Science.gov

Sample records for agency decision makers

  1. Single-photon decision maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-08-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions.

  2. Single-photon decision maker.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-08-17

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions.

  3. Single-photon decision maker

    PubMed Central

    Naruse, Makoto; Berthel, Martin; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Aono, Masashi; Hori, Hirokazu; Kim, Song-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is critical in our daily lives and for society in general and is finding evermore practical applications in information and communication technologies. Herein, we demonstrate experimentally that single photons can be used to make decisions in uncertain, dynamically changing environments. Using a nitrogen-vacancy in a nanodiamond as a single-photon source, we demonstrate the decision-making capability by solving the multi-armed bandit problem. This capability is directly and immediately associated with single-photon detection in the proposed architecture, leading to adequate and adaptive autonomous decision making. This study makes it possible to create systems that benefit from the quantum nature of light to perform practical and vital intelligent functions. PMID:26278007

  4. Cost Accounting for Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneklides, Ann L.

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the importance of informed decision making through accurate anticipation of cost incurrence in light of changing economic and environmental conditions. Explains the concepts of cost accounting, full allocation of costs, the selection of an allocation base, the allocation of indirect costs, depreciation, and implications for community…

  5. A scientist's guide to engaging decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vano, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Being trained as a scientist provides many valuable tools needed to address society's most pressing environmental issues. It does not, however, provide training on one of the most critical for translating science into action: the ability to engage decision makers. Engagement means different things to different people and what is appropriate for one project might not be for another. However, recent reports have emphasized that for research to be most useful to decision making, engagement should happen at the beginning and throughout the research process. There are an increasing number of boundary organizations (e.g., NOAA's Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment program, U.S. Department of the Interior's Climate Science Centers) where engagement is encouraged and rewarded, and scientists are learning, often through trial and error, how to effectively include decision makers (a.k.a. stakeholders, practitioners, resource managers) in their research process. This presentation highlights best practices and practices to avoid when scientists engage decision makers, a list compiled through the personal experiences of both scientists and decision makers and a literature review, and how this collective knowledge could be shared, such as through a recent session and role-playing exercise given at the Northwest Climate Science Center's Climate Boot Camp. These ideas are presented in an effort to facilitate conversations about how the science community (e.g., AGU researchers) can become better prepared for effective collaborations with decision makers that will ultimately result in more actionable science.

  6. Financial planning. Influencing the decision makers.

    PubMed

    Isaac, E K

    1985-11-01

    Decision makers are most influenced by the impact on the whole, while budget preparers often concentrate on the upcoming fiscal year or on daily operations. This difference in approach becomes obvious in the budget process. Remember that your budget proposal is only one segment of the overall financial plan. Be aware of the goals of the governing body and of your CEO in projecting outcomes. Look to other disciplines to understand how they influence decision makers for funds. Resistance to this approach will neither enhance nor promote our competitive skills. We must think as financial planners to achieve our financial goals.

  7. Automation: Decision Aid or Decision Maker?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skitka, Linda J.

    1998-01-01

    This study clarified that automation bias is something unique to automated decision making contexts, and is not the result of a general tendency toward complacency. By comparing performance on exactly the same events on the same tasks with and without an automated decision aid, we were able to determine that at least the omission error part of automation bias is due to the unique context created by having an automated decision aid, and is not a phenomena that would occur even if people were not in an automated context. However, this study also revealed that having an automated decision aid did lead to modestly improved performance across all non-error events. Participants in the non- automated condition responded with 83.68% accuracy, whereas participants in the automated condition responded with 88.67% accuracy, across all events. Automated decision aids clearly led to better overall performance when they were accurate. People performed almost exactly at the level of reliability as the automation (which across events was 88% reliable). However, also clear, is that the presence of less than 100% accurate automated decision aids creates a context in which new kinds of errors in decision making can occur. Participants in the non-automated condition responded with 97% accuracy on the six "error" events, whereas participants in the automated condition had only a 65% accuracy rate when confronted with those same six events. In short, the presence of an AMA can lead to vigilance decrements that can lead to errors in decision making.

  8. Climate modeling with decision makers in mind

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Andrew; Calvin, Katherine; Lamarque, Jean -Francois

    2016-04-27

    The need for regional- and local-scale climate information is increasing rapidly as decision makers seek to anticipate and manage a variety of context-specific climate risks over the next several decades. Furthermore, global climate models are not developed with these user needs in mind, and they typically operate at resolutions that are too coarse to provide information that could be used to support regional and local decisions.

  9. The Morality of University Decision-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Ethical failures in UK higher education have recently made the news but are not a recent development. University decision-makers can, in order to adopt an ethical way of reasoning, resort to several ethical traditions. This article focuses, through the use of concrete examples, on three which have had a significant impact in recent higher…

  10. Worksite Nutrition: A Decision-Maker's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Dietetic Association, Chicago, IL.

    This guide is designed specifically to assist decision makers in business and industry, including chief executive officers, benefits managers, human resource directors, wellness coordinators, and owners of small businesses, in understanding how diet and nutrition affect employees and the company. It addresses the concerns of both small and large…

  11. The "Diverse Decision Makers": Helping Students with Career Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donald, Kathleen M.; Carlisle, Jane M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents the Diverse Decision Makers, a humorous classification of student career decision-making characteristics which can be used to stimulate group discussion in career planning workshops. The use of humor provides students with a different perspective to their problem and suggests some of the underlying difficulties in decision making. (JAC)

  12. Connecting Geoscience and Decision Makers Through a Common Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, L. M.; Wood, C.; Boland, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Geoscientists and decision makers often use different words to describe the same thing. The American Geosciences Institute has developed a consistent definition for the geosciences (Wilson, 2014); however this definition often varies from how decision maker groups at the national, state, local, and regional levels often categorize geoscience topics. Where geoscientists may to refer to "geoscience," decision makers may use terms like "energy," "environment," and "natural resources." How may the geoscience community provide geoscience information to decision makers in a context they understand while at the same time providing a simple, yet consistent representation of all that the geosciences include? The American Geoscience Institute's (AGI's) Critical Issues program's main goal is to connect decision makers at all levels with decision-relevant, impartial, expert information from across the geosciences. The program uses a multi-faceted approach to reach different decision maker groups, including policy makers and government employees at the federal, state and local level. We discuss the challenges the Critical Issues program has overcome in representing the geosciences to decision makers in a cohesive fashion such that decision makers can access the information they need, while at the same time becoming aware of the breadth of information the geosciences has to offer, and the value of including geoscience in the decision-making process. References: Wilson, C.E. (2014) Status of the Geoscience Workforce 2014. American Geological Institute. Alexandria, VA.

  13. Role Perceptions of Black Decision Makers: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzzell, Odell

    1981-01-01

    A study in Wake County, North Carolina, designed to determine how racist structural barriers influence role perceptions of Black decision makers, identified the following discriminators of role perceptions: 1) officials' perceptions of themselves as decision makers or decision influencers; 2) age; 3) racial composition of organization; 4)…

  14. Appropriateness for Total Joint Replacement: Perspectives of Decision-Makers

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, Nathalie; De coster, Carolyn; Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Sanmartin, Claudia; Bohm, Éric; Dunbar, Michael J.; Frank, CY; Hawker, Gillian; Noseworthy, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background: Improving access to total joint replacement (TJR) has been a priority. Without robust mechanisms to ensure appropriateness, these procedures may be overused, incurring substantial costs. In that context, decision-makers are particularly concerned with the appropriateness of TJR. Objective: While our previous research focused on the appropriateness of TJR from clinical and patient perspectives, this study is aimed at understanding decision-makers' perspectives. Methods: Using a semi-structured guide, we interviewed a convenience sample of decision-makers in four Canadian provinces (Alberta, Manitoba, Nova Scotia and Quebec) between February and March 2013. For the purposes of this study, a decision-maker was defined as a manager, institutional leader or policy maker. Results: Fifteen interviews were conducted with decision-makers at ministry (n = 3), regional (n = 6) and institutional levels (n = 8). Decision-makers see themselves as having a key role in the appropriateness discourse, that of optimizing resource allocation and efficient delivery of services for TJR, to improve population outcomes. Conclusion: The decision-makers' view of appropriateness recognizes the importance of the clinical view, but it offers a very different input into the appropriateness discourse, more closely aligned with appropriateness of setting, which refers to cost-effectiveness considerations. PMID:27027795

  15. ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER: USING SOUND SCIENCE FOR RISK MANAGEMENT AND ASSISTING COMMUNITY DECISION-MAKERS - A MULTI-AGENCY, COMMUNITY-BASED RESEARCH PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (ug/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Cen...

  16. The Computer as Adaptive Instructional Decision Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopstein, Felix F.; Seidel, Robert J.

    The computer's potential for education, and most particularly for instruction, is contingent on the development of a class of instructional decision models (formal instructional strategies) that interact with the student through appropriate peripheral equipment (man-machine interfaces). Computer hardware and software by themselves should not be…

  17. Data Quality: Earning the Confidence of Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligon, Glynn D.

    Professionals responsible for educational research, evaluation, and statistics have sought to provide timely and useful information to decision makers. Regardless of the evaluation model, research design, or statistical methodology employed, informing the decision making process with quality, reliable data is a basic goal. The definition of…

  18. Educational Goods and Values: A Framework for Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brighouse, Harry; Ladd, Helen F.; Loeb, Susanna; Swift, Adam

    2016-01-01

    This article articulates a framework suitable for use when making decisions about education policy. Decision makers should establish what the feasible options are and evaluate them in terms of their contribution to the development, and distribution, of educational goods in children, balanced against the negative effect of policies on important…

  19. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  20. Training conservation practitioners to be better decision makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Williams, James H.; Jensen, Gitte H.; Madsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Traditional conservation curricula and training typically emphasizes only one part of systematic decision making (i.e., the science), at the expense of preparing conservation practitioners with critical skills in values-setting, working with decision makers and stakeholders, and effective problem framing. In this article we describe how the application of decision science is relevant to conservation problems and suggest how current and future conservation practitioners can be trained to be better decision makers. Though decision-analytic approaches vary considerably, they all involve: (1) properly formulating the decision problem; (2) specifying feasible alternative actions; and (3) selecting criteria for evaluating potential outcomes. Two approaches are available for providing training in decision science, with each serving different needs. Formal education is useful for providing simple, well-defined problems that allow demonstrations of the structure, axioms and general characteristics of a decision-analytic approach. In contrast, practical training can offer complex, realistic decision problems requiring more careful structuring and analysis than those used for formal training purposes. Ultimately, the kinds and degree of training necessary depend on the role conservation practitioners play in a decision-making process. Those attempting to facilitate decision-making processes will need advanced training in both technical aspects of decision science and in facilitation techniques, as well as opportunities to apprentice under decision analysts/consultants. Our primary goal should be an attempt to ingrain a discipline for applying clarity of thought to all decisions.

  1. Archives and Records Management for Decision Makers: A RAMP Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazikana, Peter C.

    Intended to highlight those aspects of the archival field that government officials should be aware of, this report on the Records and Archives Management Programme (RAMP) outlines the major principles of records management and archives administration, identifies the information needs of the decision makers, and assesses the ways in which records…

  2. On avoiding framing effects in experienced decision makers.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Dhami, Mandeep K

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to (a) demonstrate the effect of positive-negative framing on experienced criminal justice decision makers, (b) examine the debiasing effect of visually structured risk messages, and (c) investigate whether risk perceptions mediate the debiasing effect of visual aids on decision making. In two phases, 60 senior police officers estimated the accuracy of a counterterrorism technique in identifying whether a known terror suspect poses an imminent danger and decided whether they would recommend the technique to policy makers. Officers also rated their confidence in this recommendation. When information about the effectiveness of the counterterrorism technique was presented in a numerical format, officers' perceptions of accuracy and recommendation decisions were susceptible to the framing effect: The technique was perceived to be more accurate and was more likely to be recommended when its effectiveness was presented in a positive than in a negative frame. However, when the information was represented visually using icon arrays, there were no such framing effects. Finally, perceptions of accuracy mediated the debiasing effect of visual aids on recommendation decisions. We offer potential explanations for the debiasing effect of visual aids and implications for communicating risk to experienced, professional decision makers.

  3. Physician-facilitated designation of proxy decision maker.

    PubMed

    Arora, Amit; Cummings, Laura; Crome, Peter

    2016-01-01

    With vast improvements in healthcare in recent decades, people are living longer but often with higher rates of morbidity and chronic illnesses. This has resulted in a higher proportion of the population who may benefit from early end-of-life 'conversation and planning', but also gives healthcare professionals more time during which these discussions are relevant, as people live longer with their chronic diseases. A survey conducted by Lifshitz et al (Isr J Health Policy Res 5:6, 2016) sought to assess physician awareness and willingness to discuss designating a proxy decision-maker with patients, in order to aid end-of-life care in the event that the patient is rendered unable to make or communicate these decisions later in life. Their article suggests that proxy decision-maker designation is only one aspect of end-of-life care; a challenging area littered with ethical and moral dilemmas. Without early, open and frank discussions with patients regarding their wishes at the end of life, proxy decision-makers may be in no better position than physicians or a court appointed proxy to make decisions in the patients' best interests/benefits. This commentary also touches upon the use of health and care passports being developed or in early phases in the United Kingdom, and whether these may be utilised in the field of palliative care in Israel.

  4. Analysis of commercial health newsletters by worksite decision makers.

    PubMed

    Miller, R E; Golaszewski, T J

    1992-01-01

    Health newsletters are an important component of worksite wellness, and human resource program managers believe these publications motivate employees and promote health services. Research has identified employee segments more likely to read health newsletters as well as how these publications may contribute to better medical self-care decision making. Even so, virtually no data exist on the factors contributing to newsletter selection and purchase except proprietary, anecdotal information collected by commercial vendors. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to investigate how newsletter features are rated by decision makers and determine factors predicting intent to purchase a health newsletter.

  5. Trusted Advisors, Decision Models and Other Keys to Communicating Science to Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, E.

    2006-12-01

    Water resource management decisions often involve multiple parties engaged in contentious negotiations that try to navigate through complex combinations of legal, social, hydrologic, financial, and engineering considerations. The standard approach for resolving these issues is some form of multi-party negotiation, a formal court decision, or a combination of the two. In all these cases, the role of the decision maker(s) is to choose and implement the best option that fits the needs and wants of the community. However, each path to a decision carries the risk of technical and/or financial infeasibility as well as the possibility of unintended consequences. To help reduce this risk, decision makers often rely on some type of predictive analysis from which they can evaluate the projected consequences of their decisions. Typically, decision makers are supported in the analysis process by trusted advisors who engage in the analysis as well as the day to day tasks associated with multi-party negotiations. In the case of water resource management, the analysis is frequently a numerical model or set of models that can simulate various management decisions across multiple systems and output results that illustrate the impact on areas of concern. Thus, in order to communicate scientific knowledge to the decision makers, the quality of the communication between the analysts, the trusted advisor, and the decision maker must be clear and direct. To illustrate this concept, a multi-attribute decision analysis matrix will be used to outline the value of computer model-based collaborative negotiation approaches to guide water resources decision making and communication with decision makers. In addition, the critical role of the trusted advisor and other secondary participants in the decision process will be discussed using examples from recent water negotiations.

  6. Focusing biodiversity research on the needs of decision makers

    SciTech Connect

    Smythe, K.D.; Bernabo, J.C.; Carter, T.B.; Jutro, P.R.

    1996-11-01

    The project on Biodiversity Uncertainties and Research Needs (BURN) ensures the advancement of usable knowledge on biodiversity by obtaining input from decision makers on their priority information needs about biodiversity and then using this input to engage leading scientists in designing policy-relevant research. Decision makers had concerns about four issues: significance of biodiversity; status and trends of biodiversity; management for biodiversity; the linkage of social, cultural, economic, legal, and biological objectives. Leading scientists identified research required to address these needs and determined the probability of success. The diverse group of experts reached consensus on several fundamental issues, helping to clarify the role of biodiversity in land and resource management. Several features that should be incorporated into policy-relevant research plans and management strategies for biodiversity were identified: multidisciplinary and integrative, participatory with stakeholder involvement, hierarchical, and problem- and region-specific. Activities should be focused regionally within a global perspective. More specifically, the scientists recommended six priority research areas that should be pursued to address the information needs articulated by decision makers: (1) characterization of biodiversity, (2) environmental valuation, (3) management for sustainability-for humans and the environment (adaptive management), (4) information management strategies, (5) governance and stewardship issues, and (6) communication and outreach. Broad recommendations wee developed for each research area to provide direction for research planning and resource management strategies. The results will directly benefit those groups that require biodiversity research to address their needs-whether to develop policy, manage natural resources, or make other decisions affecting biodiversity. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  7. Eco-informatics for decision makers advancing a research agenda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cushing, J.B.; Wilson, T.; Brandt, L.; Gregg, V.; Spengler, S.; Borning, A.; Delcambre, L.; Bowker, G.; Frame, M.; Fulop, J.; Hert, C.; Hovy, E.; Jones, J.; Landis, E.; Schnase, J.L.; Schweik, C.; Sonntag, W.; ,

    2005-01-01

    Resource managers often face significant information technology (IT) problems when integrating ecological or environmental information to make decisions. At a workshop sponsored by the NSF and USGS in December 2004, university researchers, natural resource managers, and information managers met to articulate IT problems facing ecology and environmental decision makers. Decision making IT problems were identified in five areas: 1) policy, 2) data presentation, 3) data gaps, 4) tools, and 5) indicators. To alleviate those problems, workshop participants recommended specific informatics research in modeling and simulation, data quality, information integration and ontologies, and social and human aspects. This paper reports the workshop findings, and briefly compares these with research that traditionally falls under the emerging eco-informatics rubric. ?? Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  8. Residents, Decision Makers, and Scientists Discuss Volcanic Hazard in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Michael F.; Cordoba, Gustavo

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge Sharing and Collaboration in Volcanic Risk Mitigation at Galeras Volcano, Colombia; Pasto, Colombia, 6-11 July 2009; Galeras volcano, located in southwestern Colombia, imposes several hazards on the surrounding population: pyroclastic flows, lahars, ashfall, and shock waves. The current hazard map shows three zones: high, medium, and low (see A. D. Hurtado Artunduaga and G. P. Cortés Jiménez, J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 77, 89-100, 1997). The pyroclastic flow hazard on this map defines the Zone of High Volcanic Hazard (ZAVA) for civil authorities. Current activity of Galeras has provoked two contentious issues related to hazard management: (1) Decision makers announce an evacuation order of ZAVA whenever the volcanic alert reaches a high level, and (2) the Colombian government initiated a relocation program for the inhabitants within ZAVA (Colombian Decrees-Laws 4106 and 3905). However, communities within ZAVA refuse to obey both the evacuation orders and the relocation process. To help resolve this situation, the University of Nariño (Colombia) and the State University of New York at Buffalo organized a workshop, which was sponsored by the U.S. National Science Foundation. A daily average of 92 people attended, including residents of ZAVA, decision makers, Colombian technical and scientific personnel, international scientists and researchers, students, and academics from the University of Nariño.

  9. Bridging the Gap between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers through the NASA DEVELOP National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favors, J. E.; Childs-Gleason, L. M.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Allsbrook, K. N.; Ruiz, M. L.; Miller, T. N.; Crepps, G.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations who collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations to enhance decision making on a local level. DEVELOP partners with a wide variety of organizations, including state and local governments, federal agencies, regional entities, tribal governments, international organizations and governments, NGOs and private companies. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations, and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This presentation will highlight best practices, feedback from project end-users, and case studies of successful adoption of methods in the decision making process.

  10. A rough set approach for determining weights of decision makers in group decision making

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Du, Ping-an; Wang, Yong; Liang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present a novel approach for determining the weights of decision makers (DMs) based on rough group decision in multiple attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems. First, we construct a rough group decision matrix from all DMs’ decision matrixes on the basis of rough set theory. After that, we derive a positive ideal solution (PIS) founded on the average matrix of rough group decision, and negative ideal solutions (NISs) founded on the lower and upper limit matrixes of rough group decision. Then, we obtain the weight of each group member and priority order of alternatives by using relative closeness method, which depends on the distances from each individual group member’ decision to the PIS and NISs. Through comparisons with existing methods and an on-line business manager selection example, the proposed method show that it can provide more insights into the subjectivity and vagueness of DMs’ evaluations and selections. PMID:28234974

  11. Using Cognitive Conflict to Promote the Use of Dialectical Learning for Strategic Decision-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Jeffrey G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a conceptual model that uses dialectical inquiry (DI) to create cognitive conflict in strategic decision-makers for the purpose of improving strategic decisions. Activation of the dialectical learning process using DI requires strategic decision-makers to integrate conflicting information causing…

  12. The Role of the National Academy of Sciences in Supporting Climate Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfring, C.

    2009-12-01

    Established in 1863 by Congress under the Lincoln Administration, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a nongovernmental organization that plays a unique role in providing scientific information to decision makers. The NAS brings together the nation’s top experts, as volunteers, to provide objective scientific analysis and advice on a wide variety of critical issues, including climate change. The Academy’s climate change-related studies range from early reports such as Carbon Dioxide and Climate: A Scientific Assessment (1979) to current activities such as America’s Climate Choices (in process). Studies have or are addressing climate forcings and feedbacks, statistics, predictability, ecological impacts, the structure of federal climate research programs, decision-making, transportation planning, and other aspects of understanding and responding to climate change. Requests for studies come primarily from Congress and federal agencies, yet the NAS is able generate a wide variety of products and reports for policy-makers, government agencies, states, and the public. With so many special interests and advocacy organizations now speaking on climate issues, the role of NAS as an objective source of information and guidance is more important than ever. This talk will highlight a range of past and ongoing Academy reports, both technical and policy-oriented, to illustrate the kinds of questions we address, the processes used to gather information and reach consensus, how we deal with multidisciplinary questions, the impacts of our studies, and the ways we are evolving to meet the needs of a changing society.

  13. Targeting Continuing Medical Education on Decision Makers: Who Decides to Transfuse Blood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnough, Lawrence T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Staff communication patterns were observed during 13 open-heart surgeries to identify the transfusion decision makers. It was determined that targeting decision makers for continuing medical education would improve the quality of transfusion practice and increase the efficiency of continuing education. (SK)

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES: A GUIDE FOR LOCAL DECISION-MAKERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental Planning for Small Communities - A Guide for Local Decision-Makers presents a process for creating and implementing a community environmental plan. With a comprehensive environmental plan, local decision-makers can create an integrated approach to protecting the env...

  15. Reaching Local Decision Makers through the OhioView Remote Sensing Consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czajkowski, K. P.

    2002-05-01

    Remote sensing technology has been slow to move out of the research lab and into public use. A primary goal of the OhioView Consortium, a consortium of ten Ohio universities working together to spread remote sensing, is to take application-based research and make the results useful to the public. In particular, the group is working to remove the barriers to the use of satellite imagery including costs of imagery and software and training of policy makers. Through collaboration with the Ohio Library and Information Network (OhioLINK), OhioView is disseminating Landsat 7 imagery over Ohio with 30 percent cloud cover or less over the internet for free. In addition, OhioView has provided remote sensing software for local government agencies. As part of the OhoView Consortium, the Department of Geography and Planning at the University of Toledo has worked with policy makers on local issues that can benefit from the addition of satellite imagery. Northwest Ohio traditionally is a region of heavy industry rather than high technology. Few policy makers or environmental consultants had considered using satellite imagery in their work. We will discuss the results of this collaboration from a project we are currently conducting with local government groups to identify wetlands. Wetlands once covered over 90 percent of Northwest Ohio. Through draining, they have virtually disappeared. The goal of this project was to produce a map of existing wetlands in Northwest Ohio that could be used by government officials to make development decisions.

  16. Can a patient designate his doctor as his proxy decision maker?

    PubMed

    Black, Philip G; Derse, Arthur R; Derrington, Sabrina; Lantos, John D

    2013-05-01

    Most lawyers and bioethicists recommend that patients enact a durable power of attorney for health care designating somebody as their proxy decision maker should they become unable to make decisions. Most people choose family members as their agent. But what if a patient wants his or her doctor to be his or her proxy decision maker? Can the doctor be both physician and surrogate decision maker? Or should those roles necessarily be kept separate? We present a case in which those issues arose, and sought comments from Sabrina Derrington, a pediatric palliative care physician; Arthur Derse, an emergency department physician and lawyer; and Phil Black, a pulmonologist.

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule its Due

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    JAN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision...by ANSI Std Z39-18 A Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule its Due « Image designed by Diane Fleischer... Conceptual Framework for Defense Acquisition Decision Makers: Giving the Schedule Its Due Chad Dacus and Col Stephen Hagel, USAF (Ret.) Conceptual

  18. Emodnet Med Sea Check-Point - Indicators for decision- maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Sophie; Claverie, Vincent; Blanc, Frédérique

    2015-04-01

    The Emodnet Checkpoint projects aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness, reliability and utility of the existing monitoring at the sea basin level. This involves the development of monitoring system indicators and a GIS Platform to perform the assessment and make it available. Assessment or production of Check-Point information is made by developing targeted products based on the monitoring data and determining whether the products are meeting the needs of industry and public authorities. Check-point users are the research community, the 'institutional' policy makers for IMP and MSFD implementation, the 'intermediate users', i.e., users capable to understand basic raw data but that benefit from seeing the Checkpoint targeted products and the assessment of the fitness for purpose. We define assessment criteria aimed to characterize/depict the input datasets in terms of 3 territories capable to show performance and gaps of the present monitoring system, appropriateness, availability and fitness for purpose. • Appropriateness: What is made available to users? What motivate/decide them to select this observation rather than this one. • Availability: How this is made available to the user? Place to understand the readiness and service performance of the EU infrastructure • Fitness for use / fitness for purpose: Ability for non-expert user to appreciate the data exploitability (feedback on efficiency & reliability of marine data) For each territory (appropriateness, Availability and Fitness for purpose / for use), we define several indicators. For example, for Availability we define Visibility, Accessibility and Performance. And Visibility is itself defined by "Easily found" and "EU service". So these indicators can be classified according to their territory and sub-territory as seen above, but also according to the complexity to build them. Indicators are built from raw descriptors in 3 stages:  Stage 1: to give a neutral and basic status directly computed from

  19. The use of control charts by laypeople and hospital decision-makers for guiding decision making.

    PubMed

    Schmidtke, K A; Watson, D G; Vlaev, I

    2017-07-01

    Graphs presenting healthcare data are increasingly available to support laypeople and hospital staff's decision making. When making these decisions, hospital staff should consider the role of chance-that is, random variation. Given random variation, decision-makers must distinguish signals (sometimes called special-cause data) from noise (common-cause data). Unfortunately, many graphs do not facilitate the statistical reasoning necessary to make such distinctions. Control charts are a less commonly used type of graph that support statistical thinking by including reference lines that separate data more likely to be signals from those more likely to be noise. The current work demonstrates for whom (laypeople and hospital staff) and when (treatment and investigative decisions) control charts strengthen data-driven decision making. We present two experiments that compare people's use of control and non-control charts to make decisions between hospitals (funnel charts vs. league tables) and to monitor changes across time (run charts with control lines vs. run charts without control lines). As expected, participants more accurately identified the outlying data using a control chart than using a non-control chart, but their ability to then apply that information to more complicated questions (e.g., where should I go for treatment?, and should I investigate?) was limited. The discussion highlights some common concerns about using control charts in hospital settings.

  20. Decision Maker based on Nanoscale Photo-excitation Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Song-Ju; Naruse, Makoto; Aono, Masashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Hara, Masahiko

    2013-08-01

    Decision-making is one of the most important intellectual abilities of the human brain. Here we propose an efficient decision-making system which uses optical energy transfer between quantum dots (QDs) mediated by optical near-field interactions occurring at scales far below the wavelength of light. The simulation results indicate that our system outperforms the softmax rule, which is known as the best-fitting algorithm for human decision-making behaviour. This suggests that we can produce a nano-system which makes decisions efficiently and adaptively by exploiting the intrinsic spatiotemporal dynamics involving QDs mediated by optical near-field interactions.

  1. Decision Maker based on Nanoscale Photo-excitation Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song-Ju; Naruse, Makoto; Aono, Masashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Hara, Masahiko

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making is one of the most important intellectual abilities of the human brain. Here we propose an efficient decision-making system which uses optical energy transfer between quantum dots (QDs) mediated by optical near-field interactions occurring at scales far below the wavelength of light. The simulation results indicate that our system outperforms the softmax rule, which is known as the best-fitting algorithm for human decision-making behaviour. This suggests that we can produce a nano-system which makes decisions efficiently and adaptively by exploiting the intrinsic spatiotemporal dynamics involving QDs mediated by optical near-field interactions. PMID:23928655

  2. Mapping a Research Agenda for Home Care Safety: Perspectives from Researchers, Providers, and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macdonald, Marilyn; Lang, Ariella; MacDonald, Jo-Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative interpretive design was to explore the perspectives of researchers, health care providers, policy makers, and decision makers on key risks, concerns, and emerging issues related to home care safety that would inform a line of research inquiry. Defining safety specifically in this home care context has yet to be…

  3. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells For CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect

    Stinton, David P; McGervey, Joseph; Curran, Scott

    2011-11-01

    Federal agency leaders are expressing growing interest in using innovative fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) technology at their sites, motivated by both executive branch sustainability targets and a desire to lead by example in the transition to a clean energy economy. Fuel cell CHP can deliver reliable electricity and heat with 70% to 85% efficiency. Implementing this technology can be a high efficiency, clean energy solution for agencies striving to meet ambitious sustainability requirements with limited budgets. Fuel cell CHP systems can use natural gas or renewable fuels, such as biogas. Procuring Stationary Fuel Cells for CHP: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers presents an overview of the process for planning and implementing a fuel cell CHP project in a concise, step-by-step format. This guide is designed to help agency leaders turn their interest in fuel cell technology into successful installations. This guide concentrates on larger (100 kW and greater) fuel cell CHP systems and does not consider other fuel cell applications such as cars, forklifts, backup power supplies or small generators (<100 kW). Because fuel cell technologies are rapidly evolving and have high up front costs, their deployment poses unique challenges. The electrical and thermal output of the CHP system must be integrated with the building s energy systems. Innovative financing mechanisms allow agencies to make a make versus buy decision to maximize savings. This guide outlines methods that federal agencies may use to procure fuel cell CHP systems with little or no capital investment. Each agency and division, however, has its own set of procurement procedures. This guide was written as a starting point, and it defers to the reader s set of rules if differences exist. The fuel cell industry is maturing, and project developers are gaining experience in working with federal agencies. Technology improvements, cost reductions, and experienced project developers are making

  4. Decision Makers Conceive of Their Choices as Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmayer, York; Sloman, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    Causal considerations must be relevant for those making decisions. Whether to bring an umbrella or leave it at home depends on the causal consequences of these options. However, most current decision theories do not address causal reasoning. Here, the authors propose a causal model theory of choice based on causal Bayes nets. The critical ideas…

  5. Issues in Distance Education: A Primer for Higher Education Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents an overview of current issues related to distance learning in higher education. It identifies central questions, issues, challenges, and opportunities that must be addressed by decision makers, as well as key attributes of effective leaders.

  6. Energy-Water Nexus: Balancing the Tradeoffs between Two-Level Decision Makers

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov

    2016-09-03

    Energy-water nexus has substantially increased importance in the recent years. Synergistic approaches based on systems-analysis and mathematical models are critical for helping decision makers better understand the interrelationships and tradeoffs between energy and water. In energywater nexus management, various decision makers with different goals and preferences, which are often conflicting, are involved. These decision makers may have different controlling power over the management objectives and the decisions. They make decisions sequentially from the upper level to the lower level, challenging decision making in energy-water nexus. In order to address such planning issues, a bi-level decision model is developed, which improvesmore » upon the existing studies by integration of bi-level programming into energy-water nexus management. The developed model represents a methodological contribution to the challenge of sequential decisionmaking in energy-water nexus through provision of an integrated modeling framework/tool. An interactive fuzzy optimization methodology is introduced to seek a satisfactory solution to meet the overall satisfaction of the two-level decision makers. The tradeoffs between the two-level decision makers in energy-water nexus management are effectively addressed and quantified. Application of the proposed model to a synthetic example problem has demonstrated its applicability in practical energy-water nexus management. Optimal solutions for electricity generation, fuel supply, water supply including groundwater, surface water and recycled water, capacity expansion of the power plants, and GHG emission control are generated. In conclusion, these analyses are capable of helping decision makers or stakeholders adjust their tolerances to make informed decisions to achieve the overall satisfaction of energy-water nexus management where bi-level sequential decision making process is involved.« less

  7. Energy-Water Nexus: Balancing the Tradeoffs between Two-Level Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov

    2016-09-03

    Energy-water nexus has substantially increased importance in the recent years. Synergistic approaches based on systems-analysis and mathematical models are critical for helping decision makers better understand the interrelationships and tradeoffs between energy and water. In energywater nexus management, various decision makers with different goals and preferences, which are often conflicting, are involved. These decision makers may have different controlling power over the management objectives and the decisions. They make decisions sequentially from the upper level to the lower level, challenging decision making in energy-water nexus. In order to address such planning issues, a bi-level decision model is developed, which improves upon the existing studies by integration of bi-level programming into energy-water nexus management. The developed model represents a methodological contribution to the challenge of sequential decisionmaking in energy-water nexus through provision of an integrated modeling framework/tool. An interactive fuzzy optimization methodology is introduced to seek a satisfactory solution to meet the overall satisfaction of the two-level decision makers. The tradeoffs between the two-level decision makers in energy-water nexus management are effectively addressed and quantified. Application of the proposed model to a synthetic example problem has demonstrated its applicability in practical energy-water nexus management. Optimal solutions for electricity generation, fuel supply, water supply including groundwater, surface water and recycled water, capacity expansion of the power plants, and GHG emission control are generated. In conclusion, these analyses are capable of helping decision makers or stakeholders adjust their tolerances to make informed decisions to achieve the overall satisfaction of energy-water nexus management where bi-level sequential decision making process is involved.

  8. A model of the human observer and decision maker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wewerinke, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    The decision process is described in terms of classical sequential decision theory by considering the hypothesis that an abnormal condition has occurred by means of a generalized likelihood ratio test. For this, a sufficient statistic is provided by the innovation sequence which is the result of the perception an information processing submodel of the human observer. On the basis of only two model parameters, the model predicts the decision speed/accuracy trade-off and various attentional characteristics. A preliminary test of the model for single variable failure detection tasks resulted in a very good fit of the experimental data. In a formal validation program, a variety of multivariable failure detection tasks was investigated and the predictive capability of the model was demonstrated.

  9. Sources and Uses of Weather Information for Agricultural Decision Makers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNew, Kevin P.; Mapp, Harry P.; Duchon, Claude E.; Merritt, Earl S.

    1991-04-01

    Numerous studies have examined the importance of weather information to farmers and ranchers across the U.S. This study is focused on the kinds of weather information received by farmers and ranchers, the sources of that information, and its use in production and marketing decisions. Our results are based on a survey of 292 producers from the principal agricultural areas of Oklahoma. Producers were classified into five categories related to their source of income from crop and livestock sales.Among temperature, precipitation, relative humility, and wind speed, temperature information was most widely received. Forecast lengths of highest interest were 24-h and 5-day forecasts. Precipitation information was used by many respondents for planting and harvesting decisions. Weather data and forecasts seem to be of greater value to diversified crop and livestock operators than specialized crop and livestock, perhaps due to more frequent timing decisions. Relative humility and wind information appear to be important especially during specific times of the growing season, for example, at harvest time and time of pesticide application. Television is the primary source of weather information for more than 60% of the producers.It appears that there may be a role for both public and private entities in transforming weather data and forecasts into recommendations to crop and livestock producers. Further research is needed to determine the potential value of weather information for alternative production, marketing and livestock decisions, different categories of producers, and different geographic regions.

  10. Outsourced Investment Management: An Overview for Institutional Decision-Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John S.; Jarvis, William F.

    2013-01-01

    Outsourcing of investment management is a growing trend among institutional investors. With a broad range of institutions using or exploring the outsourced chief investment officer (OCIO) model, portfolio size is no longer the determining factor driving the outsourcing decision. For all but the largest institutional investors--those with deep…

  11. Coping Strategies and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Decision Makers

    PubMed Central

    Petrinec, Amy B.; Mazanec, Polly M.; Burant, Christopher J.; Hoffer, Alan; Daly, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the coping strategies used by family decision makers of adult critical care patients during and after the critical care experience and the relationship of coping strategies to posttraumatic stress symptoms experienced 60 days after hospitalization. Design A single-group descriptive longitudinal correlational study. Setting Medical, surgical, and neurological ICUs in a large tertiary care university hospital. Patients Consecutive family decision makers of adult critical care patients from August 2012 to November 2013. Study inclusion occurred after the patient's fifth day in the ICU. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Family decision makers of incapacitated adult ICU patients completed the Brief COPE instrument assessing coping strategy use 5 days after ICU admission and 30 days after hospital discharge or death of the patient and completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessing post-traumatic stress symptoms 60 days after hospital discharge. Seventy-seven family decision makers of the eligible 176 completed all data collection time points of this study. The use of problem-focused (p = 0.01) and emotion-focused (p < 0.01) coping decreased over time while avoidant coping (p = 0.20) use remained stable. Coping strategies 30 days after hospitalization (R2 = 0.50, p < 0.001) were better predictors of later posttraumatic stress symptoms than coping strategies 5 days after ICU admission (R2 = 0.30, p = 0.001) controlling for patient and decision-maker characteristics. The role of decision maker for a parent and patient death were the only noncoping predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Avoidant coping use 30 days after hospitalization mediated the relationship between patient death and later posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Conclusions Coping strategy use is a significant predictor of posttraumatic stress symptom severity 60 days after hospitalization in family decision makers of ICU patients. PMID:25785520

  12. Surrogate decision makers and proxy ownership: challenges of privacy management in health care decision making.

    PubMed

    Bute, Jennifer J; Petronio, Sandra; Torke, Alexia M

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the communicative experiences of surrogates who served as decision makers for patients who were unable to convey health information and choices about treatment options. Drawing on assumptions from communication privacy management theory (Petronio, 2002), 35 surrogates were interviewed to explore how they navigated the role of guardian of patients' private health information while the patient was hospitalized. This research determined that not only are surrogates guardians and thereby co-owners of the patients' private health information, they actually served in a "proxy ownership" role. Surrogates described obstacles to both obtaining and sharing private health information about the patient, suggesting that their rights as legitimate co-owners of the patients' information were not fully acknowledged by the medical teams. Surrogates also described challenges in performing the proxy ownership role when they were not fully aware of the patient's wishes. Theoretical and practical implications of these challenges are discussed.

  13. Surrogate Decision Makers and Proxy Ownership: Challenges of Privacy Management in Health Care Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Bute, Jennifer J.; Petronio, Sandra; Torke, Alexia M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the communicative experiences of surrogates who served as decision makers for patients who were unable to convey health information and choices about treatment options. Drawing on assumptions from communication privacy management theory (Petronio, 2002), 35 surrogates were interviewed to explore how they navigated the role of guardian of patients’ private health information while the patient was hospitalized. This research determined that surrogates are not only guardians and thereby co-owners of the patients’ private health information, they actually served in a “proxy ownership” role. Surrogates described obstacles to both obtaining and sharing private health information about the patient, suggesting that their rights as legitimate co-owners of the patients’ information were not fully acknowledged by the medical teams. Surrogates also described challenges in performing the proxy ownership role when they were not fully aware of the patient's wishes. Theoretical and practical implications of these challenges are discussed. PMID:25175060

  14. Contents of Climate Predictions Desired by Agricultural Decision Makers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changnon, Stanley A.

    1992-12-01

    In-depth interviews with 27 executives in various agribusiness defined usage and needs for climate predictions. Predictions are acquired from various public and private sources but are seldom used in making major decision. Users exhibited little trust of climate predictions, relying heavily on recent weather conditions as the basis of prediction. Additions to predictions involving climatic information would better serve the needs of most of agribusiness. Improved predictive accuracies alone will not materially increase usage. A need exists to familiarize agribusiness leaders with the information currently available, and to realize benefits from this information; many agribusinesses will need to develop models and procedures that allow integration of future weather conditions (actual and predicted) with their corporate activities and economic conditions.

  15. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  16. Improving invasive species management by integrating priorities and contributions of scientists and decision makers.

    PubMed

    N'Guyen, Anouk; Hirsch, Philipp E; Adrian-Kalchhauser, Irene; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2016-04-01

    Managing invasive species is a major challenge for society. In the case of newly established invaders, rapid action is key for a successful management. Here, we develop, describe and recommend a three-step transdisciplinary process (the "butterfly model") to rapidly initiate action for invasion management. In the framing of a case study, we present results from the first of these steps: assessing priorities and contributions of both scientists and decision makers. Both scientists and decision makers prioritise research on prevention. The available scientific knowledge contributions, however, are publications on impacts rather than prevention of the invasive species. The contribution of scientific knowledge does thus not reflect scientists' perception of what is essentially needed. We argue that a more objective assessment and transparent communication of not only decision makers' but also scientists' priorities is an essential basis for a successful cooperation. Our three-step model can help achieve objectivity via transdisciplinary communication.

  17. The Decision-Makers Forum on a new Paradigm for Nuclear Energy, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Motloch, Chester George

    1998-09-01

    The Decision-Makers' Forum on a New Paradigm for Nuclear Energy was created in response to the challenge by Sen. Pete V. Domenici to begin, "a new dialogue with serious discussion about the full range of nuclear technologies." Sponsored by the Senate Nuclear Issues Caucus, the Forum was organized and facilitated by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The participants were decision-makers and key staff from industry, government, the national laboratories, academia and professional societies. Overall, the Forum was designed to capture the ideas of a large number of decision-makers about the high priority actions recommended to help set a new national agenda for nuclear energy. The Forum recommended 10 priority actions toward this end.

  18. State Decision-Makers Guide for Hazardous Waste Management: Defining Hazardous Wastes, Problem Recognition, Land Use, Facility Operations, Conceptual Framework, Policy Issues, Transportation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corson, Alan; And Others

    Presented are key issues to be addressed by state, regional, and local governments and agencies in creating effective hazardous waste management programs. Eight chapters broadly frame the topics which state-level decision makers should consider. These chapters include: (1) definition of hazardous waste; (2) problem definition and recognition; (3)…

  19. How to Reach Decision Makers: Build a network of educators and practitioners with common goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Anders, S.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Gershunov, A.

    2013-12-01

    In San Diego County, the Climate Education Partners (CEP) includes climate scientists, science educators, behavioral scientists, environmental practitioners and community organizations that are dedicated to providing local decision makers (elected officials, business leaders, community leaders) with sound climate science learning opportunities and resources that promote informed decision making. Their work over the past three years has found that effective climate education programs are designed for specific audiences with tailored information that is relevant to them, while simultaneously building community efficacy, identity and values. An integrated approach that blends rigorous scientific facts, local climate change impact, and social science education theory is contributing towards the development of a cadre of engaged leaders and communities. To track project progress and to inform the project strategy, local Key Influentials are being interviewed to gauge their current understanding of climate change and their interest in either becoming messengers to their community or becoming the portal to their constituency. Innovation comes from productive collaboration. For this reason, CEP has been working with leading scientists (climatologists, hydrologists, meteorologists, ecologists), environmental groups, museums and zoos, media experts and government agencies (Water Authority, CalFire) to develop and refine a program of learning activities and resources geared specifically for Key Influentials. For example, a water tour has been designed to bring 25 key influential leaders in San Diego County to a dam, a pumping station and a reservoir and provide climate change facts, impacts and potential solutions to the critical issue of water supply for the San Diego Region. While learning local facts about the causes and impacts of climate change, participants also learn about what they can do (increasing efficacy), that they can be a part of a solution centered community

  20. Adopting Cut Scores: Post-Standard-Setting Panel Considerations for Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geisinger, Kurt F.; McCormick, Carina M.

    2010-01-01

    Standard-setting studies utilizing procedures such as the Bookmark or Angoff methods are just one component of the complete standard-setting process. Decision makers ultimately must determine what they believe to be the most appropriate standard or cut score to use, employing the input of the standard-setting panelists as one piece of information…

  1. An analytical framework to assist decision makers in the use of forest ecosystem model predictions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The predictions of most terrestrial ecosystem models originate from deterministic simulations. Relatively few uncertainty evaluation exercises in model outputs are performed by either model developers or users. This issue has important consequences for decision makers who rely on models to develop n...

  2. Healthy School Meals...Healthy Kids! A Leadership Guide for School Decision-Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children was launched in June 1994 to improve the health and education of children through better nutrition. This leadership guide provides information to school decision-makers on using materials and resources developed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and describes Team Nutrition, an implementation…

  3. Reciprocal Dialogue between Educational Decision Makers and Students of Color: Opportunities and Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertrand, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the possibilities for reciprocal dialogue between educational decision makers and Students of Color. Such dialogue--defined as interactions in which participants build on each other's words--may provide the means to develop creative ways to address manifestations of systemic racism in education. The article uses…

  4. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID TO STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT,...

  5. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  6. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  7. 38 CFR 39.4 - Decision makers, notifications, and additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Decision makers, notifications, and additional information. 39.4 Section 39.4 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) AID FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR...

  8. Decision Maker Perception of Information Quality: A Case Study of Military Command and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Grayson B.

    2013-01-01

    Decision maker perception of information quality cues from an "information system" (IS) and the process which creates such meta cueing, or data about cues, is a critical yet un-modeled component of "situation awareness" (SA). Examples of common information quality meta cueing for quality criteria include custom ring-tones for…

  9. Reported Influence of Evaluation Data on Decision Makers' Actions: An Empirical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Christina A.

    2007-01-01

    Using a set of scenarios derived from actual evaluation studies, this simulation study examines the reported influence of evaluation information on decision makers' potential actions. Each scenario described a context where one of three types of evaluation information (large-scale study data, case study data, or anecdotal accounts) is presented…

  10. Perception and evaluation of public opinion by decision makers: civilian nuclear power in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    This study treats public opinion as problematic and focuses on the way it is defined, identified, and evaluated by nuclear decision makers in industry, government, and the scientific community. The data are based largely on questionnaire responses and interviews. Though public opinion is a social process amenable to empirical investigation, its identification is not self-evident. It is defined within the context of an already-existing set of often unconscious beliefs and value commitments. Like students of public opinion, decision makers focus on such characteristics of public opinion as its membership, direction, intensity, level of information, prior attitudinal predispositions, and representativeness, and on the factors that influence public opinion. They also select among the indicators of public opinion - those that seem to represent the public as against those that claim to speak for it. They identify public opinion in terms of their beliefs about what public opinion is or should be in a democracy. The antinuclear movement and the mass media are seen as important, but their equation with public opinion is challenged. Decision makers see the antinuclear movement as distinct from, though an important influence on, public opinion. Decision makers believe the public has a legitimate role in negotiating nuclear power issues, but expect the public to be informed through exposure to the relevant information and expertise.

  11. PUMP-AND-TREAT GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION: A GUIDE FOR DECISION MAKERS AND PRACTITIONERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide presents decision makers with a foundation for evaluating the appropriateness of conventional or innovative approaches. An introduction to pump-and-treat ground-water remediation, the guide addresses the following questions: When is pump-and-treat an appropriate remedi...

  12. Placing Handicapped Students in the Least Restrictive Environment: An Adapted Model for Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makuch, Gary; And Others

    Intended for local school district personnel, the document suggests a model for assisting decision makers in placing handicapped students in the least restrictive environment (LRE). Basic considerations of a multidisciplinary team in determining the appropriate placement for the handicapped students are listed (including the nature and degree of…

  13. Constructing Perceptions of Climate Change: a case study of regional political decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, D.

    2012-12-01

    This case study of climate change communications assesses the salient means of communication and the message adopted by regional political decision makers on the German Baltic coast. Realizing that cultural factors and local values (and not simply knowledge) are significant influences in explaining attitudes towards climate change, this analysis draws from the records of regional weather, from scientists with a specific focus on the region, from the political decision makers for that region, and the media message reaching the decision makers, ensuring all elements of the analysis are drawn from the same socioeconomic, geophysical, political and cultural context. This is important as the social dynamics surrounding the trust in science is of critical importance and, as such, all elements of the case study are specifically contained within a common context. If the utility of climate change knowledge is to prompt well conceived adaptation/mitigation strategies then the political decision process, or at least the perceptions shaping it, can best be understood by locating it within the world view of the decision makers involved in the production process. Using the results of two survey questionnaires, one of regional climate scientists and one of regional political decision makers, ten years of local weather records, and a summary of the message from mass media circulation, the discord in perceptions of regional climate change are quantitatively explored. The conclusions drawn from the analysis include, compared to the scientific assessment: The decision makers' perceptions of recent past differ from actual observations. The decision makers' perceptions of the future differ from scientific assessments. The decision makers tend to over estimate the magnitude of regional climate change and its impacts. The decision makers tend to over estimate the sense of immediacy for adaptation measures. The conclusions drawn suggest that in the regional political realm, it is often a

  14. Negative Attitudes toward Older Workers and Hiring Decisions: Testing the Moderating Role of Decision Makers' Core Self-Evaluations.

    PubMed

    Fasbender, Ulrike; Wang, Mo

    2016-01-01

    Organizational hiring practices have been charged for unfair treatment on the grounds of age. Drawing on theories of planned behavior and core self-evaluations, this research investigated the impact of negative attitudes toward older workers on hiring decisions and examined the moderating role of decision-makers' core self-evaluations. We tested our hypotheses based on a structured online questionnaire and a vignette study using a sample of 102 participants working in human resource management across different industries. As predicted, negative attitudes toward older workers were positively related to avoidance of hiring older people, which in turn was negatively related to the likelihood to select the oldest candidate. Because hiring decisions are not only about the hiring subject but also about the decision-maker, we tested the moderating role of decision-makers' core self-evaluations. Results showed that core self-evaluations buffered the relationship between negative attitudes toward older workers and avoidance of hiring older people. Theoretical implications of the findings with regard to hiring decisions about older people and practical recommendations to improve diversity management strategies and age-balanced hiring practices in organizations are discussed.

  15. Clarity versus complexity: land-use modeling as a practical tool for decision-makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Terry L.; Claggett, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has seen a remarkable increase in the number of modeling tools available to examine future land-use and land-cover (LULC) change. Integrated modeling frameworks, agent-based models, cellular automata approaches, and other modeling techniques have substantially improved the representation of complex LULC systems, with each method using a different strategy to address complexity. However, despite the development of new and better modeling tools, the use of these tools is limited for actual planning, decision-making, or policy-making purposes. LULC modelers have become very adept at creating tools for modeling LULC change, but complicated models and lack of transparency limit their utility for decision-makers. The complicated nature of many LULC models also makes it impractical or even impossible to perform a rigorous analysis of modeling uncertainty. This paper provides a review of land-cover modeling approaches and the issues causes by the complicated nature of models, and provides suggestions to facilitate the increased use of LULC models by decision-makers and other stakeholders. The utility of LULC models themselves can be improved by 1) providing model code and documentation, 2) through the use of scenario frameworks to frame overall uncertainties, 3) improving methods for generalizing key LULC processes most important to stakeholders, and 4) adopting more rigorous standards for validating models and quantifying uncertainty. Communication with decision-makers and other stakeholders can be improved by increasing stakeholder participation in all stages of the modeling process, increasing the transparency of model structure and uncertainties, and developing user-friendly decision-support systems to bridge the link between LULC science and policy. By considering these options, LULC science will be better positioned to support decision-makers and increase real-world application of LULC modeling results.

  16. Getting ocean acidification on decision makers' to-do lists: dissecting the process through case studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Jewett, Elizabeth B.; Reichert, Julie; Robbins, Lisa L.; Shrestha, Gyami; Wieczorek, Dan; Weisberg, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the detailed, incremental knowledge being generated by current scientific research on ocean acidification (OA) does not directly address the needs of decision makers, who are asking broad questions such as: Where will OA harm marine resources next? When will this happen? Who will be affected? And how much will it cost? In this review, we use a series of mainly US-based case studies to explore the needs of local to international-scale groups that are making decisions to address OA concerns. Decisions concerning OA have been made most naturally and easily when information needs were clearly defined and closely aligned with science outputs and initiatives. For decisions requiring more complex information, the process slows dramatically. Decision making about OA is greatly aided (1) when a mixture of specialists participates, including scientists, resource users and managers, and policy and law makers; (2) when goals can be clearly agreed upon at the beginning of the process; (3) when mixed groups of specialists plan and create translational documents explaining the likely outcomes of policy decisions on ecosystems and natural resources; (4) when regional work on OA fits into an existing set of priorities concerning climate or water quality; and (5) when decision making can be reviewed and enhanced.

  17. An analytical framework to assist decision makers in the use of forest ecosystem model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larocque, Guy R.; Bhatti, Jagtar S.; Ascough, J.C.; Liu, J.; Luckai, N.; Mailly, D.; Archambault, L.; Gordon, Andrew M.

    2011-01-01

    The predictions from most forest ecosystem models originate from deterministic simulations. However, few evaluation exercises for model outputs are performed by either model developers or users. This issue has important consequences for decision makers using these models to develop natural resource management policies, as they cannot evaluate the extent to which predictions stemming from the simulation of alternative management scenarios may result in significant environmental or economic differences. Various numerical methods, such as sensitivity/uncertainty analyses, or bootstrap methods, may be used to evaluate models and the errors associated with their outputs. However, the application of each of these methods carries unique challenges which decision makers do not necessarily understand; guidance is required when interpreting the output generated from each model. This paper proposes a decision flow chart in the form of an analytical framework to help decision makers apply, in an orderly fashion, different steps involved in examining the model outputs. The analytical framework is discussed with regard to the definition of problems and objectives and includes the following topics: model selection, identification of alternatives, modelling tasks and selecting alternatives for developing policy or implementing management scenarios. Its application is illustrated using an on-going exercise in developing silvicultural guidelines for a forest management enterprise in Ontario, Canada.

  18. Science For Decision-Makers: Climate Change Indicators For The North-Central California Coast And Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, B.; Higgason, K.; Suchanek, T.; Stachowicz, J.; Largier, J. L.; Cayan, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Resource managers and decision-makers in North-central California recognize a need for increased information about the impacts of climate change on the region's coast and ocean to ensure that adaptation and conservation decisions are grounded in sound science. To help meet this need, ocean climate indicators were developed in a project based at NOAA's Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary for the North-central California coast and ocean, from Año Nuevo to Point Arena, including the Pacific coastline of the San Francisco Bay Area. These represent the first regional ocean climate indicators in the National Marine Sanctuary System. The indicators were developed in collaboration with over 50 regional research scientists and resource managers representing federal and state agencies, research universities and institutions, and non-governmental organizations. Following the indicator development process, an interdisciplinary working group incorporated the indicators into a regional indicators monitoring inventory and plan that will be used by scientists, natural resource managers, and state and municipal planners to monitor, track, and develop adaptation strategies for the impacts of climate change on the region. The working group collaborated extensively to co-identify key measurements and data sources for the indicators, and to ensure that the monitoring plan was accessible and convenient for decision-makers while still providing a valuable resource for research scientists.

  19. From the trenches: views from decision-makers on health services priority setting.

    PubMed

    Patten, San; Mitton, Craig; Donaldson, Cam

    2005-05-01

    Due to resource scarcity, health organizations worldwide must decide what services to fund and, conversely, what services not to fund. One approach to priority setting, which has been widely used in Britain, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, is programme budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA). To date, such activity has primarily been based at a micro level, within programmes of care. In order to institute and refine the PBMA framework at a macro level across major service areas within a single health authority, researchers and decision-makers in Alberta embarked on a participatory action research project together. This paper identifies key issues of importance to decision-makers in a real-world priority-setting context. Themes discussed include making comparisons across disparate patient groups, dealing with political factors, using relevant forms of evidence, recognizing innovations and involving the public. The in-depth insight gained through this qualitative analysis will enable future refinement of PBMA at a macro level in the health authority under study, and should also serve to inform priority-setting activity in regionalized contexts elsewhere. In identifying aspects of priority setting that are important to decision-makers, researchers can also be better informed with respect to real-world processes.

  20. Energizing Government Decision-Makers with the Facts on Solar Technology, Policy, and Integration

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    The Solar Technical Assistance Team (STAT) is a network of solar technology and implementation experts who provide timely, unbiased expertise to assist policymakers and regulators in making informed decisions about solar programs and policies. Government officials can submit requests directly to the STAT for technical assistance. STAT then partners with experts in solar policy, regulation, finance, technology, and other areas to deliver accurate, up-to-date information to state and local decision makers. The STAT responds to requests on a wide range of issues -- including, but not limited to, feed-in tariffs, renewable portfolio standards, rate design, program design, workforce and economic impacts of solar on jurisdictions, and project financing.

  1. Identification of the decision maker for a patient's hospital choice: who decides which hospital?

    PubMed

    Sloane, G; Tidwell, P; Horsfield, M

    1999-01-01

    If marketers wish to communicate the positive characteristics of purchasing the private hospital experience, the marketers need to be able to identify which of the participants in the purchasing process is acting in the role of decision maker. Research was undertaken of doctors in the rural setting. Potential respondents were selected from Orange to Broken Hill; from Coonabarabran to Young. Two private hospitals are known to be located within this region--one in Orange and one in Dubbo. In most cases, patients in the rural setting are having the final say as to which hospital to attend. They are filling the role of decision maker. The factors that potential patients are considering in their decision include the services provided by the hospital--specifically factors relating to accommodation, services and cost. These observations are those as interpreted by the doctors who see these patients. Based on the findings of the survey a number of recommendations have been made: (1) Any marketing communication by hospitals should target primarily patients and then doctors. (2) Further research should be undertaken to attempt to accurately determine what characteristics are considered when patients and doctors refer to hospital services. (3) Research should be undertaken to determine the identity of all parties involved in the purchasing decision process. (4) Further research should be undertaken of the general population to determine what factors relating to a hospital are considered when making the hospital purchasing decision. (5) Further in depth analysis should be conducted with the raw data.

  2. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    PubMed

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified.

  3. An Approach for Web Service Selection Based on Confidence Level of Decision Maker

    PubMed Central

    Khezrian, Mojtaba; Jahan, Ali; Wan Kadir, Wan Mohd Nasir; Ibrahim, Suhaimi

    2014-01-01

    Web services today are among the most widely used groups for Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Service selection is one of the most significant current discussions in SOA, which evaluates discovered services and chooses the best candidate from them. Although a majority of service selection techniques apply Quality of Service (QoS), the behaviour of QoS-based service selection leads to service selection problems in Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). In the existing works, the confidence level of decision makers is neglected and does not consider their expertise in assessing Web services. In this paper, we employ the VIKOR (VIšekriterijumskoKOmpromisnoRangiranje) method, which is absent in the literature for service selection, but is well-known in other research. We propose a QoS-based approach that deals with service selection by applying VIKOR with improvement of features. This research determines the weights of criteria based on user preference and accounts for the confidence level of decision makers. The proposed approach is illustrated by an example in order to demonstrate and validate the model. The results of this research may facilitate service consumers to attain a more efficient decision when selecting the appropriate service. PMID:24897426

  4. What contributes to a technical purchasing decision maker's reliance on brand name for design decisions involving I&T products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coutoumanos, Vincent

    The following research is intended to develop more formal mechanisms for collection, analysis, retention and dissemination of information relating to brand influence on high-technology products. Specifically, these high-technology products are associated with the engineering applications that likely would involve the loss of human life in the advent of catastrophic failure. The results of the study lead to an extension of theory involving marketing and product selection of "highly engineered" parts within the aerospace industry. The findings were separated into three distinct areas: 1) Information load will play a large role in the final design decision. If the designer is under a high level of information load during the time of a design decision, he or she likely will gravitate to the traditional design choice, regardless of the level of brand strength. 2) Even when strong brand names, like 3M, were offered as the non-traditional design choice, engineers gravitated to the traditional design choice that was presented in a mock Society for Manufacturing Engineers article. 3) Designer self-efficacy by itself will not often contribute to a decision maker's design choice. However, these data collected indicates that a combination of high designer self-efficacy moderated by high brand strength is likely to contribute significantly to a decision maker's decision. The post-hoc finding shows that many designers having high levels of self-efficacy could be developing a sense of comfort with strong brand names (like 3M) when making a design choice.

  5. Assessing ground-water vulnerability to contamination: Providing scientifically defensible information for decision makers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Focazio, Michael J.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Rupert, Michael G.; Helsel, Dennis R.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the United States increasing demands for safe drinking water and requirements to maintain healthy ecosystems are leading policy makers to ask complex social and scientific questions about how to assess and manage our water resources. This challenge becomes particularly difficult as policy and management objectives require scientific assessments of the potential for ground-water resources to become contaminated from anthropogenic, as well as natural sources of contamination. Assessments of the vulnerability of ground water to contamination range in scope and complexity from simple, qualitative, and relatively inexpensive approaches to rigorous, quantitative, and costly assessments. Tradeoffs must be carefully considered among the competing influences of the cost of an assessment, the scientific defensibility, and the amount of acceptable uncertainty in meeting the objectives of the water-resource decision maker.

  6. Bridging the Gap Between NASA Earth Observations and Decision Makers Through the NASA Develop National Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remillard, C. M.; Madden, M.; Favors, J.; Childs-Gleason, L.; Ross, K. W.; Rogers, L.; Ruiz, M. L.

    2016-06-01

    The NASA DEVELOP National Program bridges the gap between NASA Earth Science and society by building capacity in both participants and partner organizations that collaborate to conduct projects. These rapid feasibility projects highlight the capabilities of satellite and aerial Earth observations. Immersion of decision and policy makers in these feasibility projects increases awareness of the capabilities of Earth observations and contributes to the tools and resources available to support enhanced decision making. This paper will present the DEVELOP model, best practices, and two case studies, the Colombia Ecological Forecasting project and the Miami-Dade County Ecological Forecasting project, that showcase the successful adoption of tools and methods for decision making. Through over 90 projects each year, DEVELOP is always striving for the innovative, practical, and beneficial use of NASA Earth science data.

  7. Use of modified Delphi to plan knowledge translation for decision makers: an application in the field of advanced practice nursing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nancy; Lavis, John N; MacDonald-Rencz, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Disseminating research to decision makers is difficult. Interaction between researchers and decision makers can identify key messages and processes for dissemination. To gain agreement on the key findings from a synthesis on the integration of advanced practice nurses, we used a modified Delphi process. Nursing decision makers contributed ideas via e-mail, discussed and clarified ideas face to face, and then prioritized statements. Sixteen (89%) participated and 14 (77%) completed the final phase. Priority key messages were around access to care and outcomes. The majority identified "NPs increase access to care" and "NPs and CNSs improve patient and system outcomes" as priority messaging statements. Participants agreed policy makers and the public were target audiences for messages. Consulting with policy makers provided the necessary context to develop tailored policy messages and is a helpful approach for research dissemination.

  8. Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy: Partnering with Decision-Makers in Climate Change Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D.; Trainor, S.; Walsh, J.; Gerlach, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Center for Climate Assessment and Policy (ACCAP; www.uaf.edu/accap) is one of several, NOAA funded, Regional Integrated Science and Policy (RISA) programs nation-wide (http://www.climate.noaa.gov/cpo_pa/risa/). Our mission is to assess the socio-economic and biophysical impacts of climate variability in Alaska, make this information available to local and regional decision-makers, and improve the ability of Alaskans to adapt to a changing climate. We partner with the University of Alaska?s Scenario Network for Alaska Planning (SNAP; http://www.snap.uaf.edu/), state and local government, state and federal agencies, industry, and non-profit organizations to communicate accurate and up-to-date climate science and assist in formulating adaptation and mitigation plans. ACCAP and SNAP scientists are members of the Governor?s Climate Change Sub-Cabinet Adaptation and Mitigation Advisory and Technical Working Groups (http://www.climatechange.alaska.gov/), and apply their scientific expertise to provide down-scaled, state-wide maps of temperature and precipitation projections for these groups. An ACCAP scientist also serves as co-chair for the Fairbanks North Star Borough Climate Change Task Force, assisting this group as they work through the five-step model for climate change planning put forward by the International Council for Local Environmental Initiatives (http://www.investfairbanks.com/Taskforces/climate.php). ACCAP scientists work closely with federal resource managers in on a range of projects including: partnering with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to analyze hydrologic changes associated with climate change and related ecological impacts and wildlife management and development issues on Alaska?s North Slope; partnering with members of the Alaska Interagency Wildland Fire Coordinating Group in statistical modeling to predict seasonal wildfire activity and coordinate fire suppression resources state-wide; and working with Alaska Native Elders and

  9. Learning environment simulator: a tool for local decision makers and first responders

    SciTech Connect

    Leclaire, Rene J; Hirsch, Gary B

    2009-01-01

    The National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) has developed a prototype learning environment simulator (LES) based on the Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System (CIPDSS) infrastructure and scenario models. The LES is designed to engage decision makers at the grass-roots level (local/city/state) to deepen their understanding of an evolving crisis, enhance their intuition and allow them to test their own strategies for events before they occur. An initial version is being developed, centered on a pandemic influenza outbreak and has been successfully tested with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. LES is not a predictive tool but rather a simulated environment allowing the user to experience the complexities of a crisis before it happens. Users can contrast various approaches to the crisis, competing with alternative strategies of their own or other participants. LES is designed to assist decision makers in making informed choices by functionally representing relevant scenarios before they occur, including impacts to critical infrastructures with their interdependencies, and estimating human health & safety and economic impacts. In this paper a brief overview of the underlying models are given followed by a description of the LES, its interface and usage and an overview of the experience testing LES with a group of hospital administrators and first responders. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the work remaining to make LES operational.

  10. Peer versus authority as decision maker: are the demographics of the perceiver related to judgements of fairness?

    PubMed

    Miles, J A; Palmer, T S

    2001-06-01

    In a role-playing study, 264 university students evaluated the fairness of procedures and outcomes used to punish a student for plagiarizing from a web site. Individuals reading the scenario gave the highest ratings of justice when the decision maker was a group of nonpeers (faculty), compared to when the decision maker was an individual or peer (student). Sex and self reported guilt of individuals reading the scenario also influenced their ratings of justice.

  11. A data mining system for providing analytical information on brain tumors to public health decision makers.

    PubMed

    Santos, R S; Malheiros, S M F; Cavalheiro, S; de Oliveira, J M Parente

    2013-03-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in economically developed countries and the second leading cause of death in developing countries. Malignant brain neoplasms are among the most devastating and incurable forms of cancer, and their treatment may be excessively complex and costly. Public health decision makers require significant amounts of analytical information to manage public treatment programs for these patients. Data mining, a technology that is used to produce analytically useful information, has been employed successfully with medical data. However, the large-scale adoption of this technique has been limited thus far because it is difficult to use, especially for non-expert users. One way to facilitate data mining by non-expert users is to automate the process. Our aim is to present an automated data mining system that allows public health decision makers to access analytical information regarding brain tumors. The emphasis in this study is the use of ontology in an automated data mining process. The non-experts who tried the system obtained useful information about the treatment of brain tumors. These results suggest that future work should be conducted in this area.

  12. Communicating pesticide neurotoxicity research findings and risks to decision-makers and the public.

    PubMed

    Rother, Hanna-Andrea

    2014-12-01

    The extensive research findings on neurotoxic risks of pesticides tend to remain in academic publications rather than being comprehensibly communicated to decision-makers and the public. Protecting health and promoting risk reduction, particularly in developing countries, requires access to current findings in a format that can inform policy, regulations, behaviour change and risk reduction. Successfully communicating research findings may require multiple strategies depending on the target audience's varying comprehension skills (e.g., numeracy literacy, visual literacy) and ability to interpret scientific data. To illustrate the complexities of risk communication, a case study of exposure to neurotoxic street pesticides amongst poor, urban South African communities attempting to control poverty related pests, is presented. What remains a challenge is how to communicate neurotoxicity research findings consistently and in a meaningful manner for a lay audience, consisting of both the general public and decision makers. A further challenge is to identify who will monitor and evaluate the ways in which these findings are communicated to ensure quality is maintained. Ultimately, researchers should carry the responsibility of knowledge translation and engaging with communication specialists when appropriate. Additionally, institutions should reward this as part of promotion and academic accolade systems, and funders should fund the translational process. Ethics review boards should also play an instrumental role in ensuring that knowledge translation is part of the ethics review requirement, while professional societies should take more responsibility for disseminating research findings to non-academics.

  13. Linking scientists, decision makers, and organizations to improve understanding of climate-driven changes in coastal storms and their impacts in Western Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J. H.; Murphy, K.

    2012-12-01

    The coastal zones of Western Alaska are expected to experience a nexus of climate-driven changes in landform processes resulting from the impacts of sea ice loss; sea level change; permafrost thaw; and changes in frequency, intensity, and direction of coastal storms, etc. These climate-driven changes will cascade through the near-shore and coastal physical systems, ecological systems, and human communities, and thus present major sources of uncertainty for a wide variety of the region's decision makers. To effectively and efficiently address some of the information needs of these decision makers, the Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative created a two-year program of applied science focused on 'Changes in Coastal Storms and their Impacts'. We summarize program components that successfully advanced applied science to address these decision maker information needs. All the components share a common feature of promoting linkages: (i) among resource decision makers, stakeholders and scientists, to identify and address key areas of uncertainty associated with coastal storms and thus align the science activities with decision maker needs for a variety of climate vulnerability assessments; (ii) among researchers, to mutually advance their science efforts; and (iii) among organizations, to efficiently address shared science needs. Resulting applied science benefits include (i) integrative projects using very fine resolution surge modeling to assess impacts of saltwater inundation on migratory waterfowl breeding populations and habitat; (ii) coordinating the selection of historic storms for reanalysis by two surge modeling efforts of differing resolution and domain, thus allowing for cross-model comparisons of performance over their shared spatial domain and future regional-scale application of the higher resolution model; and (iii) collaborative, cross-agency efforts to establish a water level network that meets multiple purposes (from model calibration to

  14. A Proposed Computer-Assisted Decision Making System for the Hellenic Navy Decision Makers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    creates and sustains a corporate moral code. It appears that nations with a long history, especially of fighting defensive wars, are’ more likely to...experiences and needs of the potential adopters. An idea that is not comnatible with the prevalent values and norms of a cultural and social Estem will...Decision Support Systems, ed: \\V. C. House, Petrocelli Books, New YorK/Princeton, 1983. " Corporate war rooms pluginto the computer," Business Week, August

  15. Establishing the connection between crowd-sourced data and decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, L. J.; Swartz, W.; Strong, S. B.; Nix, M. G.; Schaefer, R. K.; Weiss, M.

    2014-12-01

    There are many challenges in using, developing, and ensuring the viability of crowd-sourced data. Establishing and maintaining relevance is one of them but each participant in the challenge has different criteria for relevance. Consider, for example, the collection of data using smart phones. Some participants just like to contribute to something they consider good for the community. How do you engender that commitment? This becomes especially problematic when an additional sensor may need to be added to the smart phone. Certainly the humanitarian-egalitarian may be willing to "buy-in" but what value does it hold for the entrepreneurial-individualist? Another challenge is that of the crowd-sourced data themselves. Most readily available apps collect only one kind of data. The frontier lies in not only aggregating the data from those devices but in fusing the data with other data types (e.g. satellite imagery, installed sensors, radars, etc.). Doing this requires resources and the establishment and negotiation of data rights, how data are valued, how data are used, and the model used for support of the process (e.g. profit-driven, communal, scientific, etc.). In this talk we will discuss a few problems that we have looked at wherein distributed sensor networks provide potential value, data fusion is a "value multiplier" of those crowd-sourced data and how we make that connection to decision makers. We have explored active decision making through our Global Assimilation of Information for Action project (see our old website http://gaia.jhuapl.edu) and the use of "serious games" to establish affinities and illuminate opportunities and issues. We assert that the field of dreams approach ("build it and they will come") is not a sufficiently robust approach; the decision-makers (or paying customers) must be involved in the process of defining the data system products and quantifying the value proposition for their clients.

  16. End-of-Life Decisions: A Cross-National Study of Treatment Preference Discussions and Surrogate Decision-Maker Appointments

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Natalie; Pasman, H. Roeline; Vega Alonso, Tomás; Van den Block, Lieve; Miccinesi, Guido; Van Casteren, Viviane; Donker, Gé; Bertolissi, Stefano; Zurriaga, Oscar; Deliens, Luc; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje; EUROIMPACT, on behalf of

    2013-01-01

    Background Making treatment decisions in anticipation of possible future incapacity is an important part of patient participation in end-of-life decision-making. This study estimates and compares the prevalence of GP-patient end-of-life treatment discussions and patients’ appointment of surrogate decision-makers in Italy, Spain, Belgium and the Netherlands and examines associated factors. Methods A cross-sectional, retrospective survey was conducted with representative GP networks in four countries. GPs recorded the health and care characteristics in the last three months of life of 4,396 patients who died non-suddenly. Prevalences were estimated and logistic regressions were used to examine between country differences and country-specific associated patient and care factors. Results GP-patient discussion of treatment preferences occurred for 10%, 7%, 25% and 47% of Italian, Spanish, Belgian and of Dutch patients respectively. Furthermore, 6%, 5%, 16% and 29% of Italian, Spanish, Belgian and Dutch patients had a surrogate decision-maker. Despite some country-specific differences, previous GP-patient discussion of primary diagnosis, more frequent GP contact, GP provision of palliative care, the importance of palliative care as a treatment aim and place of death were positively associated with preference discussions or surrogate appointments. A diagnosis of dementia was negatively associated with preference discussions and surrogate appointments. Conclusions The study revealed a higher prevalence of treatment preference discussions and surrogate appointments in the two northern compared to the two southern European countries. Factors associated with preference discussions and surrogate appointments suggest that delaying diagnosis discussions impedes anticipatory planning, whereas early preference discussions, particularly for dementia patients, and the provision of palliative care encourage participation. PMID:23472122

  17. Can computerized clinical decision support systems improve practitioners' diagnostic test ordering behavior? A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Underuse and overuse of diagnostic tests have important implications for health outcomes and costs. Decision support technology purports to optimize the use of diagnostic tests in clinical practice. The objective of this review was to assess whether computerized clinical decision support systems (CCDSSs) are effective at improving ordering of tests for diagnosis, monitoring of disease, or monitoring of treatment. The outcome of interest was effect on the diagnostic test-ordering behavior of practitioners. Methods We conducted a decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid's EBM Reviews database, Inspec, and reference lists for eligible articles published up to January 2010. We included randomized controlled trials comparing the use of CCDSSs to usual practice or non-CCDSS controls in clinical care settings. Trials were eligible if at least one component of the CCDSS gave suggestions for ordering or performing a diagnostic procedure. We considered studies 'positive' if they showed a statistically significant improvement in at least 50% of test ordering outcomes. Results Thirty-five studies were identified, with significantly higher methodological quality in those published after the year 2000 (p = 0.002). Thirty-three trials reported evaluable data on diagnostic test ordering, and 55% (18/33) of CCDSSs improved testing behavior overall, including 83% (5/6) for diagnosis, 63% (5/8) for treatment monitoring, 35% (6/17) for disease monitoring, and 100% (3/3) for other purposes. Four of the systems explicitly attempted to reduce test ordering rates and all succeeded. Factors of particular interest to decision makers include costs, user satisfaction, and impact on workflow but were rarely investigated or reported. Conclusions Some CCDSSs can modify practitioner test-ordering behavior. To better inform development and implementation efforts, studies should describe in more detail potentially important factors such

  18. Interpreting Climate Model Projections of Extreme Weather Events for Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrus, S. J.; Notaro, M.

    2014-12-01

    The proliferation of output from climate model ensembles, such as CMIP3 and CMIP5, has greatly expanded access to future projections, but there is no accepted blueprint for how this data should be interpreted. Decision makers are thus faced with difficult questions when trying to utilize such information: How reliable are the multi-model mean projections? How should the changes simulated by outlier models be treated? How can raw projections of temperature and precipitation be translated into probabilities? The multi-model average is often regarded as the most accurate single estimate of future conditions, but higher-order moments representing the variance and skewness of the distribution of projections provide important information about uncertainty. We have analyzed a set of statistically downscaled climate model projections from the CMIP3 archive to conduct an assessment of extreme weather events at a level designed to be relevant for decision makers. Our analysis uses the distribution of 13 GCM projections to derive the inter-model standard deviation (and coefficient of variation, COV), skewness, and percentile ranges for simulated changes in extreme heat, cold, and precipitation during the middle and late 21st century for the A1B emissions scenario. These metrics help to establish the overall confidence level across the entire range of projections (via the inter-model COV), relative confidence in the simulated high-end versus low-end changes (via skewness), and probabilistic uncertainty bounds derived from a bootstrapping technique. Over our analysis domain centered on the United States Midwest, some primary findings include: (1) Greater confidence in projections of less extreme cold than more extreme heat and intense precipitation, (2) Greater confidence in the low-end than high-end projections of extreme heat, and (3) Higher spatial and temporal variability in the confidence of projected increases of heavy precipitation. In addition, our bootstrapping

  19. Knowledge Style Profiling: An Exploration of Cognitive, Temperament, Demographic and Organizational Characteristics among Decision Makers Using Advanced Analytical Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polito, Vincent A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore the possibilities of identifying knowledge style factors that could be used as central elements of a professional business analyst's (PBA) performance attributes at work for those decision makers that use advanced analytical technologies on decision making tasks. Indicators of knowledge style were…

  20. Is economic valuation of ecosystem services useful to decision-makers? Lessons learned from Australian coastal and marine management.

    PubMed

    Marre, Jean-Baptiste; Thébaud, Olivier; Pascoe, Sean; Jennings, Sarah; Boncoeur, Jean; Coglan, Louisa

    2016-08-01

    Economic valuation of ecosystem services is widely advocated as being useful to support ecosystem management decision-making. However, the extent to which it is actually used or considered useful in decision-making is poorly documented. This literature blindspot is explored with an application to coastal and marine ecosystems management in Australia. Based on a nation-wide survey of eighty-eight decision-makers representing a diversity of management organizations, the perceived usefulness and level of use of economic valuation of ecosystem services, in support of coastal and marine management, are examined. A large majority of decision-makers are found to be familiar with economic valuation and consider it useful - even necessary - in decision-making, although this varies across groups of decision-makers. However, most decision-makers never or rarely use economic valuation. The perceived level of importance and trust in estimated dollar values differ across ecosystem services, and are especially high for values that relate to commercial activities. A number of factors are also found to influence respondent's use of economic valuation. Such findings concur with conclusions from other studies on the usefulness and use of ESV in environmental management decision-making. They also demonstrate the strength of the survey-based approach developed in this application to examine this issue in a variety of contexts.

  1. Decision-maker expectations and the value of climate prediction information: conceptual considerations and preliminary evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrick, Bruce J.; Sonka, Steven T.; Lamb, Peter J.; Mazzocco, Michael A.

    2000-12-01

    This paper examines the commonly used assumption that decision-makers possess accurate prior probability information about climate events that affect their well-being, and illustrates the impact of that assumption on the valuation of prediction information. A survey of large producers in the Mid-western United States is used to recover their prior beliefs about climate variables. It is found that producers systematically misrepresent the probabilities of climate events that materially affect their well-being. In particular, the most common form of the miscalibration between actual and subjective probabilities is to overstate the likelihood of adverse events and understate the likelihood of favourable events. As a result, common methods for valuing prediction information are likely to understate the true value when recipients begin with less accurate prior beliefs.

  2. Automatic mental associations predict future choices of undecided decision-makers.

    PubMed

    Galdi, Silvia; Arcuri, Luciano; Gawronski, Bertram

    2008-08-22

    Common wisdom holds that choice decisions are based on conscious deliberations of the available information about choice options. On the basis of recent insights about unconscious influences on information processing, we tested whether automatic mental associations of undecided individuals bias future choices in a manner such that these choices reflect the evaluations implied by earlier automatic associations. With the use of a computer-based, speeded categorization task to assess automatic mental associations (i.e., associations that are activated unintentionally, difficult to control, and not necessarily endorsed at a conscious level) and self-report measures to assess consciously endorsed beliefs and choice preferences, automatic associations of undecided participants predicted changes in consciously reported beliefs and future choices over a period of 1 week. Conversely, for decided participants, consciously reported beliefs predicted changes in automatic associations and future choices over the same period. These results indicate that decision-makers sometimes have already made up their mind at an unconscious level, even when they consciously indicate that they are still undecided.

  3. The Ecological Model Web Concept: A Consultative Infrastructure for Decision Makers and Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, G.; Nativi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers want better information about what these changes will be and how various resources will be affected, while researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Although there are many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is only limited coordination among them, and accessible, openly shared models or model systems that can be consulted to gain insight on important ecological questions or assist with decision-making are rare. A "consultative infrastructure" that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit decision makers, researchers, as well as modelers. Of course, envisioning such an ambitious system is much easier than building it, but several complementary approaches exist that could contribute. The one discussed here is called the Model Web. This is a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases based on making models and their outputs available as services ("model as a service"). Initially, it might consist of a core of several models from which it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. However, a model web would not be a monolithic, rigidly planned and built system--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange standards. One difference from the WWW is that a model web is much harder to create, and has more pitfalls, and thus is a long term vision. However, technology, science, observations, and models have advanced enough so that parts of an ecological model web can be built and utilized now, forming a framework for gradual growth as well as a broadly accessible infrastructure. Ultimately, the value of a model

  4. 77 FR 66834 - Pesticide Emergency Exemptions; Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... and Federal agencies. The emergency exemptions may take the following form: Crisis, public health... AGENCY Pesticide Emergency Exemptions; Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations.... ``Quarantine'' and ``public health'' exemptions are emergency exemptions issued for quarantine or public...

  5. Ensuring Adequate Health and Safety Information for Decision Makers during Large-Scale Chemical Releases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropoulos, Z.; Clavin, C.; Zuckerman, B.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 4-Methylcyclohexanemethanol (MCHM) spill in the Elk River of West Virginia highlighted existing gaps in emergency planning for, and response to, large-scale chemical releases in the United States. The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act requires that facilities with hazardous substances provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), which contain health and safety information on the hazardous substances. The MSDS produced by Eastman Chemical Company, the manufacturer of MCHM, listed "no data available" for various human toxicity subcategories, such as reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity. As a result of incomplete toxicity data, the public and media received conflicting messages on the safety of the contaminated water from government officials, industry, and the public health community. Two days after the governor lifted the ban on water use, the health department partially retracted the ban by warning pregnant women to continue avoiding the contaminated water, which the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention deemed safe three weeks later. The response in West Virginia represents a failure in risk communication and calls to question if government officials have sufficient information to support evidence-based decisions during future incidents. Research capabilities, like the National Science Foundation RAPID funding, can provide a solution to some of the data gaps, such as information on environmental fate in the case of the MCHM spill. In order to inform policy discussions on this issue, a methodology for assessing the outcomes of RAPID and similar National Institutes of Health grants in the context of emergency response is employed to examine the efficacy of research-based capabilities in enhancing public health decision making capacity. The results of this assessment highlight potential roles rapid scientific research can fill in ensuring adequate health and safety data is readily available for decision makers during large

  6. Anxious Individuals Are Impulsive Decision-Makers in the Delay Discounting Task: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Xia, Lisheng; Gu, Ruolei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity, which is linked to a wide range of psychiatric disorders, is often characterized by a preference for immediate but smaller rewards over delayed but larger rewards. However, debate exists on the relationship between anxiety and impulsivity. Here we use event-related potential (ERP) components as biomarkers in the temporal discounting task to examine the effect of anxiety on inter-temporal decision-making. Our behavioral results indicated that the high trait anxiety (HTA) group made significantly more immediate choices than the low trait anxiety (LTA) group. Compared with the LTA group, shorter response time was associated with immediate rewards in the HTA group. Furthermore, previous studies have demonstrated three ERP components that are associated with impulsivity and/or delay discounting. First, the N1 is an early sensory component involved in selective attention and attention processing for goal-directed actions. Second, the reward positivity (RewP) reflects reward-related dopaminergic activity and encodes reward values. Third, the P3 is regarded as a measure of motivational significance in the decision-making literature. Accordingly, this study found in the immediate-option-evoked ERPs that the HTA group had a larger N1 than the LTA group did. For the delayed-option-evoked ERPs, the HTA group had larger N1 and RewP for the immediate choice than the LTA group did, while the LTA group had a larger P3 for the delayed choice than the HTA group did. These results support the notion that anxiety individuals are impulsive decision-makers in the Delay Discounting Task.

  7. Anxious Individuals Are Impulsive Decision-Makers in the Delay Discounting Task: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Lisheng; Gu, Ruolei; Zhang, Dandan; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity, which is linked to a wide range of psychiatric disorders, is often characterized by a preference for immediate but smaller rewards over delayed but larger rewards. However, debate exists on the relationship between anxiety and impulsivity. Here we use event-related potential (ERP) components as biomarkers in the temporal discounting task to examine the effect of anxiety on inter-temporal decision-making. Our behavioral results indicated that the high trait anxiety (HTA) group made significantly more immediate choices than the low trait anxiety (LTA) group. Compared with the LTA group, shorter response time was associated with immediate rewards in the HTA group. Furthermore, previous studies have demonstrated three ERP components that are associated with impulsivity and/or delay discounting. First, the N1 is an early sensory component involved in selective attention and attention processing for goal-directed actions. Second, the reward positivity (RewP) reflects reward-related dopaminergic activity and encodes reward values. Third, the P3 is regarded as a measure of motivational significance in the decision-making literature. Accordingly, this study found in the immediate-option-evoked ERPs that the HTA group had a larger N1 than the LTA group did. For the delayed-option-evoked ERPs, the HTA group had larger N1 and RewP for the immediate choice than the LTA group did, while the LTA group had a larger P3 for the delayed choice than the HTA group did. These results support the notion that anxiety individuals are impulsive decision-makers in the Delay Discounting Task. PMID:28174528

  8. New challenges for seismology and decision makers after L'Aquila trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner

    2013-04-01

    On 22 October seven experts who attended a Major Risk Committee meeting were sentenced to six years in prison on charges of manslaughter for underestimating the risk before the devastating 6.3-magnitude earthquake that struck the hillside city of L'Aquila on 6 April 2009, which caused more than 300 deaths. The earthquake followed a sequence of seismic events that started at the beginning of the year, with the largest shock - a 4.2-magnitude earthquake - occurring on 30 March. A day later, the seven experts met in L'Aquila; the minutes of the meeting, which were released after the quake, contained three main conclusions: that earthquakes are not predictable in a deterministic sense; that the L'Aquila region has the highest seismic hazard in Italy; and that the occurrence of a large earthquake in the short term was unlikely. There is not doubt that this trial will represent an important turning point for seismologists, and more in general for scientists who serve as advisors for public safety purposes. Here, starting from the analysis of the accusations made by the prosecutor and a detailed scientific appraisal of what happened, we try to figure out how seismology can evolve in order to be more effective in protecting people, and (possibly) avoiding accusations like the ones who characterize the L'Aquila trial. In particular, we discuss (i) the principles of the Operational Earthquake Forecasting that were put forward by an international Commission on Earthquake Forecasting (ICEF) nominated after L'Aquila earthquake, (ii) the ICEF recommendations for Civil Protection, and (iii) the recent developments in this field in Italy. Finally, we also explore the interface between scientists and decision makers, in particular in the framework of making decisions in a low probability environment.

  9. International exchange of emergency phase information and assessments: an aid to national/international decision makers.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Thomas J; Chino, Masamichi; Ehrhardt, Joachim; Shershakov, Vyacheslav

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a collaborative project (1) to demonstrate the feasibility and benefit of a system seeking early review, in a 'quasi peer review' mode, of nuclear accident plume and dose assessment predictions by four major international nuclear accident emergency response systems before release of calculations to respective national authorities followed by (2) sharing these results with responsible national/international authorities, (3) development of an affordable/accessible system to distribute results to countries without prediction capabilities and (4) utilisation for exercises and collaboration studies. The project exploits Internet browser technology and low-cost PC hardware, incorporates an Internet node, with access control, for depositing a minimal set of XML-based graphics files for presentation in an identical map format. Side-by-side viewing and televideo conferencing will permit rapid evaluation, data elaboration and recalculation (if necessary) and should produce strong consensus among decision makers. Successful completion affords easy utilisation by national/international organisations and non-nuclear states at risk of trans-boundary incursion.

  10. Scenarios use to engage scientists and decision-makers in a changing Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, O. A.; Eicken, H.; Payne, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Scenarios provide a framework to develop more adaptive Arctic policies that allow decision makers to consider the best available science to address complex relationships and key uncertainties in drivers of change. These drivers may encompass biophysical factors such as climate change, socioeconomic drivers, and wild-cards that represent low likelihood but influential events such as major environmental disasters. We outline some of the lessons learned from the North Slope Science Initiative (NSSI) scenarios project that could help in the development of adaptive science-based policies. Three spatially explicit development scenarios were identified corresponding to low, medium and high resource extraction activities on the North Slope and adjacent seas. In the case of the high energy development scenario science needs were focused on new technology, oil spill response, and the effects of offshore activities on marine mammals important for subsistence. Science needs related to community culture, erosion, permafrost degradation and hunting and trapping on land were also identified for all three scenarios. The NSSI science needs will guide recommendations for future observing efforts, and data from these observing activities could subsequently improve policy guidance for emergency response, subsistence management and other issues. Scenarios at pan-Arctic scales may help improve the development of international policies for resilient northern communities and encourage the use of science to reduce uncertainties in plans for adapting to change in the Arctic.

  11. Knowledge gaps regarding APN roles: what hospital decision-makers tell us.

    PubMed

    Carter, Nancy; Dobbins, Maureen; Ireland, Sandra; Hoxby, Heather; Peachey, Gladys; DiCenso, Alba

    2013-12-01

    The implementation of advanced practice nursing (APN) roles can yield improvements in patient and health system outcomes, and supportive leadership is integral in facilitating the implementation of such roles. The purpose of this study was to explore the awareness and understanding of APN roles among hospital decision-makers, and to learn about the information they require and the ways in which they prefer to receive that information. Fifteen administrators and leaders from two multi-site acute care organizations were interviewed. Their practical knowledge of APN roles was based on experience developing the roles or working with APNs in hospital programs. The most common sources of APN information were internal contacts (i.e., APNs) and documents from nursing organizations. Participants reported difficulty distinguishing between the roles of nurse practitioners (NPs) and clinical nurse specialists (CNSs), and identified knowledge regarding CNS roles as their greatest need. They required specific information regarding the "value-added" benefits offered by an APN role. Strategies to address the knowledge gaps of healthcare leaders are urgently needed in order to support the implementation of new APN roles and to sustain existing ones.

  12. Women and Secondary School Principal Rotation/Succession: A Study of the Beliefs of Decision Makers in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecilia; White, Robert; Brayman, Carol; Moore, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Our study investigated patterns of female participation as secondary principals that have varied across contexts and changed slowly. Researchers interviewed decision makers from a purposive sample of 10 urban and rural school districts in Ontario, Nova Scotia, Saskatchewan, and British Columbia, gathering data from structured telephone interviews,…

  13. It Takes Two to Tango: Researchers and Decision-Makers Collaborating to Implement Practice Changes for Patients with Multimorbidity.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Martin; Couture, Martine; Bouhali, Tarek; Leclerc, Esther; Stewart, Moira

    2016-01-01

    An integrated knowledge translation strategy is a key factor in fostering the implementation of practice changes. Building on a 15-year history of projects that include close collaboration between researchers and decision-makers in the Saguenay region of Quebec (Canada), the authors identify several key elements that resulted in practice changes in primary care and improved outcomes for patients with multimorbidity.

  14. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  15. Perspectives of Women Decision-Makers Over the Participation and Recreational Events in Sports: A Turkish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzel, Pinar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to put forth the role of the leisure and recreation events awareness including women decision-makers effects on their fellow women. Three main themes were recognized: Past; "Process of leisure and recreation events of women in Turkey", Present; "Model of Turkey for women on leisure and…

  16. Preparing Secondary Special Education Teachers to Be Collaborative Decision Makers and Reflective Practitioners: A Promising Practicum Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patriarca, Linda A.; Lamb, Margaret A.

    1990-01-01

    A practicum model was designed to prepare secondary special education teachers to be collaborative decision makers and reflective practitioners. Over the course of the practicum, the nine participants were found to exhibit more reflective thinking, and collaboration with their peers seemed to assist in developing effective instructional…

  17. Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop Designed to Teach Practical Welfare Techniques to Beef Cattle Caretakers and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewell, Reneé; Hanthorn, Christy; Danielson, Jared; Burzette, Rebecca; Coetzee, Johann; Griffin, D. Dee; Ramirez, Alejandro; Dewell, Grant

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to evaluate the use of an interactive workshop designed to teach novel practical welfare techniques to beef cattle caretakers and decision makers. Following training, respondents reported being more likely to use or recommend use of local anesthesia for dehorning and castration and were more inclined to use meloxicam…

  18. BRIDGING FROM CLINICAL ENDPOINTS TO ESTIMATES OF TREATMENT VALUE FOR EXTERNAL DECISION MAKERS

    PubMed Central

    ZHU, C.W.; LEIBMAN, C.; TOWNSEND, R.; MCLAUGHLIN, T.; SCARMEAS, N.; ALBERT, M.; BRANDT, J.; BLACKER, D.; SANO, M.; STERN, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Aim While clinical endpoints provide important information on the efficacy of treatment in controlled conditions, they often are not relevant to decision makers trying to gauge the potential economic impact or value of new treatments. Therefore, it is often necessary to translate changes in cognition, function or behavior into changes in cost or other measures, which can be problematic if not conducted in a transparent manner. The Dependence Scale (DS), which measures the level of assistance a patient requires due to AD-related deficits, may provide a useful measure of the impact of AD progression in a way that is relevant to patients, providers and payers, by linking clinical endpoints to estimates of cost effectiveness or value. The aim of this analysis was to test the association of the DS to clinical endpoints and AD-related costs. Method The relationship between DS score and other endpoints was explored using the Predictors Study, a large, multi-center cohort of patients with probable AD followed annually for four years. Enrollment required a modified Mini-Mental State Examination (mMMS) score ≥30, equivalent to a score of approximately ≥16 on the MMSE. DS summated scores (range: 0–15) were compared to measures of cognition (MMSE), function (Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, BDRS, 0–17), behavior, extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), and psychotic symptoms (illusions, delusions or hallucinations). Also, estimates for total cost (sum of direct medical cost, direct non-medical cost, and cost of informal caregivers’ time) were compared to DS scores. Results For the 172 patients in the analysis, mean baseline scores were: DS: 5.2 (SD: 2.0), MMSE: 23.0 (SD: 3.5), BDRS: 2.9 (SD: 1.3), EPS: 10.8%, behavior: 28.9% psychotic symptoms: 21.1%. After 4 years, mean scores were: DS: 8.9 (SD: 2.9), MMSE: 17.2 (SD: 4.7), BDRS: 5.2 (SD: 1.4), EPS: 37.5%, behavior: 60.0%, psychotic symptoms: 46.7%. At baseline, DS scores were significantly correlated with MMSE (r=−0.299, p<0

  19. What can decision makers achieve from computer simulations of environmental systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, M. C.; Kavetski, D.; Clark, M. P.; Ye, M.; Arabi, M.; Lu, D.; Foglia, L.; Mehl, S.

    2013-12-01

    For scientists and decision-makers to understand model predictions and their limitations, models need to be as transparent and refutable as possible. This is achieved by evaluating model fit to data, estimated parameter values, sensitivities, and uncertainty. This talk illustrates methods for evaluating model accuracy, identifying important parameters and observations, quantifying uncertainty, and identifying potential new observations. We also point out some important challenges. First, advances in computing power notwithstanding, computational runtimes remain a major constraint as environmental models become more complicated in an attempt to better capture realistic complexity, heterogeneity and non-stationarity. This constraint is often particularly restrictive given the continuing push towards computationally intensive analysis methods requiring 10,000s or more model runs. In environmental fields, where models can take a week or more per forward run, such methods are burdensome and often infeasible. Second, the relationships between the various model analysis methods and metrics in current use and in research are yet to be clearly established. This makes it difficult for research managers - and even researchers themselves - to develop strategic insights from the enormous ongoing effort to model environmental systems. In our strategy for navigating these difficulties, we suggest viewing the plethora of methods and metrics based on their objectives and computational demand, and making clear links between methods pursuing the same objectives despite starkly different theoretical backgrounds. The strategy emphasizes practical solutions as embodied in the proposed integrated use of methods that range from being computationally frugal (typically local) to demanding (typically global). We identify inexpensive diagnostics to distinguish between cases where frugal methods provide adequate and efficient insights into complex, high-dimensional models and enable systematic

  20. International Exchange of Emergency Phase Information and Assessment: An Aid to Inter/National Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T J; Chino, M; Ehrhardt, J; Shershakov, V

    2003-09-01

    This paper discusses a collaborative project whose purpose is (1) to demonstrate the technical feasibility and mutual benefit of a system seeking early review or preview, in a ''quasi peer review'' mode, of nuclear accident plume and dose assessment predictions by four major international nuclear accident emergency response systems before release of their calculations to their respective national authorities followed by (2) sharing these results with responsible international authorities. The extreme sensitivity of the general public to any nuclear accident information has been a strong motivation to seek peer review prior to public release. Another intended objective of this work is (3) the development of an affordable/accessible system for distribution of prediction results to countries having no prediction capabilities and (4) utilization of the link for exercises and collaboration studies. The project exploits the Internet as a ubiquitous communications medium, browser technology as a simple, user friendly interface, and low-cost PC level hardware. The participants are developing a web based dedicated node with ID and password access control, where the four systems can deposit a minimal set of XML-based data and graphics files, which are then displayed in a common identical map format. Side-by-side viewing and televideo conferencing will permit rapid evaluation, correction or elaboration of data, recalculation (if necessary) and should produce a strong level of consensus to assist international decision makers. Successful completion of this work could lead to easy utilization by national and international organizations, such as the IAEA and WHO, as well as by non-nuclear states at risk of a trans-boundary incursion on their territory.

  1. Voices of decision makers on evidence-based policy: A case of evolving TB/HIV co-infection policy in India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Srikanth; Sahay, Seema

    2016-01-01

    This study explores decision makers' perspectives on evidence-based policy (EBP) development using the case of TB/HIV co-infection in India. Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with purposively selected key national and international policy decision makers in India. Verbatim transcripts were processed and analysed thematically using QSR (NUD*IST 6). The decision makers were unequivocal in recognizing the TB/HIV co-infection as an important public health issue in India and stated the problem to be different than Africa. The need of having a "third programme" for co-infection was not felt. According to them, the public health management of this co-infection must be within the realm of these two programmes. The study also emphasized on decision makers' perspectives on evidence and the process of utilization of evidence for decision-making for co-infection. Study findings showed global evidence was not always accepted by the decision makers and study shows several examples of decision makers demanding local evidence for policy decisions. Decision makers did make interim policies based on global evidence but most of the time their mandate was to get local evidence. Thus, operations research/implementation science especially multi-centric studies emerge as important strategy for EBP development. Researcher-policy maker interface was a gap where role of researcher as aggressive communicator of research findings was expected.

  2. Transferring knowledge from observations and models to decision makers: an overview and challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid; Nokra, Nada A.

    2004-02-01

    Over the last 25 years, a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such US, European Community, Japan, China and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching the public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, homeland security, air quality and public health, which can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This paper surveys and examines a number such applications in terms of their architecture, maturity and economic applicability as they apply to the societal needs. A detailed analysis is also presented of various challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution,(4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is

  3. Transferring Knowledge from Observations and Models to Decision Makers: An Overview and Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid; Nokra, Nada Abu

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 25 years, a tremendous progress has been made in the Earth science space-based remote sensing observations, technologies and algorithms. Such advancements have improved the predictability by providing lead-time and accuracy of forecast in weather, climate, natural hazards, and natural resources. It has further reduced or bounded the overall uncertainties by partially improving our understanding of planet Earth as an integrated system that is governed by non-linear and chaotic behavior. Many countries such US, European Community, Japan, China and others have invested billions of dollars in developing and launching space-based assets in the low earth (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) orbits. However, the wealth of this scientific knowledge that has potential of extracting monumental socio-economic benefits from such large investments have been slow in reaching to public and decision makers. For instance, there are a number of areas such as energy forecasting, aviation safety, agricultural competitiveness, disaster management, security, air quality and public health can directly take advantage. Nevertheless, we all live in a global economy that depends on access to the best available Earth Science information for all inhabitants of this planet. This paper surveys and examines a number such applications in terms of their architecture, maturity and economic applicability as they apply to the societal needs. A detailed analysis is also presented of various challenges and issues that pertain to a number of areas such as: (1) difficulties in making a speedy transition of data and information from observations and models to relevant Decision Support Systems (DSS) or tools, (2) data and models inter-operability issues, (3) limitations of spatial, spectral and temporal resolution, (4) communication limitations as dictated by the availability of image processing and data compression techniques. Additionally, the most critical element amongst all is the organizational

  4. Strategies for Teaching Regional Climate Modeling: Online Professional Development for Scientists and Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.; Yarker, M. B.; Mesquita, M. D. S.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    structures of both courses, evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of each, along with the educational approaches used. We conclude by proposing a framework for the develop of educationally robust online professional development programs that actively supports decision makers in understanding, developing and applying regional climate models.

  5. Who to Blame: Irrational Decision-Makers or Stupid Modelers? (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Water management benefits from a suite of modelling tools and techniques that help simplifying and understanding the complexities involved in managing water resource systems. Early water management models were mainly concerned with optimizing a single objective, related to the design, operations or management of water resource systems (e.g. economic cost, hydroelectricity production, reliability of water deliveries). Significant improvements in methodologies, computational capacity, and data availability over the last decades have resulted in developing more complex water management models that can now incorporate multiple objectives, various uncertainties, and big data. These models provide an improved understanding of complex water resource systems and provide opportunities for making positive impacts. Nevertheless, there remains an alarming mismatch between the optimal solutions developed by these models and the decisions made by managers and stakeholders of water resource systems. Modelers continue to consider decision makers as irrational agents who fail to implement the optimal solutions developed by sophisticated and mathematically rigours water management models. On the other hand, decision makers and stakeholders accuse modelers of being idealist, lacking a perfect understanding of reality, and developing 'smart' solutions that are not practical (stable). In this talk I will have a closer look at the mismatch between the optimality and stability of solutions and argue that conventional water resources management models suffer inherently from a full-cooperation assumption. According to this assumption, water resources management decisions are based on group rationality where in practice decisions are often based on individual rationality, making the group's optimal solution unstable for individually rational decision makers. I discuss how game theory can be used as an appropriate framework for addressing the irrational "rationality assumption" of water

  6. A cloud theory-based particle swarm optimization for multiple decision maker vehicle routing problems with fuzzy random time windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yanfang; Xu, Jiuping

    2015-06-01

    This article puts forward a cloud theory-based particle swarm optimization (CTPSO) algorithm for solving a variant of the vehicle routing problem, namely a multiple decision maker vehicle routing problem with fuzzy random time windows (MDVRPFRTW). A new mathematical model is developed for the proposed problem in which fuzzy random theory is used to describe the time windows and bi-level programming is applied to describe the relationship between the multiple decision makers. To solve the problem, a cloud theory-based particle swarm optimization (CTPSO) is proposed. More specifically, this approach makes improvements in initialization, inertia weight and particle updates to overcome the shortcomings of the basic particle swarm optimization (PSO). Parameter tests and results analysis are presented to highlight the performance of the optimization method, and comparison of the algorithm with the basic PSO and the genetic algorithm demonstrates its efficiency.

  7. E-mail as the Appropriate Method of Communication for the Decision-Maker When Soliciting Advice for an Intellective Decision Task.

    PubMed

    Prahl, Andrew; Dexter, Franklin; Swol, Lyn Van; Braun, Michael T; Epstein, Richard H

    2015-09-01

    For many problems in operating room and anesthesia group management, there are tasks with optimal decisions, and yet experienced personnel tend to make decisions that are worse or no better than random chance. Such decisions include staff scheduling, case scheduling, moving cases among operating rooms, and choosing patient arrival times. In such settings, operating room management leadership decision-making should typically be autocratic rather than participative. Autocratic-style decision-making calls for managers to solicit and consider feedback from stakeholders in the decision outcome but to make the decision themselves using their expert knowledge and the facts received. For this to be effective, often the manager will obtain expert advice from outside the organization (e.g., health system). In this narrative review, we evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using prompt asynchronous written communication (i.e., e-mail) as a communication channel for such interaction between a decision-maker (manager) and advisor. A detailed Appendix (Supplemental Digital Content, http://links.lww.com/AA/B72) lists each observational and experimental result. We find that the current ubiquitous role of e-mail for such communication is appropriate. Its benefits include improved time management via asynchronicity, low cognitive load (e.g., relative to Web conferencing), the ability to hide undesirable and irrelevant cues (e.g., physical appearance), the appropriateness of adding desirable cues (e.g., titles and degrees), the opportunity to provide written expression of confidence, and the ability for the advisor to demonstrate the answer for the decision-maker. Given that the manager is e-mailing an advisor whose competence the manager trusts, it is unnecessary to use a richer communication channel to develop trust. Finally, many of the limitations of e-mail can be rectified through training. We expect that decades from now, e-mail (i.e., asynchronous writing) between an

  8. Transparency in data presentation to support use and understanding for decision makers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strömbäck, Lena; Hjerdt, Niclas; Eriksson Bram, Lena; Lewau, Per

    2013-04-01

    Water management in Sweden is focused on characterization of water bodies and establishing action plans to achieve a good ecological status according to the framework directives stated by the European Union. To support this work SMHI has been commissioned to make databases of hydrography, statistics, water flows and scenario models freely available on the web. As a result of this we have created the open website vattenweb.smhi.se. The site currently provides observed and modeled data for fresh water and coastal areas as time series and statistics. In addition to this, the site also exposes data on wetlands and results from climate scenario simulations. The development of the site has been done in close cooperation with the end users at the water authorities to meet their needs and requirements. This has resulted in an easy to use website, where downloaded data easily can be imported into other tools for further use and analysis by the users. However, during the process we discovered that it was important for the users to learn more on the model setup and quality of simulated data. Therefore, during 2012, we concentrated on making the website more transparent and explain the assumptions and setup behind the simulation. Simulated data on fresh water quantity and quality are provided by the S-HYPE model, a Swedish setup of the Open Source HYPE model. The model provides daily simulations of discharge and transport of nitrogen and phosphorous for the around 40 000 subbasins defined in the Swedish Water ARchive (SVAR). To make the simulated data more transparent, the data used for model setup has been made available on the website as a possibility to download input data as well as the resulting data. In addition, we provide a reference guide where origin of data as well as the processing required for the model setup is explained. This allows decision makers to analyze the model assumptions to understand if there are differences to more detailed information on local

  9. Sharing NASA Science with Decision Makers: A Perspective from NASA's Applied Remote Sensing Training (ARSET) Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prados, A. I.; Blevins, B.; Hook, E.

    2015-12-01

    NASA ARSET http://arset.gsfc.nasa.gov has been providing applied remote sensing training since 2008. The goals of the program are to develop the technical and analytical skills necessary to utilize NASA resources for decision-support. The program has reached over 3500 participants, with 1600 stakeholders from 100 countries in 2015 alone. The target audience for the program are professionals engaged in environmental management in the public and private sectors, such as air quality forecasters, public utilities, water managers and non-governmental organizations engaged in conservation. Many program participants have little or no expertise in NASA remote sensing, and it's frequently their very first exposure to NASA's vast resources. One the key challenges for the program has been the evolution and refinement of its approach to communicating NASA data access, research, and ultimately its value to stakeholders. We discuss ARSET's best practices for sharing NASA science, which include 1) training ARSET staff and other NASA scientists on methods for science communication, 2) communicating the proper amount of scientific information at a level that is commensurate with the technical skills of program participants, 3) communicating the benefit of NASA resources to stakeholders, and 4) getting to know the audience and tailoring the message so that science information is conveyed within the context of agencies' unique environmental challenges.

  10. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  11. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  12. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  13. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  14. 28 CFR 94.52 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final agency decision. 94.52 Section 94.52 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Appeal Procedures § 94.52 Final agency decision. In...

  15. 39 CFR 963.20 - Final agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final agency decision. 963.20 Section 963.20 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE PROCEDURES RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO VIOLATIONS OF THE PANDERING ADVERTISEMENTS STATUTE, 39 U.S.C. 3008 § 963.20 Final agency decision....

  16. Parents as decision-makers--do the attitudes of Norwegian doctors conform to law?

    PubMed

    Bahus, Marianne K; Føerde, Reidun

    2011-12-01

    This article studies whether the attitudes of Norwegian doctors regarding surrogate decision power in end-of-life care conform to legal rules, particularly as they apply to the protection of children. The article is based on a hypothetical scenario concerning a critically ill child, believed to be dying, presented to 406 doctors. The study indicates that doctors may permit parental/surrogate decision-making to a greater extent than justified by law, sometimes in contravention of the child's best interests, which should be a fundamental guideline in all decisions that concern children. This article suggests a need to improve knowledge of doctors concerning parents'/surrogates' right to participate in life-or-death decisions. We conclude that Norway needs a precedent decision from the Supreme Court that confirms the right of judicial review of end-of-life decisions, and which applies the principle of the child's best interests as a fundamental guideline in the final decision.

  17. Sexism and beautyism effects in selection as a function of self-monitoring level of decision maker.

    PubMed

    Jawahar, I M; Mattsson, Jonny

    2005-05-01

    The authors, in two experiments, investigated the influence of the sex and attractiveness of applicants for male and female sex-typed jobs on selection decisions made by low and high self-monitors. In both experiments, attractiveness and the congruence between applicants' sex and the sex type of the job influenced selection decisions. In addition, high self-monitors were more influenced by attractiveness and sex of the applicant when hiring for sex-typed jobs than low self-monitors, but this difference in hiring pattern was not evident when the job was gender neutral. Results indicate that job applicants may encounter different employment opportunities as a function of their sex, their physical attractiveness, the sex type of the job, and the self-monitoring level of the decision maker. Implications of results are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered.

  18. 40 CFR 166.30 - Notice of Agency decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 166.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Specific, Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions § 166.30 Notice of Agency decision. (a) Notification of...

  19. Public engagement in priority-setting: results from a pan-Canadian survey of decision-makers in cancer control.

    PubMed

    Regier, Dean A; Bentley, Colene; Mitton, Craig; Bryan, Stirling; Burgess, Michael M; Chesney, Ellen; Coldman, Andy; Gibson, Jennifer; Hoch, Jeffrey; Rahman, Syed; Sabharwal, Mona; Sawka, Carol; Schuckel, Victoria; Peacock, Stuart J

    2014-12-01

    Decision-makers are challenged to incorporate public input into priority-setting decisions. We conducted a pan-Canadian survey of decision-makers in cancer control to investigate the types of evidence, especially evidence supplied by the public, that are utilized in health care priority-setting. We further examined how normative attitudes and contextual factors influence the use of public engagement as evidence at the committee level. Administered between November and December 2012, 67 respondents from 117 invited individuals participated in the survey. The results indicated that public engagement was infrequently utilized compared to clinical effectiveness evidence or cost evidence. General positive agreement between normative attitudes towards the use of evidence and the frequency of evidence utilization was observed, but absence of correlative agreement was found for the types of evidence that are supplied by the general public and for cost-effectiveness inputs. Regression analyses suggested that public engagement was unevenly utilized between jurisdictions and that educational background and barriers to implementing public input may decrease the odds of using public engagement as evidence. We recommend that institutions establish a link between committee members' normative attitudes for using public engagement and its real-world utilization.

  20. Communication with U.S. federal decision makers : a primer with notes on the use of computer models as a means of communication.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Erik Karl; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2009-10-01

    This document outlines ways to more effectively communicate with U.S. Federal decision makers by outlining the structure, authority, and motivations of various Federal groups, how to find the trusted advisors, and how to structure communication. All three branches of Federal governments have decision makers engaged in resolving major policy issues. The Legislative Branch (Congress) negotiates the authority and the resources that can be used by the Executive Branch. The Executive Branch has some latitude in implementation and prioritizing resources. The Judicial Branch resolves disputes. The goal of all decision makers is to choose and implement the option that best fits the needs and wants of the community. However, understanding the risk of technical, political and/or financial infeasibility and possible unintended consequences is extremely difficult. Primarily, decision makers are supported in their deliberations by trusted advisors who engage in the analysis of options as well as the day-to-day tasks associated with multi-party negotiations. In the best case, the trusted advisors use many sources of information to inform the process including the opinion of experts and if possible predictive analysis from which they can evaluate the projected consequences of their decisions. The paper covers the following: (1) Understanding Executive and Legislative decision makers - What can these decision makers do? (2) Finding the target audience - Who are the internal and external trusted advisors? (3) Packaging the message - How do we parse and integrate information, and how do we use computer simulation or models in policy communication?

  1. U.S. DOE’S RESPONSE TO THE FUKUSHIMA DAIICHI REACTOR ACCIDENT: ANSWERS AND DATA PRODUCTS FOR DECISION MAKERS

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Alexis L.

    2012-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi response posed a plethora of scientific questions to the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) radiological emergency response community. As concerns arose for decision makers, the DOE leveraged a community of scientists well-versed in the tenants of emergency situations to provide answers to time-sensitive questions from different parts of the world. A chronology of the scientific Q and A that occurred is presented along with descriptions of the challenges that were faced and how new methods were employed throughout the course of the response.

  2. A decision aid regarding long-term tube feeding targeting substitute decision makers for cognitively impaired older persons in Japan: A small-scale before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In Japan, there is no decision-making guide regarding long-term tube feeding that specifically targets individuals making decisions on behalf of cognitively impaired older persons (substitute decision makers). The objective of this study was to describe the development and evaluation of such a decision aid. Methods In this before-and-after study, participants comprised substitute decision makers for 13 cognitively impaired inpatients aged 65 years and older who were being considered for placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube in acute care hospitals and mixed-care hospitals in Japan. Questionnaires were used to compare substitute decision makers’ knowledge, decisional conflict, and predisposition regarding feeding tube placement before and after exposure to a decision aid. The acceptability of the decision aid was also assessed. Paired t-tests were used to compare participants’ knowledge and decisional conflict scores before and after using the decision aid. Results Substitute decision makers showed significantly increased knowledge (P < .001) and decreased decisional conflict (P < .01) regarding long-term tube feeding after using the decision aid. All substitute decision makers found the decision aid helpful and acceptable. Conclusions The decision aid facilitated the decision-making process of substitute decision makers by decreasing decisional conflict and increasing knowledge. PMID:24495735

  3. Decision-maker's guide to wood fuel for small industrial energy users. Final report. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Levi, M. P.; O'Grady, M. J.

    1980-02-01

    The technology and economics of various wood energy systems available to the small industrial and commercial energy user are considered. This book is designed to help a plant manager, engineer, or others in a decision-making role to become more familiar with wood fuel systems and make informed decisions about switching to wood as a fuel. The following subjects are discussed: wood combustion, pelletized wood, fuel storage, fuel handling and preparation, combustion equipment, retrofitting fossil-fueled boilers, cogeneration, pollution abatement, and economic considerations of wood fuel use. (MHR)

  4. Assessing the Benefits of Wetland Restoration: A Rapid Benefit Indicators Approach for Decision Makers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This guide presents the Rapid Benefits Indicators (RBI) Approach, a rapid process for assessing the social benefits of ecosystem restoration. Created for those who conduct, advocate for, or support restoration, the RBI approach consists of five steps: (1) Describe the decision co...

  5. Improving Children's Competence as Decision Makers: Contrasting Effects of Collaborative Interaction and Direct Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xin; Anderson, Richard C.; Morris, Joshua; Miller, Brian; Nguyen-Jahiel, Kim Thi; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Zhang, Jie; Jadallah, May; Scott, Theresa; Sun, Jingjing; Latawiec, Beata; Ma, Shufeng; Grabow, Kay; Hsu, Judy Yu-Li

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the influence of contrasting instructional approaches on children's decision-making competence. A total of 764 fifth graders, mostly African Americans and Hispanic Americans, from 36 classrooms in eight public schools serving children from low-income families completed a six-week unit on wolf management, using either direct…

  6. Employees as Leaders/Decision-Makers in Worksite Wellness Programs. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenney, Sharon L.

    Companies are promoting employee leadership and decision making in their worksite wellness programs for the following reasons: to make the best use of limited resources, to increase programs' chances for success by fostering employee ownership of program plans, to help integrate positive health and safety features into workplace policies and…

  7. Factors Influencing the Adoption of Cloud Storage by Information Technology Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelock, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses a survey methodology to determine the factors behind the decision to adopt cloud storage. The dependent variable in the study is the intent to adopt cloud storage. Four independent variables are utilized including need, security, cost-effectiveness and reliability. The survey includes a pilot test, field test and statistical…

  8. Networking CD-ROMs: The Decision Maker's Guide to Local Area Network Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elshami, Ahmed M.

    In an era when patrons want access to CD-ROM resources but few libraries can afford to buy multiple copies, CD-ROM local area networks (LANs) are emerging as a cost-effective way to provide shared access. To help librarians make informed decisions, this manual offers information on: (1) the basics of LANs, a "local area network primer";…

  9. Distributed Biosurveillance Systems Using Sensible Agent Technology to Improve Coordination and Communication Among Decision-Makers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    By applying Sensible Agent (SA) multi-agent system (MAS) technology to the biosurveillance domain, we can reduce the burden on the TDH ...epidemiologist by distributing and coordinating decision-making, as well as help the TDH manage the uncertainty of incoming data and understand how that...demonstrated for biosurveillance in support of the Texas Department of Health ( TDH ). In the current configuration, all data acquired from hospitals

  10. Communicating with Clinicians: The Experiences of Surrogate Decision Makers for Hospitalized Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Torke, Alexia M.; Petronio, Sandra; Purnell, Christianna E.; Sachs, Greg A.; Helft, Paul R.; Callahan, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives When hospitalized older adults have impaired cognition, family members or other surrogates must communicate with clinicians to provide information and make medical decisions for the patient. The present study describes communication experiences of surrogates who recently made a major medical decision for a hospitalized older adult. Design Semi-structured interviews about a recent hospitalization. Setting Two hospitals both affiliated with 1 large medical school: an urban, public hospital; and a university-affiliated tertiary referral hospital. Participants Surrogates were eligible if they had recently made a major medical decision for a hospitalized patient aged 65 or older and were available for an interview within 1 month (2-5 months if the patient died). Measurements Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using methods of grounded theory. Results We interviewed 35 surrogates. They were 80% female, 44% white and 56% African American. Three primary themes emerged. We found the Nature of Surrogate/Clinician Relationships was best characterized as a relationship with a “team” of clinicians rather than individual clinicians due to frequent staff changes and multiple clinicians. Surrogates reported their Communication Needs, including frequent communication, information, and emotional support. Surrogates valued communication from any member of the clinical team, including nurses, social workers, and physicians. Third, surrogates described Trust and Mistrust, which were formed largely through surrogates’ communication experiences. Conclusion In the hospital, surrogates form relationships with a “team” of clinicians rather than with individuals. Yet effective communication and expressions of emotional support frequently occur and are highly valued by surrogates. Future interventions should focus on meeting surrogates’ needs for frequent communication, high levels of information and emotional support. PMID:22881864

  11. Barriers and challenges in adopting Saudi telemedicine network: The perceptions of decision makers of healthcare facilities in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alaboudi, Abdulellah; Atkins, Anthony; Sharp, Bernadette; Balkhair, Ahmed; Alzahrani, Mohammed; Sunbul, Tamara

    Despite emerging evidence about the benefits of telemedicine, there are still many barriers and challenges to its adoption. Its adoption is often cited as a failed project because 75% of them are abandoned or 'failed outright' and this percentage increases to 90% in developing countries. The literature has clarified that there is neither one-size-fit-all framework nor best-practice solution for all ICT innovations or for all countries. Barriers and challenges in adopting and implementing one ICT innovation in a given country/organisation may not be similar - not for the same ICT innovation in another country/organisation nor for another ICT innovation in the same country/organisation. To the best of our knowledge, no comprehensive scientific study has investigated these challenges and barriers in all Healthcare Facilities (HCFs) across the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This research, which is undertaken based on the Saudi Telemedicine Network roadmap and in collaboration with the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH), is aimed at identifying the principle predictive challenges and barriers in the context of the KSA, and understanding the perspective of the decision makers of each HCF type, sector, and location. Three theories are used to underpin this research: the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT), the Technology-Organisation-Environment (TOE) theoretical framework, and the Evaluating Telemedicine Systems Success Model (ETSSM). This study applies a three-sequential-phase approach by using three mixed methods (i.e., literature review, interviews, and questionnaires) in order to utilise the source triangulation and the data comparison analysis technique. The findings of this study show that the top three influential barriers to adopt and implement telemedicine by the HCF decision makers are: (i) the availability of adequate sustainable financial support to implement, operate, and maintain the telemedicine system, (ii) ensuring conformity of

  12. Transportation Energy Futures: Key Opportunities and Tools for Decision Makers (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-12-01

    The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examines underexplored greenhouse gas-abatement and oil-savings opportunities by consolidating transportation energy knowledge, conducting advanced analysis, and exploring additional opportunities for sound strategic action. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal is to provide analysis to accompany DOE-EERE's long-term transportation energy planning by addressing high-priority questions, informing domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments. Research and analysis were conducted with an eye toward short-term actions that support long-term energy goals The project looks beyond technology to examine each key question in the context of the marketplace, consumer behavior, industry capabilities, and infrastructure. This updated fact sheet includes a new section on initial project findings.

  13. Application of a plume model for decision makers' situation awareness during an outdoor airborne HAZMAT release.

    PubMed

    Meris, Ronald G; Barbera, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In a large-scale outdoor, airborne, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incident, such as ruptured chlorine rail cars during a train derailment, the local Incident Commanders and HAZMAT emergency responders must obtain accurate information quickly to assess the situation and act promptly and appropriately. HAZMAT responders must have a clear understanding of key information and how to integrate it into timely and effective decisions for action planning. This study examined the use of HAZMAT plume modeling as a decision support tool during incident action planning in this type of extreme HAZMAT incident. The concept of situation awareness as presented by Endsley's dynamic situation awareness model contains three levels: perception, comprehension, and projection. It was used to examine the actions of incident managers related to adequate data acquisition, current situational understanding, and accurate situation projection. Scientists and engineers have created software to simulate and predict HAZMAT plume behavior, the projected hazard impact areas, and the associated health effects. Incorporating the use of HAZMAT plume projection modeling into an incident action plan may be a complex process. The present analysis used a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodological approach and examined the use and limitations of a "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" process that can be integrated into the incident action planning cycle. HAZMAT response experts were interviewed using a computer-based simulation. One of the research conclusions indicated the "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" is a critical function so that an individual/team can be tasked with continually updating the hazard plume model with evolving data, promoting more accurate situation awareness.

  14. A qualitative study into the difficulties experienced by healthcare decision makers when reading a Cochrane diagnostic test accuracy review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cochrane reviews are one of the best known and most trusted sources of evidence-based information in health care. While steps have been taken to make Cochrane intervention reviews accessible to a diverse readership, little is known about the accessibility of the newcomer to the Cochrane library: diagnostic test accuracy reviews (DTARs). The current qualitative study explored how healthcare decision makers, who varied in their knowledge and experience with test accuracy research and systematic reviews, read and made sense of DTARs. Methods A purposive sample of clinicians, researchers and policy makers (n = 21) took part in a series of think-aloud interviews, using as interview material the first three DTARs published in the Cochrane library. Thematic qualitative analysis of the transcripts was carried out to identify patterns in participants’ ‘reading’ and interpretation of the reviews and the difficulties they encountered. Results Participants unfamiliar with the design and methodology of DTARs found the reviews largely inaccessible and experienced a range of difficulties stemming mainly from the mismatch between background knowledge and level of explanation provided in the text. Experience with systematic reviews of interventions did not guarantee better understanding and, in some cases, led to confusion and misinterpretation. These difficulties were further exacerbated by poor layout and presentation, which affected even those with relatively good knowledge of DTARs and had a negative impact not only on their understanding of the reviews but also on their motivation to engage with the text. Comparison between the readings of the three reviews showed that more accessible presentation, such as presenting the results as natural frequencies, significantly increased participants’ understanding. Conclusions The study demonstrates that authors and editors should pay more attention to the presentation as well as the content of Cochrane DTARs

  15. The CAULDRON game: Helping decision makers understand extreme weather event attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    There is a recognition from academics and stakeholders that climate science has a fundamental role to play in the decision making process, but too frequently there is still uncertainty about what, when, how and why to use it. Stakeholders suggest that it is because the science is presented in an inaccessible manner, while academics suggest it is because the stakeholders do not have the scientific knowledge to understand and apply the science appropriately. What is apparent is that stakeholders need support, and that there is an onus on academia to provide it. This support is even more important with recent developments in climate science, such as extreme weather event attribution. We are already seeing the impacts of extreme weather events around the world causing lost of life and damage to property and infrastructure with current research suggesting that these events could become more frequent and more intense. If this is to be the case then a better understanding of the science will be vital in developing robust adaptation and business planning. The use of games, role playing and simulations to aid learning has long been understood in education but less so as a tool to support stakeholder understanding of climate science. Providing a 'safe' space where participants can actively engage with concepts, ideas and often emotions, can lead to deep understanding that is not possible through more passive mechanisms such as papers and web sites. This paper reports on a game that was developed through a collaboration led by the Red Cross/Red Crescent, University of Oxford and University of Reading to help stakeholders understand the role of weather event attribution in the decision making process. The game has already been played successfully at a number of high profile events including COP 19 and the African Climate Conference. It has also been used with students as part of a postgraduate environmental management course. As well as describing the design principles of the

  16. Procuring Solar Energy: A Guide for Federal Facility Decision Makers, September 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Stoltenberg, B.; Partyka, E.

    2010-09-01

    This guide presents an overview of the process for successfully planning for and installing solar technology on a federal site. It is specifically targeted to managers of federal buildings and sites, contracting officers, energy and sustainability officers, and regional procurement managers. The solar project process is outlined in a concise, easy-to-understand, step-by-step format. Information includes a brief overview of legislation and executive orders related to renewable energy and the compelling reasons for implementing a solar project on a federal site. It also includes how to assess a facility to identify the best solar installation site, project recommendations and considerations to help avoid unforeseen issues, and guidance on financing and contracting options. Case studies with descriptions of successful solar deployments across multiple agencies are presented. In addition, detailed information and sample documents for specific tasks are referenced with Web links or included in the appendixes. The guide concentrates on distributed solar generation and not large, centralized solar energy generation.

  17. GAIA - a generalizable, extensible structure for integrating games, models and social networking to support decision makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paxton, L. J.; Schaefer, R. K.; Nix, M.; Fountain, G. H.; Weiss, M.; Swartz, W. H.; Parker, C. L.; MacDonald, L.; Ihde, A. G.; Simpkins, S.; GAIA Team

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a proven methodology for modeling the complex social and economic interactions embodied in real-world decision making to water scarcity and water resources. We have developed a generalizable, extensible facility we call "GAIA" - Global Assimilation of Information for Action - and applied it to different problem sets. We describe the use of the "Green Country Model" and other gaming/simulation tools to address the impacts of climate and climate disruption issues at the intersection of science, economics, policy, and society. There is a long history in the Defense community of using what are known as strategic simulations or "wargames" to model the complex interactions between the environment, people, resources, infrastructure and the economy in a competitive environment. We describe in this paper, work that we have done on understanding how this heritage can be repurposed to help us explore how the complex interplay between climate disruption and our socio/political and economic structures will affect our future. Our focus here is on a fundamental and growing issue - water and water availability. We consider water and the role of "virtual water" in the system. Various "actors" are included in the simulations. While these simulations cannot definitively predict what will happen, they do illuminate non-linear feedbacks between, for example, treaty agreement, the environment, the economy, and the government. These simulations can be focused on the global, regional, or local environment. We note that these simulations are not "zero sum" games - there need not be a winner and a loser. They are, however, competitive influence games: they represent the tools that a nation, state, faction or group has at its disposal to influence policy (diplomacy), finances, industry (economy), infrastructure, information, etc to achieve their particular goals. As in the real world the problem is competitive - not everyone shares the same

  18. The ecological model web concept: A consultative infrastructure for researchers and decision makers using a Service Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers such as natural resource managers want better information about what these changes will be and how the resources they are managing will be affected. Researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Nearly all these activities require computer models to make ecological forecasts that can address "what if" questions. However, despite many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is no coordinated model system—that is, a model infrastructure--that researchers or decision makers can consult to gain insight on important ecological questions or help them make decisions. While this is partly due to the complexity of the science, to lack of critical observations, and other issues, limited access to and sharing of models and model outputs is a factor as well. An infrastructure that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit researchers, decision makers of all kinds, and modelers. One path to such a "consultative infrastructure" for ecological forecasting is called the Model Web, a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases communicating using a Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Initially, it could consist of a core of several models, perhaps made interoperable retroactively, and then it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. Because some models provide basic information of use to many other models, such as simple physical parameters, these "keystone" models are of particular importance in a model web. In the long run, a model web would not be rigidly planned and built--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange

  19. How is the New Public Management applied in the occupational health care system? - decision-makers' and OH personnel's views in Finland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In many countries occupational health care system is in change. Occupational health studies are mainly focused on occupational health substance and content. This study offers new perspectives on municipal OHS and its operations from management perspective. Aim The aim of this study is to analyse how New Public Management (NPM) doctrines are applied in the Finnish occupational health care system (OHS). The main focus is to describe and compare the views of decision-makers' and OH workers within the framework of NPM. Methods The data were collected by semi-structured interviews from 17 municipal decision-makers' and 26 municipal OH workers. Data was analyzed by examining coded data in a theory-driven way according to Hood's doctrine of NPM. Results The doctrines were not as compatible with the OH personnel view as with the decision-makers' view. Decision-makers and OH personnel highlighted the strict criteria required for operation evaluation. Moreover, decision-makers strongly accentuated professional management in the public sector and the reorganization of public sector units. These were not equally relevant in OH personnel views. In OH personnel views, other doctrines (more attention to performance and accomplishments, emphasizing and augmentation of the competition and better control of public expense and means test) were not similarly in evidence, only weak evidence was observed when their importance viewed as medium by decision-makers. Neither of the respondents group kept the doctrine of management models of the private sector relevant. Conclusions The NPM and Hoods doctrine fitted well with OH research. The doctrine brought out view differences and similarities between decision-makers and OH personnel. For example, policymakers highlighted more strongly the structural change by emphasizing professional management compared to OH personnel. The need for reorganization of municipal OH, regardless of different operational preconditions, was obvious

  20. Faculty Sense of Agency in Decisions about Work and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Meara, KerryAnn; Campbell, Corbin M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade, many research universities have adopted policies and support mechanisms to help academic parents balance work and family. This study sought to understand what facilitates faculty agency in making decisions about work and family, including parental leave. We conducted 20 interviews with 5 men and 15 women at a research…

  1. Exploring the Ocean Through Climate Indicators: What Do Research, Predictions, and Decision-makers Need to Know?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrigo, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    There are several new and ongoing efforts around communicating climate and global change and variability by developing Climate Indicators (e.g. the US Global Change Research Project's Pilot Indicators Program, the US EPA's Climate Change Indicators, and the Ocean Observations Panel for Climate State of the Ocean indicators). Indicators provide information tailored to identified stakeholders and facilitate monitoring status, trends, extremes and variability of important climate features or processes. NOAA's Climate Monitoring program is in the middle of a three-year initiative toward supporting research toward the development of Ocean Climate Indicators for research, prediction, and decision makers. These indices combine ocean observations, climate data and products from platforms like (but not limited to) the drifting buoy, Argo, satellite, and buoy arrays that provide fundamental observations that contribute towards climate understanding, predictions, and projections. The program is supporting eight distinct projects that focus on primarily regional indices that target varied stakeholders and outreach strategies - from public awareness and education to targeted model performance improvement. This presentation will discuss the diverse set of projects, initial results, and discuss possibilities for and examples of using the indicators and processes for developing them for broader science outreach and education, with an eye toward the aim of organizing the ocean climate and observing community around developing a comprehensive ocean monitoring and indicators system.

  2. Haitian and international responders' and decision-makers' perspectives regarding disability and the response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Matthew R.; Chung, Ryoa; Durocher, Evelyne; Henrys, Jean Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Background Following disasters, persons with disabilities (PWD) are especially vulnerable to harm, yet they have commonly been excluded from disaster planning, and their needs have been poorly addressed during disaster relief. Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, thousands of individuals experienced acute injuries. Many more individuals with preexisting disabilities experienced heightened vulnerability related to considerations including safety, access to services, and meeting basic needs. Objective The objective of this research was to better understand the perceptions of responders and decision-makers regarding disability and efforts to address the needs of PWD following the 2010 earthquake. Design We conducted a qualitative study using interpretive description methodology and semistructured interviews with 14 Haitian and 10 international participants who were involved in the earthquake response. Results Participants identified PWD as being among the most vulnerable individuals following the earthquake. Though some forms of disability received considerable attention in aid efforts, the needs of other PWD did not. Several factors were identified as challenges for efforts to address the needs of PWD including lack of coordination and information sharing, the involvement of multiple aid sectors, perceptions that this should be the responsibility of specialized organizations, and the need to prioritize limited resources. Participants also reported shifts in local social views related to disability following the earthquake. Conclusions Addressing the needs of PWD following a disaster is a crucial population health challenge and raises questions related to equity and responsibility for non-governmental organizations, governments, and local communities. PMID:26257047

  3. Haitian and international responders' and decision-makers' perspectives regarding disability and the response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Matthew R; Chung, Ryoa; Durocher, Evelyne; Henrys, Jean Hugues

    2015-01-01

    Background Following disasters, persons with disabilities (PWD) are especially vulnerable to harm, yet they have commonly been excluded from disaster planning, and their needs have been poorly addressed during disaster relief. Following the 2010 Haiti earthquake, thousands of individuals experienced acute injuries. Many more individuals with preexisting disabilities experienced heightened vulnerability related to considerations including safety, access to services, and meeting basic needs. Objective The objective of this research was to better understand the perceptions of responders and decision-makers regarding disability and efforts to address the needs of PWD following the 2010 earthquake. Design We conducted a qualitative study using interpretive description methodology and semistructured interviews with 14 Haitian and 10 international participants who were involved in the earthquake response. Results Participants identified PWD as being among the most vulnerable individuals following the earthquake. Though some forms of disability received considerable attention in aid efforts, the needs of other PWD did not. Several factors were identified as challenges for efforts to address the needs of PWD including lack of coordination and information sharing, the involvement of multiple aid sectors, perceptions that this should be the responsibility of specialized organizations, and the need to prioritize limited resources. Participants also reported shifts in local social views related to disability following the earthquake. Conclusions Addressing the needs of PWD following a disaster is a crucial population health challenge and raises questions related to equity and responsibility for non-governmental organizations, governments, and local communities.

  4. Immediate gain is long-term loss: Are there foresighted decision makers in the Iowa Gambling Task?

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Yao-Chu; Lin, Ching-Hung; Huang, Jong-Tsun; Lin, Shuyeu; Lee, Po-Lei; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2008-01-01

    Background The Somatic Marker Hypothesis suggests that normal subjects are "foreseeable" and ventromedial prefrontal patients are "myopic" in making decisions, as the behavior shown in the Iowa Gambling Task. The present study questions previous findings because of the existing confounding between long-term outcome (expected value, EV) and gain-loss frequency variables in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). A newly and symmetrically designed gamble, namely the Soochow Gambling Task (SGT), with a high-contrast EV between bad (A, B) and good (C, D) decks, is conducted to clarify the issue about IGT confounding. Based on the prediction of EV (a basic assumption of IGT), participants should prefer to choose good decks C and D rather than bad decks A and B in SGT. In contrast, according to the prediction of gain-loss frequency, subjects should prefer the decks A and B because they possessed relatively the high-frequency gain. Methods The present experiment was performed by 48 participants (24 males and 24 females). Most subjects are college students recruited from different schools. Each subject played the computer version SGT first and completed a questionnaire for identifying their final preference. The IGT experimental procedure was mostly followed to assure a similar condition of decision uncertainty. Results The SGT experiment demonstrated that the prediction of gain-loss frequency is confirmed. Most subjects preferred to choose the bad decks A and B than good decks C and D. The learning curve and questionnaire data indicate that subjects can not "hunch" the EV throughout the game. Further analysis of the effect of previous choice demonstrated that immediate gain increases the probability to stay at the same deck. Conclusion SGT provides a balanced structure to clarify the confounding inside IGT and demonstrates that gain-loss frequency rather than EV guides decision makers in these high-ambiguity gambles. Additionally, the choice behavior is mostly following the "gain

  5. 7 CFR 766.106 - Agency notification of decision regarding a complete application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency notification of decision regarding a complete... Programs § 766.106 Agency notification of decision regarding a complete application. The Agency will send the borrower notification of the Agency's decision within 60 calendar days after receiving a...

  6. 10 CFR 708.32 - Can a dissatisfied party appeal an initial agency decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Can a dissatisfied party appeal an initial agency decision... Investigation, Hearing and Decision Process § 708.32 Can a dissatisfied party appeal an initial agency decision... appeal on all other parties. (c) A party who receives an initial agency decision by a Hearing Officer...

  7. 10 CFR 708.32 - Can a dissatisfied party appeal an initial agency decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Can a dissatisfied party appeal an initial agency decision... Investigation, Hearing and Decision Process § 708.32 Can a dissatisfied party appeal an initial agency decision... appeal on all other parties. (c) A party who receives an initial agency decision by a Hearing Officer...

  8. 10 CFR 708.32 - Can a dissatisfied party appeal an initial agency decision?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Can a dissatisfied party appeal an initial agency decision... Investigation, Hearing and Decision Process § 708.32 Can a dissatisfied party appeal an initial agency decision... appeal on all other parties. (c) A party who receives an initial agency decision by a Hearing Officer...

  9. Better Decisions through Consultation and Collaboration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This manual discusses the benefits of public involvement to agency decision makers, including expanding shared baseline knowledge, generating support for the decision, and developing ongoing relationships that will help in implementing decisions.

  10. From drought indicators to impacts: developing improved tools for monitoring and early warning with decision-makers in mind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannaford, Jamie; Barker, Lucy; Svensson, Cecilia; Tanguy, Maliko; Laize, Cedric; Bachmair, Sophie; Tijdeman, Erik; Stahl, Kerstin; Collins, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    of M&EW and future aspirations. Different stakeholders clearly have different goals for M&EW, but there are a number of common themes, including a desire to better understand the links between the outputs of large-scale M&EW systems (rainfall, river flow, etc), localised triggers used by decision-makers during drought episodes, and actual impacts of drought. Secondly, we present analyses designed to test the utility of a wide range of drought indicators for their use in UK applications. We demonstrate the suitability of standardised indicators (like the SPI) for use in the UK, addressing the suitability of statistical distributions and using these indicators for drought severity quantification and for understanding propagation from meteorological to hydrological drought; all of which are currently poorly understood aspects that are vital for future monitoring. We then address the extent to which these indicators can be used to predict drought impacts, focusing on several sectors (water supply, agriculture and ecosystems). These analyses test which indicators perform best at predicting drought impacts, and seek to identify indicator thresholds that trigger impact occurrence. Unsurprisingly, we found that no single indicator best predicts impacts, and results are domain, sector and season specific. However, we reveal important linkages between indicators and impacts that could enhance the design and delivery of monitoring and forecasting information and its uptake by decision-makers concerned with drought.

  11. Bridging the gap between the economic evaluation literature and daily practice in occupational health: a qualitative study among decision-makers in the healthcare sector

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Continued improvements in occupational health can only be ensured if decisions regarding the implementation and continuation of occupational health and safety interventions (OHS interventions) are based on the best available evidence. To ensure that this is the case, scientific evidence should meet the needs of decision-makers. As a first step in bridging the gap between the economic evaluation literature and daily practice in occupational health, this study aimed to provide insight into the occupational health decision-making process and information needs of decision-makers. Methods An exploratory qualitative study was conducted with a purposeful sample of occupational health decision-makers in the Ontario healthcare sector. Eighteen in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the process by which occupational health decisions are made and the importance given to the financial implications of OHS interventions. Twenty-five structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore the sources of information used during the decision-making process, and decision-makers’ knowledge on economic evaluation methods. In-depth interview data were analyzed according to the constant comparative method. For the structured telephone interviews, summary statistics were prepared. Results The occupational health decision-making process generally consists of three stages: initiation stage, establishing the need for an intervention; pre-implementation stage, developing an intervention and its business case in order to receive senior management approval; and implementation and evaluation stage, implementing and evaluating an intervention. During this process, information on the financial implications of OHS interventions was found to be of great importance, especially the employer’s costs and benefits. However, scientific evidence was rarely consulted, sound ex-post program evaluations were hardly ever performed, and there seemed to be a need to advance the economic

  12. Decision Making and Training: A Review of Theoretical and Empirical Studies of Decision Making and Their Implications for the Training of Decision Makers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    1959. b Schlaifer, R. Anais 2f decisions under uncertainitv. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969. Schopenhauer , A. The art of controversy. In J. B. Saunders...Ed.), 7_11a s qf L u Schopenhauer , New York: Wiley Book Co., no date. Schrenk, L. P. Objective difficulty and input history in sequential decision

  13. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  14. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  15. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  16. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  17. 12 CFR 408.5 - Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... considered in Agency decision-making. 408.5 Section 408.5 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED... Procedures § 408.5 Ensuring environmental documents are actually considered in Agency decision-making... environmental documents in agency decision-making. To implement these requirements, Eximbank officials will:...

  18. Market assessment for active solar heating and cooling products. Category B: a survey of decision-makers in the HVAC marketplace. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the market for solar heating and cooling products for new and retrofit markets is reported. The emphasis is on the analysis of solar knowledge among HVAC decision makers and a comprehensive evaluation of their solar attitudes and behavior. The data from each of the following sectors are described and analyzed: residential consumers, organizational and manufacturing buildings, HVAC engineers and architects, builders/developers, and commercial/institutional segments. (MHR)

  19. Critical illness research involving collection of genomic data: the conundrum posed by low levels of genomic literacy among surrogate decision makers for critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Ellen; Celious, Aaron; Shehane, Erica; Oerke, Mandy; Warren, Victoria; Eastman, Alexander; Kennedy, Carie R; Freeman, Bradley D

    2013-07-01

    Critical illness clinical trials that entail genomic data collection pose unique challenges. In this qualitative study, we found that surrogate decision makers (SDMs) for critically ill individuals, such as those who would be approached for study participation, appeared to have a limited grasp of genomic principles. We argue that low levels of genomic literacy should neither preclude nor be in conflict with the conduct of ethically rigorous clinical trials.

  20. Voice in Political Decision-Making: The Effect of Group Voice on Perceived Trustworthiness of Decision Makers and Subsequent Acceptance of Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terwel, Bart W.; Harinck, Fieke; Ellemers, Naomi; Daamen, Dancker D. L.

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of carbon dioxide capture and storage technology (CCS) is considered an important climate change mitigation strategy, but the viability of this technology will depend on public acceptance of CCS policy decisions. The results of three experiments with students as participants show that whether or not interest groups receive an…

  1. Integration of environmental and human health risk assessment for industries using hazardous materials: a quantitative multi criteria approach for environmental decision makers.

    PubMed

    Topuz, E; Talinli, I; Aydin, E

    2011-02-01

    Environmental management, for which environmental and human health risk assessment is the first stage, is a requirement for industries both before construction and during operation in order to sustain improved quality of life in the ecosystem. Therefore, the aim of this study is to propose an approach that integrates environmental and human health risk assessment for industries using hazardous materials in order to support environmental decision makers with quantitative and directive results. Analytic hierarchy process and fuzzy logic are used as tools to handle problems caused by complexity of environment and uncertain data. When the proposed approach is implemented to a scenario, it was concluded that it is possible to define risk sources with their risk classes and related membership degrees in that classes which enable the decision maker to decide which risk source has priority. In addition, they can easily point out and rank the factors contributing those risk sources owing to priority weights of them. As a result, environmental decision makers can use this approach while they are developing management alternatives for unfounded and on-going industrial plants using hazardous materials.

  2. Examining the Educative Aims and Practices of Decision-Makers in Sport for Development and Peace Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Per G.; Hancock, Meg G.; Hums, Mary A.

    2016-01-01

    Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) policy-makers and practitioners continue to offer ambitious claims regarding the potential role of sport-based programs for promoting social change. Yet, it is important to put sport under a critical lens in order to develop a more balanced and realistic understanding of the role of sport in society. Whether…

  3. Agency and Error in Young Adults' Stories of Sexual Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Katherine R.; Husser, Erica K.; Stone, Dana J.; Jordal, Christian E.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a qualitative analysis of 148 college students' written comments about themselves as sexual decision makers. Most participants described experiences in which they were actively engaged in decision-making processes of "waiting it out" to "working it out." The four patterns were (a) I am in control, (b) I am experimenting and learning,…

  4. MED SUV TASK 6.3 Capacity building and interaction with decision makers: Improving volcanic risk communication through volcanic hazard tools evaluation, Campi Flegrei Caldera case study (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, Rosella; Isaia, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Cristiani, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    In the communication chain between scientists and decision makers (end users), scientific outputs, as maps, are a fundamental source of information on hazards zoning and the related at risk areas definition. Anyway the relationship between volcanic phenomena, their probability and potential impact can be complex and the geospatial information not easily decoded or understood by not experts even if decision makers. Focusing on volcanic hazard the goal of MED SUV WP6 Task 3 is to improve the communication efficacy of scientific outputs, to contribute in filling the gap between scientists and decision-makers. Campi Flegrei caldera, in Neapolitan area has been chosen as the pilot research area where to apply an evaluation/validation procedure to provide a robust evaluation of the volcanic maps and its validation resulting from end users response. The selected sample involved are decision makers and officials from Campanian Region Civil Protection and municipalities included in Campi Flegrei RED ZONE, the area exposed to risk from to pyroclastic currents hazard. Semi-structured interviews, with a sample of decision makers and civil protection officials have been conducted to acquire both quantitative and qualitative data. The tested maps have been: the official Campi Flegrei Caldera RED ZONE map, three maps produced by overlapping the Red Zone limit on Orthophoto, DTM and Contour map, as well as other maps included a probabilistic one, showing volcanological data used to border the Red Zone. The outcomes' analysis have assessed level of respondents' understanding of content as displayed, and their needs in representing the complex information embedded in volcanic hazard. The final output has been the development of a leaflet as "guidelines" that can support decision makers and officials in understanding volcanic hazard and risk maps, and also in using them as a communication tool in information program for the population at risk. The same evaluation /validation process

  5. Use of a knowledge synthesis by decision makers and planners to facilitate system level integration in a large Canadian provincial health authority

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Esther; Armitage, Gail D

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The study is an examination of how a knowledge synthesis, conducted to fill an information gap identified by decision makers and planners responsible for integrating health systems in a western Canadian health authority, is being used within that organization. Methods Purposive sampling and snowball technique were used to identify 13 participants who were interviewed about how they are using the knowledge synthesis for health services planning and decision-making. Results The knowledge synthesis is used by those involved in the strategic direction of the provincial healthcare organization and those tasked with the operationalization of integration at the provincial or local level. Both groups most frequently use the 10 key principles for integration, followed by the sections on integration processes, strategies and models. The key principles facilitate discussion on priority areas to be considered and provide a reference point for a desired future state. Perceived information gaps relate to a lack of detail on ‘how to’ strategies, tools and processes that would lead to successful integration. Discussion and conclusion The current project demonstrates that decision makers and planners will effectively use a knowledge synthesis if it is timely, relevant and accessible. The information can be applied at strategic and operations levels. Attention needs to be paid to include more information on implementation strategies and processes. Including knowledge users in identifying research questions will increase information uptake. PMID:21637708

  6. Value of Information and Prospect theory as tools to involve decision-makers in water-related design, operation and planning of water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso, Leonardo

    2013-04-01

    The role of decision-makers is to take the outputs from hydrological and hydraulic analyses and, in some extent, use them as inputs to make decisions that are related to planning, design and operation of water systems. However, the use of these technical analyses is frequently limited, since there are other non-hydrological issues that must be considered, that may end up in very different solutions than those envisaged by the purely technical ones. A possibility to account for the nature of the human decisions under uncertainty is by exploring the use of concepts from decision theory and behavioural economics, such as Value of Information and Prospect Theory and embed them into the methodologies we use in the hydrology practice. Three examples are presented to illustrate these multidisciplinary interactions. The first one, for monitoring network design, uses Value of Information within a methodology to locate water level stations in a complex canal of networks in the Netherlands. The second example, for operation, shows how the Value of Information concept can be used to formulate alternative methods to evaluate flood risk according to the set of options available for decision-making during a flood event. The third example, for planning, uses Prospect Theory concepts to understand how the "losses hurt more than gains feel good" effect can determine the final decision of urbanise or not a flood-prone area. It is demonstrated that decision theory and behavioural economic principles are promising to evaluate the complex decision-making process in water-related issues.

  7. Beyond the Academic Journal: Unfreezing Misconceptions About Mental Illness and Gun Violence Through Knowledge Translation to Decision-Makers.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Joshua; Grilley, Anna; Kennedy, Orla

    2015-06-01

    In a policy arena characterized by polarized debate, such as the consideration of legal interventions to prevent gun violence, research evidence is an important tool to inform decision-making processes. However, unless the evidence is communicated to stakeholders who can influence policy decisions, the research will often remain an academic exercise with little practical impact. The Educational Fund to Stop Violence's process of "unfreezing" individual perceptions and conventional interpretations of the relationship between mental illness and gun violence, forming a consensus, and translating this knowledge to stakeholders through state discussion forums is one way to inform policy change. The recent passage of gun violence prevention legislation in California provides an example of successfully closing the knowledge translation gap between research and decision-making processes.

  8. From whom the bell tolls: the emerging decision-makers for life-support systems in choices of who shall live and who shall die.

    PubMed

    Porzio, R

    1987-12-01

    In summary, how do we assess these decision-makers, with their wide variations in composition, emerging today from medical technology and advances unknown and unforeseen by earlier practitioners? At the threshold, we should not dismiss lightly the traditional role of the doctor as the autocrat. There is much to be said in his or her favor: 1. The basic decision, after all, is a medical one--diagnosis and prognosis--with the concurrence perhaps of a consultant or a specialist. That decision was and is a major premise. Miss it and one misses the mark. 2. What is so novel, what is so startling about a fateful life-death issue in the medical profession? It is quotidian. In the Armageddon between human life and human demise, doctors have been making those solemn decisions in other areas of medicine from time immemorial. Often--not always--the patient is silently saying to the doctor, "My life is in your hands." 3. And within what context does he act? Usually--not always--he knows the patient. He knows the family. He knows the surrounding circumstances. But there still lurks that gnawing, underlying flaw. The decision-making is not diffused. The doctor stands alone. Small "groups" or "committees," retaining medical guidance, share responsibilities, make more palatable to themselves those agonizing decisions, and contribute to their acceptability by society. Here, then, is the harvest to be reaped by diffusion. What is so striking is that the decision-making process anent life-support systems still calls for a superior breed of men and women.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Getting Decision Makers to the Table: Digestible Facts, a Few Good Friends and Sharing Recipes for Solutions to Climate Change Impacts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudrias, M. A.; Estrada, M.; Gershunov, A.; Silva-Send, N. J.; Young, E.

    2014-12-01

    Decision makers and community leaders are key audiences to engage in our efforts to improve climate literacy. Climate Education Partners has been working with business leaders, elected officials, tribal leaders, and other Key Influentials in the San Diego Region to enhance the channels of communication outside traditional settings. Over the past year we have interviewed over 90 Key Influential San Diego leaders asking them about their knowledge of climate change and their personal and professional efforts to adapt to and/or mitigate the impacts of climate change. We also engaged them directly in the creation of an innovative educational resource called "San Diego, 2050 is Calling. How will we answer?" Results of the interviews indicate that 90% of these leaders are concerned about climate change, more than 50% are already doing something about the impacts, and the majority of them want more information, greater dialogue and examples of actions taken by other community leaders. We found that repeated engagement of leaders at the San Diego County Water Authority went from basic collaboration in our water tours, to greater participation of their top leaders in a water tour for top decision makers from the City of San Diego, finally culminating with full support of and participation in the 2050 report. The 2050 report represents an integrated approach blending local climate change science, social science education theory and presentation of a suite of solution-driven opportunities for local leaders. The report includes science infographics that illustrate rigorous scientific facts, statements from expert scientists and direct quotes from decision makers, and examples of successful climate change adaptation actions from companies, government groups and others. The video and photography sessions for the 2050 report led to many unexpected discussion among leaders with differing opinions on climate change, greater enthusiasm to participate in outreach activities with other

  10. Managing the Environmental Impacts of Growth Under Climate Change: A Workshop for State and Local Decision-Makers--Workshop Summary

    EPA Science Inventory

    From November 8/9, 2011, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hosted a workshop titled "Managing the Environmental Impacts of Growth Under Climate Change." The Office of Research and Development (ORD) organized the meeting, which was held in Research Triangle Park, Nort...

  11. Evaluating Impacts of Economic Growth Proposals: An Analytical Framework for Use with Community Decision-Makers. Publication 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Filmore E., Ed.; Cunnings, Lucy M., Ed.

    The nine in this publication are based on the assumption that communities must develop a framework for analyzing economic growth if they are to make responsible decisions relative to rate and form of economic growth. Divided into two parts, this document presents: (1) papers relative to general perspectives on economic growth and development, and…

  12. Development of a resource modelling tool to support decision makers in pandemic influenza preparedness: The AsiaFluCap Simulator

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Health care planning for pandemic influenza is a challenging task which requires predictive models by which the impact of different response strategies can be evaluated. However, current preparedness plans and simulations exercises, as well as freely available simulation models previously made for policy makers, do not explicitly address the availability of health care resources or determine the impact of shortages on public health. Nevertheless, the feasibility of health systems to implement response measures or interventions described in plans and trained in exercises depends on the available resource capacity. As part of the AsiaFluCap project, we developed a comprehensive and flexible resource modelling tool to support public health officials in understanding and preparing for surges in resource demand during future pandemics. Results The AsiaFluCap Simulator is a combination of a resource model containing 28 health care resources and an epidemiological model. The tool was built in MS Excel© and contains a user-friendly interface which allows users to select mild or severe pandemic scenarios, change resource parameters and run simulations for one or multiple regions. Besides epidemiological estimations, the simulator provides indications on resource gaps or surpluses, and the impact of shortages on public health for each selected region. It allows for a comparative analysis of the effects of resource availability and consequences of different strategies of resource use, which can provide guidance on resource prioritising and/or mobilisation. Simulation results are displayed in various tables and graphs, and can also be easily exported to GIS software to create maps for geographical analysis of the distribution of resources. Conclusions The AsiaFluCap Simulator is freely available software (http://www.cdprg.org) which can be used by policy makers, policy advisors, donors and other stakeholders involved in preparedness for providing evidence based and

  13. Helping the decision maker effectively promote various experts’ views into various optimal solutions to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection through the organization of a pilot health care provider research system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The main aim of China’s Health Care System Reform was to help the decision maker find the optimal solution to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection. A pilot health care provider research system was recently organized in China’s health care system, and it could efficiently collect the data for determining the optimal solution to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection from various experts, then the purpose of this study was to apply the optimal implementation methodology to help the decision maker effectively promote various experts’ views into various optimal solutions to this problem under the support of this pilot system. Methods After the general framework of China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection was established, this study collaborated with the National Bureau of Statistics of China to commission a large-scale 2009 to 2010 national expert survey (n = 3,914) through the organization of a pilot health care provider research system for the first time in China, and the analytic network process (ANP) implementation methodology was adopted to analyze the dataset from this survey. Results The market-oriented health care provider approach was the optimal solution to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection from the doctors’ point of view; the traditional government’s regulation-oriented health care provider approach was the optimal solution to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection from the pharmacists’ point of view, the hospital administrators’ point of view, and the point of view of health officials in health administration departments; the public private partnership (PPP) approach was the optimal solution to China’s institutional problem of health care provider selection from the nurses’ point of view, the point of view of officials in medical insurance agencies, and the health care researchers’ point

  14. The DEVELOP National Program: Building Dual Capacity in Decision Makers and Young Professionals Through NASA Earth Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childs, L. M.; Rogers, L.; Favors, J.; Ruiz, M.

    2012-12-01

    Through the years, NASA has played a distinct/important/vital role in advancing Earth System Science to meet the challenges of environmental management and policy decision making. Within NASA's Earth Science Division's Applied Sciences' Program, the DEVELOP National Program seeks to extend NASA Earth Science for societal benefit. DEVELOP is a capacity building program providing young professionals and students the opportunity to utilize NASA Earth observations and model output to demonstrate practical applications of those resources to society. Under the guidance of science advisors, DEVELOP teams work in alignment with local, regional, national and international partner organizations to identify the widest array of practical uses for NASA data to enhance related management decisions. The program's structure facilitates a two-fold approach to capacity building by fostering an environment of scientific and professional development opportunities for young professionals and students, while also providing end-user organizations enhanced management and decision making tools for issues impacting their communities. With the competitive nature and growing societal role of science and technology in today's global workplace, DEVELOP is building capacity in the next generation of scientists and leaders by fostering a learning and growing environment where young professionals possess an increased understanding of teamwork, personal development, and scientific/professional development and NASA's Earth Observation System. DEVELOP young professionals are partnered with end user organizations to conduct 10 week feasibility studies that demonstrate the use of NASA Earth science data for enhanced decision making. As a result of the partnership, end user organizations are introduced to NASA Earth Science technologies and capabilities, new methods to augment current practices, hands-on training with practical applications of remote sensing and NASA Earth science, improved remote

  15. Translating PrEP effectiveness into public health impact: key considerations for decision-makers on cost-effectiveness, price, regulatory issues, distributive justice and advocacy for access

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, Catherine; Macklin, Ruth; Warren, Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The extraordinary feat of proving the effectiveness of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in clinical trials in different populations in a variety of settings may prove to have been easier than ensuring it is used well. Decision-makers must make difficult choices to realize the promise of antiretroviral prophylaxis for their countries. This paper outlines key economic, regulatory and distributive justice issues that must be addressed for effective and acceptable PrEP implementation. Discussion In considering the role that PrEP can play in combination prevention programmes, decision-makers must determine who can benefit most from PrEP, how PrEP can be provided safely and efficiently, and what kind of health system support will ensure successful implementation. To do this, they need contextualized information on disease burden by population, analyses of how PrEP services might best be delivered, and projections of the human resource and infrastructure requirements for each potential delivery model. There are cost considerations, varying cost-effectiveness results and regulatory challenges. The principles of ethics can inform thorny discussions about who should be prioritized for oral PrEP and how best to introduce it fairly. We describe the cost-effectiveness of PrEP in different populations at higher risk of HIV exposure, its price in low- and middle-income countries, and the current regulatory situation. We explore the principles of ethics that can inform resource allocation decision-making about PrEP anchored in distributive justice, at a time when universal access to antiretroviral treatment remains to be assured. We then highlight the role of advocacy in moving the PrEP agenda forward. Conclusions The time is ripe now for decisions about whether, how and for whom PrEP should be introduced into a country's HIV response. It has the potential to contribute significantly to high impact HIV prevention if it is tailored to those who can most benefit

  16. A Perspective on Consumers 3.0: They Are Not Better Decision-Makers than Previous Generations

    PubMed Central

    Houdek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    This perspective article builds upon the theory of local thinking in interpretation and prediction of consumer behavior in a contemporary world of information overload. It is shown that even informed and socially and environmentally responsible consumers (consumers 3.0) exhibit selective recall, limited attention, and bounded search in the perception and interpretation of price and quality of purchases. Their decisions fall into local cognitive frames, which specifically focus attention only on a narrow structure and content of the choice. The cognitive frames can be established by recent or regular purchases, but also extreme or primary purchase experiences. The article includes a short conceptual review of car, food, clothing, insurance, drugs, paintings, and other product purchases showing that the local cognitive frames often lead to bad bargains across various sectors. The article presents several suggestions for future research. PMID:27375527

  17. Point of care information services: a platform for self-directed continuing medical education for front line decision makers

    PubMed Central

    Moja, Lorenzo; Kwag, Koren Hyogene

    2015-01-01

    The structure and aim of continuing medical education (CME) is shifting from the passive transmission of knowledge to a competency-based model focused on professional development. Self-directed learning is emerging as the foremost educational method for advancing competency-based CME. In a field marked by the constant expansion of knowledge, self-directed learning allows physicians to tailor their learning strategy to meet the information needs of practice. Point of care information services are innovative tools that provide health professionals with digested evidence at the front line to guide decision making. By mobilising self-directing learning to meet the information needs of clinicians at the bedside, point of care information services represent a promising platform for competency-based CME. Several points, however, must be considered to enhance the accessibility and development of these tools to improve competency-based CME and the quality of care. PMID:25655251

  18. How seasonal forecast could help a decision maker: an example of climate service for water resource management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viel, Christian; Beaulant, Anne-Lise; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Céron, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    The FP7 project EUPORIAS was a great opportunity for the climate community to co-design with stakeholders some original and innovative climate services at seasonal time scales. In this framework, Météo-France proposed a prototype that aimed to provide to water resource managers some tailored information to better anticipate the coming season. It is based on a forecasting system, built on a refined hydrological suite, forced by a coupled seasonal forecast model. It particularly delivers probabilistic river flow prediction on river basins all over the French territory. This paper presents the work we have done with "EPTB Seine Grands Lacs" (EPTB SGL), an institutional stakeholder in charge of the management of 4 great reservoirs on the upper Seine Basin. First, we present the co-design phase, which means the translation of classical climate outputs into several indices, relevant to influence the stakeholder's decision making process (DMP). And second, we detail the evaluation of the impact of the forecast on the DMP. This evaluation is based on an experiment realised in collaboration with the stakeholder. Concretely EPTB SGL has replayed some past decisions, in three different contexts: without any forecast, with a forecast A and with a forecast B. One of forecast A and B really contained seasonal forecast, the other only contained random forecasts taken from past climate. This placebo experiment, realised in a blind test, allowed us to calculate promising skill scores of the DMP based on seasonal forecast in comparison to a classical approach based on climatology, and to EPTG SGL current practice.

  19. The Heat Is On: Decision-Maker Perspectives on When and How to Issue a Heat Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, M.; Sampson, N.; McCormick, S.; Rood, R. B.; Buxton, M.; Ebi, K. L.; Gronlund, C. J.; Zhang, K.; Catalano, L.; White-Newsome, J. L.; Conlon, K. C.; Parker, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    To better understand how to prevent illness and deaths during hot weather, particularly among at-risk populations, we conducted a study in Detroit, Michigan; Phoenix, Arizona; New York, New York, and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Our aims were to characterize and better understand how heatwave and health early warning systems (HHWS) and related prevention and sustainability programs can be more widely and effectively implemented. Specifically, we here report on the scientific evidence, expert judgments and the process used in deciding to trigger a HHWS and activate public health and social services interventions. We conducted interviews with public officials who decide if and when heat advisories/warnings are issued. After transcribing the interviews, we used a qualitative analysis software, QSR NVivo 9.0, to assign codes to portions of text from each transcript and allow analysis of information with common themes across the data. For example, several sentences in a transcript discussing a heat index might be coded as 'definition of heat wave'. A common theme across cities was that deciding what type of weather is dangerous to health is not straightforward. The time in season that heat occurs; the duration of the heat; the level of humidity and other meteorological factors; the extent to which temperatures drop at night, allowing people to cool off; and prevailing weather conditions all play a role. A single 'safe' threshold is unrealistic because people's individual sensitivity, housing, surrounding environments, behaviors, and access to air conditioning can differ greatly. However, choices must be made as to the trigger for the HHWS. Although quantitative analysis with health data (mortality, hospital admissions) can inform the design of the triggers, historical analysis has limitations, and decisions to issue heat warnings are sometimes related to planned activities, such as parades or fairs, that may expose large numbers of people to heat. The HHWS approach

  20. Developmental changes in decision making under risk: The role of executive functions and reasoning abilities in 8- to 19-year-old decision makers.

    PubMed

    Schiebener, Johannes; García-Arias, María; García-Villamisar, Domingo; Cabanyes-Truffino, Javier; Brand, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that children and adolescents often tend toward risky decisions despite explicit knowledge about the potential negative consequences. This phenomenon has been suggested to be associated with the immaturity of brain areas involved in cognitive control functions. Particularly, "frontal lobe functions," such as executive functions and reasoning, mature until young adulthood and are thought to be involved in age-related changes in decision making under explicit risk conditions. We investigated 112 participants, aged 8-19 years, with a frequently used task assessing decisions under risk, the Game of Dice Task (GDT). Additionally, we administered the Modified Card Sorting Test assessing executive functioning (categorization, cognitive flexibility, and strategy maintenance) as well as the Ravens Progressive Matrices assessing reasoning. The results showed that risk taking in the GDT decreased with increasing age and this effect was not moderated by reasoning but by executive functions: Particularly, young persons with weak executive functioning showed very risky decision making. Thus, the individual maturation of executive functions, associated with areas in the prefrontal cortex, seems to be an important factor in young peoples' behavior in risky decision-making situations.

  1. Mapping health in the Great Lakes areas of concern: a user-friendly tool for policy and decision makers.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, S J; Eyles, J; DeLuca, P

    2001-01-01

    The role of the physical environment as a determinant of health is a major concern reported by the general public as well as by many policymakers. However, it remains one of the health determinants for which few available measures or indicators are readily available. This lack of data is compounded by the fact that evidence for direct cause-and-effect relationships in the literature is often equivocal, leading to feelings of uncertainty among the lay public and often leading to indecision among policymakers. In this article we examine one aspect of the physical environment--water pollution in the Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs)--and its potential impacts on a wide range of (plausible) human health outcomes. Essentially, the International Joint Commission, the international agency that oversees Great Lakes water quality and related issues, worked with Health Canada to produce a report for each of the 17 AOCs on the Canadian side of the Great Lakes, outlining a long list of health outcomes and the potential relationships these might have with environmental exposures known or suspected to exist in the Great Lakes basin. These reports are based solely on secondary health data and a thorough review of the environmental epidemiologic literature. The use of these reports by local health policymakers as well as by public health officials in the AOCs was limited, however, by the presentation of vast amounts of data in a series of tables with various outcome measures. The reports were therefore not used widely by the audience for whom they were intended. In this paper we report the results of an undertaking designed to reduce the data and present them in a more policy-friendly manner, using a geographic information system. We do not attempt to answer directly questions related to cause and effect vis-à-vis the relationships between environment and health in the Great Lakes; rather, this work is a hypothesis-generating exercise that will help sharpen the focus of

  2. Marine Conservation: Effective Communication is Critical to Engaging the Public and Decision Makers in Sustaining our Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, L. B.

    2006-12-01

    Scientists are most comfortable talking to other scientists. But if we hope our science will be used to drive good policy decisions at the state or federal level, we have to be willing to leave the comfortable cloisters of science and venture out into a world where people speak different languages and have different perspectives. Early in my career, I had the good fortune to be involved in two research programs that were focused on basic science, but also proved to be relevant to management and policy. The first project involved modeling the bioenergetics of growth in salmonid fishes. The second modeled the population dynamics of a threatened marine species, loggerhead sea turtle. Somewhat to my surprise, both papers led to major policy changes and the models were actively employed by managers within a year of two of publication. The question for me then became whether this could be done deliberately. Since then I have had the opportunity to communicate with a wide variety of people from congressmen, to school children, to the public, and among professionals across disciplinary boundaries. Communication skills are critical for scientists to become influential in the policy arena. We have to listen to all people involved in the policymaking process AND we have to be able to communicate effectively with them. This requires a deep understanding of the science and a willingness to work hard on communicating the science clearly, concisely, and compellingly. Scientists can work to develop their own skills, but professional training helps. This can come via shortcourses, mentorships, or full university courses. At Duke Marine Lab, we initiated graduate course in Professional Writing that focuses upon writing for different audiences, including commercial fishermen, retirees, teenagers, scientists in different fields, politicians, and managers. This course has been widely endorsed by our graduates as one of the most important courses they attended; interviews and job offers

  3. Modelling Agency in HIV Treatment Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Alison

    2005-01-01

    In applying linguistics to the task of analysing how agentivity is construed through verbal interaction, scholars often equate social agency with grammatical agency, and in particular with the grammar of transitivity. The difficulty I want to address in this paper is that we may miss other important, systematic and contrastive patterning in the…

  4. Instructional Decision Making and Agency of Community College Mathematics Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lande, Elaine; Mesa, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the rationale for instructional decisions proposed by two groups of community college mathematics faculty (full-time and part-time), as they discussed animations of trigonometry classes that breached several classroom norms. Although both groups of faculty justify their decisions in similar ways, the way in which they talk differs.…

  5. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL... documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  6. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL... documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  7. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL... documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. Section 1505.1 of the NEPA regulations contains requirements to ensure adequate consideration of environmental documents in agency decision-making....

  8. Proposed Agency Decision Memoranda for Fiberglass International, Inc./ Amusements Unlimited, Inc.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Corrective Action Complete without Controls means that the Facility owner/ operator has satisfied RCRA corrective action obligations. The Proposed Agency Decision Memorandum for No Further Action contains information regarding the facility and its regulato

  9. 22 CFR 1101.14 - Appeal of agency decision not to correct or amend a record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Appeal of agency decision not to correct or amend a record. 1101.14 Section 1101.14 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.14 Appeal of agency...

  10. Proxy Healthcare Decision-Making for Persons with Intellectual Disability: Perspectives of Residential-Agency Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Kathleen M.; Orkin, Fredrick K.; Green, Michael J.; Chinchilli, Vernon M.; Bhattacharya, Anand

    2009-01-01

    Directors of residential agencies for persons with intellectual disability in one U.S. state completed a self-administered, mailed survey to assess relative importance of information sources and decision factors in proxy healthcare decision-making. The most important sources were physician recommendations and input from the person; family input,…

  11. Conceptualizing Agency: Preservice Social Studies Teachers' Thinking about Professional Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, J. Spencer

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated preservice social studies teachers' thinking about personal agency. This study used a case study design and was conducted in a semester long undergraduate social studies methods course. The findings drew upon data from eight participants. The participants were selected based on their stated purpose for teaching…

  12. Development of an Analytic Approach to Determine How Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Is Used By Non-EPA Decision Makers (Final Contractor Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this project, Development of an Analytic Approach to Determine How Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Is Used By Non EPA Decision Makers, is to describe how IRIS is used by a small number of representative groups of u...

  13. Development of An Analytic Approach to Determine How Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Is Used by Non-EPA Decision Makers (Final Contractor Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final contractor report entitled, Development of an Analytic Approach to Determine How Environmental Protection Agency’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Is Used By Non EPA Decision Makers. This contractor report analyzed how ...

  14. Voice, perceived fairness, agency trust, and acceptance of management decisions among Minnesota anglers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Susan A.; Fulton, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Although researchers agree that public participation in natural resource decision making is critical to institutional acceptance by stakeholders and the general public, the processes to gain public perceptions of fairness, agency trust, and acceptance of management decisions are not clear. Using results from a mail survey of Minnesota resident anglers, we used structural equation modeling to examine how instrumental versus symbolic motives related to anglers’ perceptions of agency fairness, trustworthiness, and ultimately acceptance of fisheries management decisions. We applied laboratory research on relationships among procedural fairness, trust, and management acceptance, and then tested models incorporating anglers’ perceptions of voice for anglers and nonanglers in management decisions. Results suggested that trust fully mediated the relationship between procedural fairness and management acceptance. Angler perceptions of angler and nonangler voice both related to views of procedural fairness, but angler voice was more strongly related and was also significantly related to acceptance of management decisions.

  15. Exploring the experiences of substitute decision-makers with an exception to consent in a paediatric resuscitation randomised controlled trial: study protocol for a qualitative research study

    PubMed Central

    de Laat, Sonya; Schwartz, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Prospective informed consent is required for most research involving human participants; however, this is impracticable under some circumstances. The Tri-Council Policy Statement: Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans (TCPS) outlines the requirements for research involving human participants in Canada. The need for an exception to consent (deferred consent) is recognised and endorsed in the TCPS for research in individual medical emergencies; however, little is known about substitute decision-maker (SDM) experiences. A paediatric resuscitation trial (SQUEEZE) (NCT01973907) using an exception to consent process began enrolling at McMaster Children's Hospital in January 2014. This qualitative research study aims to generate new knowledge on SDM experiences with the exception to consent process as implemented in a randomised controlled trial. Methods and analysis The SDMs of children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial will be the sampling frame from which ethics study participants will be derived. Design: Qualitative research study involving individual interviews and grounded theory methodology. Participants: SDMs for children enrolled into the SQUEEZE pilot trial. Sample size: Up to 25 SDMs. Qualitative methodology: SDMs will be invited to participate in the qualitative ethics study. Interviews with consenting SDMs will be conducted in person or by telephone, taped and professionally transcribed. Participants will be encouraged to elaborate on their experience of being asked to consent after the fact and how this process occurred. Analysis: Data gathering and analysis will be undertaken simultaneously. The investigators will collaborate in developing the coding scheme, and data will be coded using NVivo. Emerging themes will be identified. Ethics and dissemination This research represents a rare opportunity to interview parents/guardians of critically ill children enrolled into a resuscitation trial without their knowledge or prior consent

  16. Understanding and Addressing Vulnerability Following the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: Applying a Feminist Lens to Examine Perspectives of Haitian and Expatriate Health Care Providers and Decision-Makers

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Ryoa; Rochon, Christiane; Hunt, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability is a central concept in humanitarian aid. Discussions of vulnerability in disaster response literature and guidelines for humanitarian aid range from considerations of a universal human vulnerability, to more nuanced examinations of how particular characteristics render individuals more or less at risk. Despite its frequent use, there is a lack of clarity about how vulnerability is conceptualized and how it informs operational priorities in humanitarian assistance. Guided by interpretive description methodology, we draw on the feminist taxonomy of vulnerability presented by Mackenzie, Rogers and Dodds (2014) to examine perspectives of 24 expatriate and Haitian decision-makers and health professionals interviewed between May 2012 and March 2013. The analysis explores concepts of vulnerability and equity in relation to the humanitarian response following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Participants’ conceptualizations of vulnerability included consideration for inherent vulnerabilities related to individual characteristics (e.g. being a woman or disabled) and situational vulnerabilities related to particular circumstances such as having less access to health care resources or basic necessities. Participants recognized that vulnerabilities could be exacerbated by socio-political structures but felt ill-equipped to address these. The use of the taxonomy and a set of questions inspired by Hurst’s (2008) approach to identifying and reducing vulnerability can guide the analysis of varied sources of vulnerability and open discussions about how and by whom vulnerabilities should be addressed in humanitarian responses. More research is required to inform how humanitarian responders could balance addressing acute vulnerability with consideration of systemic and pre-existing circumstances that underlie much of the vulnerability experienced following an acute disaster. PMID:27617037

  17. Understanding and Addressing Vulnerability Following the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: Applying a Feminist Lens to Examine Perspectives of Haitian and Expatriate Health Care Providers and Decision-Makers.

    PubMed

    Durocher, Evelyne; Chung, Ryoa; Rochon, Christiane; Hunt, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Vulnerability is a central concept in humanitarian aid. Discussions of vulnerability in disaster response literature and guidelines for humanitarian aid range from considerations of a universal human vulnerability, to more nuanced examinations of how particular characteristics render individuals more or less at risk. Despite its frequent use, there is a lack of clarity about how vulnerability is conceptualized and how it informs operational priorities in humanitarian assistance. Guided by interpretive description methodology, we draw on the feminist taxonomy of vulnerability presented by Mackenzie, Rogers and Dodds (2014) to examine perspectives of 24 expatriate and Haitian decision-makers and health professionals interviewed between May 2012 and March 2013. The analysis explores concepts of vulnerability and equity in relation to the humanitarian response following the 2010 earthquake in Haiti. Participants' conceptualizations of vulnerability included consideration for inherent vulnerabilities related to individual characteristics (e.g. being a woman or disabled) and situational vulnerabilities related to particular circumstances such as having less access to health care resources or basic necessities. Participants recognized that vulnerabilities could be exacerbated by socio-political structures but felt ill-equipped to address these. The use of the taxonomy and a set of questions inspired by Hurst's (2008) approach to identifying and reducing vulnerability can guide the analysis of varied sources of vulnerability and open discussions about how and by whom vulnerabilities should be addressed in humanitarian responses. More research is required to inform how humanitarian responders could balance addressing acute vulnerability with consideration of systemic and pre-existing circumstances that underlie much of the vulnerability experienced following an acute disaster.

  18. How Deep is the Critical Zone: A Scientific Question with Potential Impact For Decision-makers in Areas of Shale-Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brantley, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Citizens living in areas of shale-gas development such as the Marcellus gas play in Pennsylvania and surrounding states are cognizant of the possibility that drilling and production of natural gas -- including hydraulic fracturing -- may have environmental impacts on their water. The Critical Zone is defined as the zone from vegetation canopy to the lower limits of groundwater. This definition is nebulous in terms of the lower limit, and yet, defining the bottom of the Critical Zone is important if citizens are to embrace shale-gas development. This is because, although no peer-reviewed study has been presented that documents a case where hydraulic fracturing or formation fluids have migrated upwards from fracturing depths to drinking water resources, a few cases of such leakage have been alleged. On the other hand, many cases of methane migration into aquifers have been documented to occur and some have been attributed to shale-gas development. The Critical Zone science community has a role to play in understanding such contamination problems, how they unfold, and how they should be ameliorated. For example, one big effort of the Critical Zone science community is to promote sharing of data describing the environment. This data effort has been extended to provide data for citizens to understand water quality by a team known as the Shale Network. As scientists learn to publish data online, these efforts must also be made accessible to non-scientists. As citizens access the data, the demand for data will grow and all branches of government will eventually respond by providing more accessible data that will help the public and policy-makers make decisions.

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.300 - Do the decisions on temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency? 102-117.300 Section 102-117.300 Public...) Performance § 102-117.300 Do the decisions on temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency? (a) Temporary nonuse does not go beyond the agency. (b) Decisions on suspended or debarred TSPs do...

  20. 41 CFR 102-117.300 - Do the decisions on temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency? 102-117.300 Section 102-117.300 Public...) Performance § 102-117.300 Do the decisions on temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency? (a) Temporary nonuse does not go beyond the agency. (b) Decisions on suspended or debarred TSPs do...

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.300 - Do the decisions on temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency? 102-117.300 Section 102-117.300 Public...) Performance § 102-117.300 Do the decisions on temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency? (a) Temporary nonuse does not go beyond the agency. (b) Decisions on suspended or debarred TSPs do...

  2. 78 FR 3420 - Pesticide Emergency Exemptions; Agency Decisions and State and Federal Agency Crisis Declarations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ...). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS... notice of receipt was appropriate since the use is for expansion of an antibiotic, and of potential... Agencies United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service...

  3. The effect of statutory limitations on the authority of substitute decision makers on the care of patients in the intensive care unit: case examples and review of state laws affecting withdrawing or withholding life-sustaining treatment.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Becker, Julianna

    2014-01-01

    While the ethics and critical care literature is replete with discussion of medical futility and the ethics of end-of-life care decisions in the intensive care unit, little attention is paid to the effect of statutory limitations on the authority of substitute decision makers during the course of treatment of patients in the critical care setting. In many jurisdictions, a clear distinction is made between the authority of a health care power of attorney, who is legally designated by a competent adult to make decisions regarding withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, and of next-of-kin, who are limited in this regard. However, next-of-kin are often relied upon to consent to necessary procedures to advance a patient's medical care. When conflicts arise between critical care physicians and family members regarding projected patient outcome and functional status, these statutory limitations on decision-making authority by next of kin can cause paralysis in the medical care of severely ill patients, leading to practical and ethical impasses. In this article, we will provide case examples of how statutory limitations on substitute decision making authority for next of kin can impede the care of patients. We will also review the varying jurisdictional limitations on the authority of substitute decision makers and explore their implications for patient care in the critical care setting. Finally, we will review possible ethical and legal solutions to resolve these impasses.

  4. Incorporating Medium-Range Weather Forecasts in Seasonal Crop Scenarios over the Greater Horn of Africa to Support National/Regional/Local Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The USAID's Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) provides seasonal assessments of crop conditions over the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) and other food insecure regions. These assessments and current livelihood, nutrition, market conditions and conflicts are used to generate food security scenarios that help national, regional and local decision makers target their resources and mitigate socio-economic losses. Among the various tools that FEWS NET uses is the FAO's Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI). The WRSI is a simple yet powerful crop assessment model that incorporates current moisture conditions (at the time of the issuance of forecast), precipitation scenarios, potential evapotranspiration and crop parameters to categorize crop conditions into different classes ranging from "failure" to "very good". The WRSI tool has been shown to have a good agreement with local crop yields in the GHA region. At present, the precipitation scenarios used to drive the WRSI are based on either a climatological forecast (that assigns equal chances of occurrence to all possible scenarios and has no skill over the forecast period) or a sea-surface temperature anomaly based scenario (which at best have skill at the seasonal scale). In both cases, the scenarios fail to capture the skill that can be attained by initial atmospheric conditions (i.e., medium-range weather forecasts). During the middle of a cropping season, when a week or two of poor rains can have a devastating effect, two weeks worth of skillful precipitation forecasts could improve the skill of the crop scenarios. With this working hypothesis, we examine the value of incorporating medium-range weather forecasts in improving the skill of crop scenarios in the GHA region. We use the NCEP's Global Ensemble Forecast system (GEFS) weather forecasts and examine the skill of crop scenarios generated using the GEFS weather forecasts with respect to the scenarios based solely on the climatological forecast

  5. Ensemble-based analysis of Front Range severe convection on 6-7 June 2012: Forecast uncertainty and communication of weather information to Front Range decision-makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincente, Vanessa

    -allowing ensemble also showed greater skill in forecasting heavy precipitation amounts in the vicinity of where they were observed during the most active convective period, particularly near urbanized areas. A total of 9 Front Range EMs were interviewed to research how they understood hazardous weather information, and how their perception of forecast uncertainty would influence their decision making following a heavy rain event. Many of the EMs use situational awareness and past experiences with major weather events to guide their emergency planning. They also highly valued their relationship with the National Weather Service to improve their understanding of weather forecasts and ask questions about the uncertainties. Most of the EMs perceived forecast uncertainty in terms of probability and with the understanding that forecasting the weather is an imprecise science. The greater the likelihood of occurrence (implied by a higher probability of precipitation) showed greater confidence in the forecast that an event was likely to happen. Five probabilistic forecast products were generated from the convection-allowing ensemble output to generate a hypothetical warm season heavy rain event scenario. Responses varied between the EMs in which products they found most practical or least useful. Most EMs believed that there was a high probability for flooding, as illustrated by the degree of forecasted precipitation intensity. Most confirmed perceiving uncertainty in the different forecast representations, sharing the idea that there is an inherent uncertainty that follows modeled forecasts. The long-term goal of this research is to develop and add reliable probabilistic forecast products to the "toolbox" of decision-makers to help them better assess hazardous weather information and improve warning notifications and response.

  6. 22 CFR 103.8 - Final agency decision after administrative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final agency decision after administrative proceedings. 103.8 Section 103.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS... or she will issue an order confirming that acceptance and specifying any issues to be briefed by...

  7. 22 CFR 1101.14 - Appeal of agency decision not to correct or amend a record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amend a record. 1101.14 Section 1101.14 Foreign Relations INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 § 1101.14 Appeal of agency decision not to correct or amend a record. (a) An appeal of the initial refusal to amend a record under §...

  8. 22 CFR 103.9 - Final agency decision after settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Final agency decision after settlement negotiations. 103.9 Section 103.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS... settlement negotiations. (a) Settlements based on letter of intent to charge—(1) Approval of...

  9. 22 CFR 103.9 - Final agency decision after settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Final agency decision after settlement negotiations. 103.9 Section 103.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS... settlement negotiations. (a) Settlements based on letter of intent to charge—(1) Approval of...

  10. Examining the Relationship between Online Travel Agency Information and Traveler Destination Transaction Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yerby, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the role that available Online Travel Agency (OTA) destination information may have on a traveler's perceptions and intent in transaction decisions with that respective OTA. Specifically, this research examined a pleasure traveler's transaction perceptions and intentions with an OTA…

  11. 22 CFR 103.8 - Final agency decision after administrative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final agency decision after administrative proceedings. 103.8 Section 103.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION AND THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS...

  12. 22 CFR 103.8 - Final agency decision after administrative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final agency decision after administrative proceedings. 103.8 Section 103.8 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION AND THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS...

  13. 22 CFR 103.9 - Final agency decision after settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Final agency decision after settlement negotiations. 103.9 Section 103.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION AND THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS...

  14. 22 CFR 103.9 - Final agency decision after settlement negotiations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Final agency decision after settlement negotiations. 103.9 Section 103.9 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE ECONOMIC AND OTHER FUNCTIONS REGULATIONS FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION AND THE CHEMICAL WEAPONS...

  15. 40 CFR 164.4 - Arrangements for examining Agency records, transcripts, orders, and decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... financial information, other than information relating to the formulas of a pesticide, the Administrative... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arrangements for examining Agency records, transcripts, orders, and decisions. 164.4 Section 164.4 Protection of Environment...

  16. 7 CFR 248.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 248.16 Section 248.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION...

  17. 7 CFR 248.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 248.16 Section 248.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION...

  18. 7 CFR 249.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 249.16 Section 249.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  19. 7 CFR 248.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 248.16 Section 248.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION...

  20. 7 CFR 249.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 249.16 Section 249.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  1. 7 CFR 248.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 248.16 Section 248.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION...

  2. 7 CFR 248.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 248.16 Section 248.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION...

  3. 7 CFR 249.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 249.16 Section 249.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  4. 7 CFR 249.16 - Administrative appeal of State agency decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Administrative appeal of State agency decisions. 249.16 Section 249.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  5. Providing Climate Policy Makers With a Strong Scientific Base (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struzik, E.

    2009-12-01

    Scientists can and should inform public policy decisions in the Arctic. But the pace of climate change in the polar world has been occurring far more quickly than most scientists have been able to predict. This creates problems for decision-makers who recognize that difficult management decisions have to be made in matters pertaining to wildlife management, cultural integrity and economic development. With sea ice melting, glaciers receding, permafrost thawing, forest fires intensifying, and disease and invasive species rapidly moving north, the challenge for scientists to provide climate policy makers with a strong scientific base has been daunting. Clashing as this data sometimes does with the “traditional knowledge” of indigenous peoples in the north, it can also become very political. As a result the need to effectively communicate complex data is more imperative now than ever before. Here, the author describes how the work of scientists can often be misinterpreted or exploited in ways that were not intended. Examples include the inappropriate use of scientific data in decision-making on polar bears, caribou and other wildlife populations; the use of scientific data to debunk the fact that greenhouse gases are driving climate change, and the use of scientific data to position one scientist against another when there is no inherent conflict. This work will highlight the need for climate policy makers to increase support for scientists working in the Arctic, as well as illustrate why it is important to find new and more effective ways of communicating scientific data. Strategies that might be considered by granting agencies, scientists and climate policy decision-makers will also be discussed.

  6. The reorganisation of European pharmacovigilance. Part 2. From spontaneous reports to agency reviews and decisions.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Despite the fact that adverse effects are vastly under-reported, spontaneous reporting remains the foundation of pharmacovigilance. A small series of properly documented cases, when very specific, can suffice to constitute a signal. In France, reporting adverse effects to Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres (CRPVs) permits high-quality analysis of pharmacovigilance signals, so that they can be brought to the attention of the national agency responsible for making decisions about drugs, the French Health Products Agency (ANSM). The ANSM can use this information to protect patients by implementing the measures within its power or by initiating a European referral. When a decision taken at the national level concerns a drug marketed in several Member States of the European Union, a "harmonisation" procedure results in a decision taken at community level, applicable in all Member States. This means that a safety issue raised by a single Member State sometimes leads to a decision that protects the population of the entire European Union. But it also means that other European decisions can compel national agencies to allow back onto the market a drug that they sought to withdraw in order to protect their citizens. Negotiations with other Member States, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the European Commission must be supported by robust data: this is yet another reason for each country to have its own effective national pharmacovigilance database, the contents of which should be publicly accessible. This is unfortunately not yet the case in France in 2014. It also provides another good reason for healthcare professionals and patients to report adverse effects, so that the details can be recorded in national and European databases.

  7. 30 CFR 773.28 - Written agency decision on challenges to ownership or control listings or findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ownership or control listings or findings. 773.28 Section 773.28 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING... § 773.28 Written agency decision on challenges to ownership or control listings or findings. (a) Within... written decision. Our decision must state whether you own or control the relevant surface coal...

  8. FAmily CEntered (FACE) advance care planning: Study design and methods for a patient-centered communication and decision-making intervention for patients with HIV/AIDS and their surrogate decision-makers.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, Allison L; Wang, Jichuan; Scott, Rachel K; Briggs, Linda; Lyon, Maureen E

    2015-07-01

    Although the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has become a chronic illness, disease-specific advance care planning has not yet been evaluated for the palliative care needs of adults with HIV/AIDS. This prospective, longitudinal, randomized, two-arm controlled clinical trial aims to test the efficacy of FAmily CEntered advance care planning among adults living with AIDS and/or HIV with co-morbidities on congruence in treatment preferences, healthcare utilization, and quality of life. The FAmily CEntered intervention arm is two face-to-face sessions with a trained, certified facilitator: Session 1) Disease-Specific Advance Care Planning Respecting Choices Interview; Session 2) Completion of advance directive. The Healthy Living Control arm is: Session 1) Developmental/Relationship History; Session 2) Nutrition. Follow-up data will be collected at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months post-intervention. A total of 288 patient/surrogate dyads will be enrolled from five hospital-based, out-patient clinics in Washington, District of Columbia. Participants will be HIV positive and ≥ 21 years of age; surrogates will be ≥ 18 years of age. Exclusion criteria are homicidality, suicidality, psychosis, and impaired cognitive functioning. We hypothesize that this intervention will enhance patient-centered communication with a surrogate decision-maker about end of life treatment preferences over time, enhance patient quality of life and decrease health care utilization. We further hypothesize that this intervention will decrease health disparities for Blacks in completion of advance directives. If proposed aims are achieved, the benefits of palliative care, particularly increased treatment preferences about end-of-life care and enhanced quality of life, will be extended to people living with AIDS.

  9. Moral Hypocrisy on the Basis of Construal Level: To Be a Utilitarian Personal Decision Maker or to Be a Moral Advisor?

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Wei; Wu, Qing; Yang, Qun; Zhou, Liang; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Jiaxi; Miao, Danmin; Peng, Jiaxi

    2015-01-01

    Background People encounter various moral issues that involve making decisions for others by giving advice. Objective This study investigated the characteristics of providing suggestions for oneself versus providing suggestions for others in ethical decision-making and the differences between them based on Construal Level Theory (CLT). Methods A total of 768 undergraduate students from three universities in China were randomly assigned to eight groups on the basis of a grid of two Construal Levels (self or others) by two different numbers of people saved (5 people or 15 people) by two problem situations (trolley problem vs. footbridge problem). The investigation examined participants’ decisions to opt to take action or refrain from action that would have the consequence of saving more people. Results The main effects of Construal Level (F1, 752 = 6.46, p = .011), saving number (F1, 752 = 35.81, p < .001), and problem situation type (F1, 752 = 330.55, p < .001) were all significant. The interaction of the problem situation and saving number (F1, 752 = 1.01, p = .31), and social distance and saving number (F1, 752 = 0.85, p = .36), and interaction of the three independent factors (F1, 752 = 0.47, p = .49) were not significant. However, the interaction of social distance and problem situation (F1, 752 = 9.46, p = .002) was significant. Results indicated the participants utilized a component of utilitarian reasoning in the decision-making, and their behaviors appeared more utilitarian at low Construal Levels (CLs) compared to high. Conclusion CLs, saving numbers, and problem situation significantly affected moral decision-making and exhibited significant interaction. Making decisions for oneself (low-construal) rather than giving advice to others (high-construal) was one important factor that determined whether the people were utilitarian or not. Utilitarian considerations are more relevant in impersonal dilemmas. PMID:25689521

  10. 34 CFR 602.38 - Contesting the Secretary's final decision to deny, limit, suspend, or terminate an agency's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EDUCATION THE SECRETARY'S RECOGNITION OF ACCREDITING AGENCIES The Recognition Process Appeal Rights and... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contesting the Secretary's final decision to deny, limit, suspend, or terminate an agency's recognition. 602.38 Section 602.38 Education Regulations of...

  11. 34 CFR 602.38 - Contesting the Secretary's final decision to deny, limit, suspend, or terminate an agency's...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION THE SECRETARY'S RECOGNITION OF ACCREDITING AGENCIES The Recognition Process Appeal Rights and... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contesting the Secretary's final decision to deny, limit, suspend, or terminate an agency's recognition. 602.38 Section 602.38 Education Regulations of...

  12. 41 CFR 102-118.495 - May my agency appeal a decision by the Civilian Board of Contract Appeals (CBCA)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May my agency appeal a... Information for All Claims § 102-118.495 May my agency appeal a decision by the Civilian Board of...

  13. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer. 23.61 Section 23.61 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or...

  14. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer. 23.61 Section 23.61 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or...

  15. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer. 23.61 Section 23.61 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or...

  16. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer. 23.61 Section 23.61 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or...

  17. 25 CFR 23.61 - Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appeals from decision or action by Agency Superintendent, Area Director or Grants Officer. 23.61 Section 23.61 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN CHILD WELFARE ACT Appeals § 23.61 Appeals from decision or...

  18. Toward systematic reviews to understand the determinants of wait time management success to help decision-makers and managers better manage wait times

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Long waits for core specialized services have consistently been identified as a key barrier to access. Governments and organizations at all levels have responded with strategies for better wait list management. While these initiatives are promising, insufficient attention has been paid to factors influencing the implementation and sustainability of wait time management strategies (WTMS) implemented at the organizational level. Methods A systematic review was conducted using the main electronic databases, such as CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, to identify articles published between 1990 and 2011 on WTMS for scheduled care implemented at the organizational level or higher and on frameworks for analyzing factors influencing their success. Data was extracted on governance, culture, resources, and tools. We organized a workshop with Canadian healthcare policy-makers and managers to compare our initial findings with their experience. Results Our systematic review included 47 articles: 36 related to implementation and 11 to sustainability. From these, we identified a variety of WTMS initiated at the organizational level or higher, and within these, certain factors that were specific to either implementation or sustainability and others common to both. The main common factors influencing success at the contextual level were stakeholder engagement and strong funding, and at the organizational level, physician involvement, human resources capacity, and information management systems. Specific factors for successful implementation at the contextual level were consultation with front-line actors and common standards and guidelines, and at the organizational level, financial incentives and dedicated staffing. For sustainability, we found no new factors. The workshop participants identified the same major factors as found in the articles and added others, such as information sharing between physicians and managers. Conclusions Factors

  19. 10 CFR 708.37 - Will an employee whose complaint is denied by a final agency decision be reimbursed for costs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... agency decision be reimbursed for costs and expenses incurred in pursuing the complaint? 708.37 Section... and Decision Process § 708.37 Will an employee whose complaint is denied by a final agency decision be reimbursed for costs and expenses incurred in pursuing the complaint? No. If your complaint is denied by...

  20. Cost-Effectiveness of Immunotherapy in the Treatment of Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis: Identifying Product-Specific Parameters of Relevance for Health Care Decision-Makers and Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Bachert, Claus; Noergaard Andreasen, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy is widely used to manage allergic rhinitis (AR), but often does not adequately control symptoms. Allergy immunotherapy (AIT) should be considered for patients who are not adequately controlled on symptomatic treatment. AIT is gaining attention because of its potential to improve symptom relief and quality of life, and to provide sustained effect after the end of treatment by modifying the course of disease. However, evidence of efficacy needs to be shown for each individual AIT product, based on state-of-the-art studies. The majority of products cannot truly claim efficacy and disease-modifying potential, as evidence of such an effect from robust randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled long-term trials is lacking. The potential of a specific immunotherapy product should be evaluated against four levels of benefit defined by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) guideline on clinical development of AIT products. These clearly distinguish between efficacy of symptom relief in the first year, efficacy over 2-3 treatment years, sustained efficacy and disease modification treatment ends, and sustained absence of allergic symptoms in posttreatment years. The clinician's choice of a specific AIT product should take the level of evidence and risk/benefit into account, as the patient's quality of life and the product's potential long-term effect are important components of its overall cost-effectiveness. Without evidence of maintained clinical benefit and disease modification after the end of treatment, claims of long-term economic benefit of specific AIT products cannot be justified. This paper discusses the evidence that is essential for critical evaluation of product claims in health economic analysis comparing AIT products.

  1. MakerBot

    NASA Video Gallery

    Langley’s new Personal Fabrication Laboratory now has a MakerBot. In this video, the 3D printer is making a space shuttle out of glow-in-the-dark plastic material. In real-time, the process took...

  2. SuccessMaker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This paper provides an overview of SuccessMaker, a computer-based reading program that uses literature-based activities to focus on comprehension, vocabulary, phonics, and writing. Intended for use with students in prekindergarten through grade 8, the curriculum challenges students to apply knowledge from literature, content-area reading and…

  3. "Good idea but not feasible" – the views of decision makers and stakeholders towards strategies for better palliative care in Germany: a representative survey

    PubMed Central

    Lueckmann, Sara Lena; Behmann, Mareike; Bisson, Susanne; Schneider, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Background Statements on potential measures to improve palliative care in Germany predominantly reflect the points of view of experts from specialized palliative care organizations. By contrast, relatively little is known about the views of representatives of organizations and institutions that do not explicitly specialize in palliative care, but are involved to a relevant extent in the decision-making and policy-making processes. Therefore, for the first time in Germany, we carried out a representative study of the attitudes of a broad range of different stakeholders acting at the national or state level of the health care system. Methods 442 organizations and institutions were included and grouped as follows: patient organizations, nursing organizations, medical associations, specialized palliative care organizations, political institutions, health insurance funds and others. Using a standardized questionnaire, the participants were asked to rate their agreement with the World Health Organization's definition of palliative care (five-point scale: 1 = completely agree, 5 = completely disagree) and to evaluate 18 pre-selected improvement measures with regard to their general meaningfulness and the feasibility of their introduction into the German health care system (two-point scale: 1 = good, 2 = poor). Results The response rate was 67%. Overall, the acceptance of the aims of palliative care in the WHO definition was strong. However, the level of agreement among health insurance funds' representatives was significantly less than that among representatives of the palliative care organizations. All the improvement measures selected for evaluation were rated significantly higher in respect of their meaningfulness than of their feasibility in Germany. In detail, the meaningfulness of 16 measures was evaluated positively (70–100% participants chose the answer "good"); for six of these measures feasibility was evaluated negatively (0–30% "good"), while for the

  4. Career Decision-Making Self-Efficacy, Integration, and the Likelihood of Managerial Retention in Governmental Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Shari

    2009-01-01

    Results based on responses from 679 managers in three governmental agencies confirmed that career-related organizational practices and relationships impacted their staying in the organization. Specifically, managers who scored higher in career decision-making self efficacy, a relatively new variable to the turnover literature, career integration,…

  5. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that...

  6. Agency Decision-Making Control and Employment Outcomes by Vocational Rehabilitation Consumers Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Bernard A.; Kwan, Ngai; Boeltzig-Brown, Heike; Haines, Kelly; Halliday, John; Foley, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: We hypothesized that consumers who are blind or visually impaired (that is, those who have low vision) who were served by state vocational rehabilitation agencies with decision-making control over administrative functions would experience better vocational rehabilitation outcomes than consumers served by vocational rehabilitation…

  7. 50 CFR 530.2 - Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ensuring that environmental documents are actually considered in agency decision-making. 530.2 Section 530.2 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 530.2 Ensuring that...

  8. Genome Annotation and Curation Using MAKER and MAKER-P

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Michael S.; Holt, Carson; Moore, Barry; Yandell, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This unit describes how to use the genome annotation and curation tools MAKER and MAKER-P to annotate protein coding and non-coding RNA genes in newly assembled genomes, update/combine legacy annotations in light of new evidence, add quality metrics to annotations from other pipelines, and map existing annotations to a new assembly. MAKER and MAKER-P can rapidly annotate genomes of any size, and scale to match available computational resources. PMID:25501943

  9. Engaging with Policy Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massey, R.; Miller, S.; Heward, A.

    2011-10-01

    The need to engage with Europe's policy makers is more crucial now than ever. MEPs' understanding of the contribution and importance of planetary science to European research, industry, culture, education and job-creation may have major implications for both the direction of research and future funding for Europe's planetary science community. The mid-term review of the European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme is currently in progress and these discussions will feed into the drafting of Framework Eight. With space-going nations around the world redefining priorities, Europe may have an opportunity to take a lead in planetology on a global scale. This should be taken into account when considering planetology within the frameworks of the European Space Policy. This panel discussion, hosted by Dr Robert Massey, Deputy Executive of the Royal Astronomical Session, will look at engaging with policy makers from the point of view of those working in the European Parliament, European Commission, industry, as well as the planetary community.

  10. 34 CFR 602.28 - Regard for decisions of States and other accrediting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... preaccreditation. (d) If the agency learns that an institution it accredits or preaccredits, or an institution that... cause. (e) The agency must, upon request, share with other appropriate recognized accrediting...

  11. Top to Bottom and End to End. Improving the National Security Agency’s Strategic Decision Processes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    synchronize, and prioritize strategic and business planning , requirements, programming, acquisition, and 8 Improving the National Security Agency’s...Chapter Two, an overview of the corporate-level strategic decision processes; Chapter Three, the CRG; Chapter Four, strategic and business planning ; Chapter...a discussion of the Capabilities Generation Process.) The DC4 appointed members of his stafi to manage the strate- gic and business planning activities

  12. The Diamond Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1999-08-01

    Since time immemorial, we have treasured diamonds for their exquisite beauty and unrivaled hardness. Yet, most of the earth's diamonds lie deep underground and totally unaccessible to us--if only we knew how to fabricate them! In The Diamond Makers Robert Hazen vividly recounts the very human desire to exceed nature and create a synthetic diamond. Spanning centuries of ground-breaking science, instances of bitter rivalry, cases of outright fraud and self-delusion, Hazen blends drama and science to reveal the extraordinary technological advances and devastating failures of the diamond industry. Along the way, readers will be introduced to the brilliant, often eccentric and controversial, pioneers of high-pressure research who have harnessed crushing pressures and scorching temperatures to transform almost any carbon-rich material, from road tar to peanut butter, into the most prized of all gems. Robert M. Hazen is the author of fifteen books, including the bestseller, Science Matters: Achieving Scientific Literacy, which he wrote with James Trefil. Dr. Hazen has won numerous awards for his research and scientific writing.

  13. 34 CFR 602.28 - Regard for decisions of States and other accrediting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., withdraw, or terminate the institution's accreditation or preaccreditation; or (4) Probation or an... accrediting agency or has been placed on probation or an equivalent status by another recognized agency, the... determine if it should also take adverse action or place the institution or program on probation or...

  14. Agency and Female Teachers' Career Decisions: A Life History Study of 40 Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Joan

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on some of the findings of a wider, life history study on the factors affecting the career decisions of 40 female secondary school teachers in England. By using life history interviews, it was possible to gain rich and nuanced insights into the complexity of factors influencing women's career decisions. While acknowledging the…

  15. 34 CFR 602.28 - Regard for decisions of States and other accrediting agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... preaccreditation. (d) If the agency learns that an institution it accredits or preaccredits, or an institution that... preaccredited institution or program. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number...

  16. The influence of differential response on decision-making in child protective service agencies.

    PubMed

    Janczewski, Colleen E

    2015-01-01

    Differential response (DR) profoundly changes the decision pathways of public child welfare systems, yet little is known about how DR shapes the experiences of children whose reports receive an investigation rather than an alternate response. Using data from the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), this study examined the relationship between DR implementation and decision outcomes in neglect cases, as measured by investigation, substantiation, and removal rates in 297 U.S. counties. Multivariate regression models included county-level measures of child poverty and proportions of African American children. Path analyses were also conducted to identify mediating effects of prior decision points and moderating effects of DR on poverty and race's influence on decision outcomes. Results indicate that compared to non-DR counties, those implementing DR have significantly lower investigation and substantiation rates within county populations but higher substantiation rates among investigated cases. Regression models showed significant reductions in removal rates associated with DR implementation, but these effects became insignificant in path models that accounted for mediation effects of previous decision points. Findings also suggest that DR implementation may reduce the positive association between child poverty rates and investigation rates, but additional studies with larger samples are needed to confirm this moderation effect. Two methods of calculating decision outcomes, population- and decision-based enumeration, were used, and policy and research implications of each are discussed. This study demonstrates that despite their inherit complexity, large administrative datasets such as NCANDS can be used to assess the impact of wide-scale system change across jurisdictions.

  17. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  18. [Informed decisions: patient and consumer information at the German Agency for Quality in Medicine (ÄZQ)].

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Corinna; Kirschning, Silke

    2010-01-01

    The concept of informed decision making does not only comply with the ideals of the self-determining citizen. In politics and society it is more and more understood as an individual obligation. In order to be capable of making competent decisions regarding treatment options, citizens have to be provided with high quality information. With the aim of facilitating patients' and consumers' orientation in health care questions, the German Agency for Quality in Medicine (ÄZQ) has been committed to developing and promoting the use of reliable patient information for more than ten years. ÄZQ's activities are based on four main principles: development of patient versions of high quality clinical practice guidelines; provision of patient information which has been assessed according to its formal quality; provision of information on the German health care system (checklists); further development of quality standards and methods.

  19. Symposium on integrating the science of environmental justice into decision-making at the Environmental Protection Agency: an overview.

    PubMed

    Nweke, Onyemaechi C; Payne-Sturges, Devon; Garcia, Lisa; Lee, Charles; Zenick, Hal; Grevatt, Peter; Sanders, William H; Case, Heather; Dankwa-Mullan, Irene

    2011-12-01

    In March 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborated with government and nongovernmental organizations to host a groundbreaking symposium, "Strengthening Environmental Justice Research and Decision Making: A Symposium on the Science of Disproportionate Environmental Health Impacts." The symposium provided a forum for discourse on the state of scientific knowledge about factors identified by EPA that may contribute to higher burdens of environmental exposure or risk in racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. Also featured were discussions on how environmental justice considerations may be integrated into EPA's analytical and decision-making frameworks and on research needs for advancing the integration of environmental justice into environmental policymaking. We summarize key discussions and conclusions from the symposium and briefly introduce the articles in this issue.

  20. Climate Change Boot Camps: Targeting Policy Makers and Outreach Trainers in Arizona to Improve Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Guido, Z. S.; Buizer, J.; Roy, M.

    2010-12-01

    Bringing climate change issues into focus for decision makers is a growing challenge. Decision makers are often confronted with unique informational needs, a lack of useable information, and needs for customized climate change training, among other issues. Despite significant progress in improving climate literacy among certain stakeholders such as water managers, recent reports have highlighted the growing demand for climate-change information in regions and sectors across the US. In recent years many ventures have sprung up to address these gaps and have predominantly focused on K-12 education and resource management agencies such as the National Park Service and National Weather Service. However, two groups that are critical for integrating climate information into actions have received less attention: (1) policy makers and (2) outreach experts, such as Cooperative Extension agents. Climate Change Boot Camps (CCBC) is a joint effort between the Climate Assessment for the Southwest (CLIMAS)—a NOAA Regionally Integrated Sciences and Assessments (RISA) program—and researchers at Arizona State University to diagnose climate literacy and training gaps in Arizona and develop a process that converts these deficiencies into actionable knowledge among the two aforementioned groups. This presentation will highlight the initial phases of the CCBC process, which has as its outcomes the identification of effective strategies for reaching legislators, climate literacy and training needs for both policy makers and trainers, and effective metrics to evaluate the success of these efforts. Specific attention is given to evaluating the process from initial needs assessment to the effectiveness of the workshops. Web curriculum and training models made available on the internet will also be developed, drawing on extensive existing Web resources for other training efforts and converted to meet the needs of these two groups. CCBC will also leverage CLIMAS’ long history of

  1. 41 CFR 102-83.130 - When must agencies consider the impact of location decisions on low- and moderate-income employees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... consider the impact of location decisions on low- and moderate-income employees? 102-83.130 Section 102-83... low and moderate incomes. ... Socioeconomic Considerations § 102-83.130 When must agencies consider the impact of location decisions on...

  2. 22 CFR 103.8 - Final agency decision after administrative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Secretary is discretionary, and is not a matter of right. The Secretary shall accept or decline review of... the United States Government. If the Secretary does modify or vacate the initial decision and order... public. (c) Computation of time for the purposes of this section. In computing any period of...

  3. An accountability model for integrating information systems, evaluation mechanisms, and decision making processes in alcohol and drug abuse agencies.

    PubMed

    Duncan, F H; Link, A D

    1979-01-01

    This article has attempted to demonstrate that decision making and evaluation can be carried out in a systematic fashion only if agencies make a commitment to do so, and only if adequate systems are established. The management information system is the most expensive and most sophisticated component of the integrated model presented here. Its existence, in some fashion, is essential to the operation of the model. Contrary to what many managers may believe and practice, the management information system is not in itself the final solution to evaluation. Neither is the evaluation a panacea for all program ills. Evaluation can provide the information required to meet the ever increasing demands for agency or program accountability evaluation can also provide insights for future decisions to change or alter the allocation of resources. Such evaluation must be carefully planned and implemented; and, at the state level, can be successful only if executed in a systematic manner as suggested here. Regardless of the degree of sophistication of any system, it will work only when supported by users in the local treatment centers. If the model employed does little to serve them, it is not a model worth considering. It is with these needs in mind that this model was developed.

  4. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  5. Decision making.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    A decision is a commitment of resources under conditions of risk in expectation of the best future outcome. The smart decision is always the strategy with the best overall expected value-the best combination of facts and values. Some of the special circumstances involved in decision making are discussed, including decisions where there are multiple goals, those where more than one person is involved in making the decision, using trigger points, framing decisions correctly, commitments to lost causes, and expert decision makers. A complex example of deciding about removal of asymptomatic third molars, with and without an EBD search, is discussed.

  6. Geomorphological Scientific Information for Agency Decision-Making in the Coastal System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psuty, N. P.; Silveira, T.

    2010-12-01

    All coasts are undergoing change and the challenge is to establish dimensions of the change and to use the information to create informed decision-making. In the northeastern region of the US, the National Park Service (NPS) and the US Fish & Wildlife Service (FWS) have undertaken a monitoring program to rigorously gather coastal geomorphological data in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D formats according to newly-created protocols (Psuty, et al. 2010a; Psuty, et al., 2010b). The goal of the agencies’ thrust is to generate a matrix of measurements that can be compared through time and space, essentially providing an insight to sediment supply and sediment budget as a driver of coastal geomorphological evolution. At the core of the protocol is the seasonal systematic collection of shoreline position and coastal morphology for subsequent spatial and temporal trend analyses. Supplemental data gathering using the same protocol may also be applied to gather data on the impact of specific events (storms). In concert with the approach established in the USGS Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) (Thieler, et al., 2009), 1-D coastal changes are measured through the tracking of shoreline position in four National Parks and six Wildlife refuges in the Northeast. 2-D coastal changes are measured through the collection of beach profiles approximately every 1.5 km alongshore and tied to monuments that have XYZ geopositional accuracies of 1-3 cm that support feature-based and datum-based analyses. The profiles establish dimensions and displacements of the foredunes and berms. 3-D coastal changes are measured through the collection of topographic data sets that are presently collected in areas of special concern and are used to develop digital elevation models that provide measurements of volume changes as well as feature displacement in both feature and datum formats. The creation of the systematically-collected geomorphological data sets establishes the basis for management strategies

  7. Film Makers On Film Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    This collection includes essays by and interviews with more than 30 film-makers, both classic and contemporary, on the subjects of their major interests and procedures in making films. The directors are: Louis Lumiere, Cecil Hepworth, Edwin S. Porter, Mack Sennett, David W. Griffith, Robert Flaherty, Charles Chaplin, Eric von Stroheim, Dziga…

  8. Decision making, procedural compliance, and outcomes definition in U.S. forest service planning processes

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, Marc J.; Predmore, S. Andrew

    2011-04-15

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) dictates a process of analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed agency actions on the human environment. This study addresses two key questions related to NEPA implementation in the U.S. Forest Service: 1) how do Interdisciplinary (ID) team leaders and decision makers conceptualize the outcomes of NEPA processes? And 2), how does NEPA relate to agency decision making? We address these questions through two separate online surveys that posed questions about recently completed NEPA processes - the first with the ID team leaders tasked with carrying out the processes, and the second with the line officers responsible for making the processes' final decisions. Outcomes of NEPA processes include impacts on public relations, on employee morale and team functioning, on the achievement of agency goals, and on the achievement of NEPA's procedural requirements (disclosure) and substantive intent (minimizing negative environmental impacts). Although both tended to view public relations outcomes as important, decision makers' perceptions of favorable outcomes were more closely linked to the achievement of agency goals and process efficiency than was the case for ID team leaders. While ID team leaders' responses suggest that they see decision making closely integrated with the NEPA process, decision makers more commonly decoupled decision making from the NEPA process. These findings suggest a philosophical difference between ID team leaders and decision makers that may pose challenges for both the implementation and the evaluation of agency NEPA. We discuss the pros and cons of integrating NEPA with decision making or separating the two. We conclude that detaching NEPA from decision making poses greater risks than integrating them.

  9. Installing a Coordinated Information Network in a State Education Agency: A Case Study of the Decision Process in New York. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, William L.; Benson, Gregory, Jr.

    This research report describes events and decision processes which encourage or inhibit the installation of an innovation in an educational agency--specifically, the installation of a coordinated information network in the New York State Education Department. To document the installation, personnel involved in the consideration of the innovation…

  10. The Influence of Lived Experience with Addiction and Recovery on Practice-Related Decisions among Professionals Working in Addiction Agencies Serving Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novotna, Gabriela; Dobbins, Maureen; Jack, Susan M.; Sword, Wendy; Niccols, Alison; Brooks, Sandy; Henderson, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The study objectives were to: (1) understand the value attributed to the lived experience of addiction and recovery among professionals working in addiction agencies serving women in Canada and (2) describe how lived experience influence practice-related decision-making. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted with a…

  11. 41 CFR 102-118.485 - Is there a time limit for my agency to issue a decision on disputed claims?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Is there a time limit... Information for All Claims § 102-118.485 Is there a time limit for my agency to issue a decision on...

  12. Budget-makers and health care systems.

    PubMed

    White, Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Health programs are shaped by the decisions made in budget processes, so how budget-makers view health programs is an important part of making health policy. Budgeting in any country involves its own policy community, with key players including budgeting professionals and political authorities. This article reviews the typical pressures on and attitudes of these actors when they address health policy choices. The worldview of budget professionals includes attitudes that are congenial to particular policy perspectives, such as the desire to select packages of programs that maximize population health. The pressures on political authorities, however, are very different: most importantly, public demand for health care services is stronger than for virtually any other government activity. The norms and procedures of budgeting also tend to discourage adoption of some of the more enthusiastically promoted health policy reforms. Therefore talk about rationalizing systems is not matched by action; and action is better explained by the need to minimize blame. The budget-maker's perspective provides insight about key controversies in healthcare policy such as decentralization, competition, health service systems as opposed to health insurance systems, and dedicated vs. general revenue finance. It also explains the frequency of various "gaming" behaviors.

  13. USGS director discusses agency goals, budget, and restructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lay on life support as a conservative wave in Congress almost swept aside the agency. The Heritage Foundation, a Washington, D.C. think tank, also targeted the USGS for elimination. That bureaucratic scare convinced the Department of the Interior agency to raise its visibility among decision-makers and highlight the societal benefits of its scientific research.USGS Director Charles "Chip" Groat sat down with Eos in February for a wide-ranging, exclusive interview about the agency's goals, budget, administrative restructuring, and other topics.

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document, Area 15 Environmental Protection Agency Farm Laboratory Building, Corrective Action Unit No. 95, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-18

    This report is the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) Area 15 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Farm, Laboratory Building (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 95), at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The scope of this CADD is to identify and evaluate potential corrective action alternatives for the decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) of the Laboratory Building, which were selected based on the results of investigative activities. Based on this evaluation, a preferred corrective action alternative is recommended. Studies were conducted at the EPA Farm from 1963 to 1981 to determine the animal intake and retention of radionuclides. The main building, the Laboratory Building, has approximately 370 square meters (4,000 square feet) of operational space. Other CAUS at the EPA Farm facility that will be investigated and/or remediated through other environmental restoration subprojects are not included in this CADD, with the exception of housekeeping sites. Associated structures that do not require classification as CAUS are considered in the evaluation of corrective action alternatives for CAU 95.

  15. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, V.A.; Ward, M.B.

    1991-05-21

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker is comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate. 4 figures.

  16. Fiber optic diffraction grating maker

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.; Ward, Michael B.

    1991-01-01

    A compact and portable diffraction grating maker comprised of a laser beam, optical and fiber optics devices coupling the beam to one or more evanescent beam splitters, and collimating lenses or mirrors directing the split beam at an appropriate photosensitive material. The collimating optics, the output ends of the fiber optic coupler and the photosensitive plate holder are all mounted on an articulated framework so that the angle of intersection of the beams can be altered at will without disturbing the spatial filter, collimation or beam quality, and assuring that the beams will always intersect at the position of the plate.

  17. Agency and the construction of social preference: between inequality aversion and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Choshen-Hillel, Shoham; Yaniv, Ilan

    2011-12-01

    The term social preference refers to decision makers' satisfaction with their own outcomes and those attained by comparable others. The present research was inspired by what appears to be a discrepancy in the literature on social preferences--specifically, between a class of studies demonstrating people's concern with inequality and others documenting their motivation to increase social welfare. The authors propose a theoretical framework to account for this puzzling difference. In particular, they argue that a characteristic of the decision setting--an individual's role in creating the outcomes, referred to as agency--critically affects decision makers' weighting of opposing social motives. Namely, in settings in which people can merely judge the outcomes, but cannot affect them ("low agency"), their concern with inequality figures prominently. In contrast, in settings in which people determine the outcomes for themselves and others ("high agency"), their concern with the welfare of others is prominent. Three studies using a new salary-allocation paradigm document a robust effect of agency. In the high-agency condition, participants had to assign salaries, whereas in the low-agency condition, they indicated their satisfaction with equivalent predetermined salaries. It was found that, compared with low-agency participants, high-agency participants were less concerned with disadvantageous salary allocations and were even willing to sacrifice a portion of their pay to better others' outcomes. The effects of agency are discussed in connection to inequality aversion, social comparison, prosocial behavior, and preference construction.

  18. Pups in the Shark Tank: how marine studies graduates influence Washington's policy makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, A. J.; Conathan, M.; English, C. A.; Mace, A.; Meyer, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Since established in 1979, nearly 900 graduate students have been awarded a John A. Knauss Sea Grant Marine Policy Fellowship. Named after former Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Dean of Oceanography at University of Rhode Island, and one of the founders of Sea Grant, this annual fellowship places post-graduate degree students in offices within the executive and legislative branches of government to work on ocean policy issues in Washington, DC. Fellows serve as professional staff within their offices and work on a wide range of tasks including advising agency and Congressional leadership on marine science and policy issues, synthesizing scientific information for use in a decision making context, and overseeing enactment of legislation. Alumni are now infused into every level of the ocean world and play prominent roles in national and international marine policy development, acting in various venues ranging from NGO leaders to Congressional staff, academia to natural resource agency decision-makers. In fact, NOAA's current Chief of Staff is a former Knauss fellow. Here we describe this unique educational experience, lessons learned navigating ocean and climate issues at the science-policy interface, and how early career policy fellowships strengthen and catalyze the link between science and policy in a world where such connections are increasingly important.

  19. "Reclaiming Rapid Cognition": Improving Decision-making in Command and Control Agencies by Understanding and Enabling Rapid Cognition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    down, in which they experience a sort of “temporary autism .”13 Repeated exposures to these same situations allow the subjects to feel more... horses , and must only be made at decisive moments. • - Alfred North Whitehead • When making a decision of minor importance, I have always found it

  20. Understanding The Decision Context: DPSIR, Decision Landscape, And Social Network Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Establishing the decision context for a management problem is the critical first step for effective decision analysis. Understanding the decision context allow stakeholders and decision-makers to integrate the societal, environmental, and economic considerations that must be con...

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.300 - Do the decisions on temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Do the decisions on... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider...

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.300 - Do the decisions on temporary nonuse, suspension and debarment go beyond the agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Do the decisions on... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Transportation Service Provider...

  3. 32 CFR 2003.13 - Appeals of agency decisions denying declassification under mandatory review provisions in section...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... President through the National Security Advisor to overrule the Panel's decision. (j) Protection of... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY SECURITY CLASSIFICATION APPEALS PANEL (ISCAP) BYLAWS,...

  4. 32 CFR 2003.11 - Appeals of agency decisions regarding classification challenges under section 1.8 of the Order.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... President through the National Security Advisor to overrule the Panel's decision. The information at issue... Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION INTERAGENCY SECURITY CLASSIFICATION APPEALS PANEL (ISCAP) BYLAWS, RULES, AND APPEAL...

  5. SuccessMaker[R]. WWC Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The SuccessMaker[R] program is a set of computer-based courses used to supplement regular classroom reading instruction in grades K-8. Using adaptive lessons tailored to a student's reading level, SuccessMaker[R] aims to improve understanding in areas such as phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, comprehension, and concepts of…

  6. Commission decision on the Northern California Power Agency's Application for Certification for Geothermal Project No. 2. Docket 79-AFC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-01

    The text of the Decision is presented in narrative form. Included are: findings on compliance with statutory site certification requirements, a discussion of the Joint Environmental Study and its significance in terms of the California Environmental Quality and National Environmental Policy Acts, a brief recapitulation of the procedural steps which occurred, and a summary of the evidentiary bases for this Decision. Also presented are topical discussions on the various human and natural environmental areas impacted by the project, as well as the technical, engineering, and other areas of concern affected by the project. These topical discussions summarize the basis for the Commission's ultimte Findings and Conclusions pertaining to each broad cetegory. (MHR)

  7. Corporate financial decision-makers' perceptions of workplace safety.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Leamon, Tom B; Courtney, Theodore K; Chen, Peter Y; DeArmond, Sarah

    2007-07-01

    This study, through a random national survey, explored how senior financial executives or managers (those who determined high-level budget, resource allocation, and corporate priorities) of medium-to-large companies perceive important workplace safety issues. The three top-rated safety priorities in resource allocation reported by the participants (overexertion, repetitive motion, and bodily reaction) were consistent with the top three perceived causes of workers' compensation losses. The greatest single safety concerns reported were overexertion, repetitive motion, highway accidents, falling on the same level and bodily reaction. A majority of participants believed that the indirect costs associated with workplace injury were higher than the direct costs. Our participants believed that money spent improving workplace safety would have significant returns. The perceived top benefits of an effective workplace safety program were increased productivity, reduced cost, retention, and increased satisfaction among employees. The perceived most important safety modification was safety training. The top reasons senior financial executives gave for believing their safety programs were better than those at other companies were that their companies paid more attention to and emphasized safety, they had better classes and training focused on safety, and they had teams/individuals focused specifically on safety.

  8. Developing Tomorrow's Decision-Makers: Opportunities for Biotechnology Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Annette; Nichols, Kim; Kanasa, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Globally, science curricula have been described as outdated, and students perceive school science as lacking in relevance. Declines in senior secondary and tertiary student participation in science indicate an urgent need for change if we are to sustain future scientific research and development, and perhaps more importantly, to equip students…

  9. Crossing disciplines to increase effective decision maker-scientist interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Despite increasing knowledge of how climate will continue to change, there remain substantial challenges in determining what actions to take to curb the anticipated loss of biodiversity. Scientists sometimes struggle to speak across disciplines, and managers are often treated as a repository of information rather than a partner in the scientific process. However, through integrative study and collaboration, resource managers can collaborate with physical and biological scientists to translate the latest science into strategies that conserve species in spite of climate change uncertainty. We highlight case studies of how scientists and managers are working together to manage forest ecosystems, songbirds, and cold-adapted fish species in the face of climate change. This work is a collaboration of postdoctoral researchers and graduate students funded through the Department of Interior Northeast Climate Science Center.

  10. Top Benefits Challenges Facing School Business Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohling, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    What's the main factor coloring employee satisfaction? Many organizations' leaders think the answer is salary, yet in reality, employee benefits packages are one of the biggest incentives an employer can offer. Educational institutions have done well in providing benefits to employees. However, with an unpredictable economic climate and a complex…

  11. DecisionMaker software and extracting fuzzy rules under uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Kevin B.

    1992-01-01

    Knowledge acquisition under uncertainty is examined. Theories proposed in deKorvin's paper 'Extracting Fuzzy Rules Under Uncertainty and Measuring Definability Using Rough Sets' are discussed as they relate to rule calculation algorithms. A data structure for holding an arbitrary number of data fields is described. Limitations of Pascal for loops in the generation of combinations are also discussed. Finally, recursive algorithms for generating all possible combination of attributes and for calculating the intersection of an arbitrary number of fuzzy sets are presented.

  12. Insight into Foreign Thoughtworlds for National Security Decision Makers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    really existed or was a creation of Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges , it is a striking example of the human possibilities of even such a potentially...1 Jorge Luis Borges , quoted by Michel Foucault in The Order of Things, and cited by David Augsburger in Conflict

  13. Multimodel Design of Large Scale Systems with Multiple Decision Makers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    virtue. 5- , Lead me from darkneu to light. - Lead me from death to eternal Life. ( Vedic Payer) p. I, MULTIMODEL DESIGN OF LARGE SCALE SYSTEMS WITH...guidance during the course of *: this research . He would also like to thank Professors W. R. Perkins, P. V. Kokotovic, T. Basar, and T. N. Trick for...thesis concludes with Chapter 7 where we summarize the results obtained, outline the main contributions, and indicate directions for future research . 7- I

  14. Regional sustainable environmental management: sustainability metrics research for decision makers

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are a number of established, scientifically supported metrics of sustainability. Many of the metrics are data intensive and require extensive effort to collect data and compute. Moreover, individual metrics may not capture all aspects of a system that are relevant to sust...

  15. A Pedagogy for Teachers and Other Educational Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Graham

    1980-01-01

    Using Pirsig's "Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance" as a basis, the author offers an alternative to deficit model programing (catch-up classes for "deficient" students) and posits an approach to problem solving that depends on dialog and interaction. (WD)

  16. The clinical decision analysis using decision tree.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    The clinical decision analysis (CDA) has used to overcome complexity and uncertainty in medical problems. The CDA is a tool allowing decision-makers to apply evidence-based medicine to make objective clinical decisions when faced with complex situations. The usefulness and limitation including six steps in conducting CDA were reviewed. The application of CDA results should be done under shared decision with patients' value.

  17. The clinical decision analysis using decision tree

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2014-01-01

    The clinical decision analysis (CDA) has used to overcome complexity and uncertainty in medical problems. The CDA is a tool allowing decision-makers to apply evidence-based medicine to make objective clinical decisions when faced with complex situations. The usefulness and limitation including six steps in conducting CDA were reviewed. The application of CDA results should be done under shared decision with patients’ value. PMID:25358466

  18. The International Atomic Energy Agency’s Decision to Find Iran in Non-Compliance, 2002-2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Programme,” Mehr News Agency, November 14, 2004, avail- able at <www.iaea.org/newscenter/focus/iaeairan/eu_iran14112004.shtml>. 59 Shannon N. Kile , ed...www.iaea.org/newscenter/focus/iaeairan/eu_ iran14112004.shtml>. 61 Kile , 67. 62 IAEA Board Resolution, November 29, 2004, available at <www.iaea.org

  19. Exploring the Effects of Managerial Ownership on the Decision to Go Private: A Behavioral Agency Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenti, Alix; Schneider, Marguerite

    2012-01-01

    This paper utilizes the behavioral agency model to investigate why many formerly public companies have been converted to privately held corporations. Using a matched pairs sample and categorical binary regression, and controlling for effects found in previous studies, we explore how the equity ownership of those entrusted to manage firms, the…

  20. On Establishing a "Modus Vivendi": The Exercise of Agency in Decisions to Participate or Not Participate in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Peter

    2009-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that the notion of "removing barriers" offers a limited foundation for widening participation to higher education. Drawing on realist social theory, we consider how decisions to participate or not participate form part of a process to establish a "modus vivendi" or "way of life" for…

  1. 78 FR 39741 - Announcement of Agency Decision: Recommendations on the Use of Chimpanzees in NIH-Supported Research

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...This notice announces the responses to public comments and decisions of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) regarding the use of chimpanzees in research. In February 2012, the NIH charged a working group of the Council of Councils, a federal advisory committee, to provide advice on implementing recommendations made by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) Committee on the Use of Chimpanzees in......

  2. Spinning Straw into Gold: How State Education Agencies Can Transform Their Data to Improve Critical School Resource Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Stephen; Trawick-Smith, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    K-12 education resources are often allocated non-strategically, with schools spending time and money on activities that have little relationship to student outcomes. Most of these decisions take place within districts, rooted in the processes of setting schedules, staffing levels, and assignments, and creating final budgets. Local Education…

  3. Applying Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis to Comparative Benefit-Risk Assessment: Choosing among Statins in Primary Prevention.

    PubMed

    Tervonen, Tommi; Naci, Huseyin; van Valkenhoef, Gert; Ades, Anthony E; Angelis, Aris; Hillege, Hans L; Postmus, Douwe

    2015-10-01

    Decision makers in different health care settings need to weigh the benefits and harms of alternative treatment strategies. Such health care decisions include marketing authorization by regulatory agencies, practice guideline formulation by clinical groups, and treatment selection by prescribers and patients in clinical practice. Multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a family of formal methods that help make explicit the tradeoffs that decision makers accept between the benefit and risk outcomes of different treatment options. Despite the recent interest in MCDA, certain methodological aspects are poorly understood. This paper presents 7 guidelines for applying MCDA in benefit-risk assessment and illustrates their use in the selection of a statin drug for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. We provide guidance on the key methodological issues of how to define the decision problem, how to select a set of nonoverlapping evaluation criteria, how to synthesize and summarize the evidence, how to translate relative measures to absolute ones that permit comparisons between the criteria, how to define suitable scale ranges, how to elicit partial preference information from the decision makers, and how to incorporate uncertainty in the analysis. Our example on statins indicates that fluvastatin is likely to be the most preferred drug by our decision maker and that this result is insensitive to the amount of preference information incorporated in the analysis.

  4. Policy makers' perspectives on tobacco control advocates' roles in regulation development

    PubMed Central

    Montini, T.; Bero, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To identify, from policy makers' perspectives, strategies that enhance tobacco control advocates' effectiveness in the regulatory arena.
DESIGN—Key informant interview component of a comparative case study of regulatory agencies in the USA.
SUBJECTS—Policy makers involved in the development of four regulatory tobacco control policies (three state and one federal).
METHODS—Interviews of policy makers, field notes, and deliberation minutes were coded inductively.
RESULTS—Policy makers considered both written commentary and public testimony when developing tobacco control regulations. They triaged written commentary based upon whether the document was from a peer reviewed journal, a summary of research evidence, or from a source considered credible. They coped with in-person testimony by avoiding being diverted from the scientific evidence, and by assessing the presenters' credibility. Policy makers suggested that tobacco control advocates should: present science in a format that is well organised and easily absorbed; engage scientific experts to participate in the regulatory process; and lobby to support the tobacco control efforts of the regulatory agency.
CONCLUSIONS—There is an important role for tobacco control advocates in the policy development process in regulatory agencies.


Keywords: health policy; regulations; policy makers PMID:11544384

  5. URBAN DECISION-MAKING, THE UNIVERSITY'S ROLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAILEY, STEPHEN K.

    THE AUTHOR EXAMINES THE VARIOUS WAYS IN WHICH THE UNIVERSITY CAN AND SHOULD INFLUENCE URBAN DECISION MAKING. THE CENTRAL UNIVERSITY ROLE IS SENSITIZING THE DECISION MAKERS AND THE CITIZENS TO HUMAN MISERY, SUCH AS BIGOTRY, SQUALOR, DISEASE, UGLINESS, POVERTY, AND IGNORANCE. LONG-RANGE ROLES ARE PINPOINTING THE PROBLEMS URBAN DECISION MAKERS SHOULD…

  6. Exploring alternate specifications to explain agency-level effects in placement decisions regarding Aboriginal children: Further analysis of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect Part C.

    PubMed

    Fallon, Barbara; Chabot, Martin; Fluke, John; Blackstock, Cindy; Sinha, Vandna; Allan, Kate; MacLaurin, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    A series of papers using data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS) explored the influence of clinical and organizational characteristics on the decision to place Aboriginal children in out-of-home placements at the conclusion of child maltreatment investigations. The purpose of this paper is to further explore a consistent finding of the previous analyses: the proportion of investigations involving Aboriginal children at a child welfare agency is associated with placement for all children in that agency. CIS-2008 data were used in the analysis, which allowed for inclusion of previously unavailable organizational and contextual variables. Multi-level statistical models were developed to analyze the influence of clinical and organizational variables on the placement decision. Final models revealed that the proportion of investigations conducted by the child welfare agency involving Aboriginal children was again a key agency-level predictor of the placement decision for any child served by the agency. Specifically, the higher the proportion of investigations of Aboriginal children, the more likely placement was to occur for any child. Further, this analysis demonstrated that structure of governance, an organizational-level variable not available in previous cycles of the CIS, is an important agency-level predictor of out-of-home placement. Further analysis is needed to fully understand individual and organizational level variables that may influence decisions regarding placement of Aboriginal children.

  7. Techniques and Tools Providing Strategic Decision Support: A Framework, Review, and Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    very much by the actual decision makers, for a number of reasons: (i) some of them are too artificial , using models and language that are too abstract...individually scaled. o The tool insists that the decision maker performs artificial tradeoffs between cri- teria, while the decision maker wants to...which the decision maker considers artificial , rather in the language he or she would naturally use in comparing alter- natives and reaching a decision

  8. Does the market maker stabilize the market?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mei; Chiarella, Carl; He, Xue-Zhong; Wang, Duo

    2009-08-01

    The market maker plays an important role in price formation, but his/her behavior and stabilizing impact on the market are relatively unclear, in particular in speculative markets. This paper develops a financial market model that examines the impact on market stability of the market maker, who acts as both a liquidity provider and an active investor in a market consisting of two types of boundedly rational speculative investors-the fundamentalists and trend followers. We show that the market maker does not necessarily stabilize the market when he/she actively manages the inventory to maximize profits, and that rather the market maker’s impact depends on the behavior of the speculators. Numerical simulations show that the model is able to generate outcomes for asset returns and market inventories that are consistent with empirical findings.

  9. Increasing the use of evidence in health policy: practice and views of policy makers and researchers

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Danielle M; Redman, Sally; Jorm, Louisa; Cooke, Margaret; Zwi, Anthony B; Rychetnik, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    research in policy: making research findings more accessible to policy makers; increasing opportunities for interaction between policy makers and researchers; addressing structural barriers such as research receptivity in policy agencies and a lack of incentives for academics to link with policy; and increasing the relevance of research to policy. PMID:19698186

  10. Estimating the designated use attainment decision error rates of US Environmental Protection Agency's proposed numeric total phosphorus criteria for Florida, USA, colored lakes.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Douglas B

    2012-01-01

    The utility of numeric nutrient criteria established for certain surface waters is likely to be affected by the uncertainty that exists in the presence of a causal link between nutrient stressor variables and designated use-related biological responses in those waters. This uncertainty can be difficult to characterize, interpret, and communicate to a broad audience of environmental stakeholders. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a systematic planning process to support a variety of environmental decisions, but this process is not generally applied to the development of national or state-level numeric nutrient criteria. This article describes a method for implementing such an approach and uses it to evaluate the numeric total P criteria recently proposed by USEPA for colored lakes in Florida, USA. An empirical, log-linear relationship between geometric mean concentrations of total P (a potential stressor variable) and chlorophyll a (a nutrient-related response variable) in these lakes-that is assumed to be causal in nature-forms the basis for the analysis. The use of the geometric mean total P concentration of a lake to correctly indicate designated use status, defined in terms of a 20 µg/L geometric mean chlorophyll a threshold, is evaluated. Rates of decision errors analogous to the Type I and Type II error rates familiar in hypothesis testing, and a 3rd error rate, E(ni) , referred to as the nutrient criterion-based impairment error rate, are estimated. The results show that USEPA's proposed "baseline" and "modified" nutrient criteria approach, in which data on both total P and chlorophyll a may be considered in establishing numeric nutrient criteria for a given lake within a specified range, provides a means for balancing and minimizing designated use attainment decision errors.

  11. Afghanistans Information and Communications Technology Sector: U.S. Agencies Obligated Over $2.6 Billion to the Sector, but the Full Scope of U.S. Efforts is Unknown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    analysis, and recommendations to help the U.S. Congress, U.S. agencies, and other decision -makers to make informed oversight, policy, and funding...extent to which the agencies coordinated these efforts. SIGAR is not making any recommendations in this report. SIGAR provided a draft of this...encouraging private investment, and private entities making those investments. The country has six active service carriers, including five 3G-licensed

  12. Bridge over troubled waters: A Synthesis Session to connect scientific and decision making sectors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lack of access to relevant scientific data has limited decision makers from incorporating scientific information into their management and policy schemes. Yet, there is increasing interest among decision makers and scientists to integrate coastal and marine science into the polic...

  13. Evaluation by policy makers of a procedure to describe perceived landscape openness.

    PubMed

    Weitkamp, Gerd; Van den Berg, Agnes E; Bregt, Arnold K; Van Lammeren, Ron J A

    2012-03-01

    In the last decade policy makers have increasingly recognized the need to include people's perceptions in methods for describing landscape quality. At the same time, a third wave of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has become available that make it technically possible to model landscape quality in a realistic manner. However, as there is often a mismatch between science and policy, it remains unclear to what extent perception-based models developed by scientists can be useful to policy makers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness to policy making of a GIS-based procedure for describing perceived landscape openness. To this end, a workshop was organized which was attended by eight Dutch policy makers who acted as representatives of their province (region). The Group Decision Room (GDR) technique was used to elicit the policy makers' evaluations of the procedure in an anonymous and reliable manner. The procedure was presented to the policy makers using cases from their own province, which they assessed using a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that policy makers rated the procedure as being highly relevant to policy making, scientifically credible, usable by policy makers and feasible to implement in the policy making process. They especially appreciated the flexibility and transparency of the procedure. The policy makers concluded that the procedure would be of most value for monitoring landscape changes and for analysing impacts on landscape openness in land use scenario studies. However, they requested guidelines for proper implementation of the various options in the procedure. In general, the current study shows that explicit and transparent evaluation of the usefulness of GIS-based tools can aid integration at the science-policy interface and help to ensure that both scientists and policy makers are informed of interrelated options and requirements.

  14. What School and District Policy Makers Need to Be Wary of about Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Bo; Slagle, Mike

    2011-01-01

    As schools turn to data-driven decision making to improve student achievement, research is playing an increasingly important role in local policy making. Researchers have worked to help policy makers better "understand" research with a focus on research design and method. How to better "use" research, however, has received little attention. This…

  15. Moral agency as enacted justice: a clinical and ethical decision-making framework for responding to health inequities and social injustice.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Ian; Delany, Clare M; Townsend, Anne F; Swisher, Laura Lee

    2011-11-01

    This is the second of 2 companion articles in this issue. The first article explored the clinical and ethical implications of new emphases in physical therapy codes of conduct reflecting the growing evidence regarding the importance of social determinants of health, epidemiological trends for health service delivery, and the enhanced participation of physical therapists in shaping health care reform in a number of international contexts. The first article was theoretically oriented and proposed that a re-thinking of ethical frameworks expressed in codes of ethics could both inform and underpin practical strategies for working in primary health care. A review of the ethical principle of "justice," which, arguably, remains the least consensually understood and developed principle in the ethics literature of physical therapy, was provided, and a more recent perspective-the capability approach to justice-was discussed. The current article proposes a clinical and ethical decision-making framework, the ethical reasoning bridge (ER bridge), which can be used to assist physical therapy practitioners to: (1) understand and implement the capability approach to justice at a clinical level; (2) reflect on and evaluate both the fairness and influence of beliefs, perspectives, and context affecting health and disability through a process of "wide reflective equilibrium" and assist patients to do this as well; and (3) nurture the development of moral agency, in partnership with patients, through a transformative learning process manifest in a mutual "crossing" and "re-crossing" of the ER bridge. It is proposed that the development and exercise of moral agency represent an enacted justice that is the result of a shared reasoning and learning experience on the part of both therapists and patients.

  16. Changing Times, Complex Decisions: Presidential Values and Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornak, Anne M.; Garza Mitchell, Regina L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to delve more deeply into the thought processes of the key decision makers at community colleges and understand how they make decisions. Specifically, this article focuses on the role of the community college president's personal values in decision making. Method: We conducted interviews with 13…

  17. Operational hydrological projections to aid decision making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnetler, Thomas; Davis, Richard; Waddingham, John; James, Karen

    2014-05-01

    The Environment Agency of England has wide ranging responsibility for environmental regulation that includes both water resources management and flood management. In order to best fulfil its role decisions need to be taken using the best available evidence in the time available. The manipulation of large amounts of hydrological data in a way that best meets the needs of decision makers is a complex challenge. Not only should any analysis be technically robust but it should also be presented in a way that communicates key messages clearly and quickly. The Environment Agency and its predecessor organisations has a long history of working with hydrological data but in recent years there has been a need to better incorporate risk and uncertainty into hydrological analysis so that subsequent decisions can take this into account. In the face of recent extreme weather events, there has been an increasing demand for forward look projections from water resource and flood risk practitioners, decision makers and contingency planners. These assessments are required to give appropriate lead in time to allow risk mitigation measures to be implemented to minimise impact upon people, the environment and infrastructure. This presentation will outline the methodologies developed by the Environment Agency to produce and publish monthly routine forward look projections using both a scenario and climate ensemble approach. It will cover how information is disseminated, providing a good example of communicating science to decision makers and to the public. Examples of practical applications of these methodologies include: • Risk based planning and forecasting of water availability for inter basin water transfers into water stressed catchments. • Assessment of water resources prospects during droughts for people and the environment • The likelihood and medium term risk of high groundwater levels impacting upon people and infrastructure. There are also a number of future challenges

  18. Ice-maker heat pump development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, V. D.

    1980-09-01

    Four test unit ice maker heat pumps (IMHPs) were tested under the annual cycle energy system (ACES) program. Performance results on the effects of harvesting scheme, plate loading, and cycling operation were compared. The ice packing density of IMHPs was also studied and compared with that of ice manufactured by commerical ice makers and brine chiller ACES. Three harvesting schemes were tested: hot gas, stored refrigerant, and dual fluid, off cycle. The hot gas scheme tended to penalize excessively the heating output of the system. Stored refrigerant schemes eliminated that problem but caused compressor failures due to flood-back and oil dilution. The dual fluid schemes exhibited no such problems and demonstrated an ability to harvest during compressor off cycles. Therefore, it was concluded that dual fluid, off cycle schemes are the best for use with IMPHs. Plate loading tests in which compressor speed and evaporator size are varied clearly showed that evaporator plate loading should be as low as possible.

  19. A cryogenic fiber maker for continuous extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Bayley, J.

    1998-06-01

    A cryogenic fiber maker that continuously extrudes fibers is presented. The design of the fiber maker is based on the use of two cooling stages maintained at different temperatures. The fiber maker consists of two copper reservoirs that are connected in series and are kept at different temperatures. The first reservoir is used to liquefy the gas coming in from an external gas line. The second reservoir is colder than the first; here, the liquid that comes from the first reservoir is frozen and later extruded using the pressure of the external line gas supply. A two-stage closed-cycle refrigerator (a Gifford-McMahon cooler), which uses helium as a working fluid, is used as a cooling system. The frozen gas is extruded through a stainless-steel capillary nozzle with internal diameters between 50 and 250 μm and a length of 2 mm. The temperature of the two reservoirs is set independently, which permits the extrusion rate of the fibers to be controlled and to produce the fibers continuously. Using this system, hydrogen, deuterium, nitrogen, and argon fibers of various diameters were extruded.

  20. MANAGING UNCERTAINTY IN ENVIRONMENTAL DECISIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many environmental decision makers and practitioners worldwide assume that the quality of data pertaining to a contaminated site is primarily determined by the nature of thhe analytical chemistry methods used to collect information. This assumption, which diminishes the importan...

  1. Framing bioremediation decision making as negotiation: Rationale & guidelineFraming bioremediation decision making as negotiation: Rationale & guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, David J.; Wolfe, Amy K.

    2004-03-17

    Framing remediation decision making as negotiation: (1) social choice, not technology choice; (2) prompts decision makers to identify interested and affected parties, anticipate objections, effectively address and ameliorate objections, and avoid unacceptable decisions.

  2. From science to action: Principles for undertaking environmental research that enables knowledge exchange and evidence-based decision-making.

    PubMed

    Cvitanovic, C; McDonald, J; Hobday, A J

    2016-12-01

    Effective conservation requires knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers to enable learning and support evidence-based decision-making. Efforts to improve knowledge exchange have been hindered by a paucity of empirically-grounded guidance to help scientists and practitioners design and implement research programs that actively facilitate knowledge exchange. To address this, we evaluated the Ningaloo Research Program (NRP), which was designed to generate new scientific knowledge to support evidence-based decisions about the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park in north-western Australia. Specifically, we evaluated (1) outcomes of the NRP, including the extent to which new knowledge informed management decisions; (2) the barriers that prevented knowledge exchange among scientists and managers; (3) the key requirements for improving knowledge exchange processes in the future; and (4) the core capacities that are required to support knowledge exchange processes. While the NRP generated expansive and multidisciplinary science outputs directly relevant to the management of the Ningaloo Marine Park, decision-makers are largely unaware of this knowledge and little has been integrated into decision-making processes. A range of barriers prevented efficient and effective knowledge exchange among scientists and decision-makers including cultural differences among the groups, institutional barriers within decision-making agencies, scientific outputs that were not translated for decision-makers and poor alignment between research design and actual knowledge needs. We identify a set of principles to be implemented routinely as part of any applied research program, including; (i) stakeholder mapping prior to the commencement of research programs to identify all stakeholders, (ii) research questions to be co-developed with stakeholders, (iii) implementation of participatory research approaches, (iv) use of a knowledge broker, and (v) tailored knowledge management

  3. The Courts as Educational Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maready, William F.

    This report discusses the expanding role of Federal judges as educational policymakers. The report discusses court decisions related to interpretations by the Federal Courts of the U.S. Constitution. The report notes that court decisions have covered the following topics: dress codes, flying of the flag, freedom of speech, unwed mothers,…

  4. HUMAN HEALTH METRICS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOLS: LESSONS FROM HEALTH ECONOMICS AND DECISION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decision makers using environmental decision support tools are often confronted with information that predicts a multitude of different human health effects due to environmental stressors. If these health effects need to be contrasted with costs or compared with alternative scena...

  5. [The probability of developing brain tumours among users of cellular telephones (scientific information to the decision of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) announced on May 31, 2011)].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G

    2011-01-01

    The WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has made May 31 2011 PRESS RELEASE No 208 which classifies radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). The decision is based on an increased risk of glioma, i.e., a malignant type of brain cancer associated with the wireless phone use. This paper reports the analysis of the long-term research on the issue in question that had been carried out in many countries around the world before the decision was made.

  6. Handling Decision Problems: a Structuring Language and Interactive Modules

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-28

    too artificial , using models and language that are too abstract, and are difficult for top-level decision makers to understand; (ii) some of the models... artificial tradeoffs between cri- teria, while the decision maker wants to compare alte,-native in terms of their profiles over a number of relevant...Moreover, when such information is pro- vided, it is often expressed in language which the decision maker considers artificial , rather in the language he

  7. 46 CFR 113.25-11 - Contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contact makers. 113.25-11 Section 113.25-11 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-11 Contact makers. Each contact maker must— (a) Have normally open contacts and be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or...

  8. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of contact makers. 113.25-5 Section 113.25-5... ALARM SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-5 Location of contact makers. (a... miscellaneous vessel must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1)...

  9. 46 CFR 113.25-11 - Contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contact makers. 113.25-11 Section 113.25-11 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-11 Contact makers. Each contact maker must— (a) Have normally open contacts and be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or...

  10. 46 CFR 113.25-11 - Contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contact makers. 113.25-11 Section 113.25-11 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-11 Contact makers. Each contact maker must— (a) Have normally open contacts and be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or...

  11. 46 CFR 113.25-11 - Contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contact makers. 113.25-11 Section 113.25-11 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-11 Contact makers. Each contact maker must— (a) Have normally open contacts and be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or...

  12. 46 CFR 113.25-11 - Contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contact makers. 113.25-11 Section 113.25-11 Shipping... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT General Emergency Alarm Systems § 113.25-11 Contact makers. Each contact maker must— (a) Have normally open contacts and be constructed in accordance with Type 4 or 4X of NEMA 250 or...

  13. Data-driven decision-making tools to improve public resource allocation for care and prevention of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Gery W; Bloom, Evan W; Lowsky, David J; Linthicum, Mark T; Juday, Timothy; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Kulkarni, Sonali; Goldman, Dana P; Sayles, Jennifer N

    2014-03-01

    Public health agencies face difficult decisions when allocating scarce resources to control the spread of HIV/AIDS. Decisions are often made with few local empirical data. We demonstrated the use of the robust decision making approach in Los Angeles County, an approach that is data driven and allows decision makers to compare the performance of various intervention strategies across thousands of simulated future scenarios. We found that the prevailing strategy of emphasizing behavioral risk reduction interventions was unlikely to achieve the policy goals of the national HIV/AIDS strategy. Of the alternative strategies we examined, those that invested most heavily in interventions to initiate antiretroviral treatment and support treatment adherence were the most likely to achieve policy objectives. By employing similar methods, other public health agencies can identify robust strategies and invest in interventions more likely to achieve HIV/AIDS policy goals.

  14. David Gill: clock maker to global astronomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haley, P. A.

    2014-04-01

    Reduction in the uncertainty of physical measurements underpinned many advances in solar and stellar parallax, the determination of longitude, geodesy, and the accurate mapping of the heavens using celestial photography in the late nineteenth century. A pioneer in these areas, who successfully made the transition from clock maker in Aberdeen to H.M. Astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope was David Gill (1843-1914); Sir David Gill, K.C.B. from 1900. This paper celebrates the first third of Gill's career in astronomy and geodesy up to the time he was made redundant from Dun Echt Observatory at the end of 1875. It highlights how his horological skills were applied to telescope design and also how his aspirations to become a global astronomer started. The paper is timed to coincide with Gill's centenary anniversary year - he died 24 January 1914.

  15. Improving IT Portfolio Management Decision Confidence Using Multi-Criteria Decision Making and Hypervariate Display Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landmesser, John Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Information technology (IT) investment decision makers are required to process large volumes of complex data. An existing body of knowledge relevant to IT portfolio management (PfM), decision analysis, visual comprehension of large volumes of information, and IT investment decision making suggest Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) and…

  16. Disaster Management with a Next Generation Disaster Decision Support System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.

    2015-12-01

    As populations become increasingly concentrated in large cities, the world is experiencing an inevitably growing trend towards the urbanisation of disasters. Scientists have contributed significant advances in understanding the geophysical causes of natural hazards and have developed sophisticated tools to predict their effects; while, much less attention has been devoted to tools that increase situational awareness, facilitate leadership, provide effective communication channels and data flow and enhance the cognitive abilities of decision makers and first responders. In this paper, we envisioned the capabilities of a next generation disaster decision support system and hence proposed a state-of-the-art system architecture design to facilitate the decision making process in natural catastrophes such as flood and bushfire by utilising a combination of technologies for multi-channel data aggregation, disaster modelling, visualisation and optimisation. Moreover, we put our thoughts into action by implementing an Intelligent Disaster Decision Support System (IDDSS). The developed system can easily plug in to external disaster models and aggregate large amount of heterogeneous data from government agencies, sensor networks, and crowd sourcing platforms in real-time to enhance the situational awareness of decision makers and offer them a comprehensive understanding of disaster impacts from diverse perspectives such as environment, infrastructure and economy, etc. Sponsored by the Australian Government and the Victorian Department of Justice (Australia), the system was built upon a series of open-source frameworks (see attached figure) with four key components: data management layer, model application layer, processing service layer and presentation layer. It has the potential to be adopted by a range of agencies across Australian jurisdictions to assist stakeholders in accessing, sharing and utilising available information in their management of disaster events.

  17. Problem and Dilemma Identification in the Decision-Making Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pashiardis, Petros

    1995-01-01

    Examines decision making in educational organizations, focusing on problems associated with identifying and labeling issues. Factors influencing labeling include decision maker characteristics such as filtering ability, aspiration level, capabilities and experience, stress, "satisficing" proclivity, anchoring and adjustment, selective…

  18. A Method for Decision Making using Sustainability Indicators

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calculations aimed at representing the thought process of decision makers are common within multi-objective decision support tools. These calculations that mathematically describe preferences most often combine various utility scores (i.e., abilities to satisfy desires) with weig...

  19. Canadian policy makers' views on pharmaceutical reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts from drug manufacturers.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Steven G; Thomson, Paige A; Daw, Jamie R; Friesen, Melissa K

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical policy makers are increasingly negotiating reimbursement contracts that include confidential price terms that may be affected by drug utilization volumes, patterns, or outcomes. Though such contracts may offer a variety of benefits, including the ability to tie payment to the actual performance of a product, they may also create potential policy challenges. Through telephone interviews about this type of contract, we studied the views of officials in nine of ten Canadian provinces. Use of reimbursement contracts involving confidential discounts is new in Canada and ideas about power and equity emerged as cross-cutting themes in our interviews. Though confidential rebates can lower prices and thereby increase coverage of new medicines, several policy makers felt they had little power in the decision to negotiate rebates. Study participants explained that the recent rise in the use of rebates had been driven by manufacturers' pricing tactics and precedent set by other jurisdictions. Several policy makers expressed concerns that confidential rebates could result in inter-jurisdictional inequities in drug pricing and coverage. Policy makers also noted un-insured and under-insured patients must pay inflated "list prices" even if rebates are negotiated by drug plans. The establishment of policies for disciplined negotiations, inter-jurisdictional cooperation, and provision of drug coverage for all citizens are potential solutions to the challenges created by this new pharmaceutical pricing paradigm.

  20. Decision Support Systems for Academic Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Laurence J.; Greenwood, Allen G.

    1984-01-01

    The history and features of Decision Support Systems (DSS) and use of the approach by academic administrators are discussed. The objective of DSS is to involve the manager/decision maker in the decision-analysis process while simultaneously relieving that person of the burden of developing and performing detailed analysis. DSS represents a…

  1. A Model for Evaluation of Decision Passages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimac, Michele

    In an age when decision making is becoming more and more significant for us human beings as we face dilemmas about whether or not to clone, to engineer behavior on mass scale, to expand or to decrease nuclear power, we educators must assist students to increase their decision-making skills. Many of our students will soon be decision makers for…

  2. Information and Decision Superiority: Right Concept, Right Tools, Right Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    individual services, and numerous defense contractors have spoken of " information dominance " and "information superiority." Both, particularly the former...technologies will offer an unimaginable level of information to decision makers and operators. Ideas of information dominance , however, are fundamentally...other futuristic sensors will offer an unimaginable level of information to decision makers and operators. Ideas of information dominance , however

  3. Relevance of a Managerial Decision-Model to Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundin, Edward.; Welty, Gordon

    The rational model of classical economic theory assumes that the decision maker has complete information on alternatives and consequences, and that he chooses the alternative that maximizes expected utility. This model does not allow for constraints placed on the decision maker resulting from lack of information, organizational pressures,…

  4. Development of Automated Aids for Decision Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    called state variables (or environ- mental variables) since they define the state of the decision environment. Decision variables must be defined in such...Vaibeison Endlogetious STRUCTURAL MODELO Varabls ~State Variables* (INTERACTION MODEL) Outcome Variables’ (Either State or Prefeence$Decision...decisions and states of the environment. This type of model requires the decision maker to aggregate mentally the effects of the interactions among his

  5. Maker Movement Spreads Innovation One Project at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie; Bender, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The maker movement consists of a growing culture of hands-on making, creating, designing, and innovating. A hallmark of the maker movement is its do-it-yourself (or do-it-with-others) mindset that brings individuals together around a range of activities, both high- and low-tech, all involving some form of creation or repair. The movement's…

  6. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  7. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  9. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  10. 46 CFR 78.47-5 - General alarm contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm contact makers. 78.47-5 Section 78.47-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-5 General alarm contact makers. Each general alarm...

  11. Job Grading Standard for Model Maker, WG-4714.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Service Commission, Washington, DC. Bureau of Policies and Standards.

    The pamphlet explains the different job requirements for different grades of model maker (WG-14 and WG-15) and contrasts them to the position of premium journeyman. It includes comment on what a model maker is (a nonsupervisory job involved in planning and fabricating complex research and prototype models which are made from a variety of materials…

  12. 36 CFR 1260.74 - What if NARA does not concur with an agency decision to reclassify or restore the classification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... implemented, the Archivist will promptly report such situations to the Director of ISOO. (b) If, in the opinion of the Archivist, an agency's determination with respect to the classification status of records that have been previously released is improper, the Archivist, as an authorized holder, may...

  13. 36 CFR 1260.74 - What if NARA does not concur with an agency decision to reclassify or restore the classification...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... implemented, the Archivist will promptly report such situations to the Director of ISOO. (b) If, in the opinion of the Archivist, an agency's determination with respect to the classification status of records that have been previously released is improper, the Archivist, as an authorized holder, may...

  14. How clinical decisions are made.

    PubMed

    Bate, Louise; Hutchinson, Andrew; Underhill, Jonathan; Maskrey, Neal

    2012-10-01

    There is much variation in the implementation of the best available evidence into clinical practice. These gaps between evidence and practice are often a result of multiple individual decisions. When making a decision, there is so much potentially relevant information available, it is impossible to know or process it all (so called 'bounded rationality'). Usually, a limited amount of information is selected to reach a sufficiently satisfactory decision, a process known as satisficing. There are two key processes used in decision making: System 1 and System 2. System 1 involves fast, intuitive decisions; System 2 is a deliberate analytical approach, used to locate information which is not instantly recalled. Human beings unconsciously use System 1 processing whenever possible because it is quicker and requires less effort than System 2. In clinical practice, gaps between evidence and practice can occur when a clinician develops a pattern of knowledge, which is then relied on for decisions using System 1 processing, without the activation of a System 2 check against the best available evidence from high quality research. The processing of information and decision making may be influenced by a number of cognitive biases, of which the decision maker may be unaware. Interventions to encourage appropriate use of System 1 and System 2 processing have been shown to improve clinical decision making. Increased understanding of decision making processes and common sources of error should help clinical decision makers to minimize avoidable mistakes and increase the proportion of decisions that are better.

  15. 29 CFR 99.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Management decision. 99.405 Section 99.405 Labor Office of... Agencies and Pass-through Entities § 99.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  16. 29 CFR 99.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Management decision. 99.405 Section 99.405 Labor Office of... Agencies and Pass-through Entities § 99.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  17. Decision Performance Using Spatial Decision Support Systems: A Geospatial Reasoning Ability Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erskine, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    As many consumer and business decision makers are utilizing Spatial Decision Support Systems (SDSS), a thorough understanding of how such decisions are made is crucial for the information systems domain. This dissertation presents six chapters encompassing a comprehensive analysis of the impact of geospatial reasoning ability on…

  18. SANDS - Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. M.; Hawkins, L.; He, M.; Ebersole, S.

    2010-12-01

    Since the year 2000, Eastern Louisiana, coastal Mississippi, Alabama, and the western Florida panhandle have been affected by 28 tropical storms, seven of which were hurricanes. These tropical cyclones have significantly altered normal coastal processes and characteristics in the Gulf region through sediment disturbance. Although tides, seasonality, and agricultural development influence suspended sediment and sediment deposition over periods of time, tropical storm activity has the capability of moving the largest sediment loads in the shortest periods of time for coastal areas. The SANDS project is also investigating the effects of sediment immersed oil from the Deepwater Horizon disaster in April 2010 which has the potential to resurface as a result of tropical storm activity. The importance of sediments upon water quality, coastal erosion, habitats and nutrients has made their study and monitoring vital to decision makers in the region. Currently agencies such as United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), NASA, and Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) are employing a variety of in-situ and airborne based measurements to assess and monitor sediment loading and deposition. These methods provide highly accurate information but are limited in geographic range, are not continuous over a region and, in the case of airborne LIDAR are expensive and do not recur on a regular basis. Multi-temporal and multi-spectral satellite imagery that shows tropical-storm-induced suspended sediment and storm-surge sediment deposits can provide decision makers with immediate and long-term information about the impacts of tropical storms and hurricanes. It can also be valuable for those conducting research and for projects related to coastal issues such as recovery, planning, management, and mitigation. The Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support has generated a number of decision support products derived from MODIS, Landsat and SeaWiFS instruments that potentially support

  19. Bridging the gap between science and decision making.

    PubMed

    von Winterfeldt, Detlof

    2013-08-20

    All decisions, whether they are personal, public, or business-related, are based on the decision maker's beliefs and values. Science can and should help decision makers by shaping their beliefs. Unfortunately, science is not easily accessible to decision makers, and scientists often do not understand decision makers' information needs. This article presents a framework for bridging the gap between science and decision making and illustrates it with two examples. The first example is a personal health decision. It shows how a formal representation of the beliefs and values can reflect scientific inputs by a physician to combine with the values held by the decision maker to inform a medical choice. The second example is a public policy decision about managing a potential environmental hazard. It illustrates how controversial beliefs can be reflected as uncertainties and informed by science to make better decisions. Both examples use decision analysis to bridge science and decisions. The conclusions suggest that this can be a helpful process that requires skills in both science and decision making.

  20. Moving from situational awareness to decisions during disaster response: transition to decision making.

    PubMed

    Glick, Jeffrey A; Barbara, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    During major disasters, at what point in the decisional process do senior government officials transition from developing necessary situational awareness to perform decision making? This "transition to decision making" (TDM) concept was analyzed through a structured interview survey of 25 current and former US Federal Coordinating Officers (FCOs) and focused on their decision-making process during the initial response period in a Presidentially declared Stafford Act disaster. This analysis suggests that the TDM for these emergency leaders is influenced by the following five factors: 1) Analogue Factor: the decision maker's previous knowledge and experience from analogous disaster situations; 2) New Paradigm Factor: the degree to which the disaster situation is very atypical to the decision maker due to hazard type and or situation severity, 3) Data Capture Factor: the quality, amount, and speed of disaster situation data conveyed to the decision maker; 4) Data Integration Factor: the decision maker's ability to integrate situational data elements into a mental framework picture; and 5) Time Urgency Factor: the decision maker's perception as to time available before a decision has to be made. The article describes the factors and graphs that how these may influence the timing of the TDM in four types of emergency situations faced by FCOs: 1) an analogue disaster, 2) a disaster situation that presents a new paradigm, 3) an intuitive disaster situation, and 4) a disaster requiring an urgent response.

  1. Decision story strategy: a practical approach for teaching decision making.

    PubMed

    Smith, D L; Hamrick, M H; Anspaugh, D J

    1981-12-01

    Teachers are usually very enthusiastic in their evaluations of decision stories. Decision Story Strategies offer a change of pace, promote student involvement and stimulate creative thinking, problem solving and everpresent creative teaching-learning opportunities. The real-life problems presented within the structure of a decision story provide meaningful learning opportunities for students. Students begin to think in a broader perspective when considering other points of view and information sources. The Decision Story Strategy used with the Decision-Making Model provides a powerful tool for health educators to develop skills for making and evaluating decisions in an interesting and meaningful context. It may not be a panacea for all health educators, but is an effective strategy for the teacher concerned with developing independent decision makers. Most importantly, students are provided opportunities to solve their present problems as well as develop decision-making skills for the future.

  2. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  3. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  4. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  5. 36 CFR 907.14 - Corporation decision making procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Corporation decision making... CORPORATION ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 907.14 Corporation decision making procedures. To ensure that at major decision making points all relevant environmental concerns are considered by the Decision Maker,...

  6. Make Energy at the Bay Area Maker Faire

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-17

    Think. Make. Innovate. A festival of invention, creativity and resourcefulness that gathers makers of all kinds. Scientists are seeking to find innovative solutions to the energy challenges in the world.

  7. Make Energy at the Bay Area Maker Faire

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Think. Make. Innovate. A festival of invention, creativity and resourcefulness that gathers makers of all kinds. Scientists are seeking to find innovative solutions to the energy challenges in the world.

  8. 3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BARREL VIEW, LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF BRIDGE, SHOWING MAKER'S PLATE, DECORATIVE SCROLLWORK AND URN FINIALS ON NORTHEAST PORTAL - "Forder" Pratt Through Truss Bridge, Spanning Maumee River at County Route 73, Antwerp, Paulding County, OH

  9. 3. VIEW OF MAKERS PLATE ATTACHED TO UPPER CHORD MEMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF MAKERS PLATE ATTACHED TO UPPER CHORD MEMBER WHICH STATES 'HUSTON AND CLEVELAND CONTRACTORS, COLUMBUS, OHIO, 1904.' - Main Street Parker Pony Truss Bridge, Main Street (Route 170) spanning Yellow Creek, Poland, Mahoning County, OH

  10. Solutions Network Formulation Report. Landsat Data Continuity Mission Simulated Data Products for Bureau of Land Management and Environmental Protection Agency Abandoned Mine Lands Decision Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Presently, the BLM (Bureau of Land Management) has identified a multitude of abandoned mine sites in primarily Western states for cleanup. These sites are prioritized and appropriate cleanup has been called in to reclaim the sites. The task is great in needing considerable amounts of agency resources. For instance, in Colorado alone there exists an estimated 23,000 abandoned mines. The problem is not limited to Colorado or to the United States. Cooperation for reclamation is sought at local, state, and federal agency level to aid in identification, inventory, and cleanup efforts. Dangers posed by abandoned mines are recognized widely and will tend to increase with time because some of these areas are increasingly used for recreation and, in some cases, have been or are in the process of development. In some cases, mines are often vandalized once they are closed. The perpetrators leave them open, so others can then access the mines without realizing the danger posed. Abandoned mine workings often fill with water or oxygen-deficient air and dangerous gases following mining. If the workings are accidentally entered into, water or bad air can prove fatal to those underground. Moreover, mine residue drainage negatively impacts the local watershed ecology. Some of the major hazards that might be monitored by higher-resolution satellites include acid mine drainage, clogged streams, impoundments, slides, piles, embankments, hazardous equipment or facilities, surface burning, smoke from underground fires, and mine openings.

  11. Decision Analysis: State of the Field.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    consequences of alternatives in terms of probabilities, Utility theory is used to quantify the values of decision makers for these conse- quences. Decision... utilities . The more common interpretation of decision theory is a sampling theor. involving statistical problems (see Waild 119501, Savage 119541. and...probability and utility , and Ramsey [1931] was the first to suggest a theory of decision making based on these two ideas. Two centuries earlicer

  12. Shrinking Sea Ice, Thawing Permafrost, Bigger Storms, and Extremely Limited Data - Addressing Information Needs of Stakeholders in Western Alaska Through Participatory Decisions and Collaborative Science.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, K. A.; Reynolds, J.

    2015-12-01

    Communities, Tribes, and decision makers in coastal western Alaska are being impacted by declining sea ice, sea level rise, changing storm patterns and intensities, and increased rates of coastal erosion. Relative to their counterparts in the contiguous USA, their ability to plan for and respond to these changes is constrained by the region's generally meager or non-existent information base. Further, the information needs and logistic challenges are of a scale that perhaps can be addressed only through strong, strategic collaboration. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are fundamentally about applied science and collaboration, especially collaborative decision making. The Western Alaska LCC has established a process of participatory decision making that brings together researchers, agency managers, local experts from Tribes and field specialists to identify and prioritize shared information needs; develop a course of action to address them by using the LCC's limited resources to catalyze engagement, overcome barriers to progress, and build momentum; then ensure products are delivered in a manner that meets decision makers' needs. We briefly review the LCC's activities & outcomes from the stages of (i) collaborative needs assessment (joint with the Alaska Climate Science Center and the Alaska Ocean Observing System), (ii) strategic science activities, and (iii) product refinement and delivery. We discuss lessons learned, in the context of our recent program focused on 'Changes in Coastal Storms and Their Impacts' and current collaborative efforts focused on delivery of Coastal Resiliency planning tools and results from applied science projects. Emphasis is given to the various key interactions between scientists and decision makers / managers that have been promoted by this process to ensure alignment of final products to decision maker needs.

  13. A Decision-Making Methodology for Long-Range Planning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    become an important part of the management process for Chief Executive Officers and top decision-makers through- out business and government. However...the management process ±or Ciiei axecutive OUticers (CEOs) and too decision-makers througnout ousiness anu qovernment. When decisions are made...analytical techniques and at the same time expert in the subject being studied. plus have the management an,.: leadership skills required to bring a study to

  14. Decision framework for platform decommissioning in California.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Brock B

    2015-10-01

    This article describes the overall decision framework for eventual decisions about decommissioning the 27 operating oil and gas platforms offshore southern California. These platforms will eventually reach the end of their useful lifetimes (estimated between 2015 and 2030, although specific dates have not been determined). Current law and regulations allow for alternative uses in lieu of the complete removal required in existing leases. To prepare for eventual decommissioning, the California Natural Resources Agency initiated an in-depth process to identify and investigate issues surrounding possible decommissioning alternatives. The detailed evaluation of alternatives focused on 2-complete removal and artificial reefing that included partial removal to 85 feet below the waterline. These were selected after a comparison of the technical and economic feasibility of several potential alternatives, availability of a legal framework for implementation, degree of interest from proponents, and relative acceptance by state and federal decision makers. Despite California's history of offshore oil and gas production, only 7 decommissioning projects have been completed and these were all relatively small and close to shore. In contrast, nearly 30% of the California platforms are in water depths (as much as 1200 feet) that exceed any decommissioning project anywhere in the world. Most earlier projects considered an artificial reefing alternative but none were implemented and all platforms were completely removed. Future decisions about decommissioning must grapple with a more complex decision context involving greater technological and logistical challenges and cost, a wider range of viable options, tradeoffs among environmental impacts and benefits, and an intricate maze of laws, regulations, and authorities. The specific engineering differences between complete and partial removal provide an explicit basis for a thorough evaluation of their respective impacts.

  15. Treatment decisions under ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Berger, Loïc; Bleichrodt, Han; Eeckhoudt, Louis

    2013-05-01

    Many health risks are ambiguous in the sense that reliable and credible information about these risks is unavailable. In health economics, ambiguity is usually handled through sensitivity analysis, which implicitly assumes that people are neutral towards ambiguity. However, empirical evidence suggests that people are averse to ambiguity and react strongly to it. This paper studies the effects of ambiguity aversion on two classical medical decision problems. If there is ambiguity regarding the diagnosis of a patient, ambiguity aversion increases the decision maker's propensity to opt for treatment. On the other hand, in the case of ambiguity regarding the effects of treatment, ambiguity aversion leads to a reduction in the propensity to choose treatment.

  16. Adaptive Computer Aiding in Dynamic Decision Processes: An Experimental Study of Aiding Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-01

    and a larger subject group. 1-2 Adaptive Decision Aiding 1-2 The primary function of ADDAM is not simply to model the decision maker’s behavior...maximum expected utility (OEVMAXEU) during the course of the test session was the primary measure of decision performance. As a group, the aided...in Chapter 3. The primary function of ADDAM is not simply to model the decision maker’s behavior but to provide a basis for decision aiding. Once

  17. Decision analysis: a primer and application to pain-related studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaewhan; Nelson, Richard; Biskupiak, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Decision analysis is a quantitative approach to decision making under uncertainty that explicitly states all relevant components of the decision, including statement of the problem, identification of the perspective of the decision maker, alternative courses of action and their consequences, and a model that illustrates the decision-making process. Decision trees and Markov models are used to provide a simplified version of complex clinical problems to help decision makers understand the risks and benefits of several clinical options. This article provides an introduction to decision analysis by describing the construction of decision trees and Markov models and employing examples from the recent literature.

  18. How are policy makers using evidence? Models of research utilisation and local NHS policy making

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, H.; Popay, J.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—This paper is based on a qualitative study that aimed to identify factors that facilitate or impede evidence-based policy making at a local level in the UK National Health Service (NHS). It considers how models of research utilisation drawn from the social sciences map onto empirical evidence from this study.
DESIGN—A literature review and case studies of social research projects that were initiated by NHS health authority managers or GP fundholders in one region of the NHS. In depth interviews and document analysis were used.
SETTING—One NHS region in England.
PARTICIPANTS—Policy makers, GPs and researchers working on each of the social research projects selected as case studies.
MAIN RESULTS—The direct influence of research evidence on decision making was tempered by factors such as financial constraints, shifting timescales and decision makers' own experiential knowledge. Research was more likely to impact on policy in indirect ways, including shaping policy debate and mediating dialogue between service providers and users.
CONCLUSIONS—The study highlights the role of sustained dialogue between researchers and the users of research in improving the utilisation of research-based evidence in the policy process.


Keywords: evidence-based policy making; research/policy interface; research utilisation PMID:10818123

  19. Beyond Relativism to Ethical Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Keith D.; Donlevy, J. Kent

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the ethical conundrum of educational decision makers when faced with a plethora of conflicting value-based decisions. It offers an analysis of a well-known fable as the foil to demonstrate the problematic nature of ethical relativism and postmodern ethics in resolving that conundrum, while advocating the use of five core…

  20. Acutely-bereaved Surrogates' Stories about the Decision to Limit Life Support in the ICU

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Eduardo R.; Schenker, Yael; Joel, Ian D.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Arnold, Robert M.; Barnato, Amber E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Participating in a decision to limit life support for a loved one in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with adverse mental health consequences for surrogate decision makers. We sought to describe acutely-bereaved surrogates' experiences surrounding this decision. Design and setting Secondary analysis of interviews with surrogates approximately 4 weeks after a patient's death in one of 6 ICUs at 4 hospitals in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Subjects Adults who participated in decisions about life support in the ICU. Interventions n/a Measurements We collected participant demographics, prior advance care planning, and decision control preferences. We used qualitative content analysis of transcribed interviews to identify themes in surrogates' experiences. Main results The 23 participants included the spouse (n=7), child/step-child (7), sibling (5), parent (3), or other relation (1) of the deceased patient. Their mean age was 55, 61% were women, all were white, 74% had prior treatment preferences discussions with the patient and 43% of patients had written advance directives. 15/23 (65%) surrogates preferred an active decision-making role, 8/23 (35%) preferred to share responsibility with the physician and no surrogates preferred a passive role. Surrogates report that key stressors in the ICU are the uncertainty and witnessed or empathic suffering. These factors contributed to surrogates' sense of helplessness in the ICU. Involvement in the decision to limit life support allowed surrogates to regain a sense of agency by making a decision consistent with the patient's wishes and values, counteracting surrogates' helplessness and ending the uncertainty and suffering. Conclusions In this all-white sample of surrogates with non-passive decision control preferences from a single US region, participating in decision making allowed surrogates to regain control, counteract feelings of helplessness, and end their empathic suffering. While prior research

  1. Creating dialogue: a workshop on "Uncertainty in Decision Making in a Changing Climate"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewen, Tracy; Addor, Nans; Johnson, Leigh; Coltekin, Arzu; Derungs, Curdin; Muccione, Veruska

    2014-05-01

    Uncertainty is present in all fields of climate research, spanning from projections of future climate change, to assessing regional impacts and vulnerabilities, to adaptation policy and decision-making. In addition to uncertainties, managers and planners in many sectors are often confronted with large amounts of information from climate change research whose complex and interdisciplinary nature make it challenging to incorporate into the decision-making process. An overarching issue in tackling this problem is the lack of institutionalized dialogue between climate researchers, decision-makers and user groups. Forums that facilitate such dialogue would allow climate researchers to actively engage with end-users and researchers in different disciplines to better characterize uncertainties and ultimately understand which ones are critically considered and incorporated into decisions made. We propose that the introduction of students to these challenges at an early stage of their education and career is a first step towards improving future dialogue between climate researchers, decision-makers and user groups. To this end, we organized a workshop at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, entitled "Uncertainty in Decision Making in a Changing Climate". It brought together 50 participants, including Bachelor, Master and PhD students and academic staff, and nine selected speakers from academia, industry, government, and philanthropy. Speakers introduced participants to topics ranging from uncertainties in climate model scenarios to managing uncertainties in development and aid agencies. The workshop consisted of experts' presentations, a panel discussion and student group work on case studies. Pedagogical goals included i) providing participants with an overview of the current research on uncertainty and on how uncertainty is dealt with by decision-makers, ii) fostering exchange between practitioners, students, and scientists from different backgrounds, iii) exposing

  2. Boundary Organizations: Creating a Unique Model for Sustained Dialog Among Scientists and Decison Makers About Long-term Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, B.; Carter, H.; Knight, E.; Meyer, R.

    2015-12-01

    California Ocean Science Trust is a boundary organization formed by the state of California. We work across traditional boundaries between government, science, and communities to build trust and understanding in ocean and coastal science. We work closely with decision makers to understand their priority needs and identify opportunities for science to have a meaningful impact, and we engage scientists and other experts to compile and translate information into innovative products that help to meet those needs. This often sparks new collaborations that live well beyond the products themselves. Through this unique model, we are deepening relationships and facilitating an ongoing dialogue between scientists, decision-makers, and communities. The West Coast of the United States is already experiencing climate-driven changes in marine conditions at both large and small spatial scales. Decision makers are increasingly concerned with the potential threats that these changes pose to coastal communities, industries, ecosystems, and species. Detecting and understanding these multi-stressor changes requires consideration across scientific disciplines and management jurisdictions. Research and monitoring programs must reflect this new reality: they should be designed to connect with the decision makers who may use their results. In this presentation, I will share how we are drawing from the West Coast Ocean Acidification and Hypoxia Science Panel - an interdisciplinary team of scientists convened by Ocean Science Trust from California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia - to develop actionable guidance for long-term monitoring for long-term change. Building on our experiences working with the Panel, I will discuss the unique model that boundary organizations provide for sustained dialog across traditionally siloed disciplines and management regimes, and share best practices and lessons learned in working across those boundaries.

  3. Modelling decision-making by pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patrick, Nicholas J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Our scientific goal is to understand the process of human decision-making. Specifically, a model of human decision-making in piloting modern commercial aircraft which prescribes optimal behavior, and against which we can measure human sub-optimality is sought. This model should help us understand such diverse aspects of piloting as strategic decision-making, and the implicit decisions involved in attention allocation. Our engineering goal is to provide design specifications for (1) better computer-based decision-aids, and (2) better training programs for the human pilot (or human decision-maker, DM).

  4. 78 FR 67928 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... issues the decision under this part, the decision is a ``final agency determination,'' and the decision... decision under the APA. If a BIA official issues the decision under this part, the decision is subject to... Secretary's decision if the United States held title to the land at issue. Id. The Supreme Court has...

  5. The Roles of Lesser-Known American Telescope Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Trudy E.

    A history of lesser-known telescope makers. The following makers, owners, dealers and firms are discussed: Henry Fitz, William S. Van Duzee, Lewis M. Rutherford, Charles A. Spencer, A. K. Eaton, John Byrne, Robert B. Tolles, Buff and Berger of Boston, Fauth and Co., George N. Saegmuller, E. Kubel (Kübel), Chester S. Lyman, Stackpole and Brother, William Wurdemann (Würdemann), William J. Young, Gundlach of Rochester, William Kahler, Stendicke of NYC, Walther of Philadelphia, Worcester R. Warner, Ambrose Swasey, William T. Gregg, Phelps and Gurley of Troy, H. G. Sedgewick, Benjamin Pike, William Mogey, David Mogey, and James A. Queen.

  6. A Comparison of a Manual and Computer-Integrated Production Process in Terms of Process Control Decision-Making.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    maker to make the decision, the source of this information, and the way the information is acquired (e.g., limit switches signal to a programmable logic controller that... programmable logic controller , or other programmable device). The information requirements are the pieces of information needed by the -decision-maker...begin weld sequence Frequency: Once per station Now rcs Decision-Maker: Station Programmable Logic Controller Information: What are vehicle style

  7. Phenology for Science, Resource Management, Decision Making, and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolan, Vivian P.; Weltzin, Jake F.

    2011-01-01

    Fourth USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) Research Coordination Network (RCN) Annual Meeting and Stakeholders Workshop; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 21-22 September 2010; Phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle events, is rapidly emerging as a fundamental approach for understanding how ecological systems respond to environmental variation and climate change. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; http://www.usanpn.org) is a large-scale network of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions, resource management agencies, and tribes. The network is dedicated to conducting and promoting repeated and integrated plant and animal phenological observations, identifying linkages with other relevant biological and physical data sources, and developing and distributing the tools to analyze these data at local to national scales. The primary goal of the USA-NPN is to improve the ability of decision makers to design strategies for climate adaptation.

  8. Phenology for science, resource management, decision making, and education

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nolan, V.P.; Weltzin, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    Fourth USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN) Research Coordination Network (RCN) Annual Meeting and Stakeholders Workshop; Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 21-22 September 2010; Phenology, the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle events, is rapidly emerging as a fundamental approach for understanding how ecological systems respond to environmental variation and climate change. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN; http://www.usanpn.org) is a large-scale network of governmental and nongovernmental organizations, academic institutions, resource management agencies, and tribes. The network is dedicated to conducting and promoting repeated and integrated plant and animal phenological observations, identifying linkages with other relevant biological and physical data sources, and developing and distributing the tools to analyze these data at local to national scales. The primary goal of the USA-NPN is to improve the ability of decision makers to design strategies for climate adaptation.

  9. Coco Nut Meets the Gadget Maker. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, P.

    The adventures of Coco Nut, a coconut which has fallen from a palm tree in Florida, are illustrated in this booklet for elementary school students. His fall into a canal and ensuing encounters with dead and alive fish and a gadget maker (industry) are used to portray the effects of water pollution. What man can do to stop such pollution and…

  10. SMILE Maker: A Web-Based Tool for Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoyanov, Svetoslav; Aroyo, Lora; Kommers, Piet; Kurtev, Ivan

    This paper focuses on the purposes, theoretical model, and functionality of the SMILE (Solution Mapping Intelligent Learning Environment) Maker--a World Wide Web-based problem-solving tool. From an instructional design point of view, an attempt to establish a balance between constructivism/instructivism, content-treatment…

  11. Infants and Toddlers as Members, Makers, Interpreters: A Philosophical Journey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handler, June Moss

    This book explores how young children, within their cultural imperatives, struggle to discover who they are as cultural "members" interacting with others, as "makers" trying out and creating, and as "interpreters" making meaning and making new connections. Chapters in Part 1 emphasize the significance of a…

  12. Creating Meaning through Art. Teacher as Choice Maker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Judith W.; Delaney, Jean M.; Carroll, Karen Lee; Hamilton, Cheryl M.; Kay, Sandra I.; Kerlavage, Marianne S.; Olson, Janet L.

    This book introduces preservice art educators to the power of art in creating meaning. Each chapter emphasizes different aspects of art education, identifies concepts and research, and outlines the advantages and challenges of making the suggested choices. Part 1, "Teacher as Choice Maker," includes two chapters. Chapter 1 invites…

  13. Imaginative Thinking: Addressing Social Justice Issues through MovieMaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boske, Christa A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the experiences of aspiring school leaders who utilized artmaking in this case, photography, poetry, music, collage, and short films through Microsoft MovieMaker as a means for addressing injustices within surrounding school communities. The paper aims to explore how aspiring school leaders…

  14. The Promise of the Maker Movement for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    The Maker Movement is a community of hobbyists, tinkerers, engineers, hackers, and artists who creatively design and build projects for both playful and useful ends. There is growing interest among educators in bringing making into K-12 education to enhance opportunities to engage in the practices of engineering, specifically, and STEM more…

  15. [Displaying Education Data to Managers and Policy Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael P.

    Some approaches to displaying education data to managers and policy makers that may be pertinent to environmental data as well are discussed. The National Center for Education Statistics produces many publications each year, including "The Digest of Education Statistics,""The Condition of Education Statistics," and…

  16. Understanding Narratives of Nationhood: Film-Makers and Culloden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, John R.; Gold, Margaret M.

    2002-01-01

    Film audiences have long been invited to view Scotland and Scottish life through a historic lens. Influenced by the pre-existing literary traditions of tartanry and kailyard, film-makers have focused nostalgically on the myths and legends of the Highland and pre-industrial Scotland, with the implications that this approach has for representations…

  17. TestMaker: A Computer-Based Test Development Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, William J.; Lario-Gibbs, Annette M.

    This paper discusses a computer-based prototype called TestMaker that enables educators to create computer-based tests. Given the functional needs of faculty, the host of research implications computer technology has for assessment, and current educational perspectives such as constructivism and their impact on testing, the purposes for developing…

  18. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... panel if the general alarm power supply is not in or next to the navigating bridge. (c) Mobile offshore drilling units. Each mobile offshore drilling unit must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In the main control room; (2) At the drilling console; (3) At...

  19. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... panel if the general alarm power supply is not in or next to the navigating bridge. (c) Mobile offshore drilling units. Each mobile offshore drilling unit must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In the main control room; (2) At the drilling console; (3) At...

  20. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... panel if the general alarm power supply is not in or next to the navigating bridge. (c) Mobile offshore drilling units. Each mobile offshore drilling unit must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In the main control room; (2) At the drilling console; (3) At...

  1. 46 CFR 113.25-5 - Location of contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... panel if the general alarm power supply is not in or next to the navigating bridge. (c) Mobile offshore drilling units. Each mobile offshore drilling unit must have a manually operated contact maker for the general emergency alarm system: (1) In the main control room; (2) At the drilling console; (3) At...

  2. A Study of the Training of Tool and Die Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Morris A.; Herrnstadt, Irwin L.

    To develop and test a methodology which would help determine the combination of education, training, and experience that is most likely to yield highly qualified workers in specific occupations, the tool and die maker trade was selected for examination in the Boston Metropolitan Area. Tool and die making was chosen because it is a clearly…

  3. A Decision Support Framework for Science-Based, Multi-Stakeholder Deliberation: A Coral Reef Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehr, Amanda P.; Small, Mitchell J.; Bradley, Patricia; Fisher, William S.; Vega, Ann; Black, Kelly; Stockton, Tom

    2012-12-01

    We present a decision support framework for science-based assessment and multi-stakeholder deliberation. The framework consists of two parts: a DPSIR (Drivers-Pressures-States-Impacts-Responses) analysis to identify the important causal relationships among anthropogenic environmental stressors, processes, and outcomes; and a Decision Landscape analysis to depict the legal, social, and institutional dimensions of environmental decisions. The Decision Landscape incorporates interactions among government agencies, regulated businesses, non-government organizations, and other stakeholders. It also identifies where scientific information regarding environmental processes is collected and transmitted to improve knowledge about elements of the DPSIR and to improve the scientific basis for decisions. Our application of the decision support framework to coral reef protection and restoration in the Florida Keys focusing on anthropogenic stressors, such as wastewater, proved to be successful and offered several insights. Using information from a management plan, it was possible to capture the current state of the science with a DPSIR analysis as well as important decision options, decision makers and applicable laws with a the Decision Landscape analysis. A structured elicitation of values and beliefs conducted at a coral reef management workshop held in Key West, Florida provided a diversity of opinion and also indicated a prioritization of several environmental stressors affecting coral reef health. The integrated DPSIR/Decision landscape framework for the Florida Keys developed based on the elicited opinion and the DPSIR analysis can be used to inform management decisions, to reveal the role that further scientific information and research might play to populate the framework, and to facilitate better-informed agreement among participants.

  4. Swift and Smart Decision Making: Heuristics that Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Tarter, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to examine the research literature on decision making and identify and develop a set of heuristics that work for school decision makers. Design/methodology/approach: This analysis is a synthesis of the research on decision-making heuristics that work. Findings: A set of nine rules for swift and smart decision…

  5. The Risky Shift in Policy Decision Making: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilpert, B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Based on analysis of data on 432 decision-makers from around the world, this study examines the decision-making phenomenon that individuals tend to move toward riskier decisions after group discussion. Findings of the analysis contradicted earlier studies, showing a consistent shift toward greater risk avoidance. Available from Elsevier Scientific…

  6. Parents and the College Choice Decisions of Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kerry; Bers, Trudy H.

    1989-01-01

    A study investigated the extent of parental involvement in the decisions of two-year students, the kinds of information about colleges they use, and the activities in which they engage. Results show parents were involved in information-gathering but were not necessarily decision-initiators or decision-makers. Marketing implications are discussed.…

  7. The Importance of a Systematic Approach to Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    and J. W. Ulvila, "Decision Analysis Comes of Age," Harvard Business Review , (September-October 1982), 130- 141. 4. Ibid. 5. R. D. Behn and J. W...Decision Makers, Basic books, Inc., New York, 1982. Brown, R. V. and J. W. Ulvila, "Decision Analysis Comes of Age," Harvard Business Review , pp.130-141

  8. Strategic Intelligence Observations from the Pre-Vietnam and Pre-9/11 Periods for the Intelligence Professional and the Policy-Maker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    intelligence context is vital to grasp the constraints on the decision makers in each period. Therefore, the first section describes the period using...if necessary. 1/2/63 A 3 battalion So. Vietnamese army pincer attack against a badly outnumbered Viet Cong unit near the southern village of Ap Bac

  9. Decision Making in Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  10. Managing competition in public and private mental health agencies: implications for services and policy.

    PubMed

    Clark, R E; Dorwart, R A; Epstein, S S

    1994-01-01

    There were clear differences in our study between the management strategies employed by public agencies and those favored by private agencies. These differences, however, appeared to reflect the realities of financing rather than any fundamental differences in their orientation toward public service. There was no clear evidence that particular management practices affected an agency's performance on measures of financial access or acceptance of referrals from public hospitals. Government regulation and pressure from advocacy groups probably helped to maintain private agencies' focus on these and other public goals. From a public policy perspective, choosing a provider solely on the basis of ownership status is, at best, a naive approach to providing public mental health treatment. Not only is there great variation in process and practices within both private and public groups, but external factors such as competition from private practitioners may also exert a stronger influence on agency behavior than does ownership status. Because most current proposals for health care reform rely heavily on increased competition among providers to achieve their goals, the importance of ownership status as a predictor of conduct or performance may be further diminished. The emphasis on competition could increase differences between urban agencies and those in rural areas where there is less competition and, therefore, require different contracting approaches. As we move toward a health care system based on competition, administrators and policy makers will be forced to abandon their reliance on stereotypical public/private agency behavior as guides for policy decisions. Instead, they will have to consider more carefully the effects of political and market influences as well as agency characteristics when choosing community mental health providers.

  11. 75 FR 862 - Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... AGENCY Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability AGENCY... proposed registration review decision for the pesticide Bacillus subtilis (case 6012) and opens a public... EPA's proposed registration review decision Bacillus subtilis (case 6012). The Bacillus subtilis...

  12. 75 FR 16104 - Bromine Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... AGENCY Bromine Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental... registration review decision for the pesticide Bromine, case 4015. Registration review is EPA's periodic review... registration review decision for bromine, case 4015. Bromine is a bromide releasing antimicrobial...

  13. Beyond the lab: observations on the process by which science successfully informs management and policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific findings inform management decisions and policy products through various ways, these include: synthesis reports, white papers, in-person and web-based seminars (webinars), communication from specialized staff, and seminal peer-reviewed journal articles. Scientists are often told that if they want their science to inform management decisions and policy products that they must: clearly and simply articulate discreet pieces of scientific information and avoid attaching advocacy messages to the science; however, solely relying on these tenants does not ensure that scientific products will infuse the realms of management and policy. The process by which science successfully informs management decisions and policy products rarely begins at the time the results come out of the lab, but rather, before the research is carried out. Having an understanding of the political climate, management needs, agency research agendas, and funding limitations, as well as developing a working relationship with the intended managers and policy makers are key elements to developing the kind of science results and products that often make an impact in the management and policy world. In my presentation I will provide case-studies from California (USA) to highlight the type of coastal, ocean and climate science that has been successful in informing management decisions and policy documents, as well as provide a state-level agency perspective on the process by which this occurs.

  14. Integrated assessment of risk and sustainability in the context of regulatory decision making.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment is a decision-making tool used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other governmental organizations to organize and analyze scientific information so as to examine, characterize, and possibly quantify threats to human health and/or ecologic resources. Sustainability evaluation is a process for organizing and analyzing scientific and technical information about nature-society interactions in order to help decision-makers determine whether taking or avoiding certain actions will make society more sustainable. Although development and application of these two methodologies have progressed along distinct and unconnected pathways, the National Research Council recently recommended that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency adopt the concept of "sustainability" as both a process and a goal, and that risk assessment be incorporated, when appropriate, as a key input into decision-making about sustainability. The following discussion briefly reviews these two analytic approaches and examines conceptual frameworks for integrating assessments of risk and sustainability as a component of regulatory decision-making.

  15. Development of coffee maker service robot using speech and face recognition systems using POMDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiharto, Widodo; Meiliana; Santoso Gunawan, Alexander Agung

    2016-07-01

    There are many development of intelligent service robot in order to interact with user naturally. This purpose can be done by embedding speech and face recognition ability on specific tasks to the robot. In this research, we would like to propose Intelligent Coffee Maker Robot which the speech recognition is based on Indonesian language and powered by statistical dialogue systems. This kind of robot can be used in the office, supermarket or restaurant. In our scenario, robot will recognize user's face and then accept commands from the user to do an action, specifically in making a coffee. Based on our previous work, the accuracy for speech recognition is about 86% and face recognition is about 93% in laboratory experiments. The main problem in here is to know the intention of user about how sweetness of the coffee. The intelligent coffee maker robot should conclude the user intention through conversation under unreliable automatic speech in noisy environment. In this paper, this spoken dialog problem is treated as a partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). We describe how this formulation establish a promising framework by empirical results. The dialog simulations are presented which demonstrate significant quantitative outcome.

  16. Making predictive ecology more relevant to policy makers and practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, William J.; Freckleton, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the aims of ecology is to aid policy makers and practitioners through the development of testable predictions of relevance to society. Here, we argue that this capacity can be improved in three ways. Firstly, by thinking more clearly about the priority issues using a range of methods including horizon scanning, identifying policy gaps, identifying priority questions and using evidence-based conservation to identify knowledge gaps. Secondly, by linking ecological models with models of other systems, such as economic and social models. Thirdly, by considering alternative approaches to generate and model data that use, for example, discrete or categorical states to model ecological systems. We particularly highlight that models are essential for making predictions. However, a key to the limitation in their use is the degree to which ecologists are able to communicate results to policy makers in a clear, useful and timely fashion. PMID:22144394

  17. A Mathematical Model of the Information Center Location Problem and Its Implications for Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraft, Donald H.; Hill, T. W., Jr.

    The problem of selecting which sites to use in locating library and information centers in order to best achieve system objectives is modeled as a mixed zero-one linear programming problem and examined in detail. The model incorporates an objective function based on the costs of locating centers and of transmitting information to the users. The…

  18. Evaluating the Potential Usefulness of new Hurricane Indices for Emergency Management and Other Decision Makers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, M. R.; Clayson, C. A.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past 35 years, the Saffir-Simpson scale has used wind speed as a means for categorizing damage and surge risks associated with hurricanes. Time has shown, however, that hurricanes with the same wind speed do not necessarily cause equal damage values and storm-surge heights. Therefore, it is prudent to now consider a different method for categorizing storms so that emergency management officials in a coastal location can have a better idea as to the potential hazards posed by a particular hurricane. Recognizing this need, three new indices were developed by Lakshmi Kantha in 2005 for evaluating hurricane intensity, hurricane damage potential, and hurricane surge potential. This paper applies these indices to a twenty-year database (1986-2005) of Atlantic, U.S.-landfalling hurricanes and compares the relative indices to known damage estimates and surge heights. Some general conclusions will be made regarding the possible usefulness of these indices for emergency management officials in areas prone to landfalling tropical cyclones.

  19. Title IX Athletics Policies: Issues and Data for Education Decision Makers. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Women and Girls in Education.

    In 2002, the U.S. Department of Education established the Commission on Opportunity in Athletics to collect information, analyze issues, and obtain public input related to improving the application of current standards for measuring equal opportunity for boys and girls to participate in athletics under Title IX. The National Coalition of Woman and…

  20. Laboratory Information Management Systems for Forensic Laboratories: A White Paper for Directors and Decision Makers

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony Hendrickson; Brian Mennecke; Kevin Scheibe; Anthony Townsend

    2005-10-01

    Modern, forensics laboratories need Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) implementations that allow the lab to track evidentiary items through their examination lifecycle and also serve all pertinent laboratory personnel. The research presented here presents LIMS core requirements as viewed by respondents serving in different forensic laboratory capacities as well as different forensic laboratory environments. A product-development methodology was employed to evaluate the relative value of the key features that constitute a LIMS, in order to develop a set of relative values for these features and the specifics of their implementation. In addition to the results of the product development analysis, this paper also provides an extensive review of LIMS and provides an overview of the preparation and planning process for the successful upgrade or implementation of a LIMS. Analysis of the data indicate that the relative value of LIMS components are viewed differently depending upon respondents' job roles (i.e., evidence technicians, scientists, and lab management), as well as by laboratory size. Specifically, the data show that: (1) Evidence technicians place the most value on chain of evidence capabilities and on chain of custody tracking; (2) Scientists generally place greatest value on report writing and generation, and on tracking daughter evidence that develops during their analyses; (3) Lab. Managers place the greatest value on chain of custody, daughter evidence, and not surprisingly, management reporting capabilities; and (4) Lab size affects LIMS preference in that, while all labs place daughter evidence tracking, chain of custody, and management and analyst report generation as their top three priorities, the order of this prioritization is size dependent.

  1. Tribal Decisions-Makers Guide to Solid Waste Management: Chapter 2 - Developing Solid Waste Management Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Solid waste management plans offer a host of benefits for tribes and Alaskan Native villages. Through the preparation of these plans, you can assess your cur-rent and future waste management needs, set priorities, and allocate resources accordingly.

  2. Adult Vocational Education Follow Through. A System for Participant Feedback for Decision Makers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Thomas R.

    The objectives of this project were (1) to develop participant feedback materials that can be used by local adult vocational education (AVE) administrators for program planning, implementation, and evaluation and (2) to determine why participants enroll in AVE programs. A follow-up survey which contained key items from the follow-through system…

  3. Producing Little Decision Makers and Goal Setters in the Age of the Obesity Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gard, Michael

    2008-01-01

    It is obviously possible to argue that education is always an arm of social policy. However, there are just as surely degrees of directness between the agendas of noneducational authorities and what happens in school and university classrooms. This article considers what appears to be a direct example of a particular public policy agenda, the…

  4. Human Capital: DOD Should Fully Develop Its Civilian Strategic Workforce Plan to Aid Decision Makers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    DOD’s 2013-2018 Workforce Plan 22 functional communities 32 mission-critical occupations (series) Medical Psychology Series (0180) Social Work...Updates. Listen to our Podcasts . Visit GAO on the web at www.gao.gov. Contact: Website: http://www.gao.gov/fraudnet/fraudnet.htm E-mail: fraudnet

  5. Decision makers' allocation of home-care therapy services: a process map.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Rakib; Poss, Jeff; Egan, Mary; Rappolt, Susan; Berg, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Objectif : Explorer les mécanismes actuels de prise de décision en matière de répartition des services de physiothérapie et d'ergothérapie dans les soins à domicile pour les clients aux besoins complexes nécessitant des soins à domicile à long terme en Ontario. Méthode : Une étude exploratoire à l'aide d'entrevues auprès d'intervenants clés et de vignettes a été réalisée auprès des décideurs en matière de soins à domicile (gestionnaires de cas et personnel de direction) dans quatre régions de soins à domicile de l'Ontario. Les données des entrevues ont été analysées à l'aide d'une méthode dite de « l'analyse des structures ». Résultats : La prise de décision pour la répartition des services de thérapie comporte quatre étapes: admission, évaluation, acheminement vers le fournisseur de services et réévaluation. Certaines disparités dans les processus de gestion ont toutefois été observées à chacune des étapes. La principale variation se situait dans le processus visant à établir la quantité de services de thérapie dans les diverses régions, en raison principalement des contraintes financières touchant les programmes de soins à domicile. La méthode de financement du gouvernement et les modes de partage de l'information ont aussi des effets considérables sur la répartition des soins à domicile. Conclusion : Les contraintes financières des soins à domicile constituent le principal facteur contextuel affectant la répartition des services de thérapie dans les divers secteurs de soins à domicile. Compte tenu de l'inflation dans les coûts des soins de santé, de nouveaux modèles de financement et de prestation des services devront être créés afin de s'assurer que la bonne personne reçoit les bons soins avant que son état ne se détériore et qu'il ne nécessite des soins à long terme encore plus coûteux.

  6. Delivering on Equity: Implications for Decision-Makers. Issue Brief #1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stonemeier, Jennifer; Trader, Barb; Richards, Curtis; Blank, Rolf; East, Bill; Toson, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The SWIFT Center will demonstrate how schools can be transformed to provide inclusive educational opportunities for all students. The SWIFT Center will address the key American goal of equal educational opportunity by assisting schools to reorganize in ways that enable them to fully deliver on inclusive, general education for all…

  7. The Strategically Manageable University: Perceptions of Strategic Choice and Strategic Change among Key Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frølich, Nicoline; Stensaker, Bjørn; Scordato, Lisa; Bótas, Paulo Charles Pimentel

    2014-01-01

    One common way of conceptualising recent changes in university governance is by stating that the universities are being pushed towards a market-like setting where the uniqueness of each university's strategy and capacity for introducing organizational change is seen as necessary to improve the functioning of the university. We argue that the…

  8. Communicating the parameter uncertainty in the IQWiG efficiency frontier to decision-makers.

    PubMed

    Stollenwerk, Björn; Lhachimi, Stefan K; Briggs, Andrew; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Caro, Jaime J; Siebert, Uwe; Danner, Marion; Gerber-Grote, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) developed-in a consultation process with an international expert panel-the efficiency frontier (EF) approach to satisfy a range of legal requirements for economic evaluation in Germany's statutory health insurance system. The EF approach is distinctly different from other health economic approaches. Here, we evaluate established tools for assessing and communicating parameter uncertainty in terms of their applicability to the EF approach. Among these are tools that perform the following: (i) graphically display overall uncertainty within the IQWiG EF (scatter plots, confidence bands, and contour plots) and (ii) communicate the uncertainty around the reimbursable price. We found that, within the EF approach, most established plots were not always easy to interpret. Hence, we propose the use of price reimbursement acceptability curves-a modification of the well-known cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Furthermore, it emerges that the net monetary benefit allows an intuitive interpretation of parameter uncertainty within the EF approach. This research closes a gap for handling uncertainty in the economic evaluation approach of the IQWiG methods when using the EF. However, the precise consequences of uncertainty when determining prices are yet to be defined.

  9. Families as Decision-Makers: When Researchers and Advocates Work Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields-Smith, Cheryl; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey

    2009-01-01

    Families across the United States must routinely make difficult choices about child care arrangements because of the need to resume a job, continue an education or training program, or care for other family members. Leaving children in the care of others for the first time can be difficult (Sayer, Bianchi, & Robinson, 2004; Van Horn, Ramey,…

  10. Decision-Makers' Forum on a Unified Strategy for Nuclear Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2004-11-01

    An abundant and secure energy supply is critical to our country’s prosperity, and energy supply is now a central issue in global stability and security. Unfortunately, the Unites States continues to steadily increase the fraction of energy it imports from foreign sources. In May 2001, the National Energy Policy noted that this imbalance, "if allowed to continue, will inevitably undermine our economy, our standard of living, and our national security." In addition to these serious impacts, growing concern about air pollution and atmospheric carbon levels hold the potential for global climate change. According to the National Academy of Sciences, the Earth’s surface temperature has risen by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century, with accelerated warming during the past two decades. The current energy supply situation clearly demands coordinated action. Nuclear energy is preeminent in its ability to deliver affordable energy today and meet the growing imperatives for clean air and energy supplies in the future.

  11. Assessing restoration using ecosystem service benefit indicators: An approach for decision makers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological restoration can reestablish ecosystem services (ES) that provide important social benefits. Managers with limited funds and resources are forced to prioritize potential restoration sites for implementation, and prioritizing restoration sites based on ecological functio...

  12. 49 CFR 1515.11 - Review by administrative law judge and TSA Final Decision Maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCEDURAL RULES APPEAL AND WAIVER PROCEDURES FOR SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS FOR INDIVIDUALS § 1515.11... Threat Assessment on the grounds that he or she poses a security threat after an appeal as described in... operators, foreign air carriers, IACs, certified cargo screening facilities, or validation firms who...

  13. Parent Support Services at the Workplace: What's Involved? Guidelines for Corporate Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eleanor T.

    A comprehensive program of services for working parents who are employees of a consortium of companies is described and evaluated. With the support of the Prospect Hill Executive Office Park in Waltham, Massachusetts, the Prospect Hill Parents' and Children's Center offers parent support services, such as information and counseling, information…

  14. Putting Technology into the Classroom: A Guide for Rural Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boethel, Martha; Dimock, K. Victoria; Hatch, Lin; Adams, Sharon, Ed.; Heath, Marilyn, Ed.

    This guide is intended for superintendents and central office staff in small, rural school districts who are considering ways of using technology in the classroom. It provides information about why technology is worth the trouble and what it can accomplish, lays out the basic issues and tasks involved in integrating technology into classroom…

  15. Preparing Capable Decision Makers for an Uncertain Future within Underdeveloped, Degraded and Denied Operational Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    respond to forces applied and for every action there is a reaction. This action point also invokes the Newton – Quantum duality introduced previously...Asimov, 1952) - Asimov, Isaac , Foundation and Empire. Street and Smith, Publications, Inc., by arrangement with Doubleday & Company, Avon Books...GENERAL & ARMY Statement A: Approved for Public Release f’(x)Experience – Newton – 3 dimension f(x)Universe – Quantum – n dimension EXPERIENCE

  16. Corporate Social Responsibility in NCAA Athletics: Institutional Practices and Decision Makers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lauren Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Tactical corporate social responsibility (CSR) can play a central role in an organization's strategic management (Hamil & Morrow, 2011) by enhancing the relationship between an organization and its key stakeholders (Babiak & Wolfe, 2009). In the context of sport, these stakeholders can include fans, the media, team employees, and the…

  17. The Concepts of Quality for Rural and Small School Decision Makers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Alfred P.; Hedlund, Paul H.

    This report briefly introduces the ideas of six influential individuals in the field of quality control, and relates these concepts to current educational innovations. Quality is defined by Philip B. Crosby as the result of a culture of relationships within an organization. W. Edwards Deming espouses intrinsic motivation for all employees,…

  18. Joint Hazard Assessment for Urban Decision-Makers in the Northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, R. M.; Little, C. M.; Coffel, E.

    2015-12-01

    Most of the large municipalities of the Northeastern U.S. have conducted adaptation assessments that include downscaled climate projections. In these assessments, each climate variable has generally been considered independently, and downscaling methodologies have generally not been tailored to the extremes of a variable's distribution. In the wake of events such as Hurricane Sandy, stakeholder need and scientific advances are increasingly converging towards assessments focused on extreme events from a joint hazards perspective, across multiple climate variables. Such a joint approach requires consideration of possible correlation across climate variables (e.g., changes in relative sea level rise and coastal storms), as well as emphasis on additional variables—and their extremes—not considered quantitatively to date (e.g., humidity). This presentation will focus on two examples: 1) heat stress, based on combined impacts of high temperatures and high humidity, and 2) coastal flood risk associated with combined impacts of sea level rise and changes in coastal storms. This talk will demonstrate how the joint hazards approach can lead to large changes in projected extreme event frequency, relative to downscaling approaches that treat climate variables as independent. Challenges—and opportunities--associated with downscaling across multiple climate variables, with an emphasis on the extremes of the variables, will also be highlighted.

  19. Citizen-sensor-networks to confront government decision-makers: Two lessons from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Carton, Linda; Ache, Peter

    2017-03-09

    This paper presents one emerging social-technical innovation: The evolution of citizen-sensor-networks where citizens organize themselves from the 'bottom up', for the sake of confronting governance officials with measured information about environmental qualities. We have observed how citizen-sensor-networks have been initiated in the Netherlands in cases where official government monitoring and business organizations leave gaps. The formed citizen-sensor-networks collect information about issues that affect the local community in their quality-of-living. In particular, two community initiatives are described where the sensed environmental information, on noise pollution and gas-extraction induced earthquakes respectively, is published through networked geographic information methods. Both community initiatives pioneered in developing an approach that comprises the combined setting-up of sensor data flows, real-time map portals and community organization. Two particular cases are analyzed to trace the emergence and network operation of such 'networked geo-information tools' in practice: (1) The Groningen earthquake monitor, and (2) The Airplane Monitor Schiphol. In both cases, environmental 'externalities' of spatial-economic activities play an important role, having economic dimensions of national importance (e.g. gas extraction and national airport development) while simultaneously affecting the regional community with environmental consequences. The monitoring systems analyzed in this paper are established bottom-up, by citizens for citizens, to serve as 'information power' in dialogue with government institutions. The goal of this paper is to gain insight in how these citizen-sensor-networks come about: how the idea for establishing a sensor network originated, how their value gets recognized and adopted in the overall 'system of governance'; to what extent they bring countervailing power against vested interests and established discourses to the table and influence power-laden conflicts over environmental pressures; and whether or not they achieve (some form of) institutionalization and, ultimately, policy change. We find that the studied-citizen-sensor networks gain strength by uniting efforts and activities in crowdsourcing data, providing factual, 'objectivized data' or 'evidence' of the situation 'on the ground' on a matter of local community-wide concern. By filling an information need of the local community, a process of 'collective sense-making' combined with citizen empowerment could grow, which influenced societal discourse and challenged prevailing truth-claims of public institutions. In both cases similar, 'competing' web-portals were developed in response, both by the gas-extraction company and the airport. But with the citizen-sensor-networks alongside, we conclude there is a shift in power balance involved between government and affected communities, as the government no longer has information monopoly on environmental measurements.

  20. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Fact Sheet: Project Partners and Decision Makers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Disposal of dredged material is managed and conducted by federal, state, and local governments; private entities; and semi-private entities. Cooperation among these groups strengthens the possibility that suitable materials will be used beneficially.

  1. Literacy and life skills education for vulnerable youth: What policy makers can do

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, Anna Caroline; Yorozu, Rika; Medel-Añonuevo, Carolyn

    2014-04-01

    In countries with a high concentration of youth with low literacy levels, the policy and programming task related to education and training is particularly daunting. This note briefly presents policies and practices which have been put in place to provide vulnerable youth with literacy and life skills education. It is based on a multi-country research study undertaken by the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning (UIL) in cooperation with the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada (DFATD Canada; previously Canadian International Development Agency, CIDA), and on subsequent policy dialogue forums with policy makers, practitioners, researchers and youth representatives held in Africa, the Arab region and Asia. Built on this review of existing policies and their implementation, this note provides lessons for innovative practices and suggests six concrete ways to address the needs of vulnerable youth through literacy and life skills education.

  2. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  3. James Henry Marriott: New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Romick, Carl; Brown, Pendreigh.

    2015-11-01

    James Henry Marriott was born in London in 1799 and trained as an optician and scientific instrument- maker. In 1842 he emigrated to New Zealand and in January 1843 settled in the newly-established town of Wellington. He was New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker, but we have only been able to locate one telescope made by him while in New Zealand, a brass 1-draw marine telescope with a 44-mm objective, which was manufactured in 1844. In 2004 this marine telescope was purchased in Hawaii by the second author of this paper. In this paper we provide biographical information about Marriott, describe his 1844 marine telescope and speculate on its provenance. We conclude that although he may have been New Zealand's first professional telescope-maker Marriot actually made very few telescopes or other scientific instruments. As such, rather than being recognised as a pioneer of telescope-making in New Zealand he should be remembered as the founder of New Zealand theatre.

  4. Toward a Psychology of Surrogate Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Tunney, Richard J; Ziegler, Fenja V

    2015-11-01

    In everyday life, many of the decisions that we make are made on behalf of other people. A growing body of research suggests that we often, but not always, make different decisions on behalf of other people than the other person would choose. This is problematic in the practical case of legally designated surrogate decision makers, who may not meet the substituted judgment standard. Here, we review evidence from studies of surrogate decision making and examine the extent to which surrogate decision making accurately predicts the recipient's wishes, or if it is an incomplete or distorted application of the surrogate's own decision-making processes. We find no existing domain-general model of surrogate decision making. We propose a framework by which surrogate decision making can be assessed and a novel domain-general theory as a unifying explanatory concept for surrogate decisions.

  5. 7 CFR 3052.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Management decision. 3052.405 Section 3052.405... and Pass-Through Entities § 3052.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  6. 7 CFR 3052.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management decision. 3052.405 Section 3052.405... and Pass-Through Entities § 3052.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  7. 7 CFR 3052.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Management decision. 3052.405 Section 3052.405... and Pass-Through Entities § 3052.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  8. 7 CFR 3052.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Management decision. 3052.405 Section 3052.405... and Pass-Through Entities § 3052.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  9. 7 CFR 3052.405 - Management decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Management decision. 3052.405 Section 3052.405... and Pass-Through Entities § 3052.405 Management decision. (a) General. The management decision shall... the management decision, the Federal agency or pass-through entity may request additional...

  10. 7 CFR 764.401 - Loan decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPECIAL PROGRAMS DIRECT LOAN MAKING Loan Decision and Closing § 764.401 Loan decision. (a) Loan approval... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan decision. 764.401 Section 764.401 Agriculture... authorizing statutes, other Federal laws, or Federal credit policies. (c) Overturn of an Agency decision...

  11. 77 FR 15368 - Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... AGENCY Clean Water Act; Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... availability of the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) proposed decision identifying water quality limited segments and associated pollutants in Oregon to be listed pursuant to section 303(d)(2) of the Clean...

  12. The Efficacy of Group Decision Support Systems: A Field Experiment to Evaluate Impacts on Air Force Decision Makers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    groupthink ( pressure to conform to consistent thinking patterns of a highly cohesive group ), 3) members not having the opportunity to speak or unwilling...obstacles certainly influence conventional group meetings, but some may be ameliorated by exploiting several reported advantages of GDSSs (3:112...and group visual provisions. 2-2 2.3 Delphi Process and Nominal Group Technique (23:73-74, 128) Two popular group processes which have influenced GDSS

  13. Introduction of new vaccines: decision-making process in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  14. Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    manufacturers. The Navy has a major in- house design capability for ships; the government does not possess such a capability for aircraft or other weapon systems...the Coast Guard, government agencies acquire a wide variety of ships, ranging from sophisticated submarines and nuclear aircraft carriers to much...the initial phase a review was made of written material relating to government procedures in U.S. Government agencies for acquiring vessels, aircraft

  15. Adaptive Flexibility and Maladaptive Routines in Selecting Fast and Frugal Decision Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broder, Arndt; Schiffer, Stefanie

    2006-01-01

    Decision routines unburden the cognitive capacity of the decision maker. In changing environments, however, routines may become maladaptive. In 2 experiments with a hypothetical stock market game (n = 241), the authors tested whether decision routines tend to persist at the level of decision strategies rather than at the level of options in…

  16. Bottle-makers, bottlers say refillables use more energy

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, M.

    1982-11-01

    Bottle makers and beverage bottlers who oppose recycling initiatives claim the additional energy used for the required extra thickness, hot-water sterilization, and the collection process counteract any energy saved when fewer bottles are made and reused. They agree that aluminum-can recycling eliminates energy-intensive processes. Used cans are melted and used to make new cans in a process requiring less energy than processes using new aluminum. With a national deposit law, supporters of container legislation claim that the purchase of new containers would drop from 90 to 63 billion a year; energy used for manufacturing, filling, and transporting bottles would drop from 377 to 214 trillion Btus. (DCK)

  17. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckman, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  18. The Accuracy of Intelligence Assessment: Bias, Perception, and Judgement in Analysis and Decision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-10

    practical inteligence ethic--not a code of conduct but an ethical way of thinking that forces analysts and decision-makers to ask L El the right...incorporated it into their varying viewpoints and turned it often into competitive conclusions. Some embraced, some acquiesced, some ignored, some rejected...dilemma. Intelligence officers and decision-makers compete for viewpoints. Intelligence assessments are always potentially competitive decisions. This

  19. Decision support system for integrating remote sensing in bridge condition assessment and preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endsley, Arthur; Brooks, Colin; Harris, Devin; Ahlborn, Tess; Vaghefi, Khatereh

    2012-04-01

    Since the National Bridge Inventory (NBI) was first conducted, structural health monitoring (SHM) of U.S. bridge infrastructure has consisted largely of time and labor-intensive surveys with subjective results. In-situ and embedded sensors, while more reliable and accurate, can be costly and in many cases infeasible for SHM because they require installation in hard-to-reach places or during construction. Remote sensing (RS) technologies such as radar, electrooptical imaging and laser scanning may offer an innovative, cost-effective method of monitoring the dynamic conditions of U.S. bridges in real-time. While some RS techniques may be costly for state agencies to deploy on their own, RS imagery is available through government agencies or commercial vendors for moderate or no cost. How can disparate RS datasets be integrated with one another and with inventory data in a way that is meaningful to bridge asset management decision makers? This paper discusses the development and functionality of the Bridge Condition Decision Support System (DSS), a web-based asset management tool for bridge managers and inspectors. The DSS seamlessly merges bridge metrics from RS data with NBI inventory data allowing decision makers to compare up-to-date bridge condition metrics from multiple inputs as a time series. It enables analysis of RS and inventory data available through user-friendly web services which can also expose virtually unlimited server-side data processing. Using open-source software, the authors developed a scalable, spatially-aware bridge condition database with a fast and flexible server application programming interface (API) and a cross-browser compatible web mapping application written in Javascript.

  20. Digital stereoscopic photography using StereoData Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toeppen, John; Sykes, David

    2009-02-01

    Stereoscopic digital photography has become much more practical with the use of USB wired connections between a pair of Canon cameras using StereoData Maker software for precise synchronization. StereoPhoto Maker software is now used to automatically combine and align right and left image files to produce a stereo pair. Side by side images are saved as pairs and may be viewed using software that converts the images into the preferred viewing format at the time of display. Stereo images may be shared on the internet, displayed on computer monitors, autostereo displays, viewed on high definition 3D TVs, or projected for a group. Stereo photographers are now free to control composition using point and shoot settings, or are able to control shutter speed, aperture, focus, ISO, and zoom. The quality of the output depends on the developed skills of the photographer as well as their understanding of the software, human vision and the geometry they choose for their cameras and subjects. Observers of digital stereo images can zoom in for greater detail and scroll across large panoramic fields with a few keystrokes. The art, science, and methods of taking, creating and viewing digital stereo photos are presented in a historic and developmental context in this paper.

  1. A novel cryogenic fibre maker for continuous extrusion

    SciTech Connect

    Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Bayley, J.

    1997-05-05

    The results of a cryogenics fibre maker which extrudes fibres continuously are presented. The fibre maker is based on a simple concept of differential temperature. Two reservoirs are connected in cascade and are kept at different temperatures. The first reservoir is connected to an external gas line supply (the gas that will made the fibre) and is used to liquefy the gas. The second reservoir is colder that the first and the liquid that comes from the first reservoir is frozen and later is used to form the fibre. The pressure of external gas supply in the first reservoir is used to extrude the fibre. The system is cooled by a two stage closed cycle refrigerator, which uses liquid helium as a working fluid. The nozzles used to extrude the fibre are made of stainless steel capillary with diameters between 50 {mu}m and 250 {mu}m, with a length of 2 mm. The use of a system with two independent temperatures, permits to control the extrusion rate of the fibres and to produce the fibres continuously. Using this system, hydrogen deuterium, nitrogen and argon fibres of various diameters were extruded.

  2. Supporting Coastal Management Decisions in the Face of Sea-Level Rise: Case Study for the Chesapeake Bay Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, A. C.; Glick, P.; Clough, J. S.; Nunley, B.

    2008-12-01

    Sea-level rise needs to be a major consideration in regional coastal management and ecological restoration plans. The National Wildlife Federation has initiated a multi-pronged strategy for assisting decision makers at government agencies that manage near-shore ecosystems in several vulnerable coastal regions. Results from our work in the Chesapeake Bay region will be presented. This strategy involves: (1) Detailed modeling of how coastal habitats will migrate in response to a range of sea-level rise scenarios. For this work, we used the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM), which simulates the dominant processes involved in wetland conversions and shoreline modifications during long-term sea-level rise and takes into consideration localized changes in land elevation due to geological and ecological factors. These model results provide specific information about the locations that are likely to experience shifts in coastal marshes, swamps, beaches, and other habitats due to sea-level rise at a scale that is relevant to regional decision making. (2) Extensive literature review and analysis of habitat, fish, and wildlife impacts potentially resulting from expected sea-level rise and other local climate changes. Synthesizing the available research is an important service for natural resource agencies that are only beginning to consider climate impacts on ecosystems and natural resources. (3) Analysis of government programs and policies relevant to coastal management and identification of opportunities to revise these policies in light of projected climate changes. An important aspect of this analysis is meeting with key decision makers at relevant state fish and wildlife agencies to better understand the factors that affect their abilities to effect policy changes. (4) Proactive campaign to share our results with diverse audiences. We have developed different research products, ranging from a technical report of the modeling results to short report briefs, to

  3. Multi-Objective Markov Decision Processes for Data-Driven Decision Support

    PubMed Central

    Lizotte, Daniel J.; Laber, Eric B.

    2016-01-01

    We present new methodology based on Multi-Objective Markov Decision Processes for developing sequential decision support systems from data. Our approach uses sequential decision-making data to provide support that is useful to many different decision-makers, each with different, potentially time-varying preference. To accomplish this, we develop an extension of fitted-Q iteration for multiple objectives that computes policies for all scalarization functions, i.e. preference functions, simultaneously from continuous-state, finite-horizon data. We identify and address several conceptual and computational challenges along the way, and we introduce a new solution concept that is appropriate when different actions have similar expected outcomes. Finally, we demonstrate an application of our method using data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness and show that our approach offers decision-makers increased choice by a larger class of optimal policies. PMID:28018133

  4. Structured decision making: Chapter 5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.; Grand, James B.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Krausman, Paul R.; Cain, James W. III

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife management is a decision-focused discipline. It needs to integrate traditional wildlife science and social science to identify actions that are most likely to achieve the array of desires society has surrounding wildlife populations. Decision science, a vast field with roots in economics, operations research, and psychology, offers a rich set of tools to help wildlife managers frame, decompose, analyze, and synthesize their decisions. The nature of wildlife management as a decision science has been recognized since the inception of the field, but formal methods of decision analysis have been underused. There is tremendous potential for wildlife management to grow further through the use of formal decision analysis. First, the wildlife science and human dimensions of wildlife disciplines can be readily integrated. Second, decisions can become more efficient. Third, decisions makers can communicate more clearly with stakeholders and the public. Fourth, good, intuitive wildlife managers, by explicitly examining how they make decisions, can translate their art into a science that is readily used by the next generation.

  5. How research funding agencies support science integration into policy and practice: An international overview

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Funding agencies constitute one essential pillar for policy makers, researchers and health service delivery institutions. Such agencies are increasingly providing support for science implementation. In this paper, we investigate health research funding agencies and how they support the integration of science into policy, and of science into practice, and vice versa. Methods We selected six countries: Australia, The Netherlands, France, Canada, England and the United States. For 13 funding agencies, we compared their intentions to support, their actions related to science integration into policy and practice, and the reported benefits of this integration. We did a qualitative content analysis of the reports and information provided on the funding agencies’ websites. Results Most funding agencies emphasized the importance of science integration into policy and practice in their strategic orientation, and stated how this integration was structured. Their funding activities were embedded in the push, pull, or linkage/exchange knowledge transfer model. However, few program funding efforts were based on all three models. The agencies reported more often on the benefits of integration on practice, rather than on policy. External programs that were funded largely covered science integration into policy and practice at the end of grant stage, while overlooking the initial stages. Finally, external funding actions were more prominent than internally initiated bridging activities and training activities on such integration. Conclusions This paper contributes to research on science implementation because it goes beyond the two community model of researchers versus end users, to include funding agencies. Users of knowledge may be end users in health organizations like hospitals; civil servants assigned to decision making positions within funding agencies; civil servants outside of the Ministry of Health, such as the Ministry of the Environment; politicians deciding

  6. Decision Support Tool for the Management of Debris from Radiological Dispersal Devices and Other Incidents of National Significance

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, P.; Thorneloe, S.; Hayes, C.; Rodgers, M.; Christman, R.

    2008-07-01

    Unique challenges exist for the handling, transport, and disposal of debris resulting from homeland security incidents, disasters or other national emergencies. Access to guidance to facilitate decision making to ensure the safe and timely disposal of debris is critical to helping restore a community or region and prevent further contamination or spread of disease. For a radiological dispersal device (RDD), proper characterization of the quantity, properties, and level of contamination of debris can have a significant impact on cleanup costs and timelines. A suite of decision support tools (DSTs) is being developed by the U.S. EPA's Office of Research and Development to assist individuals responsible for making decisions associated with handling, transport, and disposal of such debris. The DSTs are location-specific to help identify specific facilities and contacts for making final disposal decisions. The DSTs provide quick reference to technical information, regulations, and other information to provide decision makers with assistance in guiding disposal decisions that are important for the protection of public health, first responders, and the environment. These tools are being developed in partnership with other U.S. government agencies, EPA program offices, industry, and state and local emergency response programs. (authors)

  7. Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support (SANDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardin, D. M.; Keiser, K.; Graves, S. J.; Conover, H.; Ebersole, S.

    2009-12-01

    Since the year 2000, Eastern Louisiana, coastal Mississippi, Alabama, and the western Florida panhandle have been affected by 28 tropical storms, seven of which were hurricanes. These tropical cyclones have significantly altered normal coastal processes and characteristics in the Gulf region through sediment disturbance. Although tides, seasonality, and agricultural development influence suspended sediment and sediment deposition over periods of time, tropical storm activity has the capability of moving the largest sediment loads in the shortest periods of time for coastal areas. The importance of sediments upon water quality, coastal erosion, habitats and nutrients has made their study and monitoring vital to decision makers in the region. Currently agencies such as United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), NASA, and Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) are employing a variety of in-situ and airborne based measurements to assess and monitor sediment loading and deposition. These methods provide highly accurate information but are limited in geographic range, are not continuous over a region and, in the case of airborne LIDAR are expensive and do not recur on a regular basis. Multi-temporal and multi-spectral satellite imagery that shows tropical-storm-induced suspended sediment and storm-surge sediment deposits can provide decision makers with immediate and long-term information about the impacts of tropical storms and hurricanes. It can also be valuable for those conducting research and for projects related to coastal issues such as recovery, planning, management, and mitigation. The recently awarded Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support will generate decision support products using NASA satellite observations from MODIS, Landsat and SeaWiFS instruments to support resource management, planning, and decision making activities in the Gulf of Mexico. Specifically, SANDS will generate decision support products that address the impacts of tropical storms

  8. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in subchapter J...

  9. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in Subpchapter...

  10. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in subchapter J...

  11. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in subchapter J...

  12. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in Subchapter...

  13. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in subchapter J...

  14. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in Subpchapter...

  15. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in Subpchapter...

  16. 46 CFR 196.37-5 - General alarm bell contact makers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General alarm bell contact makers. 196.37-5 Section 196... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-5 General alarm bell contact makers. (a) Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in Subpchapter...

  17. 46 CFR 97.37-5 - General alarm bell contact maker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General alarm bell contact maker. 97.37-5 Section 97.37... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-5 General alarm bell contact maker. Each general alarm contact maker must be marked in accordance with requirements in subchapter J...

  18. DECISION-MAKING USING EXISTING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Decision-makers need information on cumulative and aggregate stressors as well as clear information on where problems are likely to occur in the future in order to prioritize risk management actions. The most prevasive and difficult to assess changes are the result of regional-s...

  19. Enhancing Decision Making in the Energy Sector Using Space-Based Earth Observations: A GEO and CEOS Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckman, R. S.; Stackhouse, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    Earth observations from space are playing an increasing role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, spaceborne observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations to improve solar energy resource assessment globally. As one of the nine Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of policy and management decision making in the energy sector employing Earth observations and related models is being conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS supports the space-based activities of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), contributing directly to GEO work plan tasks supporting the energy societal benefit area. We describe several projects being conducted by CEOS member agencies, including NASA, to engage and partner with end-user energy decision makers to enhance their decision support systems using space-based observations. These prototype projects have been pursued through the GEO Energy Community of Practice and, more recently, in collaboration with the CEOS Energy societal benefit area. Several case studies exhibiting the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment, improve the forecast of space-weather impacts on the power grid, and augment integrated assessment modeling studies for energy technology scenario evaluation are discussed. In addition, ongoing activities to engage stakeholders in other Federal agencies, industry, and academia are described.

  20. 5 CFR 2610.309 - Agency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... after issuance of an initial decision under this part, either the applicant or agency counsel may seek... counsel seeks review and the Director (or designee) does not take review on his or her own initiative,...