agency order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Availablity of final Agency order. 791.85 Section 791.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Final Order § 791.85 Availablity of final Agency...

  16. 40 CFR 791.85 - Availability of final Agency order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Availability of final Agency order. 791.85 Section 791.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Final Order § 791.85 Availability of final Agency...

  17. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  18. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  19. 40 CFR 56.7 - State agency performance audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false State agency performance audits. 56.7 Section 56.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGIONAL CONSISTENCY § 56.7 State agency performance audits. (a) EPA will utilize the provisions of...

  20. Oceanographic effects of the 1992 Point Loma sewage pipe spill

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.; Ciccateri, A.; Dougherty, K.; Gacek, L.; Lane, S.; Liponi, K.; Leeds, R.; Walsh, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Early in early 1992, 180 million gallons of advanced primarily treated sewage emptied into 10 meters of water from the broken Point Loma sewage pipe, San Diego. For about two months a sewage boil about the size of a football field existed at the surface and within the Point Loma kelp bed. Sampling and observations taken during the spill indicated the surface waters at the spill site were grayish and smelling of sewage. The sewage water had mixed with the marine waters reducing salinity to about one-half normal (or 15 ppt.). The sediment load of the sewage coated the blades of the giant kelp and the kelp was limp and withdrawn from the surface. At the site of the main boil the kelp appeared to have dropped to the bottom. Sediments on the bottom in the boil area were mainly coarse sands as compared to the surrounding sandy-muds. Preliminary results using laboratory analysis suggest: one month into the spill no infauna were observed in the sediments or planktons in the water of the boil area, but were in the surrounding sediments and water; the observed phytoplankton were dominated by dinoflagellates and suggested red tide conditions surrounding the boil. The site has been monitored monthly since the spill to observe further impact and recovery.

  1. Indirect methods of dried sewage sludge contamination assessments.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz; Grübel, Klaudiusz

    2016-07-28

    Thermal conversion (combustion, co-combustion, gasification and pyrolysis) appears to be the most promising alternative for sewage sludge management in the future. Nevertheless, safe and ecological usage of sewage sludge as a fuel requires information about their contamination. The aim of this paper is to present the photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) as a good method for contamination assessments of dried sewage sludge. Two types of granular sewage sludge: Sewage sludge 1 (SS1) taken from Polish wastewater treatment plant operating in the mechanical-biological system and sewage sludge 2 (SS2) taken from mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment plant with phosphorus precipitation were analysed. The spectrophotometer FTIR Nicolet 6700 equipped with photoacoustic cell (Model 300, MTEC, USA) was used. The comparison with the most popular analytical methods (GC-MS) was also done. The results of PAS studies confirm the difference between the SS1 and SS2 which is in agreement with the GC-MS analysis. Higher absorbance was observed at each wavelength characteristics for the oscillator of chemical moieties for the SS1 with respect to the SS2. PMID:27149560

  2. 28 CFR 81.4 - Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.4 Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency. Where a report of child abuse received by a designated agency that is not a law enforcement agency involves allegations of sexual...

  3. Perspectives: The Continuous Improvement Trap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Accrediting agencies, legislators, pundits, and even higher educational professionals have become enamored with applying the language of continuous improvement to learning outcomes. The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges specifically uses the term "continuing improvement" in Core Standard 2.5, one of its…

  4. Preparing sewage sludge for land application or surface disposal: A guide for preparers of sewage sludge on the monitoring, record keeping, and reporting requirements of the federal standards for the use of disposal of sewage sludge, 40 CFR part 503

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The document focuses on the monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements that apply to persons who prepare sewage sludge or a material derived from sewage sludge. It defines persons who prepare sewage sludge and then summarizes their general responsibilities. USEPA promulgated at 40 CFR Part 503 Phase 1 of the risk-based regulations that govern the final use or disposal of sewage sludge. The intent of the Federal program is to ensure that the use or disposal of sewage sludge occurs in a way that protects both human health and the environment. The Part 503 regulation establishes general requirements, pollutant limits, operational standards, and management practices, as well as monitoring, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements. These requirements apply to sewage sludge that is land applied, placed on a surface disposal site, or incinerated in a sewage sludge-only incinerator.

  5. Impact of Sublethal Levels of Environmental Pollutants Found in Sewage Sludge on a Novel Caenorhabditis elegans Model Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Amezaga, Maria R.; Petra, Eleni; Frost, Andrew; Duff, Elizabeth I.; Rhind, Stewart M.; Fowler, Paul A.; Glover, L. Anne

    2012-01-01

    A transgenic strain of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans in which bioluminescence reports on relative, whole-organism ATP levels was used to test an environmentally-relevant mixture of pollutants extracted from processed sewage sludge. Changes in bioluminescence, following exposure to sewage sludge extract, were used to assess relative ATP levels and overall metabolic health. Reproductive function and longevity were also monitored. A short (up to 8 h) sublethal exposure of L4 larval stage worms to sewage sludge extract had a concentration-dependent, detrimental effect on energy status, with bioluminescence decreasing to 50–60% of the solvent control (1% DMSO). Following longer exposure (22–24 h), the energy status of the nematodes showed recovery as assessed by bioluminescence. Continuous exposure to sewage sludge extract from the L4 stage resulted in a shorter median lifespan relative to that of solvent or medium control animals, but only in the presence of 400–600 µM 5-fluoro-2′-deoxyuridine (FUdR), which was incorporated to inhibit reproduction. This indicated that FUdR increased lifespan, and that the effect was counteracted by SSE. Exposure to sewage sludge extract from the L1 stage led to slower growth and a delayed onset of egg laying. When L1 exposed nematodes reached the reproductive stage, no effect on egg laying rate or egg number in the uterus was observed. DMSO itself (1%) had a significant inhibitory effect on growth and development of C. elegans exposed from the L1 stage and on reproduction when exposed from the L4 stage. Results demonstrate subtle adverse effects on C. elegans of a complex mixture of environmental pollutants that are present, individually, in very low concentrations and indicate that our biosensor of energy status is a novel, sensitive, rapid, quantitative, whole-organism test system which is suitable for high throughput risk assessment of complex pollutant mixtures. PMID:23056324

  6. Nitrogen Species in Soil, Sediment, and Ground Water at a Former Sewage-Treatment Wastewater Lagoon: Naval Air Station Whidbey Island, Island County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, S.E.; Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    The potential for contamination of ground water from remnant sewage sludge in re-graded sediments of a deconstructed sewage-treatment lagoon was evaluated. Ground-water levels were measured in temporary drive-point wells, and ground-water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and other water-quality characteristics. Composite soil and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for organic carbon and nitrogen species. Multiple lines of evidence, including lack of appreciable organic matter in sediments of the former lagoon, agronomic analysis of nitrogen, the sequestration of nitrogen in the developing soils at the former lagoon, and likely occurrence of peat deposits within the aquifer material, suggest that the potential for substantial additions of nitrogen to ground water beneath the former sewage lagoon resulting from remnant sewage sludge not removed from the former lagoon are small. Concentrations of nitrogen species measured in ground-water samples were small and did not exceed the established U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant levels for nitrate (10 milligrams per liter). Concentrations of nitrate in ground-water samples were less than the laboratory reporting limit of 0.06 milligram per liter. Seventy to 90 percent of the total nitrogen present in ground water was in the ammonia form with a maximum concentration of 7.67 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of total nitrogen in ground water beneath the site, which is the sum of all forms of nitrogen including nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and organic nitrogen, ranged from 1.15 to 8.44 milligrams per liter. Thus, even if all forms of nitrogen measured in ground water were converted to nitrate, the combined mass would be less than the maximum contaminant level. Oxidation-reduction conditions in ground water beneath the former sewage lagoon were reducing. Given the abundant supply of ambient organic carbon in the subsurface and in ground water at the former lagoon, any

  7. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  8. Increased biogas production at wastewater treatment plants through co-digestion of sewage sludge with grease trap sludge from a meat processing plant.

    PubMed

    Luostarinen, S; Luste, S; Sillanpää, M

    2009-01-01

    The feasibility of co-digesting grease trap sludge from a meat-processing plant and sewage sludge was studied in batch and reactor experiments at 35 degrees C. Grease trap sludge had high methane production potential (918 m(3)/tVS(added)), but methane production started slowly. When mixed with sewage sludge, methane production started immediately and the potential increased with increasing grease trap sludge content. Semi-continuous co-digestion of the two materials was found feasible up to grease trap sludge addition of 46% of feed volatile solids (hydraulic retention time 16d; maximum organic loading rate 3.46 kgVS/m(3)d). Methane production was significantly higher and no effect on the characteristics of the digested material was noticed as compared to digesting sewage sludge alone. At higher grease trap sludge additions (55% and 71% of feed volatile solids), degradation was not complete and methane production either remained the same or decreased. PMID:18707877

  9. Central Facilities Area Sewage Lagoon Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Mark R. Cole

    2013-12-01

    The Central Facilities Area (CFA), located in Butte County, Idaho, at the Idaho National Laboratory has an existing wastewater system to collect and treat sanitary wastewater and non-contact cooling water from the facility. The existing treatment facility consists of three cells: Cell #1 has a surface area of 1.7 acres, Cell #2 has a surface area of 10.3 acres, and Cell #3 has a surface area of 0.5 acres. If flows exceed the evaporative capacity of the cells, wastewater is discharged to a 73.5-acre land application site that uses a center-pivot irrigation sprinkler system. As flows at CFA have decreased in recent years, the amount of wastewater discharged to the land application site has decreased from 13.64 million gallons in 2004 to no discharge in 2012 and 2013. In addition to the decreasing need for land application, approximately 7.7 MG of supplemental water was added to the system in 2013 to maintain a water level and prevent the clay soil liners in the cells from drying out and “cracking.” The Idaho National Laboratory is concerned that the sewage lagoons and land application site may be oversized for current and future flows. A further concern is the sustainability of the large volumes of supplemental water that are added to the system according to current operational practices. Therefore, this study was initiated to evaluate the system capacity, operational practices, and potential improvement alternatives, as warranted.

  10. 5 CFR 837.302 - Agency contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency contributions. 837.302 Section 837... (CONTINUED) REEMPLOYMENT OF ANNUITANTS Coverage and Contributions § 837.302 Agency contributions. (a) FERS...) of this part shall make contributions, as specified in 5 U.S.C. 8423, to the Fund, based on...

  11. 40 CFR 1507.3 - Agency procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... from applicants. The procedures shall be adopted only after an opportunity for public review and after... own procedures. Agencies shall continue to review their policies and procedures and in consultation... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Agency procedures. 1507.3 Section...

  12. 49 CFR Attachment 2 - Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With Jurisdiction...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Attachment 2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC.... Attachment 2—Areas of Environmental Impact and Federal Agencies and Federal-State Agencies With...

  13. 40 CFR 503.27 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Surface Disposal § 503.27 Recordkeeping. (a) When sewage sludge (other than domestic septage) is placed on an active sewage sludge unit: (1) The person who prepares the sewage...

  14. 40 CFR 503.27 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Surface Disposal § 503.27 Recordkeeping. (a) When sewage sludge (other than domestic septage) is placed on an active sewage sludge unit: (1) The person who prepares the sewage...

  15. 40 CFR 503.27 - Recordkeeping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Surface Disposal § 503.27 Recordkeeping. (a) When sewage sludge (other than domestic septage) is placed on an active sewage sludge unit: (1) The person who prepares the sewage...

  16. 29 CFR 1954.11 - Visits to State agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR THE EVALUATION AND MONITORING OF APPROVED STATE PLANS State Monitoring Reports and Visits to State Agencies § 1954.11 Visits to State agencies. As a part of the continuing monitoring...

  17. Determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sewage sludge by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and HPLC-fluorescence detection: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Alzola, R; Pons, B; Bravo, D; Arranz, A

    2008-11-01

    Two different methods, based on micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC-DA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescence detection, were studied to separate and determine 12 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of 16 PAHs recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in sewage sludge. beta-cyclodextrin was used as a micelle precursor in a sodium borate buffer solution which included the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and the acetonitrile dissolvent. The following parameters: temperature, voltage, pH, concentrations of buffer solution and injection time, were optimized by an experimental design (Nemrodw programme). Furthermore, HPLC-fluorescence detection and separation conditions are reported. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-water in different percentages. Precision, accuracy, linearity and detection and quantification limits were determined. This method was applied in the analysis of sewage sludge from a wastewater depuration station in Crispijana (Alava, Spain). In this case, it is necessary to carry out a solid phase extraction step for its determination. The method was validated by the analysis of a certificated sample of LGC 6182, and finally samples of sewage sludge were analysed weekly for two years, obtaining in all cases results under the legal limits for the use of sewage sludge in agriculture.

  18. Pharmaceuticals as indictors of sewage-influenced groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Beate; Scheytt, Traugott; Asbrand, Martin; de Casas, Andrea Mross

    2012-09-01

    A set of human pharmaceuticals enables identification of groundwater that is influenced by sewage and provides information on the time of recharge. As the consumption rates of the investigated pharmaceuticals have changed over time, so too has the composition of the sewage. At the study area, south of Berlin (Germany), irrigation was performed as a method of wastewater clean-up at sewage irrigation farms until the early 1990s. Today, treated wastewater is discharged into the surface-water-stream Nuthegraben. Groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for the pharmaceutical substances clofibric acid, bezafibrate, diclofenac, carbamazepine and primidone, the main ions and organic carbon. The pharmaceutical substances were detected at concentrations up to microgram-per-liter level in groundwater and surface-water samples from the Nuthegraben Lowland area and from the former irrigation farms. Concentrations detected in groundwater are generally much lower than in surface water and there is significant variation in the distribution of pharmaceutical concentrations in groundwater. Groundwater influenced by the irrigation of sewage water shows higher primidone and clofibric-acid concentrations. Groundwater influenced by recent discharge of treated sewage water into the surface water shows high carbamazepine concentrations while concentrations of primidone and clofibric acid are low.

  19. Sewage reflects the distribution of human faecal Lachnospiraceae

    PubMed Central

    McLellan, Sandra L.; Newton, Ryan J.; Vandewalle, Jessica L.; Shanks, Orin C.; Huse, Susan M.; Eren, A. Murat; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Faecal pollution contains a rich and diverse community of bacteria derived from animals and humans, many of which might serve as alternatives to the traditional enterococci and Escherichia coli faecal indicators. We used massively parallel sequencing (MPS) of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize microbial communities from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influent sewage from 12 cities geographically distributed across the USA. We examined members of the Clostridiales, which included the families Clostridiaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae for their potential as sewage indicators. Lachnospiraceae was one of the most abundant groups of faecal bacteria in sewage, and several Lachnospiraceae high-abundance sewage pyrotags occurred in at least 46 of 48 human faecal samples. Clone libraries targeting Clostridium coccoides (C. coccoides) in sewage samples demonstrated that Lachnospiraceae-annotated V6 pyrotags encompassed the previously reported C. coccoides group. We used oligotyping to profile the genus Blautia within Lachnospiraceae and found oligotypes comprised of 24 entropy components that showed patterns of host specificity. These findings suggest that indicators based on Blautia might have the capacity to discriminate between different faecal pollution sources. Development of source-specific alternative indicators would enhance water quality assessments, which leads to improved ecosystem health and reduced human health risk due to waterborne disease. PMID:23438335

  20. Changes in bacterial and eukaryotic communities during sewage decomposition in Mississippi River water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial decay processes are one of the mechanisms whereby sewage contamination is reduced in the environment. This decomposition process involves a highly complex array of bacterial and eukaryotic communities from both sewage and ambient waters. However, relatively little is kn...

  1. Metal partitioning and toxicity in sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M.

    1995-12-31

    Over 20 years of research has failed to provide an unequivocal correlation between chemically extracted metals in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soil and either metal toxicity to soil organisms or crop uptake. Partitioning of metals between phases and species can provide a better estimation of mobility and potential bioavailability. Partition coefficients, K{sub D} for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a sludge/water solution were determined considering the sludge/water solution as a three-phase system (particulate, colloidal and electrochemically available) over a range of pH values, ionic strengths, contact times and sludge/water ratios and compared with the KD values for sludge/water solution as a two-phase system (aqueous phase and particulate phase). Partitioning results were interpreted in terms of metal mobility from sludge to colloids and in terms of potential bioavailability from colloids to electrochemically available. The results show that both mobility and potential bioavailability are high for Zn, while Cu partitions into the mobile colloidal phase which is relatively non-bioavailable. Lead is almost completely bound to the solid phase, and is neither mobile nor bioavailable. A comparison between K, values and toxicity shows that Zn in sludge is more toxic than can be accounted for in the aqueous phase, which can be due to synergistic effects between sludge organics and Zn. Copper demonstrates clear synergism which can be attributed to the formation of lipid-soluble Cu complexes with known sludge components such as LAS, caffeine, myristic acid and nonylphenol.

  2. Impacts on groundwater due to land application of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, A.J.

    1984-06-01

    The project was designed to demonstrate the potential benefits of utilizing sewage sludge as a soil conditioner and fertilizer on Sassafras sandy loam soil. Aerobically digested, liquid sewage sludge was applied to the soil at rates of 0, 22.4, and 44.8 Mg of dry solids/ha for three consecutive years between 1978 and 1981. Groundwater, soil, and crop contamination levels were monitored to establish the maximum sewage solids loading rate that could be applied without causing environmental deterioration. The results indicate that application of 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha of sludge is the upper limit to ensure protection of the groundwater quality on the site studied. Application rates at or slightly below 22.4 Mg of dry solids/ha are sufficient for providing plant nutrients for the dent corn and rye cropping system utilized in the study.

  3. [Heavy metal problems in the agricultural utilization of sewage sludge].

    PubMed

    Leschber, R

    1983-09-01

    Introductory comments on the problems linked with sewage sludge disposal and utilization are given and it is demonstrated that agricultural use of sludge must definitely be given preference over other disposal methods for reasons related to waste utilization and ecology. The legal development which led from the promulgation of the Waste Disposal Act via its recent revision to the Sewage Sludge Decree according to para 15 of this Act, is illustrated. Subsequently the objectives of the decree, which in particular also attempts to solve the problems associated with heavy metals in agricultural sludge utilization, as well as the technical contents of the draft are dealt with. Reference is made to the Sewage Sludge Decree promulgated by the Swiss Bundesrat and to a corresponding draft of guidelines prepared by the Commission of the EEC and the measures which must be adopted to solve the heavy metal problem in the future are then mentioned.

  4. Neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure on sewage treatment workers

    SciTech Connect

    Kraut, A.; Lilis, R.; Marcus, M.; Valciukas, J.A.; Wolff, M.S.; Landrigan, P.J.

    1988-07-01

    Nineteen Sewage Treatment Workers (STWs) exposed to industrial sewage that contained benzene, toluene, and other organic solvents at a primary sewage treatment plant in New York City (Plant A) were examined for evidence of solvent toxicity. Fourteen (74%) complained of central nervous system (CNS) symptoms consistent with solvent exposure, including lightheadedness, fatigue, increased sleep requirement, and headache. The majority of these symptoms resolved with transfer from the plant. Men working less than 1 yr at Plant A were more likely to complain of two or more CNS symptoms than men who were working there longer than 1 yr (p = .055). Objective abnormalities in neurobehavioral testing were found in all 4 men working longer than 9 yr at this plant, but in only 5 of 15 employed there for a shorter period (p = .03). These results are consistent with the known effects of solvent exposure. Occupational health personnel must be aware that STWs can be exposed to solvents and other industrial wastes.

  5. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

    2010-11-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 gṡL-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4˜10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

  6. Self-contained sewage treatment system and method

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmson, Th.J.

    1985-02-26

    A self-contained sewage treatment system and method includes a first waterless treating tank operable to separate feculent solids from raw sewage influent in a suspended bio-mass for effective aerobic bacterial digestion in this tank with the outlet of the waterless tank connected to the inlet of a septic tank where sedimentation of the smaller entrained organic particles in the liquor leaving the waterless tank can occur and undergo anaerobic bacterial digestion. The system can include pipe means for distributing the clear liquor from the septic tank in a leach field where it can be disposed of in a safe, pollution-free and environmentally acceptable manner without deleterious effects. Because the method of treatment effectively removes all of the organic solids from the raw sewage influent by using aerobic digestion followed by anaerobic digestion in sequential steps, the clear liquor leaving the septic tank will be environmentally safe and free of all entrained organic matter.

  7. Drug Resistance of Coliform Bacteria in Hospital and City Sewage

    PubMed Central

    Grabow, W. O. K.; Prozesky, O. W.

    1973-01-01

    The number and properties of drug-resistant coliform bacteria in hospital and city sewage were compared. There was little difference in the counts of organisms with nontransferable resistance to one or more of 13 commonly used drugs. An average of 26% of coliforms in hospital waste water had transferable resistance to at least one of the drugs ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfonamide, or tetracycline as compared to an average of 4% in city sewage. R+ bacteria in the hospital discharge were also resistant to a broader spectrum of drugs than those in city sewage. In both effluents, the occurrence of fecal Escherichia coli among R+ coliforms was twice as high as among coliforms with nontransferable resistance. Resistance was transferable to Salmonella typhi, and such drug-resistant pathogens in the water environment could be of particular concern. The significance of the results with regard to environmental pollution with R+ bacteria and the dissemination of these organisms is discussed. PMID:4597713

  8. Health among municipal sewage and water treatment workers.

    PubMed

    Scarlett-Kranz, J M; Babish, J G; Strickland, D; Lisk, D J

    1987-09-01

    Municipal sewage treatment plant workers are potentially exposed to a multitude of industrial chemicals and pathogenic microorganisms. A questionnaire survey of working habits, lifestyle and symptoms of illness was conducted among 189 municipal sewage treatment plant workers processing between three and ten million gallons of wastewater daily in 16 plants in New York State between March and July of 1984. Water treatment plant workers in the same cities comprised the comparison group. Sewage workers reported a significantly higher frequency of headache, dizziness, sore throat, skin irritation and diarrhea within the month immediately preceding receipt of the questionnaire, after controlling for various possible confounders. Eye and skin irritation were significantly associated with exposure to mutagens. The health significance of these findings and possible sources of error in assessing risk are discussed.

  9. 15 CFR 930.75 - State agency assistance to persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.75 State agency assistance...

  10. 15 CFR 930.78 - State agency concurrence or objection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.78 State agency...

  11. 15 CFR 930.78 - State agency concurrence or objection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.78 State agency...

  12. 15 CFR 930.75 - State agency assistance to persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.75 State agency assistance...

  13. 15 CFR 930.75 - State agency assistance to persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.75 State agency assistance...

  14. 15 CFR 930.75 - State agency assistance to persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.75 State agency assistance...

  15. 15 CFR 930.78 - State agency concurrence or objection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.78 State agency...

  16. 15 CFR 930.75 - State agency assistance to persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.75 State agency assistance...

  17. 15 CFR 930.78 - State agency concurrence or objection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.78 State agency...

  18. 15 CFR 930.78 - State agency concurrence or objection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL... Continental Shelf (OCS) Exploration, Development and Production Activities § 930.78 State agency...

  19. 38 CFR 21.7200 - State approving agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION All Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program... activities; and (f) Section 21.4155—Evaluation of State approving agency performance. (Authority: 38...

  20. 15 CFR 1180.8 - Appointment of Agency Liaison Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRANSFER BY FEDERAL AGENCIES OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.8 Appointment...

  1. 38 CFR 21.7200 - State approving agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION All Volunteer Force Educational Assistance Program... activities; and (f) Section 21.4155—Evaluation of State approving agency performance. (Authority: 38...

  2. 15 CFR 1180.8 - Appointment of Agency Liaison Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRANSFER BY FEDERAL AGENCIES OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.8 Appointment...

  3. 15 CFR 1180.8 - Appointment of Agency Liaison Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRANSFER BY FEDERAL AGENCIES OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.8 Appointment...

  4. 15 CFR 1180.8 - Appointment of Agency Liaison Officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) TECHNOLOGY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE TRANSFER BY FEDERAL AGENCIES OF SCIENTIFIC, TECHNICAL AND ENGINEERING INFORMATION TO THE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE § 1180.8 Appointment...

  5. Virus movement in soil columns flooded with secondary sewage effluent.

    PubMed

    Lance, J C; Gerba, C P; Melnick, J L

    1976-10-01

    Secondary sewage effluent containing about 3 X 10(4) plaque-forming units of polio virus type 1 (LSc) per ml was passed through columns 250 cm in length packed with calcareous sand from an area in the Salt River bed used for ground-water recharge of secondary sewage effluent. Viruses were not detected in 1-ml samples extracted from the columns below the 160-cm level. However, viruses were detected in 5 of 43 100-ml samples of the column drainage water. Most of the viruses were adsorbed in the top 5 cm of soil. Virus removal was not affected by the infiltration rate, which varied between 15 and 55 cm/day. Flooding a column continuosly for 27 days with the sewage water virus mixture did not saturate the top few centimeters of soil with viruses and did not seem to affect virus movement. Flooding with deionized water caused virus desorption from the soil and increased their movement through the columns. Adding CaCl2 to the deionized water prevented most of the virus desorption. Adding a pulse of deionized water followed by sewage water started a virus front moving through the columns, but the viruses were readsorbed and none was detected in outflow samples. Drying the soil for 1 day between applying the virus and flooding with deionized water greatly reduced desorption, and drying for 5 days prevented desorption. Large reductions (99.99% or more) of virus would be expected after passage of secondary sewage effluent through 250 cm of the calcareous sand similar to that used in our laboratory columns unless heavy rains fell within 1 day after the application of sewage stopped. Such virus movement could be minimized by the proper management of flooding and drying cycles. PMID:185960

  6. PROCESS DESIGN MANUAL: LAND APPLICATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND DOMESTIC SEPTAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land application of sewage sludge generated by domestic sewage treatment is performed in an environmentally safe and cost–effective manner in many communities. Land application involves taking advantage of the fertilizing and soil conditioning properties of sewage sludge by sp...

  7. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Mehnert, D.U.; Stewien, K.E. )

    1993-01-01

    Rotavirus invection is an important cause of hospitalization and mortality of infants and children in developing countries, especially where the water supply and sewage disposal systems are in precarious conditions. This report describes the detection, quantitation, and distribution of rotaviruses in domestic sewage and sewage polluted creeks in the city of San Paulo. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering into agreements with private or public parties to treat sewage or... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  9. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of...

  11. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of...

  12. 40 CFR 60.4780 - What sewage sludge incineration units are exempt from this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... designed to treat domestic sewage sludge. These units may be subject to another subpart of this part (e.g... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What sewage sludge incineration units... Standards of Performance for New Sewage Sludge Incineration Units Applicability and Delegation of...

  13. 33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treated sewage or graywater. 159.309 Section 159.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.309 Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a cruise vessel into...

  14. 33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treated sewage or graywater. 159.309 Section 159.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.309 Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a cruise vessel into...

  15. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering into agreements with private or public parties to treat sewage or... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  16. 33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treated sewage or graywater. 159.309 Section 159.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.309 Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a cruise vessel into...

  17. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering into agreements with private or public parties to treat sewage or... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  18. 7 CFR 1780.63 - Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.63 Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts. Owners entering into agreements with private or public parties to treat sewage or... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sewage treatment and bulk water sales contracts....

  19. 33 CFR 159.309 - Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treated sewage or graywater. 159.309 Section 159.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Certain Alaskan Waters by Cruise Vessel Operations § 159.309 Limitations on discharge of treated sewage or graywater. (a) No person shall discharge treated sewage or graywater from a cruise vessel into...

  20. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOGARTY, WILLIAM J.; REEDER, MILTON E.

    A DETERMINATION OF THE HOURLY AND DAILY SEWAGE FLOW RATES IN FLORIDA PUBLIC SCHOOLS WAS MADE TO IDENTIFY THE FLOW CHARACTERISTICS AND TO PROVIDE A MORE PRECISE BASIS FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF DESIGN CRITERIA FOR SEWAGE DISPOSAL FACILITIES IN SCHOOLS. WATER FLOW DATA WAS COLLECTED FOR 158 SCHOOLS AND SEWAGE FLOW DATA FROM 42 SCHOOLS. THE FINDINGS…

  1. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 226 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 247 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  3. Municipal sewage sludge as fertilizer. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of sewage sludge as fertilizer. References study the effects of municipal sewage sludge on vegetation such as maize, beans, roadside plant life, and hardwood trees. Sewage sludge used as fertilizer to reclaim mined land is explored. Public attitudes are also considered. (Contains a minimum of 230 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. The effects of applying sewage sludge into Jiangxi red soil on the growth of vegetables and the migration and enrichment of Cu and Zn.

    PubMed

    Rrong, Wang; Aiping, Tang; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-09-01

    Jiangxi red soil was used as the tested soil and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic) and Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) were used as the tested vegetables in this study to investigate the effects of different amounts of sewage-sludge application on the growth of vegetables and the migration and enrichment patterns of Cu and Zn in vegetables using the potted method. The results indicated that the application of sewage sludge could improve the properties of red soil and promote vegetable growth. The dry weight of water spinach and Chinese chive reached the maximal levels when treated with the amount of sewage sludge at 4% and 10%, which was 4.38 ± 0.82 g and 1.56 ± 0.31 g, respectively. The dry weights after the application of sewage sludge were all larger than control treatment (CK) without sludge application. With increases in the applied amount of sewage sludge, the concentrations of Cu and Zu in red soil continued to increase, and the peak value was not reached. After the two vegetables were planted, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in red soil decreased by different degrees. The degrees of decrease of Zn were generally higher than those of Cu. The enrichment coefficient of water spinach on Cu showed a trend of increase followed by a decrease and reached the peak value of 1.04 ± 0.38 when the applied amount was 4%. The enrichment coefficient of Chinese chive on Cu overall showed a decreasing trend and did not reach the peak value under the treatment levels used in this experiment. The enrichment pattern of Chinese chive on Zn was not obvious, and the differences among all treatment levels were not significant (p < 0.05). However, the enrichment coefficient after the application of sewage sludge was significantly lower than that without the application of sludge. PMID:27579018

  5. The effects of applying sewage sludge into Jiangxi red soil on the growth of vegetables and the migration and enrichment of Cu and Zn.

    PubMed

    Rrong, Wang; Aiping, Tang; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel

    2016-09-01

    Jiangxi red soil was used as the tested soil and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatic) and Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum) were used as the tested vegetables in this study to investigate the effects of different amounts of sewage-sludge application on the growth of vegetables and the migration and enrichment patterns of Cu and Zn in vegetables using the potted method. The results indicated that the application of sewage sludge could improve the properties of red soil and promote vegetable growth. The dry weight of water spinach and Chinese chive reached the maximal levels when treated with the amount of sewage sludge at 4% and 10%, which was 4.38 ± 0.82 g and 1.56 ± 0.31 g, respectively. The dry weights after the application of sewage sludge were all larger than control treatment (CK) without sludge application. With increases in the applied amount of sewage sludge, the concentrations of Cu and Zu in red soil continued to increase, and the peak value was not reached. After the two vegetables were planted, the concentrations of Cu and Zn in red soil decreased by different degrees. The degrees of decrease of Zn were generally higher than those of Cu. The enrichment coefficient of water spinach on Cu showed a trend of increase followed by a decrease and reached the peak value of 1.04 ± 0.38 when the applied amount was 4%. The enrichment coefficient of Chinese chive on Cu overall showed a decreasing trend and did not reach the peak value under the treatment levels used in this experiment. The enrichment pattern of Chinese chive on Zn was not obvious, and the differences among all treatment levels were not significant (p < 0.05). However, the enrichment coefficient after the application of sewage sludge was significantly lower than that without the application of sludge.

  6. The application of potassium ferrate for sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jia-Qian; Panagoulopoulos, Alex; Bauer, Mike; Pearce, Pete

    2006-04-01

    The comparative performance of potassium ferrate(VI), ferric sulphate and aluminium sulphate for the removal of turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour (as Vis400-abs) and bacteria in sewage treatment was evaluated. For coagulation and disinfection of sewage, potassium ferrate(VI) can remove more organic contaminants, COD and bacteria in comparison with the other two coagulants for the same doses used. Also, potassium ferrate(VI) produces less sludge volume and removes more contaminants, which should make subsequent sludge treatment easier.

  7. Evaluation of forest trees growth after sewage sludge application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaitkutä--, Dovilé; Balträ--Naitä--, Edita; Booth, Colin A.; Fullen, Michael A.; Pereira, Paulo

    2010-05-01

    Sewage sludge is extensively used in forest to improve soil properties. It is expected that sewage sludge rich in phosphorus, nitrogen and organic material enhance the germination of tree seedlings in poor soils. In Lithuania, the deforested soils are highly acid, and have a lack of nutrients, especially in exploited peat areas. Sewage sludge from industry contains beneficial components for the soils (such as organic matter, phosphorus, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, etc.). However, it is also rich in heavy metals, especially Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn. High heavy metals concentrations in soil can be phytotoxic and cause reduced plant growth or plant death. The main objectives of this research was to determine the influence of industrial sewage sludge in the forestry and to highlight the idea that industrial sewage sludge containing metals does not favour development of birch and pine trees. The study was performed in Taruskos experimental plot in Panevezys region (Lithuania), amended with industrial sewage sludge ten years ago was afforestated with birch and pine seedlings. In order to observe the effects of the amendment in accumulation the mentioned metals and tree growth we collected data from trees in amended plot and control plot. The results showed that soil parameters were improved in the amended plot, in comparing with control site (higher pH, organic matter and cation exchange capacity). However, the growth of investigated trees was slower (e.g. birch roots, shoot, stem and leaves biomass was 40, 7.4, 18.6, 22% smaller than in control site. In pine case: 30, 1.2, 17, 36%, respectively; the stem height of birch was 16% and pine - 12% smaller than in control site). This reduced growth can be related with heavy metals concentration load on soil and accumulation in trees. Cu and Cd concentrations were higher in soil amended with sewage sludge comparing with control site (60 and 36%, respectively). Also, in contaminated trees Cu and Cd concentrations were higher (Cu

  8. Physico-chemical aspects of sewage ionizing radiation treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vysotskaya, N. A.; Shevchuk, L. G.

    The ionizing radiation treatment of sewage and redundant activated sludges at doses ranging from 5 to 10 kGy was shown to decrease the specific resistance to filtration, the ɣ-potential of colloidal particles, the bound water content of sewage sludge and to increase the amount of highly molecular substances of filtrate. The dependence of viscosity on concentration and temperature obtained in the radiolysis of gelatin solutions acting as model system allow us to suggest that the straightening out of the dissolved protein molecules and their flocculating properties may be one of the reasons of the improved filtrability of irradiated sludges.

  9. Spreading lagooned sewage sludge on farm land: A case history

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, C.M.; Sommers, L.E.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes the development of a project involving the application of approximately 265,000 cubic meters of lagooned sewage sludge from a metropolitan area on privately-owned farm land in an adjacent, rural county. The sludge application project was initiated to enable use of the land occupied by the lagoons for expansion of the sewage treatment plant. The procedures developed will be valuable to those proposing to practice land disposal of stabilized sludge as part of the Nation`s resource conservation program.

  10. Reactive-transport simulation of phosphorus in the sewage plume at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parkhurst, David L.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Colman, John A.

    2003-01-01

    which non-desorbable phosphorus is incorporated in the sediments. The uncertainties were large enough to make it difficult to determine whether loads of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond in the 1990s were greater or less than loads during the previous two decades. The model simulations indicate substantial discharge of phosphorus to Ashumet Pond after about 1965. After the period 2000?10 the simulations indicate that the load of phosphorus transported to Ashumet Pond decreases continuously, but the load of phosphorus remains substantial for many decades. The current simulations indicate a peak in phosphorus discharge to Ashumet Pond of about 1,000 kilograms per year during the 1990s; however, comparisons of simulated phosphorus concentrations with measured concentrations in 1993 indicate that the peak in phosphorus load transported to Ashumet Pond may be larger and moving more quickly in the model simulations than in the aquifer. The results of the three-dimensional reactive-transport simulations are consistent with the loading history, experimental laboratory data, and field measurements. The results of the simulations adequately reproduce the spatial distribution of phosphorus concentrations measured in 1993, the magnitude of changes in phosphorus concentration with time in a profile near the disposal beds following cessation of sewage disposal, the observed iron zone in the sewage plume, the approximate flow of treated sewage effluent into Ashumet Valley, and laboratory-column data for phosphorus sorption and desorption.

  11. Isolation and identification of enteroviruses from sewage and sewage-contaminated water in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adeniji, Johnson Adekunle; Faleye, Temitope Oluwasegun Cephas

    2014-06-01

    Studies have confirmed silent circulation of enteroviruses in the environment even in the absence of associated clinical conditions in the community. In this light, 26 samples of sewage and sewage-contaminated water serving selected high-risk communities in Lagos Nigeria were examined between June and September 2010. To concentrate virus particles in the sample, 480 μL of each sample was centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 1 h at 4 °C. Subsequently, pellets were pooled, chloroform treated and further centrifuged at 1,500 rpm for 20 min at 4 °C. The water phase (concentrate) was then collected and stored at -20 °C. The concentrates were subsequently inoculated into RD and L20B cell lines. Recovered isolates were identified by real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR), serotyping, VP1 amplification, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Overall, 9 (34.6%) of the samples showed characteristic enterovirus cytopathic effect in RD cell line and were subsequently confirmed by pan-enterovirus rRT-PCR. The isolates were further identified by serotyping to include three E7, one E11 and one E13 isolates whilst four isolates were untypable. Further characterisation by VP1 sequencing confirmed the results of serotyping and rRT-PCR for all but isolate E13. Also, the four previously untypable isolates were identified to include two E19, one E20 and one E7 by VP1 sequencing. Results of the study confirmed circulation of Sub-Saharan Africa-specific enterovirus clades in the region, provide information on their molecular epidemiology and emphasise the need to combine methods of identification to enhance enterovirus surveillance.

  12. Effects of land disposal of municipal sewage sludge on fate of nitrates in soil, streambed sediment, and water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tindall, James A.; Lull, Kenneth J.; Gaggiani, Neville G.

    1994-12-01

    at the research site, it has been determined that a potentially large source of contamination exists in the soils of the study area owing to increased concentrations of nitrogen, sodium, calcium, magnesium, sulfate, bicarbonate, and chloride because of sewage disposal. Continued monitoring of surface and ground water for nitrogen and the other ions previously mentioned is required to assess long-term effects of municipal sludge disposal on water quality.

  13. Seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass in Victoria Harbour and its vicinity before and after sewage abatement.

    PubMed

    Ho, Alvin Y T; Xu, Jie; Yin, Kedong; Yuan, Xiangcheng; He, Lei; Jiang, Yuelu; Lee, Joseph H W; Anderson, Donald M; Harrison, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the seasonal and spatial dynamics of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass at 12 stations in Hong Kong (HK) waters during a three year period from 2004 to 2006 after upgraded sewage treatment and compared these results to observations before sewage treatment. Pearl River estuary (PRE) discharge significantly increased NO(3) and SiO(4) concentrations, particularly in western and southern waters when rainfall and river discharge was maximal in summer. Continuous year round discharge of sewage effluent resulted in high NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbour (VH) and its vicinity. In winter, spring and fall, the water column at all stations was moderately mixed by winds and tidal currents, and phytoplankton biomass was relatively low compared to summer. In summer, the mean surface phytoplankton chl biomass was generally > 9 microL(-1) in most areas as a result of thermohaline stratification, and high nutrients, light, and water temperature. In summer, the potential limiting nutrient is PO(4) in the most productive southern waters and it seldom decreased to limiting levels ( approximately 0.1 microM), suggesting that phytoplankton growth may be only episodically limiting. The mean bottom dissolved oxygen (DO) remained > 3.5 mg L(-1) at most stations, indicating that the eutrophication impact in HK waters was not as severe as expected for such a eutrophic area. After the implementation of chemically enhanced primary sewage treatment in 2001, water quality in VH improved as indicated by a significant decrease in NH(4) and PO(4) and an increase in bottom DO. In contrast, there were an increase in chl a and NO(3), and a significant decrease in bottom DO in southern waters in summer, suggesting that hypoxic events are most likely to occur in this region if phytoplankton biomass and oxygen consumption keep increasing and exceed the buffering capacity of HK waters maintained by monsoon winds, tidal mixing and zooplankton grazing. Therefore, future studies on

  14. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This

  15. Occurrence of Zoogloea Colonies and Protozoans at Different Stages of Sewage Purification1

    PubMed Central

    Amin, P. M.; Ganapati, S. V.

    1967-01-01

    The presence of fingered branch-bearing Zoogloea has been noted on a number of occasions in the Baroda Sewage Disposal Works. Samples of raw sewage, the effluent from the continuous flow settling basin, the raw sludge, the floating scum in the settling basin, the final secondary digested sludge, and the supernatant liquid from the secondary digester were kept without any disturbance in 1-liter Pyrex glass beakers, which were loosely covered with petri dishes. Scum was formed on the surface within 48 hr in all the samples, and fingered Zoogloea colonies resembling the pure culture of Zoogloea ramigera reported by Crabtree et al. (5) were found in all except the final secondary digested sludge and the supernatant liquid from the secondary digester. It is not known whether the Zoogloea colonies discovered in the above cases are the same as or different from the typical Zoogloea ramigera of activated sludge, and whether they are slime-forming or flocculent types of bacteria. In any case, they seem to be different in their ecological status and in the nature of the accompanying protozoans from the typical Zoogloea ramigera. The reasons for the absence of zoogloeas in two of the samples are unknown. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:16349712

  16. [Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by composting of municipal sewage sludge and rapeseed meal].

    PubMed

    Pan, Fei; Chen, Wu; Zhang, Ya-qing; Ying, Chao-ming; Liu, Yang; Zeng, Qing-fu

    2009-12-01

    The goal of these studies was to determine the fate of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the 94 days of composting of municipal sewage sludge with rapeseed meal. The total PAHs calculated from the sum of the amounts of the 16 PAHs in the initial mixture of municipal sewage sludge was about 1.792 mg x kg(-1). Then the content of total 16 PAHs was 0.153 mg x kg(-1) at the final of composting. The level of total PAHs fell by about 91.5% (p < 0.05) at the end of composting. While the content of humic substance increased, the content of PAHs decreased in the intermediate stages (31-61 days) of composting. The treatment by composting led to a decrease of all PAHs mainly in 16-31 d, but some differences could be observed between PAHs with three or fewer aromatic rings (N=3) and those with four or more (N=4). The PAHs with N of three or fewer (except phenanthrene) exhibited a continuous decrease, which the PAHs with N of four or more and phenanthrene showed increases between the 31-46 days. This indicates the high potential sorption mainly of PAHs with high molecular weight (N=4) plus phenanthrene, their tight adsorption makes them inaccessible for biodegradation. The high molecular weight PAHs showed a greater reduction of their bioavailability than low molecular weight (except benzo[b]fluoranthene).

  17. Beneficial uses of nuclear byproducts/sewage sludge irradiation project. Progress report, October 1981-March 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, B.D.

    1982-12-01

    A cooperative agreement was made between Albuquerque and DOE during FY81 for sewage sludge irradiation in upgrading the sewage treatment facilities. Other potential sites for implementation of sludge irradiation technology were also considered. Sludge was irradiated in the SIDSS for agronomy and animal feeding experiments. Sludge was also irradiated for use on turf areas. Cooperative work was also performed on grapefruit irradiation for fruit fly disinfestation, and on irradiation of sugar cane waste (bagasse) for enhanced ruminant digestibility. Preliminary design work began on a shipping cask to accomodate WESF Cs-137 capsules. The shielding performance, steady-state thermal response, and response to specified regulatory accident sequences have been evaluated. Work has been initiated on pathogen survival and post-irradiation pathogen behavior. Agronomy field, greenhouse, and soil chemistry studies continue. Various field experiments are ongoing. The fifth year of a five-year program to evaluate the potential use of a sludge product as a range feed supplement for cows is now in its fifth year. In agricultural economics, a preliminary marketing plan has been prepared for Albuquerque.

  18. Co-digestion of sewage sludge with glycerol to boost biogas production

    SciTech Connect

    Fountoulakis, M.S.; Petousi, I.; Manios, T.

    2010-10-15

    The feasibility of adding crude glycerol from the biodiesel industry to the anaerobic digesters treating sewage sludge in wastewater treatment plants was studied in both batch and continuous experiments at 35 {sup o}C. Glycerol addition can boost biogas yields, if it does not exceed a limiting 1% (v/v) concentration in the feed. Any further increase of glycerol causes a high imbalance in the anaerobic digestion process. The reactor treating the sewage sludge produced 1106 {+-} 36 ml CH{sub 4}/d before the addition of glycerol and 2353 {+-} 94 ml CH{sub 4}/d after the addition of glycerol (1% v/v in the feed). The extra glycerol-COD added to the feed did not have a negative effect on reactor performance, but seemed to increase the active biomass (volatile solids) concentration in the system. Batch kinetic experiments showed that the maximum specific utilization rate ({mu}{sub max}) and the saturation constant (K{sub S}) of glycerol were 0.149 {+-} 0.015 h{sup -1} and 0.276 {+-} 0.095 g/l, respectively. Comparing the estimated values with the kinetics constants for propionate reported in the literature, it can be concluded that glycerol uptake is not the rate-limiting step during the process.

  19. Paraben resistance in bacteria from sewage treatment plant effluents in India.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, Krishna Kumar; Sivakumar, Senthilkumari; Sampath, Srimurali; Shanmugam, Govindaraj; Sundaresan, Umamaheswari; Ramaswamy, Babu Rajendran

    2013-01-01

    Parabens, the antimicrobial preservatives used in cosmetics, food and pharmaceuticals, are often detected in the aquatic environment. Generally, sewage treatment plants (STPs) receive community sewage containing parabens, which are ultimately released into streams/rivers. In this study, bacteria in STP effluents were evaluated for their resistance to parabens. The susceptibility was in the order of Staphylococcus aureus > Bacillus sp. >Escherichia coli > Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gram-negative bacteria showed less susceptibility than their control and Gram-positive bacteria. Further, the bacteria were more sensitive towards butyl and ethyl parabens. Interestingly, the strains showed resistance to ≥5 mg of parabens, which is equivalent to or higher than reported environmental concentrations. The increase in paraben chain length did not enhance the susceptibility in all cases and it was understood that the activity may differ for each bacterium in the environment. This is the first profile on paraben resistance in common pathogens of Indian STPs. Paraben resistance may be developed due to continuous exposure even at sub-inhibitory and/or chronic levels in the environment and this resistance may be transferred to other pathogenic bacteria in receiving waters. Thus the study demonstrates the effectiveness of the disc diffusion method in environmental bacterial resistance assessment and addresses the risk involved in the use of parabens. PMID:24225110

  20. Disinfection and oxidation of sewage effluent water using ozone and UV technologies.

    PubMed

    Oh, B S; Park, S J; Jung, Y J; Park, S Y; Kang, J W

    2007-01-01

    This study was aimed at exploring the reclamation of sewage treatment plant effluent water (SEW) as an alternative water resource. For the oxidation of SEW, an ozone-UV system, based on the results of the combined ozone/UV process performed in our previous study, was set up under practical conditions, including a series type, continuous mode, semi-pilot scale operation (1.5 m3/d). As a result, the serial contact of the ozone and UV reactors showed lower CODCr and TOC removal efficiencies. However, these were greatly enhanced by recycling the water flow of the ozone-UV system at 40Q, as a result of the improvements in the transferred ozone dose in the ozone reactor and the contact efficiency between photons and ozone in the UV reactor, which approached that achieved in the combined ozone/UV process. For the disinfection of SEW, carried out in a syringe-type batch reactor, the increase of instantaneous ozone demand (ozone ID) led to a higher inactivation efficiency, an increased UV transmittance due to ozonation, and an enhanced inactivation rate of E. coli in the UV reactor. Additionally, it was concluded that the ozone/UV process could overcome the limitations of the ozone alone and UV alone processes for the reclamation of sewage effluent water.

  1. Phosphorus dynamics and productivity in a sewage-impacted lowland chalk stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer-Felgate, Elizabeth J.; Jarvie, Helen P.; Williams, Richard J.; Mortimer, Robert J. G.; Loewenthal, Matthew; Neal, Colin

    2008-03-01

    SummaryHourly in situ phosphorus, conductivity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and chlorophyll measurements were collected from January 2004 to November 2006 for the River Kennet, 2 km downstream of a sewage effluent inlet. Excess carbon dioxide pressure (EpCO 2) was calculated from continuous pH and spot alkalinity measurements. EpCO 2 and dissolved oxygen were used to estimate rates of photosynthesis and respiration. These parameters were examined alongside flow, water temperature and solar radiation to explore controls on phosphorus dynamics and in-stream productivity. Diurnal, event and seasonal patterns were observed in phosphorus concentrations. The diurnal and seasonal variations appeared to be related to the upstream sewage treatment works. The event patterns coincided with periods of high flow, and were attributed to diffuse sources. Chlorophyll behaved independently of phosphorus concentration and returned to baseline levels before photosynthesis rate. This indicated that, during the period of study, in-stream productivity was primarily controlled by aquatic plants other than phytoplankton.

  2. 29 CFR 1960.46 - Agency responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED... participation in agency occupational safety and health program activities, or because of the exercise by...

  3. 29 CFR 1960.46 - Agency responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED... participation in agency occupational safety and health program activities, or because of the exercise by...

  4. 29 CFR 1960.46 - Agency responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED... participation in agency occupational safety and health program activities, or because of the exercise by...

  5. 29 CFR 1960.46 - Agency responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED... participation in agency occupational safety and health program activities, or because of the exercise by...

  6. 29 CFR 1960.46 - Agency responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) BASIC PROGRAM ELEMENTS FOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH PROGRAMS AND RELATED... participation in agency occupational safety and health program activities, or because of the exercise by...

  7. 5 CFR 792.105 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency responsibilities. 792.105 Section 792.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and...

  8. 5 CFR 792.105 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency responsibilities. 792.105 Section 792.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH, COUNSELING, AND WORK/LIFE PROGRAMS Alcoholism and Drug Abuse...

  9. 5 CFR 792.105 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency responsibilities. 792.105 Section 792.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and...

  10. 5 CFR 792.105 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency responsibilities. 792.105 Section 792.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH AND COUNSELING PROGRAMS Regulatory Requirements for Alcoholism and...

  11. 5 CFR 792.105 - Agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency responsibilities. 792.105 Section 792.105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' HEALTH, COUNSELING, AND WORK/LIFE PROGRAMS Alcoholism and Drug Abuse...

  12. 7 CFR 1794.54 - Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Agency determination. 1794.54 Section 1794.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments...

  13. 7 CFR 1794.54 - Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Agency determination. 1794.54 Section 1794.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments...

  14. 7 CFR 1794.54 - Agency determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Agency determination. 1794.54 Section 1794.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procedure for Environmental Assessments...

  15. Membrane fouling controlled by coagulation/adsorption during direct sewage membrane filtration (DSMF) for organic matter concentration.

    PubMed

    Gong, Hui; Jin, Zhengyu; Wang, Xian; Wang, Kaijun

    2015-06-01

    Unlike the role of the membrane in a membrane bioreactor, which is designed to replace a sediment tank, direct sewage membrane filtration (DSMF), with the goal of concentrating organic matters, is proposed as a pretreatment process in a novel sewage treatment concept. The concept of membrane-based pretreatment is proposed to divide raw sewage into a concentrated part retaining most organics and a filtered part with less pollutant remaining, so that energy recovery and water reuse, respectively, could be realized by post-treatment. A pilot-scale experiment was carried out to verify the feasibility of coagulant/adsorbent addition for membrane fouling control, which has been the main issue during this DSMF process. The results showed that continuous coagulant addition successfully slowed down the increase in filtration resistance, with the resistance maintained below 1.0×10(13) m(-1) in the first 70 hr before a jump occurred. Furthermore, the adsorbent addition contributed to retarding the occurrence of the filtration resistance jump, achieving simultaneous fouling control and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration improvement. The final concentrated COD amounted to 7500 mg/L after 6 days of operation.

  16. Harnessing dark fermentative hydrogen from pretreated mixture of food waste and sewage sludge under sequencing batch mode.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Lee, Wontae; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Woo

    2016-04-01

    Food waste and sewage sludge are the most abundant and problematic organic wastes in any society. Mixture of these two wastes may provide appropriate substrate condition for dark fermentative biohydrogen production based on synergistic mutual benefits. This work evaluates continuous hydrogen production from the cosubstrate of food waste and sewage sludge to verify mechanisms of performance improvement in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors. Volatile solid concentration and mixing ratio of food waste and sludge were adjusted to 5 % and 80:20, respectively. Five different hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 36, 42, 48, 72, and 108 h were tested using anaerobic sequencing batch reactors to find out optimal operating condition. Results show that the best performance was achieved at HRT 72 h, where the hydrogen yield, the hydrogen production rate, and hydrogen content were 62.0 mL H2/g VS, 1.0 L H2/L/day, and ~50 %, respectively. Sufficient solid retention time (143 h) and proper loading rate (8.2 g COD/L/day as carbohydrate) at HRT 72h led to the enhanced performance with better hydrogen production showing appropriate n-butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio of 2.6. Analytical result of terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed that specific peaks associated with Clostridium sp. and Bacillus sp. were strongly related to enhanced hydrogen production from the cosubstrate of food waste and sewage sludge.

  17. Post-irrigation impact of domestic sewage effluent on composition of soils, crops and ground water--a case study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R K; Goyal, B; Sharma, R K; Dubey, S K; Minhas, P S

    2002-12-01

    Long-term irrigation with sewage water adds large amounts of carbon, major and micro- nutrients to the soil. We compared the spatial distribution of N, P, K and other micronutrients and toxic elements in the top 0.6 m of an alluvial soil along with their associated effects on the composition of crops and ground waters after about three decades of irrigation with domestic sewage effluent as a function of distance from the disposal point. Use of sewage for irrigation in various proportions improved the organic matter to 1.24-1.78% and fertility status of soils especially down to a distance of 1 km along the disposal channel. Build up in total N was up to 2908 kg ha(-1), available P (58 kg ha(-1)), total P (2115 kg ha(-1)), available K (305 kg ha(-1)) and total K (4712 kg ha(-1)) in surface 0.15 m soil. Vertical distribution of these parameters also varied, with most accumulations occurring in surface 0.3 m. Traces of NO3-N (up to 2.8 mg l(-1)), Pb (up to 0.35 mg l(-1)) and Mn (up to 0.23 mg l(-1)) could also be observed in well waters near the disposal point thus indicating initiation of ground water contamination. However, the contents of heavy metals in crops sampled from the area were below the permissible critical levels. Though the study confirms that the domestic sewage can effectively increase water resource for irrigation but there is a need for continuous monitoring of the concentrations of potentially toxic elements in soil, plants and ground water. PMID:12503913

  18. Post-irrigation impact of domestic sewage effluent on composition of soils, crops and ground water--a case study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, R K; Goyal, B; Sharma, R K; Dubey, S K; Minhas, P S

    2002-12-01

    Long-term irrigation with sewage water adds large amounts of carbon, major and micro- nutrients to the soil. We compared the spatial distribution of N, P, K and other micronutrients and toxic elements in the top 0.6 m of an alluvial soil along with their associated effects on the composition of crops and ground waters after about three decades of irrigation with domestic sewage effluent as a function of distance from the disposal point. Use of sewage for irrigation in various proportions improved the organic matter to 1.24-1.78% and fertility status of soils especially down to a distance of 1 km along the disposal channel. Build up in total N was up to 2908 kg ha(-1), available P (58 kg ha(-1)), total P (2115 kg ha(-1)), available K (305 kg ha(-1)) and total K (4712 kg ha(-1)) in surface 0.15 m soil. Vertical distribution of these parameters also varied, with most accumulations occurring in surface 0.3 m. Traces of NO3-N (up to 2.8 mg l(-1)), Pb (up to 0.35 mg l(-1)) and Mn (up to 0.23 mg l(-1)) could also be observed in well waters near the disposal point thus indicating initiation of ground water contamination. However, the contents of heavy metals in crops sampled from the area were below the permissible critical levels. Though the study confirms that the domestic sewage can effectively increase water resource for irrigation but there is a need for continuous monitoring of the concentrations of potentially toxic elements in soil, plants and ground water.

  19. Removal of estrogenicity in Swedish municipal sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Svenson, Anders; Allard, Ann Sofie; Ek, Mats

    2003-11-01

    The human estrogen receptor alpha-test, hosted in a yeast strain, was used to quantify estrogenicity in three-week composite samples of untreated and treated effluents from 20 Swedish municipal sewage treatment plants. The treatment plants were selected to represent different treatment processes regarding chemical precipitation and microbial procedures. The discharge from Swedish domestic sewage treatment plants contained estrogenic compounds corresponding to <0.1-15 ng estradiol equivalents/L. Low levels of estrogenic activity were also found in a river receiving municipal effluents, 3.5-35 km downstream the outlet from a sewage treatment works. The range of estrogenicity in untreated, raw sewage effluents was found to be 1-30 ng estradiol equivalents/L. Generally, wastewater treatment reduced the estrogenicity and extended biological treatment was most effective in its removal. Activated sludge treatment tended to be more effective than trickling filters, whereas chemical precipitation using iron or aluminium salts without biological treatment showed little effectivity. The study showed that treatment methods in current use are able to eliminate or largely reduce estrogenicity in domestic wastewater. PMID:14511714

  20. Influence of bulking agent on sewage sludge composting process.

    PubMed

    Yañez, R; Alonso, J L; Díaz, M J

    2009-12-01

    Four types of compost, consisting of mixtures of Acacia dealbata (A) with sewage sludge (SS) were studied in a laboratory reactor. Composting time was 80 days and parameters monitored over this period included temperature, organic matter, pH, CO(2), O(2), C/N ratio, Kjeldahl-N, as well as maturity indexes. All the studied parameters were influenced by the bulking amount used. The highest profile temperature measured was for the A/SS 1/2 (w/w) mixture that reached a maxima temperature of 67 degrees C and lower maximum temperatures of 52, 48 and 46 degrees C were observed for A/SS 1/3, 1/1 and 1/0 composts, respectively. The kinetic model used showed that a descent of sewage sludge in the composting mixtures favored the enzyme-substrate affinity. However, an increase in depending on the parameters of the process factors was observed when the sewage sludge ratio was increased in mixtures. The optimal amounts of sewage sludge for co-composting with Acacia indicate that moderate amounts of sludge (1/1) would be the best compromise. PMID:19560348

  1. Effect of seeding during thermophilic composting of sewage sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasaki, K.; Sasaki, M.; Shoda, M.; Kubota, H.

    1985-03-01

    The effect of seeding on the thermophilic composting of sewage sludge was examined by measuring the changes in CO/sub 2/ evolution rates and microbial numbers. Although the succession of thermophilic bacteria and thermophilic actinomycetes clearly reflected the effect of seeding, no clear difference was observed in the overall rate of composting or quality of the composted product. 7 references.

  2. Chironomidae From a Sewage Treatment Station of Southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signoretti, R. P.; Sonoda, K. C.; Ferraz, E.

    2005-05-01

    As the great number of insects living and reproducing at a municipal sewage treatment station located in Piracicaba City and the fear about how dangerous it could be for human healthy, a study was conduct to identify the taxa presented there and to analyze their community structure using stable isotopes. The Chironomidae identification was performed on specific level. The sewage treatment station is a man-made wetland system, situated 30m nearby the Piracicaba River. It treats the sewage from an urban area with 3000 inhabitants. The sewage discharge varies from 133 to 186L/s/ha. The samples were taken on the ending of the rainy season with a D-frame net. The material was washed (210mm mesh size), sorted and preserved in 70% alcohol. Chironomidae had a low participation in the community, with 14.9% of the specimens. Goeldichironomus serratus (47.8% from total Chironomidae), G. holoprasinus (43.5%) and Chironomus decorus (8.7%) were identified. Those species are worldwide recognized as pollution-resistant, used as indicators of environmental water quality. The wetland studied showed low dissolved oxygen (1.5mg/L) on the sampling period and the presence of those Chironomidae species should be expected. The low diversity and high dominance are common features for those impacted environments.

  3. TRIMETHOPRIM-SULFAMETHOXAZOLE RESISTANCE IN SEWAGE ISOLATES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI

    EPA Science Inventory

    The increase in resistance rates to trimehtoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) in isolates of Escherichia coli has become a matter of increasing concern. This has been particularly true in reference to community acquired urinary tract infections (UTI). This study utilized sewage i...

  4. Incorporation of sewage sludge in clay brick and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Liew, Abdul G; Idris, Azni; Wong, Calvin H K; Samad, Abdul A; Noor, Megat Johari M M; Baki, Aminuddin M

    2004-08-01

    This study reports the use of sewage sludge generated from sewage treatment plant (STP) as raw material in a clay brick-making process. The physico-chemical and mineralogical characterization of the sewage sludge and clay were carried out in order to identify the major technological constraints and to define the sludge pretreatment requirements if necessary. Moreover, the effects on processing conditions and/or on changes of typical final characteristics are also evaluated. Bricks were produced with sewage sludge additions ranging from 10 to 40% by dry weight. The texture and finishing of the surface of sludge-amended clay bricks were rather poor. As for the physical and chemical properties, bricks with a sludge content of up to 40 wt.% were capable of meeting the relevant technical standards. However, bricks with more than 30 wt.% sludge addition are not recommended for use since they are brittle and easily broken even when handled gently. A tendency for a general degradation of brick properties with sludge additions was observed due to its refractory nature. Therefore, sludge bricks of this nature are only suitable for use as common bricks, which are normally not exposed to view, because of poor surface finishing.

  5. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant - No. 1 Pump House in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) FLOOR PLANS AND SECTIONS - MacDill Air Force Base, Pump House No. 1, Hillsborough Garden Drive & Tampa Boulevard, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  6. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of Sewage Treatment Plant - No. 1 Pump House in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1940 architectural drawings by Construction Division, Office of the Quartermaster General) ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS, AND DETAILS - MacDill Air Force Base, Pump House No. 1, Hillsborough Garden Drive & Tampa Boulevard, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  7. Less-costly activated carbon for sewage treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingham, J. D.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Lignite-aided sewage treatment is based on absorption of dissolved pollutants by activated carbon. Settling sludge is removed and dried into cakes that are pyrolyzed with lignites to yield activated carbon. Lignite is less expensive than activated carbon previously used to supplement pyrolysis yield.

  8. Treatment efficacy of algae-based sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Durga Madhab; Chanakya, H N; Ramachandra, T V

    2013-09-01

    Lagoons have been traditionally used in India for decentralized treatment of domestic sewage. These are cost effective as they depend mainly on natural processes without any external energy inputs. This study focuses on the treatment efficiency of algae-based sewage treatment plant (STP) of 67.65 million liters per day (MLD) capacity considering the characteristics of domestic wastewater (sewage) and functioning of the treatment plant, while attempting to understand the role of algae in the treatment. STP performance was assessed by diurnal as well as periodic investigations of key water quality parameters and algal biota. STP with a residence time of 14.3 days perform moderately, which is evident from the removal of total chemical oxygen demand (COD) (60 %), filterable COD (50 %), total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (82 %), and filterable BOD (70 %) as sewage travels from the inlet to the outlet. Furthermore, nitrogen content showed sharp variations with total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 36 %; ammonium N (NH4-N) removal efficiency of 18 %, nitrate (NO3-N) removal efficiency of 22 %, and nitrite (NO2-N) removal efficiency of 57.8 %. The predominant algae are euglenoides (in facultative lagoons) and chlorophycean members (maturation ponds). The drastic decrease of particulates and suspended matter highlights heterotrophy of euglenoides in removing particulates.

  9. Wildlife health implications of sewage disposal in wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friend, M.; Godfrey, P.J.; Kaynor, E.R.; Pelczarski, S.

    1985-01-01

    Wildlife health concerns associated with disposal of sewage effluent in wetlands are of three primary types: (1) introduction of pathogens, (2) introduction of pollutants that adversely impact on host body defense mechanisms, and (3) changes in the physical and chemical properties of wetlands that favor the development and maintenance of disease problems. Unlike the situation with human health concerns, introduction of pathogens is not the major concern regarding wildlife health. Instead, the focus of attention needs to be directed at environmental changes likely to take place as a result of effluent discharges into different types of wetlands. Unless these changes are adequately addressed from a disease perspective, marshes utilized for sewage disposal could become disease incubators and wildlife death traps. This result would be unfortunate because the backlash would likely negate the potentially beneficial aspects of the use of sewage wastewater for the creation of new wetlands and have a severe impact on progress being made towards evaluation of the compatibility of wildlife and sewage effluents.

  10. CFD simulation of anaerobic digester with variable sewage sludge rheology.

    PubMed

    Craig, K J; Nieuwoudt, M N; Niemand, L J

    2013-09-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that evaluates mechanical mixing in a full-scale anaerobic digester was developed to investigate the influence of sewage sludge rheology on the steady-state digester performance. Mechanical mixing is provided through an impeller located in a draft tube. Use is made of the Multiple Reference Frame model to incorporate the rotating impeller. The non-Newtonian sludge is modeled using the Hershel-Bulkley law because of the yield stress present in the fluid. Water is also used as modeling fluid to illustrate the significant non-Newtonian effects of sewage sludge on mixing patterns. The variation of the sewage sludge rheology as a result of the digestion process is considered to determine its influence on both the required impeller torque and digester mixing patterns. It was found that when modeling the fluid with the Hershel-Bulkley law, the high slope of the sewage stress-strain curve at high shear rates causes significant viscous torque on the impeller surface. Although the overall fluid shear stress property is reduced during digestion, this slope is increased with sludge age, causing an increase in impeller torque for digested sludge due to the high strain rates caused by the pumping impeller. Consideration should be given to using the Bingham law to deal with high strain rates. The overall mixing flow patterns of the digested sludge do however improve slightly.

  11. Steroidal estrogen sources in a sewage-impacted coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Griffith, David R; Kido Soule, Melissa C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Gschwend, Philip M

    2016-08-10

    Estrogens are known to be potent endocrine disrupting chemicals that are commonly found in wastewater effluents at ng L(-1) levels. Yet, we know very little about the distribution and fate of estrogens in coastal oceans that receive wastewater inputs. This study measured a wide range of steroidal estrogens in sewage-impacted seawater using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) together with the method of standard addition. In Massachusetts Bay, we find conjugated, free, and halogenated estrogens at concentrations that are consistent with dilution at sites close to the sewage source. At a site 6 miles down current of the sewage source, we observe estrone (E1) concentrations (520 ± 180 pg L(-1)) that are nearly double the nearfield concentrations (320 ± 60 pg L(-1)) despite 9-fold dilution of carbamazepine, which was used as a conservative sewage tracer. Our results suggest that background E1 concentrations in Massachusetts Bay (∼270 ± 50 pg L(-1)) are derived largely from sources unrelated to wastewater effluent such as marine vertebrates.

  12. Acoustic tracking of ocean-dumped sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Proni, J R; Newman, F C; Sellers, R L; Parker, C

    1976-09-10

    With a modified 200-kilohertz acoustic echo sounder, it has been possible to detect and map sewage dumped into the ocean over several hours. The three-dimensional distribution of suspended material and its rate of diffusion are indicated after digital processing of the data. PMID:17735703

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING DISINFECTION AND STABILIZATION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effective disinfection and stabilization of sewage sludge prior to land application is essential to not only protect human health, but also to convince the public of its benefits and safety. A basic understanding of the key factors involved in producing a stable biosolid product ...

  14. PATHOGEN RISKS FROM APPLYING SEWAGE SLUDGE TO LAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Congress banned ocean dumping of municipal wastes in the late 1980s. In its place, EPA developed guidance (40 CFR Part 503) for land application of processed sewage sludge (biosolids), mainly for agricultural purposes (1). Public health and environmental concerns with processed...

  15. Land Application of Sewage Effluents and Sludges: Selected Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Research and Development.

    This report contains 568 selected abstracts concerned with the land application of sewage effluents and sludges. The abstracts are arranged in chronological groupings of ten-year periods from the l940's to the mid-l970's. The report also includes an author index and a subject matter index to facilitate reference to specific abstracts or narrower…

  16. IDENTIFYING COMPOUNDS DESPITE CHROMATOGRAPHY LIMITATIONS: ORGANOPHOSPHATES IN TREATED SEWAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Highly concentrated extracts of sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents contain detectable
    levels of dozens of compounds resulting from human activities. Recent concern over use and
    disposal of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPS) (1) has stimulated interest ...

  17. Steroidal estrogen sources in a sewage-impacted coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Griffith, David R; Kido Soule, Melissa C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Kujawinski, Elizabeth B; Gschwend, Philip M

    2016-08-10

    Estrogens are known to be potent endocrine disrupting chemicals that are commonly found in wastewater effluents at ng L(-1) levels. Yet, we know very little about the distribution and fate of estrogens in coastal oceans that receive wastewater inputs. This study measured a wide range of steroidal estrogens in sewage-impacted seawater using ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) together with the method of standard addition. In Massachusetts Bay, we find conjugated, free, and halogenated estrogens at concentrations that are consistent with dilution at sites close to the sewage source. At a site 6 miles down current of the sewage source, we observe estrone (E1) concentrations (520 ± 180 pg L(-1)) that are nearly double the nearfield concentrations (320 ± 60 pg L(-1)) despite 9-fold dilution of carbamazepine, which was used as a conservative sewage tracer. Our results suggest that background E1 concentrations in Massachusetts Bay (∼270 ± 50 pg L(-1)) are derived largely from sources unrelated to wastewater effluent such as marine vertebrates. PMID:27465804

  18. The isolation of antibiotic resistant coliforms from meat and sewage.

    PubMed

    Bensink, J C; Frost, A J; Mathers, W; Mutimer, M D; Rankin, G; Woolcock, J B

    1981-01-01

    Beef and pig carcases, meat products, frozen chickens, and sewage were examined in 3 separate surveys for antibiotic resistant coliforms. Escherichia coli was isolated from 18 of 50 beef carcases; the numbers were low and resistance was found only to tetracycline. E. coli was isolated from 45 to 50 pig carcases; the numbers were high and showed a range of patterns of multiple antibiotic resistance. In meat products, the proportion of E. coli in contaminating organisms was low, and most resistance found was to tetracycline and streptomycin. E. coli was isolated from 66 of 75 chickens and these gave 23 patterns of antibiotic resistance, often multiple. Sewage from hospital or domestic origin and abattoir effluent yielded approximately 10(6) coliforms/ml, most of which were resistant to one or more antibiotics; few of those from hospital or domestic origin however, were classified as E. coli of faecal origin. Twenty-four patterns of resistance were found in coliforms from domestic sewage, 19 from hospital sewage and 11 from abattoir effluent. Transfer of resistance, often multiple, was achieved from 55% of 447 resistant strains to an E. coli K12 recipient. Much more information is required on the prevalence of R-factors in bacteria associated with food producing animals and their products. PMID:7016108

  19. Gaseous fuels production from dried sewage sludge via air gasification.

    PubMed

    Werle, Sebastian; Dudziak, Mariusz

    2014-07-01

    Gasification is a perspective alternative method of dried sewage sludge thermal treatment. For the purpose of experimental investigations, a laboratory fixed-bed gasifier installation was designed and built. Two sewage sludge (SS) feedstocks, taken from two typical Polish wastewater treatment systems, were analysed: SS1, from a mechanical-biological wastewater treatment system with anaerobic stabilization (fermentation) and high temperature drying; and (SS2) from a mechanical-biological-chemical wastewater treatment system with fermentation and low temperature drying. The gasification results show that greater oxygen content in sewage sludge has a strong influence on the properties of the produced gas. Increasing the air flow caused a decrease in the heating value of the produced gas. Higher hydrogen content in the sewage sludge (from SS1) affected the produced gas composition, which was characterized by high concentrations of combustible components. In the case of the SS1 gasification, ash, charcoal, and tar were produced as byproducts. In the case of SS2 gasification, only ash and tar were produced. SS1 and solid byproducts from its gasification (ash and charcoal) were characterized by lower toxicity in comparison to SS2. However, in all analysed cases, tar samples were toxic.

  20. 12 CFR 261b.3 - Conduct of agency business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conduct of agency business. 261b.3 Section 261b... SYSTEM (CONTINUED) RULES REGARDING PUBLIC OBSERVATION OF MEETINGS § 261b.3 Conduct of agency business. Members shall not jointly conduct or dispose of official agency business other than in accordance...

  1. 5 CFR 831.1307 - Use of consumer reporting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of consumer reporting agencies. 831... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Collection of Debts § 831.1307 Use of consumer reporting agencies. (a... report the debtor to a consumer reporting agency. In addition, a debtor's failure to make...

  2. 40 CFR 166.30 - Notice of Agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice of Agency decision. 166.30 Section 166.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS...

  3. 40 CFR 161.40 - Consultation with the Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consultation with the Agency. 161.40 Section 161.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... with the Agency. This part establishes data requirements applicable to various general use patterns...

  4. 40 CFR 152.110 - Time for agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Time for agency review. 152.110 Section 152.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Agency Review of Applications § 152.110 Time for...

  5. 40 CFR 166.30 - Notice of Agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice of Agency decision. 166.30 Section 166.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS...

  6. 40 CFR 763.84 - General local education agency responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false General local education agency responsibilities. 763.84 Section 763.84 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Transportation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (h) Consider whether any conflict of interest...

  7. 40 CFR 51.162 - Identification of responsible agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Identification of responsible agency. 51.162 Section 51.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Sources and Modifications § 51.162 Identification of responsible agency. Each plan must identify the...

  8. 40 CFR 166.30 - Notice of Agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of Agency decision. 166.30 Section 166.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS...

  9. 40 CFR 51.162 - Identification of responsible agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Identification of responsible agency. 51.162 Section 51.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Sources and Modifications § 51.162 Identification of responsible agency. Each plan must identify the...

  10. 40 CFR 161.40 - Consultation with the Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Consultation with the Agency. 161.40 Section 161.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... with the Agency. This part establishes data requirements applicable to various general use patterns...

  11. 40 CFR 152.110 - Time for agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Time for agency review. 152.110 Section 152.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Agency Review of Applications § 152.110 Time for...

  12. 40 CFR 51.162 - Identification of responsible agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of responsible agency. 51.162 Section 51.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Sources and Modifications § 51.162 Identification of responsible agency. Each plan must identify the...

  13. 40 CFR 152.110 - Time for agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Time for agency review. 152.110 Section 152.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Agency Review of Applications § 152.110 Time for...

  14. 40 CFR 161.40 - Consultation with the Agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consultation with the Agency. 161.40 Section 161.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... with the Agency. This part establishes data requirements applicable to various general use patterns...

  15. 7 CFR 1901.260 - Coordination with other agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Coordination with other agencies. 1901.260 Section 1901.260 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... Archeological Properties § 1901.260 Coordination with other agencies. (a) When other Agencies are...

  16. 42 CFR 488.11 - State survey agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false State survey agency functions. 488.11 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.11 State survey agency functions. State and local agencies that have agreements under section...

  17. 42 CFR 488.11 - State survey agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false State survey agency functions. 488.11 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.11 State survey agency functions. State and local agencies that have agreements under section...

  18. 42 CFR 488.11 - State survey agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false State survey agency functions. 488.11 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.11 State survey agency functions. State and local agencies that have agreements under section...

  19. 42 CFR 488.11 - State survey agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State survey agency functions. 488.11 Section 488... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES General Provisions § 488.11 State survey agency functions. State and local agencies that have agreements under section...

  20. 34 CFR 303.201 - Designation of lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Designation of lead agency. 303.201 Section 303.201 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... of lead agency. Each application must include the name of the State lead agency, as designated...

  1. 34 CFR 303.142 - Designation of lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Designation of lead agency. 303.142 Section 303.142 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION....142 Designation of lead agency. Each application must include a designation of the lead agency in...

  2. 34 CFR 303.201 - Designation of lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Designation of lead agency. 303.201 Section 303.201 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... of lead agency. Each application must include the name of the State lead agency, as designated...

  3. 34 CFR 303.142 - Designation of lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of lead agency. 303.142 Section 303.142 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION....142 Designation of lead agency. Each application must include a designation of the lead agency in...

  4. 34 CFR 303.201 - Designation of lead agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Designation of lead agency. 303.201 Section 303.201 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... of lead agency. Each application must include the name of the State lead agency, as designated...

  5. 7 CFR 550.12 - Statutory authorization required (REE Agency).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Statutory authorization required (REE Agency). 550.12 Section 550.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH... Formation of Agreements § 550.12 Statutory authorization required (REE Agency). REE Agencies must...

  6. 7 CFR 550.12 - Statutory authorization required (REE Agency).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Statutory authorization required (REE Agency). 550.12 Section 550.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH... Formation of Agreements § 550.12 Statutory authorization required (REE Agency). REE Agencies must...

  7. 40 CFR 51.162 - Identification of responsible agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 51.162 Section 51.162 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Sources and Modifications § 51.162 Identification of responsible agency. Each plan must identify the State or local agency which will be responsible for meeting the requirements of this subpart in each...

  8. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728.58 Section 728.58 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air...

  9. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728.58 Section 728.58 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air...

  10. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728.58 Section 728.58 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air...

  11. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728.58 Section 728.58 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air...

  12. 32 CFR 728.58 - Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. 728.58 Section 728.58 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL... Federal Agencies § 728.58 Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) beneficiaries. (a) Beneficiaries. Air...

  13. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... primarily focusing on cancer research. The agency had been designated as a distinct and separate component... Agency for Cancer Research. Approximately 20% of the employees of the former agency are transferred to various other parts of the Department to continue their work on medical research unrelated to cancer....

  14. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... primarily focusing on cancer research. The agency had been designated as a distinct and separate component... Agency for Cancer Research. Approximately 20% of the employees of the former agency are transferred to various other parts of the Department to continue their work on medical research unrelated to cancer....

  15. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... primarily focusing on cancer research. The agency had been designated as a distinct and separate component... Agency for Cancer Research. Approximately 20% of the employees of the former agency are transferred to various other parts of the Department to continue their work on medical research unrelated to cancer....

  16. 75 FR 22184 - Proposed Agency Information Collection Renewal; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... order to inspect and photocopy comments. Board: You may submit comments, which should refer to ``FR TA-1... OTS (collectively, the Banking Agencies or Agencies), as part of their continuing effort to reduce... Reduction Act of 1995. The Banking Agencies may not conduct or sponsor, and the respondent is not...

  17. 5 CFR 2641.302 - Separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... primarily focusing on cancer research. The agency had been designated as a distinct and separate component... Agency for Cancer Research. Approximately 20% of the employees of the former agency are transferred to various other parts of the Department to continue their work on medical research unrelated to cancer....

  18. Accounting for Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Kylie

    2011-01-01

    Children are increasingly described as agents and agency is important to arguments for children's rights and participation. Yet agency is rarely defined or theorised in childhood studies. This article reviews common uses and meanings of agency and argues that critical, social conceptualisations have yet to be extensively taken up in childhood…

  19. 40 CFR 36.645 - Federal agency or agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal agency or agency. 36.645 Section 36.645 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Federal agency or agency. Federal agency or agency means any United States executive department,...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.150 - Continuous sampling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuous sampling. 1065.150 Section 1065.150 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.150 Continuous sampling. You may use...

  5. 40 CFR 40.165 - Continuation grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Continuation grants. 40.165 Section 40.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.165 Continuation grants. To be eligible for a continuation...

  6. 40 CFR 40.165 - Continuation grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Continuation grants. 40.165 Section 40.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.165 Continuation grants. To be eligible for a continuation...

  7. 40 CFR 40.165 - Continuation grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuation grants. 40.165 Section 40.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.165 Continuation grants. To be eligible for a continuation...

  8. 40 CFR 40.165 - Continuation grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Continuation grants. 40.165 Section 40.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.165 Continuation grants. To be eligible for a continuation...

  9. Salt enrichment of municipal sewage: New prevention approaches in Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Baruch; Avnimelech, Yoram; Juanico, Marcelo

    1996-07-01

    Wastewater irrigation is an environmentally sound wastewater disposal practice, but sewage is more saline than the supplied fresh water and the salts are recycled together with the water. Salts have negative environmental effects on crops, soils, and groundwater. There are no inexpensive ways to remove the salts once they enter sewage, and the prevention of sewage salt enrichment is the most immediately available solution. The body of initiatives presently structured by the Ministry of the Environment of Israel are herein described, with the aim to contribute to the search for a long-term solution of salinity problems in arid countries. The new initiatives are based on: (1) search for new technologies to reduce salt consumption and discharge into sewage; (2) different technologies to cope with different situations; (3) raising the awareness of the public and industry on the environmental implications of salinity pollution; and (4) an elastic legal approach expressed through new state-of-the-art regulations. The main contributor to the salinity of sewage in Israel is the watersoftening process followed by the meat koshering process. Some of the adopted technical solutions are: the discharge of the brine into the sea, the substitution of sodium by potassium salts in the ion-exchangers, the construction of centralized systems for the supply of soft water in industrial areas, the precipitation of Ca and Mg in the effluents from ion-exchangers and recycling of the NaCI solution, a reduction of the discharge of salts by the meat koshering process, and new membrane technology for salt recovery.

  10. Sewage contamination of a densely populated coral 'atoll' (Bermuda).

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross; Parsons, Rachel; Watkinson, Elaine; Kendell, David

    2011-08-01

    Bermuda is a densely populated coral 'atoll' located on a seamount in the mid-Atlantic (Sargasso Sea). There is no national sewerage system and the ∼20 × 10(6) L of sewage generated daily is disposed of via marine outfalls, cess pits/septic tanks underneath houses and through waste disposal (injection) wells. Gastrointestinal (GI) enterococci concentrations were measured in surface seawater samples collected monthly at multiple locations across the island over a 5-year period. According to the EU Bathing Water Directive microbial classification categories, 18 of the sites were in the 'excellent' category, four sites in the 'good', five sites were in the 'sufficient' and three sites in the 'poor' categories. One of the sites in the 'poor' category is beside a popular swimming beach. Between 20-30% of 58 sub tidal sediment samples collected from creeks, coves, bays, harbours and marinas in the Great Sound complex on the western side of Bermuda tested positive for the presence of the human specific bacterial biomarker Bacteroides (using culture-independent PCR-based methods) and for the faecal biomarker coprostanol (5β-cholestan-3-β-ol, which ranged in concentration from <0.05-0.77 mg kg( - 1). There was a significant statistical correlation between these two independent techniques for faecal contamination identification. Overall the microbial water quality and sedimentary biomarker surveys suggest sewage contamination in Bermuda was quite low compared with other published studies; nevertheless, several sewage contamination hotpots exist, and these could be attributed to discharge of raw sewage from house boats, from nearby sewage outfalls and leakage from septic tanks/cess pits. PMID:20978839

  11. Mucosal and cutaneous human papillomaviruses detected in raw sewages.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Giuseppina; Fratini, Marta; Accardi, Luisa; D'Oro, Graziana; Della Libera, Simonetta; Muscillo, Michele; Di Bonito, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Epitheliotropic viruses can find their way into sewage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and genetic diversity of Human Papillomaviruses (HPVs) in urban wastewaters. Sewage samples were collected from treatment plants distributed throughout Italy. The DNA extracted from these samples was analyzed by PCR using five PV-specific sets of primers targeting the L1 (GP5/GP6, MY09/MY11, FAP59/64, SKF/SKR) and E1 regions (PM-A/PM-B), according to the protocols previously validated for the detection of mucosal and cutaneous HPV genotypes. PCR products underwent sequencing analysis and the sequences were aligned to reference genomes from the Papillomavirus Episteme database. Phylogenetic analysis was then performed to assess the genetic relationships among the different sequences and between the sequences of the samples and those of the prototype strains. A broad spectrum of sequences related to mucosal and cutaneous HPV types was detected in 81% of the sewage samples analyzed. Surprisingly, sequences related to the anogenital HPV6 and 11 were detected in 19% of the samples, and sequences related to the "high risk" oncogenic HPV16 were identified in two samples. Sequences related to HPV9, HPV20, HPV25, HPV76, HPV80, HPV104, HPV110, HPV111, HPV120 and HPV145 beta Papillomaviruses were detected in 76% of the samples. In addition, similarity searches and phylogenetic analysis of some sequences suggest that they could belong to putative new genotypes of the beta genus. In this study, for the first time, the presence of HPV viruses strongly related to human cancer is reported in sewage samples. Our data increases the knowledge of HPV genomic diversity and suggests that virological analysis of urban sewage can provide key information useful in supporting epidemiological studies.

  12. Idiopathic necrotising enteritis cases continue.

    PubMed

    2014-09-27

    Cases of idiopathic necrotising enteritis in calves continue Polioencephalitis of unknown cause in lambs Rare types of deformities seen in piglets Colibacillosis in postweaned pigs Rotavirus in gamebirds These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for June 2014. PMID:25256728

  13. 28 CFR 81.4 - Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.4 Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency. Where a report of child abuse..., serious physical injury, or life-threatening neglect of a child, that agency shall immediately report...

  14. 28 CFR 81.4 - Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.4 Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency. Where a report of child abuse..., serious physical injury, or life-threatening neglect of a child, that agency shall immediately report...

  15. 28 CFR 81.4 - Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.4 Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency. Where a report of child abuse..., serious physical injury, or life-threatening neglect of a child, that agency shall immediately report...

  16. 28 CFR 81.4 - Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.4 Referral of reports where the designated agency is not a law enforcement agency. Where a report of child abuse..., serious physical injury, or life-threatening neglect of a child, that agency shall immediately report...

  17. Public officials' perspectives on tracking and investigating symptoms reported near sewage sludge land application sites.

    PubMed

    Lowman, Amy; Wing, Steve; Crump, Carolyn; MacDonald, Pia D M; Heaney, Chris; Aitken, Michael D

    2011-01-01

    A majority of treated sewage sludge (biosolids) from U.S. wastewater treatment plants is applied to farmland as a soil amendment. Residents living close to treated farmland have reported becoming ill following land application of sludge. No systematic tracking or investigation of these reports or of land application practices that could affect off-site migration of chemical and biological constituents of the sludge has occurred, however. In the study described in this article, the authors conducted a web-based survey and phone interviews with officials at federal, state, and local regulatory and health agencies and municipal wastewater treatment plants for input on how to design and implement an investigation protocol for tracking and responding to reports of human illness near land application sites. Officials expressed a need for and interest in implementing a systematic, standardized investigation protocol and offered insights on aids and barriers to its use and collaboration among diverse agencies. Additional opinions and innovative solutions expressed in this article will assist interested users in the implementation of the investigation protocol.

  18. Removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by two types of activated sludge treating freshwater sewage and saline sewage.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the removal mechanisms and kinetics of trace tetracycline by activated sludge is critical to both evaluation of tetracycline elimination in sewage treatment plants and risk assessment/management of tetracycline released to soil environment due to the application of biosolids as fertilizer. Adsorption is found to be the primary removal mechanism while biodegradation, volatilization, and hydrolysis can be ignored in this study. Adsorption kinetics was well described by pseudo-second-order model. Faster adsorption rate (k₂ = 2.04 × 10(-2) g min(-1) μg(-1)) and greater adsorption capacity (qe = 38.8 μg g(-1)) were found in activated sludge treating freshwater sewage. Different adsorption rate and adsorption capacity resulted from chemical properties of sewage matrix rather than activated sludge surface characteristics. The decrease of tetracycline adsorption in saline sewage was mainly due to Mg(2+) which significantly reduced adsorption distribution coefficient (Kd) from 12,990 ± 260 to 4,690 ± 180 L kg(-1). Species-specific adsorption distribution coefficients followed the order of Kd⁺⁰⁰>Kd⁺⁻⁰>Kd⁺⁻⁻. Contribution of zwitterionic tetracycline to the overall adsorption was >90 % in the actual pH range in aeration tank. Adsorption of tetracycline in a wide range of temperature (10 to 35 °C) followed the Freundlich adsorption isotherm well.

  19. Bioavailability and plant accumulation of heavy metals and phosphorus in agricultural soils amended by long-term application of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kidd, P S; Domínguez-Rodríguez, M J; Díez, J; Monterroso, C

    2007-01-01

    Amendment of agricultural soils with municipal sewage sludges provides a valuable source of plant nutrients and organic matter. Nevertheless, addition of heavy metals and risks of eutrophication continue to be of concern. Metal behaviour in soils and plant uptake are dependent on the nature of the metal, sludge/soil physico-chemical properties and plant species. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate plant production and heavy metal uptake, soil heavy metal pools and bioavailability, and soil P pools and possible leaching losses, in agricultural soils amended with sewage sludge for at least 10 years (F20) compared to non-amended soils (control). Sewage sludge application increased soil pH, N, Olsen-extractable-P, DOC and exchangeable Ca, Mg and K concentrations. Total and EDTA-extractable soil concentrations of Cu and Zn were also significantly greater in F20, and soil metal (Cu, Mn and Zn) and P fractionation altered. Compared to the control, in F20 relative amounts of acid-extractable (Mn, Zn), reducible (Mn, Zn) and oxidisable (Cu, Zn) metal fractions were greater, and a dominance of inorganic P forms was observed. Analyses of F20 soil solutions highlighted risks of PO4 and Cu leaching. However, despite the observed increases in metal bioavailability sewage sludge applications did not lead to an increase in plant shoot concentrations (in wild plants or crop species). On the contrary, depending on the plant species, Mn and Zn tissue concentrations were within the deficiency level for most plants.

  20. Geochemical and hydrologic controls on phosphorus transport in a sewage-contaminated sand and gravel aquifer near Ashumet Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, D.A.; Rea, B.A.; Stollenwerk, K.G.; Savoie, Jennifer G.

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of secondarily treated sewage onto rapid infiltration sand beds at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, has created a sewage plume in the underlying sand and gravel aquifer; the part of the\\x11sewage plume that contains dissolved phosphorus extends about 2,500 feet downgradient of the sewage-disposal beds. A part of the plume that\\x11contains nearly 2 milligrams per liter of phosphorus currently (1993) discharges into Ashumet Pond along about 700 feet of shoreline. The sewage plume discharges from about 59 to about 76 kilograms of phosphorus per year into the pond. Hydraulic-head measurements indicate that the north end of Ashumet Pond is a ground-water sink and an increased component of ground-water discharge and phosphorus flux into\\x11the pond occurs at higher water levels. Phosphorus was mobile in ground water in two distinct geochemical environments-an anoxic zone that contains no dissolved oxygen and as much as 25\\x11milligrams per liter of dissolved iron, and a more areally extensive suboxic zone that contains little or no iron, low but detectable dissolved oxygen, and as much as 12 milligrams per liter of dissolved manganese. Dissolved phosphorus is mobile in the suboxic geochemical environment because continued phosphorus loading has filled available sorption sites in the aquifer. Continued disposal of sewage since 1936 has created a large reservoir of sorbed phosphorus that is much greater than the mass of dissolved phosphorus in the ground water; the average ratio of sorbed to dissolved phosphorus in the anoxic and suboxic parts of the sewage plume were 31:1 and 155:1, respectively. Column experiments indicate that phosphorus in the anoxic core of the plume containing dissolved iron may be immobilized within 17 years by sorption and coprecipitation with new iron oxyhydroxides following the cessation of sewage disposal and the introduction of uncontaminated oxygenated ground water into the aquifer in December

  1. 5 CFR 731.103 - Delegation to agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Delegation to agencies. 731.103 Section 731.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.103 Delegation to agencies. (a) Subject to the limitations...

  2. 5 CFR 731.103 - Delegation to agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Delegation to agencies. 731.103 Section 731.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.103 Delegation to agencies. (a) Subject to the limitations...

  3. 5 CFR 731.103 - Delegation to agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Delegation to agencies. 731.103 Section 731.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.103 Delegation to agencies. (a) Subject to the limitations...

  4. 5 CFR 731.103 - Delegation to agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Delegation to agencies. 731.103 Section 731.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.103 Delegation to agencies. (a) Subject to the limitations...

  5. 5 CFR 731.103 - Delegation to agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Delegation to agencies. 731.103 Section 731.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) SUITABILITY Scope § 731.103 Delegation to agencies. (a) Subject to the limitations...

  6. 32 CFR 631.8 - Participation by civil agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Participation by civil agencies. 631.8 Section 631.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW... AND OPERATIONS Armed Forces Disciplinary Control Boards § 631.8 Participation by civil agencies....

  7. 47 CFR 54.632 - Letters of agency (LOA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Letters of agency (LOA). 54.632 Section 54.632 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers Healthcare Connect Fund § 54.632 Letters of agency (LOA). (a)...

  8. 32 CFR 234.6 - Interfering with agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Interfering with agency functions. 234.6 Section 234.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.6 Interfering with agency functions. The following...

  9. 32 CFR 234.6 - Interfering with agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interfering with agency functions. 234.6 Section 234.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.6 Interfering with agency functions. The following...

  10. 32 CFR 234.6 - Interfering with agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interfering with agency functions. 234.6 Section 234.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.6 Interfering with agency functions. The following...

  11. 32 CFR 234.6 - Interfering with agency functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interfering with agency functions. 234.6 Section 234.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.6 Interfering with agency functions. The following...

  12. Comparative performance studies of water lettuce, duckweed, and algal-based stabilization ponds using low-strength sewage.

    PubMed

    Awuah, Esi; Oppong-Peprah, M; Lubberding, H J; Gijzen, H J

    A bench-scale continuous-flow wastewater treatment system comprising three parallel lines using duckweed (Spirodela polyrhiza), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes), and algae (natural colonization) as treatment agents was set up to determine environmental conditions, fecal coliform profiles and general treatment performance. Each line consisted of four ponds connected in series fed by diluted sewage. Influent and effluent parameters measured included environmental conditions, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, total phosphorus, fecal coliforms, mosquito larvae, and sludge accumulations. Environmental conditions and fecal coliforms profiles were determined in the sediments (0.63 m), suspensions (0.35 m), and surfaces (0.1 m) of each pond. Acidic conditions were observed in the pistia ponds, neutral conditions in duckweed ponds, and alkaline conditions in algal ponds. Fecal coliforms log removals of 6, 4, and 3 were observed in algal, duckweed, and pistia ponds, respectively, in the final effluents, with die-off rates per pond of 2.7, 2.0, and 1.6. Sedimentation accounted for over 99% fecal coliform removal in most of the algal and pistia ponds. BOD removal was highest in the duckweed system, followed by pistia and algae at 95%, 93%, and 25%, respectively. COD removals were 65% and 59%, respectively, for duckweed and pistia, while COD increased in algal ponds by 56%. Nitrate removals were 72%, 70%, and 36%, respectively for duckweed, pistia, and algal ponds. Total phosphorus removals were 33% and 9% for pistia and duckweed systems, while an increase of 19% was observed in the algal treatment system. Ammonia removals were 95% in both pistia and duckweed and 93% in algal systems. Removals of total dissolved solids (TDS) were 70% for pistia, 15% for duckweed, and 9% for algae. Mosquito populations of 11,175/m(2), 3516/m(2), and 96/m(2) were counted in pistia, algal, and duckweed ponds, respectively. Low

  13. 15 CFR 923.57 - Continuing consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Coordination, Public Involvement and National Interest... establish an effective mechanism for continuing consultation and coordination between the management agency... of those local governments and agencies in carrying out the purposes of this Act. (b) The...

  14. Overview of Continuing Education Financing and Budgeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipp, Travis

    1982-01-01

    Continuing education agencies have cycles of financial activities that are all parts of financial management, including obtaining funding and venture capital, setting fees, and controlling costs for cost recovery. (Author/SSH)

  15. Federal Emergency Management Agency Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Carter, John R. [R-TX-31

    2013-10-03

    10/07/2013 Read the second time. Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 210. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. NSF Director Continues to Steer Agency on Technological Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the first years of Erich Bloch's command of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Describes his past associations with science and technology and his ability to lead in these areas. Indicates that he has committed the NSF to a technological course and has changed the character of the foundation. (MVL)

  17. Population Screening Using Sewage Reveals Pan-Resistant Bacteria in Hospital and Community Samples

    PubMed Central

    Mileguir, Fernando; Azar, Roberto; Smollan, Gill; Belausov, Natasha; Rahav, Galia; Shamiss, Ari; Mendelson, Ella; Keller, Nathan

    2016-01-01

    The presence of pan-resistant bacteria worldwide possesses a threat to global health. It is difficult to evaluate the extent of carriage of resistant bacteria in the population. Sewage sampling is a possible way to monitor populations. We evaluated the presence of pan-resistant bacteria in Israeli sewage collected from all over Israel, by modifying the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates. This method enables convenient and fast sewage sampling and detection. We found that sewage in Israel contains multiple pan-resistant bacteria including carbapenemase resistant Enterobacteriacae carrying blaKPC and blaNDM-1, MRSA and VRE. blaKPC carrying Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter cloacae were the most common Enterobacteriacae drug resistant bacteria found in the sewage locations we sampled. Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli and Citrobacter spp. were the 4 main CRE isolated from Israeli sewage and also from clinical samples in our clinical microbiology laboratory. Hospitals and Community sewage had similar percentage of positive samplings for blaKPC and blaNDM-1. VRE was found to be more abundant in sewage in Israel than MRSA but there were more locations positive for MRSA and VRE bacteria in Hospital sewage than in the Community. Therefore, our upgrade of the pour plate method for heterotrophic plate count technique using commercial selective agar plates can be a useful tool for routine screening and monitoring of the population for pan-resistant bacteria using sewage. PMID:27780222

  18. Impact of composting strategies on the degradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Guodi; Chen, Tongbin; Yu, Jie; Gao, Ding; Shen, Yujun; Niu, Mingjie; Liu, Hongtao

    2015-12-01

    Nonylphenol can be present in sewage sludge, and this can limit the use of the sewage sludge to amend soil. Composting is one of the most efficient and economical methods of making sewage sludge stable and harmless. The nonylphenol degradation rates during composting with added bulking agents and with aeration applied were studied. Three organic bulking agents (sawdust, corn stalk, and mushroom residue) were added to sewage sludge, and the effects of the bulking agents used and the amount added on nonylphenol degradation were determined. The highest apparent nonylphenol degradation rate (71.6%) was found for sewage sludge containing 20% mushroom residue. The lowest apparent nonylphenol degradation rate (22.5%) was found for sewage sludge containing 20% sawdust. The temperature of the composting pile of sewage sludge containing 20% sawdust became too high for nonylphenol to be efficiently degraded, and the apparent nonylphenol degradation rate was lower than was found for sewage sludge containing 10% sawdust. Increasing the ventilating time from 5 to 15 min increased the apparent nonylphenol degradation rate from 19.7 to 41.6%. Using appropriate aerobic conditions facilitates the degradation of nonylphenol in sewage sludge, decreasing the risks posed by sewage sludge applied to land. Adding too much of a bulking agent can decrease the amount of the nonylphenol degraded. Increasing the ventilating time and the amount of air supplied can increase the amount of nonylphenol degraded even if doing so causes the composting pile temperature to remain low.

  19. A solid-phase extraction method for rapidly determining the adsorption coefficient of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge

    PubMed Central

    Berthod, Laurence; Roberts, Gary; Whitley, David C.; Sharpe, Alan; Mills, Graham A.

    2014-01-01

    The partitioning of pharmaceuticals in the environment can be assessed by measuring their adsorption coefficients (Kd) between aqueous and solid phases. Measuring this coefficient in sewage sludge gives an indication of their partitioning behaviour in a wastewater treatment plant and hence contributes to an understanding of their subsequent fate. The regulatory approved method for measuring Kd in sewage sludge is the US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances (OPPTS) guideline 835.1110, which is labour intensive and time consuming. We describe an alternative method for measuring the Kd of pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge using a modified solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique. SPE cartridges were packed at different sludge/PTFE ratios (0.4, 6.0, 24.0 and 40.0% w/w sludge) and eluted with phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. The approach was tested initially using three pharmaceuticals (clofibric acid, diclofenac and oxytetracycline) that covered a range of Kd values. Subsequently, the sorption behaviour of ten further pharmaceuticals with varying physico-chemical properties was evaluated. Results from the SPE method were comparable to those of the OPPTS test, with a correlation coefficient of 0.93 between the two approaches. SPE cartridges packed with sludge and PTFE were stable for up to one year; use within one month reduced variability in measurements (to a maximum of 0.6 log units). The SPE method is low-cost, easy to use and enables the rapid measurement of Kd values for a large number of chemicals. It can be used as an alternative to the more laborious full OPPTS test in environmental fate studies and risk assessments. PMID:25299795

  20. Agency and intervention.

    PubMed

    Roskies, Adina L

    2015-09-19

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  1. Agency and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Roskies, Adina L.

    2015-01-01

    Novel ways to intervene on brain function raise questions about agency and responsibility. Here, I discuss whether direct brain interventions, and in particular, deep brain stimulation, pose a threat to agency in individual cases, or to our general conceptualization of what it is to be a responsible agent. While I do not currently see evidence that these interventions constitute a global challenge to our concept of agency, they do have the potential to diminish agency in individuals. I consider whether the lack of evidence for a global challenge ratifies our folk conceptions, or is a necessary consequence of them. In closing, I propose that our theoretical understanding of agency and our therapeutic approaches could be improved with a more nuanced, multidimensional view of agency. PMID:26240430

  2. Characterisation of raw sewage and performance assessment of primary settling tanks at Firle Sewage Treatment Works, Harare, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muserere, Simon Takawira; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Nhapi, Innocent

    The need for more stringent effluent discharge standards as prescribed by the Environmental Management Act 20:27 to protect the environment can be sustainably achieved with the aid of Activated Sludge Models. Thus, the researchers believe it is time to re-evaluate wastewater characteristics at Firle Sewage Treatment Works (STW) and make use of activated sludge simulators to address pollution challenges caused by the sewage plant. Therefore, this paper characterizes raw sewage and assesses settled and unsettled sewage in order to evaluate the performance of the primary treatment system and the suitability of the settled sewage for treatment by the subsequent Biological Nutrient Removal (BNR) system at Firle STW. Parameters studied included COD, BOD, TKN, TP, NH3, TSS, pH and Alkalinity. Composite samples were collected over a 9-day campaign period (27 June to 6 July 2012), hourly grab samples over 24 hrs and composite samples on 6 March 2012 which were then analysed in the lab in accordance with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater to support the City of Harare 2004-2012 lab historical records. Concentrations for unsettled sewage in mg/L were COD (527 ± 32), BOD (297 ± 83) TKN (19.0 ± 2.0), TP (18 ± 3), NH3 (24.0 ± 12.9), TSS (219 ± 57), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 266 ± 36 mg/L. For settled sewage the corresponding values in mg/L were COD (522 ± 15), BOD (324 ± 102), TKN (21.0 ± 3.0), TP (19.0 ± 2.0), NH3 (25.6 ± 11.2), TSS (250 ± 66), while pH was 7.0 ± 0 and Alkalinity 271 ± 17 mg/L. The plant design values for raw sewage are COD (650 mg/L), BOD (200 mg/L), TKN (40 mg/L) and TP (11 mg/L). Thus, COD and nitrogen were within the plant design range while BOD and TP were higher. Treatability of sewage in BNR systems is often inferred from the levels of critical parameters and also the ratios of TKN/COD and COD/TP. The wastewater average settled COD/BOD, COD/TP and TKN/COD ratio were 1.7 ± 0.5, 27.1 ± 3.1 and 0.04 ± 0

  3. The odour of digested sewage sludge--determination and its abatement by air stripping.

    PubMed

    Winter, P; Jones, N; Asaadi, M; Bowman, L

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a project to investigate the odour of sewage sludge after anaerobic digestion. The impact of air stripping on the odour of liquid sludge and on the quality of the dewatered product was evaluated at a full-scale sludge treatment installation. A continuous and a batch air-stripping mode were tested. Odour samples were collected during air stripping from the liquid sludge and from the biosolids surface during long term storage. The biosolids were also analysed for hedonic tone and for their potential odour expressed as an odour unit per unit mass. The odour emission profiles for continuous and batch air stripping demonstrated a reduction in the overall (time weighted) emissions during a 24 hr-period compared with emissions from the quiescent liquid storage tank. The averaged specific odour emission rate (Esp) of the biosolids derived from the continuous process was only 13% of the Esp of the biosolids derived from unaerated liquid sludge during the first month of storage. The results of the total potential odour and the hedonic tone of the biosolids underpin the beneficial effects of the air stripping. Odour dispersion modelling showed a noticeable reduction in overall odour impact from the sludge centre when air stripping was applied. The reduction was primarily associated with the reduced odour from stockpiled biosolids. The continuous air-stripping mode appeared to provide the greatest benefits in terms of odour impact from site operations.

  4. Variations of metal distribution in sewage sludge composting.

    PubMed

    Nomeda, Sabiene; Valdas, Paulauskas; Chen, Shen-Yi; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2008-01-01

    In the study, the variations of heavy metal distributions (of Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) during the sewage sludge composting process were investigated by sequential extraction procedures. The total content of Cu and Zn in the composted mixture increased after the composting process. Mn and Zn were mainly found in mobile fractions (exchangeable fraction (F1), carbonate fraction (F2), and Fe/Mn oxide fraction (F3)). Cu and Pb were strongly associated with the stable fractions (organic matter/sulfides fraction (F4) and residual fraction (F5)). These five metal fractions were used to calculate the metal mobility (bioavailability) in the sewage sludge and composted mixture. The mobility (bioavailability) of Mn, Pb, and Zn (but not Cu) increased during the composting process. The metal mobility in the composted mixture ranked in the following order: Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu.

  5. Financial management of Kashima Rinkai Specified Sewage Works.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, E; Igarashi, T; Iseki, H; Seya, H; Matsui, S

    2006-01-01

    The Kashima Rinkai Specified Sewage Works (KRSSW) is located at the northern side of the Kashima Coastal Industrial Zone, facing the Sea of Kashimanada (Pacific Ocean). It straddles one city and two townships: the city of Kashima, which boasts Kashima Port, a transportation center that was constructed on Kashimanada Beach by digging into the virgin sands, and the towns of Kamisu and Hasaki. The industries located there include steel, petrochemicals, chemicals, foodstuffs, livestock feeds, electric power and machinery metals. Industrial wastewaters with public sewage, except steel industry, are treated by the Fukashiba Treatment Plant which is managed by the Ibaraki Prefectural Government. The financial management of KRSSW is analysed to show its stand-alone condition.

  6. Effects of chemically contaminated sewage sludge on an aphid population

    SciTech Connect

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

    1986-12-01

    Survival and fecundity of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, were markedly reduced when they were fed on collard plants grown in pots of soil treated with chemically contaminated sewage sludge, as compared to populations on potted plants grown in uncontaminated sludge or on fertilized soil (control). Calculated demographic parameters differed significantly between the contaminated sludge and uncontaminated sludge populations and between the contaminated sludge and control populations. No significant differences were detected between the uncontaminated sludge and control populations. The ecological effects on the aphids suggest that plant uptake and translocation of chemicals from the contaminated sludge affected aphid fitness through direct toxicity and/or reduced nutritional value of the plant. These results indicate that phytophagous insects may be affected by chemical contaminants in sewage sludge used in agriculture.

  7. Quantification of viable helminth eggs in samples of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Maria Carolina Vieira da; Barés, Monica Eboly; Braga, Maria Cristina Borba

    2016-10-15

    For the application of sewage sludge as fertilizer, it is of fundamental importance the absence of pathogenic organisms, such as viable helminth eggs. Thus, the quantification of these organisms has to be carried out by means of the application of reliable and accurate methodologies. Nevertheless, until the present date, there is no consensus with regard to the adoption of a universal methodology for the detection and quantification of viable helminth eggs. It is therefore necessary to instigate a debate on the different protocols currently in use, as well as to assemble relevant information in order to assist in the development of a more comprehensive and accurate method to quantify viable helminth eggs in samples of sewage sludge and its derivatives. PMID:27470467

  8. [Effects of sewage sludge vermicompost on the growth of marigold].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Yin, Xiu-qin

    2010-05-01

    The 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1, and 1:0 mixtures of sewage sludge and cattle dung were treated with earthworm Eisenia foetida, and then, mixed with black soil in the proportions of 10%, 20%, and 30% (dry mass) to investigate the effects of the vermicompost on the marigold plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, branch number, aboveground biomass, underground biomass, ratio of root to shoot, flower bud number, flower yield, flower diameter, and flower biomass. An obvious promotion effect of the vermicompost was observed on the growth of marigold. The smaller the ratio of sewage sludge to cattle dung, the better the growth of marigold; while a higher proportion of the vermicompost to soil would inhibit the marigold growth. In this study, a proportion of 20% vermicompost to soil was the best for the growth of marigold.

  9. Financial management of Kashima Rinkai Specified Sewage Works.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, E; Igarashi, T; Iseki, H; Seya, H; Matsui, S

    2006-01-01

    The Kashima Rinkai Specified Sewage Works (KRSSW) is located at the northern side of the Kashima Coastal Industrial Zone, facing the Sea of Kashimanada (Pacific Ocean). It straddles one city and two townships: the city of Kashima, which boasts Kashima Port, a transportation center that was constructed on Kashimanada Beach by digging into the virgin sands, and the towns of Kamisu and Hasaki. The industries located there include steel, petrochemicals, chemicals, foodstuffs, livestock feeds, electric power and machinery metals. Industrial wastewaters with public sewage, except steel industry, are treated by the Fukashiba Treatment Plant which is managed by the Ibaraki Prefectural Government. The financial management of KRSSW is analysed to show its stand-alone condition. PMID:16862787

  10. The production, use and quality of sewage sludge in Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, John . E-mail: john.jensen@dmu.dk; Jepsen, Svend-Erik

    2005-07-01

    In Denmark, the production of municipal sewage sludge decreased from approximately 170,000 ton d.m. in 1994 to 140,000 ton d.m. in 2002. The sludge is handled and treated in a number of ways. The quality of Danish sludge has steadily improved since the middle of the 1980s, when the first set of quality criteria for heavy metals was introduced. In 1997, cut-off criteria for the organic pollutants, LAS, DEHP, nonylphenol and PAHs were introduced. Effective control from authorities, voluntary phasing out agreements with industry, improved source identification tools, better handling and after-care methods have in combination with higher waste duties led to a significant reduction in the sludge level of especially cadmium, mercury, chromium, LAS and nonylphenol. The increased quality demand has, nevertheless, also led to a minor reduction in the use of sewage sludge as organic fertiliser on agricultural land.

  11. Soil reclamation by municipal sewage compost: Heavy metals migration study.

    PubMed

    Kowalkowski, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes sorption and transport phenomena of selected heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu) in the superficial layer of soil and sewage sludge compost. The main aim of the study was the investigation of possibility of heavy metals contamination in soil profile reclaimed by sewage sludge compost. The column leaching test as well as the sequential Tessier extraction procedure were applied to investigate the mitigation of heavy metals. The results revealed that distribution of metals in specific Tessier fractions was the major factor influencing their transport in the investigated soils profiles. Moreover, sorption capacity of the soil sample studied was substantially greater to prevent transportation of metals into the lower horizons and groundwater.

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls in Australian sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Bradley; Porter, Nichola; Symons, Robert; Marriott, Philip; Ades, Peter; Stevenson, Gavin; Blackbeard, Judy

    2008-10-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the international scientific literature of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) in sewage sludge and a survey of these compounds in sewage sludge from 16 Australian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The SigmaPBDE mean concentration in the Australian study was 1137microgkg(-1) dry weight (d.w.) (s.d. 1116) and ranged between 5 and 4 230microgkg(-1)d.w. The urban mean of 1308microgkg(-1) (s.d. 1320) and the rural mean of 911microgkg(-1) (s.d. 831) are not statistically different and are similar to levels in European sludges. Principal components analysis was performed on the data set and revealed that 76% of the data variation could be explained by two components that corresponded to overall concentration of the pentaBDE and the decaBDE commercial formulations. An analysis of variance was performed comparing PBDEs levels at three WWTPs over the years 2005 and 2006, finding differences between treatment plants (BDE-47) but no significant difference in PBDE levels in the years 2005 and 2006. Low levels of BB-153 were detected in all samples of this survey (n=16); mean 0.6microgkg(-1)d.w. (s.d. 0.5). This compound has rarely been reported in any other study of sewage sludges undertaken outside Australia. This work highlights the need for a risk assessment of PBDEs in sewage sludge when used for land application, taking into account typical levels found in Australian sludges and soils. PMID:18682307

  13. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  14. Domestic source of phosphorus to sewage treatment works.

    PubMed

    Comber, Sean; Gardner, Michael; Georges, Karyn; Blackwood, David; Gilmour, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is an element essential for life. Concerns regarding long-term security of supply and issues related to eutrophication of surface waters once released into the aquatic environment have led governments to consider and apply measures for reducing the use and discharge of phosphorus. Examples of source control include legislation to reduce phosphorus use in domestic detergents. This research shows that other domestic sources of phosphorus also contribute significantly to the domestic load to sewer and that overall, domestic sources dominate loads to sewage treatment works. Estimates provided here show that although the natural diet contributes 40% of the domestic phosphorus load, other potentially preventable sources contribute significantly to the estimated 44,000 tonnes of phosphorus entering UK sewage treatment works each year. In the UK, food additives are estimated to contribute 29% of the domestic load; automatic dishwashing detergents contribute 9% and potentially increasing; domestic laundry 14%, including contributions from phosphonates, but decreasing; phosphorus dosing to reduce lead levels in tap water 6%; food waste disposed of down the drain 1%; and personal care products 1%. Although UK data is presented here, it is anticipated that similar impacts would be expected for other developed economies. Consideration of alternatives to all preventable sources of phosphorus from these sources would therefore offer potentially significant reductions in phosphorus loads to sewage treatment works and hence to the aquatic environment. Combining all source control measures and applying them to their maximum extent could potentially lead to the prevention of over 22,000 tonnes-P/year entering sewage treatment works.

  15. Identification of sewage leaks by active remote-sensing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly; Basson, Uri

    2016-04-01

    The increasing length of sewage pipelines, and concomitant risk of leaks due to urban and industrial growth and development is exposing the surrounding land to contamination risk and environmental harm. It is therefore important to locate such leaks in a timely manner, to minimize the damage. Advances in active remote sensing Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (FDEM) technologies was used to identify leaking potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. This study focused on the development of these electromagnetic methods to replace conventional acoustic methods for the identification of leaks along sewage pipes. Electromagnetic methods provide an additional advantage in that they allow mapping of the fluid-transport system in the subsurface. Leak-detection systems using GPR and FDEM are not limited to large amounts of water, but enable detecting leaks of tens of liters per hour, because they can locate increases in environmental moisture content of only a few percentage along the pipes. The importance and uniqueness of this research lies in the development of practical tools to provide a snapshot and monitoring of the spatial changes in soil moisture content up to depths of about 3-4 m, in open and paved areas, at relatively low cost, in real time or close to real time. Spatial measurements performed using GPR and FDEM systems allow monitoring many tens of thousands of measurement points per hectare, thus providing a picture of the spatial situation along pipelines and the surrounding. The main purpose of this study was to develop a method for detecting sewage leaks using the above-proposed geophysical methods, since their contaminants can severely affect public health. We focused on identifying, locating and characterizing such leaks in sewage pipes in residential and industrial areas.

  16. Pathway of radioisotopes from land surface to sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Helmut W.; Yokoo, Yoshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Radioactive surface contaminations will only partially remain at the original location - a fraction of the inventory will take part in (mainly terrestrial and aquatic) environmental transport processes. The probably best known and most important process comprises the food chain. Besides, the translocation of dissolved and particle-bound radioisotopes with surface waters plays an important role. These processes can have the effect of displacing large radioisotope amounts over considerable distances and of creating new sinks and hot spots, as it is already known for sewage sludge. We are reporting on a combined modeling and experimental project concerning the transport of I-131 and Cs-134/Cs-137 FDNPP 2011 depositions in the Fukushima Prefecture. Well-documented experimental data sets are available for surface deposition and sewage sludge concentrations. The goal is to model the pathway in between, involving surface runoff, transport in the sewer system and processes in the sewage treatment plant. Watershed runoff and sewer transport will be treated with models developed recently by us in other projects. For sewage treatment processes a new model is currently being constructed. For comparison and further validation, historical data from Chernobyl depositions and tracer data from natural and artificial, e.g. medical, isotopes will be used. First results for 2011 data from Fukushima Prefecture will be presented. The benefits of the study are expected to be two-fold: on one hand, the abundant recent and historical data will help to develop and improve environmental transport models; on the other hand, both data and models will help in identifying the most critical points in the envisaged transport pathways in terms of radiation protection and waste management.

  17. Effect of Ultrasound on Dewaterability of Sewage Sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Uk; Kim, Byoung-Il

    2003-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the effect of ultrasound on the dewaterability of sewage sludge. The investigation involves laboratory experiments, which were conducted under a broad range of conditions, including energy levels of ultrasonic waves, treatment time, and pH. Results of the study show that ultrasound enhances dewaterability significantly. The degree of enhancement varies with sonication energy, treatment time, and the amount of treated sludge.

  18. Presence of antibiotic resistance genes in a sewage treatment plant in Thibodaux, Louisiana, USA.

    PubMed

    Naquin, Anthony; Shrestha, Arsen; Sherpa, Mingma; Nathaniel, Rajkumar; Boopathy, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Increasing uses and disposals of antibiotics to the environment have increased emergence of various antibiotic resistance. One of the sources for the spread of antibiotic resistance is wastewater treatment plant, where bacteria and antibiotics can come in contact and can acquire antibiotics resistance. There are very few studies on this subject from a small town sewage treatment plant. Therefore, this study was conducted using raw sewage as well as treated sewage from a sewage treatment plant in Thibodaux in rural southeast Louisiana in USA. Samples were collected monthly from the Thibodaux sewage treatment plant and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes was monitored. The study showed the presence of antibiotic resistance genes in both raw and treated sewage in every month of the study period. The genetic transformation assay showed the successful transformation of methicillin resistant gene, mecA to an antibiotic sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, which became antibiotic resistant within 24h. PMID:25662190

  19. The toxicity to plants of the sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Patryk; Jośko, Izabela; Xing, Baoshan

    2011-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of sewage sludges containing multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with an outer diameter <10 nm (CNT10) or 40-60 nm (CNT60) to Lepidium sativum (cress), Sorghum saccharatum (sorgo), Solanum lycopersicon (tomato), Raphanus sativus (radish) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber). CNTs were also incubated in sewage sludge for 7 or 31 days to determine the effect of CNT aging on sewage sludge phytotoxicity. The influence of CNTs on 4 different sewage sludges was tested. The CNTs' influence on sludge toxicity varied with respect to the CNTs' outer diameter, type of sewage sludges and the plants tested. No significant influence of CNT concentration on phytotoxicity was noted. In the case of two sludges, a positive influence of CNTs on seed germination and root growth was observed. Depending on the CNTs' outer diameter, CNT aging decreased (CNT10) or increased (CNT60) sewage sludge phytotoxicity. PMID:21145166

  20. Co-digestion of cultivated microalgae and sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jesper; Feng, Xin Mei; Ascue, Johnny; Gentili, Francesco G; Shabiimam, M A; Nehrenheim, Emma; Thorin, Eva

    2014-11-01

    In this study two wet microalgae cultures and one dried microalgae culture were co-digested in different proportions with sewage sludge in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. The aim was to evaluate if the co-digestion could lead to an increased efficiency of methane production compared to digestion of sewage sludge alone. The results showed that co-digestion with both wet and dried microalgae, in certain proportions, increased the biochemical methane potential (BMP) compared with digestion of sewage sludge alone in mesophilic conditions. The BMP was significantly higher than the calculated BMP in many of the mixtures. This synergetic effect was statistically significant in a mixture containing 63% (w/w VS based) undigested sewage sludge and 37% (w/w VS based) wet algae slurry, which produced 23% more methane than observed with undigested sewage sludge alone. The trend was that thermophilic co-digestion of microalgae and undigested sewage sludge did not give the same synergy.