Science.gov

Sample records for agency esa ground

  1. Design and performance of the ESA Optical Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Garcia-Talavera, Marcos; Rodriguez, Jose A.; Viera, Teodora; Moreno-Arce, Heidi; Rasilla, Jose L.; Gago, Fernando; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Gomez, Panchita; Ballesteros Ramirez, Ezequiel

    2002-04-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has undertaken the development of Optical Data Relay payloads, aimed at establishing free space optical communication links between satellites. The first of such systems put into orbit is the SILEX project, in which an experimental link between a GEO satellite (ARTEMIS) and a LEO satellite (SPOT IV) will be used to relay earth observation data. In order to perform In Orbit Testing (IOT) of these and future optical communications systems, ESA and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) reached an agreement for the building of the Optical Ground Station (OGS) in the IAC Teide Observatory, which consists basically of a 1-meter telescope and the suitable instrumentation for establishing and testing bi-directional optical links with satellites. The presence of the atmosphere in the data path posses particular problems, with an impact on the instrumentation design. The transmission, reception and measurement functions, along with the overall control of the instruments, are performed at OGS by the Focal Plane Control Electronics (FPCE). The design and performance of this instrumentation is presented, emphasizing the Pointing, Acquisition and Tracking, the Tuneable Laser and the Master Control.

  2. Security Concepts and Implementation on the ESA ISS Exploitation Program Ground Infrastructure for the ESA Human Space Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, W.

    2007-08-01

    This paper addresses a number of security techniques utilized as part of the implementation of the ESA ISS Exploitation Program ground infrastructure in support of the operations and utilization of the ESA element level contributions to the International Space Station (ISS). Those Flight Elements COLUMBUS (a laboratory with payloads accommodation) and ATV (Autonomous Transfer Vehicle) are planned to be launched end of the year 2007.

  3. European Space Agency (ESA) Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive Bulk-Processing: processor improvements and data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Ferrara, R.; Fischer, P.; Galli, L.; Hoersch, B.; Hopkins, S.; Jackson, J.; Lavender, S.; Mica, S.; Northrop, A.; Paciucci, A.; Paul, F.; Pinori, S.; Saunier, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Landsat program is a joint United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enterprise for Earth Observation (EO), that represents the world's longest running system of satellites for moderate-resolution optical remote sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe through the ESA ground stations over the last 40 years, in co-operation with USGS and NASA. A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor has been developed. This enhanced processor aligns the historical Landsat products to the highest quality standards that can be achieved with the current knowledge of the instruments. The updated processor is mainly based on the USGS algorithm; however the ESA processor has some different features that are detailed in this paper. Using this upgraded processor, ESA is currently performing for the first time a bulk-processing of its entire Landsat series MSS/TM/ETM+ historical archive to make all products available to users. Current achievements include the processing and online distribution of approximately 290 000 new Landsat 5 TM high-quality products acquired at the Kiruna ground station between 1983 and 2011. The Landsat 5 TM bulk-processed products are made available for direct download after registration at: https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/pi-community/apply for-data/fast-registration. The remainder of the ESA's Landsat data, dating back more than 40 years, will gradually become available for all users during the course of 2014. The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk-processing, and an overview on the data quality on a subset of the Landsat 5 TM data are herein presented.

  4. EGSE (Electrical Ground Support Equipment) for ESA VEGA Launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrante, M.; Ortenzi, A.; del Re, V.; Bordin, M.; Saccucci, Fr.

    2004-08-01

    Activities belonging to Assembly, Integration and Validation (AIV) phase of a launch vehicle are fundamental in development of a so much delicate system. The equipment used to support this long and crucial phase can be described as a set of Mechanical and Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE). This paper describes the approach followed to develop such a system, and the benefits that this brings in terms of lower risk, more coordinated interfaces and improved functionality. The paper briefly outlines VEGA Electrical Ground Support Equipment major characteristics. In particular, this paper describes the EGSE design for a small launch vehicle such as VEGA. The objective of EGSE is to provide hardware and software for efficient electrical testing of either single stages and integrated launcher. The needs to develop a small launcher is a response to a Resolution in the Space Transportation Strategy adopted by the ESA Council in June 2000, aiming at: "completing, in the medium term, the range of launch services offered by the addition of European manufactured small and medium launcher, complementary to Ariane, consistent with diversified users' needs and relying on common elements, such as stages, subsystems, technologies, production facilities and operational infrastructure, thereby increasing the European launcher industry's competitiveness". Three different parts principally compose the Vega EGSE: TCS (Test Configuration System), TES (Test Execution System), PPS (Post Processing System). The TES is the part of the EGSE devoted to the tests execution; it has capabilities of immediate test data analysis, parameters monitoring and it is able to undertake pre-defined actions, in case of anomalous events happen, in order to put in safe conditions the Unity Under Test (UUT). The TES is composed of two main components: HLCS and LLCS. The HLCS is based on SCOS 2000 ESA product; it is mainly devoted to the interaction with operators. It allows loading Test Sequences and

  5. Strengthening the Security of ESA Ground Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flentge, Felix; Eggleston, James; Garcia Mateos, Marc

    2013-08-01

    A common approach to address information security has been implemented in ESA's Mission Operations (MOI) Infrastructure during the last years. This paper reports on the specific challenges to the Data Systems domain within the MOI and how security can be properly managed with an Information Security Management System (ISMS) according to ISO 27001. Results of an initial security risk assessment are reported and the different types of security controls that are being implemented in order to reduce the risks are briefly described.

  6. International cooperation in the field of space life sciences: European Space Agency's (ESA) perspectives.

    PubMed

    Oser, H

    1989-08-01

    International cooperation in life sciences, as in any other of the space research fields, takes place at two distinct levels: scientist to scientist, or agency to agency. This article is more concerned with the agency to agency level, which involves the arrangements made between two partners for the flying of experiments and/or hardware on space missions. International cooperation is inherent to the European Space Agency (ESA), since it consists of 13 member states (Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and West Germany) and one associated member, Finland. ESA also has special cooperative arrangements with Canada. Life sciences research in ESA is carried out within the Microgravity Research Program, an optional program to which member states (in this case all but Austria and Ireland) contribute "a la carte," and receive their "share" accordingly. Therefore, many of the activities are naturally linked to international arrangements within the member states, and also to arrangements between the agencies, with life sciences being the dominant activity between NASA and ESA. PMID:11592293

  7. Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and Maurizio Cheli, representing European Space Agency (ESA),

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and Maurizio Cheli, representing European Space Agency (ESA), set up an experiment at the glovebox on the Space Shuttle Columbias mid-deck. The two mission specialists joined three other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia.

  8. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  9. European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist Nicollier trains in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier (left) is briefed by Randall S. McDaniel on Space Shuttle extravehicular activity (EVA) tools and equipment prior to donning an extravehicular mobility unit and participating in an underwater EVA simulation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool. Nicollier is holding the EMU mini workstation. Other equipment on the table includes EVA tool caddies and EVA crewmember safety tethers.

  10. Cross-cultural issues in space operations: A survey study among ground personnel of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Manzey, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    Today's space operations involve co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organisational backgrounds. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. ESA employees from European countries ( N=576) answered to the CULT Ground Survey. The results showed that differences in relation to leadership and decision making were the most important issues thought to interfere with efficient co-working within ESA, and between ESA employees and colleagues from other agencies. Employees who collaborated with more than three nationalities within ESA indicated most challenges in co-working due to differences in compliance, behavioural norms and competitiveness. Challenges in co-working differed between agencies, and these differences were consistent with value differences in the national populations. The results may have applied value for training of European employees working in international space program teams.

  11. Preliminary results of ESA Category-1 Project 5834 "Application of DInSAR technique to areas of active ground deformations"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, B.; D'Auria, L.

    2009-04-01

    We have established a processing chain of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for identification and parametrisation of deformation sources in areas of active ground deformation (e.g. seismogenic areas, volcanic districts). SAR data from European Space Agency (ESA) satellites ERS-2 and ENVISAT are used. SAR and InSAR data processing LEVEL 0 SAR data are focussed to Single Look Complex (SLC) through ROI_PAC (Copyright 2002-2008, Caltech/Jet Propulsion Laboratory). We perform an advanced data processing using Doris (Kampes and Usai, 1999) a single program that can do most common steps of the interferometric radar processing starting from SLC data to generation of interferometric products and geocoding. Unwrapping of interferometric phase is performed using the public domain software snaphu (Chen and Zebker, 2001). Modeling of deformation sources We propose a novel inversion approach base on non-linear inversion. The forward modeling is provided by the semi-analytic deformation model for point sources and finite faults. The parameters of the fault (center position, width, height, rake and seismic moment) are inverted using a combination of non-linear optimization algorithms (as Monte-Carlo, Nelder&Mead Simplex and Simulated Annealing). The misfit function defined for the optimization is based on the L2 norm of the error weighted by the coherence of the considered spatial point. Test datasets To test our modeling procedure we chose three different study areas, refer to mainly strike-slip seismogenic sources with different orientation to respect satellite Line Of Sight (LOS): December 26 2003 Iranian earthquake (Bam e.), data from both ascending and descending passes of ENVISAT ASAR narrow swath IS2 (RAW and SLCs); August 17 1999 Turkey earthquake (Izmit e.), data from both ascending and descending passes of ERS-2 AMI SAR (SLCs); June 17-21 2000 Iceland earthquakes, data from both ascending and descending passes of ERS-2 AMI SAR (SLCs). Tests carried over real

  12. ESA to test the smartest technique for detecting extrasolar planets from the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    . In nulling interferometry, however, the peaks are lined up with the troughs so they cancel out to nothing and the star disappears. Planets in orbit around the star show up, however, because they are offset from the central star and their light takes different paths through the telescope system. ESA and ESO will build a new instrument called GENIE (Ground-based European Nulling Interferometer Experiment) to perform nulling interferometry using ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), a collection of four 8-metre telescopes in Chile. It will be the biggest investigation of nulling interferometry to date. "It's being tested in the lab in a number of places but we can do more," says Malcolm Fridlund, project scientist for the Darwin mission at the European Space Research and Technology Centre, the Netherlands. "We intend to use the world's largest telescope and the world's largest interferometer to get very high resolution." Using GENIE to perfect this technique will provide invaluable information for engineers about how to build the 'hub' spacecraft of the Darwin flotilla. Scheduled for launch in the middle of the next decade Darwin is a collection of six space telescopes and two other spacecraft, which will together search for Earth-like planets around nearby stars. The hub will combine the light from the telescopes. "If you see the way of getting to Darwin as being outlined by a number of technological milestones this is one of the most important ones," says Malcolm Fridlund. Once up and running, GENIE will also provide a training ground for astronomers who will later use Darwin. For example, it will allow them to perfect their methods of interpreting Darwin data because, as well as the engineering tests, GENIE will be capable of real science. One of its greatest tasks will be to develop the target list of stars for Darwin to study. As recently discovered by ESA's Ulysses spaceprobe, the signature of a planetary system is probably a ring of dust surrounding the central star

  13. Towards a cooperation between the arts, space science research and the European Space Agency - Preliminary findings of the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, Sarah Jane; Imhof, Anna Barbara; Waldvogel, Christian; Kotler, J. Michelle; Peljhan, Marko

    2014-12-01

    The arts offer alternative insights into reality, which are explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency [4] and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS) held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop initiatives between the arts, sciences and ESA. The aim was to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication that aims to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space-related channels. The consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration. Potential ways to provide a sustainable cooperation within and between the various groups were discussed. We present the preliminary findings including a number of measures and mechanisms to initiate and conduct such an initiative. Plausible organisational measures, procedures and consequences, as well as a proposition on how to proceed are also discussed. Overall, the involvement and cooperation between the arts, space science research and ESA will enhance in the citizens of the ESA member states the sense of public ownership of ESA results, and participation in ESA's research.

  14. Ground based science of ESA's Rosetta mission targets: (21) Lutetia and (2867) Steins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, Dan Alin; Birlan, Mirel

    2008-09-01

    In the framework of ground-based science campaign dedicated to the encounter with Rosetta spacecraft, the mineralogies of the asteroids (21) Lutetia and (2867) Steins were investigated. Near-infrared (NIR) spectra of the asteroid in the 0.8-2.5 μm spectral range have been obtained with SpeX/IRTF in remote-observing mode from Meudon, France, and Cambridge, MA, in March, April and December 2006 and in January and March 2007. A χ2 test using meteorite spectra from the RELAB database was performed in order to find the best fit of complete visible+infrared (VNIR) spectra of Lutetia. To constrain the possible composition of Steins' surface, we constructed a simple mixing model using a linear (areal) mix of three components obtained from the RELAB database. A space-weathering model was applied to the aubrite ALH-78113 spectrum. In the case of (21) Lutetia we find a clear spectral variation (slope), and a good correspondence between spectral variations and rotational phase. The surface mixing model places Steins in a subdivision of the E-type class with objects like Angelina, Eger, and Nereus, a group not sampled by the current collection of aubrite meteorites.

  15. The ESA Large Space Simulator Mechanical Ground Support Equipment for Spacecraft Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagelschuer, Dirk; Messing, Rene; Westera, Roel

    2008-01-01

    Environmental test facilities are not suitable in any case to comply with special or complex test requirements without modifications. Dedicated upgrades of the test facility and their subsystems with respect to the test requirements and specifications are often necessary. The Flight Model of the Planck Space Telescope was tested in the Large Space Simulator (LSS) of the ESTEC Test Centre. Main goals of the test were the verification of the deformation of the Telescope during thermal vacuum conditions at different temperature levels and the validation of the Thermal Model. The deformations of the telescope have been traced by two Videogrammetry canisters. In order to provide different view positions with respect to the PLANCK Telescope it was necessary to rotate the specimen by +/- 180deg. In addition very stringent requirements for the low temperature level of the thermal environment has lead to a comprehensive test set-up which was divided in four main elements: Dedicated support structure for the Videogrammetry canisters providing several DoF for adjustment. Structure to support three Infrared panels around the specimen. MLI curtain to cover the LSS 8m auxiliary chamber opening. System providing LN2 supply for the rotating PLANCK telescope cold panel. The design, manufacturing and integration of the necessary mechanical ground support to install for instance the canisters and to ensure the 180 rotation of the telescope under cold and high vacuum conditions was an extensive and important part of the entire test program. This paper will concentrate on the design issues, the implementation and verification of the MGSE provided for the Planck Space Telescope FM Videogrammetry Test in the LSS and the troubleshooting caused by a failure during the first rotation under cold conditions.

  16. The ESA standard for telemetry and telecommand packet utilisation: PUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufeler, Jean-Francois

    1994-11-01

    ESA has developed standards for packet telemetry and telecommand, which are derived from the recommendations of the Inter-Agency Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). These standards are now mandatory for future ESA programs as well as for many programs currently under development. However, while these packet standards address the end-to-end transfer of telemetry and telecommand data between applications on the ground and Application Processes on-board, they leave open the internal structure or content of the packets. This paper presents the ESA Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) which addresses this very subject and, as such, serves to extend and complement the ESA packet standards. The goal of the PUS is to be applicable to future ESA missions in all application areas (Telecommunications, Science, Earth Resources, microgravity, etc.). The production of the PUS falls under the responsibility of the ESA Committee for Operations and EGSE Standards (COES).

  17. Low Earth orbit journey and ground simulations studies point out metabolic changes in the ESA life support organism Rhodospirillum rubrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Leys, Natalie; Benotmane, Rafi; Vanhavere, Filip; Janssen, Ann; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    ). Other differential expression was observed for genes involved in chemotaxis, flagellum formation and nitrogen metabolism. Except genes related to oxidoreduction system, the same group of genes were found in the simulated microgravity study. Transcriptomic data were combined to LC-MS/MS proteomic data collected from the same R. rubrum samples since parallel profiling of mRNA and protein on a global scale could provide insight into metabolic mechanisms underlying complex biological systems. These results indicate that low doses of ionising radiation and changes in gravity on life-support microorganisms have observable effects and deserve specific attention in the perspective of long term space missions. The presented project was financially supported by the European Space Agency (ESA-PRODEX) and the Belgian Science Policy (Belspo) (PRODEX agreements No C90247 and No 90094). We are grateful to C. Lasseur and C. Pailĺ, both from ESTEC/ESA, e for their constant support and advice.

  18. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  19. ESA plans new missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Arne

    The tragic explosion of the space shuttle Challenger has caused a delay of at least 13 months to the European Space Agency/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (ESA/NASA) cooperative mission Ulysses, previously known as the Solar Polar Mission. Ulysses was scheduled for launch in May 1986. The launch of the Hubble Space Telescope, in which ESA is a cooperative partner, is certain to be delayed beyond the October 1986 launch date.As Eos went to press, the Giotto spacecraft, which has been on its way to Comet Halley since July 1985, was performing well, according to ESA. All investigator groups participated in operation rehearsals at the European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Federal Republic of Germany, in preparation for the cometary encounter, which occurred near midnight (UT) on March 13, 1986.

  20. ESA Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merin, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    The ESAC Science Data Centre, ESDC, is working on a science-driven discovery portal for all its astronomy missions with the provisional name Multi-Mission Interface. The first public release of this service will be demonstrated, featuring an interface for sky exploration and for single and multiple target searches. It requires no prior knowledge of any of the missions involved. From a technical point of view, the system offers all-sky projections of full mission datasets using a new-generation HEALPix projection called HiPS; detailed geometrical footprints to access individual observations at the mission archives using VO-TAP queries; and direct access to the underlying mission-specific science archives. A first public release is scheduled before the end of 2015 and will give users worldwide simplified access to high-level science-ready data products from all ESA Astronomy missions plus a number of ESA-produced source catalogues. A demo will accompany the presentation.

  1. Japan Meteorological Agency information on long-period ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aizawa, K.; Kawazoe, Y.; Uratani, J.; Sakihara, H.; Nakamura, M.

    2013-12-01

    An earthquake generates seismic waves with various periods, and earthquakes with larger magnitudes generate stronger long-period ground motions. When the natural period of a high-rise building is close to the predominant period of ground motion, resonance happens and the building is severely shaken longer than surface of the Earth. Today, more and more people spend time in high-rise buildings especially in metropolitan areas. If great earthquake occurs, many people in high-rise buildings will be affected by long-period ground motion. During the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, high-rise buildings in Osaka City which locates more than 700 km away from the epicenter were shaken severely at higher floors by the long-period ground motion. In a building, maximum acceleration was 34cm/s/s at the ground level, and 130 cm/s/s at the 52nd floors in the same building. Fortunately there was no structural damage in the building, but non-structural elements at higher floors suffered damage: fall of ceiling boards, deformation of partition walls. As near-ground floors of the building were not very shaken severely, building managers on the floors could not be aware of higher floors' disastrous situation. To notify people of such situations and facilitate effective countermeasures, Japan Meteorological Agency(JMA) started to provide information on long-period ground motion from March 28th, 2013. Based on questionnaires to tenants of high-rise buildings, it has become clear that difficulty of people's activities depends on the velocity of floor movement, and we classified the intensity of long-period ground motion into four on the basis of velocity. To get the classification, we use wave forms observed by JMA seismic intensity meters on the surface of the Earth which are automatically sent to the JMA system. To estimate shaking at higher floors from wave forms on the surface of the Earth, we simulate the shaking of buildings by absolute velocity response spectrum of the period

  2. ESA proposes Moon initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-05-01

    Upon the invitation of the Swiss Government, the European Space Agency (ESA) is organising from Tuesday 31 May to Friday 3 June 1994 an international workshop on present and future plans for study and exploration of the Moon. This meeting will be held in Beatenberg, Switzerland, and attended by European, Russian and Japanese national space agencies as well as by NASA, the National Aeraunotics & Space Administration. For the media : * - a presentation will be held by Prof. Roger M. Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, and Mr. Jean-Jacques Dordain, Associate Director for Strategy, Planning and International Policy, at ESA Headquarters (8-10, rue Mario Nikis - 75015-PARIS) at 09h00 during a press breakfast on Monday 30 May. An info note describing the main lunar studies which will be presented at the Beatenberg workshop will be distributed on this occasion. * - On Friday 3 June, the press is invited to attend the closing session of the Beatenberg workshop starting at 09h30. This session will be followed by a briefing with the chairmen of the working groups and a lunch.

  3. Active optics for space applications: an ESA perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccaro Marchi, Alessandro; Hallibert, Pascal; Pereira do Carmo, Joao; Wille, Eric

    2014-07-01

    Active optics for Space is relatively new field that takes advantage of lessons learnt on ground, and together with the tighter constrains of space environment it allows operation of larger mirrors apertures for space telescopes and better image quality. Technical developments are crucial to guarantee proper technological readiness for applications on new missions whose performance can be driven also by these novelties. This paper describes the philosophy pursued at ESA, providing an overview of the activities run within the Agency, as well as perspectives for new developments. The Optics Section of the Directorate of Technical and Quality Management of ESA/ESTEC is currently running three projects. Two examples are here addressed.

  4. The ground support equipment for the E-NIS instrument on-board the ESA-Euclid Dark Energy Mission in the baseline configuration presented in phase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Franceschi, Enrico; Nicastro, Luciano; Valenziano, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo Maria; Cimatti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Euclid is a high-precision survey mission to map the geometry of the Dark Universe. The Euclid Mission concept presented in the Assessment Phase Study Report1 was selected by ESA on February 2010 to undergo a competitive Definition Phase. Euclid is a candidate for launch in the first slice of the Cosmic Vision Plan (M1/M2), with a possible launch date of 2018. In this paper we refer to the instrument baseline configuration identified in the Assessment Phase. It consisted of a Korsch telescope with a primary mirror of 1.2 m diameter and a focal plane hosting 3 scientific instruments, each with a field of view of 0.5 deg2: (1) E-VIS: a CCD based optical imaging channel, (2) E-NIP: a NIR imaging photometry channel, and (3) E-NIS: a NIR slitless spectral channel. We present the conceptual design developed in the Assessment Phase study for the Ground Support Equipment required to support the assembly, integration and verification operations at instrument level for the E-NIS baseline configuration, with particular regards to the scientific and calibration activities.

  5. 76 FR 48859 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Facility Ground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...-Water Monitoring Requirements AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In... Business or other for-profit; and State, Local, or Tribal Governments. Title: Facility Ground-Water.... Abstract: This ICR examines the ground-water monitoring standards for permitted and interim...

  6. Future ESA Missions in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1984-12-01

    A survey is given of the life sciences research program sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA). This program rests on a number of facilities originated by ESA: Spacelab, Space sled, Biorack, Anthrorack, Eureca and its Botany — and Protein Crystallization facilities. They are all to be brough into space and returned by one of the NASA Space Shuttles. With these facilities a wide range of space biology research will be covered: cell biology, developmental biology, botany, human physiology, radio-biology, exobiology and biotechnology. Information is given on how to prepare, submit and execute an experiment proposal.

  7. ESA SnowLab project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmann, Andreas; Caduff, Rafael; Frey, Othmar; Werner, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Retrieval of the snow water equivalaent (SWE) from passive microwave observations dates back over three decades to initial studies made using the first operational radiometers in space. However, coarse spatial resolution (25 km) is an acknowledged limitation for the application of passive microwave measurements. The natural variability of snow cover itself is also notable; properties such as stratigraphy and snow microstructure change both spatially and over time, affecting the microwave signature. To overcome this deficit, the satellite mission COld REgions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2005 in response to the call for Earth Explorer 7 candidate missions. CoReH2O was a dual frequency (X- and Ku-band) SAR mission aimed to provide maps of SWE over land and snow accumulation on glaciers at a spatial resolution of 200 to 500 meters with an unprecedented accuracy. Within the frame of preparatory studies for CoReH2O Phase A, ESA undertook several research initiatives from 2009 to 2013 to study the mission concept and capabilities of the proposed sensor. These studies provided a wealth of information on emission and backscattering signatures of natural snow cover, which can be exploited to study new potential mission concepts for retrieval of snow cover properties and other elements of the cryosphere. Currently data related to multi-frequency, multi-polarisation, multitemporal of active and passive microwave measurements are still not available. In addition, new methods related to e.g. tomography are currently under development and need to be tested with real data. Also, the potential of interferometric and polarimetric measurements of the snow cover and its possible impact for novel mission/retrieval concepts must be assessed. . The objective of the SnowLab activity is to fill this gap and complement these datasets from earlier campaigns by acquiring a comprehensive multi-frequency, multi

  8. ESA's satellite communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  9. The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and

  10. ESA to unveil its new science programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The science community, European industry, the ESA Executive and cooperating space agencies in Europe and elsewhere have been consulted, and sometimes challenged, to find the best ways to maximise science value for money. The exercise is now over following intensive consultations with ESA's Space Science Advisory Committee (SSAC) and the Member States represented by the Science Programme Committee (SPC). After final SPC approval at the meeting on 22/23 May there will be a new programme and a new implementation plan. The results of this meeting will then be presented to the press on 27 May, in Paris, by the ESA Director of Science, in the presence of the chairmen of the SSAC and SPC. Media representatives wishing to attend the press breakfast are kindly requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations, Fax: +33.(0)1.5369.7690 For more information, please contact: ESA - Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33 (0)1.53.69.71.55 Fax: +33 (0)1.53.69.76.90 ESA's Science Programme Agenda Monday 27 May 2002 - 08:30-10:00 ESA Headquarters, 8/10 rue Mario Nikis, 75015 Paris 08:30 Registration & breakfast 08:45 Introduction , by Hugo Marée, Science Programme Coordination Office 08:50 Presentation of the new ESA Science Programme, by Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science 09:10 Question &Answer session

  11. HST's 10th anniversary, ESA and Hubble : changing our vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-04-01

    scientists still plan to use Hubble as one of their prime research tools, but they also expect to benefit from synergy between Hubble and the ground-based 8-metre class telescopes that are becoming available to scientists in Europe. Notes for editors The Hubble Space Telescope is an international cooperation project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA). The partnership agreement between ESA and NASA was signed on 7 October 1977. ESA has provided, among other items, two pairs of solar panels and one of Hubble's scientific instruments (the Faint Object Camera). 15 European scientists are contributing to the science operation of the Hubble Observatory and are currently working at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore (STScI). In return for this contribution, European astronomers have guaranteed access to 15% of Hubble's observing time. Scientific operation of the Hubble Observatory is the responsibility of the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is run for NASA by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). The Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF), hosted by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Garching near Munich, Germany, provides support to European Hubble users. ESA and ESO jointly operate ST-ECF. From 27 April 2000 the "European Space Agency Hubble Information Centre" will be available with its services on the World Wide Web at http://hubble.esa.int as part of the recently upgraded ESA Science website http://sci.esa.int For more information, please contact : ESA - Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Press conference Thursday 27 April at 10:30h Location Space Telescope-European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) (c/o European Southern Observatory (ESO), K. Schwarzschild-Str. 2, Garching bei München, Germany), Auditorium.

  12. Monitoring Ground Deformation Using Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PSI) and Small Baselines (SBAS) Techniques Integrated in the ESA RSS Service: The Case Study of Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Manuel J.; Cuccu, Roberto; Rivolta, Giancarlo

    2015-05-01

    This work is focused on the infrastructure monitoring of areas which had experienced significant urbanization and therefore, also an increase of the exploitation of natural resources. Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PS-InSAR) and Small Baselines (SBAS) approaches are applied to three study areas for which large datasets of SAR images are available in ascending and descending modes to finally deploy deformation maps of different buildings and infrastructures. Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia areas have been selected for this study, having experienced an increase of the exploitation of natural resources in parallel with their urban expansion. Moreover, Rome is a very special case, where Cultural Heritage permeating the city and its surroundings would suggest the necessity of a tool for monitoring the stability of the different sites. This work wants to analyse the potential deformation that had occurred in these areas during the period 1992 to 2010, by applying Persistent Scatters Interferometry to ESA ERS SAR and Envisat ASAR data.

  13. ESA DUE GlobVapour water vapor products: Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Nadine; Schröder, Marc; Lindstrot, Ramus; Preusker, Rene; Stengel, Martin; ESA DUE GlobVapour Consortium

    2013-05-01

    The main objective of the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) GlobVapour project was the development of multi-annual global water vapor data sets. Since water vapour is a key climate variable it is important to have a good understanding of its behavior in the climate system. The ESA DUE GlobVapour project provides water vapor data, including error estimates, based on carefully calibrated and inter-calibrated satellite radiances in response to user requirements for long time series satellite observations. ESA DUE GlobVapour total columnar water vapor (TCWV) products derived from GOME/SCIA/GOME-2 (1996-2008) and SSM/I+MERIS (2003-2008) have been validated for the mentioned period, using satellite-based (AIRS, ATOVS) and ground-based measurements (radiosondes and microwave radiometer). The validation results are discussed in the following. The technical specifications on bias (1 kg/m2 for SSMI+MERIS and 2 kg/m2 for GOME/SCIA/GOME-2) are generally met. For more information, documents and data download follow the link: www.globvapour.info.

  14. ESA DUE GlobVapour water vapor products: Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Nadine; Schroeder, Marc; Stengel, Martin; Lindstrot, Ramus; Preusker, Rene; Collaboration: ESA DUE GlobVapour Consortium

    2013-05-10

    The main objective of the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) GlobVapour project was the development of multi-annual global water vapor data sets. Since water vapour is a key climate variable it is important to have a good understanding of its behavior in the climate system. The ESA DUE GlobVapour project provides water vapor data, including error estimates, based on carefully calibrated and inter-calibrated satellite radiances in response to user requirements for long time series satellite observations. ESA DUE GlobVapour total columnar water vapor (TCWV) products derived from GOME/SCIA/GOME-2 (1996-2008) and SSM/I+MERIS (2003-2008) have been validated for the mentioned period, using satellite-based (AIRS, ATOVS) and ground-based measurements (radiosondes and microwave radiometer). The validation results are discussed in the following. The technical specifications on bias (1 kg/m{sup 2} for SSMI+MERIS and 2 kg/m{sup 2} for GOME/SCIA/GOME-2) are generally met. For more information, documents and data download follow the link: www.globvapour.info.

  15. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Manaud, Nicolas; Martinez, Santa; Szumlas, Marek; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; PSA Development Team

    2013-04-01

    validation and ingestion of the products into the archive. To ensure a common archiving approach for all of ESA's planetary missions as well as to provide a similar data quality and standard for end users, a tool has been developed supporting the instrument teams in syntactically validating their datasets before delivering to the PSA. This tool, and the overall archiving process is being streamlined in line with the re-development of the science ground segment for Rosetta. This will be very important for the efficient handling and release of data during Rosetta's encounter with the comet Churyamov-Gerasimenko. A major focus for the PSA in 2013 will be to establish a PSA User Group (PSA-UG) and host a first working meeting. The PSA-UG is comprised of 6-8 members chosen to ensure an appropriate range of expertise in disciplines important for the PSA. They shall be a major driver for the future development of the PSA and its data content, and will be a focus for the interests of the scientific community. PSA personnel are the ESA representatives on the committee of the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), an international collaboration of space agencies with a mission of providing access to scientific data returned from Solar System missions archived at international data centers. Venus Express data are already made available internationally via the 'PDAP' protocol thanks to this collaboration. A key IPDA project for 2013 is the implementation of the emerging PDS4 data standards. The new Standards aim to provide a framework for capturing planetary science data results in international archives based on a homogeneous set of standards that can be extended as needed for international usage. PSA are co-leading this project, using the upcoming BepiColombo mission to develop our first PDS4 data models.

  16. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2016-03-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) selected gravitational-wave astrophysics as the science theme for its third large mission opportunity, known as `L3,' under its Cosmic Vision Programme. NASA is seeking a role as an international partner in L3. NASA is: (1) participating in ESA's early mission activities, (2) developing potential US technology contributions, (3) participating in ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission, (4) and conducting a study of how NASA might participate. This talk will survey the status of these activities.

  17. Cryosphere campaigns in support of ESA's Earth Explorers Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tânia; Davidson, Malcolm; Plank, Gernot; Floberghagen, Rune; Parrinello, Tommaso; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Drusch, Matthias; Fernandez, Diego

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne Earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans, atmosphere and solid Earth. ESA has conducted over 110 airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 and this presentation will describe three campaigns in Antarctica and the Arctic. They were undertaken during the calibration/validation phase of Earth Explorer (EE) missions, such as SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity), GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer) and CryoSat-2. In support of SMOS and GOCE, the DOMECair airborne campaign took place in Antarctica, in the Dome C region in the middle of January 2013. The two main objectives were a) to quantify and document the spatial variability in the DOME C area (SMOS) and b) to fill a gap in the high-quality gravity anomaly maps in Antarctica where airborne gravity measurements are sparse (GOCE). Results from the campaign for the SMOS component, showed that the DOME C area is not as spatially homogenous as previously assumed, therefore comparisons of different missions (e.g. SMOS and NASA's Aquarius) with different footprints must be done with care, highlighting once again the importance of field work to test given assumptions. One extremely surprising outcome of this campaign was the pattern similarity between the gravity measurements and brightness temperature fields. To date, there has never been an indication that L-Band brightness temperatures could be correlated to gravity, but preliminary analysis showed coincident high brightness temperature with high gravity values, suggesting that topography may influence microwave emissions. Also in support of SMOS, the SMOSice airborne campaign has been planned in the Arctic. It was motived by a previous ESA SMOSice study that

  18. SOHO Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Contact with the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft was lost in the early morning hours of June 25, 1998, Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), during a planned period of calibrations, maneuvers, and spacecraft reconfigurations. Prior to this the SOHO operations team had concluded two years of extremely successful science operations. A joint European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineering team has been planning and executing recovery efforts since loss of contact with some success to date. ESA and NASA management established the SOHO Mission Interruption Joint Investigation Board to determine the actual or probable cause(s) of the SOHO spacecraft mishap. The Board has concluded that there were no anomalies on-board the SOHO spacecraft but that a number of ground errors led to the major loss of attitude experienced by the spacecraft. The Board finds that the loss of the SOHO spacecraft was a direct result of operational errors, a failure to adequately monitor spacecraft status, and an erroneous decision which disabled part of the on-board autonomous failure detection. Further, following the occurrence of the emergency situation, the Board finds that insufficient time was taken by the operations team to fully assess the spacecraft status prior to initiating recovery operations. The Board discovered that a number of factors contributed to the circumstances that allowed the direct causes to occur. The Board strongly recommends that the two Agencies proceed immediately with a comprehensive review of SOHO operations addressing issues in the ground procedures, procedure implementation, management structure and process, and ground systems. This review process should be completed and process improvements initiated prior to the resumption of SOHO normal operations.

  19. Modeling ESA's TT/C systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassallo, Enrico

    1994-01-01

    After a brief introduction on the need for simulation packages for the analysis and design of satellite communications systems, the software tool developed for the European Space Agency (ESA), its main objectives and the design choices made during the development are presented. A very concise description of the available communications and measurement block follows. The ESA standard Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) system simulator is then introduced along with a description of the ESA standard modulation and coding schemes. As an example, the simulation of the ranging system which is a non-standard communications block, is described in details. Several examples of TT&C simulations outputs are given and compared with measurement results or theoretical approximations, when available. Finally, future developments like the support of advanced modulation schemes and the dynamic satellite link simulation are presented.

  20. Operation IceBridge/ESA Collaboration Benefits All

    NASA Video Gallery

    For the second straight year, NASA's Operation IceBridge is collaborating with the European Space Agency's CryoVEx program, flying aircraft low over Arctic sea ice while ESA's CryoSat satellite orb...

  1. Cross-Cultural Issues of Intra- and Inter-Organisational Cooperation in Space Operations: A Survey Study with Ground Personnel of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Mjeldheim Sandal, Gro; Manzey, Dietrich

    Today's space operations often involve close co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organizational backgrounds. The aim of the study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. Methods: A web-based survey was answered by 905 employees at the European Astronaut Centre and at the European Space Technology Centre. An adapted version of the Flight Management Attitude Questionnaire by Helmreich and Merrit was used. Personnel were also asked about interpersonal and operational issues that interfered with efficient co-working within ESA and in relation to other space agencies. Results: Collaboration within ESA: A descriptive analysis was conducted of the rank orders of challenges perceived by members of different nationalities (the Netherlands (N=68), German (N=138), Italian (N=135), French (N=124), British (N=84) and Scandinavian (27).Rank orders show a surprisingly uniformity across nationalities. Most respondents perceived differences in the preferred leadership style as the main challenge for co-working in multi-national groups followed by differences in dealing with conflicts and misunderstandings. In contrast communication problems due different languages and differences in non-verbal behaviour, as well as differences in gender stereotypes were among the lowest rated issues. However, Scandinavian respondents showed a different pattern from other nationalities. Collaboration between agencies: The most significant issues reported to interfere with the efficiency of inter-agency collaboration varied. Most difficulties were reported in relation to clarity of communication, insufficient sharing of task related information, understanding the process of decision making in partner organization, and authoritarian leadership style in the partner organization Conclusion: Cultural differences in leadership and

  2. Between Individual Agency and Structure in HIV Prevention: Understanding the Middle Ground of Social Practice

    PubMed Central

    Kippax, Susan; Parker, Richard G.; Aggleton, Peter

    2013-01-01

    When HIV prevention targets risk and vulnerability, it focuses on individual agency and social structures, ignoring the centrality of community in effective HIV prevention. The neoliberal concept of risk assumes individuals are rational agents who act on information provided to them regarding HIV transmission. This individualistic framework does not recognize the communities in which people act and connect. The concept of vulnerability on the other hand acknowledges the social world, but mainly as social barriers that make it difficult for individuals to act. Neither approach to HIV prevention offers understanding of community practices or collective agency, both central to success in HIV prevention to date. Drawing on examples of the social transformation achieved by community action in Australia and Brazil, this article focuses on this middle ground and its role in effective HIV prevention. PMID:23763397

  3. Space/ground systems as cooperating agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, T. J.

    1994-01-01

    Within NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) it is agreed that autonomy is an important goal for the design of future spacecraft and that this requires on-board artificial intelligence. NASA emphasizes deep space and planetary rover missions, while ESA considers on-board autonomy as an enabling technology for missions that must cope with imperfect communications. ESA's attention is on the space/ground system. A major issue is the optimal distribution of intelligent functions within the space/ground system. This paper describes the multi-agent architecture for space/ground systems (MAASGS) which would enable this issue to be investigated. A MAASGS agent may model a complete spacecraft, a spacecraft subsystem or payload, a ground segment, a spacecraft control system, a human operator, or an environment. The MAASGS architecture has evolved through a series of prototypes. The paper recommends that the MAASGS architecture should be implemented in the operational Dutch Utilization Center.

  4. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  5. ESA strategy for human exploration and the Lunar Lander Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardini, B.

    As part of ESAs Aurora Exploration programme, the Agency has defined, since 2001, a road map for exploration in which, alongside robotic exploration missions, the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon play an essential role on the way to other destinations in the Solar System, ultimately to a human mission to Mars in a more distant future. In the frame of the Human Spaceflight programme the first European Lunar Lander Mission, with a launch date on 2018, has been defined, targeting the lunar South Pole region to capitalize on unique illumination conditions and provide the opportunity to carry out scientific investigations in a region of the Moon not explored so far. The Phase B1 industrial study, recently initiated, will consolidate the mission design and prepare the ground for the approval of the full mission development phase at the 2012 ESA Council at Ministerial. This paper describes the mission options which have been investigated in the past Phase A studies and presents the main activities foreseen in the Phase B1 to consolidate the mission design, including a robust bread-boards and technology development programme. In addition, the approach to overcoming the mission's major technical and environmental challenges and the activities to advance the definition of the payload elements will be described.

  6. The ESA Mice in Space (MIS) habitat: effects of cage confinement on neuromusculoskeletal structure and function and stress/behavior using wild-type C57Bl/6JRj mice in a modular science reference model (MSRM) test on ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blottner, Dieter; Vico, Laurence; Jamon, D. Berckmansp L. Vicop Y. Liup R. Canceddap M.

    Background: Environmental conditions likely affect physiology and behaviour of mice used for Life Sciences Research on Earth and in Space. Thus, mice habitats with sufficient statistical numbers should be developed for adequate life support and care and that should meet all nesces-sary ethical and scientific requirements needed to successfully perform animal experimentation in Space. Aim of study: We here analysed the effects of cage confinement on the weightbear-ing musculoskeletal system, behaviour and stress of wild-type mice (C57BL/6JRj, 30 g b.wt., total n = 24) housed for 25 days in a prototypical ground-based MSRM (modular science ref-erence module) in the frame of breadboard activities for a fully automated life support habitat called "Mice in Space" (MIS) at the Leuven University, Belgium. Results: Compared with control housing (individually ventilated cages, IVC-mice) the MIS mice revealed no significant changes in soleus muscle size and myofiber distribution (type I vs. II) and quality of bone (3-D microarchitecture and mineralisation of calvaria, spine and femur) determined by confocal and micro-computed tomography. Corticosterone metabolism measured non-invasively (faeces) monitored elevated adrenocortical activity at only start of the MIS cage confinement (day 1). Behavioural tests (i.e., grip strength, rotarod, L/D box, elevated plus-maze, open field, ag-gressiveness) performed subsequently revealed only minor changes in motor performance (MIS vs. controls). Conclusions: The MIS habitat will not, on its own, produce major effects that could confound interpretation of data induced by microgravity exposure on orbit as planned for future biosatellite programmes. Sponsors: ESA-ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL

  7. Second space Christmas for ESA: Huygens to begin its final journey to Titan/ Media activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    At 1.25 billion km from Earth, after a 7-year journey through the Solar system, ESA’s Huygens probe is about to separate from the Cassini orbiter to enter a ballistic trajectory toward Titan, the largest and most mysterious moon of Saturn, in order to dive into its atmosphere on 14 January. This will be the first man-made object to explore in-situ this unique environment, whose chemistry is assumed to be very similar to that of the early Earth just before life began, 3.8 billion years ago. The Cassini-Huygens pair, a joint mission conducted by NASA, ESA and the Italian space agency (ASI), was launched into space on 15 October 1997. With the help of several gravity assist manoeuvres during flybys of Venus, Earth and Jupiter, it took almost 7 years for the spacecraft to reach Saturn. The Cassini orbiter, carrying Huygens on its flank, entered an orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004, and began to investigate the ringed planet and its moons for a mission that will last at least four years. The first distant flyby of Titan took place on 2-3 July 2004. It provided data on Titan's atmosphere which were confirmed by the data obtained during the first close flyby on 26 October 2004 at an altitude of 1174 km. These data were used to validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. A second close flyby of Titan by Cassini-Huygens at an altitude of 1200 km is scheduled on 13 December and will provide additional data to further validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. On 17 December the orbiter will be placed on a controlled collision course with Titan in order to release Huygens on the proper trajectory, and on 21 December (some dates and times are subject to minor adjustment for operational reasons, except the entry time on 14 January which is know to within an accuracy of under 2 minutes) all systems will be set up for separation and the Huygens timers will be set to wake the probe a few hours before its arrival at Titan. The Huygens probe is due to separate on

  8. The ESA Geohazard Exploitation Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, Philippe; Laur, Henri; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Pinto, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the world's most significant hazards in terms both of loss of life and damages. In the first decade of the 21st century, earthquakes accounted for 60 percent of fatalities from natural disasters, according to the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR). To support mitigation activities designed to assess and reduce risks and improve response in emergency situations, satellite EO can be used to provide a broad range of geo-information services. This includes for instance crustal block boundary mapping to better characterize active faults, strain rate mapping to assess how rapidly faults are deforming, soil vulnerability mapping to help estimate how the soil is behaving in reaction to seismic phenomena, geo-information to assess the extent and intensity of the earthquake impact on man-made structures and formulate assumptions on the evolution of the seismic sequence, i.e. where local aftershocks or future main shocks (on nearby faults) are most likely to occur. In May 2012, the European Space Agency and the GEO Secretariat convened the International Forum on Satellite EO for Geohazards now known as the Santorini Conference. The event was the continuation of a series of international workshops such as those organized by the Geohazards Theme of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy Partnership. In Santorini the seismic community has set out a vision of the EO contribution to an operational global seismic risk program, which lead to the Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories (GSNL) initiative. The initial contribution of ESA to suuport the GSNL was the first Supersites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) system in the framework of Grid Processing On Demand (GPOD), now followed by the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP). In this presentation, we will describe the contribution of the GEP for exploiting satellite EO for geohazard risk assessment. It is supporting the GEO Supersites and has been further

  9. 34 CFR 300.2 - Applicability of this part to State and local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... educational agencies (LEAs), educational service agencies (ESAs), and public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA. (iii) Other State agencies...

  10. 34 CFR 300.2 - Applicability of this part to State and local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... educational agencies (LEAs), educational service agencies (ESAs), and public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA. (iii) Other State agencies...

  11. 34 CFR 300.2 - Applicability of this part to State and local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... educational agencies (LEAs), educational service agencies (ESAs), and public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA. (iii) Other State agencies...

  12. 34 CFR 300.2 - Applicability of this part to State and local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... educational agencies (LEAs), educational service agencies (ESAs), and public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA. (iii) Other State agencies...

  13. 34 CFR 300.2 - Applicability of this part to State and local agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... educational agencies (LEAs), educational service agencies (ESAs), and public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA. (iii) Other State agencies...

  14. A comparison of the specifications for standard Electrical, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts used by the National Aeronautics and Space Admininstration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA): Towards common specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampson, Michael John

    1991-03-01

    Results of a study comparing Electric, Electronic and Electromechanical (EEE) parts used by NASA and ESA are presented. This test is seen as a first step towards the assessment of part equivalency and as a means to identify the principal barriers to common space part specifications. Progress towards internatinal standardization of procurement specifications is encouraged by multinational cooperation in high technology projects and by the need to complete in world markets. ESA and NASA are partners in Space Station Freedom, and more joint ventures can be anticipated for the future. Successful joint ventures require that the parties concerned have confidence in all the component parts involved. Thus, NASA and ESA share a need to establish equivalency in their space level EEE parts.

  15. ESA Human rating Requirements:Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trujillo, M.; Sgobba, T.

    2012-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) human rating safety requirements are based on heritage requirements of the International Space Station as well as the knowledge and experience derived from European participation on international partnerships. This expertise in conjunction with recommendations derived from past accidents (i.e.: Columbia) and lessons learned have led to the identification of m inimum core safety tech nical requirements for hum an rated space syst ems. These requirements apply to th e crewed space vehicle, integrated space system (i.e.: cre wed vehicle on its launcher) and its interfaces with control centres, la unch pad, etc. In 2009, a first draft was issued. Then, in the summer of 2010, ESA established a working group comprised of more than twenty experts (from disciplines including propulsion, pyrotechnics, structures, avionics, human factors and life support among others) across the Agency to review this draft. This paper provides an overview of ESA "Safety technical re quirements for human rated s pace systems" document, its scope a nd structure, as well as the planned steps for verification of these requirements in term s of achieving the identified safety objectives for crew safety in t erms of a quantitative risk evaluation.

  16. ISO, ESA's explorer of the Unknown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    Some burning questions left open in many fields of astrophysics, from nearby planets to the most distant quasars, taking in star formation, the dark matter of the universe and superluminous galaxies should find clues. The 5,3m high satellite will be commanded into its 24h eccentric orbit by ESA's space operations centre in Darmstadt (Germany). In its final orbit the spacecraft will pass as close as 1000 km to the Earth and go as far as 70,500 km. After the first signal from the satellite has been received, 45 minutes after the launch, the spacecraft controllers will switch on the systems and instruments on board over the next 72 hours before handing the control of the satellite over to Science Control Center located at ESA's Villafranca ground station near Madrid. A fully international team of 100 or so operations engineers and scientists will monitor and control the satellite from some 18 months of operational life time. Reflecting the project's international dimension, American and Japanese scientists will be co-located at its operations center and the NASA station at Goldstone, California, will relay communications when the satellite is out of Europe's ground station view. Full coverage will be provided with real-time links, making it possible to carry out observations for 16hrs per day when the observatory is outside the radiation belts. The building of the satellite has been an engineering challenge to the European Space industry and "will be the culmination of twelve years of intensive effort to build the most powerful and precise infrared space observatory to date", Prof. Bonnet, Director of ESA's Science Programme, said. The media are kindly invited to participate in the launch event in ESA's European --Space Operations Centre (ESOC) where the main press information center will be located. The launch can also be followed in other establishments where the respective PR officers can be contacted.

  17. Extracting Tree Height from Repeat-Pass PolInSAR Data : Experiments with JPL and ESA Airborne Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi; Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest developments and experiments with the random-motion-over-ground (RMoG) model used to extract canopy height and other important forest parameters from repeat-pass polarimetricinterferometric SAR (Pol-InSAR) data. More specifically, we summarize the key features of the RMoG model in contrast with the random-volume-over-ground (RVoG) model, describe in detail a possible inversion scheme for the RMoG model and illustrate the results of the RMoG inversion using airborne data collected by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  18. ESA airborne campaigns in support of Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tania; Davidson, Malcolm; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Perrera, Andrea; Bianchi, Remo

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. ESA campaigns address all phases of a spaceborne missions, from the very beginning of the design phase during which exploratory or proof-of-concept campaigns are carried out to the post-launch exploitation phase for calibration and validation. We present four recent campaigns illustrating the objectives and implementation of such campaigns. Wavemill Proof Of Concept, an exploratory campaign to demonstrate feasibility of a future Earth Explorer (EE) mission, took place in October 2011 in the Liverpool Bay area in the UK. The main objectives, successfully achieved, were to test Astrium UKs new airborne X-band SAR instrument capability to obtain high resolution ocean current and topology retrievals. Results showed that new airborne instrument is able to retrieve ocean currents to an accuracy of ± 10 cms-1. The IceSAR2012 campaign was set up to support of ESA's EE Candidate 7,BIOMASS. Its main objective was to document P-band radiometric signatures over ice-sheets, by upgrading ESA's airborne POLARIS P-band radar ice sounder with SAR capability. Campaign

  19. ESA Missions Planetary Protection Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, Gerhard

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will report the planetary protection status of ESA flight projects with planetary protection requirements. It will cover Rosetta, Mars Express, ExoMars 2016, ExoMars 2018, JUICE, Solar Orbiter, and Bepi Colombo.

  20. The Study of Electronic Medical Record Adoption in a Medicare Certified Home Health Agency Using a Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joy L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to examine the experiences of clinicians in the adoption of Electronic Medical Records in a Medicare certified Home Health Agency. An additional goal for this study was to triangulate qualitative research between describing, explaining, and exploring technology acceptance. The experiences…

  1. 75 FR 16499 - Notice of Availability of a Technical Agency Draft Recovery Plan for Pyne's Ground-Plum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... under the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), on September 26, 1991 (56 FR 48748). This species is a rare... Ground-Plum (Astragalus bibullatus) for Review and Comment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...-plum (Astragalus bibullatus), a species endemic to the Central Basin in Tennessee. The draft...

  2. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Espinasse, S.; Hufenbach, B.

    2013-09-01

    Lunar exploration continues to be a priority for the European Space Agency (ESA) and is recognized as the next step for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Moon is also recognized as an important scientific target providing vital information on the history of the inner solar system; Earth and the emergence of life, and fundamental information on the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets. The Moon also provides a platform that can be utilized for fundamental science and to prepare the way for exploration deeper into space and towards a human Mars mission, the ultimate exploration goal. Lunar missions can also provide a means of preparing for a Mars sample return mission, which is an important long term robotic milestone. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. These include activities on the ISS and participation with US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017. Future activities planned activities also include participation in international robotic missions. These activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future. We present ESA's plans for Lunar exploration and the current status of activities. In particular we will show that this programme gives rise to unique scientific opportunities and prepares scientifically and technologically for future exploratory steps.

  3. ESA chairs the International Living With a Star programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    The Sun is a variable star. The amount of radiation it releases changes constantly, especially at wavelengths that we cannot see, such as ultraviolet. It also releases a stormy ‘wind’ of particles known as the solar wind that buffets the Earth’s magnetic field. Sudden changes in the solar wind can disable communications satellites, disrupt power stations on Earth, and affect passengers in high-flying aircraft. Slow variation in the solar output and even in the solar wind could contribute to climatic changes. Knowing more about these phenomena is therefore very important in different and sometimes unexpected ways. There will be various ILWS mission launches over an approximately ten-year period, starting in 2003. Pooling the resources of the largest fleet of spacecraft in history, the ILWS programme will provide a first global view of the Sun-Earth interaction and lead to a real understanding of it. It will look at the Sun’s effects on other planets also. ESA’s missions form a vital part of ILWS. SOHO and Cluster are leading the way. In 2003, in collaboration with China, a space mission called Double Star will be launched to complement Cluster. In a decade’s time, ESA’s Solar Orbiter will be the centre of interest. It will go closer to the Sun than any solar mission ever before. In between, ESA will assist in exploiting other agency’s missions to the full; it is also currently negotiating to provide ground stations for Japan’s Solar-B mission (launch 2005), and is considering the part it may play in NASA’s STEREO (launch 2005) and Solar Dynamics Orbiter (launch 2007) missions. In addition, ESA’s missions to the other terrestrial planets, Mars Express (launching 2003), Venus Express (launching 2005), and the mission to Mercury, BepiColombo (launching 2011/2012), will carry experiments that look at solar-wind interactions with their respective planets. Hermann Opgenoorth, ESA’s newly appointed Head of Solar and Solar-Terrestrial Missions, is

  4. Follow the Mars Express launch from one of ESA's establishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Europe’s first mission to the Red Planet will reach its target in December, after a six-month journey. Mars Express will help scientists answer questions about the Martian landscape, atmosphere and the origin of life that remain open, although a wealth of information is already available. Media representatives in Europe can follow the launch and initial orbital operations at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, or ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy and the Italian Space Agency, ASI, are organising a joint event at the University of Rome. ESA/Villafranca (VILSPA) and the CDTI, the Spanish institution in charge of space issues, are organising a joint event in Spain at the Museo Principe Felipe de la Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias in Valencia. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide live televised coverage of the launch and initial orbital operations with English commentary, between 19:15 and 22:00 CEST. Satellite: Astra 2C at 19 degrees East Reception frequency: 10832 MHz Polarisation: Horizontal Symbol rate: 22 Msymb/s FEC: 5/6 Service ID: 61950 Service name: ESA TXT: none Details of the transmission schedule and satellite details for the various pre-launch Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int. The launch can also be followed live on the internet at www.esa.int/marsexpresslaunch starting at 19:15 hrs. Here you can also find the launch diary, news, press releases, videos, images and more.

  5. ATLID, ESA Atmospheric LIDAR Developement Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira do Carmo, João; Hélière, Arnaud; Le Hors, L.; Toulemont, Y.; Lefebvre, A.

    2016-06-01

    The ATmospheric LIDAR ATLID[1] is part of the payload of the Earth Cloud and Aerosol Explorer[2] (EarthCARE) satellite mission, the sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) Living Planet Programme. EarthCARE is a joint collaborative satellite mission conducted between ESA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (JAXA) that delivers the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) instrument. The payload consists of four instruments on the same platform with the common goal to provide a picture of the 3D-dimensional spatial and the temporal structure of the radiative flux field at the top of atmosphere, within the atmosphere and at the Earth's surface. This paper is presenting an updated status of the development of the ATLID instrument and its subsystem design. The instrument has recently completed its detailed design, and most of its subsystems are already under manufacturing of their Flight Model (FM) parts and running specific qualification activities. Clouds and aerosols are currently one of the biggest uncertainties in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions that drive the climate system. A better modelling of the relationship between clouds, aerosols and radiation is therefore amongst the highest priorities in climate research and weather prediction.

  6. SCOS2: ESA's new generation of mission control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufeler, J. F.; Head, N. C.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the next generation Spacecraft Control System infrastructure (SCOSII) which is being developed at the Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA). The objectives of the new system and selected areas of the proposed hardware and software approach are described.

  7. Space Environment Forecasting with Neutron Monitors: Establishing a novel service for the ESA SSA Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Souvatzoglou, George; Paschalis, Pavlos; Sarlanis, Christos; Dimitroulakos, John; Gerontidou, Maria

    2013-04-01

    High-energy particles released at the Sun during a solar flare or a very energetic coronal mass ejection, result to a significant intensity increase at neutron monitor measurements known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs). Due to their space weather impact (i.e. risks and failures at communication and navigation systems, spacecraft electronics and operations, space power systems, manned space missions, and commercial aircraft operations) it is crucial to establish a real-time operational system that would be in place to issue reliable and timely GLE Alerts. Currently, the Cosmic Ray group of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens is working towards the establishment of a Neutron Monitor Service that will be made available via the Space Weather Portal operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), under the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Program. To this end, a web interface providing data from multiple Neutron Monitor stations as well as an upgraded GLE Alert will be provided. Both services are now under testing and validation and they will probably enter to an operational phase next year. The core of this Neutron Monitor Service is the GLE Alert software, and therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to upgrade the existing GLE Alert software, to minimize the probability of a false alarm and to enhance the usability of the corresponding results. The ESA Neutron Monitor Service is building upon the infrastructure made available with the implementation of the High-Resolution Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB). In this work the structure of the Neutron Monitor Service for ESA SSA Program and the impact of the novel GLE Alert Service that will be made available to future users via ESA SSA web portal will be presented and further discussed.

  8. The Envisat-1 ground segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Ray; Ashton, Martin

    1995-03-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Earth Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-1 and ERS-2) missions will be followed by the Polar Orbit Earth Mission (POEM) program. The first of the POEM missions will be Envisat-1. ESA has completed the design phase of the ground segment. This paper presents the main elements of that design. The main part of this paper is an overview of the Payload Data Segment (PDS) which is the core of the Envisat-1 ground segment, followed by two further sections which describe in more detail the facilities to be offered by the PDS for archiving and for user servcies. A further section describes some future issues for ground segment development. Logica was the prime contractor of a team of 18 companies which undertook the ESA financed architectural design study of the Envisat-1 ground segment. The outputs of the study included detailed specifications of the components that will acquire, process, archive and disseminate the payload data, together with the functional designs of the flight operations and user data segments.

  9. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2016-01-01

    In November 2013, the European Space Agency (ESA) selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as 'L3,' under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. NASA is seeking a role as an international partner in L3. NASA is supporting: (1) US participation in early mission studies, (2) US technology development, (3) pre-decadal preparations, (4) ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission and (5) the ST7 Disturbance Reduction System project. This talk summarizes NASA's preparations for a future gravitational-wave mission.

  10. “Will the real ESA please stand up?” [Column

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Entomological Society of America, the largest association of insect scientists in the world, is known by the acronym “ESA.” However, there are many other associations, agencies, companies, concepts and laws which share the ESA moniker. This eye-opening and humorous column sets out a few for th...

  11. Cost Considerations in Database Selection: A Comparison of DIALOG and ESA/IRS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Robert F.

    1984-01-01

    Of 25 databases available on both DIALOG and European Space Agency's Information Retrieval Service (ESA/IRS), five are less expensive on DIALOG by three price factors (online connect charges, online displays of citations, offline prints); five are less expensive on ESA/IRS; remaining 15 represent mixed bag (connect charges offset citation…

  12. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: International collaborations towards transparent data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for science data returned by all ESA planetary missions. Current holdings include data from Giotto, SMART-1, Cassini-Huygens, Mars Express, Venus Express, and Rosetta. In addition to the basic management and distribution of these data to the community through our own interfaces, ESA has been working very closely with international partners to globalize the archiving standards used and the access to our data. Part of this ongoing effort is channelled through our participation in the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), whose focus is on allowing transparent and interoperable access to data holdings from participating Agencies around the globe. One major focus of this work has been the development of the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) that will allow for the interoperability of archives and sharing of data. This is already used for transparent access to data from Venus Express, and ESA are currently working with ISRO and NASA to provide interoperable access to ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 data through our systems using this protocol. Close interactions are ongoing with NASA's Planetary Data System as the standards used for planetary data archiving evolve, and two of our upcoming missions are to be the first to implement the new 'PDS4' standards in ESA: BepiColombo and ExoMars. Projects have been established within the IPDA framework to guide these implementations to try and ensure interoperability and maximise the usability of the data by the community. BepiColombo and ExoMars are both international missions, in collaboration with JAXA and IKI respectively, and a strong focus has been placed on close interaction and collaboration throughout the development of each archive. For both of these missions there is a requirement to share data between the Agencies prior to public access, as well as providing complete open access globally once the proprietary periods have

  13. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  14. An ESA roadmap for geobiology in space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Claire R.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Geobiology, and in particular mineral-microbe interactions, has a significant role to play in current and future space exploration. This includes the search for biosignatures in extraterrestrial environments, and the human exploration of space. Microorganisms can be exploited to advance such exploration, such as through biomining, maintenance of life-support systems, and testing of life-detection instrumentation. In view of these potential applications, a European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team "Geobiology in Space Exploration" was developed to explore these applications, and identify research avenues to be investigated to support this endeavour. Through community workshops, a roadmap was produced, with which to define future research directions via a set of 15 recommendations spanning three key areas: Science, Technology, and Community. These roadmap recommendations identify the need for research into: (1) new terrestrial space-analogue environments; (2) community level microbial-mineral interactions; (3) response of biofilms to the space environment; (4) enzymatic and biochemical mineral interaction; (5) technical refinement of instrumentation for space-based microbiology experiments, including precursor flight tests; (6) integration of existing ground-based planetary simulation facilities; (7) integration of fieldsite biogeography with laboratory- and field-based research; (8) modification of existing planetary instruments for new geobiological investigations; (9) development of in situ sample preparation techniques; (10) miniaturisation of existing analytical methods, such as DNA sequencing technology; (11) new sensor technology to analyse chemical interaction in small volume samples; (12) development of reusable Lunar and Near Earth Object experimental platforms; (13) utility of Earth-based research to enable the realistic pursuit of extraterrestrial biosignatures; (14) terrestrial benefits and technological spin-off from existing and future space

  15. Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California, showing ground-water subunits and areas, location of wells, and lines of equal depth to water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blankenbaker, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has released to the open file a map showing ground-water subunits and areas, and depth to water for spring 1978, in the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California.

  16. ESA on RAINEWS24: A Case Study of Television Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.

    2005-12-01

    In May 2000, ESRIN, the Italian establishment of the European Space Agency (ESA), started a collaboration with the television channel Rainews24. Rainews24 is the "allnews" channel of Italian public television (RAI) and is now about 10 years old. It transmits 24 hours a day and is the most watched all-news satellite channel in Italy. Each Thursday an ESA representative (Stefano Sandrelli) is interviewed by a professional RAI journalist in a 5-6 minute long slot that follows the 5 pm news bulletin. The broadcast is repeated late at night or in the early hours of Thursday and Friday. Interviews are strictly linked to the weekly news and are prepared on the morning of the same day by the ESA representative in collaboration with a RAI journalist. The subject is chosen from the most topical news items of the week: video, images and animations are provided by the ESA television service and by press agencies (Reuters etc.). The interviews are largely informal and resemble a dialogue rather than an academic discussion "from space". Even though they focus on ESA activities, they are not advertisements: space science and research is dealt with as a human activity, so both the positive and negative aspects of space exploration and exploitation may emerge. Although this outreach activity began as an experiment, the ESA interviews have become a fixed feature. As a result of five years of uninterrupted collaboration, over 200 interviews have been recorded, with about 30% of the interviews dedicated to pure astronomy. A welcome positive feature is that the interviews are seen by Rainews24 as an open source of daily news.

  17. Losing Ground: A Critical Analysis of Teachers' Agency for Peacebuilding Education in Sri Lanka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T. A.; Hoeks, Celine C. M. Q.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the "agency" of teachers for peacebuilding education in Sri Lanka through a critical multiscalar analysis of the interplay between "context"--education policies and governance--and "agent"--teachers as strategic political actors. It draws on two studies conducted in Sri Lanka in 2006 and…

  18. Emerging Organizational Patterns of Educational Service Agencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harken, Dennis

    This paper discusses intergovernmental relationships between education service agencies (ESAs) in Pennsylvania and the agencies they serve, namely, the state department of education and local school districts. Some suggestions made are that ESA policies retain flexibility and that local control be retained in ESA programs, for example, through…

  19. 77 FR 51827 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Ground...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ... (77 FR 26046). Interested parties are encouraged to send comments to the OMB, Office of Information...; Ground Control Plans for Surface Coal Mines and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines ACTION... Mines and Surface Work Areas of Underground Coal Mines,'' to the Office of Management and Budget...

  20. ESA's experts are ready for a storm of comet dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    's eastern horizon. Nevertheless, observers in Europe watching out between midnight and dawn, on 17 and 18 November, may see unusual numbers of meteors. The best view will be from east Asia, where Leo will be high in the night sky at the time of the expected maximum. ESA has joined with other space agencies in sponsoring a Canadian expedition to Mongolia to observe the Leonids with video cameras equipped with image intensifiers. The same Canadian intiative will use radars in northern Australia to detect the meteors. Real-time information on the intensity and duration of the dust storm will help spacecraft operators to judge when the risk has passed. Next year's appearance of the Leonids, in November 1999, will be best seen from Europe, and it could be bigger than this year's event. For the same reason, the risk posed by the Leonids to spacecraft will recur at that time. ESA scientists will be rehearsing this year for ground-based observations of the Leonids next year, from southern Spain. Historical note on dust damage ESA has brutal experience of cosmic dust storms. In March 1986, its Giotto spacecraft flew deep into the dusty head of Halley's Comet, where it obtained amazing pictures of the nucleus. A dust particle no bigger than a grain of rice slammed into the spacecraft at 68 kilometres per second with the force of a hand grenade, and set it wobbling. A sand-blast of smaller grains, recorded as a continous drumbeat by dust detectors on Giotto, disabled the camera and caused other damage. Nevertheless the ESA operations team recovered control of the spacecraft and even managed to fly Giotto on an extended mission that took it to Comet Grigg-Skjellerup six years later. Controllers were less lucky in August 1993 when a dust grain from Comet Swift-Tuttle, in the Perseid meteor stream, was probably to blame for knocking out ESA's Olympus telecommunications satellite after four years of operation. Although it remained intact, Olympus lost so much thruster fuel in trying to

  1. ESA Venus Entry Probe Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vandenBerg, M. L.; Falkner, P.; Phipps, A.; Underwood, J. C.; Lingard, J. S.; Moorhouse, J.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Venus Entry Probe is one of ESA s Technology Reference Studies (TRS). The purpose of the Technology Reference Studies is to provide a focus for the development of strategically important technologies that are of likely relevance for future scientific missions. The aim of the Venus Entry Probe TRS is to study approaches for low cost in-situ exploration of Venus and other planetary bodies with a significant atmosphere. In this paper, the mission objectives and an outline of the mission concept of the Venus Entry Probe TRS are presented.

  2. ESA unveils Spanish antenna for unique space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    The newly refurbished antenna, which is located at the Villafranca del Castillo Satellite Tracking Station site (VILSPA) near Madrid, has been selected as the prime communication link with the Cluster II spacecraft. The VIL-1 antenna will play a vital role in ESA's Cluster mission by monitoring and controlling the four spacecraft and by receiving the vast amounts of data that will be returned to Earth during two years of operations. Scheduled for launch in summer 2000, the Cluster quartet will complete the most detailed investigation ever made into the interaction between our pl0anet's magnetosphere - the region of space dominated by Earth's magnetic field - and the continuous stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun - the solar wind. This exciting venture is now well under way, following completion of the satellite assembly and test programme and two successful verification flights by the newly developed Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle. The ESA Flight Acceptance Review Board has accordingly given the go-ahead for final launch preparations at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. VILSPA, ESA and Cluster II Built in 1975, after an international agreement between the European Space Agency and the Spanish government, VILSPA is part of the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) Tracking Station Network (ESTRACK). In the last 25 years, VILSPA has supported many ESA and international satellite programmes, including the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), EXOSAT and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to supporting the Cluster II mission, it has been designated as the Science Operations Centre for ESA's XMM Newton mission and for the Far-Infrared Space Telescope (FIRST), which is due to launch in 2007. There are now more than half a dozen large dish antennae installed at VILSPA. One of these is the VIL-1 antenna, a 15 metre diameter dish which operates in the S-band radio frequency (1.8 - 2.7 GHz). This antenna has been modernised recently in order

  3. Successful communications test for ESA's Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    Mars Express in orbit around Mars hi-res Size hi-res: 592 kb Credits: ESA - Illustration by Medialab Mars Express in orbit around Mars Mars Express will left Earth for Mars in June 2003 when the positions of the two planets made for the shortest possible route, a condition that occurs once every twenty-six months. The intrepid spacecraft started its six-month journey from the Baikonur launch pad in Kazakhstan onboard a Russian Soyuz/Fregat launcher. Mars Express began the six-month interplanetary cruise at a velocity of 10 800 km/h relative to Earth. Five days before arrival in December 2003, Mars Express will eject the Beagle 2 lander, which will make its own way to the correct landing site on the surface. The orbiter will then manoeuvre into a highly elliptical capture orbit, from which it can move into its operational near-polar orbit. communications test Mars Express The MELACOM system is designed to communicate with Beagle 2, passing the lander's data to Mars Express's main antenna for relaying to Earth. The MELACOM test was done in collaboration between sites at Stanford (USA), New Norcia (Australia) and ESA's Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. The 34-metre dish at Stanford pretended to be Beagle 2, using its greater size to overcome the large distance between Earth and the spacecraft. The test consisted of two sessions, a first one in which the Stanford's signal was sent to Mars Express's MELACOM, and a second one in which MELACOM sent a signal back to Stanford. Con McCarthy, ESA's Beagle 2 manager, who supervised the operation, said: "We were on a hilltop, outside San Francisco. It was 4:10 UT and Mars was clearly visible in the sky. The Stanford dish tracked Mars Express slowly, transmitting to it for 40 minutes." Then the spacecraft re-oriented itself to point its main antenna to Earth to confirm it had received the signal. The confirmation was received by ESA's New Norcia ground station and relayed to ESOC. Following this, at 6:10 UT

  4. ESA Sea Level Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larnicol, Gilles; Cazenave, Anny; Faugere, Yannice; Ablain, Michael; Johannessen, Johnny; Stammer, Detlef; Timms, Gary; Knudsen, Per; Cipollini, Paolo; Roca, Monica; Rudenko, Sergei; Fernandes, Joana; Balmaseda, Magdalena; Guinle, Thierry; Benveniste, Jerome

    2013-04-01

    Sea level is a very sensitive index of climate change and variability. As the ocean warms in response to global warming, sea waters expand and, as a result, sea level rises. When mountain glaciers melt in response to increasing air temperature, sea level rises because more freshwater glacial runoff discharges into the oceans. Similarly, ice mass loss from the ice sheets causes sea-level rise. Therefore, understanding the sea level variability and changes implies in addition to the understanding of the ocean variability and the exchanges between ocean, land, cryosphere, and atmosphere, an accurate monitoring of the sea level variable at climate scales. That is why Sea Level is one of the variables selected in the frame of the ESA Climate change Initiative (CCI) program initiated by ESA in July 2010. In overall, this program aims to provide an adequate, comprehensive, and timely response to the extremely challenging set of requirements for highly stable, long-term satellite-based products for climate, that have been addressed to Space Agencies via the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). In order to achieve this global objective, the specific objectives of the sea level CCI project are: to involve the climate research community to collect their needs and feedbacks on product quality, to develop, test and select the best algorithms and standards to generate a climate time series (so called SL ECV products), and to provide a complete specification of the production system. After two of projects the first two objectives have been completed. Hereafter, we aim to provide an overview and the current status of the Sea Level project of the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) that has started in july 2010. The main objective of this project is to produce and validate the Sea Level Essential Climate Variable (ECV) product. Two years after the project kick-off, the 20 Years of Progress in Radar Altimetry Symposium was

  5. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  6. ESA announces its Future Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    The announcement will be made at ESA's Head Office, 8-10 rue Mario Nikis in Paris, during a press breakfast starting at 08:30. Media representatives wishing to attend the event are kindly requested to fill out the attached accreditation from and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Office - Paris. Note to editors The announcement will follow a two-day meeting of ESA's Space Science Committee (SPC), composed of Delegates from all ESA's Member States, in Paris on 11 and 12 October. The SPC will decide - on the basis of the Space Science Advisory Committee's (SSAC) recommendations formulated earlier in September - about the next Cornerstone (CS) and Flexi (F) Missions that will be implemented in the framework of ESA's Horizons 2000 Programme. Further information about the Future Mission candidates and the ESA Science Programme can be found at: http://sci.esa.int. In particular the SSAC recommendations to SPC can be found at: http://sci.esa.int/structure/content/index.cfm?aid=1&cid=2304 Further information on ESA at : http//www.esa.int

  7. Future lunar exploration activities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdou, B.; Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Koschny, D.; Pradier, A.; di Pippo, S.; Gardini, B.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the Moon and various recent and coming orbital missions including Smart-1, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter are advancing our understanding. In 2004 the US announced a new Vision for Space Exploration [1], whose objectives are focused towards human missions to the Moon and Mars. The European Space Agency has established similar objectives for Europe, described in [2] and approved at the ESA ministerial council (2009). There is considerable potential for international cooperation in these activities, as formulated in the recently agreed Global Exploration Strategy [3]. Present lunar exploration activities at ESA emphasise the development of European technologies and capabilities, to enable European participation in future international human exploration of the Moon. A major element in this contribution has been identified as a large lunar cargo lander, which would fulfill an ATV-like function, providing logistical support to human activities on the Moon, extending the duration of sorties and the capabilities of human explorers. To meet this ultimate goal, ESA is currently considering various possible development approaches, involving lunar landers of different sizes. Lunar Lander Mission Options A high capacity cargo lander able to deliver consumables, equipment and small infrastructure, in both sortie and outpost mission scenarios, would use a full Ariane 5 launch and is foreseen in the 2020-2025 timeframe. ESA is also considering an intermediate, smaller-scale mission beforehand, to mature the necessary landing technologies, to demonstrate human-related capabilities in preparation of human presence on the Moon and in general to gain experience in landing and operating on the lunar surface. Within this frame, ESA is currently leading several feasibility studies of a small lunar lander mission, also called "MoonNEXT". This mission is foreseen to be to be launched from Kourou with a

  8. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  9. The ESA contribution to the European Satellite Navigation Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, R.; Lo Galbo, P.; de Mateo, M. L.; Steciw, A.; Ashford, E.

    1996-02-01

    This paper describes the ESA ARTES-9 programme on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). This programme will be the ESA contribution to the wider European Satellite Navigation Programme which is to be implemented as a joint effort of the European Union, Eurocontrol and ESA with the support of other European bodies such as telecommunication operators, national civil aviation authorities, national space agencies, industry, universities and R&D institutes in general. In fact, in view of the geographical area concerned, the large number of parties interested, the experience required and the global nature of GNSS, the proposed initiative can only be successful if based on a strong cooperation at a European and international scale. The ESA ARTES-9 programme will consist on one side, of the design, development and validation of the European complement to the GPS and GLONASS systems (GNSS1), and on the other side of the study, design and pre-development of the European contribution to follow-on systems: GNSS2.

  10. International Living With a Star - Contributions from the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opgenoorth, H. J.

    The new ILWS initiative aims at the understanding of the governing processes in Solar, heliospheric and Solar-terrrestrial physics, through which the variability of the Sun influences Earth, the human society and human equipment on Earth and in space. Any potentially successful approach to such a global enterprise demands simultaneous observations in all key regions of space - a task which is practically impossible to be carried out by one space agency alone. ESA, the European Space Agency has a number of missions in its present program, which are considered to make major contributions to the ILWS program. ESA also actively seeks for opportunities to support missions of other space agencies with payload, ground-stations or other logistical contributions, which might improve the scientific outcome and level of coordination for missions in the ILWS realm. In particular ESA seeks to identify synergistic effects of missions in the wider scientific realm of ILWS, in order to widen the scope and scientific applicability of the present program. In this presentation the key ESA missions for ILWS will be reviewed, and plans for dedicated ESA contributions to other missions of partner agencies will be described. Opportunites for synergistic missions with other research areas will be pointed out.

  11. From ESAS to Ares: A Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout my career, I have observed many launch vehicle efforts come and go. Although it may appear on the surface that those were dead-end streets, the knowledge we gained through them actually informs the work in progress. Following the tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia's crew, the administration took the Columbia Accident Investigation Board's findings to heart and united the Agency behind the Vision for Space Exploration, with clear goals and objectives, including fielding a new generation of safe, reliable, and affordable space transportation. The genesis of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle activities now under way by a nationwide Government and industry team was the confirmation of the current NASA Administrator in April 2005. Shortly thereafter, he commissioned a team of aerospace experts to conduct the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which gave shape to launch vehicles that will empower America's resurgence in scientific discovery through human and robotic space exploration. In October 2005, I was asked to lead this effort, building the team and forming the partnerships that will, in turn, build America's next human-rated space transportation system. In November 2006, the Ares I team began conducting the System Requirements Review milestone, just 1 year after its formation. We are gaining momentum toward the first test flight of the integrated vehicle system in 2009, just a few short years away. The Agency is now poised to deliver on the commitment this nation has made to advance our interests in space. In its inaugural year, the Ares team has conducted the first human-rated launch vehicle major milestone in over 30 years. Using the Exploration Systems Architecture Study recommendations as a starting point, the vehicle designs have been evolved to best meet customer and stakeholder requirements to fulfill the strategic goals outlined in the Vision for Space Exploration.

  12. ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle. Independent Aerothermodynamic Characterization And Aerodatabase Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufolo, Giuseppe C.; Di Benedetto, Sara; Walpot, Louis; Roncioni, Pietro; Marini, Marco

    2011-05-01

    In the frame of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) project, the European Space Agency (ESA) is coordinating a series of technical assistance activities aimed at verifying and supporting the IXV industrial design and development process. The technical assistance is operated with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), by means of the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA), and the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) under the super visioning and coordination of ESA IXV team. One of the purposes of the activity is to develop an independent capability for the assessment and verification of the industrial results with respect to the aerothermodynamic characterization of the IXV vehicle. To this aim CIRA is developing and independent AeroThermodynamics DataBase (ATDB), intended as a tool generating in output the time histories of local quantities (heat flux, pressure, skin friction) for each point of the IXV vehicle and for each trajectory (in a pre-defined envelope), together with an uncertainties model. The reference Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions needed for the development of the tool have been provided by ESA-ESTEC (with the CFD code LORE) and CIRA (with the CFD code H3NS).

  13. ESA joins forces with Japan on new infrared sky surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    analysis. This second phase will end with the depletion of the liquid helium needed to cool down the spacecraft telescope and its instruments to only a few degrees above absolute zero. ASTRO-F will then start its third operations phase and continue to make observations of selected celestial targets with its infrared camera only, in a few specific infrared wavelengths. ESA’s involvement: Only two decades have passed since the birth of space-based infrared astronomy; since then, each decade has been marked by the launch of innovative infrared satellites that have revolutionised our very perception of the cosmos. In fact, infrared satellites make possible the detection of cool objects, including planetary systems, interstellar dust and gas, or distant galaxies, all of which are most difficult to study in the visible part of the light spectrum. With infrared astronomy, it is also possible to study the birth of stars and galaxies, the ‘creation’ energy of which peaks in the infrared range. The European Space Agency and Europe have a strong tradition in infrared astronomy, which is now being continued by the participation of the UK, the Netherlands and ESA in ASTRO-F. ESA is providing network support through its ground station in Kiruna (Sweden) for a few passes per day. ESA is also providing expertise and support for the sky-survey data processing. This includes ‘pointing reconstruction’ - which means measuring exactly where the observed objects are in the sky, to help accelerate the production of sky catalogues and ultimately produce a census of the infrared universe. In return, ESA has obtained ten percent of the observing opportunities during the second and third operational phases of the ASTRO-F mission, which is being allocated to European astronomers to perform their proposed observations. “The cooperation offered to ESA by Japan in ASTRO-F will help keep up momentum for European astronomers as they build on their past work with ISO, and look forward to the

  14. Golden legacy from ESA's observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    'milestone number' of 1000 scientific papers was reached. Even now ISO's data archive remains a valuable source of new results. For example, some of the latest papers describe the detection of water in 'protostars', which are stars in the process of being born, and studies of numerous nearby galaxies. "Of course we were confident ISO was going to do very well, but its actual productivity has been far beyond our expectations. The publication rate does not even seem to have peaked yet! We expect many more results," Salama says. Note for editors ISO's data archive contains scientific data from about 30 000 observations. Astronomers from all over the world have downloaded almost eight times the equivalent of the entire scientific archive. As much as 35% of all ISO observations have already been published at least once in prestigious scientific journals. ESA is now preparing to continue its infrared investigation of the Universe. The next generation of infrared space observatories is already in the pipeline. ISO is to be followed by the NASA SIRTF observatory to be launched later this year. Then, in 2007, ESA will follow up the pioneering work of ISO with the Herschel Space Observatory, which will become the largest imaging telescope ever put into space. ISO The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) was launched in 1995 and operated from November that year to May 1998, when it ran out of the coolant needed to keep its detectors working. At the time it was the most sensitive infrared satellite ever launched and made particularly important studies of the dusty regions of the Universe, where visible light telescopes can see nothing. ESA will reopen its examination of the infrared Universe when Herschel is launched in 2007. Herschel Herschel will be the largest space telescope when, in 2007, it is launched on an Ariane-5 rocket, together with ESA’s cosmology mission, Planck. Herschel’s 3.5-metre diameter mirror will collect longwave infrared radiation from some of the coolest and most

  15. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    hieroglyphics, so Rosetta will help scientists to unravel the mysteries of comets. Hieroglyphics were the building blocks of the Egyptian language. Comets are the most primitive objects in the Solar System, the building blocks from which the planets formed. Virtually unchanged after 4.6 billion years in the deep freeze of the outer Solar System, they still contain ices and dust from the original solar nebula. They also contain complex organic compounds which some scientists believe may have been the first building blocks for life on Earth. 200 years ago, the discovery of a slab of volcanic basalt near the Egyptian town of Rashid (Rosetta) led to a revolution in our understanding of the past. By comparing the inscriptions on the 'Rosetta Stone', historians were able to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics for the first time. Just as the Rosetta Stone provided the key to an ancient civilisation, so the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft will allow scientists to unlock the mysteries of the oldest building blocks of our Solar System - the comets. The legacy of Giotto. For centuries, comets have inspired awe and wonder. Many ancient civilisations saw them as portents of death and disaster, omens of great social and political upheavals. Shrouded in thin, luminous veils with tails streaming behind them, these 'long-haired stars' were given the name 'comets' by the ancient Greeks (the Greek word kome meant 'hair'). When ESA's Giotto spacecraft arrived at Halley's Comet in 1986, no one knew what a comet nucleus was really like. The problem was that it is impossible to see the solid heart of a comet from the Earth. As soon as the nucleus moves close enough to us for detailed observation, it is obscured from view by a shroud of gas and dust. The most popular theory about the nature of comets was put forward by American astronomer Fred Whipple, who believed they were like dirty snowballs - large chunks of water ice and dust mixed with ammonia, methane and carbon dioxide. As they

  16. Map of the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California, showing ground-water subunits and areas and well hydrographs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, C.E.; McIntyre, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has released to the open file a map, scale 1:125,000, showing ground-water subunits and areas, and well hydrographs in the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency area, California. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. ESA Fire CCI product assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Angelika; Yue, Chao; Mouillot, Florent; Storm, Thomas; Chuvieco, Emilio; Kaiser, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation fires are a major disturbance in the Earth System. Fires change the biophysical properties and dynamics of ecosystems and alter terrestrial carbon pools. By altering the atmosphere's composition, fire emissions exert a significant climate forcing. To realistically model past and future changes of the Earth System, fire disturbances must be taken into account. Related modelling efforts require consistent global burned area observations covering at least 10 to 20 years. Guided by the specific requirements of a wide range of end users, the ESA fire_cci project is currently computing a new global burned area dataset. It applies a newly developed spectral change detection algorithm upon the full ENVISAT-MERIS archive (2002 to 2012). The algorithm relies on MODIS active fire information as "seed". A first, formally validated version has been released for the period 2006 to 2008. It comprises a pixel burned area product (spatial resolution of 333 m) with date detection information and a biweekly grid product at 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We compare fire_cci burned area with other global burned area products (MCD64, GFED4(s), GEOLAND) and a set of active fires data (hotspots from MODIS, TRMM, AATSR and fire radiative power from GFAS). Output from the ongoing processing of the full MERIS timeseries will be incorporated into the study, as far as available. The analysis of patterns of agreement and disagreement between fire_cci and other products provides a better understanding of product characteristics and uncertainties. The intercomparison of the 2006-2008 fire_cci time series shows a close agreement with GFED4 data in terms of global burned area and the general spatial and temporal patterns. Pronounced differences, however, emerge for specific regions or fire events. Burned area mapped by fire_cci tends to be notably higher in regions where small agricultural fires predominate. The improved detection of small agricultural fires by fire_cci can be related to

  18. Christmas on Mars: be there with ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    The exciting event can be followed at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, on Thursday, 25 December, from 01:30 to 14:00, together with the mission managers, the operation teams, scientists and top ESA management, including ESA’s Director-General Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA’s Director of Science David Southwood and ESA’s Director of Technical and Operational Support Gaele Winters. The highlights of the night will be also webcast over the internet http://mars.esa.int. As well as live streaming of key events, the Mars Express site will have daily news, features, images, videos and more. The ESA TV Service will provide live coverage of operations, from the Operations Control Centre at ESOC. All transmission and satellite details are published online at http://television.esa.int All live transmissions are also carried free-to-air on Astra 2 C at 19 degrees East, transponder 57, horizontal, (DVB-MPEG-2), frequency 10832 MHz, Symbol Rate 22000 MS/sec, FEC 5/6. The service name is ESA Media wishing to attend are asked to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Service: +33 (0)1 53 69 76 90.

  19. ESA Science Archives and associated VO activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arviset, Christophe; Baines, Deborah; Barbarisi, Isa; Castellanos, Javier; Cheek, Neil; Costa, Hugo; Fajersztejn, Nicolas; Gonzalez, Juan; Fernandez, Monica; Laruelo, Andrea; Leon, Ignacio; Ortiz, Inaki; Osuna, Pedro; Salgado, Jesus; Tapiador, Daniel

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), near Madrid, Spain, hosts most of ESA space based missions' scientific archives, in planetary (Mars Express, Venus Express, Rosetta, Huygens, Giotto, Smart-1, all in ESA Planetary Science Archive), in astronomy (XMM-Newton, Herschel, ISO, Integral, Exosat, Planck) and in solar physics (Soho). All these science archives are operated by a dedicated Science Archives and Virtual Observatory Team (SAT) at ESAC, enabling common and efficient design, development, operations and maintenance of the archives software systems. This also ensures long term preservation and availability of such science archives, as a sustainable service to the science community. ESA space science data can be accessed through powerful and user friendly user interface, as well as from machine scriptable interface and through VO interfaces. Virtual Observatory activities are also fully part of ESA archiving strategy and ESA is a very ac-tive partner in VO initiatives in Europe through Euro-VO AIDA and EuroPlanet and worldwide through the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) and the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance).

  20. The ESA STSE Changing Earth Science Network 2008-2013: Supporting The Next Generation Of European Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Prieto, D.; Sabia, R.

    2013-12-01

    In 2006, the European Space Agency (ESA) published the document “The Changing Earth: New Scientific Challenges for ESA's Living Planet Programme” as the main driver of ESA's new Earth Observation (EO) science strategy. The document outlines 25 major scientific challenges covering all the different aspects of the Earth system, where EO technology and ESA missions may provide a key contribution. In this framework, and aiming at enhancing the ESA scientific support towards the achievement of “The Challenges”, the Agency has launched the “Changing Earth Science Network”, an important programmatic component of the new Support To Science Element (STSE) of the Earth Observation Envelope Programme (EOEP). In this paper, the objectives of this initiative are summarized and the list of the projects selected in the various calls is provided.

  1. NASA/ESA CV-990 Spacelab Simulation (ASSESS 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Cost effective techniques for addressing management and operational activities on Spacelab were identified and analyzed during a ten day NASA-ESA cooperative mission with payload and flight responsibilities handled by the organization assigned for early Spacelabs. Topics discussed include: (1) management concepts and interface relationships; (2) experiment selection; (3) hardware development; (4) payload integration and checkout; (5) selection and training of mission specialists and payload specialists; (6) mission control center/payload operations control center interactions with ground and flight problems; (7) real time interaction during flight between principal investigators and the mission specialist/payload specialist flight crew; and (8) retrieval of scientific data and its analysis.

  2. ESA space spin-offs benefits for the health sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Bianca; Detsis, Emmanouil; Peeters, Walter

    2012-11-01

    Humanity will be faced with an important number of future challenges, including an expansion of the lifespan, a considerable increase of the population (estimated 9 billion by 2050) and a depletion of resources. These factors could trigger an increase of chronic diseases and various other health concerns that would bear a heavy weight on finances worldwide. Scientific advances can play an important role in solving a number of these problems, space technology; in general, can propose a panoply of possible solutions and applications that can make life on Earth easier and better for everyone. Satellites, Earth Observation, the International Space Station (ISS) and the European Space Agency (ESA) may not be the first tools that come to mind when thinking of improving health, yet there are many ways in which ESA and its programmes contribute to the health care arena. The research focuses on quantifying two ESA spin-offs to provide an initial view on how space can contribute to worldwide health. This quantification is part of the present strategy not only to show macroeconomic return factors for space in general, but also to identify and describe samples of 'best practice' type of examples close to the general public's interest. For each of the 'best practices' the methodology takes into account the cost of the space hardware/software, a number of tangible and intangible benefits, as well as some logical assumptions in order to determine the potential overall returns. Some of the hindering factors for a precise quantification are also highlighted. In conclusion, the study recommends a way in which ESA's spin-offs can be taken into account early on in the development process of space programmes in order to generate higher awareness with the general public and also to provide measurable returns.

  3. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The outcome of the ESA Council at Ministerial level held in Edinburgh in November 2001 was not as positive as expected for the Agency's Science Programme. It appeared that the money made available would not be sufficient to carry out the Long Term Programme approved by the Science Programme Committee in October 2000, based on financial assumptions approved by the same Committee in Bern in May 1999. The resources granted in Edinburgh taken at their face value meant the cancellation of a mission (e.g. GAIA). At the conclusion of the exercise, following extensive consultations with all its partners, the Executive could propose a revised plan, which not only maintained the missions approved in October 2000, but added the Eddington mission in addition. The new plan, strongly endorsed by the Science Programme Committee on the occasion of its 99th meeting, contains the following missions, listed by production groups: Astrophysics Group 1: XMM-Newton (1999), INTEGRAL (2002). X and Gamma Ray Observatories (studying the 'violent' universe) Group 2: Herschel, exploring the infrared and microwave universe; Planck, to study the cosmic microwave background; Eddington, searching for extra-solar planets and studying the stellar seismology. (The three missions will be launched in the 2007-2008 timeframe.) Group 3: GAIA, the ultimate galaxy mapper (to be launched no later than 2012). Missions will follow in the same group after 2012. Solar System Science: Group 1:Rosetta, a trip to a comet (2003); Mars Express, a Mars orbiter carrying the Beagle2 lander (2003); (Venus Express, a Venus orbiter, would have been in this group.) Group 2: SMART-1, which will demonstrate solar propulsion technology while on its way to the Moon (2003); BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, Solar Orbiter, a mission to take a closer look at the Sun (missions to be launched in 2011-2012). Fundamental Physics missions: (one group only) STEP (2005) the 'equivalence principle' test, SMART2, a technology

  4. ESA's GOCE gravity gradiometer mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touboul, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    In the present decade, three space gravity missions, CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE provide unique information about mass and mass redistribution in the Earth system with a wide range of scientific returns like global ocean circulation, ice mass balance, glacial isostatic adjustment, continental ground water storage. On board the four satellites of these missions, similar electrostatic space inertial sensors deliver continuously, during quite nine years for the older, the accurate acceleration data needed for the missions. The sensor operation remains on the six axes electrostatic suspension of one solid metallic mass, which is servo-controlled motionless at the centre of the highly stable set of gold coated silica electrode plates. All degrees of freedom are measured with very sensitive capacitive sensors down to a few pico-m and the applied electrostatic forces to pico-N. With similar sensor design and technologies, full scale range and resolution can be adjusted according to the satellite environment and the mission requirements. The CHAMP and GRACE accelerometers have demonstrated their in orbit performance. They provides measurements of the satellite non gravitational surface forces like the atmospheric drag and radiation pressures in order to extract from the satellite measured orbital position and velocity fluctuations, the effects of gravity anomalies. The six GOCE accelerometers compose the three axes gradiometer, combined to the SST-high-low GPS tracking to provide higher precision and resolution of the Earth static field. They contribute also to the satellite attitude control and drag compensation system, allowing the heliosynchronous orbit at the very low 260 km altitude. So, the accelerometers are designed to exhibit a full range of 6.5 10-6 ms-2 and a resolution of 2 10-12 ms-2 Hz-1/2. Since the gradiometer switch on in April 09, they deliver data leading to the components of the gravity gradient tensor. The main characteristics of the GOCE accelerometers and

  5. The ESA mission to Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhard, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Europeon Space Agency's approximately Giotto mission plans for a launch in July 1985 with a Halley encounter in mid-March 1986 4 weeks after the comet's perihelion passage. Giotto carries 10 scientific experiments, a camera, neutral, ion and dust mass spectrometers, a dust impact detector system, various plasma analyzers, a magnetometer and an optical probe. The instruments are described, the principles on which they are based are described, and the experiment key performance data are summarized. The launch constraints the helicentric transfer trajectory, and the encounter scenario are analyzed. The Giotto spacecraft major design criteria, spacecraft subsystem and the ground system are described. The problem of hypervelocity dust particle impacts in the innermost part of the coma, the problem of spacecraft survival, and the adverse effects of impact-generated plasma aroung the spacecraft are considered.

  6. ESA's planning and coordination of the OLYMPUS propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbesser-Rastburg, B.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the organization of the OLYMPUS propagation experimenters group (OPEX) is given. Preparations, participation, and experiments are described. Some examples for first statistical results are also reported. OLYMPUS, a 3-axis stabilized communications satellite was launched in 1989 for providing experimental telecommunications payloads and a propagation beacon payload at 12, 20, and 30 GHz to the European Space Agency. From previous experience (OTS), the Agency undertook to carry out extensive preparations with an eye on obtaining the statistical results needed within the limited available lifetime of the spacecraft. The OLYMPUS propagation experiment was conceived as part of ESA's space telecommunications applications program (ESA/IPC/(79)83) with the emphasis on exploring the possibilities and limitations of Ka-band satellite communications. The objectives of the OLYMPUS propagation campaign were: (1) characterization of the slant-path propagation conditions at 20/30 GHz in the various climatic regions of Europe; (2) improvement of the understanding of the link between atmospheric observable (rain rate, cloud thickness, etc.) to propagation impairments such as attenuation, depolarization, scintillation, etc.; and (3) arrive at improved propagation prediction methods.

  7. Joint NASA-ESA Outer Planet Mission study overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.-P.; Niebur, C.; Cutts, J.; Falkner, P.; Greeley, R.; Lunine, J.; Blanc, M.; Coustenis, A.; Pappalardo, R.; Matson, D.; Clark, K.; Reh, K.; Stankov, A.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-04-01

    evaluated by each agency between November 2008 and January 2009, and a joint decision as to which destination has been selected is expected to be announced in February 2009. The ESA Cosmic Vision selection process includes two additional competitive steps (that include two competing astronomy missions) before its contribution to the selected Outer Planet Mission is confirmed in 2012. NASA expects to proceed with the initial implementation of the mission in FY2009, while full implementation will start in FY2013, in line with ESA Cosmic Vision schedule. Should ESA select an astronomy mission instead, NASA would proceed in 2013 with the implementation of a NASA-only mission concept. This presentation will provide an overview of the selected Outer Planet Mission and outline the next steps towards its implementation.

  8. The New ESA Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Gonzalez, J.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Martinez, S.; Grotheer, E.; Lim, T.; Besse, S.; Heather, D.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's planetary missions, making them accessible to the world-wide scientific community.With the advent of new ESA planetary missions, currently in development Bepi Colombo (Mercury) and ExoMars16 (Mars), and later on ExoMars18 (Mars Rover) and JUICE (Jupiter and moons), the PSA faces the need of supporting new functionalities and requirements.Within this scenario there is a need for a new concept of the PSA, supporting both the evolution of the PDS standard (PDS4), and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications toward a better science exploitation. We introduce the new PSA layout, conceived for better data discovery and retrieval, with special emphasis on GIS technology, interoperability and visualization capabilities.

  9. Ulysses - An ESA/NASA cooperative programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeks, W.; Eaton, D.

    1990-01-01

    Cooperation between ESA and NASA is discussed, noting that the Memorandum of Understanding lays the framework for this relationship, defining the responsibilities of ESA and NASA and providing for appointment of leadership and managers for the project. Members of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and ESA's ESTEC staff have been appointed to leadership positions within the project and ultimate control of the project rests with the Joint Working Group consisting of two project managers and two project scientists, equally representing both organizations. Coordination of time scales and overall mission design is discussed, including launch cooperation, public relations, and funding of scientific investigations such as Ulysses. Practical difficulties of managing an international project are discussed such as differing documentation requirements and communication techniques, and assurance of equality on projects.

  10. The Gravitational Universe - ESA's L3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Guido; Ando, Masaki; Binetruy, Pierre; Bouyer, Philippe; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Cruise, Mike; Favata, Fabio; Gehler, Martin; Genzel, Reinhard; Jennrich, Oliver; Kasevich, Mark; Klipstein, Bill; Perryman, Michael; Safa, Frederic; Schutz, Bernard; Stebbins, Robin; Vitale, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Following the advice of ESA's Senior Survey Committee (SSC) the Science Programme Committee (SPC) decided in November 2013 to select the science theme ``The Gravitational Universe'' for their L3 mission. The Director of Science and Robotic Exploration (D/SRE) has established a Gravitational Observatory Advisory Team (GOAT) to advise on the scientific and technological approaches for a gravitational wave observatory with a planned launch date in 2034. Our team is comprised of scientists from Europe and the US as well as scientists and engineers from ESA and observers from NASA and JAXA. We meet about every ten weeks, evaluate the technical readiness of all necessary technologies, study the science impact of different mission designs, and will advise ESA on the required future technology development. We will report on our progress and plans forward to a future space-based gravitational-wave observatory. For JAXA.

  11. ESA's Earth Observation in Support of Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation Programme and its contribution to Geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. A special focus will be put on the Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme and focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. In addition the operational Sentinel satellites have a huge potential for Geoscience. Earth Explorers' emphasis is also on learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The process of Earth Explorer mission selection has given the Earth science community an efficient tool for advancing the understanding of Earth as a system.

  12. ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission - An overview on the mission's performance and scientific results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, Susanne

    2014-05-01

    , responding to the requirements of the science community in particular in the area of hydrology, climate, land use and ship routing, namely a frozen soil indicator, data products for freeze/thaw periods, sea ice thickness and vegetation water content. 3. Provide an update on the overall validation approach and recent activities: SMOS data products are continuously improved and approach the scientific mission objectives. Validation activities are essential to ensure high data quality. ESA in collaboration with national agencies and institutions maintains a frame for validation activities such as reference sites, ground based observations as well as campaigns. The paper will provide an update on recent activities, such as the activities at DOME-C. 4. Summarise the collaboration with other space-borne L-band sensors, such as NASA's Aquarius and SMAP missions.

  13. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists...

  14. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists...

  15. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists...

  16. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists...

  17. 29 CFR 42.9 - Farm Labor Specialist (ESA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). 42.9 Section 42.9 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor COORDINATED ENFORCEMENT § 42.9 Farm Labor Specialist (ESA). (a) The Assistant Secretary for ESA shall designate ESA Compliance Officers as Farm Labor Specialists...

  18. 78 FR 18585 - FIFRA Pesticide Registration Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Stakeholder Input; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Pesticide Registration Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Stakeholder Input; Notice of... availability of the final paper describing enhanced opportunities for stakeholder input during its review of... of Agriculture (USDA), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) in the U.S. Department...

  19. From ESAS to Ares: A Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the decision making that led to the choice of the Ares launch vehicle. There are charts that show comparisons of the features of the ESAS launch vehicles. There is discussion of the rationale of the choice of using a Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) as the launch vehicle for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle.

  20. ESA's Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.

    2004-12-01

    The Earth's gravity field is the fundamental physical force for every dynamic process on its surface. With the Gravity Field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) Mission as its first Earth Explorer core mission, the European Space Agency (ESA) is playing an important role in this `geopotential decade' by preparing for acquisition of a high quality, high spatial resolution gravity field and geoid for future scientific applications. GOCE combines an innovative new three-axis gravity gradiometer (EGG) instrument (comprising three x, y, z pairs of accelerometers with a baseline separation of 0.5 m) with a drag-compensating ion-propulsion system to measure for the first time the full gravity gradient tensor along its orbit at 250 km altitude. GOCE will carry a GPS satellite-to-satellite tracking navigation system for 3-dimensional positioning, star trackers for precise pointing knowledge, and a laser retroreflector for ground laser tracking. GOCE is specifically designed to make accurate and precise measurements of the stationary gravity field and gravity anomalies (to 1 mGal) at high spatial resolution (100 km). The data will facilitate the computation of a high spatial resolution (100 km) global geoid model to 1-2 cm accuracy. Applications of these products will be illustrated using examples in oceanography, solid-earth physics and geodesy. After a successful completion of the design consolidation phase, the construction phase for the GOCE satellite is presently underway, with an anticipated a launch in late 2006.

  1. "Europe lands on Mars" - Media event at ESA/ESOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    from the collision course and enter into orbit around Mars. This will be the first time that an orbiter delivers a lander without its own propulsion onto a planet and attempts orbit insertion immediately afterwards. Since all these manoeuvres are time-critical and allow little margin of error, the ground control team has had to simulate all possible scenarios (including glitches and problems, on board and on the ground) to make sure that nothing is left to chance. The team has been training since September in a very realistic setting, using the same computers and equipment that will be employed during this mission phase. Although the real spacecraft cannot be directly involved, its behaviour is simulated via a sophisticated computer programme, using the actual flight software. These rehearsals, each lasting a day or more, cover all possible situations from the failure of an onboard instrument to the outbreak of a fire in the control room. One of these simulations will take place during the press conference on 3 December. ESA's ground control team at ESOC, on the other hand, are having a very busy time. They are actively rehearsing responses to any situation that might arise when Mars Express releases Beagle 2 and enters into orbit around Mars. "The Mars Express mission is pushing the operations staff to extremes. Over the years, the experience acquired with experimental missions has provided a solid basis on which to prepare for the unexpected. The satellite controllers will rise to this new challenge", Gaele Winters, ESA Director of Technical and Operational Support, said. Four media events have been scheduled relating to the arrival of Mars Express at its destination (see our press release N° 74-2003). The next event is scheduled on Wednesday 3 December at ESA/ESOC, Darmstadt, Germany and will possibly include the presentation of the first HRSC image and further information about scientific expectations of the mission. Several Principal Investigators will present

  2. ESA's Hipparcos finds rebels with a cause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    gas and stars, called 'density waves' and similar to traffic hot-spots along the motorway. An approaching density wave compresses the gas it encounters and favours the birth of new stars, but it can also affect pre-existing stars by deflecting their motion. After the wave has passed, many stars will thus travel together in a stream, all in the same direction, even though they were originally on different trajectories or not even born. This research has shown that the neighbourhood of the Sun is a crossroads of many streams, made up of stars with different origins and chemical composition. These streams could also account for many of the stars with planetary systems recently discovered near the Sun. Astronomers know that stars with planetary systems preferentially form in dense gas clouds with a high metal content, such as those located in the more central regions of the Milky Way. The streams discovered by Hipparcos could be the mechanism that brought them closer to the Sun. As Famaey explains, "If these stars are kicked by a spiral arm, they can be displaced thousands of light-years away from their birthplace." These stars, together with their planets, can thus have migrated closer to the Sun. To learn more about the structure of our Milky Way, an aggregate of thousands of millions of stars, astronomers look at the way in which stars stay together in a coherent way or move with respect to the Sun and relative to one another. During its four-year mission, ESA's Hipparcos satellite has measured the distance and motion of more than a hundred thousand stars within a 1000 light-years of the Sun. However, while Hipparcos's data show in which directions stars are moving on the sky, they cannot tell whether stars are coming towards us or going away from us. By combining the Hipparcos data with ground-based measurements of their ‘Doppler shift’, obtained with a Swiss telescope at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France, Famaey and his colleagues could add the missing

  3. Status of the ESA L1 mission candidate ATHENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, N.; Martin, D.; Lumb, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Bavdaz, M.; Fransen, S.; Linder, M.; Peyrou-Lauga, R.; Voirin, T.; Braghin, M.; Mangunsong, S.; van Pelt, M.; Wille, E.

    2012-09-01

    ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) was an L class mission candidate within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency, with a planned launch by 2022. ATHENA was conceived as an ESA-led project, open to the possibility of focused contributions from JAXA and NASA. By allowing astrophysical observations between 100 eV and 10 keV, it would represent the new generation X-ray observatory, following the XMM-Newton, Astro-H and Chandra heritage. The main scientific objectives of ATHENA include the study of large scale structures, the evolution of black holes, strong gravity effects, neutron star structure as well as investigations into dark matter. The ATHENA mission concept would be based on focal length of 12m achieved via a rigid metering tube and a twoaperture, x-ray telescope. Two identical x-ray mirrors would illuminate fixed focal plane instruments: a cryogenic imaging spectrometer (XMS) and a wide field imager (WFI). The S/C is designed to be fully compatible with Ariane 5 ECA. The observatory would operate at SE-L2, with a nominal lifetime of 5 yr. This paper provides a summary of the reformulation activities, completed in December 2011. An overview of the spacecraft design and of the payload is provided, including both telescope and instruments. Following the ESA Science Programme Committee decision on the L1 mission in May 2012, ATHENA was not selected to enter Definition Phase.

  4. Evolution of ESA's SSA Conjunction Prediction Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, D.; Sancho, A. Tirado, J.; Agueda, A.; Martin, L.; Luque, F.; Fletcher, E.; Navarro, V.

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents the recent evolution of ESA's SSA Conjunction Prediction Service (CPS) as a result of an on-going activity in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The CPS is one of a number of precursor services being developed as part of the SST segment. It has been implemented as a service to provide external users with web-based access to conjunction information and designed with a service-oriented architecture. The paper encompasses the following topics: service functionality enhancements, integration with a live objects catalogue, all vs. all analyses supporting an operational concept based on low and high fidelity screenings, and finally conjunction detection and probability algorithms.

  5. The ESA Hubble 15th Anniversary Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, L. L.; Kornmesser, M.

    2005-12-01

    The 15th anniversary of the launch of the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope occurred on 24th April 2005. As Hubble is one of the most successful scientific projects in the world, ESA decided to celebrate this anniversary, among other things, with the production of a Hubble 15th Anniversary movie and a book, both called "Hubble, 15 years of discovery". The movie covers all aspects of the Hubble Space Telescope project - a journey through the history, the problems and the scientific successes of Hubble. With more than 700,000 multi-lingual DVDs distributed to the public, media, educators, decision-makers and scientists, the Hubble 15th anniversary campaign has been one of the largest such projects in Europe.

  6. ESA'S Biomass Mission System And Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcioni, M.; Bensi, P.; Fois, F.; Gabriele, A.; Heliere, F.; Lin, C. C.; Massotti, L.; Scipal, K.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Explorers are the backbone of the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, providing an important contribution to the understanding of the Earth system. Following the User Consultation Meeting held in Graz, Austria on 5-6 March 2013, the Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) has recommended implementing Biomass as the 7th Earth Explorer Mission within the frame of the ESA Earth Observation Envelope Programme. This paper will give an overview of the satellite system and its payload. The system technical description presented here is based on the results of the work performed during parallel Phase A system studies by two industrial consortia led by EADS Astrium Ltd. and Thales Alenia Space Italy. Two implementation concepts (respectively A and B) are described and provide viable options capable of meeting the mission requirements.

  7. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Foing, Bernard H.; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernado; Schiemann, Jens

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the abundance, composition and isotopes of lunar volatiles in polar regions, and their associated chemistry. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterise and utilise polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the

  8. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the Russian led science payload, focusing on developing an characterising the resource opportunities offered at the lunar surface. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. In the frame of a broader future international programme under discussion through the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) future missions are under investigation that would provide access to the lunar surface through international cooperation and human-robotic partnerships.

  9. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the exploration missions of the future.

  10. Overview of the knowledge management system in ESA/ESOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dow, Roberta Mugellesi; Pallaschke, Siegmar; Merri, Mario; Montagnon, Elsa; Schabe, Melanie; Belingheri, Maurizio; Bucher, Michael

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses the knowledge management (KM) system as implemented in a pilot project at the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency (ESA). By means of audits, we have identified the main knowledge fields in our domain, weighted their importance in the short, medium and long terms, and derived KM requirements in order to preserve, maintain, share and enhance relevant knowledge. The preliminary results from the knowledge audits were analysed and discussed by domain experts, showing that the KM process put in place has been successfully validated and appropriate measures, like continuous training, have to be put in place. The KM requirements were then mapped on the existing KM infrastructure and the available KM resources in order to assess the status of KM at ESOC and to recommend its evolution. Finally, some additional suggestions are made regarding the future of the initiative and potential steps that might be taken to further support KM within ESOC.

  11. A Grounded Theory Examination of Coaching and Mentoring: Human Agency Expressed in the One-with-One Development Endeavor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollis, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    In American context personal coaching and mentoring are used extensively in the fields of business, athletics and Christian discipleship. This one with one approach to personal improvement is applied in multiple contexts within education, business, athletics, discipleship, counseling, and parenting. This study implemented grounded theory…

  12. Mission to Mars set to revolutionise ESA's working methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    ESA took the decision in principle to send a mission to Mars shortly after the loss of the Russian spacecraft Mars '96 with several European experiments on board. The Agency wanted to build on the Mars '96 payload experience to design a mission that would put Europe at the leading-edge of Mars exploration. But ESA had to act quickly. Major space missions can take up to 11 years from concept to launch - and there was little more than six years to go before the positioning of the planets in 2003 would offer the shortest travel time to Mars with the highest payload. Budgetary pressures were also forcing ESA to look for cheaper ways of building spacecraft. A Mars mission therefore seemed a good candidate to explore cheaper and faster working methods. Mars Express (so called because of the streamlined development time) is the first of a new type of "flexible" missions in ESA's long-term scientific programme, which should be built and launched for about half the previous budget for similar missions. The global budget for Mars Express will actually be only150 million Euro including spacecraft development, launch by a Russian Soyuz/Fregat launcher, operations, testing and management costs. Costs are being saved by shortening the time from original concept to launch, re-using existing hardware, adopting new project management practices, and having access to reduced launcher costs. Selection of the scientific payload by ESA's scientific advisory bodies and mission definition by industry have been performed simultaneously, instead of sequentially as in previous missions. This has cut the time from concept to the awarding of today's design and development contract from about five years to little more than one year. The design and development phase will take under four years, compared with up to six previously. Mars Express is making maximum use of pre-existing technology, which is either "off-the-shelf" or has already been developed for the Rosetta mission (also due for launch

  13. Green light for deployment of ESA's Mars Express radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    ESA's decision to deploy MARSIS follows eight months of intensive computer simulations and technical investigations on both sides of the Atlantic. These were to assess possible harmful boom configurations during deployment and to determine any effects on the spacecraft and its scientific instruments. The three radar booms of MARSIS were initially to have been deployed in April 2004, towards the end of the Mars Express instrument commissioning phase. They consist of a pair of 20-metre hollow cylinders, each 2.5 centimetres in diameter, and a 7-metre boom. No satisfactory ground test of deployment in flight conditions was possible, so that verification of the booms' performance had to rely on computer simulation. Just prior to their scheduled release, improved computer simulations carried out by the manufacturer, Astro Aerospace (California), revealed the possibility of a whiplash effect before they locked in their final outstretched positions, so that they might hit the spacecraft. Following advice from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which contributed the boom system to the Italian-led MARSIS radar instrument, and the Mars Express science team, ESA put an immediate hold on deployment until a complete understanding of the dynamics was obtained. JPL led a comprehensive investigation, including simulations, theoretical studies and tests on representative booms, the latter to assess potential aging of the boom material. European experts, from ESA and the former spacecraft prime contractor, Astrium SAS, France, worked closely with JPL throughout the entire investigation. An independent engineering review board, composed of ESA and industry experts, met in January to evaluate the findings and advise on ‘if and when’ to proceed with deployment. The ESA review board, at its final meeting on 25 January, recommended deployment of the MARSIS booms. The rationale for the decision was based on the results of the analyses, which showed the possible impact scenarios

  14. Cost considerations in database selection - A comparison of DIALOG and ESA/IRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that there are many factors which affect the decision-making process in determining which databases should be selected for conducting the online search on a given topic. In many cases, however, the major consideration will be related to cost. The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of the costs involved in making use of DIALOG and the European Space Agency's Information Retrieval Service (ESA/IRS). The two services are very comparable in many respects. Attention is given to pricing structure, telecommunications, the number of databases, prints, time requirements, a table listing online costs for DIALOG and ESA/IRS, and differences in mounting databases. It is found that ESA/IRS is competitively priced when compared to DIALOG, and, despite occasionally higher telecommunications costs, may be even more economical to use in some cases.

  15. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  16. Drug Safety Communication: Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Agents (ESAs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ESAs) to be prescribed and used under a risk management program, known as a risk evaluation and mitigation ... the manufacturer of these products, to develop a risk management program because studies show that ESAs can increase ...

  17. CERN, ESA and ESO Launch "Physics On Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    Physics is everywhere . The laws of physics govern the Universe, the Sun, the Earth and even our own lives. In today's rapidly developing society, we are becoming increasingly dependent on high technology - computers, transport, and communication are just some of the key areas that are the result of discoveries by scientists working in physics. But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! [Go to Physics On Stage Website] Beginning in February 2000, three major European research organisations are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , with support from the European Union. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, on the CERN premises at the French-Swiss border near Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge about physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European

  18. The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme. PMID:16010757

  19. ESA on the trail of the earliest stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    about the existence and role of the earliest stars. JWST The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a collaboration between ESA and NASA. It is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope and, with a six-metre mirror, it will be almost three times the size of HST. Engineers have designed the JWST to work best at infrared wavelengths. This will allow it to study the very distant Universe, looking for the first stars and galaxies that ever emerged. Current plans call for its launch in 2010. Integral The International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (Integral) is the first space observatory that can simultaneously observe celestial objects in gamma rays, X-rays, and visible light. Integral was launched on a Russian Proton rocket in October 2002 into a highly elliptical orbit around Earth. Its principal targets are powerful phenomena known as supernova explosions, regions of the Universe thought to contain black holes and violent explosions known as gamma-ray bursts. In particular, when a gamma-ray burst goes off in Integral's field of view, an automatic alert is sent to the world's ground-based observatories within 30 seconds. This allows for rapid follow-up observations that are needed to analyse these mysterious phenomena.

  20. Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), and astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Payload specialist Jean-Jacques Favier, representing the French Space Agency (CNES), and astronaut Kevin R. Kregel, pilot, perform a successful Inflight Maintenance (IFM) on the Bubble Drop Particle Unit (BDPU). The IFM technique was performed initially on the ground at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by alternate payload specialist Pedro Duque of the European Space Agency (ESA), with the procedure being recorded on video and uplinked to the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia to aid in the repair.

  1. The ESA GML Application Schema for EO Products: extension to new product types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woolf, Andrew; Smolders, Steven; Houbie, Frédéric; Martin, Jolyon; Marchetti, Pier Giorgio

    2010-05-01

    The Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility (HMA) project is a joint activity of the European and Canadian Space Agencies lead by ESA through its Ground Segment Coordination Body (GSCB). It aims to provide a seamless and harmonised access to heterogeneous Earth observation (EO) datasets from multiple mission ground segments. To achieve this goal of interoperability, the HMA project is developing standardised metadata descriptions at collection- and product-level, as well as standardised network service interfaces for data discovery, ordering, planning, user management, and data access. These interfaces will be implemented in the EO Data Access and Integration Layer (DAIL), providing an integrated, harmonised access across multiple mission ground segments. A standardised description of EO data products is provided through a GML Application Schema for EO Products, endorsed as a Best Practice paper (06-080) by the standards body, Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). Product-level metadata conforming to this schema may be ingested into an HMA standard catalogue service implementing the ebRIM profile of OGC's CSW interface with an extension package for EO products (OGC document 06-131). The GML application schema is based on the GML observation, adding detail to the following properties for an Earth observation: • general metadata describing identifier, downlink, archiving information, etc. • the acquisition duration • the platform/instrument/sensor used for the acquisition, and other acquisition parameters • the observed ground footprint • the observation result (browse, mask, and product descriptions) In addition, the schema takes a layered form: a foundation ‘Earth Observation' schema is applicable for any type of EO product, with more specialised schemas derived from this for specific product types (optical, radar, atmospheric) . We report on new work sponsored by ESA (in the ‘HMA Follow-On' project) which is extending the existing application schemas to

  2. A summary of pesticides in ground-water data collected by government agencies in Indiana, December 1985 to April 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    More than 1 pesticide was present in 16 of the 51 samples that had detections, for a total of 90 individual pesticide detections. Concentrations of the detected pesticides ranged from 0.04 to 49 micrograms per liter, and two-thirds of the detected concentrations were less than 1 microgram per liter. In about 29 percent of all detections, the concentration of 9 pesticides alachlor, aldrin, atrazine, dieldrin, EDB, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, simazine, and terbufos exceeded either the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level or adult lifetime Health Advisory.

  3. Lunar Exploration and Science Opportunities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Schiemann, J.; Patti, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavour. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  4. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Patti, B.; Schiemann, J.; Hufenbach, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  5. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.

    1991-08-01

    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  6. The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) data record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D. G.; Koukouli, M.; Balis, D.; Lambert, J.-C.; Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; van Roozendael, M.; Lerot, C.; Spurr, R.; Frith, S. M.; Zehner, C.

    2015-09-01

    We present the new GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) data record which has been created within the framework of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI). Total ozone column observations - based on the GOME-type Direct Fitting version 3 algorithm - from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY), and GOME-2 have been combined into one homogeneous time series, thereby taking advantage of the high inter-sensor consistency. The data record spans the 15-year period from March 1996 to June 2011 and it contains global monthly mean total ozone columns on a 1°× 1° grid. Geophysical ground-based validation using Brewer, Dobson, and UV-visible instruments has shown that the GTO-ECV level 3 data record is of the same high quality as the equivalent individual level 2 data products that constitute it. Both absolute agreement and long-term stability are excellent with respect to the ground-based data, for almost all latitudes apart from a few outliers which are mostly due to sampling differences between the level 2 and level 3 data. We conclude that the GTO-ECV data record is valuable for a variety of climate applications such as the long-term monitoring of the past evolution of the ozone layer, trend analysis and the evaluation of chemistry-climate model simulations.

  7. The GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) data record from the ESA Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coldewey-Egbers, M.; Loyola, D. G.; Koukouli, M.; Balis, D.; Lambert, J.-C.; Verhoelst, T.; Granville, J.; van Roozendael, M.; Lerot, C.; Spurr, R.; Frith, S. M.; Zehner, C.

    2015-05-01

    We present the new GOME-type Total Ozone Essential Climate Variable (GTO-ECV) data record which has been created within the framework of the European Space Agency's Climate Change Initiative (ESA-CCI). Total ozone column observations - based on the GOME-type Direct Fitting version 3 algorithm - from GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment), SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY), and GOME-2 have been combined into one homogeneous time series, thereby taking advantage of the high inter-sensor consistency. The data record spans the 15-year period from March 1996 to June 2011 and it contains global monthly mean total ozone columns on a 1° × 1° grid. Geophysical ground-based validation using Brewer, Dobson, and UV-visible instruments has shown that the GTO-ECV level 3 data record is of the same high quality as the equivalent individual level 2 data products that constitute it. Both absolute agreement and long-term stability are excellent with respect to the ground-based data, for almost all latitudes apart from a few outliers which are mostly due to sampling differences between the level 2 and level 3 data. We conclude that the GTO-ECV data record is valuable for a variety of climate applications such as the long-term monitoring of the past evolution of the ozone layer, trend analysis and the evaluation of Chemistry-Climate Model simulations.

  8. ESA `Huygens and Mars Express' science highlights - call to press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Almost one year has passed since ESA’s Huygens probe landed on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Today, a set of new wide-ranging results from the probe’s two-and-a-half hour descent and landing, part of the extraordinary NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons, is ready for release. At the same time, ESA’s Mars Express mission is continuing its investigations of Mars, painting a new picture of the 'red planet'. This includes the first ever probing below the surface of Mars, new geological clues with implications for the climate, newly-discovered surface and atmospheric features and, above all, traces of the presence of water on this world. These and other exciting findings from just one year of observations and data analysis - in the context of ESA’s overall scientific achievements - will be the focus of a press conference to be held at ESA Headquarters in Paris at 16:00 on 30 November 2005. Media interested in attending are invited to complete the following registration form. Press conference programme Space Science Highlights 2005 From Huygens to Mars Express 30 November 2005, 16:00 hrs Room 137, European Space Agency Headquarters 8-10 Rue Mario-Nikis, F-75738 Paris Cedex, France 15:30 - Registration 16:00 - A Year of European Space Science Successes Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 16:10 - Highlights of the Huygens Mission Results Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist 16:15 - Robin Duttaroy, Co-Investigator, Doppler Wind Experiment, University of Bonn, Germany 16:20 - Marcello Fulchignoni , Principal Investigator, Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument, Université de Paris 7, France 16:25 - John Zarnecki, Principal Investigator, Surface Science Package, Open University, UK 16:30 - François Raulin, Co-Investigator, Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer, Université de Paris 12 - Créteil, France 16:35 - Guy Israel, Principal Investigator, Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser, Service d

  9. ESA unveils its big XMM spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-02-01

    XMM, the X-ray Multi-Mirror mission, is due do be lanched in 1999. It is a European conception with innovative telescopes. XMM will revolutionize the study of X-rays coming from the Universe, by harvesting far more X-rays per hour than any previous mission. Its enormous capacity will enable astronomers to analyse many strong sources of cosmic X-rays very quickly, and to discover and characterize many faint sources previously beyond their reach. As the most popular and competitive branch of space astronomy, X-ray astronomy reveals special places in the Universe where very high temperatures or violent forces generate energetic radiation. These sources include black holes, exploding stars, paris of stars orbiting very close together, and the central region of clusters of galaxies. XMM's optical monitor, viewing the scenes by visible light, will help in the interpretations. The combination of X-ray telescopes and optical monitoring should be well-suited to tracking down gamma-ray bursters - extraordinary explosions in space that mystify the astronomers. Full descriptions of the X-ray sources will depend on precise spectral analysis of the relative intensities of X-rays of different energies, including the signatures of identifiable chemical elements. Such spectral analysis is XMM's task, using instruments of the highest quality fed by the remarkable telescopes. As seen at ESTEC today, the spacecraft stands upside down. Its front end, where the mirror modules of the X-ray telescopes pass through the satellite's service module, is closest to the ground. At the top is the section containing detectors at the focus of the X-ray telescopes. Surmounting the assembly, a pair of cones will carry heat away from the detectors. XMM's appearance is, though, dominated by the long tube that spans the telescope's focal length, and by the black thermal blanket that will protect the spacecraft from unequal heating on the sunny and shaded sides. A miracle of telescope engineering « You

  10. ESA situational awareness of space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Keil, Ralf; Kraft, Stefan; Lupi, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    ESA SSA Period 2 started at the beginning of 2013 and will last until the end of 2016. For the Space Weather Segment, transition to Period 2 introduced an increasing amount of development of new space weather service capability in addition to networking existing European assets. This transition was started already towards the end of SSA Period 1 with the initiation of the SSA Space Weather Segment architecture definition studies and activities enhancing existing space weather assets. The objective of Period 2 has been to initiate SWE space segment developments in the form of hosted payload missions and further expand the federated service network. A strong focus has been placed on demonstration and testing of European capabilities in the range of SWE service domains with a view to establishing core products which can form the basis of SWE service provision during SSA Period 3. This focus has been particularly addressed in the SSA Expert Service Centre (ESC) Definition and Development activity that was started in September 2015. This presentation will cover the current status of the SSA SWE Segment and the achievements during SSA Programme Periods 1 and 2. Particular attention is given to the federated approach that allow building the end user services on the best European expertise. The presentation will also outline the plans for the Space Weather capability development in the framework of the ESA SSA Programme in 2017-2020.

  11. ESO's VLT Helps ESA's Rosetta Spacecraft Prepare to Ride on a Cosmic Bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    ." More about Rosetta Rosetta's prime scientific goal is to unravel the origin of the Solar System. The chemical composition of comets is known to reflect that of the primordial nebula that gave birth to the Solar System - in the planets, that primeval material has gone through complex processing, but not in the comets. Therefore, Rosetta will allow scientists to look back 4.6 billion years, to an epoch when the Solar System formed. Previous studies by ESA's Giotto spacecraft and by ground-based observatories have shown that comets contain complex organic molecules - compounds that are rich in carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Intriguingly, these are the elements which make up nucleic acids and amino acids, essential ingredients for life as we know it. Did life on Earth begin with the help of comet seeding? Rosetta may help us to find the answer to this fundamental question. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total. These are provided by scientific consortia from institutes across Europe and the United States. The Wirtanen observations by the VLT fall into a tradition of fruitful collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The two organizations, both members of the EIROFORUM collaboration ( ESO PR 12/01 ), are already combining their efforts in several strategic areas, in order to facilitate the synergy between space and ground facilities, where mutual sharing of technology and procedures can result in substantial gains and savings.

  12. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  13. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  14. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  15. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  16. 5 CFR 5201.102 - Designation of separate agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... components. (a) Separate agency components of the Department of Labor. Pursuant to 5 CFR 2635.203(a), each of... purposes of applying any provision of 5 CFR part 2635 or this part to employees of the remainder of the...) Employment Standards Administration (ESA). (b) Separate agency subcomponents of ESA. Pursuant to 5 CFR...

  17. Earth observation data payload ground segments at DLR for GMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreier, Gunter; Dech, Stefan; Diedrich, Erhard; Maass, Holger; Mikusch, Eberhard

    2008-07-01

    The European Global Monitoring of Environment and Security (GMES) programme involves missions of the European Space Agency (ESA), EUMETSAT and also missions, originating from European national space agencies and private operators. These missions will be complemented by further missions from non-European operators to close gaps in data provision. The German Remote Sensing Data Center (DFD) of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is involved in national and private missions contributing to the fleet of GMES satellites. Apart from operating as one of the major Processing and Archiving Centers (PAC) for the ESA EO Missions, DFD is developing the data payload ground segment for the German national missions TerraSAR-X, TanDEM-X and EnMAP. DFD is also operations partner of European Space Imaging, receiving, processing and distributing submetric Ikonos data. Likewise, it is partner of EUROMAP, ensuring the European coverage for Indian Earth Observation satellites such as ResouceSat and CartoSat. A brief description of the missions, its ground segment and significance for GMES is given. Harmonizing the availability of data and products for European GMES users and managing the various data and information flows within a heterogeneous and distributed data payload ground segment is a challenging task.

  18. An overview of ESA cryocooler activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewell, C. I.

    1991-12-01

    With a significant number of future cryogenic cooling requirements incompatible with either radiative or cryogen cooling, a program of cryocooler developments which should lead to a range of 'space qualified' cryocoolers being commercially available for future users has been followed. An ESA 80 K 'Oxford type' cooler can presently be considered to be space qualified, while 20 and 4 K coolers are expected to be 'qualified' by 1992. Work is also being undertaken for the development of a 2.5 K cryocooler with 0.3 K as a future goal. The history of the 'Oxfordtype' cooler indicated that the design is based on an excellent pedigree and suggested future work should significantly increase the cryocoolers realm of applications.

  19. START Analysis for ESAS Capability Needs Prioritization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, William; Mrozinski, Joe; Hua, Hook; Merida, Sofia; Shelton, Kacie; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Weisbin, Charles R.; Derleth, Jason

    2006-01-01

    START is a tool to optimize research and development primarily for NASA missions. It was developed within the Strategic Systems Technology Program Office, a division of the Office of the Chief Technologist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. START is capable of quantifying and comparing the risks, costs, and potential returns of technologies that are candidates for funding. START can be enormously helpful both in selecting technologies for development -- within the constraints of budget, schedule, and other resources -- and in monitoring their progress. START's methods are applicable to everything from individual tasks to multiple projects comprising entire programs of investigation. They can address virtually any technology assessment and capability prioritization issue. In this report, START is used to analyze the capability needs using data from NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS).

  20. US Environmental rotection Agency's strategy for ground-water-quality monitoring at hazardous-waste land-disposal facilities located in karst terranes

    SciTech Connect

    Field, M.S.

    1988-11-01

    Ground-water monitoring of hazardous-waste land-disposal units by a network of wells is ineffective when located in karstic terranes. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is currently proposing to modify its current ground-water-quality monitoring requirement of one upgradient well and three downgradient wells for disposal units located in karstic terranes. The convergent nature of subsurface flow to cave streams in karstic terranes requires that effective monitoring wells intercept the cave streams. Wells located around a hazardous-waste disposal unit, but not in the specific cave stream draining the site, are only providing irrelevant data and a false sense of security because the water samples from such wells are not necessarily from the hazardous-waste disposal unit. A case study is provided in this paper. EPA is drafting a guidance document that will allow monitoring by wells, only if the up- and down-gradient wells can be demonstrated to be hydraulically connected by means of dye-trace studies. If not, then the monitoring of springs shown to be hydraulically connected to the facility by dye-tracing studies would be required. Monitoring for sinkhole development will also be required to provide advance warning of sinkhole collapse. The investigation and determination of the probability of sinkhole collapse is given special treatment.

  1. Bold ideas shortlisted for future ESA science projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    nature of empty space. Quantum theory implies that even a perfect vacuum is not really empty but seethes with short-lived particles and forces. Half a century ago, the Dutch physicist Hendrik Casimir predicted that this hidden nature of the vacuum should reveal itself by a novel force between two metal plates. The proposal is to measure the Casimir force between superconducting surfaces a hundredth of a millimetre apart, a million times more accurately than has been done on the ground. Finally, one of the proposed projects is astronomical. EDDINGTON would take up a station far from the Earth and use a 1-metre telescope with a wide field of view to examine stars for oscillations and passing planets. Oscillations due to sound waves have already revealed many features of the Sun's interior, allowing astrophysicists to check their theories about how stars work, in the nearest case. Now astronomers are beginning to use the same method in other stars, and EDDINGTON would apply it to 50,000 stars of many different kinds. It would also check 700,000 stars for the presence of planets, revealed by a dip in the brightness of a star when a planet passes in front of it. In addition to the above mentioned proposals, SSAC recommended to study three proposals for accommodation on the International Space Station (ISS): * EUSO, study of the cosmic neutrinos and extremely high energy cosmic rays, * LOBSTER, an imaging all-sky X-Ray monitor; MOSS, studying the physics of superconducting ultra-stable microwave oscillators. "As is always the case, these exciting proposals give us an embarrassment of riches," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "That's thanks to the vigour and imagination of Europe's space science community".

  2. NASA and ESA astronauts visit ESO. Hubble repair team meets European astronomers in Garching.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-02-01

    On Wednesday, February 16, 1994, seven NASA and ESA astronauts and their spouses will spend a day at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory. They are the members of the STS-61 crew that successfully repaired the Hubble Space Telescope during a Space Shuttle mission in December 1993. This will be the only stop in Germany during their current tour of various European countries. ESO houses the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST/ECF), a joint venture by the European Space Agency and ESO. This group of astronomers and computer specialists provide all services needed by European astronomers for observations with the Space Telescope. Currently, the European share is about 20 of the total time available at this telescope. During this visit, a Press Conference will be held on Wednesday, February 16, 11:45 - 12:30 at the ESO Headquarters Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2 D-85748 Garching bei Munchen. Please note that participation in this Press Conference is by invitation only. Media representatives may obtain invitations from Mrs. E. Volk, ESO Information Service at this address (Tel.: +49-89-32006276; Fax.: +49-89-3202362), until Friday, February 11, 1994. After the Press Conference, between 12:30 - 14:00, a light refreshment will be served at the ESO Headquarters to all participants. >From 14:00 - 15:30, the astronauts will meet with students and teachers from the many scientific institutes in Garching in the course of an open presentation at the large lecture hall of the Physics Department of the Technical University. It is a 10 minute walk from ESO to the hall. Later the same day, the astronauts will be back at ESO for a private discussion of various space astronomy issues with their astronomer colleagues, many of whom are users of the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as ground-based telescopes at the ESO La Silla Observatory and elsewhere. The astronauts continue to Switzerland in the evening.

  3. The europa initiative for esa's cosmic vision: a potential european contribution to nasa's Europa mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Michel; Jones, Geraint H.; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of the habitability of Jupiter's icy moons is considered of high priority in the roadmaps of the main space agencies, including the decadal survey and esa's cosmic vision plan. the voyager and galileo missions indicated that europa and ganymede may meet the requirements of habitability, including deep liquid aqueous reservoirs in their interiors. indeed, they constitute different end-terms of ocean worlds, which deserve further characterization in the next decade. esa and nasa are now both planning to explore these ice moons through exciting and ambitious missions. esa selected in 2012 the juice mission mainly focused on ganymede and the jupiter system, while nasa is currently studying and implementing the europa mission. in 2015, nasa invited esa to provide a junior spacecraft to be carried on board its europa mission, opening a collaboration scheme similar to the very successful cassini-huygens approach. in order to define the best contribution that can be made to nasa's europa mission, a europa initiative has emerged in europe. its objective is to elaborate a community-based strategy for the proposition of the best possible esa contribution(s) to nasa's europa mission, as a candidate for the upcoming selection of esa's 5th medium-class mission . the science returns of the different potential contributions are analysed by six international working groups covering complementary science themes: a) magnetospheric interactions; b) exosphere, including neutrals, dust and plumes; c) geochemistry; d) geology, including expressions of exchanges between layers; e) geophysics, including characterization of liquid water distribution; f) astrobiology. each group is considering different spacecraft options in the contexts of their main scientific merits and limitations, their technical feasibility, and of their interest for the development of esa-nasa collaborations. there are five options under consideration: (1) an augmented payload to the europa mission main

  4. A Reference Implementation of the OGC CSW EO Standard for the ESA HMA-T project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo; Boldrini, Enrico; Papeschi, Fabrizio; Vitale, Fabrizio

    2010-05-01

    This work was developed in the context of the ESA Heterogeneous Missions Accessibility (HMA) project, whose main objective is to involve the stakeholders, namely National space agencies, satellite or mission owners and operators, in an harmonization and standardization process of their ground segment services and related interfaces. Among HMA objectives was the specification, conformance testing, and experimentation of two Extension Packages (EPs) of the ebRIM Application Profile (AP) of the OGC Catalog Service for the Web (CSW) specification: the Earth Observation Products (EO) EP (OGC 06-131) and the Cataloguing of ISO Metadata (CIM) EP (OGC 07-038). Our contributions have included the development and deployment of Reference Implementations (RIs) for both the above specifications, and their integration with the ESA Service Support Environment (SSE). The RIs are based on the GI-cat framework, an implementation of a distributed catalog service, able to query disparate Earth and Space Science data sources (e.g. OGC Web Services, Unidata THREDDS) and to expose several standard interfaces for data discovery (e.g. OGC CSW ISO AP). Following our initial planning, the GI-cat framework has been extended in order to expose the CSW.ebRIM-CIM and CSW.ebRIM-EO interfaces, and to distribute queries to CSW.ebRIM-CIM and CSW.ebRIM-EO data sources. We expected that a mapping strategy would suffice for accommodating CIM, but this proved to be unpractical during implementation. Hence, a model extension strategy was eventually implemented for both the CIM and EO EPs, and the GI-cat federal model was enhanced in order to support the underlying ebRIM AP. This work has provided us with new insights into the different data models for geospatial data, and the technologies for their implementation. The extension is used by suitable CIM and EO profilers (front-end mediator components) and accessors (back-end mediator components), that relate ISO 19115 concepts to EO and CIM ones. Moreover

  5. Latest processing status and quality assessment of the GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY ESA dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niro, F.; Brizzi, G.; Saavedra de Miguel, L.; Scarpino, G.; Dehn, A.; Fehr, T.; von Kuhlmann, R.

    2011-12-01

    GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY instruments are successfully observing the changing Earth's atmosphere since the launch of the ENVISAT-ESA platform on March 2002. The measurements recorded by these instruments are relevant for the Atmospheric-Chemistry community both in terms of time extent and variety of observing geometry and techniques. In order to fully exploit these measurements, it is crucial to maintain a good reliability in the data processing and distribution and to continuously improving the scientific output. The goal is to meet the evolving needs of both the near-real-time and research applications. Within this frame, the ESA operational processor remains the reference code, although many scientific algorithms are nowadays available to the users. In fact, the ESA algorithm has a well-established calibration and validation scheme, a certified quality assessment process and the possibility to reach a wide users' community. Moreover, the ESA algorithm upgrade procedures and the re-processing performances have much improved during last two years, thanks to the recent updates of the Ground Segment infrastructure and overall organization. The aim of this paper is to promote the usage and stress the quality of the ESA operational dataset for the GOMOS, MIPAS and SCIAMACHY missions. The recent upgrades in the ESA processor (GOMOS V6, MIPAS V5 and SCIAMACHY V5) will be presented, with detailed information on improvements in the scientific output and preliminary validation results. The planned algorithm evolution and on-going re-processing campaigns will be mentioned that involves the adoption of advanced set-up, such as the MIPAS V6 re-processing on a clouds-computing system. Finally, the quality control process will be illustrated that allows to guarantee a standard of quality to the users. In fact, the operational ESA algorithm is carefully tested before switching into operations and the near-real time and off-line production is thoughtfully verified via the

  6. Overview of ESA life support activities in preparation of future exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Paille, Christel

    2016-07-01

    Since 1987, the European Space Agency has been active in the field of Life Support development. When compare to its international colleagues, it is clear that ESA started activities in the field with a "delay of around 25 years. Due to this situation and to avoid duplication, ESA decided to focus more on long term manned missions and to consider more intensively regenerative technologies as well as the associated risks management ( e.g. physical, chemical and contaminants). Fortunately or not, during the same period, no clear plan of exploration and consequently not specific requirements materialized. This force ESA to keep a broader and generic approach of all technologies. Today with this important catalogue of technologies and know-how, ESA is contemplating the different scenario of manned exploration beyond LEO. In this presentation we review the key scenario of future exploration, and identify the key technologies who loo the more relevant. An more detailed status is presented on the key technologies and their development plan for the future.

  7. Research recommendations of the ESA Topical Team on Artificial Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angie

    Many experts believe that artificial gravity will be required for an interplanetary mission. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for simplifying operational activities, much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before artificial gravity can be successfully implemented. The European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team on Artificial Gravity recommended a comprehensive program to determine the gravity threshold required to reverse or prevent the detrimental effects of microgravity and to evaluate the effects of centrifugation on various physiological functions. Part of the required research can be accomplished using animal models on a dedicated centrifuge in low Earth orbit. Studies of human responses to centrifugation could be performed during ambulatory, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight studies. Artificial-gravity scenarios should not be a priori discarded in Moon and Mars mission designs. One major step is to determine the relationship between the artificial gravity dose level, duration, and frequency and the physiological responses of the major body functions affected by spaceflight. Once its regime characteristics are defined and a dose-response curve is established, artificial gravity should serve as the standard against which all other countermeasure candidates are evaluated, first on Earth and then in space.

  8. ESA's Integral discovers hidden black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-10-01

    An artist's impression of the mechanisms in an interacting binar hi-res Size hi-res: 28 kb An artist's impression of the mechanisms in an interacting binary system An artist's impression of the mechanisms in an interacting binary system. The supermassive companion star (on the right-hand side) ejects a lot of gas in the form of 'stellar wind'. The compact black hole orbits the star and, due to its strong gravitational attraction, collects a lot of the gas. Some of it is funnelled and accelerated into a hot disc. This releases a large amount of energy in all spectral bands, from gamma rays through to visible and infrared. However, the remaining gas surrounding the black hole forms a thick cloud which blocks most of the radiation. Only the very energetic gamma rays can escape and be detected by Integral. XMM-Newton spacecraft hi-res Size hi-res: 254 kb Credits: ESA. Illustration by Ducros XMM-Newton spacecraft Detecting the Universe's hot spots. These are binary systems, probably including a black hole or a neutron star, embedded in a thick cocoon of cold gas. They have remained invisible so far to all other telescopes. Integral was launched one year ago to study the most energetic phenomena in the universe. Integral detected the first of these objects, called IGRJ16318-4848, on 29 January 2003. Although astronomers did not know its distance, they were sure it was in our Galaxy. Also, after some analysis, researchers concluded that the new object could be a binary system comprising a compact object, such as a neutron star or a black hole, and a very massive companion star. When gas from the companion star is accelerated and swallowed by the more compact object, energy is released at all wavelengths, from the gamma rays through to visible and infrared light. About 300 binary systems like those are known to exist in our galactic neighbourhood and IGRJ16318-4848 could simply have been one more. But something did not fit: why this particular object had not been

  9. The GRB Investigations by ESA Satellite Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Šimon, V.; Hudec, L.

    2009-05-01

    The ESA satellite in development Gaia to be launched in 2011 will focus on highly precise astrometry of stars and all objects down to limiting magnitude 20. Albeit focusing on astrometry related matters, the satellite will also provide photometric and spectral information and hence important inputs for various branches of astrophysics. Within the Gaia Variability UnitCU7 and related work package Specific Object Studies there has been a sub-work package accepted for optical counterparts to celestial high-energy sources, a category which includes the optical counterparts (i.e. optical transients and optical afterglows, including counterparts of XRFs and yet hypothetical orphan afterglows) of GRBs, and also microquasars. Although the sampling of photometric data will not be optimal for this type of work, the strength of Gaia in such analyses is the fine spectral resolution (spectro-photometry) which will allow the correct classification of related triggers. The possibilities to detect and to analyze optical transients and optical afterglows of GRBs and microquasars by Gaia will be presented and discussed.

  10. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Itten, Klaus I.; Dell'Endice, Francesco; Hueni, Andreas; Kneubühler, Mathias; Schläpfer, Daniel; Odermatt, Daniel; Seidel, Felix; Huber, Silvia; Schopfer, Jürg; Kellenberger, Tobias; Bühler, Yves; D'Odorico, Petra; Nieke, Jens; Alberti, Edoardo; Meuleman, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB) by using the Control Test Master (CTM), the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC), quality flagging (QF) and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF), and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output) introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a) satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b) helping the understanding of the Earth's complex mechanisms.

  11. The Life Sciences Programme of the European Space Agency, and opportunities for radiation biology experiments.

    PubMed

    Oser, H

    1984-01-01

    With the advent of Europe's commitment to contribute the European Space Agency (ESA) to the NASA Space Transportation System (STS) by means of the Spacelab programme, a new area for research opportunities on Life Sciences has been created for the European scientific community. Although considered as a young and new discipline, the goals of Life Sciences research in space had soon been defined by the ESA advising Life Sciences Working Group in the beginning of 1977. The programme proposals of the various subdisciplines concentrated on the advantageous use of the microgravity environment, to study in more depth the gravity relevance of biological systems. It included, however, also the use of other factors during space flight which cannot be reproduced or adequately simulated on the ground: cosmic radiation in its total spectrum, particularly HZE particles, solar and UV radiation, vacuum, and the combination of radiation and weightlessness, etc. On this basis, call for proposals in the various subdisciplines resulted in experiments also in the field of radiation biology which were flown on the Spacelab 1 mission and which were selected for later missions. In particular, ESA is providing the science community with mission opportunities on Spacelab, either European or International, with platforms to be launched by STS, and with so called multi-user facilities (e.g. Biorack). Typically, the experiments will be the responsibility of the scientists, the integration and mission phase the responsibility of ESA. Both mission definition and experiment selection rests with the ultimate decision of the responsible ESA Programme Board. A further description of missions envisioned, the Spacelab facility, platforms, multi-user facilities and areas of research applicable to radiobiology will be given. ESA's continuing interaction with the scientific community through the Life Sciences Working Group, and the advice on future programmes will be stressed as a vital factor

  12. Development of ground-water vulnerability database for the U.S. Environmental protection agency's hazard ranking system using a geographic information system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Sorensen, Jerry W.; Strickland, Henry G.; Collins, George

    1992-01-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) methods were applied to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hazard ranking system (HRS) to evaluate the vulnerability of ground water to contamination from actual or potential releases of hazardous materials from waste-disposal sites. Computerized maps of four factors influencing ground-water vulnerability - hydraulic conductivity, sorptive capacity, depth to water, and net precipitation - were derived for the Southeastern United States from digitized copies of published maps and from computerized databases, including the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) national water information system. To test the accuracy of the derived data coverages used to assess ground-water vulnerability, GIS-derived values for hydraulic conductivity, depth to water, and net precipitation were compared to corresponding values assigned by EPA's field investigation teams (FIT) at 28 hazardous waste sites. For each factor, site data were divided into three physiographic groupings: (1) Coastal Plain, (2) Valley and Ridge-Interior Low Plateaus, and (3) Piedmont-Blue Ridge. The best correlation between the paired data sets was for the net precipitation factor, where most GIS-derived values were within 0 to 40% of the FIT data, and 79% were within the same HRS scoring range. For the hydraulic conductivity factor, the best correlation between GIS and FIT data was for values derived from a published surficial deposits map, where most of the values were within one order of magnitude of the FIT data, and on the average were within 1.24 orders of magnitude of the FIT data. For this map, the best match between data sets was in the Coastal Plain province, where the difference in order to magnitude averaged 0.92. For the depth-to-water factor, most of the GIS derived values were within 51 to 100% of the FIT data, and only 44 to 50% of the sites were within a common scoring range. The best correlation for depth to water was in the Coastal Plain where GIS

  13. ESA successfully conducts experiment in Advanced Space Robotics on Japanese satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    ETS-VII is the latest in NASDA's series of engineering test satellites. It is dedicated to the in-orbit assessment and demonstration of novel technologies in rendez-vous / docking and space robotics. ETS-VII is in fact a pair of satellites, a larger chaser and a smaller target satellite which can be released for the rendez-vous and docking experiments. The larger satellite carries a robot arm with a stretched length of about 2 m, and a set of experimentation equipment to test the robot's capabilities : a task board on which typical robot manipulation activities can be performed and measured, an Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) to be removed and reinstalled, a truss structure to be erected, an antenna assembly mechanism to be actuated and an advanced robot hand. The ESA experiments concern advanced schemes for planning, commanding, controlling and monitoring the activities of a space robot arm system. One set of experiments tests an operational mode called "interactive autonomy", whereby the robot motions are split into typical "tasks" of medium complexity. Ground operators can interact with the tasks (parameterising, commanding, rescheduling, monitoring, interrupting them as needed), relying on the fact that each task will be autonomously executed using appropriate sensor-based control loops (it having been programmed and extensively verified in advance by simulation). This significantly reduces the amount of data traffic over the spacelink - in fact, ETS-VII offers only a few short communications windows per day. Data from ESA experiments will be used to assess the performance of tasks executed with "interactive autonomy" compared with the more traditional telemanipulation at lower control levels. The second group of experiments concerns vision-based robot control. Using the Japanese-provided on-board vision system (which includes one hand camera and one scene-overview camera), it has been demonstrated that reliable automatic object localisation and grasping can be

  14. Battery development and testing at ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verniolle, Jean

    1987-01-01

    The principal activities of the Energy Storage Section of the Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) of the European Space Agency are presented. Nickel-hydrogen and fuel cell systems development are reported. The European Space Battery Test Center (ESBTC) facilities are briefly described along with the current test programs and results obtained.

  15. The ESA Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heynderickx, D.; Quaghebeur, B.; Evans, H. D. R.

    2002-01-01

    The ESA SPace ENVironment Information System (SPENVIS) provides standardized access to models of the hazardous space environment through a user-friendly WWW interface. The interface includes parameter input with extensive defaulting, definition of user environments, streamlined production of results (both in graphical and textual form), background information, and on-line help. It is available on-line at http://www.spenvis.oma.be/spenvis/. SPENVIS Is designed to help spacecraft engineers perform rapid analyses of environmental problems and, with extensive documentation and tutorial information, allows engineers with relatively little familiarity with the models to produce reliable results. It has been developed in response to the increasing pressure for rapid-response tools for system engineering, especially in low-cost commercial and educational programmes. It is very useful in conjunction with radiation effects and electrostatic charging testing in the context of hardness assurance. SPENVIS is based on internationally recognized standard models and methods in many domains. It uses an ESA-developed orbit generator to produce orbital point files necessary for many different types of problem. It has various reporting and graphical utilities, and extensive help facilities. The SPENVIS radiation module features models of the proton and electron radiation belts, as well as solar energetic particle and cosmic ray models. The particle spectra serve as input to models of ionising dose (SHIELDOSE), Non-Ionising Energy Loss (NIEL), and Single Event Upsets (CREME). Material shielding is taken into account for all these models, either as a set of user-defined shielding thicknesses, or in combination with a sectoring analysis that produces a shielding distribution from a geometric description of the satellite system. A sequence of models, from orbit generator to folding dose curves with a shielding distribution, can be run as one process, which minimizes user interaction and

  16. Status of the ESA Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H. R.; Schumann, W.

    2004-11-01

    Following on from the first generation of Meteosat, the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) programme promises to provide advanced and more frequent data for short-range and medium-range weather forecasting and climate monitoring for at least the next 12 years. The MSG programme is a cooperation between ESA and EUMETSAT, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites organisation. ESA has been responsible for designing and developing the first of the four satellites in the MSG programme, whilst EUMETSAT has overall responsibility for defining the end-user requirements, developing the ground segment and operating the system. The first MSG satellite, called MSG-1 (METEOSAT 8), was successfully launched on 28August 2002 by an Ariane 5 launcher together with its co-passenger Atlantic Bird. ESOC took over control of the satellite after separation and placed the satellite from the Ariane injection orbit to a quasi-geostationary orbit drifting slowly towards the commissioning longitude at 10.5 deg West. Subsequently EUMETSAT started the satellite commissioning testing. Except the in-orbit failure of an on-board amplifier, with its consequences for the dissemination service, the achieved results show a high degree of compliance with respect to the satellite specification and show very good overall performance of the satellite, in particular for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument to be outstanding. METEOSAT-8 entered routine operations on 29 January 2004. In parallel with the MSG-1 commissioning activities, the integration and test phases on the other MSG satellites has well progressed. Begin March 2004, EUMETSAT took the decision to take the MSG-2 satellite out of storage, resuming testing and work on it towards its final preparation for launch with a launch period now defined between February and April 2005. MSG-3 is entered into storage in summer this year. It is an intermediate storage configuration, after the

  17. ESA's Integral satellite ready for lift-off from Baikonur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    ESA's INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) satellite, will be launched by a Proton launcher from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on 17 October at 06:41 CEST (Central European Summer Time). The most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched, INTEGRAL is a truly international mission involving all ESA member states plus the USA and Russia. It carries four instruments from teams led by scientists in Italy, France, Germany, Denmark and Spain to gather and analyse gamma-rays, X-rays and visible light from celestial objects. INTEGRAL will give astronomers across the world their clearest views yet of the most extreme environments in the Universe. It will detect radiation from the most violent events far away and from processes that made the Universe inhabitable. Media representatives in Europe can follow the videotransmission of the launch at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands, ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy or ESA/Villafranca (VILSPA) in Spain. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide video news releases and live coverage of the launch between 06:15-07:00 and 08:00-08:30 CEST. Details of the transmission schedule for the various Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int The launch can also be followed live on the internet at www.esa.int/integrallaunch starting at 06:15 hrs.

  18. Distribution of ESA's planetary mission data via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; Ortiz, Inaki

    Scientific and engineering data from the European Space Agency's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. All data in the PSA are compatible with the Planetary Data System (PDS) Standard of NASA, and the PSA staff work in close collaboration with the PDS staff. One major part of the ongoing development of the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) has been to draw upon the lessons learned on both sides of this working relationship in order to refine and streamline the Standards. This is driving towards ‘interoperability' of the data systems maintained at all Agencies archiving planetary data, and it is hoped that in the long-run any data can be obtained from any of the co-operating archives using the same protocol. Currently, the PSA contains data from the GIOTTO spacecraft, several ground-based cometary observations, and the Mars Express, Smart-1, and Huygens missions. Independent reviews for the first Venus Express data are schedule for Spring 2008 and the first Venus Express data should be released on the PSA in late spring 2008. The first data release from the ROSETTA mission is also expected to be released on the PSA by spring 2008. Preparation for the release of data from the SMART-1 spacecraft is ongoing. Future missions such as ExoMars and Bepi- Colombo will also aim to work with the PSA to distribute their data to the community. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Classical Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. By nature, this interface requires careful use and heavy

  19. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Pretreatments Only Final Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (hex chrome or CR(VI)) is a widely used element within applied coating systems because of its self-healing and corrosion-resistant properties. The replacement of hex chrome in the processing of aluminum for aviation and aerospace applications remains a goal of great significance. Aluminum is the major manufacturing material of structures and components in the space flight arena. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are engaged in a collaborative effort to test and evaluate alternatives to hexavalent chromium containing corrosion coating systems. NASA and ESA share common risks related to material obsolescence associated with hexavalent chromium used in corrosion-resistant coatings.

  20. ESA activities in the use of microwaves for the remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccoll, D.

    1984-01-01

    The program of activities under way in the European Space Agency (ESA) directed towards Remote Sensing of the oceans and troposphere is discussed. The initial project is the launch of a satellite named ERS-1 with a primary payload of microwave values in theee C- and Ku-bands. This payload is discussed in depth. The secondary payload includes precision location experiments and an instrument to measure sea surface temperature, which are described. The important topic of calibration is extensively discussed, and a review of activities directed towards improvements to the instruments for future satellites is presented. Some discussion of the impact of the instrument payload on the spacecraft design follows and the commitment of ESA to the provision of a service of value to the ultimate user is emphasized.

  1. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  2. On-orbit demonstrations of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing serviceable NASA Explorer platform spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohweisner, Bill; Pairot, Jean-Michael

    1991-01-01

    Since 1984 the European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability to enable Hermes to dock automatically with Columbus. As a result, ESA (with Matra, MBB, and other space companies) have developed technologies that are directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments and suggest how these capabilities could be used together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite to minimize new development and accomplish a cost-effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program.

  3. "Europe lands on Mars" - Media event at ESA/ESOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    from the collision course and enter into orbit around Mars. This will be the first time that an orbiter delivers a lander without its own propulsion onto a planet and attempts orbit insertion immediately afterwards. Since all these manoeuvres are time-critical and allow little margin of error, the ground control team has had to simulate all possible scenarios (including glitches and problems, on board and on the ground) to make sure that nothing is left to chance. The team has been training since September in a very realistic setting, using the same computers and equipment that will be employed during this mission phase. Although the real spacecraft cannot be directly involved, its behaviour is simulated via a sophisticated computer programme, using the actual flight software. These rehearsals, each lasting a day or more, cover all possible situations from the failure of an onboard instrument to the outbreak of a fire in the control room. One of these simulations will take place during the press conference on 3 December. ESA's ground control team at ESOC, on the other hand, are having a very busy time. They are actively rehearsing responses to any situation that might arise when Mars Express releases Beagle 2 and enters into orbit around Mars. "The Mars Express mission is pushing the operations staff to extremes. Over the years, the experience acquired with experimental missions has provided a solid basis on which to prepare for the unexpected. The satellite controllers will rise to this new challenge", Gaele Winters, ESA Director of Technical and Operational Support, said. Four media events have been scheduled relating to the arrival of Mars Express at its destination (see our press release N° 74-2003). The next event is scheduled on Wednesday 3 December at ESA/ESOC, Darmstadt, Germany and will possibly include the presentation of the first HRSC image and further information about scientific expectations of the mission. Several Principal Investigators will present

  4. ESA activities on satellite laser ranging to non-cooperative objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin; Jilete, Beatriz; Mancas, Alexandru

    2016-07-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to non-cooperative objects is an emerging technology that can contribute significantly to operational, modelling and mitigation needs set by the space debris population. ESA is conducting various research and development activities in SLR to non-cooperative objects. ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program supports specific activities in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment. Research and development activities with operational aspects are run by ESA's Space Debris Office. At ESA SSA/SST comprises detecting, cataloguing and predicting the objects orbiting the Earth, and the derived applications. SST aims at facilitating research and development of sensor and data processing technologies and of related common components while staying complementary with, and in support of, national and multi-national European initiatives. SST promotes standardisation and interoperability of the technology developments. For SLR these goals are implemented through researching, developing, and deploying an expert centre. This centre shall coordinate the contribution of system-external loosely connected SLR sensors, and shall provide back calibration and expert evaluation support to the sensors. The Space Debris Office at ESA is responsible for all aspects related to space debris in the Agency. It is in charge of providing operational support to ESA and third party missions. Currently, the office studies the potential benefits of laser ranging to space debris objects to resolve close approaches to active satellites, to improve re-entry predictions of time and locations, and the more general SLR support during contingency situations. The office studies the determination of attitude and attitude motion of uncooperative objects with special focus on the combination of SLR, light-curve, and radar imaging data. Generating sufficiently precise information to allow for the acquisition of debris objects by a SLR sensor in a stare

  5. 15 K liquid hydrogen thermal Energy Storage Unit for future ESA science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges de Sousa, P.; Martins, D.; Tomás, G.; Barreto, J.; Noite, J.; Linder, M.; Fruchart, D.; de Rango, P.; Haettel, R.; Catarino, I.; Bonfait, G.

    2015-12-01

    A thermal Energy Storage Unit (ESU) using liquid hydrogen has been developed as a solution for absorbing the heat peaks released by the recycling phase of a 300 mK cooler that is a part of the cryogenic chain of one of ESA's new satellites for science missions. This device is capable of storing 400 J of thermal energy between 15 and 16 K by taking advantage of the liquid-to-vapor latent heat of hydrogen in a closed system. This paper describes some results obtained with the development model of the ESU under different configurations and using two types of hydrogen storage: a large expansion volume for ground testing and a much more compact unit, suitable for space applications and that can comply with ESA's mass budget.

  6. ESA's Support To Science Element (STSE): A New Opportunity for the Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, D.; Herland, E.-A.

    2009-04-01

    In 1998, the document ESA SP-1227: "The Science and Research Elements of ESA's Living Planet Programme", laid out the research objectives for the scientific component of the Living Planet Program. These were formulated around four themes: Earth Interior, Physical Climate, Geosphere/Biosphere and Atmosphere & Marine Environment: Anthropogenic Impact. These themes encompassed the full scope of Earth Science. Although no specific area of Earth Science was prioritised, the document emphasised the need to move towards an integrated Earth System Model, where the role of internationally coordinated scientific programmes and coordination with national programmes and other agencies and organisations were recognised as being a key aspect of the science strategy. In 2006, the EO Science Strategy was updated (ESA/PB-EO(2006)89) under the auspices of the ESA's Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) in wide consultation with the scientific community. The resulting document: "The Changing Earth - New Scientific Challenges for ESA's Living Planet Programme" (ESA/SP-1304) outlines the new scientific direction for the future progress of the ESA Living Planet Programme. In particular, the document set out the 25 major challenges for our understanding of the Earth System with especial focus on those areas of knowledge where satellite data may make a major contribution. Achieving those challenges will require a large international effort involving, novel observation, enhanced data sets, improved models and coordinated research. ESA is contributing to those efforts through its missions (e.g., the ERS1 and 2, ENVISAT, the Meteorological satellites and the coming Earth Explorers and Sentinel series) and exploitation programs. However, in order to further reinforce the ESA support to the scientific community, a dedicated element of the Envelop program was launched in 2008, the Support To Science Element (STSE). STSE aims at providing "scientific support for both future and on

  7. ESA to launch six scientific satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    ship to Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. Since then, all the satellite subsystems and scientific instruments have been thoroughly tested and found to be in order. ISO is now waiting its turn to be mated with the Ariane 44P launcher. The launch campaign will resume in early October for a launch on 3 November. Preparations for flight operations by ESA's space operation centre, ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany and the flight control centre at Villafranca, near Madrid, Spain are also in the final stages. Most of the work in the last two months before a launch involves training and performing simulations to prove flight readiness. The scientific community is eagerly awaiting the preliminary results of ISO's first look into space in November. SOHO SOHO arrived at Kennedy Space Centre on 1 August. It was given a welcome by hurricane ERIN, which forced an immediate transfer to its reserved NASA facility just after its transport plane had safely landed. Spacecraft preparation for launch has started with a thorough check of all the systems and instruments onboard SOHO and will proceed with an end-to-end test with the NASA control station at Goddard Spaceflight Centre. Parallel activities are proceeding in Europe on the final testing and inspection of the four reaction wheels which the spacecraft control system uses to keep all its instruments pointed very precisely at the sun. At the end of its preparation, the spacecraft will be mated to its Atlas IIAS launcher, which is due to lift off in the first week of December. CLUSTER All four Cluster spacecraft, together with all ancillary equipment, have now arrived at Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The spacecraft have been set up for final electrical testing in the Final Assembly Building , a new Ariane 5 facility. Major milestones in the campaign are the start of spacecraft fuelling operations at the beginning of November and the start of integration of the spacecraft with the launch vehicle in mid- December. The

  8. mkESA: enhanced suffix array construction tool.

    PubMed

    Homann, Robert; Fleer, David; Giegerich, Robert; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2009-04-15

    We introduce the tool mkESA, an open source program for constructing enhanced suffix arrays (ESAs), striving for low memory consumption, yet high practical speed. mkESA is a user-friendly program written in portable C99, based on a parallelized version of the Deep-Shallow suffix array construction algorithm, which is known for its high speed and small memory usage. The tool handles large FASTA files with multiple sequences, and computes suffix arrays and various additional tables, such as the LCP table (longest common prefix) or the inverse suffix array, from given sequence data. PMID:19246510

  9. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    5 August 2004 A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, but also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed... Gamma ray burst model hi-res Size hi-res: 22 KB Credits: CXC/M. Weiss Artist impression of a low-energy gamma-ray burst This illustration describes a model for a gamma-ray burst, like the one detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 (GRB 031203). A jet of high-energy particles from a rapidly rotating black hole interacts with surrounding matter. Observations with Integral on 3 December 2003 and data on its afterglow, collected afterwards with XMM-Newton, Chandra and the Very Large Array telescope, show that GRB 031203 radiated only a fraction of the energy of normal gamma-ray bursts. Like supernovae, gamma-ray bursts are thought to be produced by the collapse of the core of a massive star. However, while the process leading to supernovae is relatively well understood, astronomers still do not know what happens when a core collapses to form a black hole. The discovery of 'under-energetic' gamma-ray bursts, like GRB 031203, should provide valuable clues as to links between supernovae, black holes and gamma-ray bursts. Lo-res JPG (22 Kb) Hi-res TIFF (5800 Kb) Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs

  10. Astronomy Missions In The Esa Science Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favata, Fabio

    2011-09-01

    I will present an overview of the Science Programme of the European Space Agency, focusing on the astronomy missions. I will give a brief overview of missions currently in operation and under implementation, and then present the portfolio of missions currently under study as candidates for future implementation in the program. The planning and selection process will be illustrated, as well as the prospective building blocks for the future program. Missions falling under the remit of HEAD, e.g. X-ray, gamma-ray and gravitational wave missions, will be discussed in detail.

  11. Containerless Processing on ISS: Ground Support Program for EML

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diefenbach, Angelika; Schneider, Stephan; Willnecker, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    EML is an electromagnetic levitation facility planned for the ISS aiming at processing and investigating liquid metals or semiconductors by using electromagnetic levitation technique under microgravity with reduced electromagnetic fields and convection conditions. Its diagnostics and processing methods allow to measure thermophysical properties in the liquid state over an extended temperature range and to investigate solidification phenomena in undercooled melts. The EML project is a common effort of The European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Space Agency DLR. The Microgravity User Support Centre MUSC at Cologne, Germany, has been assigned the responsibility for EML operations. For the EML experiment preparation an extensive scientific ground support program is established at MUSC, providing scientific and technical services in the preparation, performance and evaluation of the experiments. Its final output is the transcription of the scientific goals and requirements into validated facility control parameters for the experiment execution onboard the ISS.

  12. Rosetta performs ESA's closest-ever Earth fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    The passage through the Earth-Moon system allowed ground controllers to test Rosetta's 'asteroid fly-by mode' (AFM) using the Moon as a 'fake' asteroid, rehearsing the fly-bys of asteroids Steins and Lutetia due in 2008 and 2010 respectively. The AFM test started at 23:01 GMT and ran for nine minutes during which the two onboard navigation cameras successfully tracked the Moon, allowing Rosetta's attitude to be automatically adjusted. Before and after closest approach, the navigation cameras also acquired a series of images of the Moon and Earth; these data will be downloaded early today for ground processing and are expected to be available by 8 March. In addition, other onboard instruments were switched on, including ALICE (ultraviolet imaging spectrometer), VIRTIS (visible and infrared mapping spectrometer) and MIRO (microwave instrument for the Rosetta orbiter), for calibration and general testing using the Earth and Moon as targets. The fly-by manoeuvre swung the three-tonne spacecraft around our planet and out towards Mars, where it will make a fly-by on 26 February 2007. Rosetta will return to Earth again in a series of four planet fly-bys (three times with Earth, once with Mars) before reaching Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, when it will enter orbit and deliver a lander, Philae, onto the surface. The fly-bys are necessary to accelerate the spacecraft so as to eventually match the velocity of the target comet. They are a fuel-saving way to boost speed using planetary gravity. Yesterday's fly-by came one year and two days after launch and highlights the valuable opportunities for instrument calibration and data gathering available during the mission's multi-year voyage. In just three months, on 4 July, Rosetta will be in a good position to observe and gather data during NASA's spectacular Deep Impact event, when the Deep Impact probe will hurl a 380 kg projectile into Comet Tempel 1, revealing data on the comet's internal structure. Certain of

  13. Science performance of Gaia, ESA's space-astrometry mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.

    2012-09-01

    Gaia is the next astrometry mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), following up on the success of the Hipparcos mission. With a focal plane containing 106 CCD detectors, Gaia will survey the entire sky and repeatedly observe the brightest 1,000 million objects, down to 20th magnitude, during its 5-year lifetime. Gaia's science data comprises absolute astrometry, broad-band photometry, and low-resolution spectro-photometry. Spectroscopic data with a resolving power of 11,500 will be obtained for the brightest 150 million sources, down to 17th magnitude. The thermo-mechanical stability of the spacecraft, combined with the selection of the L2 Lissajous point of the Sun-Earth/Moon system for operations, allows stellar parallaxes to be measured with standard errors less than 10 micro-arcsecond (μas) for stars brighter than 12th magnitude, 25 μas for stars at 15th magnitude, and 300 μas at magnitude 20. Photometric standard errors are in the milli-magnitude regime. The spectroscopic data allows the measurement of radial velocities with errors of 15 km s-1 at magnitude 17. Gaia's primary science goal is to unravel the kinematical, dynamical, and chemical structure and evolution of the Milky Way. In addition, Gaia's data will touch many other areas of science, e.g., stellar physics, solar-system bodies, fundamental physics, and exo-planets. The Gaia spacecraft is currently in the qualification and production phase. With a launch in 2013, the final catalogue is expected in 2021. The science community in Europe, organised in the Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC), is responsible for the processing of the data.

  14. Status of esa smart-1 mission to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. R.; Marini, A.; SMART-1 Technology Working Team

    2003-04-01

    SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA’s Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology . Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been readied for launch in spring 2003 as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. After a cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit. SMART-1's science payload, with a total mass of some 19 kg, features many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition and evolution of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of planets, and the origin of the

  15. mkESA: enhanced suffix array construction tool

    PubMed Central

    Homann, Robert; Fleer, David; Giegerich, Robert; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Summary: We introduce the tool mkESA, an open source program for constructing enhanced suffix arrays (ESAs), striving for low memory consumption, yet high practical speed. mkESA is a user-friendly program written in portable C99, based on a parallelized version of the Deep-Shallow suffix array construction algorithm, which is known for its high speed and small memory usage. The tool handles large FASTA files with multiple sequences, and computes suffix arrays and various additional tables, such as the LCP table (longest common prefix) or the inverse suffix array, from given sequence data. Availability: The source code of mkESA is freely available under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) version 2 at http://bibiserv.techfak.uni-bielefeld.de/mkesa/. Contact: rhomann@techfak.uni-bielefeld.de PMID:19246510

  16. Sharing ESA's knowledge and experience - the Erasmus Experiment Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakeit, Dieter; Sabbatini, Massimo; Carey, William

    2004-11-01

    The Erasmus Experiment Archive is an electronic database, that collects all experiments performed to date in the faciliteis that fall under the responsibility of the ESA (human spaceflight, microgravity, exploration).

  17. Comparing NASA and ESA Cost Estimating Methods for Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Charles D.; vanPelt, Michel O.

    2004-01-01

    To compare working methodologies between the cost engineering functions in NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ESA European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), as well as to set-up cost engineering capabilities for future manned Mars projects and other studies which involve similar subsystem technologies in MSFC and ESTEC, a demonstration cost estimate exercise was organized. This exercise was a direct way of enhancing not only cooperation between agencies but also both agencies commitment to credible cost analyses. Cost engineers in MSFC and ESTEC independently prepared life-cycle cost estimates for a reference human Mars project and subsequently compared the results and estimate methods in detail. As a non-sensitive, public domain reference case for human Mars projects, the Mars Direct concept was chosen. In this paper the results of the exercise are shown; the differences and similarities in estimate methodologies, philosophies, and databases between MSFC and ESTEC, as well as the estimate results for the Mars Direct concept. The most significant differences are explained and possible estimate improvements identified. In addition, the Mars Direct plan and the extensive cost breakdown structure jointly set-up by MSFC and ESTEC for this concept are presented. It was found that NASA applied estimate models mainly based on historic Apollo and Space Shuttle cost data, taking into account the changes in technology since then. ESA used models mostly based on European satellite and launcher cost data, taking into account the higher equipment and testing standards for human space flight. Most of NASA's and ESA s estimates for the Mars Direct case are comparable, but there are some important, consistent differences in the estimates for: 1) Large Structures and Thermal Control subsystems; 2) System Level Management, Engineering, Product Assurance and Assembly, Integration and Test/Verification activities; 3) Mission Control; 4) Space Agency Program Level

  18. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio Rossi, Angelo; Cecconi, Baptiste; Fraenz, Markus; Hagermann, Axel; Heather, David; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Svedhem, Hakan; Widemann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug. The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa References: Heather, D., Barthelemy, M., Manaud, N., Martinez, S., Szumlas, M., Vazquez, J. L., Osuna, P. and the PSA Development Team (2013) ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status, Activities and Plans. EuroPlanet Sci. Congr. #EPSC2013-626

  19. ESA Experiments with the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillouet, Claude; Briganti, Luca; Schwarzwalder, Achim

    2008-06-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is an ESA developed facility dedicated to gravitational biology and especially to plant research. However, experiments using small animals, like insects and small invertebrates are also possible. EMCS is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006 and four experiments, including two from ESA, have been already performed. Several others are in their final development phase and shall be flown within the next following years.

  20. Capacity building in Developing Countries: a challenge ahead for the European Space Agency to continue its successful experience to date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fea, M.

    that includes a) the "train the trainer" approach, b) the prerequisite of a project proposal prepared by the trainee of a target institution on an issue of, possibly, national interest and focused towards establishing an operational autonomy and a routine practice in the integration and use of EO satellite data, c) the firm commitment of the institution to support the project and the trainee, d) the involvement of final users since the very beginning, and e) the exposure of trainees to public for presenting their results. In order to demonstrate how the Agency implements all the above, besides the typical training of external satellite ground station operators, and the way ahead strategy considered within the CEOS WGEdu and WSSD Mod.1 framework, three ESA endeavours are presented, namely the multi-language EDUSPACE web portal (www.eduspace.esa.int), the hosting of UN trainees, and the UN/ESA Course Follow-up Programme.

  1. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier conducts IFM on OV-104's waste collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, wearing goggles, face mask, and rubber gloves, reviews inflight maintenance (IFM) checklist procedures before starting waste collection system (WCS) fan separator repair. One of two fan separators used to transfer waster water from the waste management compartment (WMC) to the waste water tank has failed. The suspected accumulation of water in the separator was believed to have occurred during a test dumping of waste water at a lower than normal pressure to evaluate the performance of new nozzles. The WMC is located on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104.

  2. X-38 NASA/DLR/ESA-Dassault Aviation Integrated Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labbe, Steve G.; Perez, Leo F.; Fitzgerald, Steve; Longo, Jose; Rapuc, Marc; Molina, Rafael; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The characterization of the aeroshape selected for the X-38 [Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) demonstrator] is presently being performed as a cooperative endeavour between NASA, DLR (through its TETRA Program), and European Space Agency (ESA) with Dassault Aviation integrating the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic activities. The methodologies selected for characterizing the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic environment of the X-38 are presented. Also, the implications for related disciplines such as Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) with its corresponding Flight Control System (FCS), Structural, and Thermal Protection System (TPS) design are discussed. An attempt is made at defining the additional activities required to support the design of a derived operational CRV.

  3. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier and PLC Hoffman pose on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier (left) and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman pose in front of the onorbit station controls on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The overhead windows W7 and W8 appear above their heads and the aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10 behind them. Hoffman and Nicollier have been training together for a dozen years at JSC. Hoffman was an astronaut candidate in 1978 and Nicollier accompanied a group of trainees in 1980. Note the partially devoured chocolate Space Shuttle floating near the two.

  4. LISA — An ESA cornerstone mission for the detection and observation of gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danzmann, K.; LISA Science Team

    2003-10-01

    The primary objective of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is to detect and observe gravitational waves from massive black holes, galactive binary stars, and violent events in the Universe in a frequency range from 10 -4 to 10 -1 Hz which is totally inaccessible to ground based experiments. It uses highly stabilised laser light (Nd: YAG, λ = 1.064 μm) in a Michelson-type interferometer arrangement. A cluster of six spacecraft with two at each vertex of an equilateral triangle is placed in an Earth-like orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the Sun, and 20° behind the Earth. Three subsets of four adjacent spacecraft each form an interferometer comprising a central station, consisting of two relatively adjacent spacecraft (200 km apart), and two spacecraft placed at a distance of 5 × 10 6 km from the centre to form arms which make an angle of 60° with each other. Each spacecraft is equipped with a laser. A descoped LISA with only four spacecraft has undergone an ESA assessment study in the M3 cycle, and the full 6-spacecraft LISA mission has now been selected as a cornerstone mission in the ESA Horizons 2000 programme. The LISA Assessment Report is available as ESA document SCI(94)6, May 1994. Detailed information on the LISA cornerstone mission is contained in the LISA Pre-Phase A Report, available as MPQ Report MPQ 208 (1996) from the Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik.

  5. Unresolved Galaxy Classifier for ESA's Gaia Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellas-Velidis, I.; Kontizas, M.; Livanou, E.; Tsalmantza, P.

    2010-07-01

    Unresolved Galaxy Classifier (UGC), a software package for the ground-based pipeline of ESA’s Gaia mission is presented. It aims at analyzing Gaia BP/RP spectra of unresolved galaxies, to provide taxonomic classification and specific parameters estimation. The UGC algorithm is based on Support Vector Machines, a supervised learning technique. The software is implemented in JAVA. An offline UGC-learning module provides functions for SVM-model training. Once trained, the set of models can be repeatedly applied to unknown galaxy spectra by the pipeline’s UGC-application module. Tests with a library of BP/RP simulated galaxy spectra show a very good performance of UGC.

  6. ESA Ice Sheets CCI: Overview and surface elevation change results for the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinsen, J. F.; Forsberg, R.; Meister, R.; Hogg, A.; Shepherd, A.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Dall, J.; Kusk, A.; Nagler, T.; Scharrer, K.; Andersen, S. B.; Andersen, M. L.

    2013-12-01

    With the climate changing and the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) losing mass at an accelerating rate, the European Space Agency has established the Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) project in order to provide selected Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) for the GIS. The ECV presented here is the Ice Sheets (http://www.esa-icesheets-cci.org/) in which four parameters are to be determined: Surface elevation changes (SEC), ice velocities, grounding line locations, and calving front locations. The resulting data sets are to be openly distributed via the CCI web-site in transparent and easy-to-use formats. The production of the final data sets, dating from 1991 - present, is well underway. This presentation will provide a status overview of all four ECV parameters. As a preparation for the final data set computations, all ECVs carried out an open Round Robin (RR) exercise in order to find the most optimal method for producing the most reliable estimates. In the RR, the scientific community was asked to submit their best estimate of the given parameters along with a feedback sheet describing methodology, pre- and post-processing steps, etc. We outline the results of the SEC RR, where 11 participants from various US and European institutions provided estimates over the Jakobshavn Isbræ drainage basin. The participants used either Envisat radar or ICESat laser altimetry, and cross-over (XO), repeat-track (RT), and overlapping footprint analyses were made. Especially one of the results, based on Envisat RT, provided the first evidence for the possibility of using radar altimetry to accurately derive SEC estimates in both interior and margin parts of the GIS. This illustrates the potential for the final SEC product, which will be based on Envisat, Cryosat-2, and Sentinel-3 data. Through inter-comparisons and validation of the submissions, the most optimal method for deriving SEC values was found to be a combination of RT and XO algorithms, exploiting the high spatial

  7. JANUS: the visible camera onboard the ESA JUICE mission to the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Pasquale; Jaumann, Ralf; Cremonese, Gabriele; Hoffmann, Harald; Debei, Stefano; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Holland, Andrew; Lara, Luisa Maria

    2014-05-01

    The JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission [1] was selected in May 2012 as the first Large mission in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. JUICE is now in phase A-B1 and its final adoption is planned by late 2014. The mission is aimed at an in-depth characterization of the Jovian system, with an operational phase of about 3.5 years. Main targets for this mission will be Jupiter, its satellites and rings and the complex relations within the system. Main focus will be on the detailed investigation of three of Jupiter's Galilean satellites (Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto), thanks to several fly-bys and 9 months in orbit around Ganymede. JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) is the camera system selected by ESA to fulfill the optical imaging scientific requirements of JUICE. It is being developed by a consortium involving institutes in Italy, Germany, Spain and UK, supported by respective Space Agencies, with the support of Co-Investigators also from USA, France, Japan and Israel. The Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto show an increase in geologic activity with decreasing distance to Jupiter [e.g., 2]. The three icy Galilean satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa show a tremendous diversity of surface features and differ significantly in their specific evolutionary paths. Each of these moons exhibits its own fascinating geologic history - formed by competition and also combination of external and internal processes. Their origins and evolutions are influenced by factors such as density, temperature, composition (volatile compounds), stage of differentiation, volcanism, tectonism, the rheological reaction of ice and salts to stress, tidal effects, and interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere and space. These interactions are still recorded in the present surface geology. The record of geological processes spans from possible cryovolcanism through widespread tectonism to surface degradation and impact cratering

  8. Present and future Solar System missions in the framework of the ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colangeli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    The Science Directorate is in charge of developing the "Science Mandatory Programme". Through the science programme, ESA implements scientific projects to achieve ambitious objectives. On this ground, science challenges and advancement in technologies work together in a synergistic endeavour. Both long-term science planning and mission calls are bottom-up processes, relying on broad community input and peer review. The Cosmic Vision program is since 2005 the implementation tool for the science mandatory programme. I will present an overview of the space missions in operation, under development and for study with particular emphasis on those visiting the Solar System.

  9. The phase 0/A study of the ESA M3 mission candidate EChO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, Ludovic; Isaak, Kate; Linder, Martin; Escudero, Isabel; Crouzet, Pierre-Elie; Walker, Roger; Ehle, Matthias; Hübner, Jutta; Timm, Rainer; de Vogeleer, Bram; Drossart, Pierre; Hartogh, Paul; Lovis, Christophe; Micela, Giusi; Ollivier, Marc; Ribas, Ignasi; Snellen, Ignas; Swinyard, Bruce; Tinetti, Giovanna; Eccleston, Paul

    2015-12-01

    EChO, the Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory, has been one of the five M-class mission candidates competing for the M3 launch slot within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency (ESA). As such, EChO has been the subject of a Phase 0/A study that involved European Industry, research institutes and universities from ESA member states and that concluded in September 2013. EChO is a concept for a dedicated mission to measure the chemical composition and structure of hundreds of exoplanet atmospheres using the technique of transit spectroscopy. With simultaneous and uninterrupted spectral coverage from the visible to infrared wavelengths, EChO targets extend from gas giants (Jupiter or Neptune-like) to super-Earths in the very hot to temperate zones of F to M-type host stars, opening up the way to large-scale, comparative planetology that would place our own solar system in the context of other planetary systems in the Milky Way. A review of the performance requirements of the EChO mission was held at ESA at the end of 2013, with the objective of assessing the readiness of the mission to progress to the Phase B1 study phase. No critical issues were identified from a technical perspective, however a number of recommendations were made for future work. Since the mission was not selected for the M3 launch slot, EChO is no longer under study at ESA. In this paper we give an overview of the final mission concept for EChO as of the end of the study, from scientific, technical and operational perspectives.

  10. Edwardsiella tarda EsaE (Orf19 protein) is required for the secretion of type III substrates, and pathogenesis in fish.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Liu, Lu Yi; He, Tian Tian; Laghari, Zubair Ahmed; Nie, Pin; Gao, Qian; Xie, Hai Xia

    2016-07-15

    Type III secretion system (T3SS) is a large macromolecular assembly found on the surface of many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Edwardsiella tarda is an important Gram-negative pathogen that employs T3SS to deliver effectors into host cells to facilitate its survival and replication. EseB, EseC, and EseD, when secreted, form a translocon complex EseBCD on host membranes through which effectors are translocated. The orf19 gene (esaE) of E. tarda is located upstream of esaK, and downstream of esaJ, esaI, esaH and esaG in the T3SS gene cluster. When its domains were searched using Delta-Blast, the EsaE protein was found to belong to the T3SS YscJ/PrgK family. In the present study, it is found that EsaE is not secreted into culture supernatant, and the deletion of esaE abolished the secretion of T3SS translocon proteins EseBCD and T3SS effector EseG. Increased steady-state protein level of EseC and EseD was detected in bacterial pellet of ΔesaE strain although a reduced level was observed for the eseC and eseD transcription. EsaE was found to localize on membrane but not in the cytoplasm of E. tarda by fractionation. In blue gourami fish infection model, 87.88% of blue gourami infected with ΔesaE strain survived whereas only 3.03% survived when infected with wild-type strain. Taken together, our study demonstrated that EsaE is probably an apparatus protein of T3SS, which contributes to the pathogenesis of E. tarda in fish. PMID:27283851

  11. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    5 August 2004 A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, but also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed... Gamma ray burst model hi-res Size hi-res: 22 KB Credits: CXC/M. Weiss Artist impression of a low-energy gamma-ray burst This illustration describes a model for a gamma-ray burst, like the one detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 (GRB 031203). A jet of high-energy particles from a rapidly rotating black hole interacts with surrounding matter. Observations with Integral on 3 December 2003 and data on its afterglow, collected afterwards with XMM-Newton, Chandra and the Very Large Array telescope, show that GRB 031203 radiated only a fraction of the energy of normal gamma-ray bursts. Like supernovae, gamma-ray bursts are thought to be produced by the collapse of the core of a massive star. However, while the process leading to supernovae is relatively well understood, astronomers still do not know what happens when a core collapses to form a black hole. The discovery of 'under-energetic' gamma-ray bursts, like GRB 031203, should provide valuable clues as to links between supernovae, black holes and gamma-ray bursts. Lo-res JPG (22 Kb) Hi-res TIFF (5800 Kb) Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs

  12. Status of future ESA Earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginati, A.; Meynart, R.; Tobias, A.

    2005-10-01

    The European Space Agency is pursuing the development of innovative Earth Observation missions to foster better scientific understanding of the system Earth and to respond to the requirements of the operational users. Six Earth Explorer missions (CRYOSAT, GOCE, SMOS, AEOLUS, SWARM, EarthCARE) are under development for launch between 2005 and 2012. They will provide to provide new critical information in a wide range of Earth science disciplines: ocean circulation, Earth's gravity and magnetic fields, the cryosphere, ocean salinity and soil moisture, magnetic field, aerosol-radiation-cloud interactions and the demonstration of the measurement of tropospheric wind fields. Application-oriented missions of the Earth Watch class are continuing with the METEOSAT series of geostationary meteorological satellites, the preliminary studies of the next-generation METEOSAT spacecraft and the forthcoming launch of the first spacecraft of the EPS/METOP series. Preparatory activities are underway for the series of operational missions, to provide data and services for Earth monitoring, in the frame of the GMES programme.

  13. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  14. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A. P.; Cecconi, B.; Fraenz, M.; Hagermann, A.; Heather, D.; Rosenblatt, P.; Svedhem, H.; Widemann, T.

    2014-04-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa

  15. CarbonSat: ESA's Earth Explorer 8 Candidate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Ingmann, P.; Löscher, A.

    2012-04-01

    The CarbonSat candidate mission is part of ESA's Earth Explorer Programme. In 2010, two candidate opportunity missions had been selected for feasibility and preliminary definition studies. The missions, called FLEX and CarbonSat, are now in competition to become ESA's eighth Earth Explorer, both addressing key climate and environmental change issues. In this presentation we will provide a mission overview of CarbonSat with a focus on science. CarbonSat's primary mission objective is the quantification and monitoring of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks from the local to the regional scale for i) a better understanding of the processes that control carbon cycle dynamics and ii) an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.) in the context of international treaties. A second priority objective is the monitoring/derivation of CO2 and CH4 fluxes on regional to global scale. These objectives will be achieved by a unique combination of frequent, high spatial resolution (2 x 2 km2) observations of XCO2 and XCH4 coupled to inverse modelling schemes. The required random error of a single measurement at ground-pixel resolution is of the order of between 1 and 3 ppm for XCO2 and between 9 and 17 ppb for XCH4. High spatial resolution is essential in order to maximize the probability for clear-sky observations and to identify flux hot spots. Ideally, CarbonSat shall have a wide swath allowing a 6-day global repeat cycle. The CarbonSat observations will enable CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, localized industrial complexes, cities, and other large emitters to be objectively assessed at a global scale. Similarly, the monitoring of natural gas pipelines and compressor station leakage will become feasible. The detection and quantification of the substantial geological greenhouse gas emission sources such as seeps, volcanoes and mud volcanoes will be achieved for the first time. CarbonSat's Greenhouse Gas instrument will

  16. Managing Cooperation and Complexity in Education: The Case of Educational Service Agencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Janet A.; And Others

    Educational Service Agencies (ESA's) are public education agencies that provide specialized programs and services to a group of school districts in a specified geographical region and to the state department of education. Most states have encouraged the development of ESA's that have either evolved out of county districts or have been created to…

  17. Top class images help ESA's Rosetta prepare to ride on a cosmic bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    to the end of the mission in July 2013, at which time the comet is at its closest approach to the Sun, at about 160 million km from it. VLT observations have also provided Rosetta mission planners with an accurate measurement of their target's size: Wirtanen is only 1.2 km in diameter, a true cosmic bullet. "Rosetta is certainly a very challenging space mission. No one has ever tried to land on a comet before," says Gerhard Schwehm, Rosetta's Project Scientist. "We need to learn as much as possible about our target. The new data will allow us to improve our models and make decisions once we get there." Note to editors Rosetta's prime scientific goal is to unravel the origin of the Solar System. The chemical composition of comets is known to reflect that of the primordial nebula that gave birth to the Solar System - in the planets, that primeval material has gone through complex processing, but not in the comets. Therefore, Rosetta will allow scientists to look back 4.6 billion years, to an epoch when the Solar System formed. Previous studies by ESA's Giotto spacecraft and by ground-based observatories have shown that comets contain complex organic molecules - compounds that are rich in carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Intriguingly, these are the elements which make up nucleic acids and amino acids, essential ingredients for life as we know it. Did life on Earth begin with the help of comet seeding? Rosetta may help us to find the answer to this fundamental question. Rosetta carries 21 experiments in total . These are provided by scientific consortia from institutes across Europe and the United States. The Wirtanen observations by the VLT fall into a tradition of fruitful collaboration between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). The two organizations are already combining their efforts in several strategic areas, in order to facilitate the synergy between space and ground facilities, where mutual sharing of technology and

  18. A vista of new knowledge from ESA's Hipparcos astronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    redshifts and blueshifts as a guide to stellar motions? This is currently a hot topic in astronomy, because searches for stars possessing planets rely on small variations in their radial velocities, supposedly due to wobbles caused by the massive planets swinging around them. The identification of 51 Pegasi, which caused a sensation two years ago, has recently been challenged on the grounds that changes in the wavelength of light may not be due to the wobble of the star. Astronomers know other possible causes of wavelength shifts, besides the Doppler effect of a star's bodily motion. One is the Doppler effect of turbulence in the star's outer layers, seen graphically in the nearby Sun. And strong gravity shortens the wavelengths of light, creating a gravitational redshift independently of the star's motion. Changes of surface gravity in oscillating variable stars could create the illusion of a planetary wobble. Distinguishing true motions in the Hipparcos data gives astronomers their best opportunity to refine the use of the redshift, which is one of astronomy's most basic tools. The first images from Hipparcos The telescope and instruments in Hipparcos were not designed to produce images of the stars. Instead, grids and detectors measured angles between the pinpoints of light as the satellite slowly turned, scanning the sky. Nevertheless the Lund team has been able to adapt a technique from radio astronomy, to generate pictures. The first series to be released shows a double star in which the relative positions of the stars change quite plainly over the period of the Hipparcos observations, as they orbit around each other. The images, with an explanatory diagram and caption, are available upon request in an ESA picture release or on the World Wide Web at http://www.estec.esa.nl/spdwww/hipparcos/html/hip2star.html The observational and data-processing method called aperture synthesis won a Nobel Prize for the late Martin Ryle of Cambridge, England. He showed how to combine

  19. Lean and Agile Development of the AITS Ground Software System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richters, Mark; Dutruel, Etienne; Mecredy, Nicolas

    2013-08-01

    We present the ongoing development of a new ground software system used for integrating, testing and operating spacecraft. The Advanced Integration and Test Services (AITS) project aims at providing a solution for electrical ground support equipment and mission control systems in future Astrium Space Transportation missions. Traditionally ESA ground or flight software development projects are conducted according to a waterfall-like process as specified in the ECSS-E-40 standard promoted by ESA in the European industry. In AITS a decision was taken to adopt an agile development process. This work could serve as a reference for future ESA software projects willing to apply agile concepts.

  20. Cluster Science Archive: the ESA long term archive of the Cluster mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson, Arnaud; Escoubet, C. Philippe; Laakso, Harri

    2014-05-01

    The science data archive of the Cluster mission is a major contribution of the European Space Agency (ESA) to the International Living With a Star program. Known as the Cluster Active Archive (CAA), its availability since 2006 has resulted in a significant increase of the scientific return of this on-going mission. The Cluster science archive (CSA) has been developed in parallel to CAA over the last few years at the European Space Astronomy Center of ESA in Madrid, Spain. It is the long-term science archive of the Cluster mission developed and managed along with all the other ESA science missions data archives. CSA design and data services are based on the CAA interface and its user-friendly services. Publicly opened in November 2013, CSA is available in parallel to CAA during a transition period until CAA will be closed in spring 2014. It is the purpose of this presentation to first provide an overview of the various services offered by the Cluster Science Archive, including: data visualisation, VO support and command line capabilities (which enables data access via Matlab or IDL softwares). Upcoming services will then be presented (e.g. data streaming, particle distribution plot visualisation...). Support data related to on-going FP7 projects such as ECLAT and MAARBLE will be soon available on the CSA and will be briefly presented. Possible new services such as data mining will finally be evoked. This last point will hopefully lead to an open and lively debate about which services shall be offered to the scientific community by a space agency for a specific type of mission and what should be left to the community to develop.

  1. Packet utilisation definitions for the ESA XMM mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nye, H. R.

    1994-11-01

    XMM, ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, due for launch at the end of 1999 will be the first ESA scientific spacecraft to implement the ESA packet telecommand and telemetry standards and will be the first ESOC-controlled science mission to take advantage of the new flight control system infrastructure development (based on object-oriented design and distributed-system architecture) due for deployment in 1995. The implementation of the packet standards is well defined at packet transport level. However, the standard relevant to the application level (the ESA Packet Utilization Standard) covers a wide range of on-board 'services' applicable in varying degrees to the needs of XMM. In defining which parts of the ESA PUS to implement, the XMM project first considered the mission objectives and the derived operations concept and went on to identify a minimum set of packet definitions compatible with these aspects. This paper sets the scene as above and then describes the services needed for XMM and the telecommand and telemetry packet types necessary to support each service.

  2. Packet utilisation definitions for the ESA XMM mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nye, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    XMM, ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, due for launch at the end of 1999 will be the first ESA scientific spacecraft to implement the ESA packet telecommand and telemetry standards and will be the first ESOC-controlled science mission to take advantage of the new flight control system infrastructure development (based on object-oriented design and distributed-system architecture) due for deployment in 1995. The implementation of the packet standards is well defined at packet transport level. However, the standard relevant to the application level (the ESA Packet Utilization Standard) covers a wide range of on-board 'services' applicable in varying degrees to the needs of XMM. In defining which parts of the ESA PUS to implement, the XMM project first considered the mission objectives and the derived operations concept and went on to identify a minimum set of packet definitions compatible with these aspects. This paper sets the scene as above and then describes the services needed for XMM and the telecommand and telemetry packet types necessary to support each service.

  3. Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of the Implementation and Extension of Temporary Moratoria on Enrollment of Part B Non-Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers and Home Health Agencies in Designated Geographic Locations and Lifting of the Temporary Moratoria on Enrollment of Part B Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers in All Geographic Locations. Extension, implementation, and lifting of temporary moratoria.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This document announces the extension of temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new Medicare Part B non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers and Medicare home health agencies (HHAs), subunits, and branch locations in specific locations within designated metropolitan areas in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey to prevent and combat fraud, waste, and abuse. It also announces the implementation of temporary moratoria on the enrollment of new Medicare Part B non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers and Medicare HHAs, subunits, and branch locations in Florida, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey on a statewide basis. In addition, it announces the lifting of the moratoria on all Part B emergency ground ambulance suppliers. These moratoria, and the changes described in this document, also apply to the enrollment of HHAs and non-emergency ground ambulance suppliers in Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program. PMID:27487581

  4. ESA's Venus Express to reach final destination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    First step: catching Venus To begin to explore our Earth’s hot and hazy sister planet, Venus Express must complete a critical first step, the most challenging one following launch. This involves a set of complex operations and manoeuvres that will inject the spacecraft into orbit. The Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) manoeuvre allows the spacecraft to reduce its speed relative to Venus, so that it can be captured by the planet’s gravitation. The manoeuvre is a critical one which must proceed at precisely the right place and time. The VOI phase officially started on 4 April and will not be completed until 13 April. It is split into three main sub-phases. The first consists in preparing or initialising the spacecraft for the actual capture manoeuvre so as to avoid the risk of the spacecraft going into safe mode, should parameters unrelated to VOI go off-range. The capture manoeuvre itself consists of a main-engine burn lasting about 50 minutes on the morning of 11 April starting at 09:17 (Central European Summer Time). This is the second main VOI sub-phase. The final sub-phase will be restoring all spacecraft functions, notably resuming communications with Earth and uplinking the commands to be executed during the preliminary ‘capture’ orbit. Orbital capture is controlled by an automatic sequence of predefined commands, uploaded to the spacecraft four days prior to VOI. This sequence is the minimum set needed to perform the main-engine burn. All spacecraft operations are controlled and commanded by the ground control team located at ESA’s European Spacecraft Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany. Timeeline of major VOI events (some times subject to change) 4 Aprilacecraft transmitter connected to low gain antenna is switched on. During its interplanetary cruise and during the scientific part of the mission to come, Venus Express communicates with Earth by means of its two high gain antennas. However, during the orbit capture phase (11 April), these two

  5. ESA NEOCC effort to eliminate high Palermo Scale virtual impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, M.; Koschny, D.; Hainaut, O.; Bernardi, F.

    2014-07-01

    At the moment of this writing about 4 % of the known near-Earth objects are known to have at least one future close approach scenario with a non-negligible collision probability within the next century, as routinely computed by the NEODyS and Sentry systems. The most straightforward way to improve the knowledge of the future dynamics of an NEO in order to exclude (or possibly confirm) some of these possible future impact is to obtain additional astrometric observations of the object as soon as it becomes observable again. In particular, since a large fraction (>98 %) of the known objects currently recognized as possible future impactors have been observed during a single opposition, this usually corresponds to obtaining a new set of observations during a second opposition, a so called ''recovery''. However, in some cases the future observability windows for the target after the discovery apparition may be very limited, either because the object is intrinsically small (and therefore requires a very close and consequently rare approach to become observable) or because its orbital dynamic prevents the observability from the ground for a long timespan (as in the case of quasi-resonant objects with a long synodic period). When this happens, the only short-term way to clarify an impact scenario is to look toward the past, and investigate the possibility that unrecognized detections of the object are already present in the databases of old astronomical images, which are often archived by professional telescopes and made available to the community a few months to years after they are exposed. We will here present an effort lead by the newly formed ESA NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) in Frascati to pursue both these avenues with the intent of improving the orbital knowledge of the highest-rated possible impactors, as defined by the Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale (PS in the following). As an example of our ongoing observational activities, we will first present our

  6. Aerosol Climate Time Series in ESA Aerosol_cci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Thomas; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Pinnock, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. Meanwhile, full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer, but also from ATSR instruments and the POLDER sensor), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which were also validated and improved in the reprocessing. For the three ATSR algorithms the use of an ensemble method was tested. The paper will summarize and discuss the status of dataset reprocessing and validation. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension

  7. NASA's Deep Space Network and ESA's Tracking Network Collaboration to Enable Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, Sami; Accomazzo, Andrea; Firre, Daniel; Ferri, Paolo; Liebrecht, Phil; Mann, Greg; Morse, Gary; Costrell, Jim; Kurtik, Susan; Hell, Wolfgang; Warhaut, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Planetary missions travel vast distances in the solar system to explore and answer important scientific questions. To return the data containing their discoveries, communications challenges have to be overcome, namely the relatively low transmitter power, typically 20 Watts at X-band, and the one-over-the-square of the distance loss of the received power, among other factors. These missions were enabled only when leading space agencies developed very large communications antennas to communicate with them as well as provide radio-metric navigation tools. NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and ESA's ESTRACK network are distributed geographically in order to provide global coverage and utilize stations ranging in size from 34 m to 70 m in diameter. With the increasing number of missions and significant loading on networks' capacity, unique requirements during critical events, and long-baseline interferometry navigation techniques, it became obvious that collaboration between the networks was necessary and in the interest of both agencies and the advancement of planetary and space sciences. NASA and ESA established methods for collaboration that include a generic cross-support agreement as well as mission-specific memoranda of understanding. This collaboration also led to the development of international inter-operability standards. As a result of its success, the DSN-ESTRACK cross support approach is serving as a model for other agencies with similar stations and an interest in collaboration. Over recent years, many critical events were supported and some scientific breakthroughs in planetary science were enabled. This paper will review selected examples of the science resulting from this work and the overall benefits for deep space exploration, including lessons learned, from inter-agency collaboration with communications networks.

  8. ESA is now a major player in global space science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-07-01

    * Results from the star-fixing satellite Hipparcos, released this summer to the world's astronomers, give the positions and motions of 118,000 stars a hundred times more accurately than ever before. * Every day the Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, examines 45 cosmic objects on average at many different wavelengths never observable before, giving fresh insights into cosmic history and chemistry. * Invaluable new knowledge of the Sun comes from SOHO, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, which is the first spacecraft able to observe the Sun's deep interior as well as its stormy surface and atmosphere. Besides these missions making present headlines, several other spacecraft are helping to fulfil ESA's scientific objectives. * 2 - * The launch in October 1997 of ESA's probe Huygens, aboard the Cassini spacecraft bound for Saturn, foreshadows a breakthrough in planetary science in 2004. That is when Huygens will carry its scientific instruments into the unique and puzzling atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. * Ulysses, also built in Europe, is exploring hitherto unknown regions of space, after making the first-ever visit to the Sun's polar regions in 1994-95. It will return to the Sun in 2000-2001, to observe the effects of the climax of solar activity due at that time. * The Cluster 2 mission, announced in April 1997 and to be launched in 2000, will explore the Earth's space environment far more throughly than ever before. ESA's decision to replace the four Cluster satellites lost in a launch accident in 1996 ensures that Europe will continue as the leader in solar-terrestrial research in space. * An example of the three unique 58-mirror X-ray telescopes for the XMM mission was unveiled for the press in May 1997. When it goes into orbit in 1999 XMM will make, in seconds, observations of cosmic objects that took hours with previous X-ray astronomy missions. * The Hubble Space Telescope, in which ESA is a partner, continues to deliver the sharpest pictures of the

  9. The ground prototype processor: Level-1 production during Sentinel-2 in-orbit acceptance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrucci, B.; Dechoz, C.; Lachérade, S.; L'Helguen, C.; Raynaud, J.-L.; Trémas, T.; Picard, C.; Rolland, A.

    2015-10-01

    Jointly with the European Commission, the Sentinel-2 earth observation optical mission is developed by the European Space Agency (ESA). Relying on a constellation of satellites put in orbit starting mid-2015, Sentinel-2 will be devoted to the monitoring of land and coastal areas worldwide thanks to an imagery at high revisit (5 days with two satellites), high resolution (10m, 20m and 60m) with large swath (290km), and multi-spectral imagery (13 bands in visible and shortwave infra-red). In this framework, the French Space Agency (CNES: Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) supports ESA on the activities related to Image Quality, defining the image products and prototyping the processing techniques. Scope of this paper is to present the Ground Prototype Processor (GPP) that will be in charge of Level-1 production during Sentinel-2 In Orbit Acceptance phase. GPP has been developed by a European industrial consortium composed of Advanced Computer Systems (ACS), Magellium and DLR on the basis of CNES technical specification of Sentinel-2 data processing and under the joint management of ESA-ESTEC and CNES. It will assure the generation of the products used for Calibration and Validation activities and it will provide the reference data for Sentinel-2 Payload Data Ground Segment Validation. At first, Sentinel-2 end-users products definition is recalled with the associated radiometric and geometric performances; secondly the methods implemented will be presented with an overview of the Ground Image Processing Parameters that need to be tuned during the In Orbit Acceptance phase to assure the required performance of the products. Finally, the complexity of the processing having been showed, the challenges of the production in terms of data volume and processing time will be highlighted. The first Sentinel-2 Level-1 products are shown.

  10. ESA-SSA Review of Space Weather Measurement Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain

    2012-07-01

    The ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space. The first phase of the ESA SSA system development will be finished in 2012 and the next phase is foreseen to be started after the ESA Ministerial Council meeting in November 2012. The definition of measurement requirements for the Space Weather Segment (SWE) of the ESA SSA system has been based on the space weather service requirements defined the by expected users of the system. This document, SSA SWE Customer Requirements Document (CRD), has been defined in a iterative process together with the members of the SSA User Representative Group (URG) and the delegates representing the European states participating the programme. Based on the SWE CRD, ESA with the support of the European industry has produced two documents: SSA SWE System Requirements Document (SRD) and SSA SWE Product Specification (PS). SWE PS contains the requirements for the measurements data required by the SSA SWE system. The SWE PS document has been recently rigorously reviewed by the SSA URG in the framework of the SSA System Requirements Review (SRR). The support provided by the Steering Board of the ESA Space Weather Working Team (SWWT) in this review was extremely useful. The members of the SWWT SB representing the scientific community and the provisional service providers were able to give very detailed comments regarding the measurement requirements for accuracy, cadence, timeliness, etc. As these parameters will be provisional design and cost drivers for the ESA SSA system, definition of the appropriate values at this point in the programme is crucial. This paper provides an overview of the measurement requirements for the SWE Segment of the ESA SSA Programme. The paper discusses the requirement definition process, the customer and service provider inputs, and the critical requirements as they have

  11. ESA's Cluster solved an auroral puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    investigation at the University of California, Berkeley, United States, now looks forward to a new way of studying the Earth’s protective shield. He says, “This result has opened up a new area of research. We can now watch dayside proton aurorae and use those observations to know where and how the cracks in the magnetic field are formed and how long the cracks remain open. That makes it a powerful tool to study the entry of the solar wind into the Earth’s magnetosphere.” The Earth’s interaction with the Sun is a current focus of scientific attention because of its importance in knowing how the Sun affects the Earth, most notably our climate. Also, while not immediately dangerous to us on Earth, it is also important for quantifying the danger to satellites, which can be damaged or destroyed by powerful solar flares. Note to Editors: Proton aurorae were globally imaged for the first time by NASA’s IMAGE spacecraft. The images revealed the presence of the ‘dayside proton auroral spots’. By a fortunate coincidence, IMAGE and Cluster both spotted the event on 18 March 2002. Combining with IMAGE’s observations, Cluster made it possible to establish the ground truth of the phenomenon. The paper on these results, Simultaneous Cluster and IMAGE Observations of Cusp Reconnection and Auroral Spot for Northward IMF by Tai Phan and 24 other authors will be published in Geophysical Research Letters, 21 May 2003, Vol. 30, No. 10. The principal investigators responsible for the instruments that made these results possible are: Henri Rème of CESR/Toulouse, France (Cluster Proton Detectors), Andre Balogh of Imperial College, London, United Kingdom (Cluster Magnetic Field Instrument) and Stephen Mende of University of California, Berkeley, United States (IMAGE/FUV). More about Cluster ESA’s Cluster is a collection of four spacecraft, launched on two Russian rockets during the summer of 2000. They are now flying in formation around the Earth, relaying the most detailed ever

  12. The European Ionosonde Service: nowcasting and forecasting ionospheric conditions over Europe for the ESA Space Situational Awareness services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belehaki, Anna; Tsagouri, Ioanna; Kutiev, Ivan; Marinov, Pencho; Zolesi, Bruno; Pietrella, Marco; Themelis, Kostas; Elias, Panagiotis; Tziotziou, Kostas

    2015-08-01

    The Earth's ionosphere is a magnetoionic medium imbedded in a background neutral atmosphere, exhibiting very interesting refractive properties, including anisotropy, dispersion, and dissipation. As such, it poses a challenge for several radio systems that make use of signal transmission through all or some portion of the medium. It is important therefore to develop prediction systems able to inform the operators of such systems about the current state of the ionosphere, about the expected effects of forthcoming space weather disturbances and about support long-term planning of operations and data post-processing projects for improving modelling and mitigation techniques. The European Space Agency (ESA) in the framework of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme has supported the development of the European Ionosonde Service (EIS) that releases a set of products to characterise the bottomside and topside ionosphere over Europe. The Service is based on a set of prediction models driven by data from ground-based ionosondes and supportive data from satellites and spacecraft. The service monitors the foF2 and the electron density profile up to the height of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) at European middle and high latitudes and provides estimates for forthcoming disturbances mainly triggered by geo-effective Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). The model's performance has been validated and based on these results, it was possible to issue together with the products, quality metrics characterizing the product's reliability. The EIS products meet the requirements of various SSA service domains, especially the transionospheric radio link and the spacecraft operations. Currently, the service is freely available to all interested users, and access is possible upon registration.

  13. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Engdahl, Marcus; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Gascon, Ferran; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Koetz, Benjamin; Arino, Olivier; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Foumelis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element are • to federate, support and expand the research community • to strengthen the leadership of European EO research community • to enable the science community to address new scientific research As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 and 2013 In particular the ESA Living Planet Symposium was successfully organized in Edinburgh September 2013 and involving 1700 participants from 60 countries. The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the 2014 SEOM work plan approved by ESA member states. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing open-source, multi-mission, scientific toolboxes : the new toolboxes for Sentinel 1/2/3 and 5P will be introduced 2. Research and development studies: the first SEOM studies are being launched such as the INSARAP studies for Sentinel 1 interferometry in orbit demonstration , the IAS study to generate an improved spectroscopic database of the trace gas species CH4, H2O, and CO in the 2.3 μm region and SO2 in the UV region for Sentinel 5 P. In addition larger Sentinels for science call will be tendered in 2014 covering grouped studies for Sentinel 1 Land , Sentinel 1 Ocean , Sentinel 2 Land, Sentinel 3 SAR Altimetry ,Sentinel 3 Ocean color, Sentinel 3 Land and Sentinels Synergy . 3. Science users consultation : the Sentinel 2 for Science workshop is planned from 20 to 22 may 2014 at ESRIN to prepare for scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-2 mission (http://seom.esa.int/S2forScience2014 ) . In addition the FRINGE workshop focusing on scientific explotation of Sentinel1 using SAR interferometry is planned to be held at ESA ESRIN in Q2 2015 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinels data: the Advanced Training course Land

  14. Cluster and SOHO - A joint endeavor by ESA and NASA to address problems in solar, heliospheric, and space plasma physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, Rudolf; Domingo, Vicente; Shawhan, Stanley D.; Bohlin, David

    1988-01-01

    The NASA/ESA Solar-Terrestrial Science Program, which consists of the four-spacecraft cluster mission and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), is examined. It is expected that the SOHO spacecraft will be launched in 1995 to study solar interior structure and the physical processes associated with the solar corona. The SOHO design, operation, data, and ground segment are discussed. The Cluster mission is designed to study small-scale structures in the earth's plasma environment. The Soviet Union is expected to contribute two additional spacecraft, which will be similar to Cluster in instrumentation and design. The capabilities, mission strategy, spacecraft design, payload, and ground segment of Cluster are discussed.

  15. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2004_s_en.html

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    X-ray brightness map hi-res Size hi-res: 38 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. X-ray brightness map This map shows "surface brightness" or how luminous the region is. The larger of the two galaxy clusters is brighter, shown here as a white and red spot. A second cluster resides about "2 o'clock" from this, shown by a batch of yellow surrounded by green. Luminosity is related to density, so the densest regions (cluster cores) are the brightest regions. The white color corresponds to regions of the highest surface brightness, followed by red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple. High resolution version (JPG format) 38 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 525 Kb Temperature map Credits: NASA Artist’s impression of cosmic head on collision The event details what the scientists are calling the perfect cosmic storm: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions, tossing galaxies far from their paths and churning shock waves of 100-million-degree gas through intergalactic space. The tiny dots in this artist's concept are galaxies containing thousand million of stars. Animated GIF version Temperature map hi-res Size hi-res: 57 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. Temperature map This image shows the temperature of gas in and around the two merging galaxy clusters, based directly on X-ray data. The galaxies themselves are difficult to identify; the image highlights the hot ‘invisible’ gas between the clusters heated by shock waves. The white colour corresponds to regions of the highest temperature - million of degrees, hotter than the surface of the Sun - followed by red, orange, yellow and blue. High resolution version (JPG format) 57 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 819 Kb The event details what the scientists are calling the ‘perfect cosmic storm’: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions

  16. The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System for ESA's Trace Gas Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicolas; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) is an 11 μrad/px imaging system ready to launch on the European Space Agency's (ESA) ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) on 14 March 2016 from Baikonur. CaSSIS is based around an 880 mm focal length carbon-fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) telescope with a 135 mm primary mirror and a 2k x 2k CMOS hybrid detector with 10 micron pixel pitch providing 4.6 m/px imaging from the nominal 400 km circular orbit. The telescope is a slightly modified three mirror anastigmat optical configuration with no central obscuration. The instrument is designed to operate in "push-frame" mode where 2048 x 256 images are acquired at a repetition rate which matches the ground-track velocity (~3 km/s) allowing sufficient overlap for co-registration thereby building image strips along the surface. A filter strip assembly (FSA) is mounted directly above the detector providing images in 4 wavelength bands. Two of these (480.5nm and 676.5nm prior to convolution with the rest of the instrument) correspond closely to bands used by the HiRISE instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter [4]. Two other filters split the NIR wavelengths with centres at 838 nm and close to 985 nm. Analyses show that the filters provide good differentiation between expected surface minerals, particularly Fe-bearing phases (Tornabene et al. LPSC, 2016). CaSSIS is designed to produce stereo from images acquired ~30 s apart by using a rotation drive. The telescope points 10 degrees off-nadir. The drive aligns the telescope with the ground-track direction so that the telescope is pointing forward. After image acquisition, the telescope is rapidly rotated by 180 degrees to point in the opposite direction and the second image of the stereo pair is acquired. CaSSIS will extend the monitoring of past missions to future years allowing the tracking of longer-term changes. It will also provide contemporaneous imaging of regions that may produce unique signatures detected by

  17. Producing Snow Extent and Snow Water Equivalent Information for Climate Research Purposes - ESA DUE Globsnow Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Solberg, Rune; Wiesmann, Andreas; Derksen, Chris; Metsämäki, Sari; Malnes, Eirik; Bojkov, Bojan

    2010-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobSnow project aims at creating a global database of snow parameters for climate research purposes. The main objective is to create a long term dataset on two essential snow parameters. The project will provide information concerning the areal extent of snow (SE) on a global scale and snow water equivalent (SWE) for the Northern Hemisphere. Both products will include the end product derived from the satellite data along with accuracy information for each snow parameter. The temporal span of the SE product will be 15 years and the span for the SWE product will be 30 years. A key improvement of the snow products, when compared with the currently available data sets, will be the inclusion of a statistically derived accuracy estimate accompanying each SE or SWE estimate (on a pixel level). In addition to the SE and SWE time-series, an operational near-real time (NRT) snow information service will be implemented. The service will provide daily snow maps for hydrological, meteorological, and climate research purposes. The snow products will be based on data acquired from optical and passive microwave-based spaceborne sensors combined with ground-based weather station observations. The work was initiated in November 2008, and is being coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Other project partners involved are NR (Norwegian Computing Centre), ENVEO IT GmbH, GAMMA Remote Sensing AG, Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Environment Canada (EC) and Northern Research Institute (Norut). Extensive algorithm evaluation efforts were carried out for the candidate SWE and SE algorithms during 2009 using ground truth data gathered from Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and the Alps. The acquired evaluation results have enabled the selection of the algorithms to be utilized for the GlobSnow SE and SWE products. The SWE product is derived using the FMI Algorithm and the SE product is a combination of NR and

  18. ESA Globsnow - Hemispherical Snow Extent and Snow Water Equivalent Records for Climate Research Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, K.; Pulliainen, J. T.; Takala, M.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Derksen, C.; Bojkov, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    The efforts of the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobSnow project has resulted in two new global records of snow parameters intended for climate research purposes. The datasets contains satellite-retrieved information on snow extent (SE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) extending 15 and 30 years respectively. The dataset on snow extent is based on optical data of Envisat AATSR and ERS-2 ATSR-2 sensors covering Northern Hemisphere between years 1995 to 2010. The record on snow water equivalent is based on satellite-based radiometer measurements (SMMR, SSM/I and AMSR-E) combined with ground-based weather station data, starting from 1979 and extending to present day. The GlobSnow SWE product is the first satellite-based dataset of snow water equivalent information on a daily basis at a hemispherical scale for 30+ years. In addition to the SE and SWE time-series, an operational near-real time (NRT) snow information service has been implemented. The current data, including the prototype products and the used validation data are available for all interested parties through the GlobSnow www-pages (http://www.globsnow.info). Extensive algorithm evaluation efforts were carried out for the candidate SWE and SE algorithms using ground truth data gathered from Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and the Alps. The acquired evaluation results enabled the selection of the final algorithms to be utilized for the GlobSnow products. The SWE product is derived using an assimilation algorithm by FMI and the SE product is a combination of NR and SYKE developed algorithms utilizing optical data. Both algorithms showed enhanced estimation characteristics when compared with currently available existing products. Prototype SE and SWE products were released for user evaluation during November 2009 covering the years 2003-2008 for SWE and 2004-2006 for SE. The final SWE product covers the Northern Hemisphere, spanning 1979 - 2010. The SE product covers the Northern

  19. ESA Parabolic Flight, Drop Tower and Centrifuge Opportunities for University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callens, Natacha; Ventura-Traveset, Javier; Zornoza Garcia-Andrade, Eduardo; Gomez-Calero, Carlos; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Pletser, Vladimir; Kufner, Ewald; Krause, Jutta; Lindner, Robert; Gai, Frederic; Eigenbrod, Christian

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Education Office was established in 1998 with the purpose of motivating young people to study science, engineering and technology subjects and to ensure a qualified workforce for ESA and the European space sector in the future. To this end the ESA Education Office is supporting several hands-on activities including small student satellites and student experiments on sounding rockets, high altitude balloons as well as microgravity and hypergravity platforms. This paper is intended to introduce three new ESA Education Office hands-on activities called "Fly Your Thesis!", "Drop Your Thesis!" and "Spin Your Thesis!". These activities give re-spectively access to aircraft parabolic flight, drop tower and centrifuge campaigns to European students. These educational programmes offer university students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually perform, in microgravity or hypergravity, a scientific or techno-logical experiment which is linked to their syllabus. During the "Fly Your Thesis!" campaigns, the students accompany their experiments onboard the A300 Zero-G aircraft, operated by the company Novespace, based in Bordeaux, France, for a series of three flights of 30 parabolas each, with each parabola providing about 20s of microgravity [1]. "Drop Your Thesis!" campaigns are held in the ZARM Drop Tower, in Bremen, Germany. The installation delivers 4.74s of microgravity in dropping mode and 9.3s in the catapulting mode [2]. Research topics such as fluid physics, fundamental physics, combustion, biology, material sciences, heat transfer, astrophysics, chemistry or biochemistry can greatly benefit from using microgravity platforms. "Spin Your Thesis!" campaigns take place in the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC) facility, at ESTEC, Noordwijk, in the Netherlands. This facility offers an acceleration from 1 to 20 times Earth's gravity [3]. The use of hypergravity allows completing the scientific picture of how gravity has an

  20. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2004_s_en.html

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    X-ray brightness map hi-res Size hi-res: 38 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. X-ray brightness map This map shows "surface brightness" or how luminous the region is. The larger of the two galaxy clusters is brighter, shown here as a white and red spot. A second cluster resides about "2 o'clock" from this, shown by a batch of yellow surrounded by green. Luminosity is related to density, so the densest regions (cluster cores) are the brightest regions. The white color corresponds to regions of the highest surface brightness, followed by red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple. High resolution version (JPG format) 38 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 525 Kb Temperature map Credits: NASA Artist’s impression of cosmic head on collision The event details what the scientists are calling the perfect cosmic storm: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions, tossing galaxies far from their paths and churning shock waves of 100-million-degree gas through intergalactic space. The tiny dots in this artist's concept are galaxies containing thousand million of stars. Animated GIF version Temperature map hi-res Size hi-res: 57 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. Temperature map This image shows the temperature of gas in and around the two merging galaxy clusters, based directly on X-ray data. The galaxies themselves are difficult to identify; the image highlights the hot ‘invisible’ gas between the clusters heated by shock waves. The white colour corresponds to regions of the highest temperature - million of degrees, hotter than the surface of the Sun - followed by red, orange, yellow and blue. High resolution version (JPG format) 57 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 819 Kb The event details what the scientists are calling the ‘perfect cosmic storm’: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions

  1. Is there life out there? - A new series for the ESA's Web TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clervoy, J. F.; Coliolo, F.; Brack, A.; Ori, G. G.

    2012-09-01

    The European Space Agency, ESA, is studying a new outreach project: a series of short videos for the ESA's Web TV dedicated to the search for life in the Universe. The rationale of this pilot project is to use stunning images to attract attention with a scientific content accessible to people of varying ages, education levels and cultural outlook. We plan to work with scientists across Europe in order to bring the public on a journey from the boundaries of the Cosmos to the Earth looking for the ingredients necessary for life to emerge and evolve. The main objectives of the project are to share discovery, curiosity and sense of adventure by i) inviting the public being a player in the discovery, ii) educating and engaging different target audiences about ESA planetary exploration, iii) creating and sustaining awareness of long-term European space science activities, iv) providing a window for the public to witness work at the leading edge of science exploration and v) encouraging international partnerships. The first trailer realised with two scientists, André Brack, Astrobiologist, Honorary Director of Research at the CNRS, Orleans, France and Gian Gabriele Ori, Research professor in Geology, and Director of the IRSPS, International Reaserch School of Planetary Science, Pescara, Italy, will be presented. This first presentation will give an overview of the "exobiological" places beyond the Earth and highlight the importance of comparative planetology for a better understanding of our planet. It is important for us to share ideas and advises in order to produce and diffuse this series in the most efficient way.

  2. Medicare, Medicaid, and Children's Health Insurance Programs: Announcement of the Provider Enrollment Moratoria Access Waiver Demonstration of Part B Non-Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers and Home Health Agencies in Moratoria-Designated Geographic Locations. Implementation of the waiver demonstration.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This notice announces the Provider Enrollment Moratoria Access Waiver Demonstration of Part B Non-Emergency Ground Ambulance Suppliers and Home Health Agencies in 6 states. The demonstration is being implemented in accordance with section 402 of the Social Security Amendments of 1967 and gives CMS the authority to grant waivers to the statewide enrollment moratoria on a case-by-case basis in response to access to care issues, and to subject providers and suppliers enrolling via such waivers to heightened screening, oversight, and investigations. PMID:27487580

  3. The Alfvén Mission: A possible ESA M4 Mission Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Berthomier, Matthieu; Pottelette, Raymond; Forsyth, Colin

    2014-05-01

    The Alfvén mission was proposed to the ESA M3 call for missions in 2010. Its scientific objective was to study the Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR), the most accessible laboratory for investigating plasmas at an interface where ideal magneto-hydrodynamics does not apply. Alfvén was designed to teach us where and how the particles that create the aurorae are accelerated, how and why they emit auroral kilometric radiation, what creates and maintains large scale electric fields aligned with the magnetic field, and to elucidate the ion outflow processes which are slowly removing the Earth's atmosphere. The auroral regions are the interface connecting the solar wind-driven collisionless magnetosphere to the collisional ionosphere at the top of Earth's atmosphere. Solar wind energy, transmitted via the magnetosphere, is dissipated in this interface, often explosively during magnetic substorms. The plasma organizes itself on a hierarchy of spatial and temporal scales, manifesting as auroral structures ranging from huge long-lived arcs to tiny flickering filaments. The only way to make substantial further progress in auroral plasma science and to elucidate the fundamental physics of the acceleration processes at the heart of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is to combine the advantages of high-time resolution in situ measurements (as pioneered by the FAST mission), with the advantages of multi-point measurements (as pioneered by Cluster) in one mission. The mission concept also envisages continuous auroral imaging from the spacecraft, guaranteeing an understanding of the context (auroral morphology and motion) within which the in situ plasma measurements are made, and strong coordination with the existing dense network of ground based observatories, for more detailed ionospheric and auroral information when Alfvén overflights occur. We will review the ESA M3 Alfvén concept, consider recent scientific progress in this area, and discuss possible developments of the

  4. ESA presents INTEGRAL, its space observatory for Gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    A unique opportunity for journalists and cameramen to view INTEGRAL will be provided at ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, the Netherlands on Tuesday 22 September. On show will be the full-size structural thermal model which is now beeing examined in ESA's test centre. Following introductions to the project, the INTEGRAL spacecraft can be seen, filmed and photographed in its special clean room environment.. Media representatives wishing to participate in the visit to ESA's test centre and the presentation of INTEGRAL are kindly requested to return by fax the attached registration form to ESA Public relations, Tel. +33 (0) 1.53.69.71.55 - Fax. +33 (0) 1.53.69.76.90. For details please see the attached programme Gamma-ray astronomy - why ? Gamma-rays cannot be detected from the ground since the earth's atmosphere shields us from high energetic radiation. Only space technology has made gamma-astronomy possible. To avoid background radiation effects INTEGRAL will spend most of its time in the orbit outside earth's radiation belts above an altitude of 40'000 km. Gamma-rays are the highest energy form of electromagnetic radiation. Therefore gamma-ray astronomy explores the most energetic phenomena occurring in nature and addresses some of the most fundamental problems in physics. We know for instance that most of the chemical elements in our bodies come from long-dead stars. But how were these elements formed? INTEGRAL will register gamma-ray evidence of element-making. Gamma-rays also appear when matter squirms in the intense gravity of collapsed stars or black holes. One of the most important scientific objectives of INTEGRAL is to study such compact objects as neutron stars or black holes. Besides stellar black holes there may exist much bigger specimens of these extremely dense objects. Most astronomers believe that in the heart of our Milky Way as in the centre of other galaxies there may lurk giant black holes. INTEGRAL will have to find evidence of these exotic objects. Even

  5. Generic documentation tree for science ground segments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-López, F.; Lock, T.; Texier, D.

    2014-08-01

    The competences of the Science Ground Segment, for an ESA science mission, include: science operations planning, science instrument handling, data reception and processing, and archiving as well as providing science support. This paper presents a generic documentation structure applicable during the analysis, definition, implementation and operational phases of an ESA Science Ground Segment. This is the conclusion of the analysis performed in the scope of the current ESAC Science Ground Segment developments and is derived from the experience of previous ESA science missions and the ESA standardization efforts (ECSS Standards). It provides a guideline to support the Science Ground Segment documentation processes during all mission phases; representing a new approach for the development of future ESA science missions, and providing an initial documentation structure that might be tailored depending on the specific scientific, engineering and managerial characteristics of each mission. This paper also describes the process followed to produce the generic documentation tree and how the development and operations experience feedback in the updated versions of this generic documentation tree.

  6. Is there life out there ? - A new series for the ESA's Web TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clervoy, J. F.; Coliolo, F.

    2012-09-01

    The European Space Agency, ESA, is preparing a new outreach project: a series of short videos for the ESA's Web TV dedicated to the search for life in the Universe. The rationale behind this pilot project is to use stunning images to attract the attention together with a scientific content accessible to people of varying ages, education levels and cultural outlook. We intent to work with scientists across Europe in order to bring the public on a journey from the boundaries of the Cosmos to the core of the Earth looking for the ingredients necessary for life to form and evolve. Our main objectives are: to share discovery, curiosity and sense of adventure in order to make the public a player in the quest of knowledge about who we are, and where do we come from; to educate and engage different target audiences about European space science and exploration activities; encourage international partnerships. I will present you the first trailer that we have realised with two scientists: André Brack, Astrobiologist, Honorary Director of Research at the CNRS, Orleans, France and Gian Gabriele Ori, Research professor in Geology, and Director of the IRSPS, International Reaserch School of Planetary Science, Pescara, Italy. This first presentation gives an overview of the « exobiological » places beyond the Earth and highlights the importance of comparative planetology for better understand our planet. We would like to share with you ideas and advices in order to produce and diffuse this series in the most efficient way.

  7. Laser Ground System for Communication Experiments with ARTEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzkov, Volodymyr; Volovyk, Dmytro; Kuzkov, Sergii; Sodnik, Zoran; Pukha, Sergii; Caramia, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    The ARTEMIS satellite with the OPALE laser communication terminal on-board was launched on 12 July, 2001. 1789 laser communications sessions were performed between ARTEMIS and SPOT-4 (PASTEL) from 01 April 2003 to 09 January 2008 with total duration of 378 hours. Regular laser communication experiments between ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS - altitude 2400 m above see level) and ARTEMIS in various atmosphere conditions were also performed. The Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched the KIRARI (OICETS) satellite with laser communication terminal called LUCE. Laser communication links between KIRARI and ARTEMIS were successfully realized and international laser communications experiments from the KIRARI satellite were also successfully performed with optical ground stations located in the USA (JPL), Spain (ESA OGS), Germany (DLR), and Japan (NICT). The German Space Agency (DLR) performed laser communication links between two LEO satellites (TerraSAR-X and NFIRE), demonstrating data transfer rates of 5.6Gbit/s and performed laser communication experiments between the satellites and the ESA optical ground station. To reduce the influence of weather conditions on laser communication between satellites and ground stations, a network of optical stations situated in different atmosphere regions needs to be created. In 2002, the Main Astronomical Observatory (MAO) started the development of its own laser communication system to be placed into the Cassegrain focus of its 0.7m AZT-2 telescope (Fe = 10.5m), located in Kyiv 190 meters above sea level. The work was supported by the National Space Agency of Ukraine and by ESA ARTEMIS has an orbital position of 21.4° E and an orbital inclination of more than 9.75°. As a result we developed a precise tracking system for AZT-2 telescope (weighing more than 2 tons) using micro-step motors. Software was developed for computer control of the telescope to track the satellite's orbit and a tracking accuracy of 0.6 arcsec was achieved

  8. CERN, ESA and ESO Launch "Physics On Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    Physics is everywhere . The laws of physics govern the Universe, the Sun, the Earth and even our own lives. In today's rapidly developing society, we are becoming increasingly dependent on high technology - computers, transport, and communication are just some of the key areas that are the result of discoveries by scientists working in physics. But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! [Go to Physics On Stage Website] Beginning in February 2000, three major European research organisations are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , with support from the European Union. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, on the CERN premises at the French-Swiss border near Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge about physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European

  9. OPSE metrology system onboard of the PROBA3 mission of ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreggia, D.; Bemporad, A.; Capobianco, G.; Fineschi, S.; Focardi, M.; Landini, F.; Massone, G.; Nicolini, G.; Pancrazzi, M.; Romoli, M.; Cernica, I.; Purica, M.; Budianu, E.; Thizy, C.; Renotte, E.; Servaye, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, ESA has assessed several mission involving formation flying (FF). The great interest in this topics is mainly driven by the need for moving from ground to space the location of next generation astronomical telescopes overcoming most of the critical problems, as example the construction of huge baselines for interferometry. In this scenario, metrology systems play a critical role. PROBA3 is an ESA technology mission devoted to in-orbit demonstration of the FF technique, with two satellites, an occulter and a main satellite housing a coronagraph named ASPIICS, kept at an average inter-distance by about 144m, with micron scale accuracy. The guiding proposal is to test several metrology solution for spacecraft alignment, with the important scientific return of having observation of Corona at never reached before angular field. The Shadow Position Sensors (SPS), and the Optical Position Emitters Sensors (OPSE) are two of the systems used for FF fine tracking. The SPS are finalized to monitor the position of the two spacecraft with respect to the Sun and are discussed in dedicated papers presented in this conference. The OPSE will monitor the relative position of the two satellites and consists of 3 emitters positioned on the rear surface of the occulter, that will be observed by the coronagraph itself. By following the evolution of the emitters images at the focal plane the alignment of the two spacecrafts is retrieved via dedicated centroiding algoritm. We present an overview of the OPSE system and of the centroiding approach.

  10. ESA's Ice Sheets CCI: validation and inter-comparison of surface elevation changes derived from laser and radar altimetry over Jakobshavn Isbræ, Greenland - Round Robin results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinsen, J. F.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Ticconi, F.; Shepherd, A.; Forsberg, R.; Sørensen, L. S.; Muir, A.; Pie, N.; Felikson, D.; Flament, T.; Hurkmans, R.; Moholdt, G.; Gunter, B.; Lindenbergh, R. C.; Kleinherenbrink, M.

    2013-11-01

    In order to increase the understanding of the changing climate, the European Space Agency has launched the Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI), a program which joins scientists and space agencies into 13 projects either affecting or affected by the concurrent changes. This work is part of the Ice Sheets CCI and four parameters are to be determined for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), each resulting in a dataset made available to the public: Surface Elevation Changes (SEC), surface velocities, grounding line locations, and calving front locations. All CCI projects have completed a so-called Round Robin exercise in which the scientific community was asked to provide their best estimate of the sought parameters as well as a feedback sheet describing their work. By inter-comparing and validating the results, obtained from research institutions world-wide, it is possible to develop the most optimal method for determining each parameter. This work describes the SEC Round Robin and the subsequent conclusions leading to the creation of a method for determining GrIS SEC values. The participants used either Envisat radar or ICESat laser altimetry over Jakobshavn Isbræ drainage basin, and the submissions led to inter-comparisons of radar vs. altimetry as well as cross-over vs. repeat-track analyses. Due to the high accuracy of the former and the high spatial resolution of the latter, a method, which combines the two techniques will provide the most accurate SEC estimates. The data supporting the final GrIS analysis stem from the radar altimeters on-board Envisat, ERS-1 and ERS-2. The accuracy of laser data exceeds that of radar altimetry; the Round Robin analysis has, however, proven the latter equally capable of dealing with surface topography thereby making such data applicable in SEC analyses extending all the way from the interior ice sheet to margin regions. This shows good potential for a~future inclusion of ESA CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 radar data in the analysis, and

  11. Aerosol climate time series from ESA Aerosol_cci (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer-Popp, T.

    2013-12-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) the Aerosol_cci project (mid 2010 - mid 2013, phase 2 proposed 2014-2016) has conducted intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors AATSR (3 algorithms), PARASOL, MERIS (3 algorithms), synergetic AATSR/SCIAMACHY, OMI and GOMOS. Whereas OMI and GOMOS were used to derive absorbing aerosol index and stratospheric extinction profiles, respectively, Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and Angstrom coefficient were retrieved from the other sensors. Global datasets for 2008 were produced and validated versus independent ground-based data and other satellite data sets (MODIS, MISR). An additional 17-year dataset is currently generated using ATSR-2/AATSR data. During the three years of the project, intensive collaborative efforts were made to improve the retrieval algorithms focusing on the most critical modules. The team agreed on the use of a common definition for the aerosol optical properties. Cloud masking was evaluated, but a rigorous analysis with a pre-scribed cloud mask did not lead to improvement for all algorithms. Better results were obtained using a post-processing step in which sudden transitions, indicative of possible occurrence of cloud contamination, were removed. Surface parameterization, which is most critical for the nadir only algorithms (MERIS and synergetic AATSR / SCIAMACHY) was studied to a limited extent. The retrieval results for AOD, Ångström exponent (AE) and uncertainties were evaluated by comparison with data from AERONET (and a limited amount of MAN) sun photometer and with satellite data available from MODIS and MISR. Both level2 and level3 (gridded daily) datasets were validated. Several validation metrics were used (standard statistical quantities such as bias, rmse, Pearson correlation, linear regression, as well as scoring approaches to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal correlations against AERONET), and in some cases

  12. The SAFE ESA-funded Project: how to approach for an integrated system of earthquake physics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, A.; De Franceschi, G.; Di Giovambattista, R.; Perrone, L.; Alfonsi, L.; Cianchini, G.; Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.; Cesaroni, C.; Spogli, L.; Malagnini, A.; Amoruso, L.; Carbone, M.; Abbattista, C.; Drimaco, D.

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of the Swarm satellite mission by ESA is to measure the magnetic signals from the Earth. The SAFE (Swarm for Earthquake study) project (funded by ESA in the framework "STSE Swarm+Innovation", 2014) aims at applying the new approach of geosystemics to the analysis of Swarm data for investigating the preparatory phase of earthquakes. The main objective is to explore the possible link between magnetic/ionospheric anomalies and large earthquakes analysing Swarm as well as ground based data (seismic, magnetic, GNSS, etc.). This presentation will show the state of the art in lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC) and the expected contribution of SAFE in the field, showing some recent case studies.

  13. A new research program for ground-based space radiobiology in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Kraft, G.; O'Neill, P.; Reitz, G.; Sabatier, L.; Schneider, U.

    Space radiation has been long acknowledged as a potential showstopper for long duration manned interplanetary missions Our knowledge of biological effects of cosmic radiation in deep space is almost exclusively derived from ground-based accelerator experiments with heavy ions in animal or in vitro models In an effort to gain more information on space radiation risk and to develop countermeasures NASA started several years ago a Space Radiation Health Program which is currently supporting biological experiments performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton NY Accelerator-based radiobiology research in the field of space radiation research is also under way in Russia and Japan The European Space Agency ESA has recently established an ambitious exploration program AURORA and within this program it has been decided to start a space radiation research program Europe has a wide tradition in radiobiology research at accelerators generally focussing on charged-particle cancer therapy This expertise can be adapted to address the issue of space radiation risk To support research in this field in Europe ESA issued in 2005 a call for tender for a preliminary study of investigations on biological effects of space radiation IBER This study will prepare future ESA supported-activities in space radiation research by selecting the best European accelerator facilities to be targeted for cooperation and by drafting a roadmap for future research activities The roadmap will include a prioritisation of research topics and a detailed proposal

  14. Preparatory study of a ground-based space radiobiology program in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, M.; Kraft, G.; O'Neill, P.; Reitz, G.; Sabatier, L.; Schneider, U.

    Space radiation has long been acknowledged as a potential showstopper for long duration manned interplanetary missions. Our knowledge of biological effects of cosmic radiation in deep space is almost exclusively derived from ground-based accelerator experiments with heavy ions in animal or in vitro models. In an effort to gain more information on space radiation risk and to develop countermeasures, NASA initiated several years ago a Space Radiation Health Program, which is currently supporting biological experiments performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator-based radiobiology research in the field of space radiation research is also under way in Russia and Japan. The European Space Agency (ESA) has recently established an ambitious exploration program (AURORA), and within this program it has been decided to include a space radiation research program. Europe has a long tradition in radiobiology research at accelerators, generally focussing on charged-particle cancer therapy. This expertise can be adapted to address the issue of space radiation risk. To support research in this field in Europe, ESA issued a call for tender in 2005 for a preliminary study of investigations on biological effects of space radiation (IBER). This study will provide guidance on future ESA-supported activities in space radiation research by identifying the most appropriate European accelerator facilities to be targeted for cooperation, and by drafting a roadmap for future research activities. The roadmap will include a prioritisation of research topics, and a detailed proposal for experimental campaigns for the following 5 10 years.

  15. Demonstrating xLuna on ESA EXOMADER Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present xLuna [1] and its successful demonstration on the ESA EXOMArs DEmonstration Rover (EXOMADER) [2]. xLuna is a Linux-specific hypervisor extension for RTEMS, a Real-time Executive already used on ESA missions. On xLuna, RTEMS runs natively and directly on top of the hardware providing all its native services to real- time control applications. On top of the hypervisor runs a Linux kernel para-virtualised specifically for the system that provides all the well known POSIX based services and an endless set of software libraries to payload applications. On the demonstration, the complete navigation software of the rover (with stereo image processing and path processing) that was being tested ran on xLuna's Linux subsystem, while the RTEMS components were running control tasks. Due to impossibilities of integration, the RTEMS tasks running were simulated. The control was performed by existing HW.

  16. The non-linearity of the ESA Photon Counting Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llebaria, A.; Nieto, J.-L.; di Serego Alighieri, S.

    1986-11-01

    The time-resolved imaging mode (TRIM) suggested by di Serego Alighieri and Perryman (1986), in which photons are recorded separately on each television camera frame, was used to analyze the data obtained in 1984 on the nucleus of M31 with the ESA Photon Counting Detector (PCD) on the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope. Through the examination of the TRIM data, it was possible to detect nonlinearity in the response of the ESA PCD, which is interpreted as being due to phosphorescence in the intensifier. A quantitative measurement of this effect is shown. It is argued that if the interpretation is correct, the same kind of nonlinearity should be found in all photon counting detectors with phosphor screen. The amount of the nonlinearity is presumably higher in detectors with lower thresholds.

  17. A Compilation of Spatial Datasets and Surface-Water and Ground-Water Data from the U.S. Geological Survey and Other Federal and Oklahoma State Agencies for the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana Lichelle

    2010-01-01

    This report contains spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic features and spatial datasets detailing surface-water, ground-water, and other types of environmental information collected in and surrounding Kickapoo Tribal Lands. Spatial datasets were compiled from Federal and Oklahoma State agencies. Surface-water, ground-water, and other types of environmental information of natural and anthropogenic features were compiled from USGS National Water Information System database, Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality online Geographic Information System data viewer, Oklahoma Water Resources Board online Water Information Mapping System, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency online Modernized STORET database. These spatial datasets were compiled from many different sources with varying quality. Because of the different sources, features common to multiple layers may not overlay exactly. Users should check the metadata to determine proper use of these data. These data were not checked for accuracy or completeness. Should a question of accuracy or completeness arise, the user should contact the originator cited in the metadata.

  18. ESA/ESTEC Meteor Research Group - behind the scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudawska, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ESA/ESTEC Meteor Research Group consists of a team people with one goal: understand the effects of meteoric phenomena on planetary atmospheres and surfaces, as well as on spacecraft. The team carries out observational and theoretical studies in order to increase our knowledge of the small particle complex in the solar system. This talk addresses a number of tasks within the group seen from a perspective of a research fellow.

  19. Ozone profile retrievals from the ESA GOME instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Rosemary; Kerridge, Brian J.; Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The potential of the ESA Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) to produce ozone profile information has been examined by carrying out two sample retrievals using simulated GOME data. The first retrieval examines the potential of the GOME instrument to produce stratospheric ozone profiles using the traditional back-scatter ultraviolet technique, while the second examines the possibility of obtaining tropospheric profile information, and improving the quality of the stratospheric profile retrievals, by exploiting the temperature dependence of the ozone Huggins bands.

  20. NASA/ESA CV-990 Spacelab Simulation (ASSESS 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Androes, G. M.; Reeves, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    To test the validity of the ARC approach to Spacelab, several missions simulating aspects of Spacelab operations have been conducted as part of the ASSESS Program. Each mission was designed to evaluate potential Shuttle/Spacelab concepts in increasing detail. For this mission, emphasis was placed on development and exercise of management techniques planned for Spacelab using management participants from NASA and ESA who have responsibilities for Spacelab 1 which will be launched in 1980.

  1. SNAP (Sentinel Application Platform) and the ESA Sentinel 3 Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhlke, Marco; Fomferra, Norman; Brockmann, Carsten; Peters, Marco; Veci, Luis; Malik, Julien; Regner, Peter

    2015-12-01

    ESA is developing three new free open source Toolboxes for the scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 missions. The Toolboxes are based on a common software platform, namely the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). SNAP is an evolution of the proven ESA BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current BEAM and NEST functionality including multi-mission support for SAR and optical missions to support ESA and third party missions for years to come. The Sentinel-3 Toolbox includes generic function for visualisation and analysis of Sentinel-3 OLCI and SLSTR Level 1 and Level 2 data, as well as specific processing tools such as cloud screening, water constituent retrieval and SST retrieval. The Toolbox will put emphasis on access to remote in-situ databases such as Felyx or MERMAID, and exploitation of the data-uncertainty information which is included in the Sentinel-3 data products. New image classification, segmentation and filtering methods, as well as interoperability with the ORFEO Toolbox and the GDAL libraries will be additional new tools. New challenges stemming from Sentinel-3 sensors, such as raster data in different resolutions within a single dataset, will be supported gracefully. The development of SNAP and the Sentinel Toolboxes is funded through the “Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM)” programme, a new programme element of ESA’s fourth period of the Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017).

  2. Status and progress in the Space Surveillance and Tracking Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, E.

    2010-09-01

    In November 2008, the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at Ministerial level approved the start of ESA’s Space Situational Awareness programme. Between 2009 and 2012 a preparatory phase will run that will develop the architectural design of the system, the governance and data policy and the provision of precursor services in the areas of: Space Surveillance and Tracking, Space Weather and Near Earth Objects. This paper will concentrate on the first of these segments: Space Surveillance and Tracking. It will develop the following main topics: Customer requirements and their integration, the initiation of an integrated catalogue, extension of correlated data to service provision and international cooperation and data fusion The development of the services resulting from these points will be a key driver in the final architecture. This architecture will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council to further develop a full SSA system from 2012 onwards.

  3. ESA SMART-1 mission: review of results and legacy 10 years after launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We review ESA's SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang'E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to geostationary satellites and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions and exploration. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of illumination, 4) observations and science from the Moon, 5) support to

  4. ESA SMART-1 mission: results and lessons for future lunar exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    We review ESA’s SMART-1 highlights and legacy 10 years after launch. We discuss lessons for future lunar exploration and upcoming missions. The SMART-1 mission to the Moon achieved record firsts such as: 1) first Small Mission for Advanced Research and Technology; with spacecraft built and integrated in 2.5 years and launched 3.5 years after mission approval; 2) first mission leaving the Earth orbit using solar power alone with demonstration for future deep space missions such as BepiColombo; 3) most fuel effective mission (60 litres of Xenon) and longest travel (13 month) to the Moon!; 4) first ESA mission reaching the Moon and first European views of lunar poles; 5) first European demonstration of a wide range of new technologies: Li-Ion modular battery, deep-space communications in X- and Ka-bands, and autonomous positioning for navigation; 6) first lunar demonstration of an infrared spectrometer and of a Swept Charge Detector Lunar X-ray fluorescence spectrometer ; 7) first ESA mission with opportunity for lunar science, elemental geochemistry, surface mineralogy mapping, surface geology and precursor studies for exploration; 8) first controlled impact landing on the Moon with real time observations campaign; 9) first mission supporting goals of the ILEWG/COSPAR International Lunar Exploration Working Group in technical and scientific exchange, international collaboration, public and youth engagement; 10) first mission preparing the ground for ESA collaboration in Chandrayaan-1, Chang’ E1-2-3 and near-future landers, sample return and human lunar missions. The SMART-1 technology legacy is applicable to application geostationary missions and deep space missions using solar electric propulsion. The SMART-1 archive observations have been used to support scientific research and prepare subsequent lunar missions. Most recent SMART-1 results are relevant to topics on: 1) the study of properties of the lunar dust, 2) impact craters and ejecta, 3) the study of

  5. Intermediate experimental vehicle, ESA program aerodynamics-aerothermodynamics key technologies for spacecraft design and successful flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutheil, Sylvain; Pibarot, Julien; Tran, Dac; Vallee, Jean-Jacques; Tribot, Jean-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    With the aim of placing Europe among the world's space players in the strategic area of atmospheric re-entry, several studies on experimental vehicle concepts and improvements of critical re-entry technologies have paved the way for the flight of an experimental space craft. The successful flight of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV), under ESA's Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP), is definitively a significant step forward from the Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator flight (1998), establishing Europe as a key player in this field. The IXV project objectives were the design, development, manufacture and ground and flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled reentry system, which is highly flexible and maneuverable. The paper presents, the role of aerodynamics aerothermodynamics as part of the key technologies for designing an atmospheric re-entry spacecraft and securing a successful flight.

  6. The LOFT ground segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, E.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barret, D.; Binko, Pavel; Brandt, S.; Cavazzuti, E.; Courvoisier, T.; den Herder, J. W.; Feroci, M.; Ferrigno, C.; Giommi, P.; Götz, D.; Guy, L.; Hernanz, M.; in't Zand, J. J. M.; Klochkov, D.; Kuulkers, Erik; Motch, C.; Lumb, D.; Papitto, A.; Pittori, Carlotta; Rohlfs, R.; Santangelo, A.; Schmid, C.; Schwope, A. D.; Smith, P. J.; Webb, N. A.; Wilms, J.; Zane, S.

    2014-07-01

    LOFT, the Large Observatory For X-ray Timing, was one of the ESA M3 mission candidates that completed their assessment phase at the end of 2013. LOFT is equipped with two instruments, the Large Area Detector (LAD) and the Wide Field Monitor (WFM). The LAD performs pointed observations of several targets per orbit (~90 minutes), providing roughly ~80 GB of proprietary data per day (the proprietary period will be 12 months). The WFM continuously monitors about 1/3 of the sky at a time and provides data for about ~100 sources a day, resulting in a total of ~20 GB of additional telemetry. The LOFT Burst alert System additionally identifies on-board bright impulsive events (e.g., Gamma-ray Bursts, GRBs) and broadcasts the corresponding position and trigger time to the ground using a dedicated system of ~15 VHF receivers. All WFM data are planned to be made public immediately. In this contribution we summarize the planned organization of the LOFT ground segment (GS), as established in the mission Yellow Book1. We describe the expected GS contributions from ESA and the LOFT consortium. A review is provided of the planned LOFT data products and the details of the data flow, archiving and distribution. Despite LOFT was not selected for launch within the M3 call, its long assessment phase ( >2 years) led to a very solid mission design and an efficient planning of its ground operations.

  7. The Software Architecture of the Upgraded ESA DRAMA Software Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebschull, Christopher; Flegel, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Mockel, Marek; Braun, Vitali; Radtke, Jonas; Wiedemann, Carsten; Vorsmann, Peter; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Krag, Holger

    2013-08-01

    In the beginnings of man's space flight activities there was the belief that space is so big that everybody could use it without any repercussions. However during the last six decades the increasing use of Earth's orbits has lead to a rapid growth in the space debris environment, which has a big influence on current and future space missions. For this reason ESA issued the "Requirements on Space Debris Mitigation for ESA Projects" [1] in 2008, which apply to all ESA missions henceforth. The DRAMA (Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis) software suite had been developed to support the planning of space missions to comply with these requirements. During the last year the DRAMA software suite has been upgraded under ESA contract by TUBS and DEIMOS to include additional tools and increase the performance of existing ones. This paper describes the overall software architecture of the ESA DRAMA software suite. Specifically the new graphical user interface, which manages the five main tools ARES (Assessment of Risk Event Statistics), MIDAS (MASTER-based Impact Flux and Damage Assessment Software), OSCAR (Orbital Spacecraft Active Removal), CROC (Cross Section of Complex Bodies) and SARA (Re-entry Survival and Risk Analysis) is being discussed. The advancements are highlighted as well as the challenges that arise from the integration of the five tool interfaces. A framework had been developed at the ILR and was used for MASTER-2009 and PROOF-2009. The Java based GUI framework, enables the cross-platform deployment, and its underlying model-view-presenter (MVP) software pattern, meet strict design requirements necessary to ensure a robust and reliable method of operation in an environment where the GUI is separated from the processing back-end. While the GUI framework evolved with each project, allowing an increasing degree of integration of services like validators for input fields, it has also increased in complexity. The paper will conclude with an outlook on

  8. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  9. LISA — a study of the ESA cornerstone mission for observing gravitational waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, T.; Sandford, M. C. W.; Hammesfahr, A.

    2001-03-01

    The primary objective of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission is to detect and observe gravitational waves from massive black holes and galactic binaries in the frequency range 10 -4 to 10 -1 Hz. This low-frequency range is inaccessible to ground-based interferometers because of the unshieldable background of local gravitational noise and because ground-based interferometers are limited in length to a few km. LISA is an ESA cornerstone mission and recently had a system study (Ref. 1) carried out by a consortium led by Astrium, which confirmed the basic configuration for the payload with only minor changes, and provided detailed concepts for the spacecraft and mission design. The study confirmed the need for a drag-free technology demonstration mission to develop the inertial sensors for LISA, before embarking on the build of the flight sensors. With a technology demonstration flight in 2005, it would be possible to carry out LISA as a joint ESA-NASA mission with a launch by 2010 subject to the funding programmatics. The baseline for LISA is three disc-like spacecraft each of which consist of a science module which carries the laser interferometer payload (two in each science module) and a propulsion module containing an ion drive and the hydrazine thrusters of the AOCS. The propulsion module is used for the transfer from earth escape trajectory provided by the Delta II launch to the operational orbit. Once there the propulsion module is jettisoned to reduce disturbances on the payload. Detailed analysis of thermal and gravitational disturbances, a model of the drag-free control and of the interferometer operation confirm that the strain sensitivity of the interferometer will be achieved.

  10. Resolutions adopted at the ESA Council Meeting at ministerial level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Resolution on the Agency's long-term plan for discovery and competitiveness. Resolution on the level of resources for the Agency's mandatory activities 2006 - 2010. Resolution on the evolution of the European launcher sector. Resolution on the CSG - extension until end-2008. Resolution on the evolution of the Agency. Resolution on the International Space Station programme.

  11. ESA's Hipparcos satellite revises the scale of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-02-01

    Sun, called parallaxes, give the first direct measurements of the distances of large numbers of stars. With the overall calculations completed, the harvest of scientific discoveries has begun. Among those delighted with the immediate irruption into cosmology, from this spacecraft made in Europe, is ESA's director of science, Roger Bonnet. "When supporters of the Hipparcos project argued their case," Bonnet recalls, "they were competing with astrophysical missions with more obvious glamour. But they promised remarkable consequences for all branches of astronomy. And already we see that even the teams using the Hubble Space Telescope will benefit from a verdict from Hipparcos on the distance scale that underpins all their reckonings of the expansion of the Universe." The pulse-rates of the stars Cepheid stars alternately squeeze themselves and relax, like a beating heart. They wax and wane rhythmically in brightness, every few days or weeks, at a rate that depends on their luminosity. Henrietta Leavitt at the Harvard College Observatory discovered in the early years of this century that bigger and more brilliant Cepheids vary with a longer period, according to a strict rule. It allows astronomers to gauge relative distances simply by taking the pulse-rates of the Cepheids and measuring their apparent brightnesses. Nearby Cepheids are typically 1000-2000 light-years away. They are too far for even Hipparcos to obtain very exact distance measurements, but by taking twenty-six examples and comparing them, Michael Feast and his colleague Robin Catchpole of RGO Cambridge arrive at consistent statistics. These define the relationship between the period and the luminosity, needed to judge the distances of Cepheids. The zero point is for an imaginary Cepheid pulsating once a day. This would be a star 300 times more luminous than the Sun, according to the Hipparcos data. The slowest Cepheid in the sample, l Carinae, has a period of 36 days and is equivalent to 18,000 suns

  12. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  13. The first Spacelab payload - A joint NASA/ESA venture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R.; Pace, R.; Collet, J.; Sanfourche, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Planning for the 1980 qualification flight of Spacelab, which will involve a long module and one pallet, is discussed. The mission will employ two payload specialists, one sponsored by NASA and the other by ESA. Management of the Spacelab mission functions, including definition and execution of the on-board experiments, development of the experimental hardware and training of the payload specialists, is considered; studies proposed in the areas of atmospheric physics, space plasma physics, solar physics, earth observations, astronomy, astrophysics, life sciences and material sciences are reviewed. Analyses of the Spacelab environment and the Spacelab-to-orbiter and Spacelab-to-experiment interactions are also planned.

  14. The Operations Security Concept for Future ESA Earth Observation Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, D.; Bargellini, P.; Merri, M.

    2008-08-01

    Next-generation European earth observation missions will play a critical role in public safety and security infrastructures. This makes it necessary for ESA to protect the communication infrastructure of these missions in order to guarantee their service availability. In this paper, we discuss the development process for a generic earth observation security concept. This concept has been developed as part of a GMES Flight Operation Segment security study with the objective to analyse and select a number of high level security requirements for the missions. Further, we studied the impact of an implementation for these requirements on the operational infrastructure of current earth observation missions.

  15. Mission to the Moon: An ESA study on future exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing worldwide interest in the continuation of lunar exploration has convinced ESA to carry out an investigation of the motivations to return to the Moon to establish a permanent or a semi-permanent manned lunar base. This study also considers the possible role Europe could play in the future exploration and possible utilization of the Moon. The study concentrated in this first phase mainly on scientific questions, leaving technological issues such as transportation, the role of humans, infrastructure, and policy matters to a later phase. It only partially considered questions relating to the exploitation of lunar resources and the impact of human activities on science.

  16. Antenna pointing mechanism for ESA ENVISAT polar platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrano, J.; SanMillan, J.; Santiago, R.

    1996-01-01

    INTA is currently developing a two-degree-of-freedom antenna pointing mechanism (APM) as part of the ESA ENVISAT POLAR PLATFORM (PPF) program. This mechanism will drive a Ka-band antenna within the Data-Relay Satellite System (DRS) on board the Polar Platform satellite. The first mission using PPF is ENVISAT, which is expected to be flown in 1998. This paper describes the main requirements, design, and test results of this pointing system, as well as the main technical problems from customer requirements and how those have been faced to achieve a final design.

  17. ESA takes part in Earth observation and space science experiments on board the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-03-01

    interesting phenomena show up. The third European instrument, called MAS (Millimeter Wave Atmospheric Sounder) will be measuring the absorption spectra of water vapour and trace gases in the upper atmosphere. The measurement programme includes most notably ozone and chlorine monoxide, which plays an important role in the ozone cycle. MAS was developed under the responsibility of Dr. Gerd Hartmann of the Max-Planck- Institute fuer Aeronomy, Lindau, Germany. The complex space-to-ground communications links and the tools to control the instruments from the laboratories in Europe have been designed to be as flexible and user-friendly as possible. The series of Atlas missions is enabling ESA to gain valuable experience for the future utilisation of its Columbus Attached Laboratory; its science results are at the same time a contribution to today's advances in space science and environmental research, complementing a number of dedicated ESA satellites currently under development, such as SOHO, ERS-2 and ENVISAT-1. Note to Editors : At the invitation of the Belgian Minister for Science Policy a press conference will be held on 22 March 1993 at 16.00 hours at the Belgian Royal Meteorological Institute in Brussels (IRMB). The press conference will be followed by the inauguration of the Space Remote Operations Centre, from where the telescience operations for the ATLAS-2 mission will be carried out. Apart from the Minister, those participating will include: Dirk Frimout, Belgian astronaut and ESA staff member Dominique Crommelynck, IRMB, Principal Investigator for SOLCON Gerard Thuillier, CNRS France, Principal Investigator for SOLSPEC Further information can be obtained from the Belgian Science Policy Office, Mrs. M.C. Limbourg or Mr. J. Bernard : Tel : +32.2.238.34.11 - Fax : +32.2.230.59.12

  18. The Sodankylä in situ soil moisture observation network: an example application of ESA CCI soil moisture product evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Jaakko; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Smolander, Tuomo; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Bircher, Simone; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade there has been considerable development in remote sensing techniques relating to soil moisture retrievals over large areas. Within the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) a new soil moisture product has been generated, merging different satellite-based surface soil moisture based products. Such remotely sensed data need to be validated by means of in situ observations in different climatic regions. In that context, a comprehensive, distributed network of in situ measurement stations gathering information on soil moisture, as well as soil temperature, has been set up in recent years at the Finnish Meteorological Institute's (FMI) Sodankylä Arctic research station. The network forms a calibration and validation (CAL-VAL) reference site and is used as a tool to evaluate the validity of satellite retrievals of soil properties. In this paper we present the Sodankylä CAL-VAL reference site soil moisture observation network, its instrumentation as well as its areal representativeness over the study area and the region in general as a whole. As an example of data utilization, comparisons of spatially weighted average top-layer soil moisture observations between the years 2012 and 2014 against ESA CCI soil moisture data product estimates are presented and discussed. The comparisons were made against a single ESA CCI data product pixel encapsulating most of the Sodankylä CAL-VAL network sites. Comparisons are made with daily averaged and running weekly averaged soil moisture data as well as through application of an exponential soil moisture filter. The overall achieved correlation between the ESA CCI data product and in situ observations varies considerably (from 0.479 to 0.637) depending on the applied comparison perspective. Similarly, depending on the comparison perspective used, inter-annual correlation comparison results exhibit even more pronounced variation, ranging from 0.166 to 0.840.

  19. The new SCOS-based EGSE of the EPIC flight-spare on-ground cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Palombara, Nicola; Abbey, Anthony; Insinga, Fernando; Calderon-Riano, Pedro; Casale, Mauro; Kirsch, Marcus; Martin, James; Munoz, Ramon; Palazzo, Maddalena; Poletti, Mauro; Sembay, Steve; Vallejo, Juan C.; Villa, Gabriele

    2014-07-01

    The XMM-Newton observatory, launched by the European Space Agency in 1999, is still one of the scientific community's most important high-energy astrophysics missions. After almost 15 years in orbit its instruments continue to operate smoothly with a performance close to the immediate post-launch status. The competition for the observing time remains very high with ESA reporting a very healthy over-subscription factor. Due to the efficient use of spacecraft consumables XMM-Newton could potentially be operated into the next decade. However, since the mission was originally planned for 10 years, progressive ageing and/or failures of the on-board instrumentation can be expected. Dealing with them could require substantial changes of the on-board operating software, and of the command and telemetry database, which could potentially have unforeseen consequences for the on-board equipment. In order to avoid this risk, it is essential to test these changes on ground, before their upload. To this aim, two flight-spare cameras of the EPIC experiment (one MOS and one PN) are available on-ground. Originally they were operated through an Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) system which was developed over 15 years ago to support the test campaigns up to the launch. The EGSE used a specialized command language running on now obsolete workstations. ESA and the EPIC Consortium, therefore, decided to replace it with new equipment in order to fully reproduce on-ground the on-board configuration and to operate the cameras with SCOS2000, the same Mission Control System used by ESA to control the spacecraft. This was a demanding task, since it required both the recovery of the detailed knowledge of the original EGSE and the adjustment of SCOS for this special use. Recently this work has been completed by replacing the EGSE of one of the two cameras, which is now ready to be used by ESA. Here we describe the scope and purpose of this activity, the problems faced during its

  20. The Lena River Delta Observatory, Arctic Siberia: a Contribution to the ESA DUE Permafrost Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Birgit; Boike, Julia; Moritz, Langer; Annett, Bartsch; Sina, Muster; Jennifer, Sobiech; Konstanze, Piel; Günter, Stoof; Anne, Morgenstern; Mathias, Ulrich

    2010-05-01

    The major task of the ESA Data User Element DUE PERMAFROST is to develop and use Earth Observation services specifically for monitoring and modelling of permafrost. In order to setup the required information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Long-term ground data series and multidisciplinary ongoing projects make the Lena River delta (Arctic Siberia) a prime study region for evaluation and validation of the DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing products. The Lena River Delta located in the zone of continuous permafrost is a key region for Arctic system science. Since 1998, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research AWI in collaboration with the Lena Delta Reserve in Tiksi has operated the German-Russian research station Samoylov. Relevant ground-based data (air temperature, radiation, snow, albedo, soil temperature and moisture) are collected continuously. The high landscape heterogeneity (wet polygonal centres, dry polygonal rims, ponds and lakes) challenges all ground data observations. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and location are being built up. Exclusion and selection criteria will be based on experience, especially the knowledge on parameter variability in time and space. The main focus are the remote sensing products ‘surface temperature', ‘surface moisture', ‘albedo', ‘vegetation' and ‘water'. Statistical and contextural methods will be used for the upscaling from the plot to the meso-scale. Problems will have to be identified such as process-dependent scales and the water body ratio within the pixel.

  1. Analysis of the preliminary optical links between ARTEMIS and the Optical Ground Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Garcia-Talavera, Marcos; Chueca, Sergio; Alonso, Angel; Viera, Teodora; Sodnik, Zoran

    2002-12-01

    In the frame of the SILEX project, the European Space Agency (ESA) has put into orbit two Laser Communication Terminals, to establish an experimental free space optical communication link between a GEO satellite (ARTEMIS) and a LEO satellite (SPOT IV), to relay earth observation data. In order to perform In Orbit Testing (IOT) of these, and other, optical communications systems, ESA and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC) reached an agreement for building the Optical Ground Station (OGS), in the Teide Observatory of the IAC. With ARTEMIS placed in a circular parking orbit at about 31000 kilometres, its optical payload has been preliminary tested with the OGS. First results and analysis are presented on the space-to-ground bi-directional link, including pointing acquisition and tracking performance, Bit-Error Rate (BER) and transmitted beam divergence effects related with atmospheric models and predictions. Future plans include deeper optical bi-directional communication tests of OGS, not only with ARTEMIS but also with OSCAR-40 (downlink) and SMART-1 (up-link) satellites, in order to do a full characterisation of the performances of laser beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence and a comparison with theoretical predictions.

  2. SMART-1 Technology and Science Experiments in Preparation of Future Missions and ESA Cornerstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, A. E.; Racca, G. D.; Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Project

    1999-12-01

    -accuracy tracking in Ka-band and imaging of a surface landmark LASER-LINK: a demonstration of acquisition of a deep-space laser-link from the ESA Optical Ground Station at Tenerife, validating also the novel sub-apertured telescope designed for the mitigation of atmospheric scintillation disturbances.

  3. Recognizing, Determining, and Addressing Entrepreneurial Innovations by Superintendents of Emerging or Established Educational Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfstrom, Kari M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation describes how entrepreneurial superintendents of educational service agencies (ESAs) recognize, determine and address common and distinct innovative characteristics within emerging or established regional educational environments. Because internal and external factors assist in recognizing innovative practices, this study…

  4. The ESA SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. R.; SMART-1 Science and Technology Working Team

    2000-10-01

    SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology . Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The project aims to have the spacecraft ready in October 2002 for launch as an Ariane-5 auxiliary payload. After a cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit. SMART-1's science payload, with a total mass of some 15 kg, features many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemica composition and evolution of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of planets, and the origin

  5. An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamin; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological

  6. An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamine; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

    The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological

  7. On-Ground Casualty Risk Reduction by Structural Design for Demise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, Stijn; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin

    In recent years, awareness concerning the risk posed by un-controlled re-entering spacecraft on ground has increased. Some re-entry events such as ESA's GOCE in 2013 and NASA's UARS appeared prominent in international media. Space agencies and nations, in cooperation within the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC), have established a requirements to limited the on-ground risk for future missions. To meet the requirements, the amount of debris falling back on Earth has to be limited in number, mass and size. Design for demise (D4D) refers to all measures taken in the design of a space object to increase the potential for demise of the object and its components during re-entry. SCARAB (Spacecraft Atmospheric Re-entry and Break-Up) is ESA's high-fidelity tool which analyses the thermal and structural effects of atmospheric re-entry on spacecraft in a finite-element approach. For this study, a model of a representative satellite is developed in Scarab to serve as test-bed for D4D analysis on a structural level. The model is used as starting point for different D4D approaches based on increasing the exposure of the satellite components to the aero-thermal environment, as a way to speed up the demise. Statistical bootstrapping is applied to the resulting on-ground fragment lists in order to compare the different re-entry scenarios and to determine the uncertainties of the results. Moreover, the bootstrap results can be used to analyse the casualty risk estimator from a theoretical point of view. The risk reductions for the analysed D4D techniques are presented w.r.t. the reference scenario for the modelled representative satellite.

  8. The ESA Nanosatellite Beacons for Space Weather Monitoring Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapgood, M.; Eckersley, S.; Lundin, R.; Kluge, M.

    2008-09-01

    This paper will present final results from this ESA-funded study that has investigated how current and emerging concepts for nanosats may be used to monitor space weather conditions and provide improved access to data needed for space weather services. The study has reviewed requirements developed in previous ESA space weather studies to establish a set of service and measurements requirements appropriate to nanosat solutions. The output is conveniently represented as a set of five distinct classes of nanosat constellations, each in different orbit locations and which can address a specific group of measurement requirements. One example driving requirement for several of the constellations was the need for real-time data reception. Given this background, the study then iterated a set of instrument and spacecraft solutions to address each of the nanosat constellations from the requirements. Indeed, iteration has proved to be a critical aspect of the study. The instrument solutions have driven a refinement of requirements through assessment of whether or not the physical parameters to be measured dictate instrument components too large for a nanosat. In addition, the study has also reviewed miniaturization trends for instruments relevant to space weather monitoring by nanosats, looking at the near, mid and far-term timescales. Within the spacecraft solutions the study reviewed key technology trends relevant to space weather monitoring by nanosats: (a) micro and nano-technology devices for spacecraft communications, navigation, propulsion and power, and (b) development and flight experience with nanosats for science and for engineering demonstration. These requirements and solutions were then subject to an iterative system and mission analysis including key mission design issues (e.g. launch/transfer, mission geometry, instrument accommodation, numbers of spacecraft, communications architectures, de-orbit, nanosat reliability and constellation robustness) and the

  9. THOR - a mission candidate for ESA M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaivads, Andris

    2015-04-01

    We present a mission concept THOR (http://thor.irfu.se) that was proposed in the response to the ESA M4 Call. The scientific theme of the THOR mission is turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization. The main focus is on turbulence and shock processes, however areas where the different fundamental processes interact, such as reconnection in turbulence or shock generated turbulence, is also of high importance. The THOR mission aims to address such fundamental questions as how energy is dissipated at kinetic scales, how energy is partitioned among different plasma components, what is the relative importance of waves and coherent structures in the dissipation processes. To reach the goal a careful design work of the THOR mission and its payload has been done and it is based on the earlier mission concepts of Tor, EIDOSCOPE and Cross-Scale. We present the basic concepts of the THOR mission, THOR's payload and the major science questions to be addressed.

  10. The ESA Meteoroid Model 2010: Enhanced Physical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikarev, Valeri; Mints, Alexey; Drolshagen, Gerhard

    The orbital distributions of meteoroids in interplanetary space are revised in the ESA meteoroid model. In the present update, the chemical composition of the meteoroids is simulated in more detail than in the previous meteoroid models. Silicate and carbonaceous fractions are introduced for all meteoroid populations, and in addition to asteroids and Jupiter-crossing comets, comet 2P/Encke is added as a source. The orbital evolution under planetary gravity, Poynting-Robertson effect and mutual collisions is simulated using analytical approximations. Infrared observations of the zodiacal cloud by the COBE DIRBE instrument, in situ flux measurements by the dust detectors on board Galileo, Ulysses, Pioneer 11 and Helios-1 spacecraft, and the crater size distributions on lunar rock samples retrieved by the Apollo missions are incorporated in the model.

  11. Results from the Survey of ESA Science Archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arviset, C.; Baines, D.; Osuna, P.

    2013-10-01

    Most of ESA's Space Science Archives are currently hosted at ESAC, the European Space Astronomy Centre, located near Madrid, Spain. All these science archives are designed, developed, operated and maintained by a dedicated Science Archives and VO Team, providing support to all science operations centres at ESAC. At the end of 2011, a questionnaire was sent to all users of the ESAC Science Archives in the last five years, asking them about their usage frequency, their satisfaction level, the type of interfaces used (GUI or scriptable interface or others) and the purpose for which they are using the archives. The survey also allowed optionally to provide qualitative feedback. This paper presents the main results from this questionnaire, from a global perspective of all the archives.

  12. ESA New Generation Science Archives: SOHO and EXOSAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, P.; Arviset, C.; Baines, D.; Barbarisi, I.; Castellanos, J.; Cheek, N.; Costa, H.; Fajersztejn, N.; Fernandez, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Laruelo, A.; Leon, I.; Ortiz, I.; Salgado, J.; Stebe, A.; Tapiador, D.

    2010-12-01

    The ESAC Science Archives and VO Team (SAT) has developed a new infrastructure for the development and maintenance of the ESA space based missions’ Science Archives. This infrastructure makes use of state-of-the-art technology to overcome some of the already known limitations of older technologies, used for the building of the current archives, the older of which has been live since 1998. This paper describes how the SAT approached the issue of re-engineering their infrastructure to result in a more flexible, reusable, robust and cost-effective way of building their archives. It also describes how the new technology has been applied to the building of two Science Archive s from scratch: the SOHO Science Archive (a Solar physics mission) and the EXOSAT Science Archive (an astronomy mission).

  13. Design and Development of a Model to Simulate 0-G Treadmill Running Using the European Space Agency's Subject Loading System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, E. C.; Cowley, M. S.; Scott-Pandorf, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    Develop a model that simulates a human running in 0 G using the European Space Agency s (ESA) Subject Loading System (SLS). The model provides ground reaction forces (GRF) based on speed and pull-down forces (PDF). DESIGN The theoretical basis for the Running Model was based on a simple spring-mass model. The dynamic properties of the spring-mass model express theoretical vertical GRF (GRFv) and shear GRF in the posterior-anterior direction (GRFsh) during running gait. ADAMs VIEW software was used to build the model, which has a pelvis, thigh segment, shank segment, and a spring foot (see Figure 1).the model s movement simulates the joint kinematics of a human running at Earth gravity with the aim of generating GRF data. DEVELOPMENT & VERIFICATION ESA provided parabolic flight data of subjects running while using the SLS, for further characterization of the model s GRF. Peak GRF data were fit to a linear regression line dependent on PDF and speed. Interpolation and extrapolation of the regression equation provided a theoretical data matrix, which is used to drive the model s motion equations. Verification of the model was conducted by running the model at 4 different speeds, with each speed accounting for 3 different PDF. The model s GRF data fell within a 1-standard-deviation boundary derived from the empirical ESA data. CONCLUSION The Running Model aids in conducting various simulations (potential scenarios include a fatigued runner or a powerful runner generating high loads at a fast cadence) to determine limitations for the T2 vibration isolation system (VIS) aboard the International Space Station. This model can predict how running with the ESA SLS affects the T2 VIS and may be used for other exercise analyses in the future.

  14. Bold ideas shortlisted for future ESA science projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    ESA's science programme introduced flexi-missions in 1997, to achieve greater flexibility. They replace the medium-scale projects, of which Huygens (Titan lander) and Integral (gamma-ray astronomy) are current examples. The aim is to have two flexi-missions for the price of one medium mission. Mars Express, already under construction for launch in 2003, is the first flexi-mission, or F1. Now under consideration are F2 and F3, each with a cost to ESA of no more than 176 million euros at 1999 prices. The frontrunner in the astronomy field for one of these slots is European participation with NASA in the Next Generation Space Telescope, successor to the NASA-ESA Hubble Space Telescope. Although a formal decision will not be taken until later this year, much European effort has already gone into preparing for this NGST project, due for launch in 2008. That intensifies the competition for the other slot. An embarrassment of riches - of ideas Multinational teams of scientists from Europe's universities and research institutes are backing each of the proposals selected for assessment, half of which concern the Solar System and the Earth's space environment. STORMS is a scheme to use three spacecraft to investigate a source of big trouble for technological systems, after solar eruptions. The "ring current" of energetic charged particles circulates around the equator at altitudes of several times the Earth's radius, and when its intensity varies during solar storms it causes magnetic perturbations at the Earth's surface. Three identical spacecraft, orbiting out to 50,000 kilometres and equally spaced around the equator, could clear up several remaining mysteries of the ring current -- and also provide real-time monitoring of magnetic storms. SOLAR ORBITER would fly on an extended orbit taking it at intervals to within about 30 million kilometres of the Sun -- much closer than the innermost planet, Mercury. At its closest approach the spacecraft would round the Sun at

  15. Perspectives: A Journal of Research and Opinion about Educational Service Agencies, 1995-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, William G., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the first four volumes of the annual serial publication "Perspectives: A Journal of Research and Opinion about Educational Service Agencies." Educational service agencies (ESAs) have various names and characteristics across states, but all provide services to local education agencies in a specific geographic region. ESAs…

  16. ESA's STSE WACMOS Project: Towards a Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, Diego; Su, Bob

    2010-05-01

    synergic manner; • Develop robust methodologies to integrate and assimilate space observations and in situ measurements into advance coupled models being able to describe biophysical processes and interactions between ocean, land and atmosphere describing the water cycle and hydrological processes; In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) launched the project Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) early in 2009. The project, funded under the ESA's Support To Science Element, address the first of the above objectives. In particular, the project objective is twofold: • On the one hand, developing and validating a Product Portfolio of novel geo-information products responding to the GEWEX scientific priorities and exploiting the synergic capabilities between ESA EO data and other non-ESA missions. • Exploring and assessing different methodologies to exploit in a synergic manner different observations towards the development of long-term consistent datasets of key (essential) variables describing the water cycle. In this context, WACMOS is focused on four components of the above cycle that are also thematic priorities identified in close collaboration with the GEWEX scientific community: Evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour. The product portfolio comprises: 1) AATSR-MERIS based evapotranspiration modelling approach; 2) Merged passive and active microwave first multi-decade soil moisture data set; 3) Novel MSG SEVIRI-SCIAMACHY cloud products and 4) Synergic SEVIRI-IASI and SEVIRI-MERIS water vapour products. In this paper, the methodologies and preliminary results of WACMOS are introduced. In the next phase of the project, consolidated methods, data products and validation results will be generated, so that a global water cycle product of evapotranpiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour with quantified

  17. Identification and Analysis of Landing sites for the ESA ExoMars Rover (2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, Matthew; Bridges, John; Fawdon, Peter; Grindrod, Peter; Gupta, Sanjeev; Michalski, Joe; Conway, Susan

    2014-05-01

    The exploration and search for life on Mars forms a cornerstone of international solar system exploration. In 2018, the European Space agency will launch the ExoMars Rover and Lander to further this exploration. The key science objectives of the ExoMars Rover are to: 1) search for signs of past and present life on Mars; 2) investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface; and 3) to characterise the surface environment. To meet these objectives ExoMars will drill into the sub-surface to look for indicators of past life using a range of complementary techniques, including assessment of morphology (potential fossil organisms), mineralogy (past environments) and a search for organic molecules and their chirality (biomarkers). The choice of landing site is vital if ExoMars' scientific objectives are to be met. The landing site must: (i) be ancient (≥3.6 Ga); (ii) show abundant morphological and mineral evidence for long-term, or frequently reoccurring, aqueous activity; (iii) include numerous sedimentary outcrops that (iv) are distributed over the landing region (the typical Rover traverse range is only a few km, but the uncertainty in the location of the landing site forms an elliptical of size ~ 100 by 15 km); and (v) have little dust coverage. In addition, in order to land and operate safely, various 'engineering constraints' apply, including: (i) latitude limited to 5º S to 25º N; (ii) maximum altitude of the landing site 2 km below Mars's datum, (iii) few steep slopes within the uncertainty ellipse. These constraints are onerous. In particular, the objective to drill into sediments, the requirement for distributed targets within the ellipse, and the ellipse size, make ExoMars site selection extremely challenging. To meet these challenges, we have begun an intensive study of the martian landscape to identify as many possible ExoMars landing sites as possible. We have converted the current engineering constraints into

  18. Extreme solar coronagraphy in Antarctica (ESCAPE) to support ASPIICS/PROBA-3 ESA program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, Luc

    The coronal heating problem is still one of the most debated questions in solar physics. ESCAPE (the Extreme Solar Coronagraphy Antarctic Program Experiment) is designed to measure wave properties in corona and their possible contribution to the coronal heating and solar wind acceleration. It measures the polarization of coronal line emission, allowing to map the topology and dynamics of the magnetic field in corona. Furthermore, ESCAPE will be able of up to 3 months of continuous monitoring of the coronal activity, such as CMEs that are relevant for space weather studies. The Dome C high plateau is unique for coronagraphic observations: sky brightness is reduced, water vapour is low, seeing is excellent and continuity of observations on several weeks is possible. ESCAPE will perform 2-dimensional spectroscopy of the forbidden line of FeXIV at 530.285 nm, of FeXIII at 1074.7 nm and of the Sodium D3 line at 587 nm (precise line profile analysis will allow the diagnostic of the nature of waves by simultaneous measurements of velocities and intensities in the corona). ESCAPE is approved by CNRS/INSU with a test this summer at Pic du Midi and a first campaign planned at Dome C/Concordia in 2015/2016. Most subsystems are available thanks to the ESA STARTIGER R&D program ``Toward a New Generation of Formation Flying Coronagraph" performed in 2010 in support of the ASPIICS ESA/PROBA-3 formation flying coronagraph mission. A Three Mirrors Anastigmat telescope and a 4 stages Liquid Crystal Tunable-filter Polarimeter have been developed and allow us to propose an automated Coronal Green Line full-field Polarimeter for unique observations (waves nature and intensity to address coronal heating) and with the best possible performances on Earth. No other ground site would allow such coronagraphic performances (the sky brightness is a factor 2 to 4 better than in Hawaii) and with high spatial resolution (better than an arcsec). ESCAPE will also help in validating the experimental

  19. Shape modeling technique KOALA validated by ESA Rosetta at (21) Lutetia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carry, B.; Kaasalainen, M.; Merline, W. J.; Müller, T. G.; Jorda, L.; Drummond, J. D.; Berthier, J.; O'Rourke, L.; Ďurech, J.; Küppers, M.; Conrad, A.; Tamblyn, P.; Dumas, C.; Sierks, H.; Osiris Team

    2012-06-01

    We present here a comparison of our results from ground-based observations of asteroid (21) Lutetia with imaging data acquired during the flyby of the asteroid by the ESA Rosetta mission. This flyby provided a unique opportunity to evaluate and calibrate our method of determination of size, 3-D shape, and spin of an asteroid from ground-based observations. Knowledge of certain observable physical properties of small bodies (e.g., size, spin, 3-D shape, and density) have far-reaching implications in furthering our understanding of these objects, such as composition, internal structure, and the effects of non-gravitational forces. We review the different observing techniques used to determine the above physical properties of asteroids and present our 3-D shape-modeling technique KOALA - Knitted Occultation, Adaptive-optics, and Lightcurve Analysis - which is based on multi-dataset inversion. We compare the results we obtained with KOALA, prior to the flyby, on asteroid (21) Lutetia with the high-spatial resolution images of the asteroid taken with the OSIRIS camera on-board the ESA Rosetta spacecraft, during its encounter with Lutetia on 2010 July 10. The spin axis determined with KOALA was found to be accurate to within 2°, while the KOALA diameter determinations were within 2% of the Rosetta-derived values. The 3-D shape of the KOALA model is also confirmed by the spectacular visual agreement between both 3-D shape models (KOALA pre- and OSIRIS post-flyby). We found a typical deviation of only 2 km at local scales between the profiles from KOALA predictions and OSIRIS images, resulting in a volume uncertainty provided by KOALA better than 10%. Radiometric techniques for the interpretation of thermal infrared data also benefit greatly from the KOALA shape model: the absolute size and geometric albedo can be derived with high accuracy, and thermal properties, for example the thermal inertia, can be determined unambiguously. The corresponding Lutetia analysis leads

  20. Directed evolution of the quorum-sensing regulator EsaR for increased signal sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Shong, Jasmine; Huang, Yao-Ming; Bystroff, Christopher; Collins, Cynthia H

    2013-04-19

    The use of cell-cell communication or "quorum sensing (QS)" elements from Gram-negative Proteobacteria has enabled synthetic biologists to begin engineering systems composed of multiple interacting organisms. However, additional tools are necessary if we are to progress toward synthetic microbial consortia that exhibit more complex, dynamic behaviors. EsaR from Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a QS regulator that binds to DNA as an apoprotein and releases the DNA when it binds to its cognate signal molecule, 3-oxohexanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC6HSL). In the absence of 3OC6HSL, EsaR binds to DNA and can act as either an activator or a repressor of transcription. Gene expression from P(esaR), which is repressed by wild-type EsaR, requires 100- to 1000-fold higher concentrations of signal than commonly used QS activators, such as LuxR and LasR. Here we have identified EsaR variants with increased sensitivity to 3OC6HSL using directed evolution and a dual ON/OFF screening strategy. Although we targeted EsaR-dependent derepression of P(esaR), our EsaR variants also showed increased 3OC6HSL sensitivity at a second promoter, P(esaS), which is activated by EsaR in the absence of 3OC6HSL. Here, the increase in AHL sensitivity led to gene expression being turned off at lower concentrations of 3OC6HSL. Overall, we have increased the signal sensitivity of EsaR more than 70-fold and generated a set of EsaR variants that recognize 3OC6HSL concentrations ranging over 4 orders of magnitude. QS-dependent transcriptional regulators that bind to DNA and are active in the absence of a QS signal represent a new set of tools for engineering cell-cell communication-dependent gene expression. PMID:23363022

  1. On-orbit demonstration of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing, serviceable NASA Explorer Platform spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohwiesner, Bill; Claudinon, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability since 1984 to enable Hermes to automatically dock with Columbus. As a result, ESA with Matra, MBB, and other space companies have developed technologies that are also directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments, and suggest how these capabilities could be used, together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite, to minimize new development and accomplish a cost effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program. Several RV sensors have been developed at breadboard level for the Hermes/Columbus program by Matra, MBB, and SAAB. Detailed algorithms for automatic rendezvous, closure, and capture have been developed by ESA and CNES for application with Hermes to Columbus rendezvous and docking, and they currently are being verified with closed-loop software simulation. The algorithms have multiple closed-loop control modes and phases starting at long range using GPS navigation. Differential navigation is used for coast/continuous thrust homing, holdpoint acquisition, V-bar hopping, and station point acquisition. The proximity operation sensor is used for final closure and capture. A subset of these algorithms, comprising the proximity operations algorithms, could easily be extracted and tailored to a limited objective closure and capture flight demonstration.

  2. N° 15-2000: ESA, CERN and ESO launch "Physics on Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! Beginning in February 2000, three major European research establishments [1] are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), with support from the European Union (EU). Other partners include the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, at CERN, Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge of physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries. "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European countries [2]. In each country, a dedicated National Steering Committee (NSC) is being formed which will be responsible for their own national programme. A list of contact addresses is attached below. "Physics on Stage" is based on a series of high-profile physics-related activities that will inform the European public in general, and European high school physics teachers and media representatives in particular

  3. In-situ Observations of Space Debris at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolshagen, G.

    Information on the small size (millimetre or smaller) space debris and meteoroid population in space can only be obtained by in-situ detectors or the analysis of retrieved hardware. Past, ongoing and planned ESA activities in this field are presented. In 1996 the GORID impact detector was launched into a geostationary orbit on-board the Russian Express-2 telecommunication satellite. This impact ionisation detector had a sensor surface of 0.1 m2. Until July 2002 when the spacecraft was shut down it recorded more than 3000 impacts in the micrometre size range. Inter alia, GORID measured numerous clusters of events, believed to result from debris clouds, and indicated that debris fluxes in GEO are larger than predicted by present models. Another in-situ detector, DEBIE-1, was launched in October 2001 and is operating on-board the small technology satellite PROBA in a low polar orbit. It has two sensors, each of 0.01m2 size, pointing in different directions. A second detector of this type, DEBIE-2 with 3 sensors, is ready for flight on the EuTEF carrier (external payload to ISS). The data from GORID and DEBIE-1 are stored on-line in EDID (European Detector Impact Database). Post-flight impact analyses of retrieved hardware provide detailed information on the encountered meteoroid and debris fluxes over a large range of sizes. ESA initiated several analyses in the past ((EURECA, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar arrays). The most recent impact analysis was performed for the HST solar arrays retrieved in March 2002. Measured crater sizes in solar cells ranged from about 1 micron to 7 mm. A total of 175 complete penetrations of the 0.7 mm thick arrays were observed. A chemical analysis of impact residues allowed the distinction between space debris and natural meteoroids. Space debris was found to dominate for sizes smaller than 10 microns and larger than about 1 mm. For intermediate sizes impacts are mainly from meteoroids. Results of the analysis and comparisons with

  4. THE JOINT ESA-NASA EUROPA JUPITER SYSTEM MISSION (EJSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Blanc, M.; Bunce, E. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Erd, C.; Grasset, O.; Greeley, R.; Johnson, T. V.; Clark, K. B.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The joint "Europa Jupiter System Mission" (EJSM) is an international mission under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. Its goal is to study Jupiter and its magnetosphere, the diversity of the Galilean satellites, the physical characteristics, composition and geology of their surfaces. Europa and Ganymede are two primary targets of the mission. The reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The two primary goals of the mission are i) to determine whether the Jupiter system harbors habitable worlds and ii) to characterize the processes within the Jupiter system. The science objectives addressing the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressing the second goal are to: i) understand the Jovian satellite system, especially as context for Europa and Ganymede; ii) evaluate the structure and dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere; iii) characterize processes of the Jovian magnetodisk/magnetosphere; iv) determine the interactions occurring in the Jovian system; and v) constrain models for the origin of the Jupiter system. Both spacecraft would carry a complement of 11-12 instruments launch separately in 2020 and use a Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA

  5. Earth Observation Training and Education with ESA LearnEO!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, Valborg; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Dobson, Malcolm; Rosmorduc, Vinca; Del Frate, Fabio; Banks, Chris; Picchiani, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    For society to benefit fully from its investment in Earth observation, EO data must be accessible and familiar to a global community of users who have the skills, knowledge and understanding to use the observations appropriately in their work. Achieving this requires considerable education effort. LearnEO! (www.learn-eo.org) is a new ESA education project that contributes towards making this a reality. LearnEO! has two main aims: to develop new training resources that use data from sensors on ESA satellites to explore a variety of environmental topics, and to stimulate and support members of the EO and education communities who may be willing to develop and share new education resources in the future. The project builds on the UNESCO Bilko project, which currently supplies free software, tutorials, and example data to users in 175 countries. Most of these users are in academic education or research, but the training resources are also of interest to a growing number of professionals in government, NGOs and private enterprise. Typical users are not remote sensing experts, but see satellite data as one of many observational tools. They want an easy, low-cost means to process, display and analyse data from different satellite sensors as part of their work in environmental research, monitoring and policy development. Many of the software improvements and training materials developed in LearnEO! are in response to requests from this user community. The LearnEO! tutorial and peer-reviewed lessons are designed to teach satellite data processing and analysis skills at different levels, from beginner to advanced - where advanced lessons requires some previous experience with Earth observation techniques. The materials are aimed at students and professionals in various branches of Earth sciences who have not yet specialised in specific EO technologies. The lessons are suitable for self-study, university courses at undergraduate to MSc level, or for continued professional

  6. Influence of safety warnings on ESA prescribing among dialysis patients using an interrupted time series

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In March, 2007, a black box warning was issued by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to use the lowest possible erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) doses for treatment of anemia associated with renal disease. The goal is to determine if a change in ESA use was observed following the warning among US dialysis patients. Methods ESA therapy was examined from September 2004 through August 2009 (thirty months before and after the FDA black box warning) among adult Medicare hemodialysis patients. An interrupted time series model assessed the impact of the warnings. Results The FDA black box warning did not appear to influence ESA prescribing among the overall dialysis population. However, significant declines in ESA therapy after the FDA warnings were observed for selected populations. Patients with a hematocrit ≥36% had a declining month-to-month trend before (−164 units/week, p = <0.0001) and after the warnings (−80 units/week, p = .001), and a large drop in ESA level immediately after the black box (−4,744 units/week, p = <.0001). Not-for-profit facilities had a declining month-to-month trend before the warnings (−90 units/week, p = .009) and a large drop in ESA dose immediately afterwards (−2,487 units/week, p = 0.015). In contrast, for-profit facilities did not have a significant change in ESA prescribing. Conclusions ESA therapy had been both profitable for providers and controversial regarding benefits for nearly two decades. The extent to which a FDA black box warning highlighting important safety concerns influenced use of ESA therapy among nephrologists and dialysis providers was unknown. Our study found no evidence of changes in ESA prescribing for the overall dialysis population resulting from a FDA black box warning. PMID:23927675

  7. BepiColombo - a joint ESA/JAXA mission to explore Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkhoff, J.; Fujimoto, M.; Zender, J.

    2015-10-01

    BepiColombo is a joint project between ESA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The Mission consists of two orbiters, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). The mission scenario foresees a launch of both spacecraft with an ARIANE V in January 2017 and an arrival at Mercury in the first half of 2024. From their dedicated orbits the two spacecraft will be studying the planet and its environment. The MPO scientific payload comprises eleven instruments/instrument packages; the MMO scientific payload consists of five instruments/instrument packages. Together,the scientific payload of both spacecraft will perform measurements to find clues to the origin and evolution of a planet close to its parent star. The MPO on BepiColombo will focus on a global characterization of Mercury through the investigation of its interior, surface, exosphere and magnetosphere. In addition, it will be testing Einstein's theory of general relativity. The MMO provided by JAXA focuses on investigating the wave and particle environment of the planet from an eccentric orbit. Together, the scientific payload of both spacecraft will provide the detailed information necessary to understand the process of planetary formation and evolution in the hottest part of the proto-planetary nebula as well as the similarities and differences between the magnetospheres of Mercury and the Earth.

  8. Trajectory-based heating analysis for the ESA/Rosetta earth return vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henline, William D.; Tauber, Michael E.

    1993-01-01

    A coupled, trajectory based flowfield and material thermal response analysis is presented for the European Space Agency (ESA) proposed Rosetta comet nucleus sample return vehicle. The probe returns to Earth along a hyperbolic trajectory with an entry velocity of 16.5 km/sec and requires an ablative heat shield on the forebody. Combined radiative and convective, ablating flowfield analyses were performed for the significant heating portion of the shallow ballistic entry trajectory. Both quasi-steady ablation and fully transient analyses were performed for a heat shield composed of carbon-phenolic ablative material. Quasi-steady analysis was performed using the two-dimensional, axisymmetric codes RASLE and BLIMPK. Transient computational results were obtained from the one-dimensional ablation/conduction code, CMA. Results are presented for heating, temperature and ablation rate distributions over the probe forebody for various trajectory points. Comparison of transient and quasi-steady results indicates that, for the heating pulse encountered by this probe, the quasi-static approach is conservative from the standpoint of predicted surface recession.

  9. Performance of novel polymer shields aboard the ESA Biopan-5 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, M.; Berger, T.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.

    Radiation exposure of astronaut crew has been identified as a key issue in human spaceflight The reduction of dose by appropriate shielding measures is thus donated an essential role for the future development of space exploration particularly with regard to long-term interplanetary missions Optimization of shielding strategies and design may involve polymeric materials with enhanced hydrogen content specifically developed to attenuate high charge-and-energy HZE particles such as those encountered in galactic cosmic rays GCR The projectile energy loss is proportional to rho cdot Z A and reaches a maximum for hydrogen targets Light elements are also expected to minimize target fragmentation particularly the production of secondary neutrons The LETVAR experiment flow aboard the European Space Agency ESA Biopan-5 mission as part of a 27 kg payload attached to the external surface of the Foton-M2 descent capsule was dedicated to studying the shielding performance of three different polymers in reference to aluminium when exposed to the unshielded space environment in low-earth orbit LEO The mission was launched successfully on May 31 2005 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome Kazakhstan and spent 15 6 days at an orbital altitude between 262 and 304 km inclined by 63 r to the equatorial plane After recovery absorbed dose and average linear energy transfer LET were determined in front and behind the material slabs To support data interpretation material samples equivalent to those flown in space were exposed---to the extent possible

  10. TEMPO: an ESA-funded project for uncovering significant features of the South Atlantic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; De Santis, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    In this work we provide the last results of the ESA (European Space Agency) funded project TEMPO ("Is The Earth's Magnetic field POtentially reversing? New insights from Swarm mission"). The mail goal of this project is to analyse the time and spatial evolution of one of the most important features of the present geomagnetic field, i.e. the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The region covered by this anomaly is characterized by values of geomagnetic field intensity around 30% lower than expected for those latitudes and extends over a large area in the South Atlantic Ocean, South America, South Africa and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This large depression of the geomagnetic field strength has its origin in a prominent patch of reversed polarity flux in the Earth's outer core. The study of the SAA is an important challenge nowadays not only for the geomagnetic and paleomagnetic community, but also for other areas focused on the Earth Observation due to the protective role of this potential field against the charged particles forming the solar wind. A further increase of the SAA surface extent could have dramatic consequences for human health and technologies because a larger number of solar charged particles could reach the Earth's surface.

  11. Moving from Temporal Coherence to Decorrelation Time of Interferometric Measurements Exploiting ESA's SAR Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foumelis, Michael; Mitraka, Zina; Cuccu, Roberto; Desnos, Yves-Louis; Engdahl, Marcus

    2015-05-01

    Interferometric coherence can be considered as an expression of temporal decorrelation. It is understood that interferometric coherence decreases with time between SAR acquisitions because of changes in surface reflectivity, reducing the quality of SAR phase measurements. This is an intrinsic characteristic of the design of SAR systems that has a significant contribution at longer time scales. Although in the past there was not sufficient amount of SAR data to extract robust statistical metrics for decorrelation, in the present study it is demonstrated that tailored analysis of interferometric coherence exploiting the large SAR archive available by the European Space Agency (ESA), enables the accurate quantification of temporal decorrelation. A methodology to translate the observed rate of coherence loss into decorrelation times over a volcanic landscape, namely the Santorini volcanic complex is the subject treated in this study. Specifically, a sensitivity analysis was performed on a large data stack of interferometric pairs to quantify at a pixel level the time beyond which the interferometric phase becomes practically unusable due to the effect of decorrelation. Though the dependence of decorrelation on various land cover/use types is already documented the provision of additional information regarding the expected time of decorrelation is of practical use especially when EO data are utilized in operational activities. The performed analysis is viewed within the improved capacity of current and future SAR systems, while underlining the necessity for exploitation of archive data.

  12. Operational Experience with Autonomous Star Trackers on ESA Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Mathias; Jauregui, Libe; Kielbassa, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Mars Express (MEX), Rosetta and Venus Express (VEX) are ESA interplanetary spacecrafts (S/C) launched in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005, respectively. Mars Express was injected into Mars orbit end of 2003 with routine operations starting in spring 2004. Rosetta is since launch on its way to rendezvous comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It has completed several test and commissioning activities and is performing several planetary swingbys (Earth in spring 2005, Mars in spring 2007, Earth in autumn 2007 and again two years later). Venus Express has also started routine operations since the completion of the Venus orbit insertion maneuver sequence beginning of May 2006. All three S/C are three axes stabilized with a similar attitude and orbit control system (AOCS). The attitude is estimated on board using star and rate sensors and controlled using four reaction wheels. A bipropellant reaction control system with 10N thrusters serves for wheel off loadings and attitude control in safe mode. Mars Express and Venus Express have an additional 400N engine for the planetary orbit insertion. Nominal Earth communication is accomplished through a high gain antenna. All three S/C are equipped with a redundant set of autonomous star trackers (STR) which are based on almost the same hardware. The STR software is especially adapted for the respective mission. This paper addresses several topics related to the experience gained with the STR operations on board the three S/C so far.

  13. The Possibility of GRB Investigations by ESA Satellite Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudec, R.; Hudec, L.

    2011-08-01

    We refer on further studies on possibility to investigate the Optical Afterglows and Optical Transients of GRBs by the ESA satellite Gaia to be launched in 2012, The satellite will focus on highly precise astrometry of stars and all objects down to limiting magnitude 20. Albeit focusing on astrometry related matters, the satellite will also provide photometric and spectral information and hence important inputs for various branches of astrophysics. Within the Gaia Variability Unit CU7 and related work package Specific Object Studies there has been a sub-work package accepted for optical counterparts to celestial high-energy sources, a category which includes the optical counterparts (i.e. optical transients and optical afterglows, including counterparts of XRFs and yet hypothetical orphan afterglows) of GRBs. Although the sampling of photometric data will not be optimal for this type of work, the strength of Gaia in such analyses is the fine spectral resolution (spectro-photometry) which will allow the correct classification of related triggers. The possibilities to detect and to analyze optical transients and optical afterglows of GRBs by Gaia will be presented and discussed.

  14. The ESA Rad-Hard electron monitor (RADEM) for JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desorgher, Laurent; Hajdas, Wojtek; Goncalves, Patricia; Pinto, Costa; Marques, Arlindo; Chastellain, Frédéric; Gambarara, Fabio; Muff, Reto; Maehlum, Gunnar; Meier, Dirk

    2014-05-01

    The ESA Jupiter Icy moons explorer (JUICE) mission will encounter a harsh radiation environment that is known to be severe but that is not yet fully understood. The Rad-Hard electron monitor (RADEM), currently under development, is a compact instrument (1L, 1kg, 2.2W) that will be set on JUICE for measuring the radiation environment during the mission. Its design is adapted to the harsh Jovian radiation environment and optimized for the detection of high energetic electrons. RADEM will consist of three detector subunits. The magneto-spectrometer will measure the electron spectrum in the 0.3 to 40 MeV range. The directionality sensor will characterize the pitch angle distribution of the electron environment. The Silicon stack detector will be dedicated to measure the spectrum of solar and Jovian protons, as well as the LET spectrum of heavy ions. In this paper we present the status of the development of RADEM, as well as Geant4 Monte Carlo analysis of the capability of the instruments.

  15. Particle Environment Package (PEP) for the ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, Stas; Wurz, Peter; PEP Team

    2013-04-01

    Particle Environment Package (PEP) is a suite of particle sensors proposed for the ESA JUICE mission. PEP includes sensors for the comprehensive measurements of electrons, ions, energetic neutrals, and neutral gas. PEP covers over nine decades of energy <0.001 eV to >1 MeV with full angular coverage. Combining remote global imaging via energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) with in-situ measurements, PEP addresses all scientific objectives of the JUICE mission relevant to particle measurements. PEP will seek answers for four overarching science questions: How does the corotating magnetosphere of Jupiter interact with complex and diverse environment of Ganymede? How does the rapidly rotating magnetosphere of Jupiter interact with seemingly inert Callisto? What are the governing mechanisms and their global impact of release of material into the Jupiter magnetosphere from Europa and Io? How do internal and solar wind drivers cause such energetic, time variable and multi-scale phenomena in the steadily rotating giant magnetosphere of Jupiter? We discuss the suite's sensor basic design, performance, radiation mitigation principles and demonstrate how the suite fully addresses its scientific objectives.

  16. M⁴ - a mission candidate for ESA M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retino, A.; Vaivads, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present a mission concept that will be proposed in the response to the upcoming ESA M4 Call. The working name of the mission is M⁴. The scientific theme of the M⁴ mission is turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization. The main focus is on turbulence and shock processes, however areas where the different fundamental processes interact, such as reconnection in turbulence or shock generated turbulence, is also of high importance. The M⁴ mission aims to address such fundamental questions as how energy is dissipated at kinetic scales, how energy is partitioned among different plasma components, what is the relative importance of waves and coherent structures in the dissipation processes. To reach the goal a careful design work of the M⁴ mission and its payload has been done and it is based on the earlier mission concepts of Tor, EIDOSCOPE and Cross-Scale. We present the basic concepts of the M⁴ mission and its payload as well as illustrate how it will help to address the science questions posed.

  17. ESA's new European Hubble Science Archive at ESAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) has recently launched a new version of the European Hubble Space Telescope science archive. The new and enhanced archive offers several new features, some of which are not available anywhere else. The new web-based archive has been completely re-engineered and is now faster, more accurate and more robust than ever. Several of its unique features will be presented: the possibility of seeing the exact footprint of each observations on top of an optical all-sky image, the online visualization and inspection of FITS headers, imaging and spectral observation previews without downloading files or the possibility to search for data that has not yet been published in refereed journals. This state-of-the-art science data archive will be the new main access point to HST data for the European astronomical community and will be enhanced in the near-future to include the Hubble Source Catalogue or other high-level data products as required.

  18. A Statistical Look on ESA's Conjunction Event Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.; Lemmens, S.; Bastida Virgili, B.; Merz, K.; Klinkrad, H.

    2013-08-01

    On a routine basis, ESA predicts close conjunctions for its own satellites and assesses the associated collision risk. This process is supported by acquiring external tracking data to improve the knowledge on orbit state and associated uncertainties of the secondary object, and by evaluating close approach notifications and conjunction summary messages received from the US Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). The process also includes screening of planned manoeuvres for close conjunctions. ESOC-operated missions in low Earth orbit and in highly-eccentric orbits are covered. Recently, the process has been extended to cover third party missions. We describe the applied process and present the latest status, including a history of high-risk conjunction events and processed CSMs, and we revisit major recent software developments. As this process has been in place for some years, we can use the archived results for a detailed assessment of the close conjunctions from an operator's perspective. We analyse the evolution of object classes and the accumulated risk from TLE-based information for secondary objects. The impact of the severe collision events in 2007 and 2009 is also part of this discussion.

  19. ESA hardware for plant research on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, E.

    The long awaited launch of the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) will provide a platform on which long-term and shorter experiments with plants will be performed on the International Space Station (ISS). EMCS is equipped with two centrifuge rotors (600 mm diameter), which can be used for in-flight 1 g controls and for studies with acceleration levels from 0.001 g to 2.0 g. Several experiments are in preparation investigating gravity relating to gene expression, gravisensing and phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana and lentil roots. The experiment-specific hardware provides growth chambers for seedlings and whole A. thaliana plants and is connected to the EMCS Life Support System. Besides in-flight video observation, the experiments will be evaluated post-flight by means of fixed or frozen material. EMCS will have for the first time the possibility to fix samples on the rotating centrifuge, allowing a detailed analysis of the process of gravisensing. About two years after the EMCS launch, ESA's Biolab will be launched in the European "Columbus" Module. In a similar way as in EMCS, Biolab will accommodate experiments with plant seedlings and automatic fixation processes on the centrifuge. The hardware concepts for these experiments are presented in this communication.

  20. Exploration of Lunar Craters using a Tracked Microrover Concept for the ESA Lunar Robotics Challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunskill, C.; Smith, B.; Humphrey, S.; Makhlouta, M.; Baig, S.; Lappas, V.

    Robotic exploration of the lunar terrain is a crucial step towards future manned missions. There is evidence to suggest water ice ores may be found in the base of deep, polar craters as a result of the meteorite impacts which created them. These regions are in a permanent state of darkened deep-freeze due to their extreme latitudes, allowing the ice to remain intact. Lunar terrain is extremely inhospitable to all but the most robust of exploration vehicles. Surface conditions around the rim of large craters are rarely favourable for the descent and, more importantly, ascent of a ground-based vehicle. The ESA Lunar Robotics Challenge tasked eight teams from Universities across Europe to build microrovers capable of climbing into a terrestrial analogue of such a lunar crater, search the base for small samples of ore simulants and return them to a lander site outside of the crater. The University of Surrey Space Centre team designed a tracked vehicle based on a modified Mobile Robots Pioneer 3-AT microrover. The Pioneer on-board computer and microcontroller allowed the microrover to be equipped with off-the-shelf components, including a stereo camera for navigation, wireless Ethernet communications system for teleoperation and 5 degree of freedom robotic manipulator.

  1. ESA sees stardust storms heading for Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    The Sun's galactic environment Credits: P.C. Frisch, University of Chicago The Sun's galactic environment The Sun and the nearest stars move through filaments of galactic clouds. Ulysses and the heliosphere hi-res Size hi-res: 1337 kb Credits: ESA (image by D. Hardy) Ulysses and the heliosphere Over more than 17 years of observations above and below the poles of the Sun, the ESA/NASA Ulysses mission has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the Sun itself, its sphere of influence (the heliosphere), and our local interstellar neighbourhood. The mission provided the first-ever map of the heliosphere in the four dimensions of space and time. Ulysses was launched by Space Shuttle Discovery in October 1990. It headed out to Jupiter, arriving in February 1992 for the gravity-assist manoeuvre that swung the craft into its unique solar orbit. It orbited the Sun three times and performed six polar passes. The mission concludes on 1 July 2008. Since its launch in 1990, Ulysses has constantly monitored how much stardust enters the Solar System from the interstellar space around it. Using an on-board instrument called DUST, scientists have discovered that stardust can actually approach the Earth and other planets, but its flow is governed by the Sun's magnetic field, which behaves as a powerful gate-keeper bouncing most of it back. However, during solar maximum - a phase of intense activity inside the Sun that marks the end of each 11-year solar cycle - the magnetic field becomes disordered as its polarity reverses. As a result, the Sun's shielding power weakens and more stardust can sneak in. What is surprising in this new Ulysses discovery is that the amount of stardust has continued to increase even after the solar activity calmed down and the magnetic field resumed its ordered shape in 2001. Scientists believe that this is due to the way in which the polarity changed during solar maximum. Instead of reversing completely, flipping north to south, the Sun

  2. The greenhouse gas project of ESA's climate change initiative (GHG-CCI): overview, achievements and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Aben, I.; Alexe, M.; Armante, R.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bovensmann, H.; Brunner, D.; Buchmann, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Chevallier, F.; Chedin, A.; Crevoisier, C. D.; Gonzi, S.; De Maziere, M.; De Wachter, E.; Detmers, R.; Dils, B.; Frankenberg, C.; Hahne, P.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Hewson, W.; Heymann, J.; Houweling, S.; Hilker, M.; Kaminski, T.; Kuhlmann, G.; Laeng, A.; Leeuwen, T. T. v.; Lichtenberg, G.; Marshall, J.; Noel, S.; Notholt, J.; Palmer, P.; Parker, R.; Scholze, M.; Stiller, G. P.; Warneke, T.; Zehner, C.

    2015-04-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org/) is one of several projects of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). The goal of the CCI is to generate and deliver data sets of various satellite-derived Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) in line with GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) requirements. The "ECV Greenhouse Gases" (ECV GHG) is the global distribution of important climate relevant gases - namely atmospheric CO2 and CH4 - with a quality sufficient to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. The main goal of GHG-CCI is to generate long-term highly accurate and precise time series of global near-surface-sensitive satellite observations of CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, starting with the launch of ESA's ENVISAT satellite. These products are currently retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT (2002-2012) and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT (2009-today) nadir mode observations in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared spectral region. In addition, other sensors (e.g., IASI and MIPAS) and viewing modes (e.g., SCIAMACHY solar occultation) are also considered and in the future also data from other satellites. The GHG-CCI data products and related documentation are freely available via the GHG-CCI website and yearly updates are foreseen. Here we present an overview about the latest data set (Climate Research Data Package No. 2 (CRDP#2)) and summarize key findings from using satellite CO2 and CH4 retrievals to improve our understanding of the natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of these important atmospheric greenhouse gases. We also shortly mention ongoing activities related to validation and initial user assessment of CRDP#2 and future plans.

  3. Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Fuglesang, Christer; Reiter, Thomas; Damann, Volker; Tognini, Michel

    2010-04-01

    Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to astronauts and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during spaceflight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. Highly energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ("alpha particles") and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, as well as protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a spaceflight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well-being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astronauts and cosmonauts health, including those aiming to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program of the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction to the current measures used for radiation monitoring and protection of astronauts and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as the operational procedures that are applied, are described.

  4. ESA STSE North Hydrology: Development of multi-mission satellite data products in support of atmospheric and hydrological modeling of cold regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Prieto, D.; Duguay, C.; Gauthier, Y.; Gustafsson, D.; Malnes, E.; Mattila, O.-P.; Rontu, L.; Rott, H.; Samuelsson, P.; Solberg, R.

    2012-04-01

    Through its Support To Science Element (STSE) Programme, the European Space Agency (ESA) is currently sponsoring the North Hydrology project. The overall goal of North Hydrology is to support the international efforts coordinated by the Climate and Cryosphere (CliC) project of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) to exploit the use of Earth Observation (EO) technology, models and in situ data to improve the characterization of river and lake ice processes and their contribution to the Northern Hydrology system. To attain this goal, the North Hydrology project is developing a portfolio of new multi-mission geo-information products, maximizing the use of ESA satellite data, to respond to the scientific requirements of the CliC community and the operational requirements of the weather and climate operational agencies, and the requirements of the operational user community to better characterize river-ice (and glacier temporary lakes) dynamics in flood forecasting models at the basin scale. This talk will provide an overview of the North Hydrology project, the EO-based products it is generating (e.g. lake and river ice, land water surface temperature, ice flow dynamics and mass balance of outlet glaciers), the atmospheric and hydrological models it is using, and the EO data integration/assimilation experiments it is conducting. More information about ESA's STSE North Hydrology project can be found at http://env-ic3-vw2k8.uwaterloo.ca:8080/

  5. Public Speaking Instruction with the Experiential, Self-Empowerment Approach (ESA): An Ethnomethodological Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedore, Joan M.

    This paper takes a ethnomethodological look at a typical Experiential Self-Empowerment Approach (ESA)-using speech class to see how the ESA uses 12 assumptions as background expectancies (Heritage, 1984) to accomplish personal growth in college public speaking classes. The following assumptions are addressed: (1) students deserve "something more"…

  6. Bundled-rate legislation for Medicare reimbursement for dialysis services: implications for anemia management with ESAs.

    PubMed

    Charytan, Chaim

    2010-12-01

    With the incidence of ESRD on the rise, there is a continuing need to control anemia-related treatment costs in dialysis patients receiving reimbursement through Medicare. Currently, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) are billed separately from dialysis services, potentially creating little financial incentive for more efficient use. The Medicare Improvement for Patients and Providers Act, passed by the U.S. Congress in July 2008, includes provisions intended to address this concern. Under this act, dialysis services will be reimbursed using a fully bundled, comprehensive payment system that includes all services currently covered in the basic composite rate, as well as certain separately billable items, including ESAs. A base rate of $229.63 per treatment has been assigned, to be individualized using case-mix adjusters. The implications of this new system for anemia management with ESAs continue to be elucidated. With fixed compensation for ESAs, management strategies that maximize efficiencies and, thereby, optimize cost savings will be favored. Select strategies may include switching from intravenous (IV) to subcutaneous routes, lowering Hb targets and ESA doses in hyporesponsive patients, increasing administration of IV iron, increasing use of home dialysis, and optimizing ESA dosing intervals. Once-monthly ESA therapy has potential advantages under this new system as an alternative to more frequently administered ESAs and may help achieve quality metrics in a cost-efficient manner. PMID:21071515

  7. A sample return mission to a pristine NEO submitted to ESA CV 2015-2025

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, P.; Barucci, A.

    2007-08-01

    ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 aims at furthering Europe's achievements in space science, for the benefit of all mankind. ESA' multinational Space Science Advisory Committee prepared the final plan, which contains a selection of themes and priorities. In the theme concerning how the Solar System works, a Near-Earth Object (NEO) sample return mission is indicated among the priorities. Indeed, small bodies, as primitive leftover building blocks of the Solar System formation process, offer clues to the chemical mixture from which the planets formed some 4.6 billion years ago. The Near Earth Objects (NEOs) are representative of the population of asteroids and dead comets and are thought to be similar in many ways to the ancient planetesimal swarms that accreted to form the planets. NEOs are thus fundamentally interesting and highly accessible targets for scientific research and space missions. A sample return space mission to a pristine NEO has thus been proposed in partnership with the Japanese Space Agency JAXA, involving a large European community of scientists. The principal objectives are to obtained crucial information about 1) the properties of the building blocks of the terrestrial planets; 2) the major events (e.g. agglomeration, heating, ... .) which ruled the history of planetesimals; 3) the properties of primitive asteroids which may contain presolar material unknown in meteoritic samples; 4) the organics in primitive materials; 5) the initial conditions and evolution history of the solar nebula; and 6) on the potential origin of molecules necessary for life. This project appears clearly to have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of primitive materials. It involves a main spacescraft which will allow the determination of important physical properties of the target (shape, mass, crater distribution . . . ) and which will take samples by a touch-and-go procedure, a Lander for in-situ investigation of the sampling site, and sampling depending on

  8. ESA's Mars Program: European Plans for Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forget, Francois

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the European Space Agency Mars Exploration Program is shown. The topics include: 1) History:Mars Exploration in Europe; 2) A few preliminary results from Mars Express; 3) A new instrument:Radar MARSIS; and 4) European Mars Exploration in the future?

  9. LISA Pathfinder ground testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Felipe; LISA Pathfinder Team

    2010-01-01

    The space-based gravitational wave observatory LISA is a joint NASA-ESA mission that requires challenging technology to ensure pure geodetic trajectories of test masses and the interferometric measurement of distance variations between them. The LISA Pathfinder mission is an ESA-launched technology demonstrator of key LISA subsystems such as spacecraft control with micronewton thrusters, test mass drag-free control, and precision laser interferometry between free-flying test masses. Ground testing of pre-flight hardware of the Gravitational Reference Sensor and Optical Metrology subsystems is currently ongoing. Studies have been carried out on very sensitive torsion pendulums that effectively reproduce a free-fall condition for the test mass within a horizontal plane in the lab, down to frequencies < 0.1 mHz. Thermal gradient induced effects, impact of gas molecules, noisy charging, surface charge patches, and other effects have been investigated and their physical models consolidated. A final upper limit on non-modeled disturbances has also been obtained within one order of magnitude of LISA requirements at 1 mHz. The interferometry system has also been extensively studied to identify noise sources and develop approaches to mitigate them. Engineering models of the optical bench, laser head and laser modulators have been interconnected and tested for functionality and noise level in closed-loop operation, demonstrating the required optical metrology sensitivity to test mass displacement. This poster presents the current status in the development and implementation of LISA Pathfinder pre-flight systems and latest results of the ongoing ground testing efforts.

  10. A multi-satellite concept in support of high latitude permafrost modelling and monitoring - The ESA DUE Permafrost project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Annett; Duguay, Claude; Schmullius, Christiane; Strozzi, Tazio; Heim, Birgit

    2010-05-01

    A number of remotely sensed products have been developed in the past which provide information relevant to permafrost distribution on circumpolar scale. They comprise parameters such as land surface temperature, land cover, soil moisture, disturbances, snow and terrain. A monitoring system of high latitude permafrost requires regular and multiscale observation of all these parameters. Further on, the datasets need to meet requirements of permafrost models as well as support related research in geomorphology, botany and hydrology. Such a comprehensive database is setup within the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) program. The ESA DUE Permafrost project establishes a monitoring system on local to pan-boreal/arctic scale based on satellite data. Within this project permafrost relevant remotely sensed products are assessed and eventually provided to users. The complexity of the phenomenon permafrost requires the close cooperation with the scientific community working in this field. The consortium is led by I.P.F, Vienna University of Technology and supported by four partners: Gamma Remote Sensing, University of Waterloo, Jena University and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost

  11. The 2009 ESA/Danish Mars Simulation Wind Tunnel Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nornberg, P.; Merrison, J. P.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.

    2009-04-01

    Simulation of the dynamic environment in immediate proximity to the surface of Mars requires access to simulation facilities which can reproduce the atmospheric properties (pressure, temperature, gas composition, UV-VIS light conditions, wind flow etc.). It also requires access to analogue Martian surface material (soil and dust). Simulations can be carried out in a wind tunnel placed in a tank which can be pumped out, like the 400 mm Ø, 1500 mm long wind tunnel that has operated in the Mars Simulation Laboratory at University of Aarhus, Denmark since 2000 (1). A wide range of applications have taken place, from development, test and calibration of instruments, over tests of solar panels, and aerodynamic studies of granular transport to studies of physical properties of dust materials such as grain electrification, aggregation and magnetic properties (2,3). The Salten Skov I analogue (4) and other Martian regolits and dust analogues have been used in the wind tunnel experiments. With the view to future instrument development, solar panel optimization and future research on Martian surface processes a new ESA supported wind tunnel has been constructed at University of Aarhus, Denmark and is now under building. This wind tunnel will have a cross section of close to 1 x 2 m and be able to reach a wind speed of close to 30 m/s under Martian pressure conditions and with samples cooled down to Martian temperatures. The facility is planned to be finally tested and ready for use in July 2009. ESA, ExoMars use of this facility will have priority. However, research projects in collaboration with external users will also be welcome in the future. Later this year information on access possibilities will be announced at the Mars Simulation Laboratory home page: www.marslab.dk. References: (1) Merrison, J., Bertelsen, P., Frandsen, C., Gunnlaugsson, H.P., Knudsen, J.M., Madsen, M.B., Mossin, L., Nielsen, J., Nørnberg, P., Rasmussen, K.R., Uggerhøj, E. and Weyer, G. 2002

  12. 77 FR 62234 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' is available via the Internet on the EPA Region...

  13. 77 FR 19012 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-29

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research... Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming'' is available via the Internet on the EPA Region...

  14. Space Weather studies with a fleet of ESA SREM monitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdas, Wojtek; Evans, Hugh; Mohammadzadeh, Ali; Nieminen, Petteri; Desorgher, Laurent; Buehler, Paul; Daly, Eamonn

    2012-07-01

    Reliable observations and studies of Space Weather are based on precisely correlated network of specialized and well calibrated instruments. Such devices are able to provide simultaneously a set of 3D data encompassing large volume of the Earth magnetosphere. The fleet of ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitors (SREM) is an example of such a network. SREM is a particle detector capable of detection of electrons (E > 500 keV) and protons (E > 8 MeV) with fair spectral and angular resolution. Six of them have been already launched onboard of Proba-1, Rosetta, INTEGRAL, Giove-B, Herschel and Planck missions. As single devices they are able to follow local Space Weather conditions providing accurate measurements of proton and electron spectra. As a network they allow for correlated observations of the radiation environments 3D variability. It includes not only the dynamics of the radiation belts but also propagation of Solar Energetic Particles as well as mapping of Forbusch decreases from coupling of Cosmic Rays and Coronal Mass Ejections. We present the SREM Data Bank open to the public and discuss its main features. Typical examples of the raw data corresponding to the physical phenomena listed above will also be shown. We will also discuss several data conversions algorithms leading to the particle spectra. A comparison between various methods such as simple algorithms, neural network or minimization will be discussed. Several other aspects of the SREM data analysis such as particle identification and separation or flux anisotropy level will also be addressed. Finally we provide short introduction for using of the SREM DB and its main analysis tools.

  15. The ESA Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre - Phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poedts, Stefaan

    The ESA ITT project (AO/1-6738/11/NL/AT) to develop Phase 1 of a Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre has the following objectives and scope: 1. The construction of a long term (~10 yrs) plan for the future development of a European virtual space weather modelling centre consisting of a new ‘open’ and distributed framework for the coupling of physics based models for space weather phenomena; 2. The assessment of model capabilities and the amount of work required to make them operational by integrating them in this framework and the identification of computing and networking requirements to do so. 3. The design of a system to enable models and other components to be installed locally or geographically distributed and the creation of a validation plan including a system of metrics for testing results. The consortium that took up this challenge involves: 1)the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Prime Contractor, coordinator: Prof. S. Poedts); 2) the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB); 3) the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB); 4) the Von Karman Institute (VKI); 5) DH Consultancy (DHC); 6) Space Applications Services (SAS). The project started on May 14 2012, and will finish in May 2014. Thus, by the time of the meeting, both Phase 1A and Phase 1B (the development of the prototype) will be finished. The final report will be presented incl. the architecture decisions made, the framework, the current models integrated already as well as the model couplers installed. The prototype VSWMC will be demonstrated.

  16. SAR Altimetry Processing On Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, J.; Dinardo, S.

    2015-12-01

    The scope of this work is to feature the new ESA service (SARvatore) for the exploitation of the CryoSat-2 data, designed and developed by the Altimetry Team at ESA-ESRIN EOP-SER. The G-POD Service, SARvatore (SAR Versatile Altimetric Toolkit for Ocean Research & Exploitation) for CryoSat-2, is a web platform that provides the capability to process on-line, on-demand CryoSat-2 SAR/SARIN data, from L1a (FBR) data products until SAR/SARin Level-2 geophysical data products. The Processor makes use of the G-POD (Grid-Processing On Demand) distributed computing platform to deliver timely the output data products and interfaces with ESA-ESRIN FBR data archive. The output data products are generated in standard NetCDF format, and they are compatible with the Multi-Mission Radar Altimetry Toolbox and other NetCDF tools. Using the G-POD graphic interface, it is easy to select the geographical area of interest along with the time-frame of interest, based on the Cryosat-2 SAR/SARin FBR data products availability in the service's catalogue. The processor prototype is versatile in the sense that the users can customize and adapt the processing, setting a list of configurable options. After the task submission, the users can follow, in real time, the status of the processing task. The processing service is now available to be used by the SAR Altimetry Community worldwide for R&D experiments, on site demonstrations/training in training courses, cross-comparison against third party products, preparation for the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission, producing data and graphics for publications, etc. Initially, the processing was designed and optimized for open ocean studies solely, based on the SAMOSA model developed for Sentinel-3 Ground Segment using CryoSat data, but since June 2015, a new retracker (SAMOSA+) is offered in the service as dedicated retracker for coastal zone, inland water and sea-ice/ice-sheet. In the view of the Sentinel-3 launch, a new flavor of the service

  17. On-ground casualty risk reduction by structural design for demise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, Stijn; Funke, Quirin; Krag, Holger

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, awareness concerning the on-ground risk posed by un-controlled re-entering space systems has increased. On average over the past decade, an object with mass above 800 kg re-enters every week from which only a few, e.g. ESA's GOCE in 2013 and NASA's UARS in 2011, appeared prominent in international media. Space agencies and nations have discussed requirements to limit the on-ground risk for future missions. To meet the requirements, the amount of debris falling back on Earth has to be limited in number, mass and size. Design for demise (D4D) refers to all measures taken in the design of a space object to increase the potential for demise of the object and its components during re-entry. SCARAB (Spacecraft Atmospheric Re-entry and Break-Up) is ESA's high-fidelity tool which analyses the thermal and structural effects of atmospheric re-entry on spacecraft with a finite-element approach. For this study, a model of a representative satellite is developed in SCARAB to serve as test-bed for D4D analyses on a structural level. The model is used as starting point for different D4D approaches based on increasing the exposure of the satellite components to the aero-thermal environment, as a way to speed up the demise. Statistical bootstrapping is applied to the resulting on-ground fragment lists in order to compare the different re-entry scenarios and to determine the uncertainties of the results. Moreover, the bootstrap results can be used to analyse the casualty risk estimator from a theoretical point of view. The risk reductions for the analysed D4D techniques are presented with respect to the reference scenario for the modelled representative satellite.

  18. The search for exoplanets in the ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volonte, S.; Fridlund, C. V. M.

    2003-10-01

    The Darwin mission is a mission aimed at the search for and study of Terrestrial Exoplanets. As such it may be one of the most ambitious objectives undertaken by the European Space Agency. We describe the place of it as an integral part in the COSMIC VISION science plans and the topic of exo-planets. We describe the context within which it will be carried out in the next decade.

  19. Bariónica: Combining Photography, Philosophy and Astronomy for the ESA/Hubble Ode to Hubble Competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Palacio, D.

    2015-09-01

    In early 2015 the artist behind the photographic collection Bariónica entered it in video form into the European Space Agency's (ESA) Ode to Hubble competition - a public video competition organised to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Hubble Space Telescope. The photographic collection aims to show the connection between cosmic matter and the matter which constitutes mankind, using images and ideas from astronomy to symbolise the connection between what we are, and where we came from. On 24 April 2015, Hubble's 25th birthday, Bariónica was announced as one of two winning videos of the contest. In this article its creator, Desiré de Palacio, tells us about the fundamental ideas that led her to create her piece, and about the experience of being one of the contest winners.

  20. SAR Altimetry Processing on Demand Service for Cryosat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-Pod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinardo, Salvatore; Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    training courses and workshops, for cross-comparison to third party products (e.g. CLS/CNES CPP or ESA SAR COP data products), for the preparation of the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission, for producing data and graphics for publications, etc. Initially, the processing was designed and uniquely optimized for open ocean studies. It was based on the SAMOSA model developed for the Sentinel-3 Ground Segment using CryoSat data (Cotton et al., 2008; Ray et al., 2014). However, since June 2015, a new retracker (SAMOSA+) is offered within the service as a dedicated retracker for coastal zone, inland water and sea-ice/ice-sheet. In view of the Sentinel-3 launch, a new flavor of the service will be initiated, exclusively dedicated to the processing of Sentinel-3 mission data products. The scope of this new service will be to maximize the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission's data over all surfaces. The service is open, free of charge (supported by the ESA SEOM Programme Element) for worldwide scientific applications and available at https://gpod.eo.esa.int/services/CRYOSAT_SAR/

  1. SAR Processing on Demand Service for CryoSat-2 and Sentinel-3 at ESA G-POD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Dinardo, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    training courses and workshops, for cross-comparison to third party products (e.g. CLS/CNES CPP or ESA SAR COP data products), and for the preparation of the Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission, by producing data and graphics for publications, etc. Initially, the processing was designed and uniquely optimized for open ocean studies. It was based on the SAMOSA model developed for the Sentinel-3 Ground Segment using CryoSat data (Cotton et al., 2008; Ray et al., 2014). However, since June 2015, a new retracker (SAMOSA+) is offered within the service as a dedicated retracker for coastal zone, inland water and sea-ice/ice-sheet. In view of the Sentinel-3 launch, a new flavor of the service will be initiated, exclusively dedicated to the processing of Sentinel-3 mission data products. The scope of this new service will be to maximize the exploitation of the upcoming Sentinel-3 Surface Topography Mission's data over all surfaces. The service is open, free of charge for worldwide scientific applications and available at https://gpod.eo.esa.int/services/CRYOSAT_SAR/ and https://gpod.eo.esa.int/services/CRYOSAT_SARIN/.

  2. ESA and NASA agree new mission scenario for Cassini-Huygens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    After six months of investigations and analysis by a joint ESA/NASA Huygens Recovery Task Force (HRTF), senior management from the two space agencies and members of the Cassini-Huygens scientific community have endorsed several modifications to the mission. These will ensure a return close to 100% of the Huygens science data, with no impact on the nominal prime Cassini tour after the third Titan encounter. The modifications have been introduced because of a design flaw in the Huygens communication system. This problem meant that the Huygens receiver was unable to compensate for the frequency shift between the signal emitted by the Probe and the one received by the Orbiter, due to the Doppler shift (**). This would have resulted in the loss of most of the unique data returned from the Probe during its descent through Titan’s dense atmosphere. To ensure that as much data as possible is returned from the pioneering Probe, the HRTF proposed a new schedule for Cassini’s first orbits around Saturn. The agreed scenario involves shortening Cassini’s first two orbits around the ringed planet and adding a third which provides the required new geometry for the Huygens mission to Titan. In the new scenario, the arrival at Saturn on 1 July 2004 remains unchanged. However, Cassini’s first flyby of Titan will now occur on 26 October, followed by another on 13 December. The Huygens Probe will be released towards Titan on 25 December, for an entry into the moon’s atmosphere 22 days later, on 14 January 2005, seven weeks later than originally planned. To reduce the Doppler shift in the signal from Huygens, the Cassini Orbiter will fly over Titan’s cloud tops at a much higher altitude than originally planned - 65,000 km instead of 1,200 km. This higher orbit has the added advantage that Cassini will be able to preserve the four-year baseline tour through the Saturn system, by resuming its original orbital plan in mid-February 2005. “In any complex space mission problems

  3. Life Sciences Investigations for ESA's First Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Angerer, O.; Durante, M.; Linnarson, D.; Pike, W. T.

    2010-12-01

    Preparing for future human exploration of the Moon and beyond is an interdisciplinary exercise, requiring new technologies and the pooling of knowledge and expertise from many scientific areas. The European Space Agency is working to develop a Lunar Lander, as a precursor to future human exploration activities. The mission will demonstrate new technologies and perform important preparatory investigations. In the biological sciences the two major areas requiring investigation in advance of human exploration are radiation and its effects on human physiology and the potential toxicity of lunar dust. This paper summarises the issues associated with these areas and the investigations planned for the Lunar Lander to address them.

  4. Media event at ESOC: closest encounter between ESA's comet chaser Rosetta and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-02-01

    The critical close swingby of Mars is needed to use the gravity of Mars to modify the spacecraft’s speed and direction. Rosetta will emerge from its martian encounter pointed towards its next target, Earth ! It arrives for a second swingby of our home planet on 13 November (the first having already taken place on 4 March 2005). To take advantage of this upcoming closest of encounters with the Red Planet, Rosetta’s instruments - as well as those on its lander - will be switched on over predefined time slots to perform a series of scientific observations, including planetary imaging. Flight controllers at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) have already set everything ready for this crucial manoeuvre. Launched on 2 March 2004 on an Ariane 5 rocket, Rosetta is the first probe ever designed to enter orbit around a comet’s nucleus and release a lander onto its surface. Arriving at comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the probe will take over a year to conduct a thorough scientific study of this remnant of the primitive nebula which gave birth to our solar system some 4.6 billion years ago. By the end of its epic journey, Rosetta will have performed three Earth and one Mars swingbys in all. It will also have studied asteroids Steins and Lutetia, in September 2008 and July 2010 respectively. Media representatives wishing to follow this Rosetta Mars swingby from the ESOC control centre in Darmstadt/Germany are requested to complete and return the attached reply form. For further information, please contact : ESA Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Programme Rosetta Mars swingby 25 February 2007, 2 a.m. start 02:00 - Doors open & Filming opportunity in Mission Control Room 02:40 - Welcome by David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 02:50 - Rosetta Mars swingby the manoeuvres and flight dynamics, Uwe Feucht, Head of Flight Dynamics Division/Team 03:00 - En route science, first images

  5. FAME project: use of ESA earth observation data for flood modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willems, P.; Timbe, L.; Thompson, S.; Campling, P.; Barbieri, M.

    2003-04-01

    The FAME project on "Flood risk and damage Assessment using Modelling and Earth observation techniques" aims to meet the flood and spatial information needs of the water authorities and the insurance industry. The project is supported by the DUP-2 Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). In the first phase of the project, the improvements in flood modelling performance by the use of earth observation products have been demonstrated. Also the use of the earth observation data for flood mapping (historical events) and flood risk mapping (at given risk levels) has been studied. On the basis of three case-studies (incl. rivers Dender and Demer in Belgium) and existing hydrodynamic flood models, the use of different types of earth observation data has been demonstrated. Landsat ETM+ images have been used to update the land use map and the infrastructural map using supervised classification techniques. Both maps provide the hydrological and hydraulic modeller with more detailed data, and allow further refinement of the flood model. The land use map is also useful for flood damage and flood risk calculations. For a limited stretch along the Dender river, additional IKONOS images were processed and compared with the Landsat data. For validation of the flood models, historical flood information is needed. Apart from historical flood maps collected by the water authorities, use can be made of satellite images: ERS SAR, RADARSAT and ENVISAT images. For the Dender catchment, SAR image acquisitions were made for 2 historical floods. For the spatial extent of the flooding and the temporal evolution, a comparison was made between the flood model results (using the MIKE11 hydraulic river sofware), the SAR derived flood maps and the map of recent floods from the Flemish water authorities.

  6. Current status of the assessment of the ESA Cosmic Vision mission candidate PLATO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, R.; Stankov, A.; Fridlund, M.; Rando, N.

    2009-08-01

    PLATO is a candidate of the European Space Agency's Science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025. "PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars" aims to characterise exoplanetary systems by detecting planetary transits and conducting asteroseismology of their parent stars. This is achieved through high-precision photometry (visible waveband). PLATO is currently in assessment phase, which was started with an internal study in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility (CDF). Two phase-A, parallel industrial studies with 12-months durations are being conducted until July 2009. The objectives of these studies are to understand the critical areas inherent to this mission and assess the trade-offs in order to define a baseline concept that optimises scientific return while minimising complexity and risk and meeting the applicable programmatic constraints. PLATO will operate in a large-amplitude orbit around Sun-Earth L2 where it will observe targets for several years in order to characterise the exoplanetary transits. To observe enough stars (with focus on Sun-like cool dwarfs) to maximize the number of transit detections, a large field-of-view (FoV) is required as well as a sufficiently high collecting area. PLATO will achieve this objective by utilizing several smaller telescopes instead of one large telescope. Several different optical designs, both reflective and refractive, are being studied. Due to the large number of simultaneously observed stars the spacecraft will require a high degree of autonomy and adequate on-board processing capability. Moreover, the stars must be monitored with high accuracy, which means that the spacecraft must provide a stable environment in terms of pointing stability and thermal environment. This paper summarises the results of the assessment studies.

  7. ESA's Soil Moisture dnd Ocean Salinity Mission - Contributing to Water Resource Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, S.; Kerr, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched in November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the need for global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. The focus of this paper will be on SMOS's contribution to support water resource management: SMOS surface soil moisture provides the input to derive root-zone soil moisture, which in turn provides the input for the drought index, an important monitoring prediction tool for plant available water. In addition to surface soil moisture, SMOS also provides observations on vegetation optical depth. Both parameters aid agricultural applications such as crop growth, yield forecasting and drought monitoring, and provide input for carbon and land surface modelling. SMOS data products are used in data assimilation and forecasting systems. Over land, assimilating SMOS derived information has shown to have a positive impact on applications such as NWP, stream flow forecasting and the analysis of net ecosystem exchange. Over ocean, both sea surface salinity and severe wind speed have the potential to increase the predictive skill on the seasonal and short- to medium-range forecast range. Operational users in particular in Numerical Weather Prediction and operational hydrology have put forward a requirement for soil moisture data to be available in near-real time (NRT). This has been addressed by developing a fast retrieval for a NRT level 2 soil moisture product based on Neural Networks, which will be available by autumn 2015. This paper will focus on presenting the

  8. BepiColombo - A joint ESA/JAXA mission to explore Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zender, Joe; Benkhoff, Johannes; Futjimoto, Masaki

    2015-04-01

    BepiColombo is a joint project between ESA and the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The Mission consists of two orbiters, the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) and the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). The mission scenario foresees a launch of both spacecraft with an ARIANE V in July 2016 and an arrival at Mercury in the first half of 2024. From their dedicated orbits the two spacecrafts will be studying the planet and its environment. The MPO scientific payload comprises eleven instruments/instrument packages; the MMO scientific payload consists of five instruments/instrument packages. Together, the scientific payload of both spacecraft will perform measurements to find clues to the origin and evolution of a planet close to its parent star. The MPO on BepiColombo will focus on a global characterization of Mercury through the investigation of its interior, surface, exosphere and magnetosphere. In addition, it will be testing Einstein's theory of general relativity. The MMO provided by JAXA focuses on investigating the wave and particle environment of the planet from an eccentric orbit. Together, the scientific payload of both spacecraft will provide the detailed information necessary to understand the process of planetary formation and evolution in the hottest part of the proto-planetary nebula as well as the similarities and differences between the magnetospheres of Mercury and the Earth. Most scientific instruments are already integrated into the spacecraft and both spacecraft have undergone successfully the thermal vacuum and thermal balance test (TV/TB) campaigns. The poster will inform about the current status of the mission, spacecraft and payload with emphasis on the expected scientific return.

  9. Human factors requirements for telerobotic command and control: The European Space Agency experimental programme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Space Telerobotics research, performed under contract to the European Space Agency (ESA), concerning the execution of human factors experiments, and ultimately leading to the development of a telerobotics test bed, has been carried out since 1985 by a British Consortium consisting of British Aerospace, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority and, more recently, the UK National Advanced Robotics Research Centre. The principal aim of the first study of the series was to derive preliminary requirements for a teleoperation servicing system, with reference to two mission model scenarios. The first scenario introduced the problem of communications time delays, and their likely effect on the ground-based operator in control of a manipulator system on board an unmanned servicing vehicle in Low Earth Orbit. In the second scenario, the operator was located on the NASA Orbiter aft flight deck, supervising the control of a prototype manipulator in the 'servicing' of an experimental payload in the cargo bay area. Human factors analyses centered on defining the requirements for the teleoperator workstation, such as identifying basic ergonomic requirements for workstation and panel layouts, defining teleoperation strategies, developing alphanumeric and graphic screen formats for the supervision or direct control of the manipulator, and the potential applications of expert system technology. The second study for ESA involved an experimental appraisal of some of the important issues highlighted in the first study, for which relevant human factors data did not exist. Of central importance during the second study was the issue of communications time delays and their effect on the manual control of a teleoperated manipulator from a ground-based command and control station.

  10. PACA_Rosetta67P: Global Amateur Observing Support for ESA/Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma A.; Alexander, Claudia; Morales, Efrain; Feliciano-Rivera, Christiana

    2015-11-01

    The PACA (Professional - Amateur Collaborative Astronomy) Project is an ecosystem of several social media platforms (Facebook, Pinterest, Twitter, Flickr, Vimeo) that takes advantage of the global and immediate connectivity amongst amateur astronomers worldwide, that can be galvanized to participate in a given observing campaign. The PACA Project has participated in organized campaigns such as Comet Observing Campaign (CIOC_ISON) in 2013 and Comet Siding Spring (CIOC_SidingSpring)in 2014. Currently the PACA Project is supporting ESA/Rosetta mission with ground-based observations of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (CG) through its perihelion in August 2015 and beyond; providing baseline observations of magnitude and evolution from locations around the globe. Comet 67P/CG will reach its brightest post-perihelion and pass closest to Earth in November 2015. We will present the various benefits of our professional - amateur collaboration: developing and building a core astronomer community; defining an observing campaign from basic information of the comet from its previous apparitions; coordinating with professionals and the mission to acquire observations, albeit low-resolution, but on a long timeline; while addressing the creation of several science products such as the variation of its magnitude over time and the changing morphology. We will present some of our results to date and compare with observations from professionals and previous apparations of the comet. We shall also highlight the challenges faced in building a successful collaborative partnership between the professional and amateur observers and their resolution. With the popularity of mobile platforms and instant connections with peers globally, the multi-faceted social universe has become a vital part of engagement of multiple communities for collaborative scientific partnerships and outreach. We shall also highlight other cometary observing campaigns that The PACA Project has initiated to evolve

  11. Has ESA's XMM-Newton cast doubt over dark energy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    Galaxy cluster RXJ0847 hi-res Size hi-res: 100k Galaxy cluster RXJ0847 The fuzzy object at the centre of the frame is one of the galaxy clusters observed by XMM-Newton in its investigation of the distant Universe. The cluster, designated RXJ0847.2+3449, is about 7 000 million light years away, so we see it here as it was 7 000 million years ago, when the Universe was only about half of its present age. This cluster is made up of several dozen galaxies. Observations of eight distant clusters of galaxies, the furthest of which is around 10 thousand million light years away, were studied by an international group of astronomers led by David Lumb of ESA's Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. They compared these clusters to those found in the nearby Universe. This study was conducted as part of the larger XMM-Newton Omega Project, which investigates the density of matter in the Universe under the lead of Jim Bartlett of the College de France. Clusters of galaxies are prodigious emitters of X-rays because they contain a large quantity of high-temperature gas. This gas surrounds galaxies in the same way as steam surrounds people in a sauna. By measuring the quantity and energy of X-rays from a cluster, astronomers can work out both the temperature of the cluster gas and also the mass of the cluster. Theoretically, in a Universe where the density of matter is high, clusters of galaxies would continue to grow with time and so, on average, should contain more mass now than in the past. Most astronomers believe that we live in a low-density Universe in which a mysterious substance known as 'dark energy' accounts for 70% of the content of the cosmos and, therefore, pervades everything. In this scenario, clusters of galaxies should stop growing early in the history of the Universe and look virtually indistinguishable from those of today. In a paper soon to be published by the European journal Astronomy and Astrophysics, astronomers from the XMM

  12. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives Pretreatments Only Interim Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    NASA and ESA continue to search for an alternative to hexavalent chromium in coatings applications that meet their performance requirements in corrosion protection, cost, operability, and health and safety, while typically specifying that performance must be equal to or greater than existing systems. The overall objective of the collaborative effort between NASA TEERM and ESA is to test and evaluate coating systems (pretreatments, pretreatments with primer, and pretreatments with primer and topcoat) as replacements for hexavalent chrome coatings in aerospace applications. This objective will be accomplished by testing promising coatings identified from previous NASA, ESA, Department of Defense (DOD), and other project experience. Additionally, several new materials will be analyzed according to ESA-identified specifications.

  13. ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR ALACHLOR ESA AND OTHER ACETANILIDE HERBICIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1998, USEPA published a Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL) of 50 chemicals and 10 microorganisms. "Alachlor ESA and other acetanilide herbicide degradation products" is listed on the the 1998 CCL. Acetanilide degradation products are generally more water soluble...

  14. NASA AND ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Free, James M.; Schubert, Kathleen; Grantier, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In March 2011, NASA and ESA made a decision to partially offset the European obligations deriving from the extension of the ISS Program until the end of 2020 with different means than ATVs, following the ATV-5 mission foreseen in mid-2014. NASA and ESA considered a number of barter options, and concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module and Spacecraft Adaptor for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter element with the most interest. A joint ESA - NASA working group was established to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage. The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin. This paper gives an overview of the results of the on-going study as well as its projected utilization for the global space exploration endeavour.

  15. Acyl-homoserine lactone recognition and response hindering the quorum-sensing regulator EsaR.

    PubMed

    Schu, Daniel J; Scruggs, Jessica M; Geissinger, Jared S; Michel, Katherine G; Stevens, Ann M

    2014-01-01

    During quorum sensing in the plant pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, EsaI, an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, and the transcription factor EsaR coordinately control capsular polysaccharide production. The capsule is expressed only at high cell density when AHL levels are high, leading to inactivation of EsaR. In lieu of detailed structural information, the precise mechanism whereby EsaR recognizes AHL and is hindered by it, in a response opposite to that of most other LuxR homologues, remains unresolved. Hence, a random mutagenesis genetic approach was designed to isolate EsaR* variants that are immune to the effects of AHL. Error-prone PCR was used to generate the desired mutants, which were subsequently screened for their ability to repress transcription in the presence of AHL. Following sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate all possible mutations of interest as single, rather than multiple amino acid substitutions. Eight individual amino acids playing a critical role in the AHL-insensitive phenotype have been identified. The ability of EsaR* variants to bind AHL and the effect of individual substitutions on the overall conformation of the protein were examined through in vitro assays. Six EsaR* variants had a decreased ability to bind AHL. Fluorescence anisotropy was used to examine the relative DNA binding affinity of the final two EsaR* variants, which retained some AHL binding capability but remained unresponsive to it, perhaps due to an inability of the N-terminal domain to transduce information to the C-terminal domain. PMID:25238602

  16. Acyl-Homoserine Lactone Recognition and Response Hindering the Quorum-Sensing Regulator EsaR

    PubMed Central

    Schu, Daniel J.; Scruggs, Jessica M.; Geissinger, Jared S.; Michel, Katherine G.; Stevens, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    During quorum sensing in the plant pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, EsaI, an acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, and the transcription factor EsaR coordinately control capsular polysaccharide production. The capsule is expressed only at high cell density when AHL levels are high, leading to inactivation of EsaR. In lieu of detailed structural information, the precise mechanism whereby EsaR recognizes AHL and is hindered by it, in a response opposite to that of most other LuxR homologues, remains unresolved. Hence, a random mutagenesis genetic approach was designed to isolate EsaR* variants that are immune to the effects of AHL. Error-prone PCR was used to generate the desired mutants, which were subsequently screened for their ability to repress transcription in the presence of AHL. Following sequencing, site-directed mutagenesis was used to generate all possible mutations of interest as single, rather than multiple amino acid substitutions. Eight individual amino acids playing a critical role in the AHL-insensitive phenotype have been identified. The ability of EsaR* variants to bind AHL and the effect of individual substitutions on the overall conformation of the protein were examined through in vitro assays. Six EsaR* variants had a decreased ability to bind AHL. Fluorescence anisotropy was used to examine the relative DNA binding affinity of the final two EsaR* variants, which retained some AHL binding capability but remained unresponsive to it, perhaps due to an inability of the N-terminal domain to transduce information to the C-terminal domain. PMID:25238602

  17. A simplified method to detect epididymal sperm aneuploidy (ESA) in mice using three-chromosome fish

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, X.; O`Hogan, S.; Wyrobek, A.

    1995-11-01

    We developed a new method (ESA) to detect aneuploidy and polyploidy in epididymal sperm of mice using three-chromosome FISH. In comparison to a previous method (TSA-testicular spermatid aneuploidy), which required late-step spermatids, the ESA method utilizes epididymal sperm, which are easier to collect than testicular cells. The ESA method also provides a homogenous population of cells, which significantly speeds up the scoring procedure. A total of 6 mice were investigated by the ESA method and results compared with those obtained by the TSA method: 2 mice each of Robertsonian (8.14) heterozygotes, Rb(8.14) homozygotes and B6C3F1. About 10,000 sperm were scored per mouse. For the ESA method, epididimides were cut into small pieces and filtered. Sperm were prepared for hybridization by sonication and a modification of the DTT/LIS method previously described. Sperm aneuploidy was detected by multi-color FISH using three DNA probes specific for mouse chromosomes X, Y and 8. The sex ratio of X8(49.7%) and Y8(49.6%) did not differ from the expected 1:1. The efficiency of ESA was very high; -0.3% of the cells showed no hybridization domain. Hyperhaploidy frequencies for chromosomes X, Y and 8 compared well between the ESA and TSA methods for Rb(8.14) heterozygous (p=0.79) and B6C3F1 mice (p>0.05). The data obtained from Rb(8.14) homozygotes were similar to those from B6C3F1, as predicted (p=0.3). This highly efficient ESA assay is therefore, recommended for future studies of the mechanism of induction of aneuploidy in male germ cells. It also lays a solid foundation for automated scoring.

  18. Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eastman, Randy

    2000-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Integrated Space Transportation; 2) Fourth Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Research; 3) Ground Operations; 4) Ground Operations Technologies; 5) Sensors; and 6) Umbilicals. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  19. Cryogenics for ground based and space-borne instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duband, L.

    In many space sciences project cryogenic detectors are essential for the accomplishment of the scientific objectives, offering unique advantages and unmatched performance. In addition several other components such as the optics can benefit from a cryogenic cooling which reduces the radiative loading. The Service des Basses Températ- ures (SBT) of CEA Grenoble has been involved in space cryogenics for over 20 years now and features a dedicated laboratory, the Cryocoolers and Space Cryogenics group. Various cryocoolers have been developed in the past and our fields of activity focus now on four main technologies: sorption coolers, multistage pulse tubes, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR), and cryogenic loop heat pipes. In addition work on two new concepts for ground based dilution refrigerators is also ongoing. Finally developments on various key technologies such as the heat switches, the suspension or structural systems are also carried out. These developments are mainly funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) or by the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES). In this paper we mostly give an overview of the developments carried out at SBT along with several examples of other relevant systems. We use space cryogenics as a thread. However these coolers or techniques can be used on ground, particularly on remote locations where liquid cryogen are unavailable and/or where maintenance must be limited to a strict minimum. In this case they can be simplified and take advantage of on ground resources, and their cost can be significantly reduced. For most of these systems the common feature is the absence of any moving parts or any friction, which guarantees a very good reliability and make them very good candidates for space borne instruments requiring cryogenic temperatures.

  20. An Historic Encounter: Reviewing the Outreach around ESA's Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzen, D.

    2016-03-01

    The Rosetta mission is a milestone in terms of science and public outreach. The European Space Agency and the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt in particular did a marvellous job of sparking global public interest, driven by various events throughout the mission. In contrast, the actions of the Max Planck Society research group in charge of the high resolution Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System were, in my opinion, the cause of some concern and bring to light an important debate in the relationship between outreach and science. This article seeks to review the outreach that surrounded the Rosetta mission and to highlight both the best practice that made it a success and the bad practice that set some aspects behind.

  1. Tropospheric Formaldehyde Measurements from the ESA GOME Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Kurosu, T. P.; Palmer, P. I.; Martin, R. V.; Fiore, A.; Li, Q.; Jacob, D. J.

    2001-01-01

    The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) was launched on the European Space Agency's ERS-2 satellite on April 20, 1995. GOME measures the Earth's atmosphere in the nadir geometry, using a set of spectrometers that cover the UV and visible (240-790 nm) at moderate resolution (0.2 nm in the UV, 0.4 nm in the visible), employing silicon diode array detectors. GOME takes some 30,000 spectra per day, obtaining full global coverage in three days. We directly fit GOME radiance spectra using nonlinear least-squares analysis to obtain column amounts of several trace species with significant tropospheric concentrations, including ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and formaldehyde (HCHO). Measurements of HCHO due to biogenic activity in the troposphere are presented here.

  2. NASA and ESA Partnership on the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Kathleen E.; Grantier, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    (1) ESA decided in its Council Meeting in March 2011 to partially offset the European ISS obligations after 2015 with different means than ATVs; (2) The envisioned approach is based on a barter element(s) that would generate cost avoidance on the NASA side; (3) NASA and ESA considered a number of Barter options, NASA concluded that the provision by ESA of the Service Module for the NASA Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) was the barter with the most interest;. (4) A joint ESA - NASA working group was established in May 2011 to assess the feasibility of Europe developing this Module based on ATV heritage; (5)The working group was supported by European and US industry namely Astrium, TAS-I and Lockheed-Martin; and (6) The project is currently in phase B1 with the objective to prepare a technical and programmatic proposal for an ESA MPCV-SM development. This proposal will be one element of the package that ESA plans submit to go forward for approval by European Ministers in November 2012.

  3. ESO's VLT Helps ESA's Rosetta Spacecraft Prepare to Ride on a Cosmic Bullet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-02-01

    New Images of Comet Wirtanen's Nucleus [1] Summary New images of Comet Wirtanen's 1-km 'dirty snowball' nucleus have been obtained with the ESO Very Large Telescope at Paranal (Chile). They show this object at a distance of approx. 435 million km from the Sun, about the same as when the Rosetta spacecraft of the European Space Agency (ESA) arrives in 2011. The new observations indicate that the comet has a very low degree of activity at this point in its orbit - almost no material is seen around the nucleus. This means that there will not be so much dust near the nucleus as to make the planned landing dramatically difficult. PR Photo 06a/02 : The Nucleus of Comet Wirtanen (composite photo). PR Photo 06b/02 : Comet Wirtanen's motion in the sky (animated). A distant target ESO PR Photo 06a/02 ESO PR Photo 06a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 445 pix - 120k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 890 pix - 1.1M] ESO PR Photo 06b/02 ESO PR Photo 06b/02 [Animated GIF: 400 x 420 pix - 312k] Caption : PR Photo 06a/02 shows a (false-colour) composite image of the nucleus of Comet Wirtanen (the point of light at the centre), recorded on December 9, 2001, with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN Unit Telescope. It is based on four exposures and since the telescope was set to track the motion of the comet in the sky, the images of stars in the field are seen as four consecutive trails. The measured brightness and the fact that the image of the comet's 'dirty snowball' nucleus is almost star-like indicates that it is surrounded by a very small amount of gas or dust. The diameter of the nucleus is about 1 km and the distance to the comet from the Earth was approx. 534 million km. In PR Photo 06b/02 , the four exposures have been combined to show the motion of the comet during the four exposures. Technical information about the photos is available below. Chase a fast-moving comet, land on it and 'ride' it while it speeds up towards the Sun: not the script of a science-fiction movie

  4. Assessment of Northern Hemisphere Snow Water Equivalent Datasets in ESA SnowPEx project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Cohen, Juval; Ikonen, Jaakko; Derksen, Chris; Mudryk, Lawrence; Nagler, Thomas; Bojkov, Bojan

    2016-04-01

    Reliable information on snow cover across the Northern Hemisphere and Arctic and sub-Arctic regions is needed for climate monitoring, for understanding the Arctic climate system, and for the evaluation of the role of snow cover and its feedback in climate models. In addition to being of significant interest for climatological investigations, reliable information on snow cover is of high value for the purpose of hydrological forecasting and numerical weather prediction. Terrestrial snow covers up to 50 million km² of the Northern Hemisphere in winter and is characterized by high spatial and temporal variability. Therefore satellite observations provide the best means for timely and complete observations of the global snow cover. There are a number of independent SWE products available that describe the snow conditions on multi-decadal and global scales. Some products are derived using satellite-based information while others rely on meteorological observations and modelling. What is common to practically all the existing hemispheric SWE products, is that their retrieval performance on hemispherical and multi-decadal scales are not accurately known. The purpose of the ESA funded SnowPEx project is to obtain a quantitative understanding of the uncertainty in satellite- as well as model-based SWE products through an internationally coordinated and consistent evaluation exercise. The currently available Northern Hemisphere wide satellite-based SWE datasets which were assessed include 1) the GlobSnow SWE, 2) the NASA Standard SWE, 3) NASA prototype and 4) NSIDC-SSM/I SWE products. The model-based datasets include: 5) the Global Land Data Assimilation System Version 2 (GLDAS-2) product 6) the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts Interim Land Reanalysis (ERA-I-Land) which uses a simple snow scheme 7) the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) which uses an intermediate complexity snow scheme; and 8) SWE from the Crocus snow scheme, a

  5. ExELS: an exoplanet legacy science proposal for the ESA Euclid mission - I. Cold exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, M. T.; Kerins, E.; Rattenbury, N.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Robin, A. C.; Mao, S.; Batista, V.; Calchi Novati, S.; Cassan, A.; Fouqué, P.; McDonald, I.; Marquette, J. B.; Tisserand, P.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2013-09-01

    The Euclid mission is the second M-class mission of the ESA Cosmic Vision programme, with the principal science goal of studying dark energy through observations of weak lensing and baryon acoustic oscillations. Euclid is also expected to undertake additional Legacy Science programmes. One such proposal is the Exoplanet Euclid Legacy Survey (ExELS) which will be the first survey able to measure the abundance of exoplanets down to Earth mass for host separations from ˜1 au out to the free-floating (unbound) regime. The cold and free-floating exoplanet regimes represent a crucial discovery space for testing planet formation theories. ExELS will use the gravitational microlensing technique and will detect 1000 microlensing events per month over 1.6 deg2 of the Galactic bulge. We assess how many of these events will have detectable planetary signatures using a detailed multiwavelength microlensing simulator - the Manchester-Besançon microLensing Simulator (MABμLS) - which incorporates the Besançon Galactic model with 3D extinction. MABμLS is the first theoretical simulation of microlensing to treat the effects of point spread function (PSF) blending self-consistently with the underlying Galactic model. We use MABμLS, together with current numerical models for the Euclid PSFs, to explore a number of designs and de-scope options for ExELS, including the exoplanet yield as a function of filter choice and slewing time, and the effect of systematic photometry errors. Using conservative extrapolations of current empirical exoplanet mass functions determined from ground-based microlensing and radial velocity surveys, ExELS can expect to detect a few hundred cold exoplanets around mainly G-, K- and M-type stellar hosts, including ˜45 Earth-mass planets and ˜6 Mars-mass planets for an observing programme totalling 10 months. ExELS will be capable of measuring the cold exoplanet mass function down to Earth mass or below, with orbital separations ranging from ˜1 au out

  6. Normativity, agency, and life.

    PubMed

    Barham, James

    2012-03-01

    There is an immense philosophical literature dealing with the notions of normativity and agency, as well as a sizeable and rapidly growing scientific literature on the topic of autonomous agents. However, there has been very little cross-fertilization between these two literatures. As a result, the philosophical literature tends to assume a somewhat outdated mechanistic image of living things, resulting in a quasi-dualistic picture in which only human beings, or the higher animals, can be normative agents properly speaking. From this perspective, the project of 'naturalizing normativity' becomes almost a contradiction in terms. At the same time, the scientific literature tends to misuse 'normativity,' 'agency,' and related terms, assuming that it is meaningful to ascribe these concepts to 'autonomous agents' conceived of as physical systems whose behavior is to be explained in terms of ordinary physical law. From this perspective, the true depth of the difficulty involved in understanding what makes living systems distinctive qua physical systems becomes occluded. In this essay, I begin the attempt to remedy this situation. After some preliminary discussion of terminology and situating of my project within the contemporary philosophical landscape, I make a distinction between two different aspects of the project of naturalizing normativity: (1) the 'Scope Problem,' which consists in saying how widely in nature our concept of normative agency may properly be applied; and (2) the 'Ground Problem,' which consists in rationalizing the phenomenon of normative agency in terms of the rest of our knowledge of nature. Then, in the remainder of this paper, I argue that the Scope Problem ought to be resolved in favor of attributing normative agency, in the proper sense of those words, to living things as such. The Ground Problem will be discussed in a companion paper at a later time. PMID:22326078

  7. ESA is hot on the trail of Geminga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XMM-Newton image of Geminga showing the discovery of the twi hi-res Size hi-res: 68 kb Credits: ESA XMM-Newton image of Geminga showing the discovery of the twin tails This image was captured by the EPIC camera on board the satellite. The motion of Geminga across the sky is indicated, showing that the tails are trailing the neutron star. The scale bar corresponds to a distance of 1.5 million million kilometres at the distance of Geminga. Computer models of the shock wave created by Geminga hi-res Size hi-res: 522 kb Credits: Patrizia Caraveo Computer models of the shockwave created by Geminga Computer models of the shockwave created by Geminga show that the best matches to the data occur if the neutron star is travelling virtually across our line of sight. These correspond to the inclinations of less than 30 degrees. A neutron star measures only 20-30 kilometres across and is the dense remnant of an exploded star. Geminga is one of the closest to Earth, at a distance of about 500 light-years. Most neutron stars emit radio emissions, appearing to pulsate like a lighthouse, but Geminga is 'radio-quiet'. It does, however, emit huge quantities of pulsating gamma rays making it one of the brightest gamma-ray sources in the sky. Geminga is the only example of a successfully identified gamma-ray source from which astronomers have gained significant knowledge. It is 350 000 years old and ploughs through space at 120 kilometres per second. Its route creates a shockwave that compresses the gas of the interstellar medium and its naturally embedded magnetic field by a factor of four. Patrizia Caraveo, Instituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Milano, Italy, and her colleagues (at CESR, France, ESO and MPE, Germany) have calculated that the tails are produced because highly energetic electrons become trapped in this enhanced magnetic field. As the electrons spiral inside the magnetic field, they emit the X-rays seen by XMM-Newton. The electrons themselves are created

  8. A vista of new knowledge from ESA's Hipparcos astronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    Hipparcos is a milestone in the history of astronomy. In 1985 the American physicist Freeman J. Dyson hailed Hipparcos as the first major new development in space science to come from outside the United States. The spacecraft operated in orbit 1989-93, measuring the angles between stars in the sky. Over a further three years, computing teams across Europe generated a consistent, high-precision plot of 118,000 stars in the Hipparcos Catalogue and somewhat less accurate (but still unprecedented) data on a million stars in the Tycho Catalogue. The distances, motions, pairings and variability of stars are now known far more accurately than ever before. Hipparcos will make an impact on every branch of astronomy, from the Solar System to the history of the Universe, and especially on theories of stars and their evolution. For almost a year, astronomers most closely associated with the mission have had an early view of the completed catalogues and in Venice they will summarize their initial results. The Hipparcos data will be published in June, as an extraordinary contribution from Europe to astronomy all around the world. The success of Hipparcos has created problems for the organizers of Venice symposium. Altogether 190 scientific papers were offered for presentation by various groups of astronomers. With three mornings and three afternoons available for the main scientific sessions, 67 oral presentations are accommodated, by restricting speakers to 10-15 minutes each. For the rest, there will a generous display of results in the form of posters. Thus Hipparcos will be celebrated by a vista of new knowledge. The stars are looking younger Already Hipparcos seems to cure a headache concerning the ages of stars. As recently as last year, astronomers were perplexed by a contradiction between their estimates of the age of the Universe, and stars that seemed to be older. An early Hipparcos result announced in February 1997 (ESA Information Note 04/97) concerned the winking

  9. Chandra Contributes to ESA's Integral Detection of Closest Gamma-Ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, and also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs should emit similar amounts of gamma-ray energy. The fraction of it detected at Earth should then depend on the 'width' (opening angle) and orientation of the beam as well as on the distance. The energy received should be larger when the beam is narrow or points towards us and smaller when the beam is broad or points away from us. New data collected with ESA's high energy observatories, Integral and XMM-Newton, now show that this picture is not so clear-cut and that the amount of energy emitted by GRBs can vary significantly. "The idea that all GRBs spit out the same amount of gamma rays, or that they are 'standard candles' as we call them, is simply ruled out by the new data," said Dr Sergey Sazonov, from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia) and the Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching near Munich (Germany). Sazonov and an international team of researchers studied the GRB detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 and given the code-name of GRB 031203. Within a record 18 seconds of the burst, the Integral Burst Alert System

  10. Seismic hazard models for the central Apennines constrained by GPS and InSAR: mid-term review results of the ESA Pathfinder project CHARMING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merryman Boncori, John Peter; Pezzo, Giuseppe; Visini, Francesco; Carafa, Michele; Devoti, Roberto; Atzori, Simone; Kastelic, Vanja; Berardino, Paolo; Fornaro, Gianfranco; Riguzzi, Federica; Pietrantonio, Grazia; d'Amico, Vera; Meletti, Carlo; Salvi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The contribution of space geodetic techniques to earthquake rate estimation, and thus seismic hazard modelling, has been recognized since two decades and made possible in more recent years by the increased availability and accuracy of geodetic measurements. We present the mid-term review results of a feasibility study named "Constraining Seismic Hazard Models with InSAR and GPS (CHARMING)", funded by the European Space Agency's (ESA) Support to Science Element (STSE) Pathfinders 2013 project. The area of interest considered at this stage of the project comprises a 200 km x 200 km area, covering the Abruzzi region (central Italy). In a later stage this area shall be extended to comprise a large portion of central and southern Italy, including most of the highest strain regions identified by recent studies. We present the interseismic velocities derived by ~60 permanent GPS stations and measurements derived from coast-to-coast strips of Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery from the ERS-1/2 AMI, ENVISAT ASAR and ALOS PALSAR sensors. The latter are processed with the Intermittent Small Baseline Subset (ISBAS) techniques, which greatly improves the measurement coverage compared to previous studies. Corrections are applied concerning tropospheric propagation errors, using ENVISAT MERIS precipitable water vapour maps and ERA-Interim numerical weather model parameters, as well as for the recently discovered oscillator drift of the ENVISAT ASAR sensor. Finally, measurements from individual SAR tracks are calibrated using GPS to ensure a common reference frame. For a set of composite seismogenic sources extracted from the DISS v.3.1.1 catalogue (Database of Italian Seismogenic Sources), we use the kinematic finite element NeoKinema model to derive long term average velocity fields and slip rates. We then derive earthquake rates, i.e. the number of earthquakes in a given time period above an established magnitude threshold, following the Seismic Hazard Inferred From Tectonics

  11. 14 CFR 141.81 - Ground training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground training. 141.81 Section 141.81... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.81 Ground training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each instructor who is assigned to a ground training course...

  12. 14 CFR 141.81 - Ground training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ground training. 141.81 Section 141.81... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.81 Ground training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each instructor who is assigned to a ground training course...

  13. 14 CFR 141.81 - Ground training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ground training. 141.81 Section 141.81... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.81 Ground training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each instructor who is assigned to a ground training course...

  14. 14 CFR 141.81 - Ground training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ground training. 141.81 Section 141.81... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.81 Ground training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each instructor who is assigned to a ground training course...

  15. 14 CFR 141.81 - Ground training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ground training. 141.81 Section 141.81... OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.81 Ground training. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each instructor who is assigned to a ground training course...

  16. ESA M3 mission candidate EChO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, L.; Isaak, K. G.; Escudero, I.; Martin, D.; Crouzet, P.-E.; Rando, N.

    2011-09-01

    The Exoplanet Characterisation Observatory (EChO) is a medium class mission candidate within the science program Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency. It was selected in February 2011 as one of 4 M3 mission candidates to enter an assessment phase. The assessment activities start with the definition of science and mission requirements as well as of a preliminary model payload, followed by an internal Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study. Parallel industrial studies will follow in 2012, after which the 4 missions will be reviewed to identify candidates entering definition phase studies in 2013. EChO aims at characterising the atmosphere of known transiting exoplanets, potentially from giant Hot Jupiters down to Super-Earths orbiting in the habitable zone of M-dwarf stars. It will use a 1 m class telescope, feeding a spectrometer covering the wave lengths from 0.4 to 11 microns with a potential extension to 16 microns. While spatial differentiation of the exoplanet and its host star is not necessary, spectral differentiation will be achieved by making differential measurements of in- and out- of transit frames to cancel the star signal. This paper describes critical requirements, and gives an overview of the model payload design. It also reports on the results of the CDF.

  17. ESA Data User Element PERMAFROST: a spaceborne permafrost monitoring and information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, A.; Heim, B.; Boike, J.; Elger, K.; Muster, S.; Langer, M.; Westermann, S.; Sobiech, J.

    2010-12-01

    Permafrost is a subsurface phenomenon whose ground thermal regime is mainly influenced by air temperature, land cover, soil and rock properties and snow parameters. Many spaceborne applications are potentially indicative for the thermal state of Permafrost, such as ‘land surface temperature’, ‘surface moisture’, ‘freeze/thaw’, ‘terrain’, ‘vegetation’ and ‘changes of surface waters’. The major task of the ESA Data User Element Permafrost project is to develop circumarctic/-boreal Earth Observation services of these parameters with extensive involvement of the permafrost research community The DUE PERMAFROST datasets will be processed in the EO-PERMAFROST Information System and provided via a WebGIS-interface. Further information is available at www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/ permafrost. In order to set up the required validation tasks and information services, a target area approach with specified case study regions is used. Most of the foreseen DUE PERMAFROST remote sensing applications are well established and can optimally become operational. The goal of DUE PERMAFROST is to lend confidence in their scientific utility for high-latitude permafrost landscapes. Therefore, a major component is the evaluation of the DUE PERMAFROST products. Ground measurements in the high-latitude landscapes involve challenging logistics and are networked on multidisciplinary and circum-arctic level by the Permafrost community. The International Permafrost Association (IPA) has built up the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) that is a network of the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) and the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) projects. A major part of the DUE PERMAFROST core User group is contributing to GTN-P. Additional members of these programs and circum-arctic networks have also been involved in the consulting process and ground data providing process. Match-up data sets of ground data and remote sensing products coincident in time and

  18. Generation of long-term time series of remote sensing data using ESA's GPOD system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio, M. A.; Colin, O.; Mathot, E.

    2009-04-01

    Several authors have shown that the analysis of time series of remote sensing data is able to characterize the properties of different earth systems. They have used different techniques, ARIMA, Fourier Analysis and others, to estimate cyclical and trend variations from the information stored in the time series. Most systems in earth cycle due to seasonal changes in the flow of energy and/or matter, ecosystems cycle due to seasonal changes in evapotranspiration, day length and temperature. Time series analysis can characterized the period, amplitude and offset of the cycle. Trend analysis, on the other hand, can be used to detect permanent changes in certain systems. Changes in sea surface temperature or the artic ice pack due to climate change would belong to this category. Performing this analysis requires data with a good temporal resolution, usually in the range of days and a good temporal extent, usually in the multiyear timescale. As a result users have to process a big set of satellite images, sometimes in the order of thousands, to extract the information required. This processing consumes a great amount of time and resources due to the big amount of data and computer power involved. To facilitate the generation of long-term time series of remote sensing data the European Space Agency has developed a system able to extract all the information available for a small area from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) onboard ENVISAT in an easily accessible format. This service allows the user to specify an area of interest of rectangular or circular shape giving its geographical location and its size, specify the period of time that he is interested in and obtain several files with all the information available from the MERIS sensor for this location. For each MERIS product the information is given in two formats. One is highly portable following the XML standard. Output is also given in Google Earth and Excel formats allowing for a fast and easy

  19. Come to Noyon (France) and follow the solar eclipse with ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-08-01

    ESA will feature a special exhibition stand where the public, amateurs and press can obtain information. During the partial eclipse phases, the latest images from ESA's solar observatory SOHO and from other European eclipse sites, coming via the Internet or traditional broadcast, will be shown on a large video screen. The magic of the total eclipse in Noyon will last 2 minutes and 11 seconds. ESA has set up a multi-site eclipse imaging campaign over Europe to capture a long eclipse sequence from the Atlantic, the UK, France (Noyon and Strasbourg), Germany, Austria/ Hungary (at an international camp of young astronomers) and Romania. High-definition still and video images of the eclipse will be available live on the Internet. Check our site http://sci.esa.int/eclipse99/ Noyon will also host a press briefing at the eclipse site Media Centre at 9h30-10h30, and again at 13h15-14h15, after the eclipse shadow has left Europe. Opportunities for interviews with ESA multi-language staff and other specialists will be possible after the eclipse. Over the week leading up to the eclipse, ESA representatives are also participating in press and public conferences. Daily press conferences are scheduled in Strasbourg at the France 3 Auditorium from 4 to 11 August at 16:00-18:00 hrs, in Paris at the Museum d'Histoire Naturelle from 5 -12 August (except 11 August) at 10:00-12:00 hrs, and in Stuttgart at the Science Fair, where an ESA/Max Plank Institute stand has also been set up.

  20. critcial human health issues in connection with future human missions to mMars: the HUMEX study of ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Humex Team

    ESA has recently initiated a study of the human responses, limits and needs with regard to the stress environments of interplanetary and planetary missions. Emphasis was laid on human health and performance care as well as Advanced Life Support Developments including Bioregenerative Life Support Systems and environmental monitoring. The overall study goals were as follows: (i) to define reference scenarios for a European participation in human exploration and to estimate their influence on the Life Sciences and Life Support requirements; (ii) for selected mission scenarios, to critically assess the limiting factors for human health, wellbeing, and performance and to recommend relevant countermeasures; (iii) for selected mission scenarios, to critically assess the potential of Advanced Life Support Developments and to pro-pose a European strategy including terrestrial applications; (iv) to critically assess the feasibility of existing facilities and technologies on ground and in space as test-beds in preparation for human exploratory missions and to develop a test plan for ground and ISS campaigns; (v) to develop a roadmap for a future European strategy towards human exploratory missions, including preparatory activities and terrestrial applications and benefits. Two scenarios for a Mars mission were selected: (i) with a 30 days stay on Mars, and (ii) with about 500 days stay on Mars. The impact on human health, perform-ance and well being has been investigated from the view point of (i) the effects of microgravity (during space travel), reduced gravity (on Mars) and abrupt gravity changes (during launch and landing), (ii) the effects of cosmic radiation including solar particle events, (iii) psychological issues as well as general health care. Coun-termeasures as well as necessary research using ground-based testbeds and/or the ISS have been defined. The need for highly intelligent autonomous diagnostic and therapy systems was emphasized. Advanced life support

  1. Results of the ESA study on psychological selection of astronaut applicants for Columbus missions I: Aptitude testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbender, Christoph; Goeters, Klaus-Martin

    European participation in the Space Station Freedom brought about new challenges for the psychological selection of astronaut candidates, particularly in respect to specific demands of long duration space flights. For this reason existing selection criteria and methods were reassessed. On these grounds a study was undertaken applying a unique composition of aptitude tests to a group of 97 ESA scientists and engineers who are highly comparable to the expected astronaut applicants with respect to age and education. The tests assessed operational aptitudes such as logical reasoning, memory function, perception, spatial orientation, attention, psychomotor function, and multiple task capacity. The study goals were: 1) Verification of psychometric qualities and applicability of tests in a normative group; 2) Search for culture-fair tests by which multi-national groups can be examined; 3) Identification of test methods which consider general and special operational demands of long duration space flights. Based on the empirical findings a test battery was arranged for use in the selection of ESA astronaut applicants. Results showed that 16 out of the 18 employed tests have good psychometric qualities and differentiate reliably in the special group of testees. The meta structure of the test battery as described by a factorial analysis is presented. Applicability of tests was generally high. Tests were culture-fair, however, a relation between English language skills and test results was identified. Since most item material was language-free, this was explained with the importance of English language skills for the understanding of test instructions. Solutions to this effect are suggested.

  2. Space Electron Density Gradient Studies using a 3D Embedded Reconfigurable Sounder and ESA/NASA CLUSTER Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper provides a direct comparison between data captured by a new embedded reconfigurable digital sounder, different ground-based ionospheric sounders spread around Europe and the ESA/NASA CLUSTER mission. The CLUSTER mission consists of four identical space probes flying in a formation that allows measurements of the electron density gradient in the local magnetic field. Both the ground-based and the spacecraft instrumentations assist in studying the motion, geometry and boundaries of the plasmasphere. The comparison results are in accordance to each other. Some slight deviations among the captured data were expected from the beginning of this investigation. These small discrepancies are reasonable and seriatim analyzed. The results of this research are significant, since the level of the plasma's ionization, which is related to the solar activity, dominates the propagation of electromagnetic waves through it. Similarly, unusually high solar activity presents serious hazards to orbiting satellites, spaceborne instrumentation, satellite communications and infrastructure located on the Earth's surface. Long-term collaborative study of the data is required to continue, in order to identify and determine the enhanced risk in advance. This would allow scientists to propose an immediate cure.

  3. Agency as a psychoanalytic idea.

    PubMed

    Caston, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Competent agency is a basic assumption of psychoanalytic change. Yet as an aspect of health, personal agency has in the main been only intuitively addressed and remains clinically unsystematized. Here experience-near and observer-centered criteria are developed that assess a person-as-agent's competence in particular domains. These ideas, clinically illustrated, stand as an operational framework that helps thinking and talking about agency in everyday clinical events and psychoanalytic outcomes. Three specific criteria are proposed: reversibility, self-observation, and appropriateness. The first is descriptively polar; together the three apply to each given context of action. They can also serve to ground future research. In this regard, several empirical psychoanalytic studies of adults and children that exemplify measurable aspects of agency are reviewed. Once clinical markers of personal agency are articulated, it will not be necessary to resolve the free will debate: pragmatically, we need only put such distinctions to work. PMID:21980137

  4. The technology management process at the European space agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmi, M.; Williams, E.; Groepper, P.; Lascar, S.

    2010-03-01

    Technology is developed at the European Space Agency (ESA) under several programmes: corporate and domain specific, mandatory and optional, with different time horizons and covering different levels of the TRL scale. To improve the transparency and efficiency of the complete process, it was felt necessary to establish an agreed end to end process for the management of all technology R&D activity that could: Include all ESA programmes and consider the requirements of European users Lead to coordinated multi-year work plan and yearly procurement plans Prepare and enable future European space programmes Be harmonized with national initiatives in Europe Thereby establishing the basis for a product policy to reduce risks to technology users, reduce costs and delays, and enhance industrial competitiveness and non-dependence. In response to the above needs, ESA has developed a technology management process called the ESA End-to-End process (E2E), from establishment of the strategy to the monitoring and evaluation of R&D results. In this paper, the complete process will be described in detail including a discussion on its strengths and limitations, and its links to the wider European Harmonization process. The paper will be concluded with the introduction of the ESA Technology Tree: a basic tool to structure and facilitate communication about technology issues.

  5. Staying in bed to benefit ESA's astronauts and Europe's citizens.

    PubMed

    Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Schmitt, Didier

    2003-02-01

    Since Yuri Gagarin's historic first flight into space in April 1961, it has quickly become evident that the space environment influences the human body in many different ways and causes it to adapt in ways that can lead to problems when returning to Earth's gravity. Much research has been performed in the meantime and our understanding of what happens to our bodies in space improved considerably during the Mir space station and Space Shuttle/Spacelab era. However, many questions, particularly regarding how to counteract those changes that we now know take place, still need to be addressed through studies on the International Space Station (ISS) and through simulations on the ground. As we enter an era in which crews will spend longer periods in space on the ISS and of longer term plans by almost every space-faring nation for missions to Mars, it is clear that much more knowledge is needed, and quickly. Although a few hundred men and women have already travelled into space, the operating environment severely limits the amount of systematic research that can be performed--a situation that is unlikely to change. Other avenues for addressing specific scientific questions in a controlled research environment must therefore be found. One of these complementary alternatives is head-down-tilt bed-rest studies in which volunteers are confined to beds that are tilted -6 deg below the horizontal at the head end. Every activity, including eating, reading, showering, etc., is performed in this position for the duration of the study. This leads to changes in the human body that are very similar to those seen during spaceflight, such as bone-mass and muscle-mass loss, cardiovascular and neuro-sensory deconditioning. The controlled bed-rest setting therefore allows meaningful research into the bodily consequences of spaceflight and possible countermeasures. It also gives the scientific community interested in space-related medical research more ready access to a clinical model

  6. GlobCorine- A Joint EEA-ESA Project for Operational Land Cover and Land Use Mapping at Pan-European Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontemps, S.; Defourny, P.; Van Bogaert, E.; Weber, J. L.; Arino, O.

    2010-12-01

    Regular and global land cover mapping contributes to evaluating the impact of human activities on the environment. Jointly supported by the European Space Agency and the European Environmental Agency, the GlobCorine project builds on the GlobCover findings and aims at making the full use of the MERIS time series for frequent land cover monitoring. The GlobCover automated classification approach has been tuned to the pan-European continent and adjusted towards a classification compatible with the Corine typology. The GlobCorine 2005 land cover map has been achieved, validated and made available to a broad- level stakeholder community from the ESA website. A first version of the GlobCorine 2009 map has also been produced, demonstrating the possibility for an operational production of frequent and updated global land cover maps.

  7. Results and Analysis of the ESA SSA Radar Tracking Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontdecaba Baig, Jordi; Martinerie, Francis; Sutter, Moise; Martinot, Vincent; Ameline, Patrick; Blazejczak, Eric; Fletcher, Emmet

    2013-08-01

    Following the decision at the Ministerial Council 2008 to initiate a Preparatory Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA), the European Space Agency started a series of activities together with industry, implementing both classical design approaches: bottom-up and top-down. For the Space Surveillance and Tracking segment of the programme, the bottom-up approach was initially addressed through various activities to evaluate the potential performance of contemporary European resources. One element of this investigation was the assessment of the existing European assets that can be used to generate tracking data on Earth orbiting objects at all altitudes between LEO and the GEO graveyard orbits. The study addressed both the technical performances of the assets and the identification of the operational constraints characteristic for each sensor. In this context, a paper was presented at the 2011 European Space Surveillance Conference in Madrid, Spain that discussed the results obtained using two existing European radars: EISCAT and Chilbolton. The emphasis of this new paper is to analyse the results obtained from a third asset: the BEM Monge, a measurement and test vessel of the French Navy operated for the French Direction Générale de l'Armement (DGA). The Monge's three primary radars were designed with the specific mission to detect and characterise the trajectory of missiles as part of France's national missile defence programme, however the radar on-board the Monge are also able to detect and track Earth-orbiting objects. Even though this role is not the primary one for the system, the achieved accuracy of the orbital tracks and resulting orbit determination is several orders of magnitude better than radars that have been developed for other uses. The evaluation carried out in the frame of the SSA programme helped demonstrate that the systems provided by the Monge are able to perform orbital tracking within the performance requirements of a federated SSA

  8. The ESA SMOS+SOS Project: Oceanography using SMOS for innovative air-sea exchange studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Chris; Gommenginger, Christine; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reul, Nicolas; Martin, Matthew; Ash, Ellis; Reverdin, Gilles; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    We report on the work plan of the SMOS+Surface Ocean Salinity and Synergy (SMOS+SOS) project. SMOS+SOS is funded through the Support to Science Element (STSE) component of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Earth Observation Envelope Programme. The SMOS+SOS consortium consists of four organisations namely the National Oceanography Centre (UK), the LOCEAN/IFREMER/CATDS research team (France), the Met Office (UK) and Satellite Oceanographic Consultants Ltd (UK). The end of the SMOS+SOS project will be marked by a final open workshop most likely hosted by the UK Met Office in September/October 2014. The project is concerned with demonstrating the performance and scientific value of SMOS Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) products through a number of well-defined case studies. The case studies include: Amazon/Orinoco plumes (freshwater outflow); Agulhas and Gulf Stream (strong water mass boundary); Tropical Pacific/Atlantic (strong precipitation regime); sub-tropical North Atlantic (ie SPURS; strong evaporative regime); and Equatorial Pacific (equatorial upwelling). With SMOS measuring the SSS in the top cm of the ocean, validating SMOS against in situ salinity data taken typically at a few meters depth introduces assumptions about the vertical structure of salinity in the upper ocean. To address these issues, the project will examine and quantify discrepancies between SMOS and in situ surface salinity data at various depths in different regions characterised by strong precipitation or evaporation regimes. Equally, data editing and spatio-temporal averaging play a central role in determining the quality, errors and correlations in SMOS SSS data. The project will explore various processing and spatio-temporal averaging choices to define the SMOS SSS products that best address the needs of the oceanographic and data assimilation user community. One key aspect of this project is to determine how one can achieve useful accuracy/uncertainty in SSS without jeopardising SMOS's ability

  9. European Space Agency announces contest to "Name the Cluster Quartet"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    1. Contest rules The European Space Agency (ESA) is launching a public competition to find the most suitable names for its four Cluster II space weather satellites. The quartet, which are currently known as flight models 5, 6, 7 and 8, are scheduled for launch from Baikonur Space Centre in Kazakhstan in June and July 2000. Professor Roger Bonnet, ESA Director of Science Programme, announced the competition for the first time to the European Delegations on the occasion of the Science Programme Committee (SPC) meeting held in Paris on 21-22 February 2000. The competition is open to people of all the ESA member states (*). Each entry should include a set of FOUR names (places, people, or things from history, mythology, or fiction, but NOT living persons). Contestants should also describe in a few sentences why their chosen names would be appropriate for the four Cluster II satellites. The winners will be those which are considered most suitable and relevant for the Cluster II mission. The names must not have been used before on space missions by ESA, other space organizations or individual countries. One winning entry per country will be selected to go to the Finals of the competition. The prize for each national winner will be an invitation to attend the first Cluster II launch event in mid-June 2000 with their family (4 persons) in a 3-day trip (including excursions to tourist sites) to one of these ESA establishments: ESRIN (near Rome, Italy): winners from France, Ireland, United Kingdom, Belgium. VILSPA (near Madrid, Spain): winners from The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland. ESTEC (near Amsterdam, The Netherlands): winners from Germany, Denmark, Switzerland, Austria. ESOC (in the Rhine Valley, Germany): winners from Italy, Spain , Portugal. During the first Cluster II launch event (June 2000) the chosen four names for the spacecraft will be announced. The grand prize will be: * a trip for the winner and family (4 people) to Paris where ESA's headquarters are

  10. 3D Vision on Mars: Stereo processing and visualizations for NASA and ESA rover missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) vision processing is an essential component of planetary rover mission planning and scientific data analysis. Standard ground vision processing products are digital terrain maps, panoramas, and virtual views of the environment. Such processing is currently developed for the PanCam instrument of ESA's ExoMars Rover mission by the PanCam 3D Vision Team under JOANNEUM RESEARCH coordination. Camera calibration, quality estimation of the expected results and the interfaces to other mission elements such as operations planning, rover navigation system and global Mars mapping are a specific focus of the current work. The main goals of the 3D Vision team in this context are: instrument design support & calibration processing: Development of 3D vision functionality Visualization: development of a 3D visualization tool for scientific data analysis. 3D reconstructions from stereo image data during the mission Support for 3D scientific exploitation to characterize the overall landscape geomorphology, processes, and the nature of the geologic record using the reconstructed 3D models. The developed processing framework PRoViP establishes an extensible framework for 3D vision processing in planetary robotic missions. Examples of processing products and capabilities are: Digital Terrain Models, Ortho images, 3D meshes, occlusion, solar illumination-, slope-, roughness-, and hazard-maps. Another important processing capability is the fusion of rover and orbiter based images with the support of multiple missions and sensors (e.g. MSL Mastcam stereo processing). For 3D visualization a tool called PRo3D has been developed to analyze and directly interpret digital outcrop models. Stereo image products derived from Mars rover data can be rendered in PRo3D, enabling the user to zoom, rotate and translate the generated 3D outcrop models. Interpretations can be digitized directly onto the 3D surface, and simple measurements of the outcrop and sedimentary features

  11. The ESA-NASA 'CHOICE' Study: Winterover at Concordia Station, Interior Antarctica, as an Analog for Spaceflight-Associated Immune Dysregu1ation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E,; Feuerecker, M.; Salam, A. P.; Rybka, A.; Stowe, R. P.; Morrels, M.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Quintens, Roel; Thieme, U.; Kaufmann, I.; Baatout, D. S.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.; Chouker, A.

    2011-01-01

    For ground-based space physiological research, the choice of analog must carefully match the system of interest. Antarctica winter-over at the European Concordia Station is potentially a ground-analog for spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID). Concordia missions consist of prolonged durations in an extreme/dangerous environment, station-based habitation, isolation, disrupted circadian rhythms and international crews. The ESA-NASA CHOICE study assess innate and adaptive immunity, viral reactivataion and stress factors during Concordia winter-over deployment. To date, not all samples have been analyzed. Here, only data will be preliminary presented for those parameters where sample/data analysis is completed (i.e., Leukocyte subsets, T cell function, and intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles.)

  12. 34 CFR 300.33 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., ESAs, nonprofit public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA, and any other political subdivisions of the State that are responsible...

  13. 34 CFR 300.33 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., ESAs, nonprofit public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA, and any other political subdivisions of the State that are responsible...

  14. 34 CFR 300.33 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ESAs, nonprofit public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA, and any other political subdivisions of the State that are responsible...

  15. 34 CFR 300.33 - Public agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., ESAs, nonprofit public charter schools that are not otherwise included as LEAs or ESAs and are not a school of an LEA or ESA, and any other political subdivisions of the State that are responsible...

  16. Upgrade of DRAMA-ESA's Space Debris Mitigation Analysis Tool Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelhaus, Johannes; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Braun, Vitali; Kebschull, Christopher; de Oliveira, Joaquim Correia; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Raul; Wiedemann, Carsten; Krag, Holger; Vorsmann, Peter

    2013-08-01

    One decade ago ESA started the dev elopment of the first version of the software tool called DRAMA (Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis) to enable ESA space programs to assess their compliance with the recommendations in the European Code of Conduct for Space Debris Mitigation. This tool was maintained, upgraded and extended during the last year and is now a combination of five individual tools, each addressing a different aspect of debris mitigation. This paper gives an overview of the new DRAMA software in general. Both, the main tools ARES, OSCAR, MIDAS, CROC and SARA will be discussed and the environment used by DRAMA will be explained shortly.

  17. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; de Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  18. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  19. 78 FR 55694 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming AGENCY... review of the draft research report titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near...

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues (ESA 1997)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ESA

    1997-02-01

    The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues are the primary products of the European Space Agency's astrometric mission, Hipparcos. The satellite, which operated for four years, returned high quality scientific data from November 1989 to March 1993. Each of the catalogues contains a large quantity of very high quality astrometric and photometric data. In addition there are associated annexes featuring variability and double/multiple star data, and solar system astrometric and photometric measurements. In the case of the Hipparcos Catalogue, the principal parts are provided in both printed and machine-readable form (on CDROM). In the case of the Tycho Catalogue, results are provided in machine-readable form only (on CDROM). Although in general only the final reduced and calibrated astrometric and photometric data are provided, some auxiliary files containing results from intermediate stages of the data processing, of relevance for the more-specialised user, have also been retained for publication. (Some, but not all, data files are available from the Centre de Donnees astronomiques de Strasbourg.) The global data analysis tasks, proceeding from nearly 1000 Gbit of raw satellite data to the final catalogues, was a lengthy and complex process, and was undertaken by the NDAC and FAST Consortia, together responsible for the production of the Hipparcos Catalogue, and the Tycho Consortium, responsible for the production of the Tycho Catalogue. A fourth scientific consortium, the INCA Consortium, was responsible for the construction of the Hipparcos observing programme, compiling the best-available data for the selected stars before launch into the Hipparcos Input Catalogue. The production of the Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues marks the formal end of the involvement in the mission by the European Space Agency and the four scientific consortia. For more complete and detailed information on the data, the user is advised to refer to Volume 1 ("Introduction and Guide to the Data", ESA

  1. Earth Observation in aid of surge monitoring and forecasting: ESA's eSurge Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Phillip; Cipollini, Paolo; Snaith, Helen; Høyer, Jacob; Dwyer, Ned; Dunne, Declan; Stoffelen, Ad; Donlon, Craig

    2013-04-01

    The understanding and realistic modelling of surges supports both preparation and mitigation activities and should eventually bring enormous societal benefits, especially to some of the world's poorest countries. Earth Observation data from satellites have an important role to play in storm surge monitoring and forecasting, but the full uptake of these data by the users (such as environmental agencies and tidal prediction centres) must be first encouraged by showcasing their usefulness, and then supported by providing easy access. The European Space Agency has recognized the above needs and, through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, has initiated in 2011 the eSurge project, whose aims are: a) to contribute through Earth Observation to an integrated approach to storm surge, wave, sea-level and flood forecasting as part of a wider optimal strategy for building an improved forecast and warning capability for coastal inundation; and b) to increase the use of the advanced capabilities of ESA and other satellite data for storm surge applications. The project is led by Logica UK, with NOC (UK), DMI (Denmark), CMRC (Ireland) and KNMI (Netherlands) as scientific partners. eSurge aims to provide easy access to a wide range of relevant data for a range of historical surge events, as well as performing a series of experiments to demonstrate the value of this data, and running workshops and training courses to help users make use of the available data. The eSurge database of Earth Observation and in situ measurements for past surge events is now publicly available. In 2013 the project moves into its service demonstration phase, adding more data and events, including a demonstration near real time service. The project works closely with its users in order to meet their needs and to maximise the return of this data. A novel dataset provided by eSurge is coastal altimetry. Coastal altimetry has a prominent role to play as it measures directly the total water level envelope

  2. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; Ballentine, C. J.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Slater, G.; Moser, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  3. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Mavris, C.; Michalski, J. R.; Rumsey, M. S.; Russell, S. S.; Jones, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  4. NEOSTEL: the telescope detail design program for the ESA optical ground network dedicated to NEO discovery and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibin, L.; Chiarini, M.; Bernardi, F.; Ragazzoni, R.; Salinari, P.

    The Fly-Eye architecture applied for a Space Debris and NEO Surveillance and Tracking optical telescope has been originally proposed by CGS and further refined in the framework of the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Program studies. The high level architecture of a Telescope based on the Fly-Eye concept has been defined in the TELAD Study. Following TELAD conceptual design, the activities of NEOSTEL aim now at generating the Detailed Design of a NEO Survey Telescope based on the Fly-Eye concept. All components of the telescope are designed at detailed level to satisfy the specific requirements for the Survey and Follow Up of the Near Earth Objects. The NEO Survey Telescope detailed design generated under this Program will be directly utilized for the manufacturing of the first prototype, planned to be launched by the SSA Program in the second half of 2015. In addition, the result of the Detailed Design will produce the documentation necessary to prepare the future site that will host the NEO Survey Telescope prototype as well as the high level architecture of the data processing SW that will be required at the telescope site. The product of the prototypation activity will then constitute a full Italian key Optical Core Technology, dedicated to the NEO thematic but also extendable to the SST Segment, therefore offering possibility of application both at Civil and at Institutional level. Furthermore the Fly-Eye Telescope Technology can actively collaborate with a dedicated Space Segment, opening the way to a complete and autonomous EU System.

  5. Engineering the esaR promoter for tunable quorum sensing- dependent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shong, Jasmine; Collins, Cynthia H

    2013-10-18

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems enable bacteria to coordinate their behavior as a function of local population density and are often used in synthetic systems that require cell−cell communication. We have engineered the esaR promoter, P(esaR), which is repressed by the QS regulator E(saR). E(saR)-dependent gene expression from P(esaR) is induced by 3-oxo-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone (3OC6HSL). Here, we report a set of modified P(esaR) promoters that contain a second E(saR) binding site. We observed changes in gene expression levels, regulatory range, 3OC6HSL sensitivity, and the regulatory role of E(saR) that are dependent on the position of the second binding site. Combining the new promoters with endogenous 3OC6HSL production led to QS-dependent systems that exhibit a range of expression levels and timing. These promoters represent a new set of tools for modulating QS-dependent gene expression and may be used to tune the regulation of multiple genes in response to a single QS signal. PMID:23879176

  6. Lunar PanCam: Adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Schmitz, N.; Barnes, D. P.; Josset, J.-L.; Hancock, B. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Paar, G.; Bauer, A.; the PanCam Team

    2012-12-01

    A scientific camera system would provide valuable geological context from the surface for lunar lander missions. Here, we describe the PanCam instrument from the ESA ExoMars rover and its possible adaptation for the proposed ESA lunar lander. The scientific objectives of the ESA ExoMars rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The ExoMars PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for that mission. We describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, and atmospheric science, and 3D vision objectives. We also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench (OB) and electrical interface is provided via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). Additional hardware items include a PanCam Calibration Target (PCT). We also briefly discuss some PanCam testing during field trials. In addition, we examine how such a 'Lunar PanCam' could be adapted for use on the Lunar surface on the proposed ESA lunar lander.

  7. Solar Flare Prediction Science-to-Operations: the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Tziotziou, Konstantinos; Themelis, Konstantinos; Magiati, Margarita; Angelopoulou, Georgia

    2016-07-01

    We attempt a synoptical overview of the scientific origins of the Athens Effective Solar Flare Forecasting (A-EFFort) utility and the actions taken toward transitioning it into a pre-operational service of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. The preferred method for solar flare prediction, as well as key efforts to make it function in a fully automated environment by coupling calculations with near-realtime data-downloading protocols (from the Solar Dynamics Observatory [SDO] mission), pattern recognition (solar active-region identification) and optimization (magnetic connectivity by simulated annealing) will be highlighted. In addition, the entire validation process of the service will be described, with its results presented. We will conclude by stressing the need for across-the-board efforts and synergistic work in order to bring science of potentially limited/restricted interest into realizing a much broader impact and serving the best public interests. The above presentation was partially supported by the ESA/SSA SWE A-EFFort project, ESA Contract No. 4000111994/14/D/MRP. Special thanks go to the ESA Project Officers R. Keil, A. Glover, and J.-P. Luntama (ESOC), M. Bobra and C. Balmer of the SDO/HMI team at Stanford University, and M. Zoulias at the RCAAM of the Academy of Athens for valuable technical help.

  8. Exploring NASA and ESA Atmospheric Data Using GIOVANNI, the Online Visualization and Analysis Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    Giovanni, the NASA Goddard online visualization and analysis tool (http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov) allows users explore various atmospheric phenomena without learning remote sensing data formats and downloading voluminous data. Using NASA MODIS (Terra and Aqua) and ESA MERIS (ENVISAT) aerosol data as an example, we demonstrate Giovanni usage for online multi-sensor remote sensing data comparison and analysis.

  9. Korean Diaspora in the Age of Globalization: Early Study Abroad (ESA) College Students in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hee Young

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the unique experiences of international Korean college students in the Midwest who have gone through the early study abroad (ESA) period in the US during their formative secondary school education and the influence of the experiences into their college lives in the mega campus. Two overarching research questions are: 1) how do…

  10. Electrical signature analysis (ESA) developments at the Oak Ridge Diagnostics Applied Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.

    1995-07-01

    Since 1985, researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed and patented several novel signal conditioning and signature analysis methods that have exploited the intrinsic abilities of conventional electric motors and generators to act as transducers. By using simple nonintrusive sensors such as clamp-on current and voltage probes, these new diagnostic techniques provide an improved means of detecting small time-dependent load and speed variations generated anywhere within an electromechanical system and converting them into revealing signatures that can be used to detect equipment degradation and incipient failures. These developments have been grouped under the general name of electrical signature analysis (ESA) and together provide a breakthrough in the ability to detect, analyze, and correct unwanted changes in process conditions or the presence of abnormalities in electrical and electromechanical equipment. Typical diagnostic information provided by ESA is comparable to that provided by conventional vibration analysis in that both time waveform and frequency spectrum signatures may be produced. The primary benefit of ESA is that an extensive range of diagnostic information can be obtained from a single transducer that may be installed several hundred feet or more from the monitored device on its electrical lines supplying input power (e.g., to a motor) or carrying output power (e.g., from a generator); thus, ESA is truly remote and nonintrusive.

  11. GRC Ground Support Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SaintOnge, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The ISS Program is conducting an "ISS Research Academy' at JSC the first week of August 2010. This Academy will be a tutorial for new Users of the International Space Station, focused primarily on the new ISS National Laboratory and its members including Non-Profit Organizations, other government agencies and commercial users. Presentations on the on-orbit research facilities accommodations and capabilities will be made, as well as ground based hardware development, integration and test facilities and capabilities. This presentation describes the GRC Hardware development, test and laboratory facilities.

  12. ARIEL: Atmospheric Remote Sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large Survey. A proposal for the ESA Cosmic Vision M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, E.; Micela, G.; Ariel Team

    The Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey (ARIEL) is a proposal in response to the call for a Medium-size mission opportunity in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Science Programme for a launch in 2025 (M4). This mission will be devoted to observe spectroscopically in the IR a large population (hundreds to one thousand) of known planets in our Galaxy, opening a new discovery space in the field of extrasolar planet exploration and enabling a quantum leap in the understanding of the physics and chemistry of these far away worlds. The population of planets will include warm and hot gas‑giants, Neptunes and large terrestrial planets. The main ARIEL goal is the determination of the composition, formation and history of these planetary systems In order to fulfill the scientific goals of ARIEL, we propose the development of a 1‑meter class aperture space telescope, passively cooled to 70‑80K, to observe the combined light of stars and their planets, building on the current experience of transit and combined light observations with Hubble, Spitzer, and ground-based telescopes. While JWST and EELT will initiate a detailed mid- to high-resolution IR spectroscopic observation of a few tens of planets, this mission will extend the study to a much larger (an order of magnitude difference) representative population of extrasolar planets discovered by ESA GAIA, Cheops, PLATO, NASA Kepler II, TESS and from the ground. The statistical perspective provided by this mission, will allow us to address some of the fundamental questions of the Cosmic Vision programme: What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? ls our Solar System unique, rare or very common? How does the Solar System work?

  13. European Space Agency Campaign Activities in Support of Earth Observation Projects: Examples for Snow and Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüttemeyer, D.; Davidson, M.; Casal, T.; Perrera, A.; Bianchi, R.; Kern, M.; Scipal, K.

    2012-04-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out groundbased and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. Campaigns in support of future mission development have technological, geophysical and simulation objectives while exploitation projects need validation for the assessment of the quality of the earth observation products and of the service provision. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. For the different activities a rich variety of datasets has been recorded, are archived and users can access campaign data through the EOPI web portal [http://eopi.esa.int]. In 2005, ESA released a call for the next Earth Explorer Core Mission Ideas with the aim to select a 7th Earth Explorer (EE7) mission to be launched in the next decade. Twenty-four proposals were received and subject to detailed scientific and technical assessment. During the so-called Phase 0, six concepts were selected and further investigated. A down-selection was made after the User Consultation Meeting held in Lisbon, Portugal in January 2009. Three candidate mission concepts were selected for further feasibility phase (phase A) investigation. Each of the candidate missions are being elaborated through two parallel industrial

  14. ESA Data User Element DUE PERMAFROST Circumpolar Remote Sensing Service for Permafrost - Evaluation Case Studies and Intercomparison with Regional Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Birgit; Bartsch, Annett; Elger, Kirsten; Rinke, Annette; Matthes, Heidrun; Zhou, Xu; Klehmet, Katharina; Rockel, Burkhardt; Lantuit, Hugues; Duguay, Claude

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost is a subsurface phenomenon. However, monitoring from Earth Observation (EO) platforms can provide spatio-temporal data sets on permafrost-related indicators and quantities used in modelling and monitoring. The ESA Data User Element (DUE) Permafrost project (2009-2012) developed a suite of EO satellite-derived products: Land Surface Temperature (LST), Surface Soil Moisture (SSM), Surface Frozen and Thawed State (Freeze/Thaw), Terrain, Land Cover, and Surface Water. The satellite-derived products are weekly and monthly averages of the bio- and geophysical terrestrial parameters and static circum-Arctic maps. The final DUE Permafrost products cover the years 2007 to 2011, some products up to 2013, with a circum-Arctic coverage (north of 50°N). The products were released in 2012, and updated in 2013 and 2014. Further information is available at geo.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost/. The remote sensing service also supports the EU-FP7 funded project PAGE21 - Changing Permafrost in the Arctic and its Global Effects in the 21st Century (www.page21.eu). The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P), initiated by the International Permafrost Association (IPA), is the prime program concerned with monitoring of permafrost. It provides an important database for the evaluation of EO-derived products and climate and permafrost models. GTN-P ground data ranges from air-, ground-, and borehole temperature data to active layer monitoring, soil moisture measurements, and the description of landform and vegetation. The involvement of scientific stakeholders and the IPA, and the ongoing evaluation of the satellite-derived products make the DUE Permafrost products relevant to the scientific community. The Helmholtz Climate Initiative REKLIM (Regionale KlimaAnderungen/Regional Climate Change) is a climate research program where regional observations and process studies are coupled with model simulations (http://www.reklim.de/en/home/). ESA DUE Permafrost User workshops

  15. The Swarm Archiving Payload Data Facility, an Instance Configuration of the ESA Multi-Mission Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruin, B.; Martini, A.; Shanmugam, P.; Lopes, C.

    2015-04-01

    The Swarm mission consists of 3 satellites, each carrying an identical set of instruments. The scientific algorithms for processing are organized in 11 separate processing steps including automated product quality control. In total, the mission data consists of data products of several hundred distinct types from raw to level 2 product types and auxiliary data. The systematic production for Swarm within the ESA Archiving and Payload Data Facility (APDF) is performed up to level 2. The production up to L2 (CAT2-mature algorithm) is performed completely within the APDF. A separate systematic production chain from L1B to L2 (CAT1-evolving algorithm) is performed by an external facility (L2PS) with output files archived within the APDF as well. The APDF also performs re-processing exercises. Re-processing may start directly from the acquired data or from any other intermediate level resulting in the need for a refined product version and baseline management. Storage, dissemination and circulation functionality is configurable in the ESA generic multi-mission elements and does not require any software coding. The control of the production is more involved. While the interface towards the algorithmic entities is standardized due to the introduction of a generic IPF interface by ESA, the orchestration of the individual IPFs into the overall workflows is distinctly mission-specific and not as amenable to standardization. The ESA MMFI production management system provides extension points to integrate additional logical elements for the build-up of complex orchestrated workflows. These extension points have been used to inject the Swarm-specific production logic into the system. A noteworthy fact about the APDF is that the dissemination elements are hosted in a high bandwidth infrastructure procured as a managed service, thus affording users a considerable access bandwidth. This paper gives an overview of the Swarm APDF data flows. It describes the elements of the solution

  16. ESA Press Event: See Mars Express before its departure to the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    There will be ten participants: four ESA astronauts (Pedro Duque, Leopold Eyharts, Paolo Nespoli and Thomas Reiter), four Japanese astronauts from NASDA (Takao Doi, Koichi Wakata, Satoshi Furukawa and Aikihido Hoshide) and two NASA astronauts (Nicole Passonno Stott and Stephanie D. Wilson). The main objective of this training session is to prepare the astronauts for the tasks they will have to perform when the Japanese experiment module (JEM) and ESA's Columbus laboratory are docked with the core of the International Space Station over the years ahead. After completing their training and certification, the astronauts will be assigned to long-duration missions to the ISS. The advanced training at the EAC will focus on the Columbus systems and the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV). It will consist of 24 classroom lectures on the Columbus and ATV systems and 4 on payloads, and 2 sessions in the Columbus Trainer. Instructors are being provided by Astrium for the Columbus systems and Alenia Spazio for the ATV, with ESA/EAC staff as mentors for the Columbus payloads. The astronauts are scheduled to visit Astrium in Bremen on 30 August to get acquainted with the flight unit of the Columbus laboratory module currently undergoing integration. This group of astronauts started their advanced training in April 2001 at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC), Houston, where they attended a first course on the US segment of the International Space Station. This was followed by training on the JEM system at NASDA's Tsukuba Space Center, Japan, in December 2001 - January 2002 and additional training at the JSC in May 2002. At the beginning of next year the group will be returning to Tsukuba for training on Japanese payloads. Hands-on sessions on Columbus Payload Training Models are scheduled for the second half of 2003, again at ESA's European Astronaut Centre. On Thursday 5 September, between 16:30 and 18:30 hrs, the astronauts and other ESA specialists will be available for interviews

  17. A new CO2 and CH4 satellite-derived dataset from the GHG-CCI project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org/) is one of several projects of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). The goal of the CCI is to generate and deliver data sets of various satellite-derived Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) in line with GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) requirements. The "ECV Greenhouse Gases" (ECV GHG) is the global distribution of important climate relevant gases - specifically atmospheric CO2 and CH4 - with a quality sufficient to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. The main goal of GHG-CCI is to generate long-term highly accurate and precise time series of global near-surface sensitive satellite observations of CO2 and CH4. SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT are currently the two main satellite instruments used within this project as their spectral radiance observations in the near-infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum permit retrievals of CO2 and CH4 columns that are sensitive down to the Earth's surface and because multi-year time series can be derived from these data. In addition other satellite instruments such as IASI/METOP and MIPAS/ENVISAT are also used. In the presentation an overview about the latest data products will be given, which are part of a data set called Climate Research Data Package No. 3 (CRDP3). This data set is available free of charge from the GHG-CCI project website.

  18. Proteomic analysis of the quorum-sensing regulon in Pantoea stewartii and identification of direct targets of EsaR.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Stevens, Ann M

    2013-10-01

    The proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in maize when it colonizes the xylem and secretes large amounts of stewartan, an exopolysaccharide. The success of disease pathogenesis lies in the timing of bacterial virulence factor expression through the different stages of infection. Regulation is achieved through a quorum-sensing (QS) system consisting of the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, EsaI, and the transcription regulator EsaR. At low cell densities, EsaR represses transcription of itself and of rcsA, an activator of the stewartan biosynthesis operon; it also activates esaS, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA). Repression or activation ceases at high cell densities when EsaI synthesizes sufficient levels of the AHL ligand N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone to bind and inactivate EsaR. This study aims to identify other genes activated or repressed by EsaR during the QS response. Proteomic analysis identified a QS regulon of more than 30 proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of promoters of genes encoding differentially expressed proteins distinguished direct targets of EsaR from indirect targets. Additional quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and DNA footprinting analysis established that EsaR directly regulates the promoters of dkgA, glpF, and lrhA. The proteins encoded by dkgA, glpF, and lrhA are a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, glycerol facilitator, and transcriptional regulator of chemotaxis and motility, respectively, indicating a more global QS response in P. stewartii than previously recognized. PMID:23913428

  19. Proteomic Analysis of the Quorum-Sensing Regulon in Pantoea stewartii and Identification of Direct Targets of EsaR

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Revathy

    2013-01-01

    The proteobacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii causes Stewart's wilt disease in maize when it colonizes the xylem and secretes large amounts of stewartan, an exopolysaccharide. The success of disease pathogenesis lies in the timing of bacterial virulence factor expression through the different stages of infection. Regulation is achieved through a quorum-sensing (QS) system consisting of the acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) synthase, EsaI, and the transcription regulator EsaR. At low cell densities, EsaR represses transcription of itself and of rcsA, an activator of the stewartan biosynthesis operon; it also activates esaS, which encodes a small RNA (sRNA). Repression or activation ceases at high cell densities when EsaI synthesizes sufficient levels of the AHL ligand N-3-oxo-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone to bind and inactivate EsaR. This study aims to identify other genes activated or repressed by EsaR during the QS response. Proteomic analysis identified a QS regulon of more than 30 proteins. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays of promoters of genes encoding differentially expressed proteins distinguished direct targets of EsaR from indirect targets. Additional quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) and DNA footprinting analysis established that EsaR directly regulates the promoters of dkgA, glpF, and lrhA. The proteins encoded by dkgA, glpF, and lrhA are a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, glycerol facilitator, and transcriptional regulator of chemotaxis and motility, respectively, indicating a more global QS response in P. stewartii than previously recognized. PMID:23913428

  20. The design of Janus, the visible camera for the ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Corte, Vincenzo; Schmitz, Nicole; Castro, José Maria; Leese, Mark; Debei, Stefano; Magrin, Demetrio; Michalik, Harald

    2014-05-01

    The JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission was selected in May 2012 as the first Large mission in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission is aimed at an in-depth characterization of the Jovian system, with an operational phase of about 3.5 years. During the whole operational phase, JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) will acquire panchromatic and narrow-band images in the visible - NIR range of many targets within the Jovian system: the Galilean satellites surfaces and exospheres, Jupiter atmosphere, minor and irregular satellites, the ring system. After a long trade-off between different design solutions, based on performance requirements, mission design and constraints, the present JANUS design has been based on the following architectural choices detailed below. A catoptric telescope with excellent optical quality is coupled with a framing CMOS detector, avoiding any scan-ning mechanism or operational requirement on the S/C. The three mirror anastigmatic (TMA) off-axis design with F#=4.67 allows an MTF between 62% and 72% at Nyquist, with good straylight rejection. The detector is the CIS115 from e2v; it is a CMOS with a squared 7 micron pixel pitch and image format of 2000x1504. It performs a high readout rate of up to 40 Mpixel/s, high quantum efficiency and low readout noise and dark signal. Fine tuning of instrument parameters allows to perform both high resolution targeted observations and lower resolution global coverage of targets, as required to meet science objectives. The IFoV (Fieldo of View per pixel) is 15 microrad, al-lowing sampling of 7.5 m/pixel from 500 km and 15 km/pixel from 10E6 km, while the FoV is 1.72x1.29 deg. The acquisition parameters allow to cope with the many different observation requirements and conditions that JANUS will face. Design of the two electronics units (a proximity electronics controlling the detector and a main electronics controlling the instrument and the interfaces with

  1. N° 15-2000: ESA, CERN and ESO launch "Physics on Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! Beginning in February 2000, three major European research establishments [1] are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), with support from the European Union (EU). Other partners include the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, at CERN, Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge of physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries. "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European countries [2]. In each country, a dedicated National Steering Committee (NSC) is being formed which will be responsible for their own national programme. A list of contact addresses is attached below. "Physics on Stage" is based on a series of high-profile physics-related activities that will inform the European public in general, and European high school physics teachers and media representatives in particular

  2. Ground Zero.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozada, Marlene

    1998-01-01

    Many public school districts have adopted a policy of zero tolerance toward drug use, weapon possession, and sexual harassment on school grounds. Although a study by the National Center for Education Statistics reported no evidence that zero tolerance policies have lowered school crime rates, prominent education groups favor them. (JOW)

  3. Reanalysis of MIPAS ESA V6 CH4 and N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errera, Q.; Botek, E.; Christophe, Y.; Chabrillat, S.; Skachko, S.; Hegglin, Michaela; Menard, Richard; van Weele, Michiel

    2015-06-01

    This study describes reanalyses of MIPAS CH4 and N2 O observations by the Belgian Assimilation System for Chemical ObsErvations (BASCOE). Here, MIPAS ESA v6 at the optimized spectral resolution and from the nominal mode of observations have been assimilated. The study shows the added value of data assimilation in using the information of the averaging kernels as well as the information of the background error covariance matix. This allows the system to regularize the vertical distribution of CH4 and N2 O, which presents vertical oscillations in the MIPAS ESA observations. The reanalyses agree generally well with ACEFTS v3.5. Nevertheless, irrealistic time discontinuities that come from the assimilated data are found such that filtering/averaging of these reanalyses will be necessary.

  4. ESA's Toolboxes for Optical Earth Observation Data: BEAM, CHRIS-Box and the Glob-Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomferra, Norman; Peters, Marco; Quast, Ralf; Zuhlke, Marco; Danne, Olaf; Storm, Thomas; Brockmann, Carsten; Regner, Peter

    2010-12-01

    With the launch of ENVISAT in 2002 ESA started the development of the Basic AATSR and MERIS toolbox BEAM [1]. With the requirement to be an open platform for scientists and operational users as well as software developers, ESA laid the foundation for this sustainable and successful open source software development project. Today BEAM is a toolbox and development platform supporting a wide range of optical sensors for Earth Observation, including SMOS, CHRIS/Proba, Landsat/TM, AVNIR, PRISM, MODIS and AVHRR, and enables importing of generic formats such as Geo-TIFF and NetCDF. Widely known is the interactive Visualisation and Analysis Tool VISAT of the BEAM toolbox. On top of the various EO data sources, a wide range of tools and data processors have meanwhile been developed for BEAM.

  5. NEO follow-up, recovery and precovery campaigns at the ESA NEO Coordination Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Marco; Koschny, Detlef; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Perozzi, Ettore; Borgia, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) has been established within the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. Among its tasks are the coordination of observational activities and the distribution of up-to-date information on NEOs through its web portal. The Centre is directly involved in observational campaigns with various telescopes, including ESO's VLT and ESA's OGS telescope. We are also developing a network of collaborating observatories, with a variety of capabilities, which are alerted when an important observational opportunity arises. From a service perspective, the system hosted at the NEOCC collects information on NEOs produced by European services and makes it available to users, with a focus on objects with possible collisions with the Earth. Among the tools provided via our portal are the Risk List of all known NEOs with impact solutions, and the Priority List, which allows observers to identify NEOs in most urgent need of observations.

  6. Use of Data Denial Experiments to Evaluate ESA Forecast Sensitivity Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Zack, J; Natenberg, E J; Knowe, G V; Manobianco, J; Waight, K; Hanley, D; Kamath, C

    2011-09-13

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In this phase of the project the focus is on the Mid-Columbia Basin region which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area shown in Figure 1 that includes Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. The Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) approach uses data generated by a set (ensemble) of perturbed numerical weather prediction (NWP) simulations for a sample time period to statistically diagnose the sensitivity of a specified forecast variable (metric) for a target location to parameters at other locations and prior times referred to as the initial condition (IC) or state variables. The ESA approach was tested on the large-scale atmospheric prediction problem by Ancell and Hakim 2007 and Torn and Hakim 2008. ESA was adapted and applied at the mesoscale by Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) to the Tehachapi Pass, CA (warm and cools seasons) and Mid-Colombia Basin (warm season only) wind generation regions. In order to apply the ESA approach at the resolution needed at the mesoscale, Zack et al. (2010a, b, and c) developed the Multiple Observation Optimization Algorithm (MOOA). MOOA uses a multivariate regression on a few select IC parameters at one location to determine the incremental improvement of measuring multiple variables (representative of the IC parameters) at various locations. MOOA also determines how much information from each IC parameter contributes to the change in the metric variable at the target location. The Zack et al. studies (2010a, b, and c), demonstrated that forecast sensitivity can be characterized by well-defined, localized patterns for a number of IC variables such as 80-m

  7. Benefits of the Nephros Dual Stage Ultrafilter in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients: Evidence for Improved ESA Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Valeri, Anthony; Lee, Bobby; Duffy, John; Ferrer, Robin; Vilotta, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Installation of the Nephros Dual Stage Ultrafilter (DSU) added to a conventional hemodialysis unit to achieve ultrapure dialysate was tested in a group of 23 stable outpatients on chronic hemodialysis. Comparing the 6-month period prior to the installation of the filters (as baseline) to the 6-month period after the installation of the filters, we found a significant 40% reduction in the darbepoetin dose needed to maintain a stable hemoglobin level (p < 0.001). In addition, surrogate inflammatory markers, WBC count and serum albumin level, showed small but statistically significant improvements (p = 0.008 and p = 0.042, respectively). In conclusion, the use of the Nephros DSU to further reduce endotoxin exposure in chronic hemodialysis patients can result in improved erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) responsiveness and a lower ESA dose. PMID:26889475

  8. ESA's process for the identification and assessment of high-risk conjunction events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Klinkrad, Heiner

    ESA's Space Debris Office provides an operational service for the assessment of collision risks of ESA satellites. At present these are the ENVISAT and ERS-2 missions in low Earth orbits. If an upcoming high-risk conjunction event is predicted based on two-line element data from the US Space Surveillance Network, then own tracking data of the potential collider object are acquired to improve the knowledge of its orbit state. This improved knowledge of the error co-variances derived from the orbit determination process scales down the position error ellipsoid at conjunction epoch. Hence, for the same miss-distance, in most cases an avoidance manoeuvre can be suppressed with an acceptable residual risk. During the past years sophisticated stand-alone tools have been developed and maintained at ESA's Space Debris Office. The central tools for analysing conjunction events are the collision risk assessment software CRASS and the orbit determination software ODIN. ODIN is used to process tracking data and to determine orbits by least-squares fits to tracking data, or to pseudo-data in terms of osculating orbit states, which can for instance be derived from Two- Line Elements (TLE). On this basis, also estimates of TLE error co-variances can be established as input for initial collision risk assessments. During ESA's automated, routine conjunction event assessments, which are embedded in a daily process with 7-day predictions, the handling of high-risk events proved to be work-intensive. This shortcoming has been tackled by the implementation of a job scheduler, and of automated procedures to facilitate the processing of tracking data, the update of ephemeredes and covariances, and the update of conjunction geometries and collision risk figures. The application of the upgraded environment will be illustrated at the example of two recent conjunction events of ENVISAT with Russian Cosmos satellites.

  9. Mission Design for NASA's Inner Heliospheric Sentinels and ESA's Solar Orbiter Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, John; Folta, David; Marr, Greg; Rodriquez-Canabal, Jose; Conde, Rich; Guo, Yanping; Kelley, Jeff; Kirby, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This paper will document the mission design and mission analysis performed for NASA's Inner Heliospheric Sentinels (IHS) and ESA's Solar Orbiter (SolO) missions, which were conceived to be launched on separate expendable launch vehicles. This paper will also document recent efforts to analyze the possibility of launching the Inner Heliospheric Sentinels and Solar Orbiter missions using a single expendable launch vehicle, nominally an Atlas V 551.

  10. ESA/ESO collaboration to track potentially threatening near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainaut, O.; Koschny, D.; Micheli, M.

    2014-07-01

    A collaboration has been set up between ESA and ESO, within the global effort by the United Nations and its Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UN-COPUOS). The UN-COPUOS Action Team 14 put forward recommendations for an international response to the near-Earth-object (NEO) impact threat to form an International Asteroid Warning Network, which the UN General Assembly approved in October 2013. The NEO Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) aims to coordinate and combine information from different sources, and analyse them to predict possible impacts with the Earth, and assess danger, and analyse possible mitigations, including the deflection of a menacing asteroid. With the VLT, ESO's capabilities to observe very faint (but still threatening) NEOs complement ESA's efforts to discover and track these objects. The ESA/ESO campaign focuses on faint objects, with a high value on the Palermo scale, which cannot be observed with smaller telescopes, and on recently discovered NEOs, which are rapidly fading below the detection threshold for smaller telescopes before their orbit can be secured. Technically, the campaign is implemented as a 'Target of Opportunity'' program, in which observations can be queued on VLT's UT1 with FORS at short notice. The first observations targeted 2009 FD, which had been ranked among the top five objects on the NEODyS Risk List. The VLT observations, processed by the European NEODyS system and the JPL-based Sentry system, decreased its Palermo index from -1.8 to -2.6. The campaign currently has a telescope time credit corresponding to 15--20 recoveries per year.

  11. Towards a Cooperation Between the Arts, Space Science Research and the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, Anna Barbara; Waldvogel, Christian; Kotler, J. Michelle; Pell, Sarah Jane; Peljhan, Marko

    2013-02-01

    The arts offer alternative insights into reality — which is explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency (ESA) and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts & Sciences (ETTAS), held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop cooperations between the arts, sciences and ESA to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication, which would aim to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space related channels. The preliminary findings and consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration.

  12. The Greenhouse Gas Project Of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): Phase 1 Achievements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Aben, I.; Armante, R.; Bergamaschi, P.; Blumenstock, T.; Bovensmann, H.; Brunner, D.; Buchmann, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Chevallier, F.; Crevoisier, C. D.; Detmers, R.; Deutcher, N.; Dils, B.; Frankenberg, C.; Guerlet, S.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Heymann, J.; Kaminski, T.; Laeng, A.; Lichtenberg, G.; De Maziere, M.; Noel, S.; Notholt, J.; Parker, R.; Scholze, M.; Sussmann, R.; Stiller, G. P.; Warneke, T.; Zehner, C.

    2013-12-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org) is one of several projects of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (CCI, http://www.esa-cci.org/), which delivers data sets of various Essential Climate Variables (ECVs). The goal of GHG-CCI is to generate global satellite-derived data sets of the two important anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) with a quality as needed to derive information on regional CO2 and CH4 surface sources and sinks. A good understanding of GHG sources and sinks is a pre-requisite for reliable climate prediction. The GHG-CCI core ECV data products are near-surface sensitive column-averaged dry air mole fractions of CO2 and CH4, denoted XCO2 and XCH4, retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and TANSO- FTS/GOSAT. Other satellite instruments such as IASI and MIPAS are also used as they provide additional information about the two GHGs. Here we present an overview of Phase 1 of the GHG-CCI project (Sept.2010 - Dec.2013), focusing on scientific achievements and on the “Climate Research Data Package” (CRDP), which is the first version of the ECV GHG data base.

  13. ESA's Spaceborne Lidar Mission ADM-Aeolus; Recent Achievements and Preparations for Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grete Straume, Anne; Elfving, Anders; Wernham, Denny; Culoma, Alain; Mondin, Linda; de Bruin, Frank; Kanitz, Thomas; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Buscaglione, Fabio; Dehn, Angelika

    2016-06-01

    Within ESA's Living Planet Programme, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM-Aeolus) was chosen as the second Earth Explorer Core mission in 1999. It shall demonstrate the potential of high spectral resolution Doppler Wind lidars for operational measurements of wind profiles and their use in Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP). Spin-off products are profiles of cloud and aerosol optical properties. ADM-Aeolus carries the novel Doppler Wind lidar instrument ALADIN. Recently the two ALADIN laser transmitters were successfully qualified and delivered for further instrument integration. The instrument delivery will follow later this year and the satellite qualification and launch readiness is scheduled for 2016. In February 2015, an Aeolus Science and Calibration and Validation (CAL/VAL) Workshop was held in ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Italy, bringing industry, the user community and ESA together to prepare for the Aeolus Commissioning and Operational Phases. During the Workshop the science, instrument and product status, commissioning phase planning and the extensive number of proposals submitted in response to the Aeolus CAL/VAL call in 2014 were presented and discussed. A special session was dedicated to the Aeolus CAL/VAL Implementation Plan. In this paper, the Aeolus mission, status and launch preparation activities are described.

  14. A unified future for ground and space optical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilston, Steven

    2005-08-01

    We view broadly the science and technology drivers for both space and ground optical telescopes, in order to identify the unique capabilities and limitations in each domain. This leads us to consider the potential for effective "divisions of labor" and synergies to enhance scientific value. We project the influence of new enabling technologies, human priorities, international collaboration issues, and funding expectations. Finally, we discuss current NASA and ESA optical astronomy mission goals, and speculate on long-term forecasts.

  15. Structure/function analysis of the Pantoea stewartii quorum-sensing regulator EsaR as an activator of transcription.

    PubMed

    Schu, Daniel J; Carlier, Aurelien L; Jamison, Katherine P; von Bodman, Susanne; Stevens, Ann M

    2009-12-01

    In Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, two regulatory proteins are key to the process of cell-cell communication known as quorum sensing: the LuxI and LuxR homologues EsaI and EsaR. Most LuxR homologues function as activators of transcription in the presence of their cognate acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) signal. However, EsaR was initially found to function as a repressor in the absence of AHL. Previous studies demonstrated that, in the absence of AHL, EsaR retains the ability to function as a weak activator of the lux operon in recombinant Escherichia coli. Here it is shown that both the N-terminal and the C-terminal domains of EsaR are necessary for positive regulation. A site-directed mutagenesis study, guided by homology modeling to LuxR and TraR, has revealed three critical residues in EsaR that are involved in activation of RNA polymerase. In addition, a native EsaR-activated promoter has been identified, which controls expression of a putative regulatory sRNA in P. stewartii. PMID:19820098

  16. Transcriptome-based analysis of the Pantoea stewartii quorum-sensing regulon and identification of EsaR direct targets.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Burke, Alison Kernell; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick V; Stevens, Ann M

    2014-09-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a proteobacterium that causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn plants. The bacteria form a biofilm in the xylem of infected plants and produce capsule that blocks water transport, eventually causing wilt. At low cell densities, the quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory protein EsaR is known to directly repress expression of esaR itself as well as the genes for the capsular synthesis operon transcription regulator, rcsA, and a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, dkgA. It simultaneously directly activates expression of genes for a putative small RNA, esaS, the glycerol utilization operon, glpFKX, and another transcriptional regulator, lrhA. At high bacterial cell densities, all of this regulation is relieved when EsaR binds an acylated homoserine lactone signal, which is synthesized constitutively over growth. QS-dependent gene expression is critical for the establishment of disease in the plant. However, the identity of the full set of genes controlled by EsaR/QS is unknown. A proteomic approach previously identified around 30 proteins in the QS regulon. In this study, a whole-transcriptome, next-generation sequencing analysis of rRNA-depleted RNA from QS-proficient and -deficient P. stewartii strains was performed to identify additional targets of EsaR. EsaR-dependent transcriptional regulation of a subset of differentially expressed genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that EsaR directly bound 10 newly identified target promoters. Overall, the QS regulon of P. stewartii orchestrates three major physiological responses: capsule and cell envelope biosynthesis, surface motility and adhesion, and stress response. PMID:25015891

  17. Transcriptome-Based Analysis of the Pantoea stewartii Quorum-Sensing Regulon and Identification of EsaR Direct Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Revathy; Burke, Alison Kernell; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick V.

    2014-01-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii is a proteobacterium that causes Stewart's wilt disease in corn plants. The bacteria form a biofilm in the xylem of infected plants and produce capsule that blocks water transport, eventually causing wilt. At low cell densities, the quorum-sensing (QS) regulatory protein EsaR is known to directly repress expression of esaR itself as well as the genes for the capsular synthesis operon transcription regulator, rcsA, and a 2,5-diketogluconate reductase, dkgA. It simultaneously directly activates expression of genes for a putative small RNA, esaS, the glycerol utilization operon, glpFKX, and another transcriptional regulator, lrhA. At high bacterial cell densities, all of this regulation is relieved when EsaR binds an acylated homoserine lactone signal, which is synthesized constitutively over growth. QS-dependent gene expression is critical for the establishment of disease in the plant. However, the identity of the full set of genes controlled by EsaR/QS is unknown. A proteomic approach previously identified around 30 proteins in the QS regulon. In this study, a whole-transcriptome, next-generation sequencing analysis of rRNA-depleted RNA from QS-proficient and -deficient P. stewartii strains was performed to identify additional targets of EsaR. EsaR-dependent transcriptional regulation of a subset of differentially expressed genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that EsaR directly bound 10 newly identified target promoters. Overall, the QS regulon of P. stewartii orchestrates three major physiological responses: capsule and cell envelope biosynthesis, surface motility and adhesion, and stress response. PMID:25015891

  18. ESA Science Media Day: Rosetta and Integral getting ready for launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    Media representatives are invited to ESTEC on Tuesday 18 June to learn about these two missions. Professor David Southwood, ESA Director of Science, ESA project managers and project scientists, together with industry representatives, will be giving presentations and be on hand for interviews. Visits to the spacecraft in their test environment will also be included. Representatives of the media wishing to attend this media day at ESA/ESTEC on 18 June are kindly requested to complete the attached accreditation form and fax it to: Heidi Graf, Head of Corporate Communication Office - ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands - (Tel. +31(0) 71.565.3006 - Fax. +31(0)71.565.5728). Note for editors: The mission goal for the Rosetta spacecraft is a rendezvous with Comet Wirtanen in 2011. Rosetta will be launched in January 2003 by an Ariane-5 from Kourou, French Guiana. On its eight-year journey to the Comet, the spacecraft will pass close to two asteroids, before studying the nucleus of Comet Wirtanen and its environment in great detail for a period of nearly two years (2011-2013). The spacecraft will also carry a lander to the nucleus and deploy it on the comet's surface. The lander science will focus on in situ study of the composition and structure of the nucleus material. The mission will make an unparalleled study of cometary material and reveal much about how the solar system formed. Integral will have the task of tracking gamma radiation across the entire sky. ESA's International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, Integral, will gather gamma rays, the most energetic radiation that comes from space. The spacecraft is scheduled for launch on 17 October this year, from Baikonur, on board a Russian Proton launcher and will help solve some of the biggest mysteries in astronomy. Integral will be the most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched. It will detect radiation from the most violent events far away and yet at the same time give evidence of the processes that

  19. CO2 Emissions from Air Travel by AGU and ESA Conference Attendees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, B.; Plug, L. J.

    2003-12-01

    Air travel by scientists is one contributor to rising concentrations of CO2 and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. To assess the magnitude of this contribution in per-capita and overall terms, we calculated emissions derived from air travel for two major scientific conferences held in 2002: the western meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco and the Ecological Society of America meeting in Tucson (ESA). Round trip travel distance for sampled attendees is 7971 +/- 6968 km (1 sigma range given, n=337) for AGU and 5452 +/- 5664 km for ESA (n=263), conservatively assuming great circle routes were followed. Using accepted CO2 production rates for commercial aircraft, mean AGU emissions are 1.3 tonnes per attendee and 12351 tonnes total and for ESA 0.9 tonnes per attendee and 3140 tonnes total. Although small compared to total anthropogenic emissions (2.275 x 1010 tonnes y-1 in 1999), per attendee emissions are significant compared to annual per-capita emissions; CO2 emission per AGU and ESA attendee exceeds the per capita annual emission of 42% and 19% of Earth's population, respectively. Per attendee AGU emissions are ≈6% of U.S. and ≈14% of British and Japanese per capita annual emission. Relocation of AGU and ESA to cities which minimize travel distances, Denver and Omaha respectively, would result in modest emission reductions of 8% and 14% (assuming 2002 attendee composition). To form a preliminary estimate of annual CO2 emissions for scientists in academia, we surveyed Earth Science faculty at our home institution. Mean annual air travel distance for professional activities was 38064 km y-1 (7 respondents). The consequent release of 6.1 tonnes y-1 of CO2 is 30% of annual per capita emissions in North America, and exceeds global per capita average of 4 tonnes y-1 by 150%. Society and the environment often benefit from scientific enquiry which is facilitated by travel. These benefits, however, might be balanced against the

  20. Priorities in national space strategies and governance of the member states of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adriaensen, Maarten; Giannopapa, Christina; Sagath, Daniel; Papastefanou, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has twenty Member States with a variety of strategic priorities and governance structures regarding their space activities. A number of countries engage in space activities exclusively though ESA, while others have also their own national space programme. Some consider ESA as their prime space agency and others have additionally their own national agency with respective programmes. The main objective of this paper is to provide an up-to date overview and a holistic assessment of strategic priorities and the national space governance structures in 20 ESA Member States. This analysis and assessment has been conducted by analysing the Member States public documents, information provided at ESA workshop on this topic and though unstructured interviews. The paper is structured to include two main elements: priorities and trends in national space strategies and space governance in ESA Member States. The first part of this paper focuses on the content and analysis of the national space strategies and indicates the main priorities and trends in Member States. The priorities are categorised with regards to technology domains, the role of space in the areas of sustainability and the motivators that boost engagement in space. These vary from one Member State to another and include with different levels of engagement in technology domains amongst others: science and exploration, navigation, Earth observation, human space flight, launchers, telecommunications, and integrated applications. Member States allocate a different role of space as enabling tool adding to the advancement of sustainability areas including: security, resources, environment and climate change, transport and communication, energy, and knowledge and education. The motivators motivating reasoning which enhances or hinders space engagement also differs. The motivators identified are industrial competitiveness, job creation, technology development and transfer, social benefits

  1. Second space Christmas for ESA: Huygens to begin its final journey to Titan/ Media activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    At 1.25 billion km from Earth, after a 7-year journey through the Solar system, ESA’s Huygens probe is about to separate from the Cassini orbiter to enter a ballistic trajectory toward Titan, the largest and most mysterious moon of Saturn, in order to dive into its atmosphere on 14 January. This will be the first man-made object to explore in-situ this unique environment, whose chemistry is assumed to be very similar to that of the early Earth just before life began, 3.8 billion years ago. The Cassini-Huygens pair, a joint mission conducted by NASA, ESA and the Italian space agency (ASI), was launched into space on 15 October 1997. With the help of several gravity assist manoeuvres during flybys of Venus, Earth and Jupiter, it took almost 7 years for the spacecraft to reach Saturn. The Cassini orbiter, carrying Huygens on its flank, entered an orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004, and began to investigate the ringed planet and its moons for a mission that will last at least four years. The first distant flyby of Titan took place on 2-3 July 2004. It provided data on Titan's atmosphere which were confirmed by the data obtained during the first close flyby on 26 October 2004 at an altitude of 1174 km. These data were used to validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. A second close flyby of Titan by Cassini-Huygens at an altitude of 1200 km is scheduled on 13 December and will provide additional data to further validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. On 17 December the orbiter will be placed on a controlled collision course with Titan in order to release Huygens on the proper trajectory, and on 21 December (some dates and times are subject to minor adjustment for operational reasons, except the entry time on 14 January which is know to within an accuracy of under 2 minutes) all systems will be set up for separation and the Huygens timers will be set to wake the probe a few hours before its arrival at Titan. The Huygens probe is due to separate on

  2. Major forest changes and land cover transitions based on plant functional types derived from the ESA CCI Land Cover product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Ciais, Philippe; MacBean, Natasha; Peng, Shushi; Defourny, Pierre; Bontemps, Sophie

    2016-05-01

    Land use and land cover change are of prime concern due to their impacts on CO2 emissions, climate change and ecological services. New global land cover products at 300 m resolution from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative Land Cover (CCI LC) project for epochs centered around 2000, 2005 and 2010 were analyzed to investigate forest area change and land cover transitions. Plant functional types (PFTs) fractions were derived from these land cover products according to a conversion table. The gross global forest loss between 2000 and 2010 is 172,171 km2, accounting for 0.6% of the global forest area in year 2000. The forest changes are mainly distributed in tropical areas such as Brazil and Indonesia. Forest gains were only observed between 2005 and 2010 with a global area of 9844 km2, mostly from crops in Southeast Asia and South America. The predominant PFT transition is deforestation from forest to crop, accounting for four-fifths of the total increase of cropland area between 2000 and 2010. The transitions from forest to bare soil, shrub, and grass also contributed strongly to the total areal change in PFTs. Different PFT transition matrices and composition patterns were found in different regions. The highest fractions of forest to bare soil transitions were found in the United States and Canada, reflecting forest management practices. Most of the degradation from grassland and shrubland to bare soil occurred in boreal regions. The areal percentage of forest loss and land cover transitions generally decreased from 2000-2005 to 2005-2010. Different data sources and uncertainty in the conversion factors (converting from original LC classes to PFTs) contribute to the discrepancy in the values of change in absolute forest area.

  3. Limits to ground control in autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wan, Alfred D. M.; Braspenning, Peter J.; Vreeswijk, Gerrard A. W.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the autonomy concept used by ESA and NASA is critically evaluated. Moreover, a more proper ground control/spacecraft organizational structure is proposed on the basis of a new, more elaborated concept of autonomy. In an extended theoretical discussion its definitional properties and functionalities are established. The rather basic property of adaptivity leads to the categorization of behaviour into the modes of satisfaction and avoidance behaviour. However, the autonomy property with the most profound consequences is goal-robustness. The mechanism that implements goal-robustness tests newly generated goals and externally received goals on consistency with high-level goals. If goals appear not to be good instantiations or more acceptable replacements of existing goals, they are rejected. This means that ground control has to cooperate with the spacecraft instead of (intermittently) commanding it.

  4. Exploring Cold Trapped Volatiles from Stationary Landers and Mobile Rovers: ESA Activities for Resource Prospecting at the Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Aziz, S.; Houdou, B.

    2015-10-01

    An overview of ESA activities in the area of measuring cold trapped volatiles in-situ, including the PROSPECT package for the Russian Luna-27 mission and the development of mobile platform capabilities that could be applied to future missions.

  5. ESA's Mercury mission named BepiColombo in honour of a space pioneer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-09-01

    The mission to Mercury, now named after Prof. Colombo, is one of ESA's science programme "cornerstones". In the course of the comprehensive Horizon 2000 Plus review of the programme five years ago, it was identified by Europe's space scientists as one of the most challenging long-term planetary projects. Mercury is the least known of the inner planets. Its orbit close to the Sun makes it difficult to observe from a distance and hard to reach by spaceflight. As a result, big questions raised by the Mariner 10 flybys of a quarter of a century ago remain unanswered. "I am very pleased we have given the name of BepiColombo to our Mercury cornerstone. Bepi was a great scientist, a great European and a great friend; we could do no better than name one of our most challenging and imaginative missions after him" said Roger Bonnet, Director of ESA Science Programme. Scientists cannot claim to fully understand the origin and history of the Earth itself until they can make sense of Mercury. Why is the planet surprisingly dense ? Where does its magnetic field come from ? What were the effects of massive collisions suffered by Mercury, apparent in shattered zones seen by Mariner 10 ? Is Mercury geologically active ? How does its close proximity to the Sun affect its surface, its tenuous atmosphere and the small magnetic bubble, or magnetosphere, which surrounds it ? BepiColombo will seek the answers to these and other questions with three separate sets of scientific instruments. According to preliminary studies completed in April 1999, a Planetary Orbiter will examine the planet from an orbit over the poles, using two cameras and half a dozen other remote-sensing instruments. Seven detectors in a smaller Magnetospheric Orbiter will observe Mercury's magnetic field and its interactions with the solar wind. A Surface Element dropped by BepiColombo will land near one of the poles of Mercury, where the temperature is milder. Here the instruments will include a camera, a seismometer

  6. The ESA SSA NEO Coordination Centre contribution to NEO hazard monitoring and observational campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, Marco; Borgia, Barbara; Drolshagen, Gerhard; Koschny, Detlef; Perozzi, Ettore

    2015-08-01

    The NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) has recently been established in Frascati, near Rome, within the framework of the ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Programme. Among its tasks is the coordination of observational activities related to the NEO hazard, and the distribution of relevant and up-to-date information on NEOs to both the scientific community and general users through its web portal (http://neo.ssa.esa.int).On the observational side, the NEOCC is linked to an increasingly large worldwide network of collaborating observatories, ranging from amateurs observers to large professional telescopes. The Centre organizes observation campaigns, alerting the network to suggest urgent or high-priority observations, and providing them with observational support.The NEOCC is also directly obtaining astrometric observations of high-priority targets, especially Virtual Impactors (VIs), on challenging objects as faint as magnitude 26.5, thanks to successful collaborations with ESO VLT in Chile and the INAF-sponsored LBT in Arizona. In addition, the Centre carries out regular monthly runs dedicated to NEO follow-up, recovery and survey activities with the 1-meter ESA OGS telescope in Tenerife.From a service perspective, the NEO System hosted at the NEOCC collects data and information on NEOs produced by various European services (e.g. NEODyS, EARN) and makes them available to a variety of users, with a particular focus on objects with possible collision solutions with the Earth. Among the tools provided through the web portal are the Risk List (a table of all known NEOs with impact solutions), a table of recent and upcoming close approaches, a database of physical properties of NEOs and the so-called Priority List, which allows observers to identify NEOs in most urgent need of observations, and prioritise their observational activities accordingly.The results of our recent observation campaigns and some major recent improvements to the NEO System will presented and

  7. Monitoring for pesticides in ground water in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Patricia A.; Moses, Charles W.; Bevans, Hugh E.

    1997-01-01

    Many pesticides designed to control weed encroachment, plant disease, and insect predation are used in agricultural and urban areas in the United States. Contamination of ground water by pesticides has increased over the last 20 years (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1992). In 1985, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) estimated the detection of at least 17 agricultural pesticides in the ground water of 23 states. By 1988, pesticides identified in ground water had increased to 46 in 26 states. To protect ground water from pesticide contamination, USEPA, through the Federal Fungicide Insecticide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), requires all states to institute a ground-water protection program.

  8. The ExoMars 2016 mission in the new ESA Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tanya

    2015-12-01

    ExoMars 2016 will be the first operational ESA mission to use PDS4 the new version of the NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The data produced will be housed in the new Planetary Science Archive (PSA) which is currently under development at ESAC. This talk will introduce the ExoMars 2016 mission and its payload. The adaptation of the PDS4 standard for ExoMars 2016 and other future missions in the PSA will be discussed along with a progress report on the new PSA development.

  9. Features and technologies of ERS-1 (ESA) and X-SAR antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuessler, R.; Wagner, R.

    1986-01-01

    Features and technologies of planar waveguide array antennas developed for spaceborne microwave sensors are described. Such antennas are made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) employing special manufacturing and metallization techniques to achieve satisfactory electrical properties. Mechanical design enables deployable antenna structures necessary for satellite applications (e.g., ESA ERS-1). The slotted waveguide concept provides high aperture efficiency, good beamshaping capabilities, and low losses. These CFRP waveguide antennas feature low mass, high accuracy and stiffness, and can be operated within wide temperature ranges.

  10. Fabrication of a demonstration mandrel for ESA's XEUS mirror development program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Juergen; Egle, Wilhelm J.; Hafner, Wolfgang; Derst, Gerhard; Matthes, Axel; Doehring, Th.

    2000-07-01

    ESA's XEUS x-ray telescope design asks for segmented Wolter 1 mirror plates with radii up to 5 m and a focal length of 50 m. The mirror plates shall have an excellent optical performance (< 5 arcsec HEW). They shall be made by metal (e.g. Nickel) electroforming. This design approach requires highest quality segmented Wolter 1 mandrel plates, with an on-axis HEW < 2 arcsec and a micro-roughness better than 0.3 nm (rms). We will report about the novel design concept, fabrication approach and verification of the x-ray optical performance of the first XEUS demonstration mandrel.

  11. Report on the ESO-ESA Workshop ''Science Operations 2015: Science Data Management''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaniello, M.; Arviset, C.; Leibundgut, B.; Lennon, D.; Sterzik, M.

    2016-03-01

    During four intense days, more than 100 astronomers, software engineers, science operation and data management experts gathered for the second installment of the ESO-ESA workshop series “Science Operations: Working together in support of science”. Two years ago, the inaugural meeting of the series at the European Space Astronomy Centre in Madrid provided an overview of all of the different aspects of Science Operations. This year’s gathering was focused on science data management, and an overview of the presentations and a summary of the discussions is provided.

  12. Features and technologies of ERS-1 (ESA) and X-SAR antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuessler, R.; Wagner, R.

    1986-12-01

    Features and technologies of planar waveguide array antennas developed for spaceborne microwave sensors are described. Such antennas are made from carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) employing special manufacturing and metallization techniques to achieve satisfactory electrical properties. Mechanical design enables deployable antenna structures necessary for satellite applications (e.g., ESA ERS-1). The slotted waveguide concept provides high aperture efficiency, good beamshaping capabilities, and low losses. These CFRP waveguide antennas feature low mass, high accuracy and stiffness, and can be operated within wide temperature ranges.

  13. MELFI ready for science - ESA's -80°C freezer begins work in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Parolis, Maria N.; Crippa, Giorgio; Chegancas, Jean; Olivier, Frederic; Guichard, Jerome

    2006-11-01

    After a 4-year wait, ESA's "MELFI" freezer rack is now installed and working in the International Space Station (ISS). It provides researchers with a unique cold-storage facility important, for example, for biology and human physiology investigations. Originally designed for frequent return trips, a major shift in Station requirements meant that a major effort had to be made before launch aboard Shuttle mission STS-121 in July to prepare it for permanent residence in space. The first science samples have been successfully frozen, before the first European samples were added in September.

  14. ESAS-Derived Earth Departure Stage Design for Human Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaherty, Kevin; Grant, Michael; Korzun, Ashley; Malo-Molina, Faure; Steinfeldt, Bradley; Stahl, Benjamin; Wilhite, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration has set the nation on a course to have humans on Mars as early as 2030. To reduce the cost and risk associated with human Mars exploration, NASA is planning for the Mars architecture to leverage the lunar architecture as fully as possible. This study takes the defined launch vehicles and system capabilities from ESAS and extends their application to DRM 3.0 to design an Earth Departure Stage suitable for the cargo and crew missions to Mars. The impact of a propellant depot in LEO was assessed and sLzed for use with the EDS. To quantitatively assess and compare the effectiveness of alternative designs, an initial baseline architecture was defined using the ESAS launch vehicles and DRM 3.0. The baseline architecture uses three NTR engines, LH2 propellant, no propellant depot in LEO, and launches on the Ares I and Ares V. The Mars transfer and surface elements from DRM 3.0 were considered to be fixed payloads in the design of the EDS. Feasible architecture alternatives were identified from previous architecture studies and anticipated capabilities and compiled in a morphological matrix. ESAS FOMs were used to determine the most critical design attributes for the effectiveness of the EDS. The ESAS-derived FOMs used in this study to assess alternative designs are effectiveness and performance, affordability, reliability, and risk. The individual FOMs were prioritized using the AHP, a method for pairwise comparison. All trades performed were evaluated with respect to the weighted FOMs, creating a Pareto frontier of equivalently ideal solutions. Additionally, each design on the frontier was evaluated based on its fulfillment of the weighted FOMs using TOPSIS, a quantitative method for ordinal ranking of the alternatives. The designs were assessed in an integrated environment using physics-based models for subsystem analysis where possible. However, for certain attributes such as engine type, historical, performance-based mass estimating

  15. The ESA astronaut sleep restraint--its development and use onboard Spacelab and MIR.

    PubMed

    Ockels, W; Stoewer, H

    1990-02-01

    The development of the ESA portable sleep restraint system is described. The system was developed to simulate certain earthbound sleep conditions in microgravity. The restraint is a bag made of two sheets of Nomex(R) cloth stretched over a tubular tension device and provides the astronaut with feedback pressure similar to bedding on Earth. The final prototype of the bag was tested on the German Spacelab-D1 mission and during a six-month mission aboard MIR. Positive feedback from astronauts suggests the need for further evaluation during space flight. PMID:11540491

  16. Test data acquisition system for the ESTEC large solar simulator at ESA/ESTEC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buroni, G.; Zucconi, L.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype data acquisition system is described. The device characteristics, its performance and the system aspects connected to the integration of the data acquisition system into the space simulator instrumentation and environment are discussed. The data acquisition system has a modular architecture and manifold configuration capability. The input characteristics feature high resolution and accuracy/stability for the measurement of low level (thermocouple originated) analog signals, even in the presence of high common mode and S/N figures. The output is serial digital, compatible with ESA data handling standards. The device is designed to be installed in particularly hostile environments, such as that of a solar simulator.

  17. The time-resolved imaging mode (TRIM) of the ESA photon counting detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Serego Alighieri, S.; Perryman, M. A. C.

    1986-01-01

    The ESA Photon Counting Detector, a scientific model for the Faint Object Camera of the Hubble Space Telescope, has a time-resolved imaging mode in which photon-counts are recorded separately for every frame (normally 30 msec long) and for every pixel (a 512 x 512 format is normally used). The system and its operation at the telescope are described, as well as some of the data reduction facilities. A discussion and sample observations are given for astronomical applications such as fast photometry of known sources, search for optical counterparts of variable sources, and image sharpening.

  18. Effective methodology to derive strategic decisions from ESA exploration technology roadmaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Fusaro, Roberta; Saccoccia, Giorgio

    2016-09-01

    Top priorities in future international space exploration missions regard the achievement of the necessary maturation of enabling technologies, thereby allowing Europe to play a role commensurate with its industrial, operational and scientific capabilities. As part of the actions derived from this commitment, ESA Technology Roadmaps for Exploration represent a powerful tool to prioritise R&D activities in technologies for space exploration and support the preparation of a consistent procurement plan for space exploration technologies in Europe. The roadmaps illustrate not only the technology procurement (to TRL-8) paths for specific missions envisaged in the present timeframe, but also the achievement for Europe of technological milestones enabling operational capabilities and building blocks, essential for current and future Exploration missions. Coordination of requirements and funding sources among all European stakeholders (ESA, EU, National, and Industry) is one of the objectives of these roadmaps, that show also possible application of the technologies beyond space exploration, both at ESA and outside. The present paper describes the activity that supports the work on-going at ESA on the elaboration and update of these roadmaps and related tools, in order to criticise the followed approach and to suggest methodologies of assessment of the Roadmaps, and to derive strategic decision for the advancement of Space Exploration in Europe. After a review of Technology Areas, Missions/Programmes and related building blocks (architectures) and operational capabilities, technology applicability analyses are presented. The aim is to identify if a specific technology is required, applicable or potentially a demonstrator in the building blocks of the proposed mission concepts. In this way, for each technology it is possible to outline one or more specific plans to increase TRL up to the required level. In practice, this translates into two possible solutions: on the one

  19. The autoregulatory role of EsaR, a quorum-sensing regulator in Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii: evidence for a repressor function.

    PubMed

    Minogue, Timothy D; Wehland-von Trebra, Markus; Bernhard, Frank; von Bodman, Susanne B

    2002-06-01

    Capsular polysaccharide synthesis and virulence in the plant pathogenic bacterium Pantoea stewartii ssp. stewartii requires the quorum-sensing regulatory proteins, EsaR and EsaI, and the diffusible inducer N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone. Prior mutational studies suggested that EsaR might function as a repressor of quorum sensing in the control of capsular polysaccharide synthesis. Further, a lux box-like palindromic sequence coinciding with the putative -10 element of the esaR promoter suggested a possible negative autoregulatory role for EsaR. This report presents genetic evidence that EsaR represses the esaR gene under inducer-limiting conditions, and that addition of inducer promotes rapid, dose-dependent derepression. DNA mobility-shift assays and analyses by surface plasmon resonance refractometry show that EsaR binds target DNAs in a ligand-free state, and that inducer alters the binding characteristics of EsaR. Physical measurements indicate that the EsaR protein binds N-(3-oxo-hexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone, in a 1:1 protein:ligand ratio, and that inducer binding enhances the thermal stability of the EsaR protein. These combined genetic and biochemical data establish that EsaR regulates its own expression by signal-independent repression and signal-dependent derepression. Additionally, we provide evidence that EsaR does not govern the expression of the linked esaI gene, thus EsaR has no role in controlling coinducer synthesis. PMID:12067349

  20. Space radiation research in Europe: flight experiments and ground-based studies.

    PubMed

    Durante, M; Reitz, G; Angerer, O

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to space radiation has long been acknowledged as a potential showstopper for long-duration manned interplanetary missions. In an effort to gain more information on space radiation risk and to develop countermeasures, NASA initiated several years ago a Space Radiation Health Program, which is currently supporting biological experiments performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator-based radiobiology research in the field of space radiation research is also under way in Russia and Japan. The European Space Agency (ESA) supports research in the field in three main directions: spaceflight experiments on the International Space Station; modeling and simulations of the space radiation environment and transport; and, recently, ground-based radiobiology experiments exploiting the high-energy SIS18 synchrotron at GSI in Germany (IBER program). Several experiments are currently under way within IBER, and so far, beams of C and Fe-ions at energies between 11 and 1,000 MeV/n have been used in cell and tissue targets. PMID:20532544

  1. The electrical ground support equipment for the ExoMars 2016 DREAMS scientific instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molfese, C.; Schipani, P.; Marty, L.; Esposito, F.; D'Orsi, S.; Mannetta, M.; Debei, S.; Bettanini, C.; Aboudan, A.; Colombatti, G.; Mugnuolo, R.; Marchetti, E.; Pirrotta, S.

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) of the Dust characterization, Risk assessment, and Environment Analyser on the Martian Surface (DREAMS) scientific instrument, an autonomous surface payload package to be accommodated on the Entry, Descendent and landing Module (EDM) of the ExoMars 2016 European Space Agency (ESA) mission. DREAMS will perform several kinds of measurements, such as the solar irradiance with different optical detectors in the UVA band (315-400nm), NIR band (700-1100nm) and in "total luminosity" (200 -1100 nm). It will also measure environmental parameters such as the intensity of the electric field, temperature, pressure, humidity, speed and direction of the wind. The EGSE is built to control the instrument and manage the data acquisition before the integration of DREAMS within the Entry, Descendent and landing Module (EDM) and then to retrieve data from the EDM Central Checkout System (CCS), after the integration. Finally it will support also the data management during mission operations. The EGSE is based on commercial off-the-shelf components and runs custom software. It provides power supply and simulates the spacecraft, allowing the exchange of commands and telemetry according to the protocol defined by the spacecraft prime contractor. This paper describes the architecture of the system, as well as its functionalities to test the DREAMS instrument during all development activities before the ExoMars 2016 launch.

  2. Report on ESA Topical Team on the Large Radius Human Centrifuge: "The Human Hypergravity Habitat; H3"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bücker, N.; Berte, J.; Bok, K.; Bos, J.; Boyle, R.; Bravenoer, N.; Chouker, A.; Clement, G.; Cras, P.; Denise, D.; Eekhoff, M.; Felsenberg, D.; Fong, K.; Fuller, C.; Groen, E.; Heer, M.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.; Iwase, S.; Karemaker, J. M.; Linnarsson, D.; Lüthen, C.; Narici, M.; Norsk, P.; Paloski, W.; Rutten, M.; Saggini, R.; Stephan, A.; Ullrich, O.; Vautmans, V.; Wuyts, F.; Young, L.

    Over the last decades a significant amount of knowledge has been accumulated on the adap-tation of the human body going into near weightless conditions and on its re-adaptation to 1g Earth conditions after space flight. Ground-based paradigms for microgravity simulation have been developed such as head down tilted bed rest and dry-immersion. In such systems the adaptations to long term immobilization and to head-ward fluid shifts have been studied. Questions we address here are: can long-term ground-based centrifugation help us to under-stand and even predict the adaptations to long-term increased gravity conditions? How does the body adapt to chronic (days, weeks or longer) exposure to a hypergravity environment? And, once the body has fully adapted to a hypergravity environment, how does it re-adapt going from a hypergravity state back to a relatively hypo-gravity condition of 1g, or even going from a centrifuge / hypergravity environment into a bed-rest setting? Can such transitions in well-controlled studies bring us closer to understanding the consequences of gravity transitions that the crews will likely experience going to the Moon or to Mars. Is hypergravity a good model to study the effect of re-entry in gravitational environments after long duration space flight? In an ESA -supported Topical Team we address all organ systems known so far to change directly or indirectly by altered gravity conditions. We will identify to which gravity levels the human body can be exposed for longer periods of time and what protocols could be applied to address the questions at hand. We also identify the technology required to ac-complish such long duration hypergravity and re-adaptation studies. Issues like ethics, safety and required logistics should be addressed. As there is limited experience with exposure of hu-man test subjects to prolonged periods of moderately increased g-forces, unexpected harm may occur. Therefore, the information, disclosure and informed consent

  3. Discovery and basic pharmacology of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), including the hyperglycosylated ESA, darbepoetin alfa: an update of the rationale and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Zoltán; Elliott, Steven; Jedynasty, Kinga; Tesar, Vladimír; Szegedi, János

    2010-04-01

    Cloning of the human erythropoietin (EPO) gene and development of the first recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) drug were truly breakthroughs. This allowed a deeper understanding of the structure and pharmacology of rHuEpo, which in turn inspired the discovery and development of additional erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs). In vivo specific activity and serum half-life of rHuEPO are influenced by the amount and structure of the attached carbohydrate. Increased numbers of sialic acids on carbohydrate attached to rHuEPO correlated with a relative increase in in-vivo-specific activity and increased serum half-life. The effect of increasing the number of sialic-acid-containing carbohydrates on in-vivo-specific activity was explored. Initial research focused on solving the problem of how the protein backbone could be engineered so a cell would add more carbohydrate to it. Additional work resulted in darbepoetin alfa, a longer-acting molecule with two additional carbohydrate chains. PMID:20127232

  4. The IXV Ground Segment design, implementation and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martucci di Scarfizzi, Giovanni; Bellomo, Alessandro; Musso, Ivano; Bussi, Diego; Rabaioli, Massimo; Santoro, Gianfranco; Billig, Gerhard; Gallego Sanz, José María

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is an ESA re-entry demonstrator that performed, on the 11th February of 2015, a successful re-entry demonstration mission. The project objectives were the design, development, manufacturing and on ground and in flight verification of an autonomous European lifting and aerodynamically controlled re-entry system. For the IXV mission a dedicated Ground Segment was provided. The main subsystems of the IXV Ground Segment were: IXV Mission Control Center (MCC), from where monitoring of the vehicle was performed, as well as support during pre-launch and recovery phases; IXV Ground Stations, used to cover IXV mission by receiving spacecraft telemetry and forwarding it toward the MCC; the IXV Communication Network, deployed to support the operations of the IXV mission by interconnecting all remote sites with MCC, supporting data, voice and video exchange. This paper describes the concept, architecture, development, implementation and operations of the ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle (IXV) Ground Segment and outlines the main operations and lessons learned during the preparation and successful execution of the IXV Mission.

  5. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  6. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  7. 40 CFR 144.87 - How does the identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? 144.87 Section 144.87 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND... identification of ground water protection areas and other sensitive ground water areas affect me? (a) You...

  8. Evaluation of Climate Variability of Sea Level from the ESA CCI product and ECMWF ocean reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Hao; Balmaseda, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    The ESA CCI initiative has provided an improved monthly averaged sea level anomalies (SLA) product (ECV1.1) in 1/4 degree resolution and from 1993 to 2014. The evaluation of ECV1.1 has been carried out by comparison with previous ECV versions, and with new ECMWF ocean and sea-ice reanalyses (ORAS5), which assimilates in-situ temperature and salinity observations, in different resolutions (1/4 of degree and 1 degree). The robustness of the sea level climate variability from ECV1.1 and its attribution to physical processes are evaluated using ocean reanalysis. Spatial distributions of uncertainties on regional sea level trends from ECV1.1 are also evaluated against ensemble spread from ORAS5. An Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis show that the amplitude, phase, and spatial patterns of the interannual signals of sea level in the new ESA CCI SL are more consistent with the ocean reanalyses than previous SL products. The relation between the leading EOF modes of sea-level and climate variability processes is discussed, at a global and regional scale, with a special focus in the North Atlantic.

  9. NASA-ESA Joint Mission to Explore Two Worlds of Great Astrobiological Interest - Titan and Enceladus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reh, K.; Coustenis, A.; Lunine, J.; Matson, D.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-04-01

    Rugged shorelines, laced with canyons, leading to ethane/methane seas glimpsed through an organic haze, vast fields of dunes shaped by alien sciroccos… An icy moon festooned with plumes of water-ice and organics, whose warm watery source might be glimpsed through surface cracks that glow in the infrared… The revelations by Cassini-Huygens about Saturn's crown jewels, Titan and Enceladus, have rocked the public with glimpses of new worlds unimagined a decade before. The time is at hand to capitalize on those discoveries with a broad mission of exploration that combines the widest range of planetary science disciplines—Geology, Geophysics, Atmospheres, Astrobiology,Chemistry, Magnetospheres—in a single NASA/ESA collaboration. The Titan Saturn System Mission will explore these exciting new environments, flying through Enceladus' plumes and plunging deep into Titan's atmosphere with instruments tuned to find what Cassini could only hint at. Exploring Titan with an international fleet of vehicles; from orbit, from the surface of a great polar sea, and from the air with the first hot air balloon to ride an extraterrestrial breeze, TSSM will turn our snapshot gaze of these worlds into an epic film. This paper will describe a collaborative NASA-ESA Titan Saturn System Mission that will open a new phase of planetary exploration by projecting robotic presence on the land, on the sea, and in the air of an active, organic-rich world.

  10. 77 FR 3770 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... report titled, ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming'' (FRL-9506-7; 76 FR... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, WY AGENCY... ``Investigation of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' is available via the Internet on the...

  11. Design of a satellite end-to-end mission performance simulator for imaging spectrometers and its application to the ESA's FLEX/Sentinel-3 tandem mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vicent, Jorge; Sabater, Neus; Tenjo, Carolina; Acarreta, Juan R.; Manzano, María.; Rivera, Juan P.; Jurado, Pedro; Franco, Raffaella; Alonso, Luis; Moreno, Jose

    2015-09-01

    The performance analysis of a satellite mission requires specific tools that can simulate the behavior of the platform; its payload; and the acquisition of scientific data from synthetic scenes. These software tools, called End-to-End Mission Performance Simulators (E2ES), are promoted by the European Space Agency (ESA) with the goal of consolidating the instrument and mission requirements as well as optimizing the implemented data processing algorithms. Nevertheless, most developed E2ES are designed for a specific satellite mission and can hardly be adapted to other satellite missions. In the frame of ESA's FLEX mission activities, an E2ES is being developed based on a generic architecture for passive optical missions. FLEX E2ES implements a state-of-the-art synthetic scene generator that is coupled with dedicated algorithms that model the platform and instrument characteristics. This work will describe the flexibility of the FLEX E2ES to simulate complex synthetic scenes with a variety of land cover classes, topography and cloud cover that are observed separately by each instrument (FLORIS, OLCI and SLSTR). The implemented algorithms allows modelling the sensor behavior, i.e. the spectral/spatial resampling of the input scene; the geometry of acquisition; the sensor noises and non-uniformity effects (e.g. stray-light, spectral smile and radiometric noise); and the full retrieval scheme up to Level-2 products. It is expected that the design methodology implemented in FLEX E2ES can be used as baseline for other imaging spectrometer missions and will be further expanded towards a generic E2ES software tool.

  12. Earth Observation in Support of Science and Applications Development in the Field "land and Environment": Synthesis Results from the Esa-Most Dragon Cooperation Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartalis, C.; Asimakopoulos, D. N.; Ban, Y.; Bao, Y.; Bi, Y.; Defourny, P.; Del Barrio, G.; Fan, J.; Gao, Z.; Gong, H.; Gong, J.; Gong, P.; Li, C.; Pignatti, S.; Sarris, A.; Yang, G.

    2015-04-01

    Dragon is a cooperation Programme between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of the P.R. China. The Programme, initiated in 2004, focuses on the exploitation of ESA, Third Party Missions (TPM) and Chinese Earth Observation (EO) data for geo-science and applications development in land, ocean and atmospheric applications. In particular, the Programme brings together joint Sino- European teams to investigate 50 thematic projects. In this paper, the results of the research projects1 in the thematic field "Land and Environment" will be briefly presented, whereas emphasis will be given in the assessment of the usefulness of the results for an integrated assessment of the state of the environment in the respective study areas. Furthermore new knowledge gained in such fields as desertification assessment, drought and epidemics' monitoring, forest modeling, cropwatch monitoring, climate change vulnerability (including climate change adaptation and mitigation plans), urbanization monitoring and land use/cover change assessment and monitoring, will be presented. Such knowledge will be also linked to the capacities of Earth Observation systems (and of the respective EO data) to support the temporal, spatial and spectral requirements of the research studies. The potential of DRAGON to support such targets as "technology and knowledge transfer at the bilateral level", "common EO database for exploitation" and "data sharing and open access data policy" will be also presented. Finally special consideration will be given in highlighting the replication potential of the techniques as developed in the course of the projects, as well as on the importance of the scientific results for environmental policy drafting and decision making.

  13. Requirements on Atmospheric Entry of Small Probes for Several Planets: Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus in Preparation for the Future ESA Cosmic Vision Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomuta, D.; Rebuffat, D.; Larranaga, J.; Erd, C.; Bavdaz, M.; Falkner, P.

    2011-02-01

    In preparation for the ESA Cosmic Vision new call for medium class missions, a set of entry probes for inner and outer planets have been preliminary investigated by ESA using its Concurrent Design Facility. These Entry Probe missions are hypothetically assumed for launching time 2020-2035. A preliminary design of the probes arrived at a mass of about 300kg. In the following, the study is focused on the entry conditions for each of the planets Venus, Saturn, Neptune and Uranus with the aim to define the conditions for the Entry and Descent System (EDS) and its required technologies. For Venus case, two scenarios where considered: one where the entry probe is released during a typical gravity assist by a large interplanetary mission and another scenario featuring a stand alone mission targeted to Venus. During the entry in Venus atmosphere (mainly composed of CO2 (96.5%) and N2 (3.5%)), the probes are subjected to maximum heat fluxes of 60MW/m2, which is highly demanding in both scenarios. For the outer planet missions, only flyby scenarios with a targeted release of the probe were considered. The entry probes for the outer planets are subjected to heat fluxes above 100MW/m2, which is even more challenging the Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and therefore requiring the use of special high temperature protection technology to prevent the destruction during the entry. ESA efforts for future missions are directed towards the development of an European Light Ablative Material (ELAM), though used in PEP study only for the Back Cover of the Entry Module. The TPS as well as both radiative and convective heat fluxes need simulations and verification by means of ground facility experiments. Based on the lessons learned from previous mission studies (mission to a near-Earth objects c.f. Marco Polo, Deimos Sample return), an Atmospheric Mars Sample Return is now under study. For sample return missions on return to Earth, a passive re-entry capsule delivering the sample

  14. A Network for Educational Change in the Great Lakes Region: A View through the Lens of Educational Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Randal E.; Svedkauskaite, Asta

    2008-01-01

    The major purpose of this descriptive report is to provide an overview of the structure, capacity, and roles of educational service agencies (ESAs) across five states--Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin--in the Great Lakes region, within the context of the broader statewide systems of support for educational improvement and progress.…

  15. Measuring Forest Biomass and Height from Space - Results from the assessment of ESA's BIOMASS satellite concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scipal, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Knowledge about forest above-ground biomass is of fundamental importance in quantifying the terrestrial carbon cycle, but is also crucial in assessing forest resources and the ecosystem services provided by forests, and is an essential element in assessing carbon fluxes under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. For most parts of the world, in particular the tropical forests, information on biomass is currently very limited, at very coarse scales, and subject to large and unquantified errors. In response to the urgent need for greatly improved mapping of global biomass and the lack of any current space systems capable of addressing this need, the BIOMASS mission was proposed to the European Space Agency for the third cycle of Earth Explorer Core missions and was selected for Feasibility Study (Phase A) in March 2009. Over the five-year mission lifetime, it shall map the full range of the world's above-ground biomass with accuracy and spatial resolution compatible with the needs of national scale inventory and carbon flux calculations, and will map changes in forest biomass. The mission will carry a polarimetric P-Band SAR, capable of providing both direct measurements of biomass derived from inverting intensity data, and measurements of forest height derived from polarimetric interferometry. The BIOMASS payload consists of a fully polarimetric system operated at a centre frequency of 435 MHz (P-band) with a bandwidth of 6 MHz. To enable measurements at a scale comparable to that of deforestation and forest disturbance (i.e. around 1 ha), it is envisaged that BIOMASS will provide level-1 products with around 50 m x 50 m resolution at 4 looks, so around 16 looks at a scale of 1 ha. The satellite shall fly in a sun-synchronous dawn-dusk orbit to minimise ionospheric disturbances with a controlled drift to meet the revisit requirement for forest height recovery using Pol-InSAR techniques. The revisit time will be between 25-45 days to maintain

  16. The Hera Entry Probe Mission to Saturn, an ESA M-class mission proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousis, O.; Atkinson, D. H.; Spilker, T.; Venkatapathy, E.; Poncy, J.; Coustenis, A.; Reh, K.

    2015-10-01

    A fundamental goal of solar system exploration is to understand the origin of the solar system, the initial stages, conditions, and processes by which the solar system formed, how the formation process was initiated, and the nature of the interstellar seed material from which the solar system was born. Key to understanding solar system formation and subsequent dynamical and chemical evolution is the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. Additionally, the atmospheres of the giant planets serve as laboratories to better understand the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, processes, and climates on all planets in the solar system including Earth, offer a context and provide a ground truth for exoplanets and exoplanetary systems,and have long been thought to play a critical role in the development of potentially habitable planetary systems. Remote sensing observations are limited when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the value of in situ probe measurements is illustrated by the exploration of Jupiter, where key measurements such as noble gases abundances and the precise measurement of the helium mixing ratio have only been made available through in situ measurements by the Galileo probe. Representing the only method providing ground-truth to connect the remote sensing inferences with physical reality, in situ measurements have only been accomplished twice in the history of outer solar system exploration, via the Galileo probe for Jupiter and the Huygens probe for Titan. In situ measurements provide access to atmospheric regions that are beyond the reach of remote sensing, enabling the dynamical, chemical and aerosol-forming processes at work from the thermosphere to the troposphere below the cloud decks to be studied. A proposal for a Saturn entry probe mission named Hera was recently submitted to the European Space Agency Medium Class mission announcement of

  17. 76 FR 51997 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Form I-602; Extension of an Existing Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... Collection Under Review: Form I- 602, Application by Refugee for Waiver of Grounds of Excludability. The... the Form/Collection: Application by Refugee for Waiver of Grounds of Excludability. (3) Agency...

  18. Hera - an ESA M-class Saturn Entry Probe Mission Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, D. H.; Mousis, O.; Spilker, T. R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Poncy, J.; Coustenis, A.; Reh, K. R.

    2015-12-01

    A fundamental goal of solar system exploration is to understand the origin of the solar system, the initial stages, conditions, and processes by which the solar system formed, how the formation process was initiated, and the nature of the interstellar seed material from which the solar system was born. Key to understanding solar system formation and subsequent dynamical and chemical evolution is the origin and evolution of the giant planets and their atmospheres. Additionally, the atmospheres of the giant planets serve as laboratories to better understand the atmospheric chemistries, dynamics, processes, and climates on all planets in the solar system including Earth, offer a context and provide a ground truth for exoplanets and exoplanetary systems, and have long been thought to play a critical role in the development of potentially habitable planetary systems. Remote sensing observations are limited when used to study the bulk atmospheric composition of the giant planets of our solar system. A remarkable example of the value of in situ measurements is provided by measurements of Jupiter's noble gas abundances and helium mixing ratio by the Galileo probe. In situ measurements provide direct access to atmospheric regions that are beyond the reach of remote sensing, enabling the dynamical, chemical and aerosol-forming processes at work from the thermosphere to the troposphere below the cloud decks to be studied. Studies for a newly proposed Saturn atmospheric entry probe mission named Hera is being prepared for the upcoming European Space Agency Medium Class (M5) mission announcement of opportunity. A solar powered mission, Hera will take approximately 8 years to reach Saturn and will carry instruments to measure the composition, structure, and dynamics of Saturn's atmosphere. In the context of giant planet science provided by the Galileo, Juno, and Cassini missions to Jupiter and Saturn, the Hera Saturn probe will provide critical measurements of composition

  19. The ESA SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the Valencia Anchor Station Area in the Framework of the SMOS Cal/Val AO Project no. 3252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA defined and designed the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign Plan with the purpose of repeating the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming that all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim was to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations to be able to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real Commissioning Phase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April 2008, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 was chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over the control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft. The payload for the campaign consisted of the following instruments: (i) L-band radiometer EMIRAD (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) HUT-2D L-band imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish

  20. ESA to present the latest Venus Express results to the media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-11-01

    The launch of Venus Express back in November 2005 represented a major milestone in the exploration of Venus — a planet unvisited by any dedicated spacecraft since the early 1990s. One of the fundamental questions being addressed by the Venus Express mission is why a world so similar to Earth in mass and size has evolved so differently, to become the noxious and inhospitable planet it is today. Since it started its scientific observations in July 2006, Venus Express has been making the most detailed study of the planet’s thick and complex atmosphere to date. The latest findings not only highlight the features that make Venus unique in the solar system but also provide fresh clues as to how the planet is — despite everything — a more Earth-like planetary neighbour than one could have imagined. The results will appear in a special section of the 29 November issue of the journal Nature containing nine individual papers devoted to Venus Express science activities. Media organisations interested in attending the press conference are invited to register via the form attached below. Media that cannot attend will have the opportunity to follow the press conference via the following phone line: +33 1 58 99 57 42 (listening-mode only).The results presented at the press conference are embargoed until 28 November 19:00 CET. For more information ESA Media Relations Office Tel: +33 1 5369 7299 Fax: +33 1 5369 7690 Media event programme ‘Venus: a more Earth-like planetary neighbour’ Latest results from Venus Express 28 November 2007, 15:00, room 137 ESA Headquarters, 8-10 rue Mario-Nikis, Paris 15:00 Introduction, by Håkan Svedhem, ESA Venus Express Project Scientist 15:07 Venus: What we knew before, by Fred Taylor, Venus Express Interdisciplinary Scientist 15:15 Temperatures in the atmosphere of Venus, by Jean-Loup Bertaux, SPICAV Principal Investigator 15:25 The dynamic atmosphere of Venus, by Giuseppe Piccioni, VIRTIS Principal Investigator 15:40 Venus

  1. First Prototype of a Web Map Interface for ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Gonzalez, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a first prototype of a Web Map Interface that will serve as a proof of concept and design for ESA's future fully web-based Planetary Science Archive (PSA) User Interface. The PSA is ESA's planetary science archiving authority and central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's Solar System missions [1]. All data are compliant with NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) Standards and are accessible through several interfaces [2]: in addition to serving all public data via FTP and the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), a Java-based User Interface provides advanced search, preview, download, notification and delivery-basket functionality. It allows the user to query and visualise instrument observations footprints using a map-based interface (currently only available for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA instruments). During the last decade, the planetary mapping science community has increasingly been adopting Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and standards, originally developed for and used in Earth science. There is an ongoing effort to produce and share cartographic products through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Services, or as standalone data sets, so that they can be readily used in existing GIS applications [3,4,5]. Previous studies conducted at ESAC [6,7] have helped identify the needs of Planetary GIS users, and define key areas of improvement for the future Web PSA User Interface. Its web map interface shall will provide access to the full geospatial content of the PSA, including (1) observation geometry footprints of all remote sensing instruments, and (2) all georeferenced cartographic products, such as HRSC map-projected data or OMEGA global maps from Mars Express. It shall aim to provide a rich user experience for search and visualisation of this content using modern and interactive web mapping technology. A comprehensive set of built-in context maps from external sources, such as MOLA topography, TES

  2. Space safety trajectory optimization and debris analysis using ASTOS at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo; Blasco, Ana; Weikert, Sven

    This paper describes the coupling of the space trajectory optimization software ASTOS with a tool for splashdown analysis of separated spacecraft stages and debris called DARS (Destructive Analysis for Re-entry Spacecraft), and a Risk Analysis Module called RAM. ASTOS is a main reference tool for space trajectory optimization at ESA. It is also used to compute demise and break up of rocket stages and re-entry vehicles and analyze the risk to populated areas. ASTOS software is a simulation and optimization environment to compute optimal trajectories for a variety of complex multi-phase optimal control problems. It consists of fast and powerful optimization programs, PROMIS, CAMTOS, SOCS and TROPIC, that handle large and highly discretized problems, a user interface with multiple plot capability, and GISMO, an integrated graphical iteration monitor to review the optimization process and plot the state and control histories at intermediate steps during the optimization. The optimization programs used by ASTOS use Non-Linear Programming (NLP) mathematical solvers like NPSOL, SLSQP, SLLSQP, and SNOPT. These solvers use Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) mathematical algorithms to find the solution of the non-linear programming problems in trajectory optimization. ASTOS comprises an extensive model library, which allows launcher and re-entry spacecraft trajectory optimization without programming work. DARS considers not only a stage break-up, but also ablation and melting of the fragments, taking diverse materials and shapes into account. The paper discusses hazard due to stage and debris impact, considering the ESA launchers and re-entry vehicles as examples. Previous approaches for the impact point calculation during trajectory optimization are presented. Subsequently the results of these approaches are compared to DARS results. This paper shows that ASTOS and the DARS and RAM extensions can calculate impact points with satisfactory accuracy and calculation time

  3. Two ESA astronauts named to early Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-03-01

    Nicollier and three NASA astronauts, who had already been training for a Hubble servicing mission planned for June 2000, have been reassigned to this earlier mission (STS-103). Jean-Francois Clervoy and two other NASA astronauts will complete the STS-103 crew. The repairs and maintenance of the telescope will require many hours spent working outside the Shuttle and will make extensive use of the Shuttle's robotic arm Nicollier, of Swiss nationality and making his fourth flight, will be part of the team that will perform the "spacewalks". An astronomer by education, he took part in the first Hubble servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993, controlling the Shuttle's robotic arm while astronauts on the other end of the arm performed the delicate repairs to the telescope. He also served on STS-46 in 1992 using the robotic arm to deploy ESA's Eureca retrievable spacecraft from the Shuttle, and on STS-75 with the Italian Tethered Satellite System in 1996. Nicollier is currently the chief of the robotics branch in NASA's astronaut office and ESA's lead astronaut in Houston. Jean-Francois Clervoy, of French nationality and making his third flight, will have the lead role in the operation of the robotic arm for this mission. He previously served on STS-66 in 1994 using the robotic arm to deploy and later retrieve the German CRISTA-SPAS atmospheric research satellite, and on STS-84 in 1997, a Shuttle mission to the Russian Mir space station. The other STS-103 crewmembers are: Commander Curtis Brown, pilot Scott Kelly, and mission specialists Steven Smith, Michael Foale and John Grunsfeld. During the flight, the astronauts will replace Hubble's failing pointing system, which allows the telescope to aim at stars, planets and other targets, and install other equipment that will be ready for launch at that time. A second mission to complete the previously-scheduled Hubble refurbishment work is foreseen at a later date. The crew for that mission has not yet been assigned. The Hubble

  4. Taking advantage of the ESA G-POD service to study deformation processes in mountain areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, Andrea; Cignetti, Martina; Ardizzone, Francesca; Giordan, Daniele; Allasia, Paolo; De Luca, Claudio; Manunta, Michele; Casu, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    In mountain environments, the analysis of surface displacements is extremely important for a better understanding the effects of mass wasting phenomena, such as landslides, rock-glaciers, and glacier activity. In this scenario, the use of straightforward tools and approaches to monitor surface displacements at high spatial and temporal resolutions is a real need. Here we use the Parallel-SBAS service recently released within the ESA's Grid Processing On Demand environment (G-POD, http://gpod.eo.esa.int/) to generate Earth's surface deformation time series and interferometric production. This service performs the full SBAS-DInSAR chain starting from Level 0 data, and generates displacement time series. We use the data available on the Virtual Archive 4 (http://eo-virtual-archive4.esa.int/, in the framework of Supersite initiative. In the framework of the HAMMER project (part of the NextData initiative, http://www.nextdataproject.it/ ), we produced mean deformation velocity maps, as well as deformation time series, on a regional scale case (Aosta Valley Region, northern Italy), and at local landslide scale (Puy landslide, Piedmont, northen Italy). The possibility to gather the final results in less than 24h (by processing an average of about 30 SAR images for each frame considered), allowed to perform in relatively short time a large number of attempts. By "tuning" the processing, we have maximized for both datasets the final coverage of coherent points, by analysing the effect of SAR images acquired in the winter season, as well as of the impact of perpendicular and temporal baseline constraints. The results obtained with P-SBAS G-POD service on Valle d'Aosta region have been compared to the Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformation (DGSD, reference IFFI project), finding a good correlation with the anomalous areas of surface deformation and the catalogued DGSD. In addition, the results obtained on Valle d'Aosta and Piedmont regions show a good agreement to the

  5. PANGU: a sub-GeV gamma-ray detector proposed for the joint CAS-ESA misson call

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Meng

    2015-08-01

    The ESA Directorate of Science and Robotic Exploration (ESA-SRE) and the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) have agreed to jointly pursue a scientific space mission, to be implemented by the ESA Science Programme and the Chinese National Space Science Centre (NSSC) under the CAS. In this talk, I will briefly describe a proposed space mission for the low energy gamma-ray observations. The highly successful Fermi mission has proved the great potential of studying astrophysics, cosmology and fundamental physics in high energy gamma rays. One area of improvement is in the 10 MeV to 1 GeV region, where the PSF of Fermi is limited by the presence of the Tungsten converters. Another area is the polarization measurement. It is also crucial to have a gamma-ray all sky survey mission running in parallel with HERD and CTA. PANGU (PAir-productioN Gamma-ray Unit) is a mission candidate proposed to the ESA-CAS joint mission. To achieve a PSF of ~1° at 100 MeV, PANGU proposes to use a fully active tracker use thin silicon strip detectors. Our proposal has been presented at the first dedicated workshop of the ESA-CAS joint mission, and was selected for oral presentation as the only high energy mission for the second workshop. PANUG mission involves ~100 scientists from both China and Europe.

  6. Distributed intelligence for ground/space systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarup, Mads; Munch, Klaus Heje; Fuchs, Joachim; Hartmann, Ralf; Baud, Tim

    1994-01-01

    DI is short for Distributed Intelligence for Ground/Space Systems and the DI Study is one in a series of ESA projects concerned with the development of new concepts and architectures for future autonomous spacecraft systems. The kick-off of DI was in January 1994 and the planned duration is three years. The background of DI is the desire to design future ground/space systems with a higher degree of autonomy than seen in today's missions. The aim of introducing autonomy in spacecraft systems is to: (1) lift the role of the spacecraft operators from routine work and basic troubleshooting to supervision; (2) ease access to and increase availability of spacecraft resources; (3) carry out basic mission planning for users; (4) enable missions which have not yet been feasible due to eg. propagation delays, insufficient ground station coverage etc.; and (5) possibly reduce mission cost. The study serves to identify the feasibility of using state-of-the-art technologies in the area of planning, scheduling, fault detection using model-based diagnosis and knowledge processing to obtain a higher level of autonomy in ground/space systems.

  7. The cytotoxic effect of Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) on cancer cells and its application to molecular probe for drug delivery system using lipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, T; Ohama, Y; Fukuda, A; Hayashi, M; Kawakubo, A; Kato, K

    2001-07-01

    Eucheuma serra agglutinin (ESA) derived from a marine red alga, Eucheuma serra, is a lectin that specifically binds to mannose-rich carbohydrate chains. ESA is a monomeric molecule, with a molecular weight of29,000. ESA induced cell death against several cancer cell lines, such as colon cancer Colo201 cells and cervix cancer HeLa cells. DNA ladder detection and the induction of caspase-3 activity suggested that the cell death induced by ESA against cancer cells was apoptosis. ESA bound to the cell surface of Colo201 cells in the sugar chain dependent manner. This means that the binding of ESA to the cell surface is specific for mannose-rich sugar chains recognized by ESA. The binding of ESA to the cell surface of Colo201 cells was slightly suppressed by the high concentrations of serum because of the competition with serum components possessing the mannose-rich sugar chain motifs. On the other hand, a lipid vesicle is a very useful microcapsule constructed by multilamellar structure,and adopted as drug or gene carrier. ESA was immobilized on the surface of the lipid vesicles to apply the lipid vesicles to cancer specific drug delivery system. ESA-immobilized lipid vesicles were effectively bound to cancer cell lines compared with plane vesicles. PMID:19003319

  8. Ground water contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This book covers: Ground water contamination and basic concepts of water law; Federal law governing water contamination and remediation; Ground water flow and contaminant migration; Ground water cleanup under CERCLA; Technical methods of remediation and prevention of contamination; Liability for ground water contamination; State constraints on contamination of ground water; Water quantity versus water quality; Prevention of use of contaminated ground water as an alternative to remediation; Economic considerations in liability for ground water contamination; and Contamination, extraction, and injection issues.

  9. Crystallization and rhenium MAD phasing of the acyl-homoserinelactone synthase EsaI.

    PubMed

    Watson, W T; Murphy, F V; Gould, T A; Jambeck, P; Val, D L; Cronan, J E; Beck von Bodman, S; Churchill, M E

    2001-12-01

    Acyl-homoserine-L-lactones (AHLs) are diffusible chemical signals that are required for virulence of many Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs are produced by AHL synthases from two substrates, S-adenosyl-L-methionine and acyl-acyl carrier protein. The AHL synthase EsaI, which is homologous to the AHL synthases from other pathogenic bacterial species, has been crystallized in the primitive tetragonal space group P4(3), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.40, c = 47.33 A. The structure was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction with a novel use of the rhenium anomalous signal. The rhenium-containing structure has been refined to a resolution of 2.5 A and the perrhenate ion binding sites and liganding residues have been identified. PMID:11717525

  10. In-orbit data verification of the accelerometers of the ESA GOCE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christophe, B.; Marque, J.-P.; Foulon, B.

    2010-12-01

    The ESA GOCE mission aims to map Earth gravity field in unprecedented detail. The Gradiometer is the instrument which makes possible the high resolution restitution of the gravity field to the science communities. The tri-axes Gradiometer of the GOCE Mission is conceived around six electrostatic accelerometers developed by ONERA. The satellite was launched on March 17th, 2009 and the gradiometer was switched on in Science mode on April 7th. Since, the accelerometers are continuously feeding the science channel with data, first during the commissioning and calibration phases, then during the first measurement phase started in September 2009. The paper will illustrate the in-flight behaviour of the six accelerometers as deduced from the analysis of their output signals.

  11. Crystallization and rhenium MAD phasing of the acyl-homoserinelactone synthase EsaI

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, W.T.; Murphy IV, Frank V.; Gould, Ty A.; Jambeck, Per; Val, Dale L.; Cronan, Jr., John E.; Beck von Bodman, Susan; Churchill, Mair E.A.

    2009-04-22

    Acyl-homoserine-L-lactones (AHLs) are diffusible chemical signals that are required for virulence of many Gram-negative bacteria. AHLs are produced by AHL synthases from two substrates, S-adenosyl-L-methionine and acyl-acyl carrier protein. The AHL synthase EsaI, which is homologous to the AHL synthases from other pathogenic bacterial species, has been crystallized in the primitive tetragonal space group P4{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 66.40, c = 47.33 {angstrom}. The structure was solved by multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction with a novel use of the rhenium anomalous signal. The rhenium-containing structure has been refined to a resolution of 2.5 {angstrom} and the perrhenate ion binding sites and liganding residues have been identified.

  12. Beagle 2: a proposed exobiology lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission.

    PubMed

    Sims, M R; Pillinger, C T; Wright, I P; Dowson, J; Whitehead, S; Wells, A; Spragg, J E; Fraser, G; Richter, L; Hamacher, H; Johnstone, A; Meredith, N P; de la Nougerede, C; Hancock, B; Turner, R; Peskett, S; Brack, A; Hobbs, J; Newns, M; Senior, A; Humphries, M; Keller, H U; Thomas, N; Lingard, J S; Ng, T C

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the proposed Beagle 2 small lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission is to search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars and to study the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will have a total mass of 60kg including entry, descent, and landing system. Experiments will be deployed on the surface using a robotic arm. It will use a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks, and inside rocks. Sample analysis by a mass spectrometer will include isotopic analysis. An optical microscope, an X-ray spectrometer and a Mossbauer spectrometer will conduct in-situ rock studies. PMID:11543221

  13. Thermal simulations of the STIX instrument for ESA Solar Orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Białek, Agata; Severyn, Karol; Grassmann, Kamil; Orleańskii, Piotr; Skup, Konrad R.; Arnold, Nicolas; Gröbelbauer, Hans-Peter; Hurford, Gordon J.; Krucker, Samuel; Bauer, Svend-Marian; Mann, Gottfied; Önel, Hakan; Bernet, Adeline; Blecha, Luc; Grimm, Oliver; Limousin, Olivier; Martignac, Jerome; Meuris, Aline

    2013-07-01

    The ESA Solar Orbiter mission, planned to be launched in 2017, is going to study the Sun with ten different instruments including the Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays - STIX. The thermal environment on the elliptical orbit around the Sun - 0.28 AU at perihelion and 0.952 AU at aphelion - is extreme, where at one point of the orbit is very hot, while on another very cold. That makes the requirements for the heat fluxes exchanged between each instrument and the spacecraft, as well as between the instrument - subsystems, very restrictive. Here the authors discuss the thermal design with respect to the defined requirements and present the results of the thermal analyses performed with ESATAN TMS software.

  14. Surface Elevation Changes Of The Greenland Ice Sheet- Results From ESA's Ice Sheet CCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinsen, Joanna F.; Khvorostovky, Kirill; Meister, Rakia; Sorensen, Louise S.; Ticconi, Francesca; Forsberg, Rene; Shepherd, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    In order to ensure long-term climate data records for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), ESA have launched the Cli- mate Change Initiative (CCI). This work presents the preliminary steps towards the Ice Sheet CCI's surface elevation change (SEC) derivation using radar altimeter data. In order to find the most optimal method, a Round Robin exercise was conducted in which the scientific community was asked to provide their best SEC estimate over the Jakobshavn Isbr drainage basin. The participants used both repeat-track (RT), overlapping footprints, and the cross-over (XO) methods, and both ICESat laser and Envisat radar altimeter data were used. Based on this and feedback sheets describing their methods we found that a combination of the RT and XO techniques yielded the best results. In the following, the obtained results will be presented and discussed.

  15. Terrestrial and Celestial Reference Frame Realization with Highly Elliptical Orbit - The ESA STE-QUEST Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svehla, Drazen; Rothacher, Markus; Hugentobler, Urs; Nothnagel, Axel; Willis, Pascal; Biancale, Richard; Ziebart, Marek; Appleby, Graham; Schuh, Harald; Ádám, József; Iess, Luciano; Cacciapuoti, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    The Space-Time Explorer and QUantum Equivalence Principle Space Test (STE-QUEST) is a Medium Class fundamental physics mission pre-selected for the M3 slot of the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme to test Einstein's Equivalence Principle using atom interferometry and the general and special theory of relativity. Two secondary mission objectives are related to space geodesy: terrestrial and celestial reference frame of the Earth and relativistic geodes