Science.gov

Sample records for agency decision makers

  1. Single-photon decision maker

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions. PMID:26278007

  2. Single-photon decision maker.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions. PMID:26278007

  3. Single-photon decision maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions.

  4. Cost Accounting for Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneklides, Ann L.

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the importance of informed decision making through accurate anticipation of cost incurrence in light of changing economic and environmental conditions. Explains the concepts of cost accounting, full allocation of costs, the selection of an allocation base, the allocation of indirect costs, depreciation, and implications for community…

  5. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  6. Automation: Decision Aid or Decision Maker?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    This study clarified that automation bias is something unique to automated decision making contexts, and is not the result of a general tendency toward complacency. By comparing performance on exactly the same events on the same tasks with and without an automated decision aid, we were able to determine that at least the omission error part of automation bias is due to the unique context created by having an automated decision aid, and is not a phenomena that would occur even if people were not in an automated context. However, this study also revealed that having an automated decision aid did lead to modestly improved performance across all non-error events. Participants in the non- automated condition responded with 83.68% accuracy, whereas participants in the automated condition responded with 88.67% accuracy, across all events. Automated decision aids clearly led to better overall performance when they were accurate. People performed almost exactly at the level of reliability as the automation (which across events was 88% reliable). However, also clear, is that the presence of less than 100% accurate automated decision aids creates a context in which new kinds of errors in decision making can occur. Participants in the non-automated condition responded with 97% accuracy on the six "error" events, whereas participants in the automated condition had only a 65% accuracy rate when confronted with those same six events. In short, the presence of an AMA can lead to vigilance decrements that can lead to errors in decision making.

  7. The Morality of University Decision-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Ethical failures in UK higher education have recently made the news but are not a recent development. University decision-makers can, in order to adopt an ethical way of reasoning, resort to several ethical traditions. This article focuses, through the use of concrete examples, on three which have had a significant impact in recent higher…

  8. Quantum decision-maker theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zak, Michail; Meyers, Ronald E.; Deacon, Keith S.

    2000-07-01

    A quantum device simulating the human decision making process is introduced. It consists of quantum recurrent nets generating stochastic processes which represent the motor dynamics, and of classical neural nets describing the evolution of probabilities of these processes which represent the mental dynamics. The autonomy of the decision making process is achieved by a feedback from the mental to motor dynamics which changes the stochastic matrix based upon the probability distribution. This feedback replaces unavailable external information by an internal knowledge- base stored in the mental model in the form of probability distributions. As a result, the coupled motor-mental dynamics is described by a nonlinear version of Markov chains which can decrease entropy without an external source of information. Applications to common sense based decisions as well as to evolutionary games are discussed. An example exhibiting self-organization is computed using quantum computer simulation. Force on force and mutual aircraft engagements using the quantum decision maker dynamics are considered.

  9. Connecting Geoscience and Decision Makers Through a Common Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Wood, C.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists and decision makers often use different words to describe the same thing. The American Geosciences Institute has developed a consistent definition for the geosciences (Wilson, 2014); however this definition often varies from how decision maker groups at the national, state, local, and regional levels often categorize geoscience topics. Where geoscientists may to refer to "geoscience," decision makers may use terms like "energy," "environment," and "natural resources." How may the geoscience community provide geoscience information to decision makers in a context they understand while at the same time providing a simple, yet consistent representation of all that the geosciences include? The American Geoscience Institute's (AGI's) Critical Issues program's main goal is to connect decision makers at all levels with decision-relevant, impartial, expert information from across the geosciences. The program uses a multi-faceted approach to reach different decision maker groups, including policy makers and government employees at the federal, state and local level. We discuss the challenges the Critical Issues program has overcome in representing the geosciences to decision makers in a cohesive fashion such that decision makers can access the information they need, while at the same time becoming aware of the breadth of information the geosciences has to offer, and the value of including geoscience in the decision-making process. References: Wilson, C.E. (2014) Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2014. American Geological Institute. Alexandria, VA.

  10. ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: USING SOUND SCIENCE FOR RISK MANAGEMENT AND ASSISTING COMMUNITY DECISION-MAKERS - A MULTI-AGENCY, COMMUNITY-BASED RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (ug/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Cen...

  11. The Computer as Adaptive Instructional Decision Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopstein, Felix F.; Seidel, Robert J.

    The computer's potential for education, and most particularly for instruction, is contingent on the development of a class of instructional decision models (formal instructional strategies) that interact with the student through appropriate peripheral equipment (man-machine interfaces). Computer hardware and software by themselves should not be…

  12. Educational Goods and Values: A Framework for Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry; Ladd, Helen F.; Loeb, Susanna; Swift, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article articulates a framework suitable for use when making decisions about education policy. Decision makers should establish what the feasible options are and evaluate them in terms of their contribution to the development, and distribution, of educational goods in children, balanced against the negative effect of policies on important…

  13. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  14. Training conservation practitioners to be better decision makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Williams, James H.; Jensen, Gitte H.; Madsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Traditional conservation curricula and training typically emphasizes only one part of systematic decision making (i.e., the science), at the expense of preparing conservation practitioners with critical skills in values-setting, working with decision makers and stakeholders, and effective problem framing. In this article we describe how the application of decision science is relevant to conservation problems and suggest how current and future conservation practitioners can be trained to be better decision makers. Though decision-analytic approaches vary considerably, they all involve: (1) properly formulating the decision problem; (2) specifying feasible alternative actions; and (3) selecting criteria for evaluating potential outcomes. Two approaches are available for providing training in decision science, with each serving different needs. Formal education is useful for providing simple, well-defined problems that allow demonstrations of the structure, axioms and general characteristics of a decision-analytic approach. In contrast, practical training can offer complex, realistic decision problems requiring more careful structuring and analysis than those used for formal training purposes. Ultimately, the kinds and degree of training necessary depend on the role conservation practitioners play in a decision-making process. Those attempting to facilitate decision-making processes will need advanced training in both technical aspects of decision science and in facilitation techniques, as well as opportunities to apprentice under decision analysts/consultants. Our primary goal should be an attempt to ingrain a discipline for applying clarity of thought to all decisions.

  15. Archives and Records Management for Decision Makers: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazikana, Peter C.

    Intended to highlight those aspects of the archival field that government officials should be aware of, this report on the Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) outlines the major principles of records management and archives administration, identifies the information needs of the decision makers, and assesses the ways in which records…

  16. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers. PMID:23098268

  17. Physician-facilitated designation of proxy decision maker.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Cummings, Laura; Crome, Peter

    2016-01-01

    With vast improvements in healthcare in recent decades, people are living longer but often with higher rates of morbidity and chronic illnesses. This has resulted in a higher proportion of the population who may benefit from early end-of-life 'conversation and planning', but also gives healthcare professionals more time during which these discussions are relevant, as people live longer with their chronic diseases. A survey conducted by Lifshitz et al (Isr J Health Policy Res 5:6, 2016) sought to assess physician awareness and willingness to discuss designating a proxy decision-maker with patients, in order to aid end-of-life care in the event that the patient is rendered unable to make or communicate these decisions later in life. Their article suggests that proxy decision-maker designation is only one aspect of end-of-life care; a challenging area littered with ethical and moral dilemmas. Without early, open and frank discussions with patients regarding their wishes at the end of life, proxy decision-makers may be in no better position than physicians or a court appointed proxy to make decisions in the patients' best interests/benefits. This commentary also touches upon the use of health and care passports being developed or in early phases in the United Kingdom, and whether these may be utilised in the field of palliative care in Israel. PMID:27358723

  18. Focusing Biodiversity Research on the Needs of Decision Makers

    PubMed

    SMYTHE; BERNABO; CARTER; JUTRO

    1996-11-01

    / The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers articulated concerns related to four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; and the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading natural and social scientists then identified the research required to address the decision makers' needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. The BURN participants identified several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity. Research and assessment efforts should be: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical (multiple scales), and problem- and region-specific. The activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. Meta-analysis of existing data is needed on all fronts to assess the state of the science. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations were developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that

  19. Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smythe, Katie D.; Bernabo, J. Christopher; Carter, Thomas B.; Jutro, Peter R.

    1996-11-01

    The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers articulated concerns related to four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; and the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading natural and social scientists then identified the research required to address the decision makers' needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. The BURN participants identified several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity. Research and assessment efforts should be: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical (multiple scales), and problem- and region-specific. The activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. Meta-analysis of existing data is needed on all fronts to assess the state of the science. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability—for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations were developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that

  20. Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, K.D.; Bernabo, J.C.; Carter, T.B.; Jutro, P.R.

    1996-11-01

    The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers had concerns about four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading scientists identified research required to address these needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. Several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity were identified: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical, and problem- and region-specific. Activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations wee developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that require biodiversity research to address their needs-whether to develop policy, manage natural resources, or make other decisions affecting biodiversity. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. Eco-informatics for decision makers advancing a research agenda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  2. The medical decision model and decision maker tools for management of radiological and nuclear incidents.

    PubMed

    Koerner, John F; Coleman, C Norman; Murrain-Hill, Paula; FitzGerald, Denis J; Sullivan, Julie M

    2014-06-01

    Effective decision making during a rapidly evolving emergency such as a radiological or nuclear incident requires timely interim decisions and communications from onsite decision makers while further data processing, consultation, and review are ongoing by reachback experts. The authors have recently proposed a medical decision model for use during a radiological or nuclear disaster, which is similar in concept to that used in medical care, especially when delay in action can have disastrous effects. For decision makers to function most effectively during a complex response, they require access to onsite subject matter experts who can provide information, recommendations, and participate in public communication efforts. However, in the time before this expertise is available or during the planning phase, just-in-time tools are essential that provide critical overview of the subject matter written specifically for the decision makers. Recognizing the complexity of the science, risk assessment, and multitude of potential response assets that will be required after a nuclear incident, the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response, in collaboration with other government and non-government experts, has prepared a practical guide for decision makers. This paper illustrates how the medical decision model process could facilitate onsite decision making that includes using the deliberative reachback process from science and policy experts and describes the tools now available to facilitate timely and effective incident management. PMID:24776895

  3. Hospital Information System Support for the Medical Decision Maker

    PubMed Central

    Mishelevich, David J.; Atkinson, Jack B.; Noland, Robert L.; Eisenberg, Jerry R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the early stages in migration toward a comprehensive, on-line Hospital Information System with emphasis placed on the needs of the physician and other Medical Decision Makers. Such systems will properly put the computing power where it belongs: in the hands of the user, to the decision being made, to enhance health professional productivity and cost effectiveness. Thus we are evolving to such feedback to the physician in multiple dimensions, whether previous orders and/or results, patient profiles, cost of item ordered, potential drug-drug and drug-laboratory test interactions, potential duplicate examinations, or other information are involved. Considerations for systems which can potentially meet these needs are outlined. Specific examples of characteristics of the IBM Patient Care System {PCS} are presented as a prototypical model. Critical components are the presence of relevant data and the human-engineered, user-cordial access to that data. Coverage is given to multiple existing and potential sources of clinically-significant data whether manual or automated instrument input are involved.

  4. Bridging the Gap between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers through the NASA DEVELOP National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favors, J. E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Ruiz, M. L.; Miller, T. N.; Crepps, G.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations who collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations to enhance decision making on a local level. DEVELOP partners with a wide variety of organizations, including state and local governments, federal agencies, regional entities, tribal governments, international organizations and governments, NGOs and private companies. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations, and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This presentation will highlight best practices, feedback from project end-users, and case studies of successful adoption of methods in the decision making process.

  5. Using Cognitive Conflict to Promote the Use of Dialectical Learning for Strategic Decision-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that uses dialectical inquiry (DI) to create cognitive conflict in strategic decision-makers for the purpose of improving strategic decisions. Activation of the dialectical learning process using DI requires strategic decision-makers to integrate conflicting information causing…

  6. The Role of the National Academy of Sciences in Supporting Climate Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfring, C.

    2009-12-01

    Established in 1863 by Congress under the Lincoln Administration, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a nongovernmental organization that plays a unique role in providing scientific information to decision makers. The NAS brings together the nation’s top experts, as volunteers, to provide objective scientific analysis and advice on a wide variety of critical issues, including climate change. The Academy’s climate change-related studies range from early reports such as Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment (1979) to current activities such as America’s Climate Choices (in process). Studies have or are addressing climate forcings and feedbacks, statistics, predictability, ecological impacts, the structure of federal climate research programs, decision-making, transportation planning, and other aspects of understanding and responding to climate change. Requests for studies come primarily from Congress and federal agencies, yet the NAS is able generate a wide variety of products and reports for policy-makers, government agencies, states, and the public. With so many special interests and advocacy organizations now speaking on climate issues, the role of NAS as an objective source of information and guidance is more important than ever. This talk will highlight a range of past and ongoing Academy reports, both technical and policy-oriented, to illustrate the kinds of questions we address, the processes used to gather information and reach consensus, how we deal with multidisciplinary questions, the impacts of our studies, and the ways we are evolving to meet the needs of a changing society.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES: A GUIDE FOR LOCAL DECISION-MAKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Planning for Small Communities - A Guide for Local Decision-Makers presents a process for creating and implementing a community environmental plan. With a comprehensive environmental plan, local decision-makers can create an integrated approach to protecting the env...

  8. Targeting Continuing Medical Education on Decision Makers: Who Decides to Transfuse Blood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnough, Lawrence T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Staff communication patterns were observed during 13 open-heart surgeries to identify the transfusion decision makers. It was determined that targeting decision makers for continuing medical education would improve the quality of transfusion practice and increase the efficiency of continuing education. (SK)

  9. Attitudes of Educational Decision Makers toward AVTI Governance and the Local Tax Levy. An Independent Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LiaBraaten, James Clayton

    A study investigated the attitudes of vocational education decision makers toward the governance of Minnesota's Area Vocational Technical Institutes (AVTIs) and the impact removal of a local tax to support the AVTIs might have on governance. Five categories of individuals, all considered vocational education decision makers, were surveyed: AVTI…

  10. A regret theory approach to decision curve analysis: A novel method for eliciting decision makers' preferences and decision-making

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Decision curve analysis (DCA) has been proposed as an alternative method for evaluation of diagnostic tests, prediction models, and molecular markers. However, DCA is based on expected utility theory, which has been routinely violated by decision makers. Decision-making is governed by intuition (system 1), and analytical, deliberative process (system 2), thus, rational decision-making should reflect both formal principles of rationality and intuition about good decisions. We use the cognitive emotion of regret to serve as a link between systems 1 and 2 and to reformulate DCA. Methods First, we analysed a classic decision tree describing three decision alternatives: treat, do not treat, and treat or no treat based on a predictive model. We then computed the expected regret for each of these alternatives as the difference between the utility of the action taken and the utility of the action that, in retrospect, should have been taken. For any pair of strategies, we measure the difference in net expected regret. Finally, we employ the concept of acceptable regret to identify the circumstances under which a potentially wrong strategy is tolerable to a decision-maker. Results We developed a novel dual visual analog scale to describe the relationship between regret associated with "omissions" (e.g. failure to treat) vs. "commissions" (e.g. treating unnecessary) and decision maker's preferences as expressed in terms of threshold probability. We then proved that the Net Expected Regret Difference, first presented in this paper, is equivalent to net benefits as described in the original DCA. Based on the concept of acceptable regret we identified the circumstances under which a decision maker tolerates a potentially wrong decision and expressed it in terms of probability of disease. Conclusions We present a novel method for eliciting decision maker's preferences and an alternative derivation of DCA based on regret theory. Our approach may be intuitively more

  11. Emodnet Med Sea Check-Point - Indicators for decision- maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Sophie; Claverie, Vincent; Blanc, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    The Emodnet Checkpoint projects aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness, reliability and utility of the existing monitoring at the sea basin level. This involves the development of monitoring system indicators and a GIS Platform to perform the assessment and make it available. Assessment or production of Check-Point information is made by developing targeted products based on the monitoring data and determining whether the products are meeting the needs of industry and public authorities. Check-point users are the research community, the 'institutional' policy makers for IMP and MSFD implementation, the 'intermediate users', i.e., users capable to understand basic raw data but that benefit from seeing the Checkpoint targeted products and the assessment of the fitness for purpose. We define assessment criteria aimed to characterize/depict the input datasets in terms of 3 territories capable to show performance and gaps of the present monitoring system, appropriateness, availability and fitness for purpose. • Appropriateness: What is made available to users? What motivate/decide them to select this observation rather than this one. • Availability: How this is made available to the user? Place to understand the readiness and service performance of the EU infrastructure • Fitness for use / fitness for purpose: Ability for non-expert user to appreciate the data exploitability (feedback on efficiency & reliability of marine data) For each territory (appropriateness, Availability and Fitness for purpose / for use), we define several indicators. For example, for Availability we define Visibility, Accessibility and Performance. And Visibility is itself defined by "Easily found" and "EU service". So these indicators can be classified according to their territory and sub-territory as seen above, but also according to the complexity to build them. Indicators are built from raw descriptors in 3 stages:  Stage 1: to give a neutral and basic status directly computed from

  12. Decision Maker based on Nanoscale Photo-excitation Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Song-Ju; Naruse, Makoto; Aono, Masashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Hara, Masahiko

    2013-08-01

    Decision-making is one of the most important intellectual abilities of the human brain. Here we propose an efficient decision-making system which uses optical energy transfer between quantum dots (QDs) mediated by optical near-field interactions occurring at scales far below the wavelength of light. The simulation results indicate that our system outperforms the softmax rule, which is known as the best-fitting algorithm for human decision-making behaviour. This suggests that we can produce a nano-system which makes decisions efficiently and adaptively by exploiting the intrinsic spatiotemporal dynamics involving QDs mediated by optical near-field interactions.

  13. Decision Maker based on Nanoscale Photo-excitation Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song-Ju; Naruse, Makoto; Aono, Masashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Hara, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making is one of the most important intellectual abilities of the human brain. Here we propose an efficient decision-making system which uses optical energy transfer between quantum dots (QDs) mediated by optical near-field interactions occurring at scales far below the wavelength of light. The simulation results indicate that our system outperforms the softmax rule, which is known as the best-fitting algorithm for human decision-making behaviour. This suggests that we can produce a nano-system which makes decisions efficiently and adaptively by exploiting the intrinsic spatiotemporal dynamics involving QDs mediated by optical near-field interactions. PMID:23928655

  14. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  15. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells For CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, David P; McGervey, Joseph; Curran, Scott

    2011-11-01

    Federal agency leaders are expressing growing interest in using innovative fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) technology at their sites, motivated by both executive branch sustainability targets and a desire to lead by example in the transition to a clean energy economy. Fuel cell CHP can deliver reliable electricity and heat with 70% to 85% efficiency. Implementing this technology can be a high efficiency, clean energy solution for agencies striving to meet ambitious sustainability requirements with limited budgets. Fuel cell CHP systems can use natural gas or renewable fuels, such as biogas. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers presents an overview of the process for planning and implementing a fuel cell CHP project in a concise, step-by-step format. This guide is designed to help agency leaders turn their interest in fuel cell technology into successful installations. This guide concentrates on larger (100 kW and greater) fuel cell CHP systems and does not consider other fuel cell applications such as cars, forklifts, backup power supplies or small generators (<100 kW). Because fuel cell technologies are rapidly evolving and have high up front costs, their deployment poses unique challenges. The electrical and thermal output of the CHP system must be integrated with the building s energy systems. Innovative financing mechanisms allow agencies to make a make versus buy decision to maximize savings. This guide outlines methods that federal agencies may use to procure fuel cell CHP systems with little or no capital investment. Each agency and division, however, has its own set of procurement procedures. This guide was written as a starting point, and it defers to the reader s set of rules if differences exist. The fuel cell industry is maturing, and project developers are gaining experience in working with federal agencies. Technology improvements, cost reductions, and experienced project developers are making

  16. Issues in Distance Education: A Primer for Higher Education Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of current issues related to distance learning in higher education. It identifies central questions, issues, challenges, and opportunities that must be addressed by decision makers, as well as key attributes of effective leaders.

  17. A model of the human observer and decision maker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wewerinke, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    The decision process is described in terms of classical sequential decision theory by considering the hypothesis that an abnormal condition has occurred by means of a generalized likelihood ratio test. For this, a sufficient statistic is provided by the innovation sequence which is the result of the perception an information processing submodel of the human observer. On the basis of only two model parameters, the model predicts the decision speed/accuracy trade-off and various attentional characteristics. A preliminary test of the model for single variable failure detection tasks resulted in a very good fit of the experimental data. In a formal validation program, a variety of multivariable failure detection tasks was investigated and the predictive capability of the model was demonstrated.

  18. Outsourced Investment Management: An Overview for Institutional Decision-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing of investment management is a growing trend among institutional investors. With a broad range of institutions using or exploring the outsourced chief investment officer (OCIO) model, portfolio size is no longer the determining factor driving the outsourcing decision. For all but the largest institutional investors--those with deep…

  19. Coping Strategies and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Decision Makers

    PubMed Central

    Petrinec, Amy B.; Mazanec, Polly M.; Burant, Christopher J.; Hoffer, Alan; Daly, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the coping strategies used by family decision makers of adult critical care patients during and after the critical care experience and the relationship of coping strategies to posttraumatic stress symptoms experienced 60 days after hospitalization. Design A single-group descriptive longitudinal correlational study. Setting Medical, surgical, and neurological ICUs in a large tertiary care university hospital. Patients Consecutive family decision makers of adult critical care patients from August 2012 to November 2013. Study inclusion occurred after the patient's fifth day in the ICU. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Family decision makers of incapacitated adult ICU patients completed the Brief COPE instrument assessing coping strategy use 5 days after ICU admission and 30 days after hospital discharge or death of the patient and completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessing post-traumatic stress symptoms 60 days after hospital discharge. Seventy-seven family decision makers of the eligible 176 completed all data collection time points of this study. The use of problem-focused (p = 0.01) and emotion-focused (p < 0.01) coping decreased over time while avoidant coping (p = 0.20) use remained stable. Coping strategies 30 days after hospitalization (R2 = 0.50, p < 0.001) were better predictors of later posttraumatic stress symptoms than coping strategies 5 days after ICU admission (R2 = 0.30, p = 0.001) controlling for patient and decision-maker characteristics. The role of decision maker for a parent and patient death were the only noncoping predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Avoidant coping use 30 days after hospitalization mediated the relationship between patient death and later posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Conclusions Coping strategy use is a significant predictor of posttraumatic stress symptom severity 60 days after hospitalization in family decision makers of ICU patients. PMID:25785520

  20. Surrogate Decision Makers and Proxy Ownership: Challenges of Privacy Management in Health Care Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Bute, Jennifer J.; Petronio, Sandra; Torke, Alexia M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the communicative experiences of surrogates who served as decision makers for patients who were unable to convey health information and choices about treatment options. Drawing on assumptions from communication privacy management theory (Petronio, 2002), 35 surrogates were interviewed to explore how they navigated the role of guardian of patients’ private health information while the patient was hospitalized. This research determined that surrogates are not only guardians and thereby co-owners of the patients’ private health information, they actually served in a “proxy ownership” role. Surrogates described obstacles to both obtaining and sharing private health information about the patient, suggesting that their rights as legitimate co-owners of the patients’ information were not fully acknowledged by the medical teams. Surrogates also described challenges in performing the proxy ownership role when they were not fully aware of the patient's wishes. Theoretical and practical implications of these challenges are discussed. PMID:25175060

  1. Mapping a research agenda for home care safety: perspectives from researchers, providers, and decision makers.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be described; consequently, gaining insight from various stakeholders about safety issues relevant to the home care sector is necessary in order to inform strategic directions for future research. To begin to map a research agenda, a three-part environmental scan was conducted: (a) a pilot study with home care recipients and providers; (b) key informant interviews with researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers; and (c) a review of literature in three topic areas. Only the results of the key informant interviews are reported here. PMID:24650672

  2. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  3. The Decision-Makers Forum on a new Paradigm for Nuclear Energy, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Motloch, Chester George

    1998-09-01

    The Decision-Makers' Forum on a New Paradigm for Nuclear Energy was created in response to the challenge by Sen. Pete V. Domenici to begin, "a new dialogue with serious discussion about the full range of nuclear technologies." Sponsored by the Senate Nuclear Issues Caucus, the Forum was organized and facilitated by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The participants were decision-makers and key staff from industry, government, the national laboratories, academia and professional societies. Overall, the Forum was designed to capture the ideas of a large number of decision-makers about the high priority actions recommended to help set a new national agenda for nuclear energy. The Forum recommended 10 priority actions toward this end.

  4. Improving invasive species management by integrating priorities and contributions of scientists and decision makers.

    PubMed

    N'Guyen, Anouk; Hirsch, Philipp E; Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Managing invasive species is a major challenge for society. In the case of newly established invaders, rapid action is key for a successful management. Here, we develop, describe and recommend a three-step transdisciplinary process (the "butterfly model") to rapidly initiate action for invasion management. In the framing of a case study, we present results from the first of these steps: assessing priorities and contributions of both scientists and decision makers. Both scientists and decision makers prioritise research on prevention. The available scientific knowledge contributions, however, are publications on impacts rather than prevention of the invasive species. The contribution of scientific knowledge does thus not reflect scientists' perception of what is essentially needed. We argue that a more objective assessment and transparent communication of not only decision makers' but also scientists' priorities is an essential basis for a successful cooperation. Our three-step model can help achieve objectivity via transdisciplinary communication. PMID:26541874

  5. 36 CFR 902.74 - Agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency decision. 902.74... INFORMATION ACT Procedures for Administrative Appeal of Decisions Not To Disclose Records § 902.74 Agency decision. (a) The Chairman shall have sole authority to act on an appeal, which seeks to reverse an...

  6. A Reward-Maximizing Spiking Neuron as a Bounded Rational Decision Maker.

    PubMed

    Leibfried, Felix; Braun, Daniel A

    2015-08-01

    Rate distortion theory describes how to communicate relevant information most efficiently over a channel with limited capacity. One of the many applications of rate distortion theory is bounded rational decision making, where decision makers are modeled as information channels that transform sensory input into motor output under the constraint that their channel capacity is limited. Such a bounded rational decision maker can be thought to optimize an objective function that trades off the decision maker's utility or cumulative reward against the information processing cost measured by the mutual information between sensory input and motor output. In this study, we interpret a spiking neuron as a bounded rational decision maker that aims to maximize its expected reward under the computational constraint that the mutual information between the neuron's input and output is upper bounded. This abstract computational constraint translates into a penalization of the deviation between the neuron's instantaneous and average firing behavior. We derive a synaptic weight update rule for such a rate distortion optimizing neuron and show in simulations that the neuron efficiently extracts reward-relevant information from the input by trading off its synaptic strengths against the collected reward. PMID:26079747

  7. Decision makers calibrate behavioral persistence on the basis of time-interval experience

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Joseph T.; Kable, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    A central question in intertemporal decision making is why people reverse their own past choices. Someone who initially prefers a long-run outcome might fail to maintain that preference for long enough to see the outcome realized. Such behavior is usually understood as reflecting preference instability or self-control failure. However, if a decision maker is unsure exactly how long an awaited outcome will be delayed, a reversal can constitute the rational, utility-maximizing course of action. In the present behavioral experiments, we placed participants in timing environments where persistence toward delayed rewards was either productive or counterproductive. Our results show that human decision makers are responsive to statistical timing cues, modulating their level of persistence according to the distribution of delay durations they encounter. We conclude that temporal expectations act as a powerful and adaptive influence on people’s tendency to sustain patient decisions. PMID:22533999

  8. State Decision-Makers Guide for Hazardous Waste Management: Defining Hazardous Wastes, Problem Recognition, Land Use, Facility Operations, Conceptual Framework, Policy Issues, Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Alan; And Others

    Presented are key issues to be addressed by state, regional, and local governments and agencies in creating effective hazardous waste management programs. Eight chapters broadly frame the topics which state-level decision makers should consider. These chapters include: (1) definition of hazardous waste; (2) problem definition and recognition; (3)…

  9. How to Reach Decision Makers: Build a network of educators and practitioners with common goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Anders, S.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Gershunov, A.

    2013-12-01

    In San Diego County, the Climate Education Partners (CEP) includes climate scientists, science educators, behavioral scientists, environmental practitioners and community organizations that are dedicated to providing local decision makers (elected officials, business leaders, community leaders) with sound climate science learning opportunities and resources that promote informed decision making. Their work over the past three years has found that effective climate education programs are designed for specific audiences with tailored information that is relevant to them, while simultaneously building community efficacy, identity and values. An integrated approach that blends rigorous scientific facts, local climate change impact, and social science education theory is contributing towards the development of a cadre of engaged leaders and communities. To track project progress and to inform the project strategy, local Key Influentials are being interviewed to gauge their current understanding of climate change and their interest in either becoming messengers to their community or becoming the portal to their constituency. Innovation comes from productive collaboration. For this reason, CEP has been working with leading scientists (climatologists, hydrologists, meteorologists, ecologists), environmental groups, museums and zoos, media experts and government agencies (Water Authority, CalFire) to develop and refine a program of learning activities and resources geared specifically for Key Influentials. For example, a water tour has been designed to bring 25 key influential leaders in San Diego County to a dam, a pumping station and a reservoir and provide climate change facts, impacts and potential solutions to the critical issue of water supply for the San Diego Region. While learning local facts about the causes and impacts of climate change, participants also learn about what they can do (increasing efficacy), that they can be a part of a solution centered community

  10. Simulated Environments for the Exercising of Critical Decision Makers: Utilizing Networked Multimedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crego, Jonathan; Powell, James

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the development of Minerva, a command-and-control training simulator that uses a multimedia computer network to exercise senior decision makers in crisis management at the Metropolitan Police Service (London). Examines the learning environment, programs, performance reviews, training scenarios, and technology. (AEF)

  11. Perception and evaluation of public opinion by decision makers: civilian nuclear power in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    This study treats public opinion as problematic and focuses on the way it is defined, identified, and evaluated by nuclear decision makers in industry, government, and the scientific community. The data are based largely on questionnaire responses and interviews. Though public opinion is a social process amenable to empirical investigation, its identification is not self-evident. It is defined within the context of an already-existing set of often unconscious beliefs and value commitments. Like students of public opinion, decision makers focus on such characteristics of public opinion as its membership, direction, intensity, level of information, prior attitudinal predispositions, and representativeness, and on the factors that influence public opinion. They also select among the indicators of public opinion - those that seem to represent the public as against those that claim to speak for it. They identify public opinion in terms of their beliefs about what public opinion is or should be in a democracy. The antinuclear movement and the mass media are seen as important, but their equation with public opinion is challenged. Decision makers see the antinuclear movement as distinct from, though an important influence on, public opinion. Decision makers believe the public has a legitimate role in negotiating nuclear power issues, but expect the public to be informed through exposure to the relevant information and expertise.

  12. PUMP-AND-TREAT GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION: A GUIDE FOR DECISION MAKERS AND PRACTITIONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide presents decision makers with a foundation for evaluating the appropriateness of conventional or innovative approaches. An introduction to pump-and-treat ground-water remediation, the guide addresses the following questions: When is pump-and-treat an appropriate remedi...

  13. An analytical framework to assist decision makers in the use of forest ecosystem model predictions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predictions of most terrestrial ecosystem models originate from deterministic simulations. Relatively few uncertainty evaluation exercises in model outputs are performed by either model developers or users. This issue has important consequences for decision makers who rely on models to develop n...

  14. Reciprocal Dialogue between Educational Decision Makers and Students of Color: Opportunities and Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the possibilities for reciprocal dialogue between educational decision makers and Students of Color. Such dialogue--defined as interactions in which participants build on each other's words--may provide the means to develop creative ways to address manifestations of systemic racism in education. The article uses…

  15. Reported Influence of Evaluation Data on Decision Makers' Actions: An Empirical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    Using a set of scenarios derived from actual evaluation studies, this simulation study examines the reported influence of evaluation information on decision makers' potential actions. Each scenario described a context where one of three types of evaluation information (large-scale study data, case study data, or anecdotal accounts) is presented…

  16. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  17. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  18. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  19. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  20. Decision Maker Perception of Information Quality: A Case Study of Military Command and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Grayson B.

    2013-01-01

    Decision maker perception of information quality cues from an "information system" (IS) and the process which creates such meta cueing, or data about cues, is a critical yet un-modeled component of "situation awareness" (SA). Examples of common information quality meta cueing for quality criteria include custom ring-tones for…

  1. Adopting Cut Scores: Post-Standard-Setting Panel Considerations for Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisinger, Kurt F.; McCormick, Carina M.

    2010-01-01

    Standard-setting studies utilizing procedures such as the Bookmark or Angoff methods are just one component of the complete standard-setting process. Decision makers ultimately must determine what they believe to be the most appropriate standard or cut score to use, employing the input of the standard-setting panelists as one piece of information…

  2. Constructing Perceptions of Climate Change: a case study of regional political decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, D.

    2012-12-01

    This case study of climate change communications assesses the salient means of communication and the message adopted by regional political decision makers on the German Baltic coast. Realizing that cultural factors and local values (and not simply knowledge) are significant influences in explaining attitudes towards climate change, this analysis draws from the records of regional weather, from scientists with a specific focus on the region, from the political decision makers for that region, and the media message reaching the decision makers, ensuring all elements of the analysis are drawn from the same socioeconomic, geophysical, political and cultural context. This is important as the social dynamics surrounding the trust in science is of critical importance and, as such, all elements of the case study are specifically contained within a common context. If the utility of climate change knowledge is to prompt well conceived adaptation/mitigation strategies then the political decision process, or at least the perceptions shaping it, can best be understood by locating it within the world view of the decision makers involved in the production process. Using the results of two survey questionnaires, one of regional climate scientists and one of regional political decision makers, ten years of local weather records, and a summary of the message from mass media circulation, the discord in perceptions of regional climate change are quantitatively explored. The conclusions drawn from the analysis include, compared to the scientific assessment: The decision makers' perceptions of recent past differ from actual observations. The decision makers' perceptions of the future differ from scientific assessments. The decision makers tend to over estimate the magnitude of regional climate change and its impacts. The decision makers tend to over estimate the sense of immediacy for adaptation measures. The conclusions drawn suggest that in the regional political realm, it is often a

  3. Supporting the Use of Health Technology Assessments by Decision-Makers.

    PubMed

    Polisena, Julie; Lavis, John N; Juzwishin, Don; McLean-Veysey, Pam; Graham, Ian D; Harstall, Christa; Martin, Janet

    2015-05-01

    A perceived gap exists in how well Canadian health technology assessment (HTA) producers are supporting the use of their HTAs by decision-makers. The authors propose that the newly released HTA Database Canadian search interface incorporate structured decision-relevant summaries of HTAs that would be developed by participating Canadian HTA organizations. The registry would serve as a "one-stop shop" by including HTA reports along with their structured summaries in a format that better meets decision-makers' needs. The Health Technology Analysis Exchange - a Canadian network of publicly funded HTA producers - is well-positioned to undertake this work and would welcome input about both the idea and its execution. PMID:26142355

  4. Supporting the Use of Health Technology Assessments by Decision-Makers

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, John N.; Juzwishin, Don; McLean-Veysey, Pam; Graham, Ian D.; Harstall, Christa; Martin, Janet

    2015-01-01

    A perceived gap exists in how well Canadian health technology assessment (HTA) producers are supporting the use of their HTAs by decision-makers. The authors propose that the newly released HTA Database Canadian search interface incorporate structured decision-relevant summaries of HTAs that would be developed by participating Canadian HTA organizations. The registry would serve as a “one-stop shop” by including HTA reports along with their structured summaries in a format that better meets decision-makers' needs. The Health Technology Analysis Exchange – a Canadian network of publicly funded HTA producers – is well-positioned to undertake this work and would welcome input about both the idea and its execution. PMID:26142355

  5. Clarity versus complexity: land-use modeling as a practical tool for decision-makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen a remarkable increase in the number of modeling tools available to examine future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change. Integrated modeling frameworks, agent-based models, cellular automata approaches, and other modeling techniques have substantially improved the representation of complex LULC systems, with each method using a different strategy to address complexity. However, despite the development of new and better modeling tools, the use of these tools is limited for actual planning, decision-making, or policy-making purposes. LULC modelers have become very adept at creating tools for modeling LULC change, but complicated models and lack of transparency limit their utility for decision-makers. The complicated nature of many LULC models also makes it impractical or even impossible to perform a rigorous analysis of modeling uncertainty. This paper provides a review of land-cover modeling approaches and the issues causes by the complicated nature of models, and provides suggestions to facilitate the increased use of LULC models by decision-makers and other stakeholders. The utility of LULC models themselves can be improved by 1) providing model code and documentation, 2) through the use of scenario frameworks to frame overall uncertainties, 3) improving methods for generalizing key LULC processes most important to stakeholders, and 4) adopting more rigorous standards for validating models and quantifying uncertainty. Communication with decision-makers and other stakeholders can be improved by increasing stakeholder participation in all stages of the modeling process, increasing the transparency of model structure and uncertainties, and developing user-friendly decision-support systems to bridge the link between LULC science and policy. By considering these options, LULC science will be better positioned to support decision-makers and increase real-world application of LULC modeling results.

  6. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  7. An analytical framework to assist decision makers in the use of forest ecosystem model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larocque, Guy R.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Ascough, J.C.; Liu, J.; Luckai, N.; Mailly, D.; Archambault, L.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The predictions from most forest ecosystem models originate from deterministic simulations. However, few evaluation exercises for model outputs are performed by either model developers or users. This issue has important consequences for decision makers using these models to develop natural resource management policies, as they cannot evaluate the extent to which predictions stemming from the simulation of alternative management scenarios may result in significant environmental or economic differences. Various numerical methods, such as sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, or bootstrap methods, may be used to evaluate models and the errors associated with their outputs. However, the application of each of these methods carries unique challenges which decision makers do not necessarily understand; guidance is required when interpreting the output generated from each model. This paper proposes a decision flow chart in the form of an analytical framework to help decision makers apply, in an orderly fashion, different steps involved in examining the model outputs. The analytical framework is discussed with regard to the definition of problems and objectives and includes the following topics: model selection, identification of alternatives, modelling tasks and selecting alternatives for developing policy or implementing management scenarios. Its application is illustrated using an on-going exercise in developing silvicultural guidelines for a forest management enterprise in Ontario, Canada. ?? 2010.

  8. 14 CFR 331.19 - Who is the final decision maker on eligibility for, and amounts of reimbursement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who is the final decision maker on eligibility for, and amounts of reimbursement? 331.19 Section 331.19 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... § 331.19 Who is the final decision maker on eligibility for, and amounts of reimbursement? The...

  9. Using Web Technology to Bridge the Gap Between Environmental Models and Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, D. A.; Bills, B.

    2011-12-01

    Expanding capabilities in web technology over the past decade have provided significant opportunities to create knowledge discovery tools and interfaces for a wide range of environmental modeling and management applications. The ubiquitous nature of the desktop web browser provides a potential solution to the gulf that currently exists between environmental modelers and geospatial technology experts on one side and environmental managers and decision makers on the other. By placing a map/model interface within the browser, and enabling this interface with highly-functional interactive capability focused on a specific set of management and decision needs, we are able to bridge the gap between the scientist and the decision maker. We have developed numerous web-based applications for bridging the model/decision maker gap using an evolving paradigm focused on highly interactive, easy-to-use interfaces created within the web browser. Based initially in FLASH and more recently in FLEX, these interfaces use web map server and object-relational database technology to create dynamic systems that can be used to facilitate query, exploration, and scenario analysis based on sophisticated underlying physical and biological processes models. Our presentation will focus on the growing suite of applications that we have developed in the past decade with a focus on the underlying principles and continuously evolving paradigm that underlie our approach to creating these decision environments. Examples include near-real time decision support tools in agriculture and a very recently developed and highly complex, agent-based model for the management of Interior Least Tern habitat on Southern Great Plains rivers.

  10. From the trenches: views from decision-makers on health services priority setting.

    PubMed

    Patten, San; Mitton, Craig; Donaldson, Cam

    2005-05-01

    Due to resource scarcity, health organizations worldwide must decide what services to fund and, conversely, what services not to fund. One approach to priority setting, which has been widely used in Britain, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, is programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA). To date, such activity has primarily been based at a micro level, within programmes of care. In order to institute and refine the PBMA framework at a macro level across major service areas within a single health authority, researchers and decision-makers in Alberta embarked on a participatory action research project together. This paper identifies key issues of importance to decision-makers in a real-world priority-setting context. Themes discussed include making comparisons across disparate patient groups, dealing with political factors, using relevant forms of evidence, recognizing innovations and involving the public. The in-depth insight gained through this qualitative analysis will enable future refinement of PBMA at a macro level in the health authority under study, and should also serve to inform priority-setting activity in regionalized contexts elsewhere. In identifying aspects of priority setting that are important to decision-makers, researchers can also be better informed with respect to real-world processes. PMID:15901420

  11. Identification of the decision maker for a patient's hospital choice: who decides which hospital?

    PubMed

    Sloane, G; Tidwell, P; Horsfield, M

    1999-01-01

    If marketers wish to communicate the positive characteristics of purchasing the private hospital experience, the marketers need to be able to identify which of the participants in the purchasing process is acting in the role of decision maker. Research was undertaken of doctors in the rural setting. Potential respondents were selected from Orange to Broken Hill; from Coonabarabran to Young. Two private hospitals are known to be located within this region--one in Orange and one in Dubbo. In most cases, patients in the rural setting are having the final say as to which hospital to attend. They are filling the role of decision maker. The factors that potential patients are considering in their decision include the services provided by the hospital--specifically factors relating to accommodation, services and cost. These observations are those as interpreted by the doctors who see these patients. Based on the findings of the survey a number of recommendations have been made: (1) Any marketing communication by hospitals should target primarily patients and then doctors. (2) Further research should be undertaken to attempt to accurately determine what characteristics are considered when patients and doctors refer to hospital services. (3) Research should be undertaken to determine the identity of all parties involved in the purchasing decision process. (4) Further research should be undertaken of the general population to determine what factors relating to a hospital are considered when making the hospital purchasing decision. (5) Further in depth analysis should be conducted with the raw data. PMID:10623196

  12. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    PubMed

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified. PMID:26441775

  13. An approach for Web service selection based on confidence level of decision maker.

    PubMed

    Khezrian, Mojtaba; Jahan, Ali; Kadir, Wan Mohd Nasir Wan; Ibrahim, Suhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Web services today are among the most widely used groups for Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Service selection is one of the most significant current discussions in SOA, which evaluates discovered services and chooses the best candidate from them. Although a majority of service selection techniques apply Quality of Service (QoS), the behaviour of QoS-based service selection leads to service selection problems in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). In the existing works, the confidence level of decision makers is neglected and does not consider their expertise in assessing Web services. In this paper, we employ the VIKOR (VIšekriterijumskoKOmpromisnoRangiranje) method, which is absent in the literature for service selection, but is well-known in other research. We propose a QoS-based approach that deals with service selection by applying VIKOR with improvement of features. This research determines the weights of criteria based on user preference and accounts for the confidence level of decision makers. The proposed approach is illustrated by an example in order to demonstrate and validate the model. The results of this research may facilitate service consumers to attain a more efficient decision when selecting the appropriate service. PMID:24897426

  14. What contributes to a technical purchasing decision maker's reliance on brand name for design decisions involving I&T products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutoumanos, Vincent

    The following research is intended to develop more formal mechanisms for collection, analysis, retention and dissemination of information relating to brand influence on high-technology products. Specifically, these high-technology products are associated with the engineering applications that likely would involve the loss of human life in the advent of catastrophic failure. The results of the study lead to an extension of theory involving marketing and product selection of "highly engineered" parts within the aerospace industry. The findings were separated into three distinct areas: 1) Information load will play a large role in the final design decision. If the designer is under a high level of information load during the time of a design decision, he or she likely will gravitate to the traditional design choice, regardless of the level of brand strength. 2) Even when strong brand names, like 3M, were offered as the non-traditional design choice, engineers gravitated to the traditional design choice that was presented in a mock Society for Manufacturing Engineers article. 3) Designer self-efficacy by itself will not often contribute to a decision maker's design choice. However, these data collected indicates that a combination of high designer self-efficacy moderated by high brand strength is likely to contribute significantly to a decision maker's decision. The post-hoc finding shows that many designers having high levels of self-efficacy could be developing a sense of comfort with strong brand names (like 3M) when making a design choice.

  15. Assessing ground-water vulnerability to contamination: Providing scientifically defensible information for decision makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the United States increasing demands for safe drinking water and requirements to maintain healthy ecosystems are leading policy makers to ask complex social and scientific questions about how to assess and manage our water resources. This challenge becomes particularly difficult as policy and management objectives require scientific assessments of the potential for ground-water resources to become contaminated from anthropogenic, as well as natural sources of contamination. Assessments of the vulnerability of ground water to contamination range in scope and complexity from simple, qualitative, and relatively inexpensive approaches to rigorous, quantitative, and costly assessments. Tradeoffs must be carefully considered among the competing influences of the cost of an assessment, the scientific defensibility, and the amount of acceptable uncertainty in meeting the objectives of the water-resource decision maker.

  16. Female genital mutilation in Sierra Leone: who are the decision makers?

    PubMed

    Bjälkander, Owolabi; Leigh, Bailah; Harman, Grace; Bergström, Staffan; Almroth, Lars

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify decision makers for FGM and determine whether medicalization takes place in Sierra Leone. Structured interviews were conducted with 310 randomly selected girls between 10 and 20 years in Bombali and Port Loko Districts in Northern Sierra Leone. The average age of the girls in this sample was 14 years, 61% had undergone FGM at an average age of 7.7 years (range 1-18). Generally, decisions to perform FGM were made by women, but father was mentioned as the one who decided by 28% of the respondents. The traditional excisors (Soweis) performed 80% of all operations, health professionals 13%, and traditional birth attendants 6%. Men may play a more important role in the decision making process in relation to FGM than previously known. Authorities and health professionals' associations need to consider how to prevent further medicalization of the practice. PMID:23444549

  17. Bridging the Gap Between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers Through the NASA Develop National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, C. M.; Madden, M.; Favors, J.; Childs-Gleason, L.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations that collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This paper will present the DEVELOP model, best practices, and two case studies, the Colombia Ecological Forecasting project and the Miami-Dade County Ecological Forecasting project, that showcase the successful adoption of tools and methods for decision making. Through over 90 projects each year, DEVELOP is always striving for the innovative, practical, and beneficial use of NASA Earth science data.

  18. Learning environment simulator: a tool for local decision makers and first responders

    SciTech Connect

    Leclaire, Rene J; Hirsch, Gary B

    2009-01-01

    The National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) has developed a prototype learning environment simulator (LES) based on the Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System (CIPDSS) infrastructure and scenario models. The LES is designed to engage decision makers at the grass-roots level (local/city/state) to deepen their understanding of an evolving crisis, enhance their intuition and allow them to test their own strategies for events before they occur. An initial version is being developed, centered on a pandemic influenza outbreak and has been successfully tested with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. LES is not a predictive tool but rather a simulated environment allowing the user to experience the complexities of a crisis before it happens. Users can contrast various approaches to the crisis, competing with alternative strategies of their own or other participants. LES is designed to assist decision makers in making informed choices by functionally representing relevant scenarios before they occur, including impacts to critical infrastructures with their interdependencies, and estimating human health & safety and economic impacts. In this paper a brief overview of the underlying models are given followed by a description of the LES, its interface and usage and an overview of the experience testing LES with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the work remaining to make LES operational.

  19. Decision maker perceptions of resource allocation processes in Canadian health care organizations: a national survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resource allocation is a key challenge for healthcare decision makers. While several case studies of organizational practice exist, there have been few large-scale cross-organization comparisons. Methods Between January and April 2011, we conducted an on-line survey of senior decision makers within regional health authorities (and closely equivalent organizations) across all Canadian provinces and territories. We received returns from 92 individual managers, from 60 out of 89 organizations in total. The survey inquired about structures, process features, and behaviours related to organization-wide resource allocation decisions. We focus here on three main aspects: type of process, perceived fairness, and overall rating. Results About one-half of respondents indicated that their organization used a formal process for resource allocation, while the others reported that political or historical factors were predominant. Seventy percent (70%) of respondents self-reported that their resource allocation process was fair and just over one-half assessed their process as ‘good’ or ‘very good’. This paper explores these findings in greater detail and assesses them in context of the larger literature. Conclusion Data from this large-scale cross-jurisdictional survey helps to illustrate common challenges and areas of positive performance among Canada’s health system leadership teams. PMID:23819598

  20. Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and

  1. Who's Calling the Shots? Decision-Makers and the Adoption of Effective School-Based Substance Use Prevention Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringwalt, Chris; Ennett, Susan T.; Vincus, Amy A.; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Simons-Rudolph, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the relative roles of school district and school-level decision-makers in the implementation of effective substance use prevention curricula. Drawing on a "Site-Based Management" approach to effective decision-making, we hypothesized that schools whose personnel played active decision-making roles would be more likely to…

  2. Dementia, goals of care, and personhood: a study of surrogate decision makers' beliefs and values.

    PubMed

    Kaldjian, Lauris C; Shinkunas, Laura A; Bern-Klug, Mercedes; Schultz, Susan K

    2010-09-01

    Surrogate decision makers for persons with advanced dementia play a key role in making decisions about medical treatments for their loved ones. We conducted in-depth interviews of 20 surrogates to examine their goals of care preferences and beliefs about personhood. All surrogates believed the goal of comfort was important, and 30.0% believed that curing physical problems was important. Significant proportions of surrogates acknowledged dementia-related changes in patients' ability to reason, communicate, and relate to others. Qualitative findings demonstrated diverse beliefs regarding the impact of dementia on factors related to personhood, for example, dignity, respect from others, and having a life worth living. In conclusion, the surrogates we interviewed expressed diverse preferences regarding goals of care and diverse assessments about the impact of dementia on personhood. PMID:20167835

  3. A data mining system for providing analytical information on brain tumors to public health decision makers.

    PubMed

    Santos, R S; Malheiros, S M F; Cavalheiro, S; de Oliveira, J M Parente

    2013-03-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in economically developed countries and the second leading cause of death in developing countries. Malignant brain neoplasms are among the most devastating and incurable forms of cancer, and their treatment may be excessively complex and costly. Public health decision makers require significant amounts of analytical information to manage public treatment programs for these patients. Data mining, a technology that is used to produce analytically useful information, has been employed successfully with medical data. However, the large-scale adoption of this technique has been limited thus far because it is difficult to use, especially for non-expert users. One way to facilitate data mining by non-expert users is to automate the process. Our aim is to present an automated data mining system that allows public health decision makers to access analytical information regarding brain tumors. The emphasis in this study is the use of ontology in an automated data mining process. The non-experts who tried the system obtained useful information about the treatment of brain tumors. These results suggest that future work should be conducted in this area. PMID:23122302

  4. Linking scientists, decision makers, and organizations to improve understanding of climate-driven changes in coastal storms and their impacts in Western Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J. H.; Murphy, K.

    2012-12-01

    The coastal zones of Western Alaska are expected to experience a nexus of climate-driven changes in landform processes resulting from the impacts of sea ice loss; sea level change; permafrost thaw; and changes in frequency, intensity, and direction of coastal storms, etc. These climate-driven changes will cascade through the near-shore and coastal physical systems, ecological systems, and human communities, and thus present major sources of uncertainty for a wide variety of the region's decision makers. To effectively and efficiently address some of the information needs of these decision makers, the Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative created a two-year program of applied science focused on 'Changes in Coastal Storms and their Impacts'. We summarize program components that successfully advanced applied science to address these decision maker information needs. All the components share a common feature of promoting linkages: (i) among resource decision makers, stakeholders and scientists, to identify and address key areas of uncertainty associated with coastal storms and thus align the science activities with decision maker needs for a variety of climate vulnerability assessments; (ii) among researchers, to mutually advance their science efforts; and (iii) among organizations, to efficiently address shared science needs. Resulting applied science benefits include (i) integrative projects using very fine resolution surge modeling to assess impacts of saltwater inundation on migratory waterfowl breeding populations and habitat; (ii) coordinating the selection of historic storms for reanalysis by two surge modeling efforts of differing resolution and domain, thus allowing for cross-model comparisons of performance over their shared spatial domain and future regional-scale application of the higher resolution model; and (iii) collaborative, cross-agency efforts to establish a water level network that meets multiple purposes (from model calibration to

  5. Establishing the connection between crowd-sourced data and decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, L. J.; Swartz, W.; Strong, S. B.; Nix, M. G.; Schaefer, R. K.; Weiss, M.

    2014-12-01

    There are many challenges in using, developing, and ensuring the viability of crowd-sourced data. Establishing and maintaining relevance is one of them but each participant in the challenge has different criteria for relevance. Consider, for example, the collection of data using smart phones. Some participants just like to contribute to something they consider good for the community. How do you engender that commitment? This becomes especially problematic when an additional sensor may need to be added to the smart phone. Certainly the humanitarian-egalitarian may be willing to "buy-in" but what value does it hold for the entrepreneurial-individualist? Another challenge is that of the crowd-sourced data themselves. Most readily available apps collect only one kind of data. The frontier lies in not only aggregating the data from those devices but in fusing the data with other data types (e.g. satellite imagery, installed sensors, radars, etc.). Doing this requires resources and the establishment and negotiation of data rights, how data are valued, how data are used, and the model used for support of the process (e.g. profit-driven, communal, scientific, etc.). In this talk we will discuss a few problems that we have looked at wherein distributed sensor networks provide potential value, data fusion is a "value multiplier" of those crowd-sourced data and how we make that connection to decision makers. We have explored active decision making through our Global Assimilation of Information for Action project (see our old website http://gaia.jhuapl.edu) and the use of "serious games" to establish affinities and illuminate opportunities and issues. We assert that the field of dreams approach ("build it and they will come") is not a sufficiently robust approach; the decision-makers (or paying customers) must be involved in the process of defining the data system products and quantifying the value proposition for their clients.

  6. Interpreting Climate Model Projections of Extreme Weather Events for Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrus, S. J.; Notaro, M.

    2014-12-01

    The proliferation of output from climate model ensembles, such as CMIP3 and CMIP5, has greatly expanded access to future projections, but there is no accepted blueprint for how this data should be interpreted. Decision makers are thus faced with difficult questions when trying to utilize such information: How reliable are the multi-model mean projections? How should the changes simulated by outlier models be treated? How can raw projections of temperature and precipitation be translated into probabilities? The multi-model average is often regarded as the most accurate single estimate of future conditions, but higher-order moments representing the variance and skewness of the distribution of projections provide important information about uncertainty. We have analyzed a set of statistically downscaled climate model projections from the CMIP3 archive to conduct an assessment of extreme weather events at a level designed to be relevant for decision makers. Our analysis uses the distribution of 13 GCM projections to derive the inter-model standard deviation (and coefficient of variation, COV), skewness, and percentile ranges for simulated changes in extreme heat, cold, and precipitation during the middle and late 21st century for the A1B emissions scenario. These metrics help to establish the overall confidence level across the entire range of projections (via the inter-model COV), relative confidence in the simulated high-end versus low-end changes (via skewness), and probabilistic uncertainty bounds derived from a bootstrapping technique. Over our analysis domain centered on the United States Midwest, some primary findings include: (1) Greater confidence in projections of less extreme cold than more extreme heat and intense precipitation, (2) Greater confidence in the low-end than high-end projections of extreme heat, and (3) Higher spatial and temporal variability in the confidence of projected increases of heavy precipitation. In addition, our bootstrapping

  7. Is economic valuation of ecosystem services useful to decision-makers? Lessons learned from Australian coastal and marine management.

    PubMed

    Marre, Jean-Baptiste; Thébaud, Olivier; Pascoe, Sean; Jennings, Sarah; Boncoeur, Jean; Coglan, Louisa

    2016-08-01

    Economic valuation of ecosystem services is widely advocated as being useful to support ecosystem management decision-making. However, the extent to which it is actually used or considered useful in decision-making is poorly documented. This literature blindspot is explored with an application to coastal and marine ecosystems management in Australia. Based on a nation-wide survey of eighty-eight decision-makers representing a diversity of management organizations, the perceived usefulness and level of use of economic valuation of ecosystem services, in support of coastal and marine management, are examined. A large majority of decision-makers are found to be familiar with economic valuation and consider it useful - even necessary - in decision-making, although this varies across groups of decision-makers. However, most decision-makers never or rarely use economic valuation. The perceived level of importance and trust in estimated dollar values differ across ecosystem services, and are especially high for values that relate to commercial activities. A number of factors are also found to influence respondent's use of economic valuation. Such findings concur with conclusions from other studies on the usefulness and use of ESV in environmental management decision-making. They also demonstrate the strength of the survey-based approach developed in this application to examine this issue in a variety of contexts. PMID:27136617

  8. Decision Makers' Allocation of Home-Care Therapy Services: A Process Map

    PubMed Central

    Poss, Jeff; Egan, Mary; Rappolt, Susan; Berg, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To explore decision-making processes currently used in allocating occupational and physical therapy services in home care for complex long-stay clients in Ontario. Method: An exploratory study using key-informant interviews and client vignettes was conducted with home-care decision makers (case managers and directors) from four home-care regions in Ontario. The interview data were analyzed using the framework analysis method. Results: The decision-making process for allocating therapy services has four stages: intake, assessment, referral to service provider, and reassessment. There are variations in the management processes deployed at each stage. The major variation is in the process of determining the volume of therapy services across home-care regions, primarily as a result of financial constraints affecting the home-care programme. Government funding methods and methods of information sharing also significantly affect home-care therapy allocation. Conclusion: Financial constraints in home care are the primary contextual factor affecting allocation of therapy services across home-care regions. Given the inflation of health care costs, new models of funding and service delivery need to be developed to ensure that the right person receives the right care before deteriorating and requiring more costly long-term care. PMID:24403672

  9. Exploring determinants of surrogate decision-maker confidence: an example from the ICU.

    PubMed

    Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Clarridge, Brian R; LeBlanc, Jessica L; Mahmood, Rumel S; Roman, Anthony M; Freeman, Bradley D

    2014-10-01

    This article is an exploratory data analysis of the determinants of confidence in a surrogate decision maker who has been asked to permit an intensive care unit (ICU) patient's participation in genetic research. We pursue the difference between surrogates' and patients' confidence that the surrogate can accurately represent the patient's wishes. The article also explores whether greater confidence leads to greater agreement between patients and surrogates. Our data come from a survey conducted in three hospital ICUs. We interviewed 445 surrogates and 214 patients. The only thing that influences patients' confidence in their surrogate's decision is whether they had prior discussions with him or her; however, there are more influences operating on the surrogate's self-confidence. More confident surrogates are more likely to match their patients' wishes. Patients are more likely to agree to research participation than their surrogates would allow. The surrogates whose response did not match as closely were less trusting of the hospital staff, were less likely to allow patient participation if there were no direct benefits to the patient, had given less thought about the way genetic research is conducted, and were much less likely to have a person in their life who they would trust to make decisions for them if they were incapacitated. PMID:25747298

  10. It takes a giraffe to see the big picture - citizens' view on decision makers in health care rationing.

    PubMed

    Broqvist, Mari; Garpenby, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies show that citizens usually prefer physicians as decision makers for rationing in health care, while politicians are downgraded. The findings are far from clear-cut due to methodological differences, and as the results are context sensitive they cannot easily be transferred between countries. Drawing on methodological experiences from previous research, this paper aims to identify and describe different ways Swedish citizens understand and experience decision makers for rationing in health care, exclusively on the programme level. We intend to address several challenges that arise when studying citizens' views on rationing by (a) using a method that allows for reflection, (b) using the respondents' nomination of decision makers, and (c) clearly identifying the rationing level. We used phenomenography, a qualitative method for studying variations and changes in perceiving phenomena. Open-ended interviews were conducted with 14 Swedish citizens selected by standard criteria (e.g. age) and by their attitude towards rationing. The main finding was that respondents viewed politicians as more legitimate decision makers in contrast to the results in most other studies. Interestingly, physicians, politicians, and citizens were all associated with some kind of risk related to self-interest in relation to rationing. A collaborative solution for decision making was preferred where the views of different actors were considered important. The fact that politicians were seen as appropriate decision makers could be explained by several factors: the respondents' new insights about necessary trade-offs at the programme level, awareness of the importance of an overview of different health care needs, awareness about self-interest among different categories of decision-makers, including physicians, and the national context of long-term political accountability for health care in Sweden. This study points to the importance of being aware of contextual and

  11. The Ising Decision Maker: a binary stochastic network for choice response time.

    PubMed

    Verdonck, Stijn; Tuerlinckx, Francis

    2014-07-01

    The Ising Decision Maker (IDM) is a new formal model for speeded two-choice decision making derived from the stochastic Hopfield network or dynamic Ising model. On a microscopic level, it consists of 2 pools of binary stochastic neurons with pairwise interactions. Inside each pool, neurons excite each other, whereas between pools, neurons inhibit each other. The perceptual input is represented by an external excitatory field. Using methods from statistical mechanics, the high-dimensional network of neurons (microscopic level) is reduced to a two-dimensional stochastic process, describing the evolution of the mean neural activity per pool (macroscopic level). The IDM can be seen as an abstract, analytically tractable multiple attractor network model of information accumulation. In this article, the properties of the IDM are studied, the relations to existing models are discussed, and it is shown that the most important basic aspects of two-choice response time data can be reproduced. In addition, the IDM is shown to predict a variety of observed psychophysical relations such as Piéron's law, the van der Molen-Keuss effect, and Weber's law. Using Bayesian methods, the model is fitted to both simulated and real data, and its performance is compared to the Ratcliff diffusion model. PMID:25090426

  12. The Ecological Model Web Concept: A Consultative Infrastructure for Decision Makers and Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, G.; Nativi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers want better information about what these changes will be and how various resources will be affected, while researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Although there are many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is only limited coordination among them, and accessible, openly shared models or model systems that can be consulted to gain insight on important ecological questions or assist with decision-making are rare. A "consultative infrastructure" that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit decision makers, researchers, as well as modelers. Of course, envisioning such an ambitious system is much easier than building it, but several complementary approaches exist that could contribute. The one discussed here is called the Model Web. This is a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases based on making models and their outputs available as services ("model as a service"). Initially, it might consist of a core of several models from which it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. However, a model web would not be a monolithic, rigidly planned and built system--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange standards. One difference from the WWW is that a model web is much harder to create, and has more pitfalls, and thus is a long term vision. However, technology, science, observations, and models have advanced enough so that parts of an ecological model web can be built and utilized now, forming a framework for gradual growth as well as a broadly accessible infrastructure. Ultimately, the value of a model

  13. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  14. 49 CFR 1503.659 - Petition to reconsider or modify a final decision and order of the TSA decision maker on appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Petition to reconsider or modify a final decision and order of the TSA decision maker on appeal. 1503.659 Section 1503.659 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND...

  15. 49 CFR 1503.659 - Petition to reconsider or modify a final decision and order of the TSA decision maker on appeal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petition to reconsider or modify a final decision and order of the TSA decision maker on appeal. 1503.659 Section 1503.659 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND...

  16. New challenges for seismology and decision makers after L'Aquila trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner

    2013-04-01

    On 22 October seven experts who attended a Major Risk Committee meeting were sentenced to six years in prison on charges of manslaughter for underestimating the risk before the devastating 6.3-magnitude earthquake that struck the hillside city of L'Aquila on 6 April 2009, which caused more than 300 deaths. The earthquake followed a sequence of seismic events that started at the beginning of the year, with the largest shock - a 4.2-magnitude earthquake - occurring on 30 March. A day later, the seven experts met in L'Aquila; the minutes of the meeting, which were released after the quake, contained three main conclusions: that earthquakes are not predictable in a deterministic sense; that the L'Aquila region has the highest seismic hazard in Italy; and that the occurrence of a large earthquake in the short term was unlikely. There is not doubt that this trial will represent an important turning point for seismologists, and more in general for scientists who serve as advisors for public safety purposes. Here, starting from the analysis of the accusations made by the prosecutor and a detailed scientific appraisal of what happened, we try to figure out how seismology can evolve in order to be more effective in protecting people, and (possibly) avoiding accusations like the ones who characterize the L'Aquila trial. In particular, we discuss (i) the principles of the Operational Earthquake Forecasting that were put forward by an international Commission on Earthquake Forecasting (ICEF) nominated after L'Aquila earthquake, (ii) the ICEF recommendations for Civil Protection, and (iii) the recent developments in this field in Italy. Finally, we also explore the interface between scientists and decision makers, in particular in the framework of making decisions in a low probability environment.

  17. An Ethical and Legal Framework for Physicians as Surrogate Decision-Makers for Their Patients.

    PubMed

    Rosoff, Philip M; Leong, Kelly M

    2015-01-01

    In Western industrialized countries, it is well established that legally competent individuals may choose a surrogate healthcare decision-maker to represent their interests should they lose the capacity to do so themselves. There are few limitations on who they may select to fulfill this function. However, many jurisdictions place restrictions on or prohibit the patient's attending physician or other provider involved with an individual's care to serve in this role. Several authors have previously suggested that respect for the autonomy of patients requires that there be few (if any) constraints on whomever they may appoint as a proxy. In this essay we revisit this topic by first providing a survey of current state laws governing this activity. We then analyze the clinical and ethical circumstances in which potential difficulties could arise. We take a more nuanced and circumspect view of prior suggestions that patients should have virtually unfettered liberty to choose their healthcare proxies. We suggest a strategy to balance the freedom of patients' right to choose their surrogates with fiduciary duty of the state as regulator of medical practice. We identify six domains of possible concern with such relationships and suggest straightforward methods of mitigating their potential negative effects that could be plausibly be incorporated into physician practice. PMID:26711423

  18. Scenarios use to engage scientists and decision-makers in a changing Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, O. A.; Eicken, H.; Payne, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Scenarios provide a framework to develop more adaptive Arctic policies that allow decision makers to consider the best available science to address complex relationships and key uncertainties in drivers of change. These drivers may encompass biophysical factors such as climate change, socioeconomic drivers, and wild-cards that represent low likelihood but influential events such as major environmental disasters. We outline some of the lessons learned from the North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) scenarios project that could help in the development of adaptive science-based policies. Three spatially explicit development scenarios were identified corresponding to low, medium and high resource extraction activities on the North Slope and adjacent seas. In the case of the high energy development scenario science needs were focused on new technology, oil spill response, and the effects of offshore activities on marine mammals important for subsistence. Science needs related to community culture, erosion, permafrost degradation and hunting and trapping on land were also identified for all three scenarios. The NSSI science needs will guide recommendations for future observing efforts, and data from these observing activities could subsequently improve policy guidance for emergency response, subsistence management and other issues. Scenarios at pan-Arctic scales may help improve the development of international policies for resilient northern communities and encourage the use of science to reduce uncertainties in plans for adapting to change in the Arctic.

  19. Women and Secondary School Principal Rotation/Succession: A Study of the Beliefs of Decision Makers in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecilia; White, Robert; Brayman, Carol; Moore, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Our study investigated patterns of female participation as secondary principals that have varied across contexts and changed slowly. Researchers interviewed decision makers from a purposive sample of 10 urban and rural school districts in Ontario, Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia, gathering data from structured telephone interviews,…

  20. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  1. Perspectives of Women Decision-Makers Over the Participation and Recreational Events in Sports: A Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzel, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to put forth the role of the leisure and recreation events awareness including women decision-makers effects on their fellow women. Three main themes were recognized: Past; "Process of leisure and recreation events of women in Turkey", Present; "Model of Turkey for women on leisure and…

  2. Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop Designed to Teach Practical Welfare Techniques to Beef Cattle Caretakers and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewell, Reneé; Hanthorn, Christy; Danielson, Jared; Burzette, Rebecca; Coetzee, Johann; Griffin, D. Dee; Ramirez, Alejandro; Dewell, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the use of an interactive workshop designed to teach novel practical welfare techniques to beef cattle caretakers and decision makers. Following training, respondents reported being more likely to use or recommend use of local anesthesia for dehorning and castration and were more inclined to use meloxicam…

  3. Slow Moving Hazard Hotspot from InSAR Data: improving communication with decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ping; Casagli, Nicola; Catani, Filippo; Tofani, Veronica

    2010-05-01

    Slow moving hazards are not always taken seriously in the management and governance of mountain risks. This is because of their relatively low threat to human lives compared to rapid mass movement. However, these kinds of slow processes can remain active for long period of time. Also, it could leave a great threat to properties and infrastructures. Hence, for an advanced risk management strategy, it is important to include slow moving hazards when dealing with long-term mountain risks. Thanks to the rapid development of advanced InSAR processing, especially with the advent of long-term InSAR approaches, it is possible to detect ground motion with millimeter precision for a long period of spanning time. However, considering the complexity and ambiguity of the data processing, for those who are mainly dealing with risk management and governance, the technical part of InSAR processing is sometimes equivocal and difficult to understand. Providing an understandable hazard map might be more helpful for them. With this motive, we introduce an approach of producing slow moving hazard hotspot map from previous InSAR outcomes. Compared to traditional InSAR maps, the hotspot map is straightforward and easy to understand. To present the usefulness of hotspot map, an example in the Arno river basin in central Italy is presented. Several landslides activities are confirmed as active from the hotspot map. Some of them are further investigated in order to evaluate the previous mitigation efforts. Also, the map provides an approach of detecting and mapping new landslides rapidly and accurately. Except for landslide hazards, subsidence dangers are identified in the Mugello Circuit which is the race track for Moto GP and the test track for Ferrari Formula 1 team. In all, the hotspot map is proven to be an efficient, effective and easily understandable communication approach between technicians and decision makers.

  4. Different approaches for centralized and decentralized water system management in multiple decision makers' problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anghileri, D.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-04-01

    There is a general agreement that one of the most challenging issues related to water system management is the presence of many and often conflicting interests as well as the presence of several and independent decision makers. The traditional approach to multi-objective water systems management is a centralized management, in which an ideal central regulator coordinates the operation of the whole system, exploiting all the available information and balancing all the operating objectives. Although this approach allows to obtain Pareto-optimal solutions representing the maximum achievable benefit, it is based on assumptions which strongly limits its application in real world contexts: 1) top-down management, 2) existence of a central regulation institution, 3) complete information exchange within the system, 4) perfect economic efficiency. A bottom-up decentralized approach seems therefore to be more suitable for real case applications since different reservoir operators may maintain their independence. In this work we tested the consequences of a change in the water management approach moving from a centralized toward a decentralized one. In particular we compared three different cases: the centralized management approach, the independent management approach where each reservoir operator takes the daily release decision maximizing (or minimizing) his operating objective independently from each other, and an intermediate approach, leading to the Nash equilibrium of the associated game, where different reservoir operators try to model the behaviours of the other operators. The three approaches are demonstrated using a test case-study composed of two reservoirs regulated for the minimization of flooding in different locations. The operating policies are computed by solving one single multi-objective optimal control problem, in the centralized management approach; multiple single-objective optimization problems, i.e. one for each operator, in the independent case

  5. Transferring knowledge from observations and models to decision makers: an overview and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid; Nokra, Nada A.

    2004-02-01

    Over the last 25 years, a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such US, European Community, Japan, China and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, homeland security, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This paper surveys and examines a number such applications in terms of their architecture, maturity and economic applicability as they apply to the societal needs. A detailed analysis is also presented of various challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution,(4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is

  6. Transferring Knowledge from Observations and Models to Decision Makers: An Overview and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Nokra, Nada Abu

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such US, European Community, Japan, China and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching to public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, security, air quality and public health can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This paper surveys and examines a number such applications in terms of their architecture, maturity and economic applicability as they apply to the societal needs. A detailed analysis is also presented of various challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is the organizational

  7. Strategies for Teaching Regional Climate Modeling: Online Professional Development for Scientists and Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.; Yarker, M. B.; Mesquita, M. D. S.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    structures of both courses, evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of each, along with the educational approaches used. We conclude by proposing a framework for the develop of educationally robust online professional development programs that actively supports decision makers in understanding, developing and applying regional climate models.

  8. Who to Blame: Irrational Decision-Makers or Stupid Modelers? (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Water management benefits from a suite of modelling tools and techniques that help simplifying and understanding the complexities involved in managing water resource systems. Early water management models were mainly concerned with optimizing a single objective, related to the design, operations or management of water resource systems (e.g. economic cost, hydroelectricity production, reliability of water deliveries). Significant improvements in methodologies, computational capacity, and data availability over the last decades have resulted in developing more complex water management models that can now incorporate multiple objectives, various uncertainties, and big data. These models provide an improved understanding of complex water resource systems and provide opportunities for making positive impacts. Nevertheless, there remains an alarming mismatch between the optimal solutions developed by these models and the decisions made by managers and stakeholders of water resource systems. Modelers continue to consider decision makers as irrational agents who fail to implement the optimal solutions developed by sophisticated and mathematically rigours water management models. On the other hand, decision makers and stakeholders accuse modelers of being idealist, lacking a perfect understanding of reality, and developing 'smart' solutions that are not practical (stable). In this talk I will have a closer look at the mismatch between the optimality and stability of solutions and argue that conventional water resources management models suffer inherently from a full-cooperation assumption. According to this assumption, water resources management decisions are based on group rationality where in practice decisions are often based on individual rationality, making the group's optimal solution unstable for individually rational decision makers. I discuss how game theory can be used as an appropriate framework for addressing the irrational "rationality assumption" of water

  9. A cloud theory-based particle swarm optimization for multiple decision maker vehicle routing problems with fuzzy random time windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yanfang; Xu, Jiuping

    2015-06-01

    This article puts forward a cloud theory-based particle swarm optimization (CTPSO) algorithm for solving a variant of the vehicle routing problem, namely a multiple decision maker vehicle routing problem with fuzzy random time windows (MDVRPFRTW). A new mathematical model is developed for the proposed problem in which fuzzy random theory is used to describe the time windows and bi-level programming is applied to describe the relationship between the multiple decision makers. To solve the problem, a cloud theory-based particle swarm optimization (CTPSO) is proposed. More specifically, this approach makes improvements in initialization, inertia weight and particle updates to overcome the shortcomings of the basic particle swarm optimization (PSO). Parameter tests and results analysis are presented to highlight the performance of the optimization method, and comparison of the algorithm with the basic PSO and the genetic algorithm demonstrates its efficiency.

  10. Transparency in data presentation to support use and understanding for decision makers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömbäck, Lena; Hjerdt, Niclas; Eriksson Bram, Lena; Lewau, Per

    2013-04-01

    Water management in Sweden is focused on characterization of water bodies and establishing action plans to achieve a good ecological status according to the framework directives stated by the European Union. To support this work SMHI has been commissioned to make databases of hydrography, statistics, water flows and scenario models freely available on the web. As a result of this we have created the open website vattenweb.smhi.se. The site currently provides observed and modeled data for fresh water and coastal areas as time series and statistics. In addition to this, the site also exposes data on wetlands and results from climate scenario simulations. The development of the site has been done in close cooperation with the end users at the water authorities to meet their needs and requirements. This has resulted in an easy to use website, where downloaded data easily can be imported into other tools for further use and analysis by the users. However, during the process we discovered that it was important for the users to learn more on the model setup and quality of simulated data. Therefore, during 2012, we concentrated on making the website more transparent and explain the assumptions and setup behind the simulation. Simulated data on fresh water quantity and quality are provided by the S-HYPE model, a Swedish setup of the Open Source HYPE model. The model provides daily simulations of discharge and transport of nitrogen and phosphorous for the around 40 000 subbasins defined in the Swedish Water ARchive (SVAR). To make the simulated data more transparent, the data used for model setup has been made available on the website as a possibility to download input data as well as the resulting data. In addition, we provide a reference guide where origin of data as well as the processing required for the model setup is explained. This allows decision makers to analyze the model assumptions to understand if there are differences to more detailed information on local

  11. Sharing NASA Science with Decision Makers: A Perspective from NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados, A. I.; Blevins, B.; Hook, E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA ARSET http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov has been providing applied remote sensing training since 2008. The goals of the program are to develop the technical and analytical skills necessary to utilize NASA resources for decision-support. The program has reached over 3500 participants, with 1600 stakeholders from 100 countries in 2015 alone. The target audience for the program are professionals engaged in environmental management in the public and private sectors, such as air quality forecasters, public utilities, water managers and non-governmental organizations engaged in conservation. Many program participants have little or no expertise in NASA remote sensing, and it's frequently their very first exposure to NASA's vast resources. One the key challenges for the program has been the evolution and refinement of its approach to communicating NASA data access, research, and ultimately its value to stakeholders. We discuss ARSET's best practices for sharing NASA science, which include 1) training ARSET staff and other NASA scientists on methods for science communication, 2) communicating the proper amount of scientific information at a level that is commensurate with the technical skills of program participants, 3) communicating the benefit of NASA resources to stakeholders, and 4) getting to know the audience and tailoring the message so that science information is conveyed within the context of agencies' unique environmental challenges.

  12. Ways Decision Makers Can Use Evidence to Improve Patient Outcomes in Learning Health Systems: A Message from the Guest Editor

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Wade M.

    2013-01-01

    A learning health system is one in which clinical information and research are continually used to improve the processes, outcomes, and quality of care. No matter which definition of comparative effectiveness research (CER) or patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) is preferred, there is nearly universal agreement that a core feature of these research efforts is the need to engage decision makers, such as patients, providers, and policymakers, in prioritizing and defining research that addresses and resolves important evidence gaps to improve patient care and outcomes. In this set of eGEMs papers focused on decision-making, leaders in scientific fields with an interest in developing the next generation of CER, PCOR, and quality improvement (QI) studies share their perspectives on the potential applications, as well as the short-and longterm challenges, of using electronic clinical data (ECD) to address health care information needs within a learning health system. This commentary introduce eGEMs’ first special issue, which was developed through a series of conversations with leading experts, as well as an open call for papers in early summer 2013. The six papers presented represent a first set of papers on decision makers and decision-making using these new data, with other papers (to follow) being currently under development to add to the perspectives provided here. PMID:25848575

  13. Anchor effects in decision making can be reduced by the interaction between goal monitoring and the level of the decision maker's executive functions.

    PubMed

    Schiebener, Johannes; Wegmann, Elisa; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2012-11-01

    Models of decision making postulate that interactions between contextual conditions and characteristics of the decision maker determine decision-making performance. We tested this assumption by using a possible positive contextual influence (goals) and a possible negative contextual influence (anchor) in a risky decision-making task (Game of Dice Task, GDT). In this task, making advantageous choices is well known to be closely related to a specific decision maker variable: the individual level of executive functions. One hundred subjects played the GDT in one of four conditions: with self-set goal for final balance (n = 25), with presentation of an anchor (a fictitious Top 10 list, showing high gains of other participants; n = 25), with anchor and goal definition (n = 25), and with neither anchor nor goal setting (n = 25). Subjects in the conditions with anchor made more risky decisions irrespective of the negative feedback, but this anchor effect was influenced by goal monitoring and moderated by the level of the subjects' executive functions. The findings imply that impacts of situational influences on decision making as they frequently occur in real life depend upon the individual's cognitive abilities. Anchor effects can be overcome by subjects with good cognitive abilities. PMID:22915277

  14. Sexism and beautyism effects in selection as a function of self-monitoring level of decision maker.

    PubMed

    Jawahar, I M; Mattsson, Jonny

    2005-05-01

    The authors, in two experiments, investigated the influence of the sex and attractiveness of applicants for male and female sex-typed jobs on selection decisions made by low and high self-monitors. In both experiments, attractiveness and the congruence between applicants' sex and the sex type of the job influenced selection decisions. In addition, high self-monitors were more influenced by attractiveness and sex of the applicant when hiring for sex-typed jobs than low self-monitors, but this difference in hiring pattern was not evident when the job was gender neutral. Results indicate that job applicants may encounter different employment opportunities as a function of their sex, their physical attractiveness, the sex type of the job, and the self-monitoring level of the decision maker. Implications of results are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:15910150

  15. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  16. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  17. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  18. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  19. 39 CFR 963.20 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final agency decision. 963.20 Section 963.20 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.20 Final agency decision....

  20. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  1. Public engagement in priority-setting: results from a pan-Canadian survey of decision-makers in cancer control.

    PubMed

    Regier, Dean A; Bentley, Colene; Mitton, Craig; Bryan, Stirling; Burgess, Michael M; Chesney, Ellen; Coldman, Andy; Gibson, Jennifer; Hoch, Jeffrey; Rahman, Syed; Sabharwal, Mona; Sawka, Carol; Schuckel, Victoria; Peacock, Stuart J

    2014-12-01

    Decision-makers are challenged to incorporate public input into priority-setting decisions. We conducted a pan-Canadian survey of decision-makers in cancer control to investigate the types of evidence, especially evidence supplied by the public, that are utilized in health care priority-setting. We further examined how normative attitudes and contextual factors influence the use of public engagement as evidence at the committee level. Administered between November and December 2012, 67 respondents from 117 invited individuals participated in the survey. The results indicated that public engagement was infrequently utilized compared to clinical effectiveness evidence or cost evidence. General positive agreement between normative attitudes towards the use of evidence and the frequency of evidence utilization was observed, but absence of correlative agreement was found for the types of evidence that are supplied by the general public and for cost-effectiveness inputs. Regression analyses suggested that public engagement was unevenly utilized between jurisdictions and that educational background and barriers to implementing public input may decrease the odds of using public engagement as evidence. We recommend that institutions establish a link between committee members' normative attitudes for using public engagement and its real-world utilization. PMID:25441325

  2. Enhancing the Profile of Teachers as Curriculum Decision-Makers: Some International Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Ian; Brooker, Ross; Aspland, Tania; Elliott, Bob

    This paper presents information from a series of preliminary asynchronous international conversations across four cultural contexts that focus on enhancing the profile of teachers in curriculum decision making. The paper challenges education systems to match the rhetoric about the place of teachers in curriculum decision making with curriculum…

  3. U.S. DOE’S RESPONSE TO THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI REACTOR ACCIDENT: ANSWERS AND DATA PRODUCTS FOR DECISION MAKERS

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Alexis L.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi response posed a plethora of scientific questions to the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) radiological emergency response community. As concerns arose for decision makers, the DOE leveraged a community of scientists well-versed in the tenants of emergency situations to provide answers to time-sensitive questions from different parts of the world. A chronology of the scientific Q and A that occurred is presented along with descriptions of the challenges that were faced and how new methods were employed throughout the course of the response.

  4. Communication with U.S. federal decision makers : a primer with notes on the use of computer models as a means of communication.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Erik Karl; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2009-10-01

    This document outlines ways to more effectively communicate with U.S. Federal decision makers by outlining the structure, authority, and motivations of various Federal groups, how to find the trusted advisors, and how to structure communication. All three branches of Federal governments have decision makers engaged in resolving major policy issues. The Legislative Branch (Congress) negotiates the authority and the resources that can be used by the Executive Branch. The Executive Branch has some latitude in implementation and prioritizing resources. The Judicial Branch resolves disputes. The goal of all decision makers is to choose and implement the option that best fits the needs and wants of the community. However, understanding the risk of technical, political and/or financial infeasibility and possible unintended consequences is extremely difficult. Primarily, decision makers are supported in their deliberations by trusted advisors who engage in the analysis of options as well as the day-to-day tasks associated with multi-party negotiations. In the best case, the trusted advisors use many sources of information to inform the process including the opinion of experts and if possible predictive analysis from which they can evaluate the projected consequences of their decisions. The paper covers the following: (1) Understanding Executive and Legislative decision makers - What can these decision makers do? (2) Finding the target audience - Who are the internal and external trusted advisors? (3) Packaging the message - How do we parse and integrate information, and how do we use computer simulation or models in policy communication?

  5. 40 CFR 166.30 - Notice of Agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Notice of Agency decision. 166.30 Section 166.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS...

  6. 40 CFR 166.30 - Notice of Agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Notice of Agency decision. 166.30 Section 166.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS...

  7. 40 CFR 166.30 - Notice of Agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of Agency decision. 166.30 Section 166.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS...

  8. A decision aid regarding long-term tube feeding targeting substitute decision makers for cognitively impaired older persons in Japan: A small-scale before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, there is no decision-making guide regarding long-term tube feeding that specifically targets individuals making decisions on behalf of cognitively impaired older persons (substitute decision makers). The objective of this study was to describe the development and evaluation of such a decision aid. Methods In this before-and-after study, participants comprised substitute decision makers for 13 cognitively impaired inpatients aged 65 years and older who were being considered for placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube in acute care hospitals and mixed-care hospitals in Japan. Questionnaires were used to compare substitute decision makers’ knowledge, decisional conflict, and predisposition regarding feeding tube placement before and after exposure to a decision aid. The acceptability of the decision aid was also assessed. Paired t-tests were used to compare participants’ knowledge and decisional conflict scores before and after using the decision aid. Results Substitute decision makers showed significantly increased knowledge (P < .001) and decreased decisional conflict (P < .01) regarding long-term tube feeding after using the decision aid. All substitute decision makers found the decision aid helpful and acceptable. Conclusions The decision aid facilitated the decision-making process of substitute decision makers by decreasing decisional conflict and increasing knowledge. PMID:24495735

  9. E-mail as the Appropriate Method of Communication for the Decision-Maker When Soliciting Advice for an Intellective Decision Task.

    PubMed

    Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Swol, Lyn Van; Braun, Michael T; Epstein, Richard H

    2015-09-01

    For many problems in operating room and anesthesia group management, there are tasks with optimal decisions, and yet experienced personnel tend to make decisions that are worse or no better than random chance. Such decisions include staff scheduling, case scheduling, moving cases among operating rooms, and choosing patient arrival times. In such settings, operating room management leadership decision-making should typically be autocratic rather than participative. Autocratic-style decision-making calls for managers to solicit and consider feedback from stakeholders in the decision outcome but to make the decision themselves using their expert knowledge and the facts received. For this to be effective, often the manager will obtain expert advice from outside the organization (e.g., health system). In this narrative review, we evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using prompt asynchronous written communication (i.e., e-mail) as a communication channel for such interaction between a decision-maker (manager) and advisor. A detailed Appendix (Supplemental Digital Content, http://links.lww.com/AA/B72) lists each observational and experimental result. We find that the current ubiquitous role of e-mail for such communication is appropriate. Its benefits include improved time management via asynchronicity, low cognitive load (e.g., relative to Web conferencing), the ability to hide undesirable and irrelevant cues (e.g., physical appearance), the appropriateness of adding desirable cues (e.g., titles and degrees), the opportunity to provide written expression of confidence, and the ability for the advisor to demonstrate the answer for the decision-maker. Given that the manager is e-mailing an advisor whose competence the manager trusts, it is unnecessary to use a richer communication channel to develop trust. Finally, many of the limitations of e-mail can be rectified through training. We expect that decades from now, e-mail (i.e., asynchronous writing) between an

  10. A comparison of workplace safety perceptions among financial decision-makers of medium- vs. large-size companies.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This study, through a random national survey in the U.S., explored how corporate financial decision-makers perceive important workplace safety issues as a function of the size of the company for which they worked (medium- vs. large-size companies). Telephone surveys were conducted with 404 U.S. corporate financial decision-makers: 203 from medium-size companies and 201 from large companies. Results showed that the patterns of responding for participants from medium- and large-size companies were somewhat similar. The top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by participants from both groups were overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction. They believed that there were direct and indirect costs associated with workplace injuries and for every dollar spent improving workplace safety, more than four dollars would be returned. They perceived the top benefits of an effective safety program to be predominately financial in nature - increased productivity and reduced costs - and the safety modification participants mentioned most often was to have more/better safety-focused training. However, more participants from large- than medium-size companies reported that "falling on the same level" was the major cause of workers' compensation loss, which is in line with industry loss data. Participants from large companies were more likely to see their safety programs as better than those of other companies in their industries, and those of medium-size companies were more likely to mention that there were no improvements needed for their companies. PMID:21094291

  11. Are morally motivated decision makers insensitive to the consequences of their choices?

    PubMed

    Bartels, Daniel M; Medin, Douglas L

    2007-01-01

    Is morally motivated decision making different from other kinds of decision making? There is evidence that when people have sacred or protected values (PVs), they reject trade-offs for secular values (e.g., "You can't put a price on a human life") and tend to employ deontological rather than consequentialist decision principles. People motivated by PVs appear to show quantity insensitivity. That is, in trade-off situations, they are less sensitive to the consequences of their choices than are people without PVs. The current study examined the relation between PVs and quantity insensitivity using two methods of preference assessment: In one design, previous results were replicated; in a second, PVs were related to increased quantity sensitivity. These and other findings call into question important presumed properties of PVs, suggesting that how PVs affect willingness to make trade-offs depends on where attention is focused, a factor that varies substantially across contexts. PMID:17362373

  12. Confidentiality and treatment decisions of minor clients: a health professional's dilemma & policy makers challenge.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margot Karen; Burns, Katharina Kovacs; Richter, Magdalena S

    2014-01-01

    Issues relating to confidentiality and consent for physical and mental health treatment with minor clients can pose challenges health care providers. Decisions need to be made regarding these issues despite the absence of clear, direct, or comprehensive policies and legislation. In order to fully understand the scope of this topic, a systemic review of several pieces of legislation and guidelines related to this topic are examined. These include the: Canadian Human Rights Act, Children's Rights: International and National Laws and Practices, Health Information Act, Gillick Competence and Medical Emancipation, Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, Child, Youth and Family Enhancement Act, Common Law Mature Minor Doctrine, and Alberta Health Services Consent to Treatment/Practice(s) Minor/Mature Minor. In order to assist health professionals with decisions regarding confidentiality and treatment with minor clients a case study and guide for decision-making is also presented. PMID:25032089

  13. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  14. Improving Children's Competence as Decision Makers: Contrasting Effects of Collaborative Interaction and Direct Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xin; Anderson, Richard C.; Morris, Joshua; Miller, Brian; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim Thi; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Zhang, Jie; Jadallah, May; Scott, Theresa; Sun, Jingjing; Latawiec, Beata; Ma, Shufeng; Grabow, Kay; Hsu, Judy Yu-Li

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the influence of contrasting instructional approaches on children's decision-making competence. A total of 764 fifth graders, mostly African Americans and Hispanic Americans, from 36 classrooms in eight public schools serving children from low-income families completed a six-week unit on wolf management, using either direct…

  15. Networking CD-ROMs: The Decision Maker's Guide to Local Area Network Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elshami, Ahmed M.

    In an era when patrons want access to CD-ROM resources but few libraries can afford to buy multiple copies, CD-ROM local area networks (LANs) are emerging as a cost-effective way to provide shared access. To help librarians make informed decisions, this manual offers information on: (1) the basics of LANs, a "local area network primer"; (2) the…

  16. Resident physician interactions with surrogate decision-makers: the resident experience.

    PubMed

    Reckrey, Jennifer M; McKee, M Diane; Sanders, Justin J; Lipman, Hannah I

    2011-12-01

    This study explored interactions between medical residents and patient surrogates in order to clarify resident understanding of roles and relationships, resident emotional experience, and resident learning processes. Qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews were used involving three family medicine residency programs serving culturally diverse, urban, underserved patient populations. Eighteen second- and third-year trainees described a memorable interaction with a surrogate and then were prompted to discuss their learning experience and their role in the interaction. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed through an iterative process. Residents experienced significant emotional burden during interactions yet continued to value their relationships with surrogates. Despite their reservations about giving recommendations, residents adopted a variety of roles with surrogates as they gave support, information, and advice. Although residents reported little formal education about surrogate decision-making, they relied on passive role modeling and their own previous experiences to help surrogates make decisions. Residents have complex and emotionally significant interactions with surrogates despite minimal formal education about surrogate decision-making. Educational efforts should seek to help residents understand their own emotions and the ethical beliefs that underlie the roles they adopt with surrogates. This will help residents to facilitate value-based conversations with surrogates and better support surrogates in the decision-making process. PMID:22092192

  17. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Storage by Information Technology Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses a survey methodology to determine the factors behind the decision to adopt cloud storage. The dependent variable in the study is the intent to adopt cloud storage. Four independent variables are utilized including need, security, cost-effectiveness and reliability. The survey includes a pilot test, field test and statistical…

  18. Employees as Leaders/Decision-Makers in Worksite Wellness Programs. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenney, Sharon L.

    Companies are promoting employee leadership and decision making in their worksite wellness programs for the following reasons: to make the best use of limited resources, to increase programs' chances for success by fostering employee ownership of program plans, to help integrate positive health and safety features into workplace policies and…

  19. Assessing the Benefits of Wetland Restoration: A Rapid Benefit Indicators Approach for Decision Makers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide presents the Rapid Benefits Indicators (RBI) Approach, a rapid process for assessing the social benefits of ecosystem restoration. Created for those who conduct, advocate for, or support restoration, the RBI approach consists of five steps: (1) Describe the decision co...

  20. Decision Makers Calibrate Behavioral Persistence on the Basis of Time-Interval Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Joseph T.; Kable, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    A central question in intertemporal decision making is why people reverse their own past choices. Someone who initially prefers a long-run outcome might fail to maintain that preference for long enough to see the outcome realized. Such behavior is usually understood as reflecting preference instability or self-control failure. However, if a…

  1. Blizzard perceptions of decision-makers and stakeholders of eastern Nebraska and western Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trogdon, Taylor V.

    The present study aims to explore current perceptions associated with the diverse user groups which utilize National Weather Service (NWS) Blizzard Warnings. This study is intentionally broad in an attempt to isolate areas in which the communication of NWS Blizzard Warnings can be improved based on findings from this research. The study's domain is restricted to eastern Nebraska and western Iowa and focuses on eight different sampling groups chosen in an attempt to reflect the diversity that is known to exist within the broader NWS user population. A focus was placed specifically on decision-making groups which rely on NWS Blizzard Warnings to make routine decisions. An emphasis was also placed on procuring a representative sample of the general public within the study's domain to compare decision-making respondents to members of the general public to interrogate whether differences existed with regard to knowledge of local climatology along with overall understanding of what constitutes a Blizzard Warning. A mixed-mode survey was implemented to gather information from the aforementioned user groups to maximize response rates. Accepted statistical analysis methodologies were employed to measure the central tendency of users' responses. A knowledge score was also created to measure the understanding of NWS Blizzard Warnings across various user groups. This study suggests that overall understanding of a Blizzard Warning is low across all groups sampled in this study and that a knowledge gap exists between the NWS and its user base with regard to the threats associated with a Blizzard Warning.

  2. Communicating with Clinicians: The Experiences of Surrogate Decision Makers for Hospitalized Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Torke, Alexia M.; Petronio, Sandra; Purnell, Christianna E.; Sachs, Greg A.; Helft, Paul R.; Callahan, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives When hospitalized older adults have impaired cognition, family members or other surrogates must communicate with clinicians to provide information and make medical decisions for the patient. The present study describes communication experiences of surrogates who recently made a major medical decision for a hospitalized older adult. Design Semi-structured interviews about a recent hospitalization. Setting Two hospitals both affiliated with 1 large medical school: an urban, public hospital; and a university-affiliated tertiary referral hospital. Participants Surrogates were eligible if they had recently made a major medical decision for a hospitalized patient aged 65 or older and were available for an interview within 1 month (2-5 months if the patient died). Measurements Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using methods of grounded theory. Results We interviewed 35 surrogates. They were 80% female, 44% white and 56% African American. Three primary themes emerged. We found the Nature of Surrogate/Clinician Relationships was best characterized as a relationship with a “team” of clinicians rather than individual clinicians due to frequent staff changes and multiple clinicians. Surrogates reported their Communication Needs, including frequent communication, information, and emotional support. Surrogates valued communication from any member of the clinical team, including nurses, social workers, and physicians. Third, surrogates described Trust and Mistrust, which were formed largely through surrogates’ communication experiences. Conclusion In the hospital, surrogates form relationships with a “team” of clinicians rather than with individuals. Yet effective communication and expressions of emotional support frequently occur and are highly valued by surrogates. Future interventions should focus on meeting surrogates’ needs for frequent communication, high levels of information and emotional support. PMID:22881864

  3. Assessing the Value of New Treatments for Hepatitis C: Are International Decision Makers Getting this Right?

    PubMed

    Woods, Beth; Faria, Rita; Griffin, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Health systems worldwide are facing difficult choices about the use of a series of highly effective but costly new treatments for hepatitis C. In this paper we discuss how the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in England and Wales, the Common Drug Review in Canada and the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC) in Australia have approached the appraisal of these drugs. We argue that with the exception of the PBAC, assessments of the new drugs have not adequately accounted for their large financial burden. Given the potential health system impact of reimbursing these drugs, the use of lower cost-effectiveness thresholds should be considered. None of the decision-making processes included a comparison of the full range of treatment pathways. In particular, comparisons of using the new drugs as first- versus second-line drugs were omitted from all appraisals, as were comparisons with delayed treatment strategies whereby treatment is withheld until more severe disease stages. Omission of comparators leads to inaccurate estimates of cost effectiveness and potentially sub-optimal decision making. Lessons learned from these appraisals should be considered in future appraisals, particularly the upcoming assessments of the 'blockbuster' PCSK9 inhibitors for hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:26714687

  4. Community participation and attitudes of decision-makers towards community involvement in health development in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed Central

    al-Mazroa, Y.; al-Shammari, S.

    1991-01-01

    National policies and government strategies in Saudi Arabia are adequate for the promotion of community involvement in health development (CIH). The system of government is decentralized and has ample scope for intersectorial cooperation. In Ha'il and Qasim regions active efforts are being made to realize intersectorial coordination through regional committees in which community leaders are involved; unfortunately, however, such mechanisms are lacking at the central level. Decision-makers and community leaders adequately recognized and interpreted the importance of CIH. Most of the respondents advocated community participation in planning and evaluation, while less than 50% thought that communities could participate in the implementation of health services. A survey in Ha'il and Qasim regions of 2417 residents indicated that community participation in health activities was in its infancy and that considerable effort is still needed at the central, regional, and peripheral levels to achieve meaningful community involvement in health. PMID:2054919

  5. Doctors as Decision-makers: A Computer-assisted Study of Diagnosis as a Cognitive Skill

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, T. R.; Aitchison, J.; McGirr, E. M.

    1971-01-01

    When viewed as a sequence of decisions clinical diagnosis becomes amenable to detailed investigation in terms of standard statistical concepts. A study of six clinicians diagnosing identical sets of cases of non-toxic goitre is used to illustrate an objective technique for studying the diagnostic process with the aid of a digital computer. Considerable variation in clinicians' routes to correct diagnosis is shown when these routes are compared in detail by five statistical measures related to the effective use of the information available to the clinicians. For rapid analysis of diagnostic skill two visual methods are presented. These can be developed for teaching undergraduates the interpretative skills involved in diagnosis and for studying such skills in experienced clinicians. ImagesFIG. 6 PMID:4933389

  6. Transportation Energy Futures: Key Opportunities and Tools for Decision Makers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examines underexplored greenhouse gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities by consolidating transportation energy knowledge, conducting advanced analysis, and exploring additional opportunities for sound strategic action. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal is to provide analysis to accompany DOE-EERE's long-term transportation energy planning by addressing high-priority questions, informing domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments. Research and analysis were conducted with an eye toward short-term actions that support long-term energy goals The project looks beyond technology to examine each key question in the context of the marketplace, consumer behavior, industry capabilities, and infrastructure. This updated fact sheet includes a new section on initial project findings.

  7. Application of a plume model for decision makers' situation awareness during an outdoor airborne HAZMAT release.

    PubMed

    Meris, Ronald G; Barbera, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In a large-scale outdoor, airborne, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incident, such as ruptured chlorine rail cars during a train derailment, the local Incident Commanders and HAZMAT emergency responders must obtain accurate information quickly to assess the situation and act promptly and appropriately. HAZMAT responders must have a clear understanding of key information and how to integrate it into timely and effective decisions for action planning. This study examined the use of HAZMAT plume modeling as a decision support tool during incident action planning in this type of extreme HAZMAT incident. The concept of situation awareness as presented by Endsley's dynamic situation awareness model contains three levels: perception, comprehension, and projection. It was used to examine the actions of incident managers related to adequate data acquisition, current situational understanding, and accurate situation projection. Scientists and engineers have created software to simulate and predict HAZMAT plume behavior, the projected hazard impact areas, and the associated health effects. Incorporating the use of HAZMAT plume projection modeling into an incident action plan may be a complex process. The present analysis used a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodological approach and examined the use and limitations of a "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" process that can be integrated into the incident action planning cycle. HAZMAT response experts were interviewed using a computer-based simulation. One of the research conclusions indicated the "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" is a critical function so that an individual/team can be tasked with continually updating the hazard plume model with evolving data, promoting more accurate situation awareness. PMID:25350360

  8. Optimal global value of information trials: better aligning manufacturer and decision maker interests and enabling feasible risk sharing.

    PubMed

    Eckermann, Simon; Willan, Andrew R

    2013-05-01

    Risk sharing arrangements relate to adjusting payments for new health technologies given evidence of their performance over time. Such arrangements rely on prospective information regarding the incremental net benefit of the new technology, and its use in practice. However, once the new technology has been adopted in a particular jurisdiction, randomized clinical trials within that jurisdiction are likely to be infeasible and unethical in the cases where they would be most helpful, i.e. with current evidence of positive while uncertain incremental health and net monetary benefit. Informed patients in these cases would likely be reluctant to participate in a trial, preferring instead to receive the new technology with certainty. Consequently, informing risk sharing arrangements within a jurisdiction is problematic given the infeasibility of collecting prospective trial data. To overcome such problems, we demonstrate that global trials facilitate trialling post adoption, leading to more complete and robust risk sharing arrangements that mitigate the impact of costs of reversal on expected value of information in jurisdictions who adopt while a global trial is undertaken. More generally, optimally designed global trials offer distinct advantages over locally optimal solutions for decision makers and manufacturers alike: avoiding opportunity costs of delay in jurisdictions that adopt; overcoming barriers to evidence collection; and improving levels of expected implementation. Further, the greater strength and translatability of evidence across jurisdictions inherent in optimal global trial design reduces barriers to translation across jurisdictions characteristic of local trials. Consequently, efficiently designed global trials better align the interests of decision makers and manufacturers, increasing the feasibility of risk sharing and the expected strength of evidence over local trials, up until the point that current evidence is globally sufficient. PMID:23529209

  9. Involving decision-makers in the research process: Challenges of implementing the accountability for reasonableness approach to priority setting at the district level in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Maluka, Stephen; Kamuzora, Peter; Ndawi, Benedict; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-01-01

    The past two decades have seen a growing call for researchers, policy-makers and health care providers to collaborate in efforts to bridge the gaps between research, policy and practice. However, there has been a little attention focused on documenting the challenges of dealing with decision-makers in the course of implementing a research project. This paper highlights a collaborative research project aiming to implement the accountability for reasonableness (AFR) approach to priority setting in accordance with the Response to Accountable Priority Setting for Trust in Health Systems (REACT) project in Tanzania. Specifically, the paper examines the challenges of dealing with decision-makers during the project-implementation process and shows how the researchers dealt with the decision-makers to facilitate the implementation of the REACT project. Key informant interviews were conducted with the Council Health Management Team (CHMT), local government officials and other stakeholders, using a semi-structured interview guide. Minutes of the Action Research Team and CHMT were analysed. Additionally, project-implementation reports were analysed and group priority-setting processes in the district were observed. The findings show that the characteristics of the REACT research project, the novelty of some aspects of the AFR approach, such as publicity and appeals, the Action Research methodology used to implement the project and the traditional cultural contexts within which the project was implemented, created challenges for both researchers and decision-makers, which consequently slowed down the implementation of the REACT project. While collaboration between researchers and decision-makers is important in bridging gaps between research and practice, it is imperative to understand the challenges of dealing with decision-makers in the course of implementing a collaborative research project. Such analyses are crucial in designing proper strategies for improved communication

  10. A qualitative study into the difficulties experienced by healthcare decision makers when reading a Cochrane diagnostic test accuracy review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cochrane reviews are one of the best known and most trusted sources of evidence-based information in health care. While steps have been taken to make Cochrane intervention reviews accessible to a diverse readership, little is known about the accessibility of the newcomer to the Cochrane library: diagnostic test accuracy reviews (DTARs). The current qualitative study explored how healthcare decision makers, who varied in their knowledge and experience with test accuracy research and systematic reviews, read and made sense of DTARs. Methods A purposive sample of clinicians, researchers and policy makers (n = 21) took part in a series of think-aloud interviews, using as interview material the first three DTARs published in the Cochrane library. Thematic qualitative analysis of the transcripts was carried out to identify patterns in participants’ ‘reading’ and interpretation of the reviews and the difficulties they encountered. Results Participants unfamiliar with the design and methodology of DTARs found the reviews largely inaccessible and experienced a range of difficulties stemming mainly from the mismatch between background knowledge and level of explanation provided in the text. Experience with systematic reviews of interventions did not guarantee better understanding and, in some cases, led to confusion and misinterpretation. These difficulties were further exacerbated by poor layout and presentation, which affected even those with relatively good knowledge of DTARs and had a negative impact not only on their understanding of the reviews but also on their motivation to engage with the text. Comparison between the readings of the three reviews showed that more accessible presentation, such as presenting the results as natural frequencies, significantly increased participants’ understanding. Conclusions The study demonstrates that authors and editors should pay more attention to the presentation as well as the content of Cochrane DTARs

  11. The CAULDRON game: Helping decision makers understand extreme weather event attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    There is a recognition from academics and stakeholders that climate science has a fundamental role to play in the decision making process, but too frequently there is still uncertainty about what, when, how and why to use it. Stakeholders suggest that it is because the science is presented in an inaccessible manner, while academics suggest it is because the stakeholders do not have the scientific knowledge to understand and apply the science appropriately. What is apparent is that stakeholders need support, and that there is an onus on academia to provide it. This support is even more important with recent developments in climate science, such as extreme weather event attribution. We are already seeing the impacts of extreme weather events around the world causing lost of life and damage to property and infrastructure with current research suggesting that these events could become more frequent and more intense. If this is to be the case then a better understanding of the science will be vital in developing robust adaptation and business planning. The use of games, role playing and simulations to aid learning has long been understood in education but less so as a tool to support stakeholder understanding of climate science. Providing a 'safe' space where participants can actively engage with concepts, ideas and often emotions, can lead to deep understanding that is not possible through more passive mechanisms such as papers and web sites. This paper reports on a game that was developed through a collaboration led by the Red Cross/Red Crescent, University of Oxford and University of Reading to help stakeholders understand the role of weather event attribution in the decision making process. The game has already been played successfully at a number of high profile events including COP 19 and the African Climate Conference. It has also been used with students as part of a postgraduate environmental management course. As well as describing the design principles of the

  12. Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers, September 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltenberg, B.; Partyka, E.

    2010-09-01

    This guide presents an overview of the process for successfully planning for and installing solar technology on a federal site. It is specifically targeted to managers of federal buildings and sites, contracting officers, energy and sustainability officers, and regional procurement managers. The solar project process is outlined in a concise, easy-to-understand, step-by-step format. Information includes a brief overview of legislation and executive orders related to renewable energy and the compelling reasons for implementing a solar project on a federal site. It also includes how to assess a facility to identify the best solar installation site, project recommendations and considerations to help avoid unforeseen issues, and guidance on financing and contracting options. Case studies with descriptions of successful solar deployments across multiple agencies are presented. In addition, detailed information and sample documents for specific tasks are referenced with Web links or included in the appendixes. The guide concentrates on distributed solar generation and not large, centralized solar energy generation.

  13. Objective evaluation of situation awareness for dynamic decision makers in teleoperations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Endsley, Mica R.

    1991-01-01

    Situation awareness, a current mental mode of the environment, is critical to the ability of operators to perform complex and dynamic tasks. This should be particularly true for teleoperators, who are separated from the situation they need to be aware of. The design of the man-machine interface must be guided by the goal of maintaining and enhancing situation awareness. The objective of this work has been to build a foundation upon which research in the area can proceed. A model of dynamic human decision making which is inclusive of situation awareness will be presented, along with a definition of situation awareness. A method for measuring situation awareness will also be presented as a tool for evaluating design concepts. The Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) is an objective measure of situation awareness originally developed for the fighter cockpit environment. The results of SAGAT validation efforts will be presented. Implications of this research for teleoperators and other operators of dynamic systems will be discussed.

  14. Agreement between Older Persons and their Surrogate Decision Makers Regarding Participation in Advance Care Planning

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Terri R.; Redding, Colleen A.; Robbins, Mark L.; O'Leary, John R.; Iannone, Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine agreement between older persons and their surrogates regarding participation in advance care planning (ACP). Design Observational cohort study. Setting Community Participants Persons age ≥ 65 and the individual they identified as most likely to make treatment decisions on their behalf. Measurements Older persons were asked about participation in four activities: 1. Completion of living will; 2. Completion of health care proxy; 3. Communication regarding views about life-sustaining treatment; 4. Communication regarding views about quality versus quantity of life. Surrogates were asked whether they believed the older person had completed these activities. Results Of 216 pairs, 81% agreed about whether a living will had been completed [k = .61, 95% confidence interval (CI) .51, .72]. Only 68% of pairs agreed about whether a health care proxy had been completed (k = .39, 95% CI .29, .50), 64% agreed about whether they had communicated regarding life-sustaining treatment (k = .22, 95% CI .09, .35), and 62% agreed about whether they had communicated regarding quality versus quantity of life (k = .23, 95% CI .11, .35). Conclusions While agreement between older persons and their surrogates regarding living will completion was good, agreement about participation in other aspects of ACP was fair to poor. Additional study is necessary to determine who is providing the most accurate report of objective ACP components and whether agreement regarding participation in ACP is associated with greater shared understanding of patients’ preferences. PMID:21649619

  15. GAIA - a generalizable, extensible structure for integrating games, models and social networking to support decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, L. J.; Schaefer, R. K.; Nix, M.; Fountain, G. H.; Weiss, M.; Swartz, W. H.; Parker, C. L.; MacDonald, L.; Ihde, A. G.; Simpkins, S.; GAIA Team

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a proven methodology for modeling the complex social and economic interactions embodied in real-world decision making to water scarcity and water resources. We have developed a generalizable, extensible facility we call "GAIA" - Global Assimilation of Information for Action - and applied it to different problem sets. We describe the use of the "Green Country Model" and other gaming/simulation tools to address the impacts of climate and climate disruption issues at the intersection of science, economics, policy, and society. There is a long history in the Defense community of using what are known as strategic simulations or "wargames" to model the complex interactions between the environment, people, resources, infrastructure and the economy in a competitive environment. We describe in this paper, work that we have done on understanding how this heritage can be repurposed to help us explore how the complex interplay between climate disruption and our socio/political and economic structures will affect our future. Our focus here is on a fundamental and growing issue - water and water availability. We consider water and the role of "virtual water" in the system. Various "actors" are included in the simulations. While these simulations cannot definitively predict what will happen, they do illuminate non-linear feedbacks between, for example, treaty agreement, the environment, the economy, and the government. These simulations can be focused on the global, regional, or local environment. We note that these simulations are not "zero sum" games - there need not be a winner and a loser. They are, however, competitive influence games: they represent the tools that a nation, state, faction or group has at its disposal to influence policy (diplomacy), finances, industry (economy), infrastructure, information, etc to achieve their particular goals. As in the real world the problem is competitive - not everyone shares the same

  16. The ecological model web concept: A consultative infrastructure for researchers and decision makers using a Service Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers such as natural resource managers want better information about what these changes will be and how the resources they are managing will be affected. Researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Nearly all these activities require computer models to make ecological forecasts that can address "what if" questions. However, despite many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is no coordinated model system—that is, a model infrastructure--that researchers or decision makers can consult to gain insight on important ecological questions or help them make decisions. While this is partly due to the complexity of the science, to lack of critical observations, and other issues, limited access to and sharing of models and model outputs is a factor as well. An infrastructure that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit researchers, decision makers of all kinds, and modelers. One path to such a "consultative infrastructure" for ecological forecasting is called the Model Web, a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases communicating using a Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Initially, it could consist of a core of several models, perhaps made interoperable retroactively, and then it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. Because some models provide basic information of use to many other models, such as simple physical parameters, these "keystone" models are of particular importance in a model web. In the long run, a model web would not be rigidly planned and built--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange

  17. How is the New Public Management applied in the occupational health care system? - decision-makers' and OH personnel's views in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In many countries occupational health care system is in change. Occupational health studies are mainly focused on occupational health substance and content. This study offers new perspectives on municipal OHS and its operations from management perspective. Aim The aim of this study is to analyse how New Public Management (NPM) doctrines are applied in the Finnish occupational health care system (OHS). The main focus is to describe and compare the views of decision-makers' and OH workers within the framework of NPM. Methods The data were collected by semi-structured interviews from 17 municipal decision-makers' and 26 municipal OH workers. Data was analyzed by examining coded data in a theory-driven way according to Hood's doctrine of NPM. Results The doctrines were not as compatible with the OH personnel view as with the decision-makers' view. Decision-makers and OH personnel highlighted the strict criteria required for operation evaluation. Moreover, decision-makers strongly accentuated professional management in the public sector and the reorganization of public sector units. These were not equally relevant in OH personnel views. In OH personnel views, other doctrines (more attention to performance and accomplishments, emphasizing and augmentation of the competition and better control of public expense and means test) were not similarly in evidence, only weak evidence was observed when their importance viewed as medium by decision-makers. Neither of the respondents group kept the doctrine of management models of the private sector relevant. Conclusions The NPM and Hoods doctrine fitted well with OH research. The doctrine brought out view differences and similarities between decision-makers and OH personnel. For example, policymakers highlighted more strongly the structural change by emphasizing professional management compared to OH personnel. The need for reorganization of municipal OH, regardless of different operational preconditions, was obvious

  18. Introducing economic evaluation as a policy tool in Korea: will decision makers get quality information? : a critical review of published Korean economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun-Sei; Brouwer, Werner B F; Lee, Sang-Il; Koo, Hye-Won

    2005-01-01

    Interest in the use of economic evaluations in Korea as an aid for healthcare decision makers has been growing rapidly since the financial crisis of the Korean National Health Insurance fund and the separation in 2000 of the roles of prescribing and dispensing drugs. The Korean Health Insurance Review Agency (HIRA) is considering making it mandatory for pharmaceutical companies to submit the results of an economic evaluation when demanding reimbursement of new pharmaceuticals. The usefulness of the results of economic evaluations depends highly on the quality of the studies. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to provide a critical review of economic evaluations of healthcare technologies published in the Korean context. Our results show that many studies did not meet international standards. Study designs were suboptimal, study perspectives and types were often stated incompletely, time periods were often too short, and outcome measures were often less than ideal. In addition, some articles did not distinguish between measurement and valuation of resource use. Capital, overhead and productivity costs were often omitted. Only half of the studies performed sensitivity analyses. In order to further rationalise resource allocation in the Korean healthcare sector, the quality of the information provided through economic evaluations needs to improve. Developing clear guidelines and educating and training researchers in performing economic evaluations is necessary. PMID:15987227

  19. Exploring the Ocean Through Climate Indicators: What Do Research, Predictions, and Decision-makers Need to Know?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are several new and ongoing efforts around communicating climate and global change and variability by developing Climate Indicators (e.g. the US Global Change Research Project's Pilot Indicators Program, the US EPA's Climate Change Indicators, and the Ocean Observations Panel for Climate State of the Ocean indicators). Indicators provide information tailored to identified stakeholders and facilitate monitoring status, trends, extremes and variability of important climate features or processes. NOAA's Climate Monitoring program is in the middle of a three-year initiative toward supporting research toward the development of Ocean Climate Indicators for research, prediction, and decision makers. These indices combine ocean observations, climate data and products from platforms like (but not limited to) the drifting buoy, Argo, satellite, and buoy arrays that provide fundamental observations that contribute towards climate understanding, predictions, and projections. The program is supporting eight distinct projects that focus on primarily regional indices that target varied stakeholders and outreach strategies - from public awareness and education to targeted model performance improvement. This presentation will discuss the diverse set of projects, initial results, and discuss possibilities for and examples of using the indicators and processes for developing them for broader science outreach and education, with an eye toward the aim of organizing the ocean climate and observing community around developing a comprehensive ocean monitoring and indicators system.

  20. Haitian and international responders' and decision-makers' perspectives regarding disability and the response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Matthew R.; Chung, Ryoa; Durocher, Evelyne; Henrys, Jean Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Background Following disasters, persons with disabilities (PWD) are especially vulnerable to harm, yet they have commonly been excluded from disaster planning, and their needs have been poorly addressed during disaster relief. Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, thousands of individuals experienced acute injuries. Many more individuals with preexisting disabilities experienced heightened vulnerability related to considerations including safety, access to services, and meeting basic needs. Objective The objective of this research was to better understand the perceptions of responders and decision-makers regarding disability and efforts to address the needs of PWD following the 2010 earthquake. Design We conducted a qualitative study using interpretive description methodology and semistructured interviews with 14 Haitian and 10 international participants who were involved in the earthquake response. Results Participants identified PWD as being among the most vulnerable individuals following the earthquake. Though some forms of disability received considerable attention in aid efforts, the needs of other PWD did not. Several factors were identified as challenges for efforts to address the needs of PWD including lack of coordination and information sharing, the involvement of multiple aid sectors, perceptions that this should be the responsibility of specialized organizations, and the need to prioritize limited resources. Participants also reported shifts in local social views related to disability following the earthquake. Conclusions Addressing the needs of PWD following a disaster is a crucial population health challenge and raises questions related to equity and responsibility for non-governmental organizations, governments, and local communities. PMID:26257047

  1. Faculty Sense of Agency in Decisions about Work and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Campbell, Corbin M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, many research universities have adopted policies and support mechanisms to help academic parents balance work and family. This study sought to understand what facilitates faculty agency in making decisions about work and family, including parental leave. We conducted 20 interviews with 5 men and 15 women at a research…

  2. 40 CFR 166.30 - Notice of Agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.30 Notice of Agency decision. (a) Notification of applicants... public health exemptions. The notice shall contain all of the following: (i) The name of the applicant; (ii) The pesticide authorized for use; (iii) The crop or site to be treated; and (iv) The...

  3. 40 CFR 166.30 - Notice of Agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.30 Notice of Agency decision. (a) Notification of applicants... public health exemptions. The notice shall contain all of the following: (i) The name of the applicant; (ii) The pesticide authorized for use; (iii) The crop or site to be treated; and (iv) The...

  4. How can the results of Health Technology Assessment (HTA) evaluations applied to vaccinations be communicated to decision-makers and stakeholders? The ISPOR Rome Chapter Project.

    PubMed

    Gasparini, R; Mennini, F S; Panatto, D; Bonanni, P; Bechini, A; Ricciardi, W; DE Waure, C; Marcellusi, A; Cicchetti, A; Ruggeri, M; Boccalini, S

    2015-01-01

    HTA is considered the most comprehensive and transparent method of supporting decision-makers in their choices in Public Health. HTA on vaccines is being performed by many experts. However, they often present their studies to colleagues, but not to decisionmakers, who should be the main target and current users. It is therefore crucial to improve the transfer of scientific data to decision- makers and all stakeholders. The aims of the present project are: 1) to set up a team of experts to collect economic evaluations and HTA studies on vaccines and assess their actual use in decision-making processes; 2) to constitute regional working groups in order to identify the critical aspects of the communication process and identify the most appropriate method of data transfer. Systematic reviews of economic evaluations and HTA on vaccines and their actual use in decision-making will be used to draw up the basic documents for discussion by the 3 regional working boards. The working groups will discuss the current scientific evidence and communication methods and will try to implement a model of technology assessment with well-defined and objective criteria, in order to better fit pharmaco-economic and HTA methods to the field of vaccinations. Improving the transfer of HTA results to stakeholders, particularly decision-makers, will enable decisions to be taken on the basis of scientific evidence, and appropriate, sustainable actions to be undertaken. PMID:26900329

  5. Evidence-informed decision-making by professionals working in addiction agencies serving women: a descriptive qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective approaches to the prevention and treatment of substance abuse among mothers have been developed but not widely implemented. Implementation studies suggest that the adoption of evidence-based practices in the field of addictions remains low. There is a need, therefore, to better understand decision making processes in addiction agencies in order to develop more effective approaches to promote the translation of knowledge gained from addictions research into clinical practice. Methods A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore: 1) the types and sources of evidence used to inform practice-related decisions within Canadian addiction agencies serving women; 2) how decision makers at different levels report using research evidence; and 3) factors that influence evidence-informed decision making. A purposeful sample of 26 decision-makers providing addiction treatment services to women completed in-depth qualitative interviews. Interview data were coded and analyzed using directed and summative content analysis strategies as well as constant comparison techniques. Results Across all groups, individuals reported locating and using multiple types of evidence to inform decisions. Some decision-makers rely on their experiential knowledge of addiction and recovery in decision-making. Research evidence is often used directly in decision-making at program management and senior administrative levels. Information for decision-making is accessed from a range of sources, including web-based resources and experts in the field. Individual and organizational facilitators and barriers to using research evidence in decision making were identified. Conclusions There is support at administrative levels for integrating EIDM in addiction agencies. Knowledge transfer and exchange strategies should be focussed towards program managers and administrators and include capacity building for locating, appraising and using research evidence, knowledge brokering, and

  6. From drought indicators to impacts: developing improved tools for monitoring and early warning with decision-makers in mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannaford, Jamie; Barker, Lucy; Svensson, Cecilia; Tanguy, Maliko; Laize, Cedric; Bachmair, Sophie; Tijdeman, Erik; Stahl, Kerstin; Collins, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    of M&EW and future aspirations. Different stakeholders clearly have different goals for M&EW, but there are a number of common themes, including a desire to better understand the links between the outputs of large-scale M&EW systems (rainfall, river flow, etc), localised triggers used by decision-makers during drought episodes, and actual impacts of drought. Secondly, we present analyses designed to test the utility of a wide range of drought indicators for their use in UK applications. We demonstrate the suitability of standardised indicators (like the SPI) for use in the UK, addressing the suitability of statistical distributions and using these indicators for drought severity quantification and for understanding propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought; all of which are currently poorly understood aspects that are vital for future monitoring. We then address the extent to which these indicators can be used to predict drought impacts, focusing on several sectors (water supply, agriculture and ecosystems). These analyses test which indicators perform best at predicting drought impacts, and seek to identify indicator thresholds that trigger impact occurrence. Unsurprisingly, we found that no single indicator best predicts impacts, and results are domain, sector and season specific. However, we reveal important linkages between indicators and impacts that could enhance the design and delivery of monitoring and forecasting information and its uptake by decision-makers concerned with drought.

  7. [Beyond dissemination: lessons from the interaction between researchers and decision-makers during a research project in Bogotá, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Bello, Amparo; Vega-Romero, Román

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the experiences and conceptual and theoretical lessons learned during interaction between researchers, policy-makers, program beneficiaries, and other actors in a research project on social protection, health, and forced displacement in Bogotá, Colombia. The article begins by presenting the methodological approach and a description of interaction between various actors. This experience provides the basis for a conceptual discussion on the factors and determinants of research use. The article also highlights the need for taking an epistemological view beyond the positivist and rationalist underpinnings of the dominant explanations concerning interaction between researchers and decision-makers. PMID:17086341

  8. Bridging the gap between the economic evaluation literature and daily practice in occupational health: a qualitative study among decision-makers in the healthcare sector

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Continued improvements in occupational health can only be ensured if decisions regarding the implementation and continuation of occupational health and safety interventions (OHS interventions) are based on the best available evidence. To ensure that this is the case, scientific evidence should meet the needs of decision-makers. As a first step in bridging the gap between the economic evaluation literature and daily practice in occupational health, this study aimed to provide insight into the occupational health decision-making process and information needs of decision-makers. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was conducted with a purposeful sample of occupational health decision-makers in the Ontario healthcare sector. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the process by which occupational health decisions are made and the importance given to the financial implications of OHS interventions. Twenty-five structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore the sources of information used during the decision-making process, and decision-makers’ knowledge on economic evaluation methods. In-depth interview data were analyzed according to the constant comparative method. For the structured telephone interviews, summary statistics were prepared. Results The occupational health decision-making process generally consists of three stages: initiation stage, establishing the need for an intervention; pre-implementation stage, developing an intervention and its business case in order to receive senior management approval; and implementation and evaluation stage, implementing and evaluating an intervention. During this process, information on the financial implications of OHS interventions was found to be of great importance, especially the employer’s costs and benefits. However, scientific evidence was rarely consulted, sound ex-post program evaluations were hardly ever performed, and there seemed to be a need to advance the economic

  9. Does need matter? Needs assessments and decision-making among major humanitarian health agencies.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, Martin; Chataigner, Patrice; Tax, Leonie; Kubai, Anne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Disasters of physical origin, including earthquakes, floods, landslides, tidal waves, tropical storms, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, have affected millions of people globally over the past 100 years. Proportionately, there is far greater likelihood of being affected by such disasters in low-income countries than in high-income countries. Furthermore, low-income countries are in need of international assistance following disasters more often than high-income countries. The funding of international humanitarian assistance has increased from USD 12.9 billion in 2006 to an estimated USD 16.7 billion in 2010. The majority of this funding is channelled through humanitarian agencies and is supposed to be distributed based on the need of those affected, as assessed using needs assessments. Such needs assessments may be used to inform decisions internally, to influence others, to justify response decisions, and to obtain funding. Little is known about the quality of needs assessments in practical applications. Consequently, this paper reports on and analyses the views of operational decision-makers in major health-related humanitarian agencies on needs assessments. PMID:24905705

  10. Risk communication and trust in decision-maker action: a case study of the Giant Mine Remediation Plan

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, Cynthia G.; Banfield, Laura; Driedger, S. Michelle; Furgal, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The development and implementation of a remediation plan for the residual arsenic trioxide stored at the former Giant Mine site in the Canadian Northwest Territories has raised important issues related to trust. Social and individual trust of those responsible for making decisions on risks is critically important in community judgements on risk and the acceptability of risk management decisions. Trust is known to be affected by value similarity and confidence in past performance, which serve as interacting sources of cooperation in acting toward a common goal. Objective To explore the elements of trust associated with the development and implementation of the Giant Mine Remediation Plan. Design Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight purposively selected key informants representing both various interested and affected parties and the two government proponents. Results Five primary issues related to trust were identified by the participants: (1) a historical legacy of mistrust between the community (particularly Aboriginal peoples) and government; (2) barriers to building trust with the federal government; (3) limited community input and control over the decision-making process; (4) the conflicted and confounded role of the government agencies being both proponent and regulator, and the resulting need for independent oversight; and (5) distrust of the government to commit to the perpetual care required for the remediation option selected. Conclusions The dual-mode model of trust and confidence was shown to be a useful framework for understanding the pivotal role of trust in the development of the Giant Mine Remediation Plan. Failure to recognize issues of trust based on value dissimilarity and lack of confidence based on past performance have resulted in a lack of cooperation characterized by delayed remediation and a prolonged and expensive consultation process. Government recognition of the importance of trust to these issues will hopefully

  11. Voice in Political Decision-Making: The Effect of Group Voice on Perceived Trustworthiness of Decision Makers and Subsequent Acceptance of Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terwel, Bart W.; Harinck, Fieke; Ellemers, Naomi; Daamen, Dancker D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of carbon dioxide capture and storage technology (CCS) is considered an important climate change mitigation strategy, but the viability of this technology will depend on public acceptance of CCS policy decisions. The results of three experiments with students as participants show that whether or not interest groups receive an…

  12. The Earth Exploration Toolbook: Making Diverse Earth Science Datasets Available and Usable by Space and Earth Science Researchers and Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.; Dahlman, L.

    2004-12-01

    As research programs have become more interdisciplinary in nature it has become necessary for scientists to include data in their analysis that would traditionally fall outside their discipline of expertise. In the same way decision makers, who must deal with questions of an interdisciplinary nature, need to work with data from a wide range of disciplines, many of which are beyond their expertise. The question is how can these datasets and the software needed to access and analyze them become more easily available and usable by interdisciplinary research scientists and decision makers. The Earth Exploration Toolbook (EET, serc.carleton.edu/eet) was developed for the educational community; however, it has much broader applications. The EET chapters provide step-by-step instructions for using specific Earth science datasets and software tools, walking users through interesting examples that explore issues or concepts in Earth system science. These chapters can provide research scientists and decision makers with enough experience using particular datasets and data analysis tools outside of their area of expertise that they can then use the datasets and/or tools to address questions suggested by their research or societal needs. The EET team also facilitates the effective use of EET chapters through our 2-hour telecon-online workshops. During each workshop participants are walked through a specific chapter by and EET team member. After the workshop participants are in a better position to use the data and tool effectively. In this presentation we will demonstrate how the EET chapters can be useful to researchers and decision makers, and solicit input as to how to make this tool even more useful to these communities.

  13. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  14. The Impact of Scientific Information on Ecosystem Management: Making Sense of the Contextual Gap Between Information Providers and Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wyk, Ernita; Roux, Dirk J.; Drackner, Mikael; McCool, Stephen F.

    2008-05-01

    Scientific information is not always effectively incorporated into decision-making processes. This phenomenon seems to hold even when the information is aligned with an articulated need, is generated according to sound scientific procedures, and is packaged with end-user preferences in mind. We propose that contextual or cultural differences contribute significantly to the misalignment in communication between those who generate information and those who seek information for improved management of natural resources. The solution is to cultivate shared understanding, which in turn relies on acknowledgment and sharing of diverse values and attitudes. This constitutes a difficult challenge in a culturally diverse environment. Whereas cultural diversity represents wealth in experiences, knowledge and perspectives it can constrain the potential to develop the shared understandings necessary for effective integration of new information. This article illustrates how a lack of shared understanding among participants engaged in a resource-management process can produce and perpetuate divergent views of the world, to the extent that information and knowledge flows are ineffective and scientific information, even when requested, cannot be used effectively. Four themes were distilled from interviews with management and scientific staff of a natural resource-management agency in South Africa. The themes are used to illustrate how divergent views embedded in different cultures can discourage alignment of effort toward a common purpose. The article then presents a sense-making framework to illustrate the potential for developing shared understandings in a culturally diverse world.

  15. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  16. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  17. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  18. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  19. Examining the Educative Aims and Practices of Decision-Makers in Sport for Development and Peace Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Per G.; Hancock, Meg G.; Hums, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) policy-makers and practitioners continue to offer ambitious claims regarding the potential role of sport-based programs for promoting social change. Yet, it is important to put sport under a critical lens in order to develop a more balanced and realistic understanding of the role of sport in society. Whether…

  20. Computerized clinical decision support systems for primary preventive care: A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review of effects on process of care and patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs) are claimed to improve processes and outcomes of primary preventive care (PPC), but their effects, safety, and acceptance must be confirmed. We updated our previous systematic reviews of CCDSSs and integrated a knowledge translation approach in the process. The objective was to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of CCDSSs for PPC on process of care, patient outcomes, harms, and costs. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews Database, Inspec, and other databases, as well as reference lists through January 2010. We contacted authors to confirm data or provide additional information. We included RCTs that assessed the effect of a CCDSS for PPC on process of care and patient outcomes compared to care provided without a CCDSS. A study was considered to have a positive effect (i.e., CCDSS showed improvement) if at least 50% of the relevant study outcomes were statistically significantly positive. Results We added 17 new RCTs to our 2005 review for a total of 41 studies. RCT quality improved over time. CCDSSs improved process of care in 25 of 40 (63%) RCTs. Cumulative scientifically strong evidence supports the effectiveness of CCDSSs for screening and management of dyslipidaemia in primary care. There is mixed evidence for effectiveness in screening for cancer and mental health conditions, multiple preventive care activities, vaccination, and other preventive care interventions. Fourteen (34%) trials assessed patient outcomes, and four (29%) reported improvements with the CCDSS. Most trials were not powered to evaluate patient-important outcomes. CCDSS costs and adverse events were reported in only six (15%) and two (5%) trials, respectively. Information on study duration was often missing, limiting our ability to assess sustainability of CCDSS effects. Conclusions Evidence supports the

  1. MED SUV TASK 6.3 Capacity building and interaction with decision makers: Improving volcanic risk communication through volcanic hazard tools evaluation, Campi Flegrei Caldera case study (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Rosella; Isaia, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Cristiani, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    In the communication chain between scientists and decision makers (end users), scientific outputs, as maps, are a fundamental source of information on hazards zoning and the related at risk areas definition. Anyway the relationship between volcanic phenomena, their probability and potential impact can be complex and the geospatial information not easily decoded or understood by not experts even if decision makers. Focusing on volcanic hazard the goal of MED SUV WP6 Task 3 is to improve the communication efficacy of scientific outputs, to contribute in filling the gap between scientists and decision-makers. Campi Flegrei caldera, in Neapolitan area has been chosen as the pilot research area where to apply an evaluation/validation procedure to provide a robust evaluation of the volcanic maps and its validation resulting from end users response. The selected sample involved are decision makers and officials from Campanian Region Civil Protection and municipalities included in Campi Flegrei RED ZONE, the area exposed to risk from to pyroclastic currents hazard. Semi-structured interviews, with a sample of decision makers and civil protection officials have been conducted to acquire both quantitative and qualitative data. The tested maps have been: the official Campi Flegrei Caldera RED ZONE map, three maps produced by overlapping the Red Zone limit on Orthophoto, DTM and Contour map, as well as other maps included a probabilistic one, showing volcanological data used to border the Red Zone. The outcomes' analysis have assessed level of respondents' understanding of content as displayed, and their needs in representing the complex information embedded in volcanic hazard. The final output has been the development of a leaflet as "guidelines" that can support decision makers and officials in understanding volcanic hazard and risk maps, and also in using them as a communication tool in information program for the population at risk. The same evaluation /validation process

  2. Agency and Error in Young Adults' Stories of Sexual Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Katherine R.; Husser, Erica K.; Stone, Dana J.; Jordal, Christian E.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative analysis of 148 college students' written comments about themselves as sexual decision makers. Most participants described experiences in which they were actively engaged in decision-making processes of "waiting it out" to "working it out." The four patterns were (a) I am in control, (b) I am experimenting and learning,…

  3. Value of Information and Prospect theory as tools to involve decision-makers in water-related design, operation and planning of water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    The role of decision-makers is to take the outputs from hydrological and hydraulic analyses and, in some extent, use them as inputs to make decisions that are related to planning, design and operation of water systems. However, the use of these technical analyses is frequently limited, since there are other non-hydrological issues that must be considered, that may end up in very different solutions than those envisaged by the purely technical ones. A possibility to account for the nature of the human decisions under uncertainty is by exploring the use of concepts from decision theory and behavioural economics, such as Value of Information and Prospect Theory and embed them into the methodologies we use in the hydrology practice. Three examples are presented to illustrate these multidisciplinary interactions. The first one, for monitoring network design, uses Value of Information within a methodology to locate water level stations in a complex canal of networks in the Netherlands. The second example, for operation, shows how the Value of Information concept can be used to formulate alternative methods to evaluate flood risk according to the set of options available for decision-making during a flood event. The third example, for planning, uses Prospect Theory concepts to understand how the "losses hurt more than gains feel good" effect can determine the final decision of urbanise or not a flood-prone area. It is demonstrated that decision theory and behavioural economic principles are promising to evaluate the complex decision-making process in water-related issues.

  4. Decision Theory and the Governance of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodhouse, Edward J.

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview of the decision making process for science and technology. Finds that government agencies and officials are not the major decision makers. Examines obstacles to achieving intelligent decisions when policy makers are scientists, business executives, and consumers. Concludes with five strategies for improving technological…

  5. Managing the Environmental Impacts of Growth Under Climate Change: A Workshop for State and Local Decision-Makers--Workshop Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    From November 8/9, 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hosted a workshop titled "Managing the Environmental Impacts of Growth Under Climate Change." The Office of Research and Development (ORD) organized the meeting, which was held in Research Triangle Park, Nort...

  6. Development of a resource modelling tool to support decision makers in pandemic influenza preparedness: The AsiaFluCap Simulator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health care planning for pandemic influenza is a challenging task which requires predictive models by which the impact of different response strategies can be evaluated. However, current preparedness plans and simulations exercises, as well as freely available simulation models previously made for policy makers, do not explicitly address the availability of health care resources or determine the impact of shortages on public health. Nevertheless, the feasibility of health systems to implement response measures or interventions described in plans and trained in exercises depends on the available resource capacity. As part of the AsiaFluCap project, we developed a comprehensive and flexible resource modelling tool to support public health officials in understanding and preparing for surges in resource demand during future pandemics. Results The AsiaFluCap Simulator is a combination of a resource model containing 28 health care resources and an epidemiological model. The tool was built in MS Excel© and contains a user-friendly interface which allows users to select mild or severe pandemic scenarios, change resource parameters and run simulations for one or multiple regions. Besides epidemiological estimations, the simulator provides indications on resource gaps or surpluses, and the impact of shortages on public health for each selected region. It allows for a comparative analysis of the effects of resource availability and consequences of different strategies of resource use, which can provide guidance on resource prioritising and/or mobilisation. Simulation results are displayed in various tables and graphs, and can also be easily exported to GIS software to create maps for geographical analysis of the distribution of resources. Conclusions The AsiaFluCap Simulator is freely available software (http://www.cdprg.org) which can be used by policy makers, policy advisors, donors and other stakeholders involved in preparedness for providing evidence based and

  7. Getting Decision Makers to the Table: Digestible Facts, a Few Good Friends and Sharing Recipes for Solutions to Climate Change Impacts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Gershunov, A.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Young, E.

    2014-12-01

    Decision makers and community leaders are key audiences to engage in our efforts to improve climate literacy. Climate Education Partners has been working with business leaders, elected officials, tribal leaders, and other Key Influentials in the San Diego Region to enhance the channels of communication outside traditional settings. Over the past year we have interviewed over 90 Key Influential San Diego leaders asking them about their knowledge of climate change and their personal and professional efforts to adapt to and/or mitigate the impacts of climate change. We also engaged them directly in the creation of an innovative educational resource called "San Diego, 2050 is Calling. How will we answer?" Results of the interviews indicate that 90% of these leaders are concerned about climate change, more than 50% are already doing something about the impacts, and the majority of them want more information, greater dialogue and examples of actions taken by other community leaders. We found that repeated engagement of leaders at the San Diego County Water Authority went from basic collaboration in our water tours, to greater participation of their top leaders in a water tour for top decision makers from the City of San Diego, finally culminating with full support of and participation in the 2050 report. The 2050 report represents an integrated approach blending local climate change science, social science education theory and presentation of a suite of solution-driven opportunities for local leaders. The report includes science infographics that illustrate rigorous scientific facts, statements from expert scientists and direct quotes from decision makers, and examples of successful climate change adaptation actions from companies, government groups and others. The video and photography sessions for the 2050 report led to many unexpected discussion among leaders with differing opinions on climate change, greater enthusiasm to participate in outreach activities with other

  8. The Search for Relevant Climate Change Information to Support Adaptation Decision Makers: Lessons from Reductionism, Emergence and the Past (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stainforth, D.; Harrison, S.; Smith, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    The reality of anthropogenic climate change is founded on well understood scientific principles and is now widely accepted. The need for international efforts to limit the extent of future changes in climate - climate change mitigation - is therefore clear. Since anthropogenic climate change is well underway, however, and the planet is committed to further changes based on past emissions alone, there will certainly be a need for global society to adapt to the consequences. The physical sciences are increasingly being looked to as sources of information and guidance on adaptation policy and decision making. Unlike mitigation efforts such decisions generally require information on local or regional scales. What is the source of such information? How can we tell when it is robust and fit for the purpose of supporting a specific decision? The availability of rapidly increasing computational resources has led to a steady increase in the resolution of global climate models and of embedded regional climate models. They are approaching a point where they can provide data at a resolution which may be usable in adaptation decision support. Yet models are not equivalent to reality and model errors are significant even at the global scale. By contrast scientific understanding of climatic processes now and in the past can provide information about plausible responses which are more qualitative but may be equally useful. This talk will focus on the relative roles of fundamentally reductionist, model approaches with alternatives based on observations and process understanding. The latter, although more qualitative, are able to inform us about emergent properties; properties which may be difficult or impossible to reproduce within a reductionist paradigm. The contrast between emergent and reductionist approaches has a long history in the physical sciences; a history which provides valuable lessons for the relationship between climate science and societal / policy decisions. Here

  9. Helping the decision maker effectively promote various experts’ views into various optimal solutions to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection through the organization of a pilot health care provider research system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The main aim of China’s Health Care System Reform was to help the decision maker find the optimal solution to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection. A pilot health care provider research system was recently organized in China’s health care system, and it could efficiently collect the data for determining the optimal solution to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection from various experts, then the purpose of this study was to apply the optimal implementation methodology to help the decision maker effectively promote various experts’ views into various optimal solutions to this problem under the support of this pilot system. Methods After the general framework of China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection was established, this study collaborated with the National Bureau of Statistics of China to commission a large-scale 2009 to 2010 national expert survey (n = 3,914) through the organization of a pilot health care provider research system for the first time in China, and the analytic network process (ANP) implementation methodology was adopted to analyze the dataset from this survey. Results The market-oriented health care provider approach was the optimal solution to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection from the doctors’ point of view; the traditional government’s regulation-oriented health care provider approach was the optimal solution to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection from the pharmacists’ point of view, the hospital administrators’ point of view, and the point of view of health officials in health administration departments; the public private partnership (PPP) approach was the optimal solution to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection from the nurses’ point of view, the point of view of officials in medical insurance agencies, and the health care researchers’ point

  10. The DEVELOP National Program: Building Dual Capacity in Decision Makers and Young Professionals Through NASA Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, L. M.; Rogers, L.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M.

    2012-12-01

    Through the years, NASA has played a distinct/important/vital role in advancing Earth System Science to meet the challenges of environmental management and policy decision making. Within NASA's Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences' Program, the DEVELOP National Program seeks to extend NASA Earth Science for societal benefit. DEVELOP is a capacity building program providing young professionals and students the opportunity to utilize NASA Earth observations and model output to demonstrate practical applications of those resources to society. Under the guidance of science advisors, DEVELOP teams work in alignment with local, regional, national and international partner organizations to identify the widest array of practical uses for NASA data to enhance related management decisions. The program's structure facilitates a two-fold approach to capacity building by fostering an environment of scientific and professional development opportunities for young professionals and students, while also providing end-user organizations enhanced management and decision making tools for issues impacting their communities. With the competitive nature and growing societal role of science and technology in today's global workplace, DEVELOP is building capacity in the next generation of scientists and leaders by fostering a learning and growing environment where young professionals possess an increased understanding of teamwork, personal development, and scientific/professional development and NASA's Earth Observation System. DEVELOP young professionals are partnered with end user organizations to conduct 10 week feasibility studies that demonstrate the use of NASA Earth science data for enhanced decision making. As a result of the partnership, end user organizations are introduced to NASA Earth Science technologies and capabilities, new methods to augment current practices, hands-on training with practical applications of remote sensing and NASA Earth science, improved remote

  11. Translating PrEP effectiveness into public health impact: key considerations for decision-makers on cost-effectiveness, price, regulatory issues, distributive justice and advocacy for access

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, Catherine; Macklin, Ruth; Warren, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The extraordinary feat of proving the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical trials in different populations in a variety of settings may prove to have been easier than ensuring it is used well. Decision-makers must make difficult choices to realize the promise of antiretroviral prophylaxis for their countries. This paper outlines key economic, regulatory and distributive justice issues that must be addressed for effective and acceptable PrEP implementation. Discussion In considering the role that PrEP can play in combination prevention programmes, decision-makers must determine who can benefit most from PrEP, how PrEP can be provided safely and efficiently, and what kind of health system support will ensure successful implementation. To do this, they need contextualized information on disease burden by population, analyses of how PrEP services might best be delivered, and projections of the human resource and infrastructure requirements for each potential delivery model. There are cost considerations, varying cost-effectiveness results and regulatory challenges. The principles of ethics can inform thorny discussions about who should be prioritized for oral PrEP and how best to introduce it fairly. We describe the cost-effectiveness of PrEP in different populations at higher risk of HIV exposure, its price in low- and middle-income countries, and the current regulatory situation. We explore the principles of ethics that can inform resource allocation decision-making about PrEP anchored in distributive justice, at a time when universal access to antiretroviral treatment remains to be assured. We then highlight the role of advocacy in moving the PrEP agenda forward. Conclusions The time is ripe now for decisions about whether, how and for whom PrEP should be introduced into a country's HIV response. It has the potential to contribute significantly to high impact HIV prevention if it is tailored to those who can most benefit

  12. A Perspective on Consumers 3.0: They Are Not Better Decision-Makers than Previous Generations

    PubMed Central

    Houdek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    This perspective article builds upon the theory of local thinking in interpretation and prediction of consumer behavior in a contemporary world of information overload. It is shown that even informed and socially and environmentally responsible consumers (consumers 3.0) exhibit selective recall, limited attention, and bounded search in the perception and interpretation of price and quality of purchases. Their decisions fall into local cognitive frames, which specifically focus attention only on a narrow structure and content of the choice. The cognitive frames can be established by recent or regular purchases, but also extreme or primary purchase experiences. The article includes a short conceptual review of car, food, clothing, insurance, drugs, paintings, and other product purchases showing that the local cognitive frames often lead to bad bargains across various sectors. The article presents several suggestions for future research. PMID:27375527

  13. A Perspective on Consumers 3.0: They Are Not Better Decision-Makers than Previous Generations.

    PubMed

    Houdek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    This perspective article builds upon the theory of local thinking in interpretation and prediction of consumer behavior in a contemporary world of information overload. It is shown that even informed and socially and environmentally responsible consumers (consumers 3.0) exhibit selective recall, limited attention, and bounded search in the perception and interpretation of price and quality of purchases. Their decisions fall into local cognitive frames, which specifically focus attention only on a narrow structure and content of the choice. The cognitive frames can be established by recent or regular purchases, but also extreme or primary purchase experiences. The article includes a short conceptual review of car, food, clothing, insurance, drugs, paintings, and other product purchases showing that the local cognitive frames often lead to bad bargains across various sectors. The article presents several suggestions for future research. PMID:27375527

  14. Point of care information services: a platform for self-directed continuing medical education for front line decision makers

    PubMed Central

    Moja, Lorenzo; Kwag, Koren Hyogene

    2015-01-01

    The structure and aim of continuing medical education (CME) is shifting from the passive transmission of knowledge to a competency-based model focused on professional development. Self-directed learning is emerging as the foremost educational method for advancing competency-based CME. In a field marked by the constant expansion of knowledge, self-directed learning allows physicians to tailor their learning strategy to meet the information needs of practice. Point of care information services are innovative tools that provide health professionals with digested evidence at the front line to guide decision making. By mobilising self-directing learning to meet the information needs of clinicians at the bedside, point of care information services represent a promising platform for competency-based CME. Several points, however, must be considered to enhance the accessibility and development of these tools to improve competency-based CME and the quality of care. PMID:25655251

  15. How seasonal forecast could help a decision maker: an example of climate service for water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viel, Christian; Beaulant, Anne-Lise; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Céron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The FP7 project EUPORIAS was a great opportunity for the climate community to co-design with stakeholders some original and innovative climate services at seasonal time scales. In this framework, Météo-France proposed a prototype that aimed to provide to water resource managers some tailored information to better anticipate the coming season. It is based on a forecasting system, built on a refined hydrological suite, forced by a coupled seasonal forecast model. It particularly delivers probabilistic river flow prediction on river basins all over the French territory. This paper presents the work we have done with "EPTB Seine Grands Lacs" (EPTB SGL), an institutional stakeholder in charge of the management of 4 great reservoirs on the upper Seine Basin. First, we present the co-design phase, which means the translation of classical climate outputs into several indices, relevant to influence the stakeholder's decision making process (DMP). And second, we detail the evaluation of the impact of the forecast on the DMP. This evaluation is based on an experiment realised in collaboration with the stakeholder. Concretely EPTB SGL has replayed some past decisions, in three different contexts: without any forecast, with a forecast A and with a forecast B. One of forecast A and B really contained seasonal forecast, the other only contained random forecasts taken from past climate. This placebo experiment, realised in a blind test, allowed us to calculate promising skill scores of the DMP based on seasonal forecast in comparison to a classical approach based on climatology, and to EPTG SGL current practice.

  16. The Heat Is On: Decision-Maker Perspectives on When and How to Issue a Heat Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, M.; Sampson, N.; McCormick, S.; Rood, R. B.; Buxton, M.; Ebi, K. L.; Gronlund, C. J.; Zhang, K.; Catalano, L.; White-Newsome, J. L.; Conlon, K. C.; Parker, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    To better understand how to prevent illness and deaths during hot weather, particularly among at-risk populations, we conducted a study in Detroit, Michigan; Phoenix, Arizona; New York, New York, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Our aims were to characterize and better understand how heatwave and health early warning systems (HHWS) and related prevention and sustainability programs can be more widely and effectively implemented. Specifically, we here report on the scientific evidence, expert judgments and the process used in deciding to trigger a HHWS and activate public health and social services interventions. We conducted interviews with public officials who decide if and when heat advisories/warnings are issued. After transcribing the interviews, we used a qualitative analysis software, QSR NVivo 9.0, to assign codes to portions of text from each transcript and allow analysis of information with common themes across the data. For example, several sentences in a transcript discussing a heat index might be coded as 'definition of heat wave'. A common theme across cities was that deciding what type of weather is dangerous to health is not straightforward. The time in season that heat occurs; the duration of the heat; the level of humidity and other meteorological factors; the extent to which temperatures drop at night, allowing people to cool off; and prevailing weather conditions all play a role. A single 'safe' threshold is unrealistic because people's individual sensitivity, housing, surrounding environments, behaviors, and access to air conditioning can differ greatly. However, choices must be made as to the trigger for the HHWS. Although quantitative analysis with health data (mortality, hospital admissions) can inform the design of the triggers, historical analysis has limitations, and decisions to issue heat warnings are sometimes related to planned activities, such as parades or fairs, that may expose large numbers of people to heat. The HHWS approach

  17. 7 CFR 614.6 - Agency records and decision notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the FSA county committee pursuant to 7 CFR 780 or NAD pursuant to 7 CFR part 11, if applicable. ... decision notice within 10 working days of rendering a technical determination or program decision. In...

  18. 7 CFR 614.6 - Agency records and decision notices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the FSA county committee pursuant to 7 CFR 780 or NAD pursuant to 7 CFR part 11, if applicable. ... decision notice within 10 working days of rendering a technical determination or program decision. In...

  19. Decision-makers, donors and data: factors influencing the development of mental health and psychosocial policy in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Zwi, Anthony B; Blignault, Ilse; Bunde-Birouste, Anne W; Ritchie, Jan E; Silove, Derrick M

    2011-07-01

    Mental disorders and psychosocial problems are common, and present a significant public health burden globally. Increasingly, attention has been devoted to these issues in the aftermath of violent conflict. The Solomon Islands, a small Pacific island nation, has in recent years experienced periods of internal conflict. This article examines how policy decisions regarding mental health and wellbeing were incorporated into the national agenda in the years which followed. The study reveals the policy shifts, contextual influences and players responsible. The Solomon Islands' experience reflects incremental change, built upon longstanding but modest concern with mental health and social welfare issues, reinforced by advocacy from the small mental health team. Armed conflict and ethnic tensions from 1998 to 2003 promoted wider recognition of unmet mental health needs and psychosocial problems. Additional impetus was garnered through the positioning of key health leaders, some of whom were trained in public health. Working together, with an understanding of culture and politics, and drawing on external support, they drove the agenda. Contextual factors, notably further violence and the ongoing risk of instability, a growing youth population, and emerging international and local evidence, also played a part. PMID:21115459

  20. Developmental changes in decision making under risk: The role of executive functions and reasoning abilities in 8- to 19-year-old decision makers.

    PubMed

    Schiebener, Johannes; García-Arias, María; García-Villamisar, Domingo; Cabanyes-Truffino, Javier; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that children and adolescents often tend toward risky decisions despite explicit knowledge about the potential negative consequences. This phenomenon has been suggested to be associated with the immaturity of brain areas involved in cognitive control functions. Particularly, "frontal lobe functions," such as executive functions and reasoning, mature until young adulthood and are thought to be involved in age-related changes in decision making under explicit risk conditions. We investigated 112 participants, aged 8-19 years, with a frequently used task assessing decisions under risk, the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Additionally, we administered the Modified Card Sorting Test assessing executive functioning (categorization, cognitive flexibility, and strategy maintenance) as well as the Ravens Progressive Matrices assessing reasoning. The results showed that risk taking in the GDT decreased with increasing age and this effect was not moderated by reasoning but by executive functions: Particularly, young persons with weak executive functioning showed very risky decision making. Thus, the individual maturation of executive functions, associated with areas in the prefrontal cortex, seems to be an important factor in young peoples' behavior in risky decision-making situations. PMID:25027746

  1. Mapping health in the Great Lakes areas of concern: a user-friendly tool for policy and decision makers.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, S J; Eyles, J; DeLuca, P

    2001-01-01

    The role of the physical environment as a determinant of health is a major concern reported by the general public as well as by many policymakers. However, it remains one of the health determinants for which few available measures or indicators are readily available. This lack of data is compounded by the fact that evidence for direct cause-and-effect relationships in the literature is often equivocal, leading to feelings of uncertainty among the lay public and often leading to indecision among policymakers. In this article we examine one aspect of the physical environment--water pollution in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs)--and its potential impacts on a wide range of (plausible) human health outcomes. Essentially, the International Joint Commission, the international agency that oversees Great Lakes water quality and related issues, worked with Health Canada to produce a report for each of the 17 AOCs on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes, outlining a long list of health outcomes and the potential relationships these might have with environmental exposures known or suspected to exist in the Great Lakes basin. These reports are based solely on secondary health data and a thorough review of the environmental epidemiologic literature. The use of these reports by local health policymakers as well as by public health officials in the AOCs was limited, however, by the presentation of vast amounts of data in a series of tables with various outcome measures. The reports were therefore not used widely by the audience for whom they were intended. In this paper we report the results of an undertaking designed to reduce the data and present them in a more policy-friendly manner, using a geographic information system. We do not attempt to answer directly questions related to cause and effect vis-à-vis the relationships between environment and health in the Great Lakes; rather, this work is a hypothesis-generating exercise that will help sharpen the focus of

  2. Marine Conservation: Effective Communication is Critical to Engaging the Public and Decision Makers in Sustaining our Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, L. B.

    2006-12-01

    Scientists are most comfortable talking to other scientists. But if we hope our science will be used to drive good policy decisions at the state or federal level, we have to be willing to leave the comfortable cloisters of science and venture out into a world where people speak different languages and have different perspectives. Early in my career, I had the good fortune to be involved in two research programs that were focused on basic science, but also proved to be relevant to management and policy. The first project involved modeling the bioenergetics of growth in salmonid fishes. The second modeled the population dynamics of a threatened marine species, loggerhead sea turtle. Somewhat to my surprise, both papers led to major policy changes and the models were actively employed by managers within a year of two of publication. The question for me then became whether this could be done deliberately. Since then I have had the opportunity to communicate with a wide variety of people from congressmen, to school children, to the public, and among professionals across disciplinary boundaries. Communication skills are critical for scientists to become influential in the policy arena. We have to listen to all people involved in the policymaking process AND we have to be able to communicate effectively with them. This requires a deep understanding of the science and a willingness to work hard on communicating the science clearly, concisely, and compellingly. Scientists can work to develop their own skills, but professional training helps. This can come via shortcourses, mentorships, or full university courses. At Duke Marine Lab, we initiated graduate course in Professional Writing that focuses upon writing for different audiences, including commercial fishermen, retirees, teenagers, scientists in different fields, politicians, and managers. This course has been widely endorsed by our graduates as one of the most important courses they attended; interviews and job offers

  3. Instructional Decision Making and Agency of Community College Mathematics Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lande, Elaine; Mesa, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the rationale for instructional decisions proposed by two groups of community college mathematics faculty (full-time and part-time), as they discussed animations of trigonometry classes that breached several classroom norms. Although both groups of faculty justify their decisions in similar ways, the way in which they talk differs.…

  4. Regulatory review: How do agencies ensure the quality of decision making?

    PubMed

    Liberti, L; McAuslane, N; Patel, P; Breckenridge, A; Eichler, H G; Peterson, R

    2013-09-01

    The Centre for Innovation in Regulatory Science (CIRS) Workshop on Regulatory Review brought together international regulators and multinational pharmaceutical company representatives to focus on best practices that underlie regulatory decision making, thereby facilitating the transparent, timely, procedurally predictable, and good-quality evaluation of new medicines. Participants investigated frameworks used by agencies, discussed challenges for regulatory agencies in making quality decisions, investigated the role of other stakeholders, and made recommendations of activities and processes that agencies and companies can consider to enable quality decision making. PMID:23963218

  5. What do hospital decision-makers in Ontario, Canada, have to say about the fairness of priority setting in their institutions?

    PubMed Central

    Reeleder, David; Martin, Douglas K; Keresztes, Christian; Singer, Peter A

    2005-01-01

    Background Priority setting, also known as rationing or resource allocation, occurs at all levels of every health care system. Daniels and Sabin have proposed a framework for priority setting in health care institutions called 'accountability for reasonableness', which links priority setting to theories of democratic deliberation. Fairness is a key goal of priority setting. According to 'accountability for reasonableness', health care institutions engaged in priority setting have a claim to fairness if they satisfy four conditions of relevance, publicity, appeals/revision, and enforcement. This is the first study which has surveyed the views of hospital decision makers throughout an entire health system about the fairness of priority setting in their institutions. The purpose of this study is to elicit hospital decision-makers' self-report of the fairness of priority setting in their hospitals using an explicit conceptual framework, 'accountability for reasonableness'. Methods 160 Ontario hospital Chief Executive Officers, or their designates, were asked to complete a survey questionnaire concerning priority setting in their publicly funded institutions. Eight-six Ontario hospitals completed this survey, for a response rate of 54%. Six close-ended rating scale questions (e.g. Overall, how fair is priority setting at your hospital?), and 3 open-ended questions (e.g. What do you see as the goal(s) of priority setting in your hospital?) were used. Results Overall, 60.7% of respondents indicated their hospitals' priority setting was fair. With respect to the 'accountability for reasonableness' conditions, respondents indicated their hospitals performed best for the relevance (75.0%) condition, followed by appeals/revision (56.6%), publicity (56.0%), and enforcement (39.5%). Conclusions For the first time hospital Chief Executive Officers within an entire health system were surveyed about the fairness of priority setting practices in their institutions using the

  6. Ethical challenges with hemodialysis patients who lack decision-making capacity: behavioral issues, surrogate decision-makers, and end-of-life situations.

    PubMed

    Feely, Molly A; Albright, Robert C; Thorsteinsdottir, Björg; Moss, Alvin H; Swetz, Keith M

    2014-09-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) is routinely offered to patients with end-stage renal disease in the United States who are ineligible for other renal replacement modalities. The frequency of HD among the US population is greater than all other countries, except Taiwan and Japan. In US, patients are often dialyzed irrespective of age, comorbidities, prognosis, or decision-making capacity. Determination of when patients can no longer dialyze is variable and can be dialysis-center specific. Determinants may be related to progressive comorbidities and frailty, mobility or access issues, patient self-determination, or an inability to tolerate the treatment safely for any number of reasons (e.g., hypotension, behavioral issues). Behavioral issues may impact the safety of not only patients themselves, but also those around them. In this article the authors present the case of an elderly patient on HD with progressive cognitive impairment and combative behavior placing him and others at risk of physical harm. The authors discuss the medical, ethical, legal, and psychosocial challenges to care of such patients who lack decision-making capacity with a focus on variable approaches by regions and culture. This manuscript provides recommendations and highlights resources to assist nephrologists, dialysis personnel, ethics consultants, and palliative medicine teams in managing such patients to resolve conflict. PMID:24988063

  7. Film-Makers' Cooperative Catalogue Number Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Film-Makers' Cooperative, New York, NY.

    The Film-Makers' Cooperative services as a film depository and rental agency for any film-makers who may choose to make their work available to the general public. Approximately 1,600 films are listed in film-maker sequence. Excerpts of film reviews are provided for each entry. An index by film title and policies and procedures for film rental are…

  8. Modernisation of the system of measurement, storage, transmission and dissemination of hydrological data to decision makers at various levels (EC MOSYM Project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, M. J.; Amafteesei, R.; Corbus, C.; Ghioca, M.; Stanescu, V. Al.

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of the LIFE-MOSYM Project was to provide a demonstration, promotion and technical assistance actions for Romanian local and central authorities in reconsidering the concept of the hydrological network, using an automatically hydrological informational system (AHIS) integrated with a specialized database. Since a few years, and following one of the main priorities in environment, new synthetic approaches have been developed in water sciences and its management. One reason of such evolution is the importance of the links between climates, hydrological regimes and land users. As the floods are important processes in the water bodies, they have to be deemed in priority. The activities during the LIFE-MOSYM Project were implied in flood management and damage mitigation. Thus the MOSYM Project was conceived to build the entire chain of information system in case of water disasters starting from the automatization and the optimisation of the observing and measuring system of the flood triggering factors and of the flood characteristics, continuing with the automatic procedures of primary processing and hydrological modelling for flood forecasting. The first branch of the system allowed for the timely and quantitative cognisance of the inherent danger. On the second branch of the system, the flooding risk maps aimed to help decision-makers to develop solutions to their specific problems in flood risk preparedness and prevention. Both branches converged towards the achievement of a useful tool for decision support for flood management and damage mitigation with accepted European standards. The activities during the LIFE-MOSYM Project was implied in building an automatic informational system in Mures, Arges and Siret Basins. Also, the Project provided a methodology and the local adequate instruments to assess the vulnerability and hazard for the risk maps development.

  9. Development of an Analytic Approach to Determine How Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Is Used By Non-EPA Decision Makers (Final Contractor Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project, Development of an Analytic Approach to Determine How Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Is Used By Non EPA Decision Makers, is to describe how IRIS is used by a small number of representative groups of u...

  10. Agency Modulates the Lateral and Medial Prefrontal Cortex Responses in Belief-Based Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Gui; He, Qinghua; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Levin, Irwin P.; Dong, Qi; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Many real-life decisions in complex and changing environments are guided by the decision maker’s beliefs, such as her perceived control over decision outcomes (i.e., agency), leading to phenomena like the “illusion of control”. However, the neural mechanisms underlying the “agency” effect on belief-based decisions are not well understood. Using functional imaging and a card guessing game, we revealed that the agency manipulation (i.e., either asking the subjects (SG) or the computer (CG) to guess the location of the winning card) not only affected the size of subjects’ bets, but also their “world model” regarding the outcome dependency. Functional imaging results revealed that the decision-related activation in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) was significantly modulated by agency and previous outcome. Specifically, these PFC regions showed stronger activation when subjects made decisions after losses than after wins under the CG condition, but the pattern was reversed under the SG condition. Furthermore, subjects with high external attribution of negative events were more affected by agency at the behavioral and neural levels. These results suggest that the prefrontal decision-making system can be modulated by abstract beliefs, and are thus vulnerable to factors such as false agency and attribution. PMID:23762332

  11. Conceptualizing Agency: Preservice Social Studies Teachers' Thinking about Professional Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, J. Spencer

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated preservice social studies teachers' thinking about personal agency. This study used a case study design and was conducted in a semester long undergraduate social studies methods course. The findings drew upon data from eight participants. The participants were selected based on their stated purpose for teaching…

  12. 36 CFR 78.3 - Federal Agency decision to waive responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Federal Agency decision to waive responsibilities. 78.3 Section 78.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR WAIVER OF FEDERAL AGENCY RESPONSIBILITIES UNDER SECTION 110 OF THE NATIONAL HISTORIC PRESERVATION ACT § 78.3 Federal...

  13. 22 CFR 1101.14 - Appeal of agency decision not to correct or amend a record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Appeal of agency decision not to correct or amend a record. 1101.14 Section 1101.14 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.14 Appeal of agency...

  14. 22 CFR 1101.14 - Appeal of agency decision not to correct or amend a record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appeal of agency decision not to correct or amend a record. 1101.14 Section 1101.14 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.14 Appeal of agency...

  15. 22 CFR 1101.14 - Appeal of agency decision not to correct or amend a record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Appeal of agency decision not to correct or amend a record. 1101.14 Section 1101.14 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.14 Appeal of agency...

  16. 40 CFR 164.4 - Arrangements for examining Agency records, transcripts, orders, and decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrangements for examining Agency records, transcripts, orders, and decisions. 164.4 Section 164.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE...

  17. 40 CFR 164.4 - Arrangements for examining Agency records, transcripts, orders, and decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arrangements for examining Agency records, transcripts, orders, and decisions. 164.4 Section 164.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE...

  18. 40 CFR 164.4 - Arrangements for examining Agency records, transcripts, orders, and decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arrangements for examining Agency records, transcripts, orders, and decisions. 164.4 Section 164.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING HEARINGS, UNDER THE...

  19. 22 CFR 1101.14 - Appeal of agency decision not to correct or amend a record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Appeal of agency decision not to correct or amend a record. 1101.14 Section 1101.14 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.14 Appeal of agency...

  20. Proxy Healthcare Decision-Making for Persons with Intellectual Disability: Perspectives of Residential-Agency Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Orkin, Fredrick K.; Green, Michael J.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2009-01-01

    Directors of residential agencies for persons with intellectual disability in one U.S. state completed a self-administered, mailed survey to assess relative importance of information sources and decision factors in proxy healthcare decision-making. The most important sources were physician recommendations and input from the person; family input,…

  1. How Deep is the Critical Zone: A Scientific Question with Potential Impact For Decision-makers in Areas of Shale-Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Citizens living in areas of shale-gas development such as the Marcellus gas play in Pennsylvania and surrounding states are cognizant of the possibility that drilling and production of natural gas -- including hydraulic fracturing -- may have environmental impacts on their water. The Critical Zone is defined as the zone from vegetation canopy to the lower limits of groundwater. This definition is nebulous in terms of the lower limit, and yet, defining the bottom of the Critical Zone is important if citizens are to embrace shale-gas development. This is because, although no peer-reviewed study has been presented that documents a case where hydraulic fracturing or formation fluids have migrated upwards from fracturing depths to drinking water resources, a few cases of such leakage have been alleged. On the other hand, many cases of methane migration into aquifers have been documented to occur and some have been attributed to shale-gas development. The Critical Zone science community has a role to play in understanding such contamination problems, how they unfold, and how they should be ameliorated. For example, one big effort of the Critical Zone science community is to promote sharing of data describing the environment. This data effort has been extended to provide data for citizens to understand water quality by a team known as the Shale Network. As scientists learn to publish data online, these efforts must also be made accessible to non-scientists. As citizens access the data, the demand for data will grow and all branches of government will eventually respond by providing more accessible data that will help the public and policy-makers make decisions.

  2. Healthcare Cost Savings Estimator Tool for Chronic Disease Self-Management Program: A New Tool for Program Administrators and Decision Makers

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, SangNam; Smith, Matthew Lee; Altpeter, Mary; Post, Lindsey; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease self-management education (CDSME) programs have been delivered to more than 100,000 older Americans with chronic conditions. As one of the Stanford suite of evidence-based CDSME programs, the chronic disease self-management program (CDSMP) has been disseminated in diverse populations and settings. The objective of this paper is to introduce a practical, universally applicable tool to assist program administrators and decision makers plan implementation efforts and make the case for continued program delivery. This tool was developed utilizing data from a recent National Study of CDSMP to estimate national savings associated with program participation. Potential annual healthcare savings per CDSMP participant were calculated based on averted emergency room visits and hospitalizations. While national data can be utilized to estimate cost savings, the tool has built-in features allowing users to tailor calculations based on their site-specific data. Building upon the National Study of CDSMP’s documented potential savings of $3.3 billion in healthcare costs by reaching 5% of adults with one or more chronic conditions, two heuristic case examples were also explored based on different population projections. The case examples show how a small county and large metropolitan city were not only able to estimate healthcare savings ($38,803 for the small county; $732,290 for the large metropolitan city) for their existing participant populations but also to project significant healthcare savings if they plan to reach higher proportions of middle-aged and older adults. Having a tool to demonstrate the monetary value of CDSMP can contribute to the ongoing dissemination and sustainability of such community-based interventions. Next steps will be creating a user-friendly, internet-based version of Healthcare Cost Savings Estimator Tool: CDSMP, followed by broadening the tool to consider cost savings for other evidence-based programs. PMID:25964946

  3. Understanding and Addressing Vulnerability Following the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: Applying a Feminist Lens to Examine Perspectives of Haitian and Expatriate Health Care Providers and Decision-Makers

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ryoa; Rochon, Christiane; Hunt, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability is a central concept in humanitarian aid. Discussions of vulnerability in disaster response literature and guidelines for humanitarian aid range from considerations of a universal human vulnerability, to more nuanced examinations of how particular characteristics render individuals more or less at risk. Despite its frequent use, there is a lack of clarity about how vulnerability is conceptualized and how it informs operational priorities in humanitarian assistance. Guided by interpretive description methodology, we draw on the feminist taxonomy of vulnerability presented by Mackenzie, Rogers and Dodds (2014) to examine perspectives of 24 expatriate and Haitian decision-makers and health professionals interviewed between May 2012 and March 2013. The analysis explores concepts of vulnerability and equity in relation to the humanitarian response following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Participants’ conceptualizations of vulnerability included consideration for inherent vulnerabilities related to individual characteristics (e.g. being a woman or disabled) and situational vulnerabilities related to particular circumstances such as having less access to health care resources or basic necessities. Participants recognized that vulnerabilities could be exacerbated by socio-political structures but felt ill-equipped to address these. The use of the taxonomy and a set of questions inspired by Hurst’s (2008) approach to identifying and reducing vulnerability can guide the analysis of varied sources of vulnerability and open discussions about how and by whom vulnerabilities should be addressed in humanitarian responses. More research is required to inform how humanitarian responders could balance addressing acute vulnerability with consideration of systemic and pre-existing circumstances that underlie much of the vulnerability experienced following an acute disaster.

  4. Benchmarking Collaborative Inter and Intra-agency Enhancements to a Decision Support System for Global Crop Production Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, C. F.; van Leeuwen, W.; Doorn, B.; Drake, S.; Haithcoat, T.; Kaupp, V.; Likholetov, V.; Sheffner, E.; Tralli, D.

    2008-12-01

    , (2) accommodates scientific, operational and architectural dynamics, and (3) facilitates transfer of knowledge among researchers, management, and decision makers, as well as among decision making agencies.

  5. 45 CFR 1303.23 - Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Decision on appeal in favor of the current or... CURRENT OR PROSPECTIVE DELEGATE AGENCIES Appeals by Current or Prospective Delegate Agencies § 1303.23 Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency. (a) The responsible HHS...

  6. 45 CFR 1303.23 - Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Decision on appeal in favor of the current or... CURRENT OR PROSPECTIVE DELEGATE AGENCIES Appeals by Current or Prospective Delegate Agencies § 1303.23 Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency. (a) The responsible HHS...

  7. 45 CFR 1303.23 - Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Decision on appeal in favor of the current or... CURRENT OR PROSPECTIVE DELEGATE AGENCIES Appeals by Current or Prospective Delegate Agencies § 1303.23 Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency. (a) The responsible HHS...

  8. 45 CFR 1303.23 - Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision on appeal in favor of the current or... CURRENT OR PROSPECTIVE DELEGATE AGENCIES Appeals by Current or Prospective Delegate Agencies § 1303.23 Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency. (a) The responsible HHS...

  9. 45 CFR 1303.23 - Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Decision on appeal in favor of the current or... CURRENT OR PROSPECTIVE DELEGATE AGENCIES Appeals by Current or Prospective Delegate Agencies § 1303.23 Decision on appeal in favor of the current or prospective delegate agency. (a) The responsible HHS...

  10. The effect of statutory limitations on the authority of substitute decision makers on the care of patients in the intensive care unit: case examples and review of state laws affecting withdrawing or withholding life-sustaining treatment.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Becker, Julianna

    2014-01-01

    While the ethics and critical care literature is replete with discussion of medical futility and the ethics of end-of-life care decisions in the intensive care unit, little attention is paid to the effect of statutory limitations on the authority of substitute decision makers during the course of treatment of patients in the critical care setting. In many jurisdictions, a clear distinction is made between the authority of a health care power of attorney, who is legally designated by a competent adult to make decisions regarding withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, and of next-of-kin, who are limited in this regard. However, next-of-kin are often relied upon to consent to necessary procedures to advance a patient's medical care. When conflicts arise between critical care physicians and family members regarding projected patient outcome and functional status, these statutory limitations on decision-making authority by next of kin can cause paralysis in the medical care of severely ill patients, leading to practical and ethical impasses. In this article, we will provide case examples of how statutory limitations on substitute decision making authority for next of kin can impede the care of patients. We will also review the varying jurisdictional limitations on the authority of substitute decision makers and explore their implications for patient care in the critical care setting. Finally, we will review possible ethical and legal solutions to resolve these impasses. PMID:22257784

  11. Incorporating Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Seasonal Crop Scenarios over the Greater Horn of Africa to Support National/Regional/Local Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) provides seasonal assessments of crop conditions over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and other food insecure regions. These assessments and current livelihood, nutrition, market conditions and conflicts are used to generate food security scenarios that help national, regional and local decision makers target their resources and mitigate socio-economic losses. Among the various tools that FEWS NET uses is the FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI). The WRSI is a simple yet powerful crop assessment model that incorporates current moisture conditions (at the time of the issuance of forecast), precipitation scenarios, potential evapotranspiration and crop parameters to categorize crop conditions into different classes ranging from "failure" to "very good". The WRSI tool has been shown to have a good agreement with local crop yields in the GHA region. At present, the precipitation scenarios used to drive the WRSI are based on either a climatological forecast (that assigns equal chances of occurrence to all possible scenarios and has no skill over the forecast period) or a sea-surface temperature anomaly based scenario (which at best have skill at the seasonal scale). In both cases, the scenarios fail to capture the skill that can be attained by initial atmospheric conditions (i.e., medium-range weather forecasts). During the middle of a cropping season, when a week or two of poor rains can have a devastating effect, two weeks worth of skillful precipitation forecasts could improve the skill of the crop scenarios. With this working hypothesis, we examine the value of incorporating medium-range weather forecasts in improving the skill of crop scenarios in the GHA region. We use the NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast system (GEFS) weather forecasts and examine the skill of crop scenarios generated using the GEFS weather forecasts with respect to the scenarios based solely on the climatological forecast

  12. Ensemble-based analysis of Front Range severe convection on 6-7 June 2012: Forecast uncertainty and communication of weather information to Front Range decision-makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincente, Vanessa

    -allowing ensemble also showed greater skill in forecasting heavy precipitation amounts in the vicinity of where they were observed during the most active convective period, particularly near urbanized areas. A total of 9 Front Range EMs were interviewed to research how they understood hazardous weather information, and how their perception of forecast uncertainty would influence their decision making following a heavy rain event. Many of the EMs use situational awareness and past experiences with major weather events to guide their emergency planning. They also highly valued their relationship with the National Weather Service to improve their understanding of weather forecasts and ask questions about the uncertainties. Most of the EMs perceived forecast uncertainty in terms of probability and with the understanding that forecasting the weather is an imprecise science. The greater the likelihood of occurrence (implied by a higher probability of precipitation) showed greater confidence in the forecast that an event was likely to happen. Five probabilistic forecast products were generated from the convection-allowing ensemble output to generate a hypothetical warm season heavy rain event scenario. Responses varied between the EMs in which products they found most practical or least useful. Most EMs believed that there was a high probability for flooding, as illustrated by the degree of forecasted precipitation intensity. Most confirmed perceiving uncertainty in the different forecast representations, sharing the idea that there is an inherent uncertainty that follows modeled forecasts. The long-term goal of this research is to develop and add reliable probabilistic forecast products to the "toolbox" of decision-makers to help them better assess hazardous weather information and improve warning notifications and response.

  13. 22 CFR 103.8 - Final agency decision after administrative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final agency decision after administrative proceedings. 103.8 Section 103.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION AND THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS...

  14. 22 CFR 103.8 - Final agency decision after administrative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final agency decision after administrative proceedings. 103.8 Section 103.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION AND THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS...

  15. Examining the Relationship between Online Travel Agency Information and Traveler Destination Transaction Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerby, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the role that available Online Travel Agency (OTA) destination information may have on a traveler's perceptions and intent in transaction decisions with that respective OTA. Specifically, this research examined a pleasure traveler's transaction perceptions and intentions with an OTA…

  16. 7 CFR 249.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 249.16 Section 249.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  17. 7 CFR 248.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 248.16 Section 248.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION...

  18. 7 CFR 248.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 248.16 Section 248.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION...

  19. 7 CFR 248.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 248.16 Section 248.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION...

  20. 7 CFR 248.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 248.16 Section 248.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION...

  1. 7 CFR 249.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 249.16 Section 249.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  2. 7 CFR 248.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 248.16 Section 248.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION...

  3. 7 CFR 249.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 249.16 Section 249.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  4. Subjective Variables Affecting Funding Decisions by Federal Research & Development Agencies: The Grantsmanship Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapek, Raymond A.

    1984-01-01

    There are many misconceptions about how funding decisions are made within federal agencies. Observations of how bias creeps into an otherwise objective evaluation process are presented, and hints are offered on improving the probability of receiving federal support. (Author/MLW)

  5. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring...

  6. 34 CFR 370.14 - How does a designated agency appeal a written decision to redesignate?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the Secretary will be determined in a manner consistent with the requirements of 34 CFR 81.12. (c... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How does a designated agency appeal a written decision to redesignate? 370.14 Section 370.14 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...

  7. Radiological emergency response for community agencies with cognitive task analysis, risk analysis, and decision support framework.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Travis S; Muething, Joseph Z; Lima, Gustavo Amoras Souza; Torres, Breno Raemy Rangel; del Rosario, Trystyn Keia; Gomes, José Orlando; Lambert, James H

    2012-01-01

    Radiological nuclear emergency responders must be able to coordinate evacuation and relief efforts following the release of radioactive material into populated areas. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a nuclear emergency, high-level coordination is needed between a number of large, independent organizations, including police, military, hazmat, and transportation authorities. Given the complexity, scale, time-pressure, and potential negative consequences inherent in radiological emergency responses, tracking and communicating information that will assist decision makers during a crisis is crucial. The emergency response team at the Angra dos Reis nuclear power facility, located outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, presently conducts emergency response simulations once every two years to prepare organizational leaders for real-life emergency situations. However, current exercises are conducted without the aid of electronic or software tools, resulting in possible cognitive overload and delays in decision-making. This paper describes the development of a decision support system employing systems methodologies, including cognitive task analysis and human-machine interface design. The decision support system can aid the coordination team by automating cognitive functions and improving information sharing. A prototype of the design will be evaluated by plant officials in Brazil and incorporated to a future trial run of a response simulation. PMID:22317163

  8. Providing Climate Policy Makers With a Strong Scientific Base (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, E.

    2009-12-01

    Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.

  9. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers

    PubMed Central

    Kimmel, Allison L.; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered Advance Care Planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18-month post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS. PMID:26044463

  10. 41 CFR 102-117.300 - Do the decisions on temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency? 102-117.300 Section 102-117.300 Public...) Performance § 102-117.300 Do the decisions on temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency? (a) Temporary nonuse does not go beyond the agency. (b) GSA compiles and maintains a current list...

  11. TAC-maker: Transit Analytical Curve maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Vladev, A.; Yotov, V.

    2013-03-01

    TAC-maker allows for rapid and interactive calculation of synthetic planet transits by numerical computations of the integrals, allowing the use of an arbitrary limb-darkening law of the host star. This advantage together with the practically arbitrary precision of the calculations makes the code a valuable tool for the continuously increasing photometric precision of ground-based and space observations.

  12. Moral Hypocrisy on the Basis of Construal Level: To Be a Utilitarian Personal Decision Maker or to Be a Moral Advisor?

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei; Wu, Qing; Yang, Qun; Zhou, Liang; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Jiaxi; Miao, Danmin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-01-01

    Background People encounter various moral issues that involve making decisions for others by giving advice. Objective This study investigated the characteristics of providing suggestions for oneself versus providing suggestions for others in ethical decision-making and the differences between them based on Construal Level Theory (CLT). Methods A total of 768 undergraduate students from three universities in China were randomly assigned to eight groups on the basis of a grid of two Construal Levels (self or others) by two different numbers of people saved (5 people or 15 people) by two problem situations (trolley problem vs. footbridge problem). The investigation examined participants’ decisions to opt to take action or refrain from action that would have the consequence of saving more people. Results The main effects of Construal Level (F1, 752 = 6.46, p = .011), saving number (F1, 752 = 35.81, p < .001), and problem situation type (F1, 752 = 330.55, p < .001) were all significant. The interaction of the problem situation and saving number (F1, 752 = 1.01, p = .31), and social distance and saving number (F1, 752 = 0.85, p = .36), and interaction of the three independent factors (F1, 752 = 0.47, p = .49) were not significant. However, the interaction of social distance and problem situation (F1, 752 = 9.46, p = .002) was significant. Results indicated the participants utilized a component of utilitarian reasoning in the decision-making, and their behaviors appeared more utilitarian at low Construal Levels (CLs) compared to high. Conclusion CLs, saving numbers, and problem situation significantly affected moral decision-making and exhibited significant interaction. Making decisions for oneself (low-construal) rather than giving advice to others (high-construal) was one important factor that determined whether the people were utilitarian or not. Utilitarian considerations are more relevant in impersonal dilemmas. PMID:25689521

  13. Which factors may determine the necessary and feasible type of effectiveness evidence? A mixed methods approach to develop an instrument to help coverage decision-makers

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Saskia; Rijnsburger, Adriana J; Versteegh, Matthijs M; Heymans, Juanita M; Kleijnen, Sarah; Redekop, W Ken; Verstijnen, Ilse M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Reimbursement decisions require evidence of effectiveness and, in general, a blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT) is the preferred study design to provide it. However, there are situations where a cohort study, or even patient series, can be deemed acceptable. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument that first examines which study characteristics of a blinded RCT are necessary, and then, if particular characteristics are considered necessary, examines whether these characteristics are feasible. Design We retrospectively studied 22 interventions from 20 reimbursement reports concerning medical specialist care made by the Dutch National Health Care Institute (ZIN) to identify any factors that influenced the necessity and feasibility of blinded RCTs, and their constituent study characteristics, that is, blinding, randomisation and a control group. A literature review was performed to identify additional factors. Additional expertise was included by interviewing eight experts in epidemiology, medicine and ethics. The resulting instrument was called the FIT instrument (Feasible Information Trajectory), and was prospectively validated using three consecutive reimbursement reports. Results (Blinded) RCT evidence was lacking in 5 of 11 positive reimbursement decisions and 3 of 11 negative decisions. In the reimbursement reports, we found no empirical evidence supporting situations where a blinded RCT is unnecessary. The literature also revealed few arguments against the necessity of a blinded RCT. In contrast, many factors influencing the feasibility of randomisation, a control group and blinding, were found in the reimbursement reports and the literature; for example, when a patient population is too small or when an intervention is common practice, randomisation will be hindered. Conclusions Policy regarding the necessity and feasibility of different types of evidence of effectiveness would benefit from systematic guidance. The FIT instrument

  14. Linking stakeholders and decision makers with science in managing the coastal water environment: case studies from urban, industrial and rural subtropical catchments in Australia.

    PubMed

    Fearon, R

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of stakeholder participation and effective dialogue processes vary markedly between and within catchment areas. Decision support tools and conflict resolution skills are essential in developing consensus in complex and conflicting issues. Undertaking relevant research requires genuine inclusion of all stakeholders at all stages of the process including development and implementation of management plans. Providing a scientifically integrated and participative approach increases the ability to understand the social and economic dimensions. PMID:12731789

  15. Citizen participation in the decision-making activities of formal social service agencies: an unreasonable goal?

    PubMed

    Cohen, M W

    1976-01-01

    In the past, attempts by social service agencies to include nonprofessional area residents in program planning and policy-making activities have met with little success. Such failures may be due in part to mistrust and a feeling that the agencies and their programs have little relevance to the problems faced by most people. Perhaps an alternative way of developing resident participation in community action programs would be to move the planning and decision-making process away from the trained experts associated with formal institutions to the residents within the neighborhoods themselves. The people living within a defined community would decide which problems they wish to address, and then use resources available within the community to solve them. PMID:1000929

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.495 - May my agency appeal a decision by the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals (CBCA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Information for All Claims § 102-118.495 May my agency appeal a decision by the Civilian Board of Contract... decision by the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals (CBCA)? 102-118.495 Section 102-118.495 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  17. Toward systematic reviews to understand the determinants of wait time management success to help decision-makers and managers better manage wait times

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long waits for core specialized services have consistently been identified as a key barrier to access. Governments and organizations at all levels have responded with strategies for better wait list management. While these initiatives are promising, insufficient attention has been paid to factors influencing the implementation and sustainability of wait time management strategies (WTMS) implemented at the organizational level. Methods A systematic review was conducted using the main electronic databases, such as CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, to identify articles published between 1990 and 2011 on WTMS for scheduled care implemented at the organizational level or higher and on frameworks for analyzing factors influencing their success. Data was extracted on governance, culture, resources, and tools. We organized a workshop with Canadian healthcare policy-makers and managers to compare our initial findings with their experience. Results Our systematic review included 47 articles: 36 related to implementation and 11 to sustainability. From these, we identified a variety of WTMS initiated at the organizational level or higher, and within these, certain factors that were specific to either implementation or sustainability and others common to both. The main common factors influencing success at the contextual level were stakeholder engagement and strong funding, and at the organizational level, physician involvement, human resources capacity, and information management systems. Specific factors for successful implementation at the contextual level were consultation with front-line actors and common standards and guidelines, and at the organizational level, financial incentives and dedicated staffing. For sustainability, we found no new factors. The workshop participants identified the same major factors as found in the articles and added others, such as information sharing between physicians and managers. Conclusions Factors

  18. MakerBot

    NASA Video Gallery

    Langley’s new Personal Fabrication Laboratory now has a MakerBot. In this video, the 3D printer is making a space shuttle out of glow-in-the-dark plastic material. In real-time, the process took...

  19. "Good idea but not feasible" – the views of decision makers and stakeholders towards strategies for better palliative care in Germany: a representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Lueckmann, Sara Lena; Behmann, Mareike; Bisson, Susanne; Schneider, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Background Statements on potential measures to improve palliative care in Germany predominantly reflect the points of view of experts from specialized palliative care organizations. By contrast, relatively little is known about the views of representatives of organizations and institutions that do not explicitly specialize in palliative care, but are involved to a relevant extent in the decision-making and policy-making processes. Therefore, for the first time in Germany, we carried out a representative study of the attitudes of a broad range of different stakeholders acting at the national or state level of the health care system. Methods 442 organizations and institutions were included and grouped as follows: patient organizations, nursing organizations, medical associations, specialized palliative care organizations, political institutions, health insurance funds and others. Using a standardized questionnaire, the participants were asked to rate their agreement with the World Health Organization's definition of palliative care (five-point scale: 1 = completely agree, 5 = completely disagree) and to evaluate 18 pre-selected improvement measures with regard to their general meaningfulness and the feasibility of their introduction into the German health care system (two-point scale: 1 = good, 2 = poor). Results The response rate was 67%. Overall, the acceptance of the aims of palliative care in the WHO definition was strong. However, the level of agreement among health insurance funds' representatives was significantly less than that among representatives of the palliative care organizations. All the improvement measures selected for evaluation were rated significantly higher in respect of their meaningfulness than of their feasibility in Germany. In detail, the meaningfulness of 16 measures was evaluated positively (70–100% participants chose the answer "good"); for six of these measures feasibility was evaluated negatively (0–30% "good"), while for the

  20. A Business Casebook for Young Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedesco, Paul H., Ed.; And Others

    Ten case studies taken from the business world are presented to help secondary school students develop a realistic understanding of economic problems. Discussion of the cases can be integrated into economics or social studies programs. By studying concrete examples of business reacting to changing economic conditions, students should learn to…

  1. Evaluation Bibliography: Parent, Child Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill. Technical Assistance Development System.

    This annotated bibliography of tests for children and parents covers tests for children age 0-6 months, 6-12 months, 12-24 months, 24-36 months, 36-48 months, and 48 months and up. The tests measure one or more of the following dimensions: language, cognition, self-help, social-affective, visual-motor, or physical health. The nine tests for…

  2. Development Decision-Makers' Perspectives of Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, John L.

    Presented to a United Nations seminar on the role of information in the development of emerging nations, this document presents effective communication as the achievement of results--a change in attitude, practice, and knowledge. Elements of the SMCRE (sender-message-channel-receiver-effect) communications model are used in analyzing communication…

  3. 32 CFR 2003.13 - Appeals of agency decisions denying declassification under mandatory review provisions in section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appeals of agency decisions denying declassification under mandatory review provisions in section 3.5 of the Order. 2003.13 Section 2003.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  4. 32 CFR 2003.11 - Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order. 2003.11 Section 2003.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY...

  5. 32 CFR 2003.11 - Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order. 2003.11 Section 2003.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY...

  6. 32 CFR 2003.13 - Appeals of agency decisions denying declassification under mandatory review provisions in section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appeals of agency decisions denying declassification under mandatory review provisions in section 3.5 of the Order. 2003.13 Section 2003.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  7. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that...

  8. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that...

  9. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that...

  10. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that...

  11. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that...

  12. Agency Decision-Making Control and Employment Outcomes by Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Bernard A.; Kwan, Ngai; Boeltzig-Brown, Heike; Haines, Kelly; Halliday, John; Foley, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We hypothesized that consumers who are blind or visually impaired (that is, those who have low vision) who were served by state vocational rehabilitation agencies with decision-making control over administrative functions would experience better vocational rehabilitation outcomes than consumers served by vocational rehabilitation…

  13. Genome Annotation and Curation Using MAKER and MAKER-P

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael S.; Holt, Carson; Moore, Barry; Yandell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes how to use the genome annotation and curation tools MAKER and MAKER-P to annotate protein coding and non-coding RNA genes in newly assembled genomes, update/combine legacy annotations in light of new evidence, add quality metrics to annotations from other pipelines, and map existing annotations to a new assembly. MAKER and MAKER-P can rapidly annotate genomes of any size, and scale to match available computational resources. PMID:25501943

  14. Engaging with Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, R.; Miller, S.; Heward, A.

    2011-10-01

    The need to engage with Europe's policy makers is more crucial now than ever. MEPs' understanding of the contribution and importance of planetary science to European research, industry, culture, education and job-creation may have major implications for both the direction of research and future funding for Europe's planetary science community. The mid-term review of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress and these discussions will feed into the drafting of Framework Eight. With space-going nations around the world redefining priorities, Europe may have an opportunity to take a lead in planetology on a global scale. This should be taken into account when considering planetology within the frameworks of the European Space Policy. This panel discussion, hosted by Dr Robert Massey, Deputy Executive of the Royal Astronomical Session, will look at engaging with policy makers from the point of view of those working in the European Parliament, European Commission, industry, as well as the planetary community.

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.485 - Is there a time limit for my agency to issue a decision on disputed claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Information for All Claims § 102-118.485 Is there a time limit for my agency to issue a decision on disputed... for my agency to issue a decision on disputed claims? 102-118.485 Section 102-118.485 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL...

  16. 40 CFR 164.4 - Arrangements for examining Agency records, transcripts, orders, and decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Presiding Officer shall be made available to the public. (b) Establishment of an Agency repository... inspections during Agency business hours. (c) Whenever any information or data is required to be produced...

  17. 40 CFR 164.4 - Arrangements for examining Agency records, transcripts, orders, and decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Presiding Officer shall be made available to the public. (b) Establishment of an Agency repository... inspections during Agency business hours. (c) Whenever any information or data is required to be produced...

  18. The Diamond Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1999-08-01

    Since time immemorial, we have treasured diamonds for their exquisite beauty and unrivaled hardness. Yet, most of the earth's diamonds lie deep underground and totally unaccessible to us--if only we knew how to fabricate them! In The Diamond Makers Robert Hazen vividly recounts the very human desire to exceed nature and create a synthetic diamond. Spanning centuries of ground-breaking science, instances of bitter rivalry, cases of outright fraud and self-delusion, Hazen blends drama and science to reveal the extraordinary technological advances and devastating failures of the diamond industry. Along the way, readers will be introduced to the brilliant, often eccentric and controversial, pioneers of high-pressure research who have harnessed crushing pressures and scorching temperatures to transform almost any carbon-rich material, from road tar to peanut butter, into the most prized of all gems. Robert M. Hazen is the author of fifteen books, including the bestseller, Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy, which he wrote with James Trefil. Dr. Hazen has won numerous awards for his research and scientific writing.

  19. A Leadership Decision-Making Model for the Program Development and Management of Adult Education Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sample, John A.

    1985-01-01

    Addresses the issue of participation in the development and management of programs for adult learners. The Vroom and Yetton model of leadership decision making, a contingency approach that utilizes a range of decision styles, is described through various case examples. (CT)

  20. Agency and Female Teachers' Career Decisions: A Life History Study of 40 Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on some of the findings of a wider, life history study on the factors affecting the career decisions of 40 female secondary school teachers in England. By using life history interviews, it was possible to gain rich and nuanced insights into the complexity of factors influencing women's career decisions. While acknowledging the…

  1. 22 CFR 103.8 - Final agency decision after administrative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Executive Director of the Office of the Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State, 2201 C Street, N.W., Room..., that decision and order of the Secretary shall become the final decision and order of the United States... REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION AND......

  2. 22 CFR 103.8 - Final agency decision after administrative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Executive Director of the Office of the Legal Adviser, U.S. Department of State, 2201 C Street, N.W., Room..., that decision and order of the Secretary shall become the final decision and order of the United States... REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION AND......

  3. Difficult action decisions reduce the sense of agency: A study using the Eriksen flanker task.

    PubMed

    Sidarus, Nura; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    The sense of agency refers to the feeling that we are in control of our actions and, through them, of events in the outside world. Much research has focused on the importance of retrospectively matching predicted and actual action outcomes for a strong sense of agency. Yet, recent studies have revealed that a metacognitive signal about the fluency of action selection can prospectively inform our sense of agency. Fluent, or easy, action selection leads to a stronger sense of agency over action outcomes than dysfluent, or difficult, selection. Since these studies used subliminal priming to manipulate action selection, it remained unclear whether supraliminal stimuli affecting action selection would have similar effects. We used supraliminal flankers to manipulate action selection in response to a central target. Experiment 1 revealed that conflict in action selection, induced by incongruent flankers and targets, led to reduced agency ratings over an outcome that followed the participant's response, relative to neutral and congruent flanking conditions. Experiment 2 replicated this result, and extended it to free choice between alternative actions. Finally, Experiment 3 varied the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between flankers and target. Action selection performance varied with SOA. Agency ratings were always lower in incongruent than congruent trials, and this effect did not vary across SOAs. Sense of agency is influenced by a signal that tracks conflict in action selection, regardless of the visibility of stimuli inducing conflict, and even when the timing of the stimuli means that the conflict may not affect performance. PMID:27017411

  4. Psychologist as Policy-Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saks, Michael J.

    Perhaps the most effective way to increase the utilization of behavioral science knowledge by policy-makers is for the behavioral scientist to become one. The psychologist who serves as a policy-maker becomes aware of the policy issues in addition to relevant empirical evidence. The author, a psychologist, relates his experience as a member of a…

  5. Use of social science-based analysis in bureaucratic decision making: regulatory analysis in the Environmental Protection Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Mogee, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation studies the use of regulatory analysis (a form of cost-benefit analysis) in Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) decision making. It addresses the questions of how the analysis was used, what influence it had on the regulations, and what the major factors were that affected its use. Case studies were conducted of six EPA rule makings during the period 1978 to 1980, including: Premanufacture Notification under TSCA Section 5; the Carbon Monoxide National Ambient Air Quality Standard; Visibility Protection; Light-Duty Truck gaseous emissions; effluent guidelines for Timber Products industries; and Motorcycle Noise standards. Data for the cases came from official documents and interviews with EPA participants. Regulatory analysis was used in EPA regulation development in six ways: in decision making, to support or legitimate, in intra-agency partisan negotiations, to review or exercise quality control, to describe or educate, and in external relations. The influence of the analysis on the regulations in these cases varied from almost none to moderately high. Even in those cases where the analysis was used in decision making and had relatively high influence, however, it was only one of many factors affecting the regulation. The major factors found to affect the use of regulatory analysis, in addition to the overall context set by EPA's regulation development process, were: the statute; program considerations; the existence of a tradition of economic analysis; the structure and quality of the analysis itself; the timing of the analysis with respect to the rule making; and scientific, technical, and implementation uncertainties.

  6. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  7. The influence of differential response on decision-making in child protective service agencies.

    PubMed

    Janczewski, Colleen E

    2015-01-01

    Differential response (DR) profoundly changes the decision pathways of public child welfare systems, yet little is known about how DR shapes the experiences of children whose reports receive an investigation rather than an alternate response. Using data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), this study examined the relationship between DR implementation and decision outcomes in neglect cases, as measured by investigation, substantiation, and removal rates in 297 U.S. counties. Multivariate regression models included county-level measures of child poverty and proportions of African American children. Path analyses were also conducted to identify mediating effects of prior decision points and moderating effects of DR on poverty and race's influence on decision outcomes. Results indicate that compared to non-DR counties, those implementing DR have significantly lower investigation and substantiation rates within county populations but higher substantiation rates among investigated cases. Regression models showed significant reductions in removal rates associated with DR implementation, but these effects became insignificant in path models that accounted for mediation effects of previous decision points. Findings also suggest that DR implementation may reduce the positive association between child poverty rates and investigation rates, but additional studies with larger samples are needed to confirm this moderation effect. Two methods of calculating decision outcomes, population- and decision-based enumeration, were used, and policy and research implications of each are discussed. This study demonstrates that despite their inherit complexity, large administrative datasets such as NCANDS can be used to assess the impact of wide-scale system change across jurisdictions. PMID:25035173

  8. Climate Change Boot Camps: Targeting Policy Makers and Outreach Trainers in Arizona to Improve Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Guido, Z. S.; Buizer, J.; Roy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Bringing climate change issues into focus for decision makers is a growing challenge. Decision makers are often confronted with unique informational needs, a lack of useable information, and needs for customized climate change training, among other issues. Despite significant progress in improving climate literacy among certain stakeholders such as water managers, recent reports have highlighted the growing demand for climate-change information in regions and sectors across the US. In recent years many ventures have sprung up to address these gaps and have predominantly focused on K-12 education and resource management agencies such as the National Park Service and National Weather Service. However, two groups that are critical for integrating climate information into actions have received less attention: (1) policy makers and (2) outreach experts, such as Cooperative Extension agents. Climate Change Boot Camps (CCBC) is a joint effort between the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS)—a NOAA Regionally Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) program—and researchers at Arizona State University to diagnose climate literacy and training gaps in Arizona and develop a process that converts these deficiencies into actionable knowledge among the two aforementioned groups. This presentation will highlight the initial phases of the CCBC process, which has as its outcomes the identification of effective strategies for reaching legislators, climate literacy and training needs for both policy makers and trainers, and effective metrics to evaluate the success of these efforts. Specific attention is given to evaluating the process from initial needs assessment to the effectiveness of the workshops. Web curriculum and training models made available on the internet will also be developed, drawing on extensive existing Web resources for other training efforts and converted to meet the needs of these two groups. CCBC will also leverage CLIMAS’ long history of

  9. Increasing the scale and adoption of population health interventions: experiences and perspectives of policy makers, practitioners, and researchers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Decisions to scale up population health interventions from small projects to wider state or national implementation is fundamental to maximising population-wide health improvements. The objectives of this study were to examine: i) how decisions to scale up interventions are currently made in practice; ii) the role that evidence plays in informing decisions to scale up interventions; and iii) the role policy makers, practitioners, and researchers play in this process. Methods Interviews with an expert panel of senior Australian and international public health policy-makers (n = 7), practitioners (n = 7), and researchers (n = 7) were conducted in May 2013 with a participation rate of 84%. Results Scaling up decisions were generally made through iterative processes and led by policy makers and/or practitioners, but ultimately approved by political leaders and/or senior executives of funding agencies. Research evidence formed a component of the overall set of information used in decision-making, but its contribution was limited by the paucity of relevant intervention effectiveness research, and data on costs and cost effectiveness. Policy makers, practitioners/service managers, and researchers had different, but complementary roles to play in the process of scaling up interventions. Conclusions This analysis articulates the processes of how decisions to scale up interventions are made, the roles of evidence, and contribution of different professional groups. More intervention research that includes data on the effectiveness, reach, and costs of operating at scale and key service delivery issues (including acceptability and fit of interventions and delivery models) should be sought as this has the potential to substantially advance the relevance and ultimately usability of research evidence for scaling up population health action. PMID:24735455

  10. 34 CFR 602.28 - Regard for decisions of States and other accrediting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE SECRETARY'S RECOGNITION OF ACCREDITING AGENCIES The Criteria for Recognition Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.28 Regard... cause to know, that the institution is the subject of— (1) A pending or final action brought by a...

  11. 34 CFR 602.28 - Regard for decisions of States and other accrediting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE SECRETARY'S RECOGNITION OF ACCREDITING AGENCIES The Criteria for Recognition Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.28 Regard... cause to know, that the institution is the subject of— (1) A pending or final action brought by a...

  12. 34 CFR 602.28 - Regard for decisions of States and other accrediting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE SECRETARY'S RECOGNITION OF ACCREDITING AGENCIES The Criteria for Recognition Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.28 Regard... cause to know, that the institution is the subject of— (1) A pending or final action brought by a...

  13. 34 CFR 602.28 - Regard for decisions of States and other accrediting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE SECRETARY'S RECOGNITION OF ACCREDITING AGENCIES The Criteria for Recognition Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.28 Regard... cause to know, that the institution is the subject of— (1) A pending or final action brought by a...

  14. 34 CFR 602.28 - Regard for decisions of States and other accrediting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION THE SECRETARY'S RECOGNITION OF ACCREDITING AGENCIES The Criteria for Recognition Required Operating Policies and Procedures § 602.28 Regard... cause to know, that the institution is the subject of— (1) A pending or final action brought by a...

  15. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  16. The Maker Movement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Erica Rosenfeld; Sheridan, Kimberly M.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay, Erica Halverson and Kimberly Sheridan provide the context for research on the maker movement as they consider the emerging role of making in education. The authors describe the theoretical roots of the movement and draw connections to related research on formal and informal education. They present points of tension between making…

  17. Film Makers On Film Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    This collection includes essays by and interviews with more than 30 film-makers, both classic and contemporary, on the subjects of their major interests and procedures in making films. The directors are: Louis Lumiere, Cecil Hepworth, Edwin S. Porter, Mack Sennett, David W. Griffith, Robert Flaherty, Charles Chaplin, Eric von Stroheim, Dziga…

  18. Geomorphological Scientific Information for Agency Decision-Making in the Coastal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psuty, N. P.; Silveira, T.

    2010-12-01

    All coasts are undergoing change and the challenge is to establish dimensions of the change and to use the information to create informed decision-making. In the northeastern region of the US, the National Park Service (NPS) and the US Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) have undertaken a monitoring program to rigorously gather coastal geomorphological data in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D formats according to newly-created protocols (Psuty, et al. 2010a; Psuty, et al., 2010b). The goal of the agencies’ thrust is to generate a matrix of measurements that can be compared through time and space, essentially providing an insight to sediment supply and sediment budget as a driver of coastal geomorphological evolution. At the core of the protocol is the seasonal systematic collection of shoreline position and coastal morphology for subsequent spatial and temporal trend analyses. Supplemental data gathering using the same protocol may also be applied to gather data on the impact of specific events (storms). In concert with the approach established in the USGS Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) (Thieler, et al., 2009), 1-D coastal changes are measured through the tracking of shoreline position in four National Parks and six Wildlife refuges in the Northeast. 2-D coastal changes are measured through the collection of beach profiles approximately every 1.5 km alongshore and tied to monuments that have XYZ geopositional accuracies of 1-3 cm that support feature-based and datum-based analyses. The profiles establish dimensions and displacements of the foredunes and berms. 3-D coastal changes are measured through the collection of topographic data sets that are presently collected in areas of special concern and are used to develop digital elevation models that provide measurements of volume changes as well as feature displacement in both feature and datum formats. The creation of the systematically-collected geomorphological data sets establishes the basis for management strategies

  19. Decision making, procedural compliance, and outcomes definition in U.S. forest service planning processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Marc J.; Predmore, S. Andrew

    2011-04-15

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) dictates a process of analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed agency actions on the human environment. This study addresses two key questions related to NEPA implementation in the U.S. Forest Service: 1) how do Interdisciplinary (ID) team leaders and decision makers conceptualize the outcomes of NEPA processes? And 2), how does NEPA relate to agency decision making? We address these questions through two separate online surveys that posed questions about recently completed NEPA processes - the first with the ID team leaders tasked with carrying out the processes, and the second with the line officers responsible for making the processes' final decisions. Outcomes of NEPA processes include impacts on public relations, on employee morale and team functioning, on the achievement of agency goals, and on the achievement of NEPA's procedural requirements (disclosure) and substantive intent (minimizing negative environmental impacts). Although both tended to view public relations outcomes as important, decision makers' perceptions of favorable outcomes were more closely linked to the achievement of agency goals and process efficiency than was the case for ID team leaders. While ID team leaders' responses suggest that they see decision making closely integrated with the NEPA process, decision makers more commonly decoupled decision making from the NEPA process. These findings suggest a philosophical difference between ID team leaders and decision makers that may pose challenges for both the implementation and the evaluation of agency NEPA. We discuss the pros and cons of integrating NEPA with decision making or separating the two. We conclude that detaching NEPA from decision making poses greater risks than integrating them.

  20. Evaluating and Terminating Existing Instructional Programs: The Controversial Role of Statewide Coordinating/Governing Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elizabeth H.

    Structures for governing and coordinating higher education are changing. However, the primary responsibility for education rests with the state. The coordinating agency, which occupies the middle-ground between the institutions and the political decision-makers, should have 5 minimum abilities: (1) to engage in continuous planning, both long-range…

  1. The Influence of Lived Experience with Addiction and Recovery on Practice-Related Decisions among Professionals Working in Addiction Agencies Serving Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Gabriela; Dobbins, Maureen; Jack, Susan M.; Sword, Wendy; Niccols, Alison; Brooks, Sandy; Henderson, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The study objectives were to: (1) understand the value attributed to the lived experience of addiction and recovery among professionals working in addiction agencies serving women in Canada and (2) describe how lived experience influence practice-related decision-making. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted with a…

  2. 5 CFR 892.103 - What can I do if I disagree with my agency's decision about my pre-or post-tax election?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What can I do if I disagree with my agency's decision about my pre-or post-tax election? 892.103 Section 892.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL...

  3. 5 CFR 892.103 - What can I do if I disagree with my agency's decision about my pre-or post-tax election?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What can I do if I disagree with my agency's decision about my pre-or post-tax election? 892.103 Section 892.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL...

  4. 5 CFR 892.103 - What can I do if I disagree with my agency's decision about my pre-or post-tax election?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What can I do if I disagree with my agency's decision about my pre-or post-tax election? 892.103 Section 892.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL...

  5. 5 CFR 892.103 - What can I do if I disagree with my agency's decision about my pre-or post-tax election?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What can I do if I disagree with my agency's decision about my pre-or post-tax election? 892.103 Section 892.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL...

  6. 5 CFR 892.103 - What can I do if I disagree with my agency's decision about my pre-or post-tax election?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What can I do if I disagree with my agency's decision about my pre-or post-tax election? 892.103 Section 892.103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL...

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-18

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95.

  8. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  9. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  10. Design-to-fabricate: maker hardware requires maker software.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Ryan; Ratto, Matt

    2013-01-01

    As a result of consumer-level 3D printers' increasing availability and affordability, the audience for 3D-design tools has grown considerably. However, current tools are ill-suited for these users. They have steep learning curves and don't take into account that the end goal is a physical object, not a digital model. A new class of "maker"-level design tools is needed to accompany this new commodity hardware. However, recent examples of such tools achieve accessibility primarily by constraining functionality. In contrast, the meshmixer project is building tools that provide accessibility and expressive power by leveraging recent computer graphics research in geometry processing. The project members have had positive experiences with several 3D-design-to-print workshops and are exploring several design-to-fabricate problems. This article is part of a special issue on 3D printing. PMID:24808128

  11. Pups in the Shark Tank: how marine studies graduates influence Washington's policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, A. J.; Conathan, M.; English, C. A.; Mace, A.; Meyer, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Since established in 1979, nearly 900 graduate students have been awarded a John A. Knauss Sea Grant Marine Policy Fellowship. Named after former Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Dean of Oceanography at University of Rhode Island, and one of the founders of Sea Grant, this annual fellowship places post-graduate degree students in offices within the executive and legislative branches of government to work on ocean policy issues in Washington, DC. Fellows serve as professional staff within their offices and work on a wide range of tasks including advising agency and Congressional leadership on marine science and policy issues, synthesizing scientific information for use in a decision making context, and overseeing enactment of legislation. Alumni are now infused into every level of the ocean world and play prominent roles in national and international marine policy development, acting in various venues ranging from NGO leaders to Congressional staff, academia to natural resource agency decision-makers. In fact, NOAA's current Chief of Staff is a former Knauss fellow. Here we describe this unique educational experience, lessons learned navigating ocean and climate issues at the science-policy interface, and how early career policy fellowships strengthen and catalyze the link between science and policy in a world where such connections are increasingly important.

  12. Understanding The Decision Context: DPSIR, Decision Landscape, And Social Network Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Establishing the decision context for a management problem is the critical first step for effective decision analysis. Understanding the decision context allow stakeholders and decision-makers to integrate the societal, environmental, and economic considerations that must be con...

  13. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or action... consider the appeal in accordance with 25 CFR 2.20 (c) through (e). Appeal procedures shall be as set...

  14. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or action... consider the appeal in accordance with 25 CFR 2.20 (c) through (e). Appeal procedures shall be as set...

  15. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or action... consider the appeal in accordance with 25 CFR 2.20 (c) through (e). Appeal procedures shall be as set...

  16. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or action... consider the appeal in accordance with 25 CFR 2.20 (c) through (e). Appeal procedures shall be as set...

  17. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or action... consider the appeal in accordance with 25 CFR 2.20 (c) through (e). Appeal procedures shall be as set...

  18. SuccessMaker[R]. WWC Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The SuccessMaker[R] program is a set of computer-based courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K-8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student's reading level, SuccessMaker[R] aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of…

  19. FUTURE DECISION-MAKERS: CHILDREN'S PERCEPTIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research will contribute to understanding the critical thinking, environmental awareness and problem-solving skills necessary to mitigate environmental challenges facing the next generation. In addition research involving children’s development of environmental concern w...

  20. Top Benefits Challenges Facing School Business Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohling, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    What's the main factor coloring employee satisfaction? Many organizations' leaders think the answer is salary, yet in reality, employee benefits packages are one of the biggest incentives an employer can offer. Educational institutions have done well in providing benefits to employees. However, with an unpredictable economic climate and a complex…

  1. A Pedagogy for Teachers and Other Educational Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Graham

    1980-01-01

    Using Pirsig's "Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance" as a basis, the author offers an alternative to deficit model programing (catch-up classes for "deficient" students) and posits an approach to problem solving that depends on dialog and interaction. (WD)

  2. Crossing disciplines to increase effective decision maker-scientist interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Despite increasing knowledge of how climate will continue to change, there remain substantial challenges in determining what actions to take to curb the anticipated loss of biodiversity. Scientists sometimes struggle to speak across disciplines, and managers are often treated as a repository of information rather than a partner in the scientific process. However, through integrative study and collaboration, resource managers can collaborate with physical and biological scientists to translate the latest science into strategies that conserve species in spite of climate change uncertainty. We highlight case studies of how scientists and managers are working together to manage forest ecosystems, songbirds, and cold-adapted fish species in the face of climate change. This work is a collaboration of postdoctoral researchers and graduate students funded through the Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center.

  3. Developing Tomorrow's Decision-Makers: Opportunities for Biotechnology Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Annette; Nichols, Kim; Kanasa, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Globally, science curricula have been described as outdated, and students perceive school science as lacking in relevance. Declines in senior secondary and tertiary student participation in science indicate an urgent need for change if we are to sustain future scientific research and development, and perhaps more importantly, to equip students…

  4. Online Data Bases. Reports to Decision Makers, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Jim; Holznagel, Don

    1984-01-01

    A well-designed online database system allows users to ask a computer to find only information that is relevant to their needs. A variety of databases exist, each specializing in a particular topic or type of information. Fulltext systems provide complete copies of such documents as news articles, research reports, and software evaluations.…

  5. Adopting an Electronic Portfolio System: Key Considerations for Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiedler, Rebecca L.; Pick, Dorothy

    2004-01-01

    The use of electronic portfolios for authentic student assessment is growing rapidly (Batson, 2002). Creating portfolios electronically offers a number of benefits not available using traditional paper-based portfolios. Advantages include the portability from one application or institution to another, wider accessibility of the portfolio, and the…

  6. DecisionMaker software and extracting fuzzy rules under uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Kevin B.

    1992-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition under uncertainty is examined. Theories proposed in deKorvin's paper 'Extracting Fuzzy Rules Under Uncertainty and Measuring Definability Using Rough Sets' are discussed as they relate to rule calculation algorithms. A data structure for holding an arbitrary number of data fields is described. Limitations of Pascal for loops in the generation of combinations are also discussed. Finally, recursive algorithms for generating all possible combination of attributes and for calculating the intersection of an arbitrary number of fuzzy sets are presented.

  7. FRESHWATER DECISION MAKERS' INFORMATION NEEDS: PHASE I REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SERDP COLLECTION, SERDP (STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM) This project was launched as a follow up to the Freshwater imperative, which was initiated in 1990. The project was developed as a three-phase effort to identify priority research issues based on t...

  8. How Do Decision-Makers Become Library Media Advocates?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzell, Gary

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes his path to library advocacy. It resulted from several youthful experiences, favorable professional associations, and an unexpected invitation shortly after he left K-12 education for the university. The author believes that it is a good idea to get more librarians to consider going into administration.…

  9. Commission decision on the Northern California Power Agency's Application for Certification for Geothermal Project No. 2. Docket 79-AFC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The text of the Decision is presented in narrative form. Included are: findings on compliance with statutory site certification requirements, a discussion of the Joint Environmental Study and its significance in terms of the California Environmental Quality and National Environmental Policy Acts, a brief recapitulation of the procedural steps which occurred, and a summary of the evidentiary bases for this Decision. Also presented are topical discussions on the various human and natural environmental areas impacted by the project, as well as the technical, engineering, and other areas of concern affected by the project. These topical discussions summarize the basis for the Commission's ultimte Findings and Conclusions pertaining to each broad cetegory. (MHR)

  10. Exploring the Effects of Managerial Ownership on the Decision to Go Private: A Behavioral Agency Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenti, Alix; Schneider, Marguerite

    2012-01-01

    This paper utilizes the behavioral agency model to investigate why many formerly public companies have been converted to privately held corporations. Using a matched pairs sample and categorical binary regression, and controlling for effects found in previous studies, we explore how the equity ownership of those entrusted to manage firms, the…

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.575 - If a TSP disagrees with the decision of my agency, can the TSP appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false If a TSP disagrees with... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT... TSP may also appeal to the GSA Audit Division if your agency has not responded to a challenge...

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.575 - If a TSP disagrees with the decision of my agency, can the TSP appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false If a TSP disagrees with... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT... TSP may also appeal to the GSA Audit Division if your agency has not responded to a challenge...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.575 - If a TSP disagrees with the decision of my agency, can the TSP appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false If a TSP disagrees with... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT... TSP may also appeal to the GSA Audit Division if your agency has not responded to a challenge...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.575 - If a TSP disagrees with the decision of my agency, can the TSP appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false If a TSP disagrees with... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT... TSP may also appeal to the GSA Audit Division if your agency has not responded to a challenge...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.575 - If a TSP disagrees with the decision of my agency, can the TSP appeal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false If a TSP disagrees with... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT... TSP may also appeal to the GSA Audit Division if your agency has not responded to a challenge...

  16. 30 CFR 773.28 - Written agency decision on challenges to ownership or control listings or findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the procedures at 43 CFR 4.1380 through 4.1387 or, when a State is the regulatory authority, the State... AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER REGULATORY PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS AND PERMIT PROCESSING... will post all decisions made under this section on AVS. (e) Any person who receives a written...

  17. On Establishing a "Modus Vivendi": The Exercise of Agency in Decisions to Participate or Not Participate in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the notion of "removing barriers" offers a limited foundation for widening participation to higher education. Drawing on realist social theory, we consider how decisions to participate or not participate form part of a process to establish a "modus vivendi" or "way of life" for oneself. We explore factors…

  18. Spinning Straw into Gold: How State Education Agencies Can Transform Their Data to Improve Critical School Resource Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Stephen; Trawick-Smith, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    K-12 education resources are often allocated non-strategically, with schools spending time and money on activities that have little relationship to student outcomes. Most of these decisions take place within districts, rooted in the processes of setting schedules, staffing levels, and assignments, and creating final budgets. Local Education…

  19. 41 CFR 102-118.665 - May my agency appeal a postpayment audit decision by the CBCA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Claims and Appeal Procedures Transportation Service Provider... follow the ruling of the CBCA. Transportation Service Provider (TSP) Non-Payment of a Claim ... postpayment audit decision by the CBCA? 102-118.665 Section 102-118.665 Public Contracts and...

  20. Applying Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis to Comparative Benefit-Risk Assessment: Choosing among Statins in Primary Prevention.

    PubMed

    Tervonen, Tommi; Naci, Huseyin; van Valkenhoef, Gert; Ades, Anthony E; Angelis, Aris; Hillege, Hans L; Postmus, Douwe

    2015-10-01

    Decision makers in different health care settings need to weigh the benefits and harms of alternative treatment strategies. Such health care decisions include marketing authorization by regulatory agencies, practice guideline formulation by clinical groups, and treatment selection by prescribers and patients in clinical practice. Multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a family of formal methods that help make explicit the tradeoffs that decision makers accept between the benefit and risk outcomes of different treatment options. Despite the recent interest in MCDA, certain methodological aspects are poorly understood. This paper presents 7 guidelines for applying MCDA in benefit-risk assessment and illustrates their use in the selection of a statin drug for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We provide guidance on the key methodological issues of how to define the decision problem, how to select a set of nonoverlapping evaluation criteria, how to synthesize and summarize the evidence, how to translate relative measures to absolute ones that permit comparisons between the criteria, how to define suitable scale ranges, how to elicit partial preference information from the decision makers, and how to incorporate uncertainty in the analysis. Our example on statins indicates that fluvastatin is likely to be the most preferred drug by our decision maker and that this result is insensitive to the amount of preference information incorporated in the analysis. PMID:25986470

  1. Food Fraud Prevention: Policy, Strategy, and Decision-Making - Implementation Steps for a Government Agency or Industry.

    PubMed

    Spink, John; Fortin, Neal D; Moyer, Douglas C; Miao, Hong; Wu, Yongning

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of governments, industry, academics, and non-governmental organizations in Food Fraud prevention. Before providing strategic concepts for governments and authorities, definitions of Food Fraud are reviewed and discussed. Next there is a review of Food Fraud activities by the Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI), the Elliott Review in the United Kingdom, the European Commission resolution on Food Fraud, and the US Food Safety Modernization Act including the Preventative Controls Rule. Two key concepts for governments or a company are: (1) formally, and specifically, mention food fraud as a food issue and (2) create an enterprise-wide Food Fraud prevention plan. The research includes a case study of the implementation of the concepts by a state or provincial agency. This analysis provides a foundation to review the role of science and technology in detection, deterrence and then contributing to prevention. PMID:27198808

  2. 17 CFR 240.11a1-5 - Transactions by registered competitive market makers and registered equity market makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... registered equity market makers. Any transaction by a New York Stock Exchange registered competitive market maker or an American Stock Exchange registered equity market maker effected in compliance with their... competitive market makers and registered equity market makers. 240.11a1-5 Section 240.11a1-5 Commodity...

  3. Exploring alternate specifications to explain agency-level effects in placement decisions regarding Aboriginal children: Further analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect Part C.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Barbara; Chabot, Martin; Fluke, John; Blackstock, Cindy; Sinha, Vandna; Allan, Kate; MacLaurin, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    A series of papers using data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) explored the influence of clinical and organizational characteristics on the decision to place Aboriginal children in out-of-home placements at the conclusion of child maltreatment investigations. The purpose of this paper is to further explore a consistent finding of the previous analyses: the proportion of investigations involving Aboriginal children at a child welfare agency is associated with placement for all children in that agency. CIS-2008 data were used in the analysis, which allowed for inclusion of previously unavailable organizational and contextual variables. Multi-level statistical models were developed to analyze the influence of clinical and organizational variables on the placement decision. Final models revealed that the proportion of investigations conducted by the child welfare agency involving Aboriginal children was again a key agency-level predictor of the placement decision for any child served by the agency. Specifically, the higher the proportion of investigations of Aboriginal children, the more likely placement was to occur for any child. Further, this analysis demonstrated that structure of governance, an organizational-level variable not available in previous cycles of the CIS, is an important agency-level predictor of out-of-home placement. Further analysis is needed to fully understand individual and organizational level variables that may influence decisions regarding placement of Aboriginal children. PMID:25943285

  4. How decision analysis can further nanoinformatics.

    PubMed

    Bates, Matthew E; Larkin, Sabrina; Keisler, Jeffrey M; Linkov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    The increase in nanomaterial research has resulted in increased nanomaterial data. The next challenge is to meaningfully integrate and interpret these data for better and more efficient decisions. Due to the complex nature of nanomaterials, rapid changes in technology, and disunified testing and data publishing strategies, information regarding material properties is often illusive, uncertain, and/or of varying quality, which limits the ability of researchers and regulatory agencies to process and use the data. The vision of nanoinformatics is to address this problem by identifying the information necessary to support specific decisions (a top-down approach) and collecting and visualizing these relevant data (a bottom-up approach). Current nanoinformatics efforts, however, have yet to efficiently focus data acquisition efforts on the research most relevant for bridging specific nanomaterial data gaps. Collecting unnecessary data and visualizing irrelevant information are expensive activities that overwhelm decision makers. We propose that the decision analytic techniques of multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA), value of information (VOI), weight of evidence (WOE), and portfolio decision analysis (PDA) can bridge the gap from current data collection and visualization efforts to present information relevant to specific decision needs. Decision analytic and Bayesian models could be a natural extension of mechanistic and statistical models for nanoinformatics practitioners to master in solving complex nanotechnology challenges. PMID:26425410

  5. Evolutionary Perspective on Collective Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Dene; Sayama, Hiroki; Dionne, Shelley D.; Yammarino, Francis J.; Wilson, David Sloan

    Team decision making dynamics are investigated from a novel perspective by shifting agency from decision makers to representations of potential solutions. We provide a new way to navigate social dynamics of collective decision making by interpreting decision makers as constituents of an evolutionary environment of an ecology of evolving solutions. We demonstrate distinct patterns of evolution with respect to three forms of variation: (1) Results with random variations in utility functions of individuals indicate that groups demonstrating minimal internal variation produce higher true utility values of group solutions and display better convergence; (2) analysis of variations in behavioral patterns within a group shows that a proper balance between selective and creative evolutionary forces is crucial to producing adaptive solutions; and (3) biased variations of the utility functions diminish the range of variation for potential solution utility, leaving only the differential of convergence performance static. We generally find that group cohesion (low random variation within a group) and composition (appropriate variation of behavioral patterns within a group) are necessary for a successful navigation of the solution space, but performance in both cases is susceptible to group level biases.

  6. Interviews: Perceptions of Professionals and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Bruce R.; And Others

    This report presents a summary of exploratory interviews with teachers and educational policy makers conducted to identify issues, problems, and opportunities for constructive change in inservice teacher education (ISTE). Teachers were questioned on (1) feelings toward ISTE in general (relevance, definition, and organization); (2) roles of…

  7. Quantitative Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Grover H.

    The use of quantitative decision making tools provides the decision maker with a range of alternatives among which to decide, permits acceptance and use of the optimal solution, and decreases risk. Training line administrators in the use of these tools can help school business officials obtain reliable information upon which to base district…

  8. Bridge over troubled waters: A Synthesis Session to connect scientific and decision making sectors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lack of access to relevant scientific data has limited decision makers from incorporating scientific information into their management and policy schemes. Yet, there is increasing interest among decision makers and scientists to integrate coastal and marine science into the polic...

  9. Moral agency as enacted justice: a clinical and ethical decision-making framework for responding to health inequities and social injustice.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ian; Delany, Clare M; Townsend, Anne F; Swisher, Laura Lee

    2011-11-01

    This is the second of 2 companion articles in this issue. The first article explored the clinical and ethical implications of new emphases in physical therapy codes of conduct reflecting the growing evidence regarding the importance of social determinants of health, epidemiological trends for health service delivery, and the enhanced participation of physical therapists in shaping health care reform in a number of international contexts. The first article was theoretically oriented and proposed that a re-thinking of ethical frameworks expressed in codes of ethics could both inform and underpin practical strategies for working in primary health care. A review of the ethical principle of "justice," which, arguably, remains the least consensually understood and developed principle in the ethics literature of physical therapy, was provided, and a more recent perspective-the capability approach to justice-was discussed. The current article proposes a clinical and ethical decision-making framework, the ethical reasoning bridge (ER bridge), which can be used to assist physical therapy practitioners to: (1) understand and implement the capability approach to justice at a clinical level; (2) reflect on and evaluate both the fairness and influence of beliefs, perspectives, and context affecting health and disability through a process of "wide reflective equilibrium" and assist patients to do this as well; and (3) nurture the development of moral agency, in partnership with patients, through a transformative learning process manifest in a mutual "crossing" and "re-crossing" of the ER bridge. It is proposed that the development and exercise of moral agency represent an enacted justice that is the result of a shared reasoning and learning experience on the part of both therapists and patients. PMID:21885448

  10. Changing Times, Complex Decisions: Presidential Values and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornak, Anne M.; Garza Mitchell, Regina L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to delve more deeply into the thought processes of the key decision makers at community colleges and understand how they make decisions. Specifically, this article focuses on the role of the community college president's personal values in decision making. Method: We conducted interviews with 13…

  11. The importance of engaging policy-makers at the outset to guide research on and introduction of vaccines: the use of policy-maker surveys.

    PubMed

    DeRoeck, Denise

    2004-09-01

    Face-to-face surveys of policy-makers and other influential leaders are a useful tool to identify, at an early stage, (a) major issues regarding the introduction of a new vaccine, (b) persons and groups in a country who play a major decision-making or influential role in the introduction of vaccines, (c) potential obstacles to the introduction of vaccines, and (d) data-needs of policy-makers to overcome these obstacles. By surveying the opinions and beliefs of those who will make or influence decisions on whether to introduce a new vaccine, these studies can help ensure that research activities respond to the needs of policy-makers in countries endemic for the target diseases. These surveys can also inform vaccine-introduction strategies by identifying financially and politically feasible means of distributing, targeting, and financing the vaccines. This paper describes the methodology used in conducting such surveys and discusses methodological issues. It also presents lessons learnt from two policy-maker surveys carried out in several Asian countries in regard to new-generation vaccines against cholera, typhoid fever, and shigellosis; and future vaccines against dengue fever/dengue haemorrhagic fever. PMID:15609785

  12. Operational hydrological projections to aid decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetler, Thomas; Davis, Richard; Waddingham, John; James, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The Environment Agency of England has wide ranging responsibility for environmental regulation that includes both water resources management and flood management. In order to best fulfil its role decisions need to be taken using the best available evidence in the time available. The manipulation of large amounts of hydrological data in a way that best meets the needs of decision makers is a complex challenge. Not only should any analysis be technically robust but it should also be presented in a way that communicates key messages clearly and quickly. The Environment Agency and its predecessor organisations has a long history of working with hydrological data but in recent years there has been a need to better incorporate risk and uncertainty into hydrological analysis so that subsequent decisions can take this into account. In the face of recent extreme weather events, there has been an increasing demand for forward look projections from water resource and flood risk practitioners, decision makers and contingency planners. These assessments are required to give appropriate lead in time to allow risk mitigation measures to be implemented to minimise impact upon people, the environment and infrastructure. This presentation will outline the methodologies developed by the Environment Agency to produce and publish monthly routine forward look projections using both a scenario and climate ensemble approach. It will cover how information is disseminated, providing a good example of communicating science to decision makers and to the public. Examples of practical applications of these methodologies include: • Risk based planning and forecasting of water availability for inter basin water transfers into water stressed catchments. • Assessment of water resources prospects during droughts for people and the environment • The likelihood and medium term risk of high groundwater levels impacting upon people and infrastructure. There are also a number of future challenges

  13. MANAGING UNCERTAINTY IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmental decision makers and practitioners worldwide assume that the quality of data pertaining to a contaminated site is primarily determined by the nature of thhe analytical chemistry methods used to collect information. This assumption, which diminishes the importan...

  14. Factors that explain how policy makers distribute resources to mental health services.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Patrick W; Watson, Amy C

    2003-04-01

    Advocates hope to influence the resource allocation decisions of legislators and other policy makers to capture more resources for mental health programs. Findings from social psychological research suggest factors that, if pursued, may improve advocacy efforts. In particular, allocation decisions are affected by policy makers' perceptions of the scarcity of resources, effectiveness of specific programs, needs of people who have problems that are served by these programs, and extent of personal responsibility for these problems. These perceptions are further influenced by political ideology. Conservatives are motivated by a tendency to punish persons who are perceived as having personal responsibility for their problems by withholding resources, whereas liberals are likely to avoid tough allocation decisions. Moreover, these perceptions are affected by political accountability, that is, whether politicians perceive that their constituents will closely monitor their decisions. Just as the quality of clinical interventions improves when informed by basic research on human behavior, the efforts of mental health advocates will be advanced when they understand the psychological forces that affect policy makers' decisions about resources. PMID:12663837

  15. Knowledge and Attitudes of a Number of Iranian Policy-makers towards Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Shamshiri-Milani, Hourieh; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Akbari, Feizollah

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Unsafe and illegal abortions are the third leading cause of maternal death. It affects physical, emotional and social health of women and their families. Abortion is a multi-dimensional phenomenon with several social, legal, and religious implications. The views of policy-makers affect the approach to abortion in every society. Understanding the attitudes and knowledge of high-ranking decision makers towards abortion was the purpose of this study. Materials and Methods A qualitative research was implemented by carrying out individual interviews with 29 out of a selection of 80 presidents of medical sciences universities, senior executive managers in the legal system, forensic medicine and decision-makers in the health system and a number of top Muslim clerics, using a semi-structured questionnaire for data gathering. Content analysis revealed the results. Results There were considerable unwillingness and reluctance among the interviewees to participate in the study. The majority of participants fairly knew about the prevalence of illegal abortions and their complications. There was strong agreement on abortion when health of the mother or the fetus was at risk. Abortion for reproductive health reasons was supported by a minority of the respondents. The majority of them disagreed with abortion when pregnancy was the result of a rape, temporary marriage or out of wedlock affairs. Making decision for abortion by the pregnant mother, as a matter of her right, did not gain too much approval. Conclusion It seemed that physical health of the mother or the fetus was of more importance to the respondents than their mental or social health. The mother's hardship was not any indication for induced abortion in the viewpoints of the interviewed policy-makers. Strengthening family planning programs, making appropriate laws in lines with religious orders and advocacy programs targeting decision makers are determined as strategies for improving women's health rights

  16. Exponential gradient maker using a disposable syringe.

    PubMed

    Domingo, A

    1990-08-15

    With a simple modification, any disposable syringe can become a reliable and easy to use exponential gradient maker. The modification consists of two notches, made with a razor blade, in the borders of the rubber sealing tip of the plunger. A clamp in the tube connected to the syringe allows control over solution flow. With the clamp prohibiting drainage, the body of the syringe is filled with the desired volume of starting solution I. A magnetic stir bar, small enough to spin inside the syringe is included. The notched plunger is introduced until no air space remains. This forms the fixed volume, closed mixing chamber, while the rest of the volume of the syringe forms the open chamber. The two chambers are connected through the notches in the plunger. The ending solution II is poured after the introduction of the plunger. Opening the clamp allows solution I in the closed chamber to flow out, and the solution II in the open chamber flows through the notches and mixes with solution I. This exponential gradient maker can be reused many times, but the low cost of the components makes it potentially disposable. This feature is especially useful when using toxic chemicals, or when pouring polyacrylamide gradient gels, since the apparatus may be disposed of after contamination or eventual polymerization. PMID:2278394

  17. HUMAN HEALTH METRICS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS: LESSONS FROM HEALTH ECONOMICS AND DECISION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decision makers using environmental decision support tools are often confronted with information that predicts a multitude of different human health effects due to environmental stressors. If these health effects need to be contrasted with costs or compared with alternative scena...

  18. [The probability of developing brain tumours among users of cellular telephones (scientific information to the decision of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) announced on May 31, 2011)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2011-01-01

    The WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has made May 31 2011 PRESS RELEASE No 208 which classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The decision is based on an increased risk of glioma, i.e., a malignant type of brain cancer associated with the wireless phone use. This paper reports the analysis of the long-term research on the issue in question that had been carried out in many countries around the world before the decision was made. PMID:22279776

  19. [Medical decision making: some aspects].

    PubMed

    Steurer, J

    2004-09-22

    Three main aspects of medical decision making will be shortly described in this article. Comprehensible information is required to make decisions. The question is, how much information is needed to make decisions, and a third aspect in this article concerns the decision maker. Research in the field of information transfer has shown that medical information, as presented in most journals, is difficult to understand. According to the classic decision theory, decisions are taken after collecting all available information. More recent research in decision making proves the hypothesis that human beings are able to decide correctly with much less information than presumed earlier. In medicine the patient is the decision maker, and the primary task of physicians is to inform the patient about his health status and enable him to reach a conclusion. PMID:15500244

  20. Modular self-dispensing frozen confectionary maker

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.

    1988-04-12

    A self-dispensing frozen confectionary maker is described comprising: (a) a container defining a mixing chamber with an open end, the container having a hollow chamber at least partially filled with a freezable solution; (b) a coupling means rotatably mounted in the container; (c) means for driving the coupling means to rotate in either of first and second directions, the second direction being opposite to the first direction; (d) means for displacing a fluid in the mixing chamber, the fluid-displacing means being arranged in the mixing chamber and rotatably coupled to the coupling means; (e) cover means for securely covering the open end, the cover means having outlet means incorporated therein; and (f) means for supporting the container in first and second positions, wherein the fluid-displacing means has an axis of rotation which is generally vertical when the container is in the first position and generally horizontal when the container is in the second position.

  1. Parents as Policy Makers: Challenges for Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Focal Point, 1992

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue focuses on the theme of fostering collaboration between parents and professionals in meeting the mental health needs of children. Structured group interviews (focus groups) were held with both parents and professionals who have been members of decision making boards and committees. Interview excerpts illustrate findings that…

  2. Improving IT Portfolio Management Decision Confidence Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Hypervariate Display Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landmesser, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Information technology (IT) investment decision makers are required to process large volumes of complex data. An existing body of knowledge relevant to IT portfolio management (PfM), decision analysis, visual comprehension of large volumes of information, and IT investment decision making suggest Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and…

  3. Disaster Management with a Next Generation Disaster Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    As populations become increasingly concentrated in large cities, the world is experiencing an inevitably growing trend towards the urbanisation of disasters. Scientists have contributed significant advances in understanding the geophysical causes of natural hazards and have developed sophisticated tools to predict their effects; while, much less attention has been devoted to tools that increase situational awareness, facilitate leadership, provide effective communication channels and data flow and enhance the cognitive abilities of decision makers and first responders. In this paper, we envisioned the capabilities of a next generation disaster decision support system and hence proposed a state-of-the-art system architecture design to facilitate the decision making process in natural catastrophes such as flood and bushfire by utilising a combination of technologies for multi-channel data aggregation, disaster modelling, visualisation and optimisation. Moreover, we put our thoughts into action by implementing an Intelligent Disaster Decision Support System (IDDSS). The developed system can easily plug in to external disaster models and aggregate large amount of heterogeneous data from government agencies, sensor networks, and crowd sourcing platforms in real-time to enhance the situational awareness of decision makers and offer them a comprehensive understanding of disaster impacts from diverse perspectives such as environment, infrastructure and economy, etc. Sponsored by the Australian Government and the Victorian Department of Justice (Australia), the system was built upon a series of open-source frameworks (see attached figure) with four key components: data management layer, model application layer, processing service layer and presentation layer. It has the potential to be adopted by a range of agencies across Australian jurisdictions to assist stakeholders in accessing, sharing and utilising available information in their management of disaster events.

  4. A Method for Decision Making using Sustainability Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calculations aimed at representing the thought process of decision makers are common within multi-objective decision support tools. These calculations that mathematically describe preferences most often combine various utility scores (i.e., abilities to satisfy desires) with weig...

  5. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm. PMID:23809914

  6. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... emergency means of stopping cargo transfer required under 33 CFR 155.780; and (5) At the feeder distribution... miscellaneous vessel must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In... operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In the navigating bridge; (2) At...

  7. Job Grading Standard for Model Maker, WG-4714.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The pamphlet explains the different job requirements for different grades of model maker (WG-14 and WG-15) and contrasts them to the position of premium journeyman. It includes comment on what a model maker is (a nonsupervisory job involved in planning and fabricating complex research and prototype models which are made from a variety of materials…

  8. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... emergency means of stopping cargo transfer required under 33 CFR 155.780; and (5) At the feeder distribution... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of contact makers. 113.25-5 Section 113.25-5... ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-5 Location of contact makers....

  9. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... emergency means of stopping cargo transfer required under 33 CFR 155.780; and (5) At the feeder distribution... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of contact makers. 113.25-5 Section 113.25-5... ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-5 Location of contact makers....

  10. Maker Movement Spreads Innovation One Project at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie; Bender, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The maker movement consists of a growing culture of hands-on making, creating, designing, and innovating. A hallmark of the maker movement is its do-it-yourself (or do-it-with-others) mindset that brings individuals together around a range of activities, both high- and low-tech, all involving some form of creation or repair. The movement's…

  11. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  12. A Model for Evaluation of Decision Passages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimac, Michele

    In an age when decision making is becoming more and more significant for us human beings as we face dilemmas about whether or not to clone, to engineer behavior on mass scale, to expand or to decrease nuclear power, we educators must assist students to increase their decision-making skills. Many of our students will soon be decision makers for…

  13. Relevance of a Managerial Decision-Model to Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Edward.; Welty, Gordon

    The rational model of classical economic theory assumes that the decision maker has complete information on alternatives and consequences, and that he chooses the alternative that maximizes expected utility. This model does not allow for constraints placed on the decision maker resulting from lack of information, organizational pressures,…

  14. Student Involvement in Governmental Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, E. J.

    1976-01-01

    Proposes that teachers introduce their students to the process by which Federal and State decision-makers propose rules and regulations for implementation within society by exposing them to the "Federal Register" and their state's equivalent publication. (MLH)

  15. Strengthening capacity in developing countries for evidence-based public health: the data for decision-making project.

    PubMed

    Pappaioanou, Marguerite; Malison, Michael; Wilkins, Karen; Otto, Bradley; Goodman, Richard A; Churchill, R Elliott; White, Mark; Thacker, Stephen B

    2003-11-01

    Public health officials and the communities they serve need to: identify priority health problems; formulate effective health policies; respond to public health emergencies; select, implement, and evaluate cost-effective interventions to prevent and control disease and injury; and allocate human and financial resources. Despite agreement that rational, data-based decisions will lead to improved health outcomes, many public health decisions appear to be made intuitively or politically. During 1991-1996, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented the US Agency for International Development funded Data for Decision-Making (DDM) Project. DDM goals were to: (a) strengthen the capacity of decision makers to identify data needs for solving problems and to interpret and use data appropriately for public health decisions; (b) enhance the capacity of technical advisors to provide valid, essential, and timely data to decision makers clearly and effectively; and (c) strengthen health information systems (HISs) to facilitate the collection, analysis, reporting, presentation, and use of data at local, district, regional, and national levels. Assessments were conducted to identify important health problems, problem-driven implementation plans with data-based solutions as objectives were developed, interdisciplinary, in-service training programs for mid-level policy makers, program managers, and technical advisors in applied epidemiology, management and leadership, communications, economic evaluation, and HISs were designed and implemented, national staff were trained in the refinement of HISs to improve access to essential data from multiple sources, and the effectiveness of the strategy was evaluated. This strategy was tested in Bolivia, Cameroon, Mexico, and the Philippines, where decentralization of health services led to a need to strengthen the capacity of policy makers and health officers at sub-national levels to use information more effectively. Results

  16. Flood Impact Modelling to support decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Gareth; Quinn, Paul; O'Donnell, Greg

    2015-04-01

    Much of what is known about the impacts of landuse change and Natural Flood Management (NFM) is at the local/plot scale. Evidence of the downstream impacts at the larger catchment scale is limited. However, the strategic and financial decisions of land managers, stakeholders and policy makers are made at the larger scale. There are a number of techniques that have the potential to scale local impacts to the catchment scale. This poster will show findings for the 30km2 Leven catchment, North Yorkshire, England. A NFM approach has been adopted by the Environment Agency to reduce flood risk within the catchment. A dense network of stream level gauges were installed in the catchment at the commencement of this project to gain a detailed understanding of the catchment behaviour during storm events. A novel Flood Impact Modelling (FIM) approach has been adopted which uses the network of gauges to disaggregate the outlet hydrograph in terms of source locations. Using a combination of expert opinion and local evidence, the model can be used to assess the impacts of distributed changes in land use management and NFM on flood events. A number of potential future landuse and NFM scenarios have been modelled to investigate their impact on flood peaks. These modelled outcomes are mapped to a simple Decision Support Matrix (DSM). The DSM encourages end users (e.g. land managers and policy makers) to develop an NFM scheme by studying the degree to which local runoff can be attenuated and how that flow will propagate through the network to the point of impact. The DSM relates the impact on flood peaks in terms of alterations to soil management practices and landscape flow connectivity (e.g. soil underdrainage), which can be easily understood by farmers and land managers. The DSM and the FIM together provide a simple to use and transparent modelling tool, making best use of expert knowledge, to support decision making.

  17. How clinical decisions are made

    PubMed Central

    Bate, Louise; Hutchinson, Andrew; Underhill, Jonathan; Maskrey, Neal

    2012-01-01

    There is much variation in the implementation of the best available evidence into clinical practice. These gaps between evidence and practice are often a result of multiple individual decisions. When making a decision, there is so much potentially relevant information available, it is impossible to know or process it all (so called ‘bounded rationality’). Usually, a limited amount of information is selected to reach a sufficiently satisfactory decision, a process known as satisficing. There are two key processes used in decision making: System 1 and System 2. System 1 involves fast, intuitive decisions; System 2 is a deliberate analytical approach, used to locate information which is not instantly recalled. Human beings unconsciously use System 1 processing whenever possible because it is quicker and requires less effort than System 2. In clinical practice, gaps between evidence and practice can occur when a clinician develops a pattern of knowledge, which is then relied on for decisions using System 1 processing, without the activation of a System 2 check against the best available evidence from high quality research. The processing of information and decision making may be influenced by a number of cognitive biases, of which the decision maker may be unaware. Interventions to encourage appropriate use of System 1 and System 2 processing have been shown to improve clinical decision making. Increased understanding of decision making processes and common sources of error should help clinical decision makers to minimize avoidable mistakes and increase the proportion of decisions that are better. PMID:22738381

  18. [Involving patients, the insured and the general public in healthcare decision making].

    PubMed

    Mühlbacher, Axel C; Juhnke, Christin

    2016-01-01

    No doubt, the public should be involved in healthcare decision making, especially when decision makers from politics and self-government agencies are faced with the difficult task of setting priorities. There is a general consensus on the need for a stronger patient centeredness, even in HTA processes, and internationally different ways of public participation are discussed and tested in decision making processes. This paper describes how the public can be involved in different decision situations, and it shows how preference measurement methods are currently being used in an international context to support decision making. It distinguishes between different levels of decision making on health technologies: approval, assessment, pricing, and finally utilization. The range of participation efforts extends from qualitative surveys of patients' needs (Citizen Councils of NICE in the UK) to science-based documentation of quantitative patient preferences, such as in the current pilot projects of the FDA in the US and the EMA at the European level. Possible approaches for the elicitation and documentation of preference structures and trade-offs in relation to alternate health technologies are decision aids, such as multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), that provide the necessary information for weighting and prioritizing decision criteria. PMID:26875034

  19. Behaviors Associated with "Good" and "Poor" Outcomes in a Simulated Career Decision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumboltz, John D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared the 40 "best" (most congruent with values) and 40 "worst" decision makers on the Career Decision Simulation. The "best" decision makers were significantly more persistent in immediately seeking information about an occupation that seemed to match one of their most important personal work values. (Author)

  20. User Oriented Techniques to Support Interaction and Decision Making with Large Educational Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Roger; Almuhaidib, Saud M. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology is developing rapidly and providing policy/decision makers with large amounts of information that require processing and analysis. Decision support systems (DSS) aim to provide tools that not only help such analyses, but enable the decision maker to experiment and simulate the effects of different policies and selection…

  1. 3. VIEW OF MAKERS PLATE ATTACHED TO UPPER CHORD MEMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF MAKERS PLATE ATTACHED TO UPPER CHORD MEMBER WHICH STATES 'HUSTON AND CLEVELAND CONTRACTORS, COLUMBUS, OHIO, 1904.' - Main Street Parker Pony Truss Bridge, Main Street (Route 170) spanning Yellow Creek, Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  2. Make Energy at the Bay Area Maker Faire

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-06-24

    Think. Make. Innovate. A festival of invention, creativity and resourcefulness that gathers makers of all kinds. Scientists are seeking to find innovative solutions to the energy challenges in the world.

  3. 4. DETAIL OF TRUSS END AND MAKER'S PLATE WHICH STATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF TRUSS END AND MAKER'S PLATE WHICH STATES 'BRACKETT BRIDGE CO., BUILDERS, CINCINNATI, O. 1894.' - Town Creek Truss-leg Bedstead Bridge, Spanning Town Creek at County Route 82, Van Wert, Van Wert County, OH

  4. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD MEMBER, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD MEMBER, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE STATING 'KING IRON BRIDGE & MFG. CO., K & F & Z KING PATENT, CLEVELAND, O.' - Smith Road Bowstring Arch Bridge, Spanning Sycamore Creek at Smith Road (TR 62), Lykens, Crawford County, OH

  5. 3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE, DECORATIVE SCROLLWORK AND URN FINIALS ON NORTHEAST PORTAL - "Forder" Pratt Through Truss Bridge, Spanning Maumee River at County Route 73, Antwerp, Paulding County, OH

  6. 24. DETAIL VIEW OF CASTIRON MAKER'S PLATE ON CHIMNEY IDENTIFYING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL VIEW OF CAST-IRON MAKER'S PLATE ON CHIMNEY IDENTIFYING 'ALPHONS CUSTOBIS CHIMNEY CONSTRUCTION CO., BENNETT BUILDING, NEW YORK.' - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. Decision Performance Using Spatial Decision Support Systems: A Geospatial Reasoning Ability Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erskine, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    As many consumer and business decision makers are utilizing Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS), a thorough understanding of how such decisions are made is crucial for the information systems domain. This dissertation presents six chapters encompassing a comprehensive analysis of the impact of geospatial reasoning ability on…

  8. 29 CFR 99.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Management decision. 99.405 Section 99.405 Labor Office of... Agencies and Pass-through Entities § 99.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  9. 29 CFR 99.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Management decision. 99.405 Section 99.405 Labor Office of... Agencies and Pass-through Entities § 99.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  10. 29 CFR 99.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Management decision. 99.405 Section 99.405 Labor Office of... Agencies and Pass-through Entities § 99.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  11. 29 CFR 99.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Management decision. 99.405 Section 99.405 Labor Office of... Agencies and Pass-through Entities § 99.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  12. 29 CFR 99.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Management decision. 99.405 Section 99.405 Labor Office of... Agencies and Pass-through Entities § 99.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  13. SANDS - Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. M.; Hawkins, L.; He, M.; Ebersole, S.

    2010-12-01

    Since the year 2000, Eastern Louisiana, coastal Mississippi, Alabama, and the western Florida panhandle have been affected by 28 tropical storms, seven of which were hurricanes. These tropical cyclones have significantly altered normal coastal processes and characteristics in the Gulf region through sediment disturbance. Although tides, seasonality, and agricultural development influence suspended sediment and sediment deposition over periods of time, tropical storm activity has the capability of moving the largest sediment loads in the shortest periods of time for coastal areas. The SANDS project is also investigating the effects of sediment immersed oil from the Deepwater Horizon disaster in April 2010 which has the potential to resurface as a result of tropical storm activity. The importance of sediments upon water quality, coastal erosion, habitats and nutrients has made their study and monitoring vital to decision makers in the region. Currently agencies such as United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), NASA, and Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) are employing a variety of in-situ and airborne based measurements to assess and monitor sediment loading and deposition. These methods provide highly accurate information but are limited in geographic range, are not continuous over a region and, in the case of airborne LIDAR are expensive and do not recur on a regular basis. Multi-temporal and multi-spectral satellite imagery that shows tropical-storm-induced suspended sediment and storm-surge sediment deposits can provide decision makers with immediate and long-term information about the impacts of tropical storms and hurricanes. It can also be valuable for those conducting research and for projects related to coastal issues such as recovery, planning, management, and mitigation. The Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support has generated a number of decision support products derived from MODIS, Landsat and SeaWiFS instruments that potentially support

  14. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  15. Decision story strategy: a practical approach for teaching decision making.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Hamrick, M H; Anspaugh, D J

    1981-12-01

    Teachers are usually very enthusiastic in their evaluations of decision stories. Decision Story Strategies offer a change of pace, promote student involvement and stimulate creative thinking, problem solving and everpresent creative teaching-learning opportunities. The real-life problems presented within the structure of a decision story provide meaningful learning opportunities for students. Students begin to think in a broader perspective when considering other points of view and information sources. The Decision Story Strategy used with the Decision-Making Model provides a powerful tool for health educators to develop skills for making and evaluating decisions in an interesting and meaningful context. It may not be a panacea for all health educators, but is an effective strategy for the teacher concerned with developing independent decision makers. Most importantly, students are provided opportunities to solve their present problems as well as develop decision-making skills for the future. PMID:6916032

  16. Do probabilistic forecasts lead to better decisions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. H.; van Andel, S. J.; Pappenberger, F.

    2012-12-01

    The last decade has seen growing research in producing probabilistic hydro-meteorological forecasts and increasing their reliability. This followed the promise that, supplied with information about uncertainty, people would take better risk-based decisions. In recent years, therefore, research and operational developments have also start putting attention to ways of communicating the probabilistic forecasts to decision makers. Communicating probabilistic forecasts includes preparing tools and products for visualization, but also requires understanding how decision makers perceive and use uncertainty information in real-time. At the EGU General Assembly 2012, we conducted a laboratory-style experiment in which several cases of flood forecasts and a choice of actions to take were presented as part of a game to participants, who acted as decision makers. Answers were collected and analyzed. In this paper, we present the results of this exercise and discuss if indeed we make better decisions on the basis of probabilistic forecasts.

  17. Do probabilistic forecasts lead to better decisions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, M. H.; van Andel, S. J.; Pappenberger, F.

    2013-06-01

    The last decade has seen growing research in producing probabilistic hydro-meteorological forecasts and increasing their reliability. This followed the promise that, supplied with information about uncertainty, people would take better risk-based decisions. In recent years, therefore, research and operational developments have also started focusing attention on ways of communicating the probabilistic forecasts to decision-makers. Communicating probabilistic forecasts includes preparing tools and products for visualisation, but also requires understanding how decision-makers perceive and use uncertainty information in real time. At the EGU General Assembly 2012, we conducted a laboratory-style experiment in which several cases of flood forecasts and a choice of actions to take were presented as part of a game to participants, who acted as decision-makers. Answers were collected and analysed. In this paper, we present the results of this exercise and discuss if we indeed make better decisions on the basis of probabilistic forecasts.

  18. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  19. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  20. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  1. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  2. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  3. Data Collection for Educational Decision-Making: Establishing Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooler, Dennis D.

    A method is presented by which decision makers may establish priorities for the collection of data to be used as input to the decision-making process. It is assumed that the experience, intuition, and previously collected data will influence the decision, as will the constraints of design, and the audience to whom the particular decision is…

  4. Decision making in high-velocity environments: implications for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Stepanovich, P L; Uhrig, J D

    1999-01-01

    Healthcare can be considered a high-velocity environment and, as such, can benefit from research conducted in other industries regarding strategic decision making. Strategic planning is not only relevant to firms in high-velocity environments, but is also important for high performance and survival. Specifically, decision-making speed seems to be instrumental in differentiating between high and low performers; fast decision makers outperform slow decision makers. This article outlines the differences between fast and slow decision makers, identifies five paralyses that can slow decision making in healthcare, and outlines the role of a planning department in circumventing these paralyses. Executives can use the proposed planning structure to improve both the speed and quality of strategic decisions. The structure uses planning facilitators to avoid the following five paralyses: 1. Analysis. Decision makers can no longer afford the luxury of lengthy, detailed analysis but must develop real-time systems that provide appropriate, timely information. 2. Alternatives. Many alternatives (beyond the traditional two or three) need to be considered and the alternatives must be evaluated simultaneously. 3. Group Think. Decision makers must avoid limited mind-sets and autocratic leadership styles by seeking out independent, knowledgeable counselors. 4. Process. Decision makers need to resolve conflicts through "consensus with qualification," as opposed to waiting for everyone to come on board. 5. Separation. Successful implementation requires a structured process that cuts across disciplines and levels. PMID:10537497

  5. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  6. HUMAN HEALTH METRICS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS: LESSONS FROM HEALTH ECONOMICS AND DECISION ANALYSIS: PUBLISHED REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-CIN-1351A Hofstetter**, P., and Hammitt, J. K. Human Health Metrics for Environmental Decision Support Tools: Lessons from Health Economics and Decision Analysis. EPA/600/R-01/104 (NTIS PB2002-102119). Decision makers using environmental decision support tools are often ...

  7. Decision framework for platform decommissioning in California.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the overall decision framework for eventual decisions about decommissioning the 27 operating oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. These platforms will eventually reach the end of their useful lifetimes (estimated between 2015 and 2030, although specific dates have not been determined). Current law and regulations allow for alternative uses in lieu of the complete removal required in existing leases. To prepare for eventual decommissioning, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an in-depth process to identify and investigate issues surrounding possible decommissioning alternatives. The detailed evaluation of alternatives focused on 2-complete removal and artificial reefing that included partial removal to 85 feet below the waterline. These were selected after a comparison of the technical and economic feasibility of several potential alternatives, availability of a legal framework for implementation, degree of interest from proponents, and relative acceptance by state and federal decision makers. Despite California's history of offshore oil and gas production, only 7 decommissioning projects have been completed and these were all relatively small and close to shore. In contrast, nearly 30% of the California platforms are in water depths (as much as 1200 feet) that exceed any decommissioning project anywhere in the world. Most earlier projects considered an artificial reefing alternative but none were implemented and all platforms were completely removed. Future decisions about decommissioning must grapple with a more complex decision context involving greater technological and logistical challenges and cost, a wider range of viable options, tradeoffs among environmental impacts and benefits, and an intricate maze of laws, regulations, and authorities. The specific engineering differences between complete and partial removal provide an explicit basis for a thorough evaluation of their respective impacts. PMID:26259879

  8. Shrinking Sea Ice, Thawing Permafrost, Bigger Storms, and Extremely Limited Data - Addressing Information Needs of Stakeholders in Western Alaska Through Participatory Decisions and Collaborative Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. A.; Reynolds, J.

    2015-12-01

    Communities, Tribes, and decision makers in coastal western Alaska are being impacted by declining sea ice, sea level rise, changing storm patterns and intensities, and increased rates of coastal erosion. Relative to their counterparts in the contiguous USA, their ability to plan for and respond to these changes is constrained by the region's generally meager or non-existent information base. Further, the information needs and logistic challenges are of a scale that perhaps can be addressed only through strong, strategic collaboration. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are fundamentally about applied science and collaboration, especially collaborative decision making. The Western Alaska LCC has established a process of participatory decision making that brings together researchers, agency managers, local experts from Tribes and field specialists to identify and prioritize shared information needs; develop a course of action to address them by using the LCC's limited resources to catalyze engagement, overcome barriers to progress, and build momentum; then ensure products are delivered in a manner that meets decision makers' needs. We briefly review the LCC's activities & outcomes from the stages of (i) collaborative needs assessment (joint with the Alaska Climate Science Center and the Alaska Ocean Observing System), (ii) strategic science activities, and (iii) product refinement and delivery. We discuss lessons learned, in the context of our recent program focused on 'Changes in Coastal Storms and Their Impacts' and current collaborative efforts focused on delivery of Coastal Resiliency planning tools and results from applied science projects. Emphasis is given to the various key interactions between scientists and decision makers / managers that have been promoted by this process to ensure alignment of final products to decision maker needs.

  9. Argumentation for Decision Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amgoud, Leila

    Decision making, often viewed as a form of reasoning toward action, has raised the interest of many scholars including economists, psychologists, and computer scientists for a long time. Any decision problem amounts to selecting the “best” or sufficiently “good” action(s) that are feasible among different alternatives, given some available information about the current state of the world and the consequences of potential actions. Available information may be incomplete or pervaded with uncertainty. Besides, the goodness of an action is judged by estimating how much its possible consequences fit the preferences of the decision maker. This agent is assumed to behave in a rational way [29] amgoud-woold, at least in the sense that his decisions should be as much as possible consistent with his preferences.

  10. Advisory: Definitions, Descriptions, Decisions, Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galassi, John P.; Gulledge, Suzanne A.; Cox, Nancy D.

    Advisory groups have played an essential role in improving the school climate and conditions for young adolescents in schools. How middle school decision makers go about the process of designing or re-designing an advisory program needs to be considered. A discussion is presented of the background information that helps define advisories. It…

  11. Decision criteria of potential solar IPH adapters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perwin, E.; Levine, A.; Mikasa, G.; Noun, R. J.; Schaller, D.

    1981-12-01

    If national programs are to be effective in the research and development of viable renewable resource technologies for the industrial sector, understanding industry's decision criteria will be important. The results of a preliminary investigation of the decision criteria of potential and actual users of solar industrial process heat systems are presented. Detailed interviews were completed with decision-makers from ten manufacturing firms. Based on economic theory, it was assumed that corporate decision-makers assess the expected cost, revenue, and uncertainty of competing investment opportunities. These decision criteria are composed of factors that are financial, technical, and institutional. Clearly, the firms interviewed were more concerned with costs than any other category of decision criteria. Most of the firms also believed that there was less uncertainty with competing investments than with current solar technology. Based on this preliminary investigation, a more extensive survey of industrial firms is suggested to determine a more comprehensive list of significant decision criteria.

  12. 14 CFR 1262.308 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency review. 1262.308 Section 1262.308... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 1262.308 Agency review. (a) Within 30 calendar days of... applicant or agency counsel may seek Agency review of the decision; or, the NASA Administrator, upon...

  13. Learning active fusion of multiple experts' decisions: an attention-based approach.

    PubMed

    Mirian, Maryam S; Ahmadabadi, Majid Nili; Araabi, Babak N; Siegwart, Roland R

    2011-02-01

    In this letter, we propose a learning system, active decision fusion learning (ADFL), for active fusion of decisions. Each decision maker, referred to as a local decision maker, provides its suggestion in the form of a probability distribution over all possible decisions. The goal of the system is to learn the active sequential selection of the local decision makers in order to consult with and thus learn the final decision based on the consultations. These two learning tasks are formulated as learning a single sequential decision-making problem in the form of a Markov decision process (MDP), and a continuous reinforcement learning method is employed to solve it. The states of this MDP are decisions of the attended local decision makers, and the actions are either attending to a local decision maker or declaring final decisions. The learning system is punished for each consultation and wrong final decision and rewarded for correct final decisions. This results in minimizing the consultation and decision-making costs through learning a sequential consultation policy where the most informative local decision makers are consulted and the least informative, misleading, and redundant ones are left unattended. An important property of this policy is that it acts locally. This means that the system handles any nonuniformity in the local decision maker's expertise over the state space. This property has been exploited in the design of local experts. ADFL is tested on a set of classification tasks, where it outperforms two well-known classification methods, Adaboost and bagging, as well as three benchmark fusion algorithms: OWA, Borda count, and majority voting. In addition, the effect of local experts design strategy on the performance of ADFL is studied, and some guidelines for the design of local experts are provided. Moreover, evaluating ADFL in some special cases proves that it is able to derive the maximum benefit from the informative local decision makers and to

  14. Boundary Organizations: Creating a Unique Model for Sustained Dialog Among Scientists and Decison Makers About Long-term Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, B.; Carter, H.; Knight, E.; Meyer, R.

    2015-12-01

    California Ocean Science Trust is a boundary organization formed by the state of California. We work across traditional boundaries between government, science, and communities to build trust and understanding in ocean and coastal science. We work closely with decision makers to understand their priority needs and identify opportunities for science to have a meaningful impact, and we engage scientists and other experts to compile and translate information into innovative products that help to meet those needs. This often sparks new collaborations that live well beyond the products themselves. Through this unique model, we are deepening relationships and facilitating an ongoing dialogue between scientists, decision-makers, and communities. The West Coast of the United States is already experiencing climate-driven changes in marine conditions at both large and small spatial scales. Decision makers are increasingly concerned with the potential threats that these changes pose to coastal communities, industries, ecosystems, and species. Detecting and understanding these multi-stressor changes requires consideration across scientific disciplines and management jurisdictions. Research and monitoring programs must reflect this new reality: they should be designed to connect with the decision makers who may use their results. In this presentation, I will share how we are drawing from the West Coast Ocean Acidification and Hypoxia Science Panel - an interdisciplinary team of scientists convened by Ocean Science Trust from California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia - to develop actionable guidance for long-term monitoring for long-term change. Building on our experiences working with the Panel, I will discuss the unique model that boundary organizations provide for sustained dialog across traditionally siloed disciplines and management regimes, and share best practices and lessons learned in working across those boundaries.

  15. The improved code TAC maker for modeling of planet transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjurkchieva, D.; Dimitrov, D.; Vladev, A.

    We present improvements of the code TAC-maker for modeling of planet transits. While the initial version of the code calculated synthetic transits for certain values of the input parameters, the new version TAC-maker 1.1.0 gives a possibility to obtain simultaneously numerous synthetic transits corresponding to chosen ranges of values for each fitted parameter. The most valuable property of the improved version of the code is the ability to obtain the global minimum of χ^{2} in the multidimensional parametric space and to estimate the errors of the searched parameters.

  16. The Roles of Lesser-Known American Telescope Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Trudy E.

    A history of lesser-known telescope makers. The following makers, owners, dealers and firms are discussed: Henry Fitz, William S. Van Duzee, Lewis M. Rutherford, Charles A. Spencer, A. K. Eaton, John Byrne, Robert B. Tolles, Buff and Berger of Boston, Fauth and Co., George N. Saegmuller, E. Kubel (Kübel), Chester S. Lyman, Stackpole and Brother, William Wurdemann (Würdemann), William J. Young, Gundlach of Rochester, William Kahler, Stendicke of NYC, Walther of Philadelphia, Worcester R. Warner, Ambrose Swasey, William T. Gregg, Phelps and Gurley of Troy, H. G. Sedgewick, Benjamin Pike, William Mogey, David Mogey, and James A. Queen.

  17. Building Stakeholder Trust: Defensible Government Decisions - 13110

    SciTech Connect

    Franklin, Victor A.

    2013-07-01

    Administrative decisions must be grounded in reasonable expectations, founded on sound principles, and bounded by societal norms. Without these first principles, attaining and retaining public trust is a Herculean task. Decisions made by governmental administrators must be both transparent and defensible: without the former the agency will lose the public's trust and support (possibly prompting a legal challenge to the decision) and without the latter the decision may fail to withstand judicial scrutiny. This presentation and accompanying paper delves into the process by which governmental decisions can achieve both defensibility and openness through building stakeholder trust with transparency. Achieving and maintaining stakeholder trust is crucial, especially in the environs of nuclear waste management. Proving confidence, stability, and security to the surrounding citizenry as well as those throughout the country is the goal of governmental nuclear waste remediation. Guiding administrative decision-making processes and maintaining a broad bandwidth of communication are of incalculable importance to all those charged with serving the public, but are especially essential to those whose decisional impacts will be felt for millennia. A strong, clear, and concise administrative record documenting discrete decisions and overarching policy choices is the strongest defense to a decisional challenge. However, this can be accomplished using transparency as the fundamental building block. This documentation allows the decision-makers to demonstrate the synthesis of legal and technical challenges and fortifies the ground from which challenges will be defended when necessary. Further, administrative actions which capture the public's interest and captivate that interest throughout the process will result in a better-informed, more deeply-involved, and more heavily-invested group of interested parties. Management of information, involvement, and investment on the front-end of

  18. Creating dialogue: a workshop on "Uncertainty in Decision Making in a Changing Climate"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewen, Tracy; Addor, Nans; Johnson, Leigh; Coltekin, Arzu; Derungs, Curdin; Muccione, Veruska

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty is present in all fields of climate research, spanning from projections of future climate change, to assessing regional impacts and vulnerabilities, to adaptation policy and decision-making. In addition to uncertainties, managers and planners in many sectors are often confronted with large amounts of information from climate change research whose complex and interdisciplinary nature make it challenging to incorporate into the decision-making process. An overarching issue in tackling this problem is the lack of institutionalized dialogue between climate researchers, decision-makers and user groups. Forums that facilitate such dialogue would allow climate researchers to actively engage with end-users and researchers in different disciplines to better characterize uncertainties and ultimately understand which ones are critically considered and incorporated into decisions made. We propose that the introduction of students to these challenges at an early stage of their education and career is a first step towards improving future dialogue between climate researchers, decision-makers and user groups. To this end, we organized a workshop at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, entitled "Uncertainty in Decision Making in a Changing Climate". It brought together 50 participants, including Bachelor, Master and PhD students and academic staff, and nine selected speakers from academia, industry, government, and philanthropy. Speakers introduced participants to topics ranging from uncertainties in climate model scenarios to managing uncertainties in development and aid agencies. The workshop consisted of experts' presentations, a panel discussion and student group work on case studies. Pedagogical goals included i) providing participants with an overview of the current research on uncertainty and on how uncertainty is dealt with by decision-makers, ii) fostering exchange between practitioners, students, and scientists from different backgrounds, iii) exposing

  19. Peircean Decision Aid

    2008-08-14

    The Peircean decision aid (PDA) is a decision support architecture and embedded functionality that supports a decision maker in very complex environments dealing with massive amounts of disparate data, information and knowledge. The solution generated is a hybrid system solution employing a number of technologies that are based on Peircean reasoning, modal logic, and formal concept analysis. The system convolves data/information with knowledge to create a virtual belief state that is passed to a decisionmore » maker for consideration. The system can capture categorized knowledge or it can inductively learn or acquire new knowledge from suites of observations. Captured knowledge is used to abductively generate hypotheses that are potential explanations to observations or collected data. The zero order modal logic architecture is designed to augment knowledge update and belief revision and can be extended to include disjunctive screening of collected data. While intended to be a library for integration into a decision support architecture it possesses a basic stand-alone GUI for use as an analysis support tool.« less

  20. Modelling decision-making by pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Nicholas J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Our scientific goal is to understand the process of human decision-making. Specifically, a model of human decision-making in piloting modern commercial aircraft which prescribes optimal behavior, and against which we can measure human sub-optimality is sought. This model should help us understand such diverse aspects of piloting as strategic decision-making, and the implicit decisions involved in attention allocation. Our engineering goal is to provide design specifications for (1) better computer-based decision-aids, and (2) better training programs for the human pilot (or human decision-maker, DM).

  1. A Decision Support System for Supervised Assignment in Banking Decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigopoulos, George; Psarras, John; Askounis, Dimitrios Th.

    This study presents a Decision Support System (DSS) which supports assignment of actions (e.g., numbers, projects, people etc.) into predefined categories according to their score on evaluation criteria. It implements a novel classification algorithm based on multicriteria analysis and fuzzy preference relations. More detailed, assignment to classes is based on the concept of category threshold, which defines at what degree an alternative can be included in a specific category. For each category a threshold is defined by the corresponding decision maker, which indicates its lower limit with respect to the evaluation criteria. Actions are then evaluated according to the criteria and fuzzy inclusion degrees are calculated for each category. Finally, an action is assigned to the category for which the inclusion degree is the maximum. The DSS implements the above classification algorithm, providing a user-friendly interface, which supports decision makers to formulate and solve similar problems. In addition to the DSS, we present a real world application at a classification problem within the environment of a Greek bank. Results derived from evaluation experiments in the business environment provide evidence that the proposed methodology and the DSS can effectively support decision makers in classification decisions. The methodology as well as the proposed DSS can be used to classification problems not only in financial domain but to a variety of domains such as production, environmental, or human resources.

  2. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER... represented value of maximum energy use or other measure of energy consumption of a basic model for...

  3. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER... represented value of maximum energy use or other measure of energy consumption of a basic model for...

  4. 10 CFR 429.45 - Automatic commercial ice makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automatic commercial ice makers. 429.45 Section 429.45 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER... represented value of maximum energy use or other measure of energy consumption of a basic model for...

  5. The Education of the Film-Maker: An International View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This book presents a world view of trends, needs, and potentials concerning the education of film and television directors, who are perceived as image makers who play a central role in the present and future sociocultural development of all societies. Work is based on the papers and discussions of a 1972 meeting, organized by UNESCO, on the…

  6. Understanding Narratives of Nationhood: Film-Makers and Culloden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, John R.; Gold, Margaret M.

    2002-01-01

    Film audiences have long been invited to view Scotland and Scottish life through a historic lens. Influenced by the pre-existing literary traditions of tartanry and kailyard, film-makers have focused nostalgically on the myths and legends of the Highland and pre-industrial Scotland, with the implications that this approach has for representations…

  7. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  8. Coco Nut Meets the Gadget Maker. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, P.

    The adventures of Coco Nut, a coconut which has fallen from a palm tree in Florida, are illustrated in this booklet for elementary school students. His fall into a canal and ensuing encounters with dead and alive fish and a gadget maker (industry) are used to portray the effects of water pollution. What man can do to stop such pollution and…

  9. Infants and Toddlers as Members, Makers, Interpreters: A Philosophical Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, June Moss

    This book explores how young children, within their cultural imperatives, struggle to discover who they are as cultural "members" interacting with others, as "makers" trying out and creating, and as "interpreters" making meaning and making new connections. Chapters in Part 1 emphasize the significance of a philosophical approach and its…

  10. The Promise of the Maker Movement for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The Maker Movement is a community of hobbyists, tinkerers, engineers, hackers, and artists who creatively design and build projects for both playful and useful ends. There is growing interest among educators in bringing making into K-12 education to enhance opportunities to engage in the practices of engineering, specifically, and STEM more…

  11. Media Agendas: The Impact on Citizens and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Margaret T.; And Others

    The effect of a televised investigative news report on opinions of members of the general public, interest group elites, and governmental policy makers and on eventual public policy was studied. By collaboration with an investigative news team, the researchers learned in advance of the subject and air time of an "NBC News Magazine" segment…

  12. Administrators' and Policy Makers' Views of Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Larry E., Ed.; Decker, Virginia A., Ed.

    This compilation of articles presents the views of policy makers and administrators about community education. Following the introduction by Larry Decker titled "Community Education: The Basic Tenets," the articles are contained in three sections. Section 1 (The Potential of Community Education) contains articles titled as follows: "Tomorrow's…

  13. The Virtual Workplace Ethnography: Positioning Student Writers as Knowledge Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommers, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The Virtual Workplace Ethnography is a first-year composition assignment that positions students as knowledge makers by requiring them to apply a theoretical lens ("Working Knowledge") to a video representation of a workplace. The lens provides multiple terms for analysis of workplace behaviors in context, providing a scaffolding for…

  14. The one-of-us effect in decision evaluation.

    PubMed

    Lipshitz, R; Gilad, Z; Suleiman, R

    2001-06-01

    Judgment-by-outcomes denotes basing retrospective evaluation of decisions on the valence of their outcomes (success versus failure). Although decisions are typically evaluated in social contexts, so far judgment-by-outcomes has been studied without regard to this context. This study examines the moderating effect of evaluator's identification with the decision maker (the one-of-us-effect) on the influence of outcome information on the evaluation of Arab and Jewish subjects were presented with two cases recounting operations by either Arab or Jewish underground directed against the British authorities in Palestine. One case was a success (from the underground's point of view) and one ended in failure. Consistent with the one-of-us effect, identification with the decision maker variably canceled the influence of outcome information altogether, accentuated or weakened its influence, or determined which outcome constituted successful and unsuccessful outcomes. The one-of-us effect exercised a differential influence over different facets of decision evaluation, influencing most strongly the assignment of sanctions (in-group decision makers were mostly rewarded, out-group decision-makers were mostly punished regardless of outcomes). Next, in order of potency, the effect influenced the evaluation of decision justification, the evaluation of the decision maker, and the evaluation of the quality of decision process. PMID:11485193

  15. Decision models for capital investment and financing decisions in hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Vraciu, R A

    1980-01-01

    The literature on capital investment and financing decisions for hospitals has suggested several approaches to analyzing sets of options. In this paper, I present a taxonomy of the different approaches; analyze and compare the different elements of the taxonomy; and illustrate and discuss the information that can be gained by using each approach. I view these different analytic methods as complementary rather than competing methods of providing information to decision makers, and argue that the complex nature of hospital objectives demands the use of more than one approach. Failure to do this may lead to biased evaluations and poor decision making. PMID:6768699

  16. Phenology for Science, Resource Management, Decision Making, and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Vivian P.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2011-01-01

    Fourth USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) Research Coordination Network (RCN) Annual Meeting and Stakeholders Workshop; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 21-22 September 2010; Phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle events, is rapidly emerging as a fundamental approach for understanding how ecological systems respond to environmental variation and climate change. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; http://www.usanpn.org) is a large-scale network of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions, resource management agencies, and tribes. The network is dedicated to conducting and promoting repeated and integrated plant and animal phenological observations, identifying linkages with other relevant biological and physical data sources, and developing and distributing the tools to analyze these data at local to national scales. The primary goal of the USA-NPN is to improve the ability of decision makers to design strategies for climate adaptation.

  17. Phenology for science, resource management, decision making, and education

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, V.P.; Weltzin, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Fourth USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) Research Coordination Network (RCN) Annual Meeting and Stakeholders Workshop; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 21-22 September 2010; Phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle events, is rapidly emerging as a fundamental approach for understanding how ecological systems respond to environmental variation and climate change. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; http://www.usanpn.org) is a large-scale network of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions, resource management agencies, and tribes. The network is dedicated to conducting and promoting repeated and integrated plant and animal phenological observations, identifying linkages with other relevant biological and physical data sources, and developing and distributing the tools to analyze these data at local to national scales. The primary goal of the USA-NPN is to improve the ability of decision makers to design strategies for climate adaptation.

  18. A Decision Support Framework for Science-Based, Multi-Stakeholder Deliberation: A Coral Reef Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehr, Amanda P.; Small, Mitchell J.; Bradley, Patricia; Fisher, William S.; Vega, Ann; Black, Kelly; Stockton, Tom

    2012-12-01

    We present a decision support framework for science-based assessment and multi-stakeholder deliberation. The framework consists of two parts: a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses) analysis to identify the important causal relationships among anthropogenic environmental stressors, processes, and outcomes; and a Decision Landscape analysis to depict the legal, social, and institutional dimensions of environmental decisions. The Decision Landscape incorporates interactions among government agencies, regulated businesses, non-government organizations, and other stakeholders. It also identifies where scientific information regarding environmental processes is collected and transmitted to improve knowledge about elements of the DPSIR and to improve the scientific basis for decisions. Our application of the decision support framework to coral reef protection and restoration in the Florida Keys focusing on anthropogenic stressors, such as wastewater, proved to be successful and offered several insights. Using information from a management plan, it was possible to capture the current state of the science with a DPSIR analysis as well as important decision options, decision makers and applicable laws with a the Decision Landscape analysis. A structured elicitation of values and beliefs conducted at a coral reef management workshop held in Key West, Florida provided a diversity of opinion and also indicated a prioritization of several environmental stressors affecting coral reef health. The integrated DPSIR/Decision landscape framework for the Florida Keys developed based on the elicited opinion and the DPSIR analysis can be used to inform management decisions, to reveal the role that further scientific information and research might play to populate the framework, and to facilitate better-informed agreement among participants.

  19. The Risky Shift in Policy Decision Making: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilpert, B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Based on analysis of data on 432 decision-makers from around the world, this study examines the decision-making phenomenon that individuals tend to move toward riskier decisions after group discussion. Findings of the analysis contradicted earlier studies, showing a consistent shift toward greater risk avoidance. Available from Elsevier Scientific…

  20. Diagnostic Classification Decisions As a Function of Referral Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; Algozzine, Bob

    Educational decision makers (N=224) participated in a computer simulated decision making experience to ascertain the extent to which referral information on a child with a suspected handicapping condition biased classification decisions. Ss were randomly assigned to 16 conditions varying on the basis of the child's sex, socioeconomic status,…

  1. Swift and Smart Decision Making: Heuristics that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the research literature on decision making and identify and develop a set of heuristics that work for school decision makers. Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is a synthesis of the research on decision-making heuristics that work. Findings: A set of nine rules for swift and smart decision…

  2. The Decision-Making Structure and the Dean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Betty M.; George, Shirley A.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics in the college academic setting and the external environment that affect the decision-making structure and that the dean should consider before reorganization are examined. Concepts and theories about governance, decision-making, organizational structure, and characteristics of effective decision makers are also briefly reviewed. A…

  3. Decision Making in Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  4. Ethanol fuels reference guide: a decision-makers guide to ethanol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    This guide is a compendium of information on alcohol fuel production and use. Chapter titles are: facts about ethanol; gasohol-answers to the basic questions; feedstocks and their coproducts; ethanol production processes; and vehicle fuel use and performance. In addition, there are 8 appendices which include fermentation guides for common grains and potatoes, component and enzyme manufacturers, and information on regulations and permits. (DMC)

  5. Employment-Oriented Educational Programmes for Disadvantaged Youth: A Memo to Municipal Decision-Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Primary Educ., Literacy & Adult Educ., Educ. in Rural Areas

    This report contains case studies from six countries on local efforts to ease the transition of youth from school to work and to stop or prevent them from regressing to semiliteracy or illiteracy. The countries studied are Canada, Mexico, the United Kingdom, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, Yugoslavia, and Zimbabwe. A short summary of each of…

  6. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... under 49 CFR 1515.7. (2) An applicant for an HME or a TWIC who has been issued a Final Determination of... 49 CFR 1515.9. (3) An individual engaged in air cargo operations who works for certain aircraft... been issued a Final Determination of Threat Assessment after an appeal as described in 49 CFR...

  7. Families as Decision-Makers: When Researchers and Advocates Work Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields-Smith, Cheryl; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Families across the United States must routinely make difficult choices about child care arrangements because of the need to resume a job, continue an education or training program, or care for other family members. Leaving children in the care of others for the first time can be difficult (Sayer, Bianchi, & Robinson, 2004; Van Horn, Ramey,…

  8. The Concepts of Quality for Rural and Small School Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alfred P.; Hedlund, Paul H.

    This report briefly introduces the ideas of six influential individuals in the field of quality control, and relates these concepts to current educational innovations. Quality is defined by Philip B. Crosby as the result of a culture of relationships within an organization. W. Edwards Deming espouses intrinsic motivation for all employees,…

  9. Adult Vocational Education Follow Through. A System for Participant Feedback for Decision Makers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Thomas R.

    The objectives of this project were (1) to develop participant feedback materials that can be used by local adult vocational education (AVE) administrators for program planning, implementation, and evaluation and (2) to determine why participants enroll in AVE programs. A follow-up survey which contained key items from the follow-through system…

  10. Laboratory Information Management Systems for Forensic Laboratories: A White Paper for Directors and Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony Hendrickson; Brian Mennecke; Kevin Scheibe; Anthony Townsend

    2005-10-01

    Modern, forensics laboratories need Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) implementations that allow the lab to track evidentiary items through their examination lifecycle and also serve all pertinent laboratory personnel. The research presented here presents LIMS core requirements as viewed by respondents serving in different forensic laboratory capacities as well as different forensic laboratory environments. A product-development methodology was employed to evaluate the relative value of the key features that constitute a LIMS, in order to develop a set of relative values for these features and the specifics of their implementation. In addition to the results of the product development analysis, this paper also provides an extensive review of LIMS and provides an overview of the preparation and planning process for the successful upgrade or implementation of a LIMS. Analysis of the data indicate that the relative value of LIMS components are viewed differently depending upon respondents' job roles (i.e., evidence technicians, scientists, and lab management), as well as by laboratory size. Specifically, the data show that: (1) Evidence technicians place the most value on chain of evidence capabilities and on chain of custody tracking; (2) Scientists generally place greatest value on report writing and generation, and on tracking daughter evidence that develops during their analyses; (3) Lab. Managers place the greatest value on chain of custody, daughter evidence, and not surprisingly, management reporting capabilities; and (4) Lab size affects LIMS preference in that, while all labs place daughter evidence tracking, chain of custody, and management and analyst report generation as their top three priorities, the order of this prioritization is size dependent.

  11. The Strategically Manageable University: Perceptions of Strategic Choice and Strategic Change among Key Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frølich, Nicoline; Stensaker, Bjørn; Scordato, Lisa; Bótas, Paulo Charles Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    One common way of conceptualising recent changes in university governance is by stating that the universities are being pushed towards a market-like setting where the uniqueness of each university's strategy and capacity for introducing organizational change is seen as necessary to improve the functioning of the university. We argue that the…

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility in NCAA Athletics: Institutional Practices and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lauren Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Tactical corporate social responsibility (CSR) can play a central role in an organization's strategic management (Hamil & Morrow, 2011) by enhancing the relationship between an organization and its key stakeholders (Babiak & Wolfe, 2009). In the context of sport, these stakeholders can include fans, the media, team employees, and the…

  13. Title IX Athletics Policies: Issues and Data for Education Decision Makers. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education.

    In 2002, the U.S. Department of Education established the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics to collect information, analyze issues, and obtain public input related to improving the application of current standards for measuring equal opportunity for boys and girls to participate in athletics under Title IX. The National Coalition of Woman and…

  14. Cost burden of viral respiratory infections: issues for formulary decision makers.

    PubMed

    Bertino, Joseph S

    2002-04-22

    Viral respiratory infections (VRIs) are a common malady associated with considerable costs in terms of decreased productivity and time lost from work or school, visits to health-care providers, and the amount of drugs prescribed. Both total respiratory illness and rhinovirus infection peak during the fall and spring seasons, although the average percentage of office visits by patients with a rhinovirus infection is moderately high throughout the year. Most common cold remedies are relatively ineffective and may produce side effects that contribute to increased health-care costs. Antibiotic therapy is widely overused and misused despite evidence that antibiotics fail to treat the cause of VRI or prevent secondary bacterial infections. Increasing use of antibiotics has a significant impact on health-care costs and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Reasons for overprescribing antibiotics are varied, but they often involve physician and patient attitudes and expectations. Although treatment of VRIs poses challenges for effective formulary management, several steps can be taken to facilitate the introduction of antiviral agents, including patient and provider education, the development of rapid diagnostic tests, and medical-economics studies to determine the true cost of antiviral therapy. PMID:11955459

  15. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... under 49 CFR 1515.7. (2) An applicant for an HME or a TWIC who has been issued a Final Determination of... 49 CFR 1515.9. (3) An individual engaged in air cargo operations who works for certain aircraft... Determination of Threat Assessment after an appeal as described in 49 CFR 1515.9. (b) Request for review....

  16. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... under 49 CFR 1515.7. (2) An applicant for an HME or a TWIC who has been issued a Final Determination of... 49 CFR 1515.9. (3) An individual engaged in air cargo operations who works for certain aircraft... Determination of Threat Assessment after an appeal as described in 49 CFR 1515.9. (b) Request for review....

  17. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... under 49 CFR 1515.7. (2) An applicant for an HME or a TWIC who has been issued a Final Determination of... 49 CFR 1515.9. (3) An individual engaged in air cargo operations who works for certain aircraft... Determination of Threat Assessment after an appeal as described in 49 CFR 1515.9. (b) Request for review....

  18. Researchers and Decision-Makers in Higher Education in Mexico: Underpinnings and Agendas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didou-Aupetit, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the links between research and policy involves taking into account not only who the educational researchers are but also the context in which they act. In this paper, public higher education policies are analyzed, since they represent a principal object of study for researchers and a relevant sphere for their interactions with…

  19. A Primer on Cabling Design and Implementation: Considerations for Decision-Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This guide for school administrators and staff is intended to be used in conjunction with the "Guidelines To Provide Uniform Wiring Service for Telecommunications in North Carolina Public Schools" as they: begin planning for cable implementation in the schools; work with architects and builders in the design and implementation of cabling systems;…

  20. Models of Providing Science Instruction in the Elementary Grades: A Research Agenda to Inform Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Abigail J.; Pasquale, Marian M.; Marco, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the outgrowth of a recently held invitational conference, supported by the National Science Foundation, to define, describe, and examine existing models for the use of elementary science specialists. The authors explore the educational, policy, and financial issues that affect the use of science specialists as well as offer…

  1. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under 49 CFR 1515.7. (2) An applicant for an HME or a TWIC who has been issued a Final Determination of... 49 CFR 1515.9. (3) An individual engaged in air cargo operations who works for certain aircraft... Determination of Threat Assessment after an appeal as described in 49 CFR 1515.9. (b) Request for review....

  2. Assessing restoration using ecosystem service benefit indicators: An approach for decision makers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological restoration can reestablish ecosystem services (ES) that provide important social benefits. Managers with limited funds and resources are forced to prioritize potential restoration sites for implementation, and prioritizing restoration sites based on ecological functio...

  3. Delivering on Equity: Implications for Decision-Makers. Issue Brief #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonemeier, Jennifer; Trader, Barb; Richards, Curtis; Blank, Rolf; East, Bill; Toson, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The SWIFT Center will demonstrate how schools can be transformed to provide inclusive educational opportunities for all students. The SWIFT Center will address the key American goal of equal educational opportunity by assisting schools to reorganize in ways that enable them to fully deliver on inclusive, general education for all…

  4. Decision-Makers' Forum on a Unified Strategy for Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    An abundant and secure energy supply is critical to our country’s prosperity, and energy supply is now a central issue in global stability and security. Unfortunately, the Unites States continues to steadily increase the fraction of energy it imports from foreign sources. In May 2001, the National Energy Policy noted that this imbalance, "if allowed to continue, will inevitably undermine our economy, our standard of living, and our national security." In addition to these serious impacts, growing concern about air pollution and atmospheric carbon levels hold the potential for global climate change. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth’s surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated warming during the past two decades. The current energy supply situation clearly demands coordinated action. Nuclear energy is preeminent in its ability to deliver affordable energy today and meet the growing imperatives for clean air and energy supplies in the future.

  5. Detecting Methane Emission Sources in California: a Case-Study of Scientist/Decision-Maker Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, F. M.; Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Aubrey, A. D.; Falk, M.; Kuwayama, T.; Hinojosa, L.

    2015-12-01

    Reducing anthropogenic methane emissions is a high priority for the state of California as a strategy to meet near-term greenhouse gas emissions targets. However, implementation of an effective, cost-efficient methane mitigation plan requires local-to-regional scale information on methane sources, and cooperation of diverse stakeholders. We hypothesize that methane "super-emitters," large point sources thought to contribute disproportionately to anthropogenic methane emissions, are logical mitigation targets. We outline a tiered observing strategy involving satellite, aircraft, and surface observations to identify these super-emitters and their contribution to regional methane emissions. We demonstrate this approach with field studies of agricultural and oil and gas sources in California's San Joaquin Valley with cooperation a multi-stakeholder team. This partnership between researchers, regulators, and methane emitting industry took advantage of data sharing, site access, and complementary measurement approaches to identify appropriate methane mitigation targets. This experience suggests that collaborative partnerships that leverage multiple observational methods will be required for identifying methane mitigation targets and crafting regionally appropriate methane mitigation policy.

  6. Making predictive ecology more relevant to policy makers and practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, William J.; Freckleton, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the aims of ecology is to aid policy makers and practitioners through the development of testable predictions of relevance to society. Here, we argue that this capacity can be improved in three ways. Firstly, by thinking more clearly about the priority issues using a range of methods including horizon scanning, identifying policy gaps, identifying priority questions and using evidence-based conservation to identify knowledge gaps. Secondly, by linking ecological models with models of other systems, such as economic and social models. Thirdly, by considering alternative approaches to generate and model data that use, for example, discrete or categorical states to model ecological systems. We particularly highlight that models are essential for making predictions. However, a key to the limitation in their use is the degree to which ecologists are able to communicate results to policy makers in a clear, useful and timely fashion. PMID:22144394

  7. Spectrally Resolved Maker Fringes in High-Order Harmonic Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyl, C. M.; Güdde, J.; Höfer, U.; L'Huillier, A.

    2011-07-01

    We investigate macroscopic interference effects in high-order harmonic generation using a Ti:sapphire laser operating at a 100 kHz repetition rate. The structure and behavior of spectral and spatial interference fringes are explained and analytically described by transient phase matching of the long electron trajectory contribution. Time-frequency mapping due to the temporal chirp of the harmonic emission allows us to observe Maker fringes directly in the spectral domain.

  8. Allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in a violin maker.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Heather D; Fogelman, Joshua P; Ramsay, David L; Cohen, David E

    2002-02-01

    Allergy to colophony is well noted in the literature, however, there have been few case reports of allergic contact dermatitis to propolis in musicians and instrument makers. We report a case of a stringed instrument craftsman who developed allergic contact dermatitis to propolis, a component of Italian varnish. A review of the components, applications, and the clinical manifestations of hypersensitivity reactions to propolis are presented. PMID:11807465

  9. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  10. A decision analysis approach for risk management of near-earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert C.; Jones, Thomas D.; Chapman, Clark R.

    2014-10-01

    Risk management of near-Earth objects (NEOs; e.g., asteroids and comets) that can potentially impact Earth is an important issue that took on added urgency with the Chelyabinsk event of February 2013. Thousands of NEOs large enough to cause substantial damage are known to exist, although only a small fraction of these have the potential to impact Earth in the next few centuries. The probability and location of a NEO impact are subject to complex physics and great uncertainty, and consequences can range from minimal to devastating, depending upon the size of the NEO and location of impact. Deflecting a potential NEO impactor would be complex and expensive, and inter-agency and international cooperation would be necessary. Such deflection campaigns may be risky in themselves, and mission failure may result in unintended consequences. The benefits, risks, and costs of different potential NEO risk management strategies have not been compared in a systematic fashion. We present a decision analysis framework addressing this hazard. Decision analysis is the science of informing difficult decisions. It is inherently multi-disciplinary, especially with regard to managing catastrophic risks. Note that risk analysis clarifies the nature and magnitude of risks, whereas decision analysis guides rational risk management. Decision analysis can be used to inform strategic, policy, or resource allocation decisions. First, a problem is defined, including the decision situation and context. Second, objectives are defined, based upon what the different decision-makers and stakeholders (i.e., participants in the decision) value as important. Third, quantitative measures or scales for the objectives are determined. Fourth, alternative choices or strategies are defined. Fifth, the problem is then quantitatively modeled, including probabilistic risk analysis, and the alternatives are ranked in terms of how well they satisfy the objectives. Sixth, sensitivity analyses are performed in

  11. Literacy and life skills education for vulnerable youth: What policy makers can do

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country research study undertaken by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in cooperation with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD Canada; previously Canadian International Development Agency, CIDA), and on subsequent policy dialogue forums with policy makers, practitioners, researchers and youth representatives held in Africa, the Arab region and Asia. Built on this review of existing policies and their implementation, this note provides lessons for innovative practices and suggests six concrete ways to address the needs of vulnerable youth through literacy and life skills education.

  12. State Library Agencies Data, FY 1994. On Disk. [Computer Diskette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The annual State Library Agencies (STLA) Survey is a cooperative effort between the Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA), the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS), and the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The survey provides state and federal policy-makers, researchers, and other…

  13. State Library Agencies Data, FY 1995. On Disk. [Diskette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The annual State Library Agencies (STLA) Survey is a cooperative effort between the Chief Officers of State Library Agencies (COSLA), the U.S. National Commission on Libraries and Information Science (NCLIS), and the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The survey provides state and federal policy-makers, researchers, and other…

  14. Beyond the lab: observations on the process by which science successfully informs management and policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific findings inform management decisions and policy products through various ways, these include: synthesis reports, white papers, in-person and web-based seminars (webinars), communication from specialized staff, and seminal peer-reviewed journal articles. Scientists are often told that if they want their science to inform management decisions and policy products that they must: clearly and simply articulate discreet pieces of scientific information and avoid attaching advocacy messages to the science; however, solely relying on these tenants does not ensure that scientific products will infuse the realms of management and policy. The process by which science successfully informs management decisions and policy products rarely begins at the time the results come out of the lab, but rather, before the research is carried out. Having an understanding of the political climate, management needs, agency research agendas, and funding limitations, as well as developing a working relationship with the intended managers and policy makers are key elements to developing the kind of science results and products that often make an impact in the management and policy world. In my presentation I will provide case-studies from California (USA) to highlight the type of coastal, ocean and climate science that has been successful in informing management decisions and policy documents, as well as provide a state-level agency perspective on the process by which this occurs.

  15. 14 CFR § 1262.308 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Agency review. § 1262.308 Section § 1262... AGENCY PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 1262.308 Agency review. (a) Within 30... the applicant or agency counsel may seek Agency review of the decision; or, the NASA...

  16. HTA agencies facing model biases: the case of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Raimond, Véronique; Josselin, Jean-Michel; Rochaix, Lise

    2014-09-01

    When evaluating new drugs or treatments eligible for reimbursement, health technology assessment (HTA) agencies are repeatedly faced with cost-effectiveness analyses that evidence lack of adequate data and modeling biases. The case of type 2 diabetes illustrates this difficulty. In spite of its high disease burden, type 2 diabetes is poorly documented through existing cost-effectiveness analyses. We support this statement by an exhaustive literature review that enables us to precisely pinpoint the limitations of models used for the assessment of newly marketed (and expensive) drugs. We find that models are mostly restricted to surrogate endpoints and based on non-inferiority clinical trial data; they also show biases in the choice of comparators and inclusion criteria. Such limitations undermine the scope and applicability of HTA practice guidelines based on cost-effectiveness evidence. Nevertheless, cost-effectiveness models remain an opportunity to better inform decision makers and to reduce the uncertainty surrounding their decisions. HTA agencies are best placed to provide incentives for companies to improve the quality of the cost-effectiveness studies submitted for pricing and reimbursement decisions. One such incentive is to include stages of discussion between the company and the health authority during the evaluation process. PMID:24862533

  17. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  18. 49 CFR 1016.309 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Agency review. 1016.309 Section 1016.309... Agency review. In the event the adjudicative officer is not the entire Board, the applicant or agency counsel may seek review of the initial decision on the fee application, or the Board may review...

  19. 49 CFR 1016.309 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Agency review. 1016.309 Section 1016.309... Agency review. In the event the adjudicative officer is not the entire Board, the applicant or agency counsel may seek review of the initial decision on the fee application, or the Board may review...

  20. 49 CFR 1016.309 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agency review. 1016.309 Section 1016.309... Agency review. In the event the adjudicative officer is not the entire Board, the applicant or agency counsel may seek review of the initial decision on the fee application, or the Board may review...

  1. 31 CFR 6.15 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agency review. 6.15 Section 6.15... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.15 Agency review. Either the applicant or agency counsel may seek review of the initial decision on the fee application, or the...

  2. 49 CFR 6.35 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agency review. 6.35 Section 6.35 Transportation... PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.35 Agency review. Where Department review of the underlying decision is permitted, either the applicant or agency counsel, may seek review of the...

  3. 31 CFR 6.15 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Agency review. 6.15 Section 6.15... EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Procedures for Considering Applications § 6.15 Agency review. Either the applicant or agency counsel may seek review of the initial decision on the fee application, or the...

  4. 7 CFR 3052.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Management decision. 3052.405 Section 3052.405... and Pass-Through Entities § 3052.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  5. 7 CFR 3052.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management decision. 3052.405 Section 3052.405... and Pass-Through Entities § 3052.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  6. 7 CFR 3052.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management decision. 3052.405 Section 3052.405... and Pass-Through Entities § 3052.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  7. 7 CFR 3052.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Management decision. 3052.405 Section 3052.405... and Pass-Through Entities § 3052.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  8. 7 CFR 764.401 - Loan decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.401 Loan decision. (a) Loan approval... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan decision. 764.401 Section 764.401 Agriculture... authorizing statutes, other Federal laws, or Federal credit policies. (c) Overturn of an Agency decision...

  9. 7 CFR 764.401 - Loan decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.401 Loan decision. (a) Loan approval... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan decision. 764.401 Section 764.401 Agriculture... authorizing statutes, other Federal laws, or Federal credit policies. (c) Overturn of an Agency decision...

  10. 7 CFR 764.401 - Loan decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.401 Loan decision. (a) Loan approval... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan decision. 764.401 Section 764.401 Agriculture... authorizing statutes, other Federal laws, or Federal credit policies. (c) Overturn of an Agency decision...

  11. 7 CFR 764.401 - Loan decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.401 Loan decision. (a) Loan approval... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Loan decision. 764.401 Section 764.401 Agriculture... authorizing statutes, other Federal laws, or Federal credit policies. (c) Overturn of an Agency decision...

  12. 22 CFR 909.4 - Other decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Other decision. 909.4 Section 909.4 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD DECISIONMAKING § 909.4 Other decision. Where the Board's decision requires no action by an Agency, the decision shall be forwarded to the grievant. A copy of the...

  13. 39 CFR 957.21 - Decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decision. 957.21 Section 957.21 Postal Service... SUSPENSION FROM CONTRACTING § 957.21 Decision. The Judicial Officer shall issue a final agency decision. Such decision shall include findings and conclusions, with the reasons therefor, upon all the material issues...

  14. Economic aspects of clinical decision making: applications of clinical decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Crane, V S

    1988-03-01

    Clinical decision analysis as a basic tool for decision making is described, and potential applications of decision analysis in six areas of clinical practice are identified. Clinical decision analysis is a systematic method of describing clinical problems in a quantitative fashion, identifying possible courses of action, assessing the probability and value of outcomes, and then making a calculation to select the ultimate course of action. Clinical decision analysis provides a structure for clinical decision problems, helps clarify medical controversies, and encourages decision makers to speak a common language. Applications of clinical decision analysis in the areas of diagnostic testing, patient management, product and program selection, research and education, patient preferences, and health-care-policy evaluation are described. Decision analysis offers health professionals a tool for making quantifiable, cost-effective clinical decisions, especially in terms of clinical outcomes. PMID:3285672

  15. 77 FR 15368 - Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... availability of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Oregon to be listed pursuant to section 303(d)(2) of the Clean...

  16. Yield threshold decision framework

    SciTech Connect

    Judd, B.R.; Younker, L.W.; Hannon, W.J.

    1989-08-17

    The USA is developing a decision analysis framework for evaluating the relative value of lower yield thresholds and related verification policies. The framework facilitates systematic analysis of the major issues in the yield threshold decision. The framework can be used to evaluate options proposed either in the inter-agency process or in the negotiations. In addition, the framework can measure the importance of uncertainties and alternative judgments, and thereby determine the advantages of additional research. Since the model is explicit and quantitative, it provides a rational, defensible approach for reaching important treaty and verification decisions. 9 figs.

  17. Introduction of New Vaccines: Decision-making Process in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I.; Koehlmoos, Tracey P.

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  18. Bridging the gap between science and decision making

    PubMed Central

    von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2013-01-01

    All decisions, whether they are personal, public, or business-related, are based on the decision maker’s beliefs and values. Science can and should help decision makers by shaping their beliefs. Unfortunately, science is not easily accessible to decision makers, and scientists often do not understand decision makers’ information needs. This article presents a framework for bridging the gap between science and decision making and illustrates it with two examples. The first example is a personal health decision. It shows how a formal representation of the beliefs and values can reflect scientific inputs by a physician to combine with the values held by the decision maker to inform a medical choice. The second example is a public policy decision about managing a potential environmental hazard. It illustrates how controversial beliefs can be reflected as uncertainties and informed by science to make better decisions. Both examples use decision analysis to bridge science and decisions. The conclusions suggest that this can be a helpful process that requires skills in both science and decision making. PMID:23940310

  19. Game theory and neural basis of social decision making

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daeyeol

    2008-01-01

    Decision making in a social group displays two unique features. First, humans and other animals routinely alter their behaviors in response to changes in their physical and social environment. As a result, the outcomes of decisions that depend on the behaviors of multiple decision makers are difficult to predict, and this requires highly adaptive decision-making strategies. Second, decision makers may have other-regarding preferences and therefore choose their actions to improve or reduce the well-beings of others. Recently, many neurobiological studies have exploited game theory to probe the neural basis of decision making, and found that these unique features of social decision making might be reflected in the functions of brain areas involved in reward evaluation and reinforcement learning. Molecular genetic studies have also begun to identify genetic mechanisms for personal traits related to reinforcement learning and complex social decision making, further illuminating the biological basis of social behavior. PMID:18368047

  20. An Entropy Approach for Utility Assignment in Decision Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Ali E.

    2003-03-01

    A fundamental step in decision analysis is the elicitation of the decision-maker's preferences about the prospects of a decision situation in the form of utility values. However, this can be a difficult task to perform in practice as the number of prospects may be large, and eliciting a utility value for each prospect may be a time consuming and stressful task for the decision maker. To relieve some of the burden of this task, this paper presents a normative method to assign unbiased utility values when only incomplete preference information is available about the decision maker. We introduce the notion of a utility density function and propose a maximum entropy utility principle for utility assignment.