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Sample records for agency esa mars

  1. Christmas on Mars: be there with ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    The exciting event can be followed at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany, on Thursday, 25 December, from 01:30 to 14:00, together with the mission managers, the operation teams, scientists and top ESA management, including ESA’s Director-General Jean-Jacques Dordain, ESA’s Director of Science David Southwood and ESA’s Director of Technical and Operational Support Gaele Winters. The highlights of the night will be also webcast over the internet http://mars.esa.int. As well as live streaming of key events, the Mars Express site will have daily news, features, images, videos and more. The ESA TV Service will provide live coverage of operations, from the Operations Control Centre at ESOC. All transmission and satellite details are published online at http://television.esa.int All live transmissions are also carried free-to-air on Astra 2 C at 19 degrees East, transponder 57, horizontal, (DVB-MPEG-2), frequency 10832 MHz, Symbol Rate 22000 MS/sec, FEC 5/6. The service name is ESA Media wishing to attend are asked to complete the attached reply form and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Service: +33 (0)1 53 69 76 90.

  2. Follow the Mars Express launch from one of ESA's establishments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Europe’s first mission to the Red Planet will reach its target in December, after a six-month journey. Mars Express will help scientists answer questions about the Martian landscape, atmosphere and the origin of life that remain open, although a wealth of information is already available. Media representatives in Europe can follow the launch and initial orbital operations at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, or ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy and the Italian Space Agency, ASI, are organising a joint event at the University of Rome. ESA/Villafranca (VILSPA) and the CDTI, the Spanish institution in charge of space issues, are organising a joint event in Spain at the Museo Principe Felipe de la Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias in Valencia. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide live televised coverage of the launch and initial orbital operations with English commentary, between 19:15 and 22:00 CEST. Satellite: Astra 2C at 19 degrees East Reception frequency: 10832 MHz Polarisation: Horizontal Symbol rate: 22 Msymb/s FEC: 5/6 Service ID: 61950 Service name: ESA TXT: none Details of the transmission schedule and satellite details for the various pre-launch Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int. The launch can also be followed live on the internet at www.esa.int/marsexpresslaunch starting at 19:15 hrs. Here you can also find the launch diary, news, press releases, videos, images and more.

  3. The ESA/NASA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witasse, O.; Allen, M.

    2011-10-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA), in close cooperation with NASA, has established the ExoMars Programme to investigate the Martian environment and habitability, and to demonstrate new technologies paving the way for a future sample return mission. Within this programme, the first proposed mission consists of an ESA spacecraft that will carry an Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator. It will be launched in January 2016 with a NASA supplied Atlas V rocket. The scientific goals of the mission are to study Martian atmospheric trace gases, with a focus on chemical species that could reflect the existence of extant active processes (geological or biological). More specifically, the mission will detect the chemical compounds, characterise their spatial and temporal variability and localise their sources on the surface. Five instruments (see table) will be accommodated on the orbiter to achieve these objectives. Following an aerobraking phase, the scientific mission is expected to begin in spring 2017 for a period of at least one Martian year. The presentation will focus primarily on the description of the mission, responsibilities between ESA and NASA, payload, timelines and milestones.

  4. ESA `Huygens and Mars Express' science highlights - call to press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-11-01

    Almost one year has passed since ESA’s Huygens probe landed on Saturn’s largest moon, Titan. Today, a set of new wide-ranging results from the probe’s two-and-a-half hour descent and landing, part of the extraordinary NASA/ESA/ASI Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and its moons, is ready for release. At the same time, ESA’s Mars Express mission is continuing its investigations of Mars, painting a new picture of the 'red planet'. This includes the first ever probing below the surface of Mars, new geological clues with implications for the climate, newly-discovered surface and atmospheric features and, above all, traces of the presence of water on this world. These and other exciting findings from just one year of observations and data analysis - in the context of ESA’s overall scientific achievements - will be the focus of a press conference to be held at ESA Headquarters in Paris at 16:00 on 30 November 2005. Media interested in attending are invited to complete the following registration form. Press conference programme Space Science Highlights 2005 From Huygens to Mars Express 30 November 2005, 16:00 hrs Room 137, European Space Agency Headquarters 8-10 Rue Mario-Nikis, F-75738 Paris Cedex, France 15:30 - Registration 16:00 - A Year of European Space Science Successes Prof. David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 16:10 - Highlights of the Huygens Mission Results Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist 16:15 - Robin Duttaroy, Co-Investigator, Doppler Wind Experiment, University of Bonn, Germany 16:20 - Marcello Fulchignoni , Principal Investigator, Huygens Atmospheric Structure Instrument, Université de Paris 7, France 16:25 - John Zarnecki, Principal Investigator, Surface Science Package, Open University, UK 16:30 - François Raulin, Co-Investigator, Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer, Université de Paris 12 - Créteil, France 16:35 - Guy Israel, Principal Investigator, Aerosol Collector and Pyrolyser, Service d

  5. "Europe lands on Mars" - Media event at ESA/ESOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz operated by Starsem, the European probe - built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet's structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On board Mars Express tests have been run to check that the instruments are functioning correctly. Mars Express has successfully come through its first power test on the whole spacecraft after the gigantic solar flare on 28 October. Since 17 November the onboard software has been 'frozen' after several updates and the spacecraft is now quietly proceeding to its destination. Before even entering into Martian orbit to perform its mission, Mars Express has to face another challenge: safely delivering the Beagle 2 lander to its destination. This task, starting on 19 December, will not be without risk. First of all, to deliver the lander where planned, Mars Express has been put on a collision course with Mars, since Beagle 2 does not have a propulsion system of its own and must therefore be 'carried' precisely to its destination. This means that after separation, Mars Express has to veer away quickly to avoid crashing onto the planet. During the cruise Beagle 2 will take its power from the mother spacecraft, Mars Express. After separation and until its solar arrays are fully deployed on the surface, Beagle 2 must rely on its own battery, which cannot last beyond 6 days. So, like a caring parent, Mars Express must release Beagle 2 at the last possible moment to ensure that the lander has enough power for the rest of its journey to the surface. Only then can Mars Express change its orientation and rapidly fire the thrusters to get away

  6. Comparing NASA and ESA Cost Estimating Methods for Human Missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Charles D.; vanPelt, Michel O.

    2004-01-01

    To compare working methodologies between the cost engineering functions in NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and ESA European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), as well as to set-up cost engineering capabilities for future manned Mars projects and other studies which involve similar subsystem technologies in MSFC and ESTEC, a demonstration cost estimate exercise was organized. This exercise was a direct way of enhancing not only cooperation between agencies but also both agencies commitment to credible cost analyses. Cost engineers in MSFC and ESTEC independently prepared life-cycle cost estimates for a reference human Mars project and subsequently compared the results and estimate methods in detail. As a non-sensitive, public domain reference case for human Mars projects, the Mars Direct concept was chosen. In this paper the results of the exercise are shown; the differences and similarities in estimate methodologies, philosophies, and databases between MSFC and ESTEC, as well as the estimate results for the Mars Direct concept. The most significant differences are explained and possible estimate improvements identified. In addition, the Mars Direct plan and the extensive cost breakdown structure jointly set-up by MSFC and ESTEC for this concept are presented. It was found that NASA applied estimate models mainly based on historic Apollo and Space Shuttle cost data, taking into account the changes in technology since then. ESA used models mostly based on European satellite and launcher cost data, taking into account the higher equipment and testing standards for human space flight. Most of NASA's and ESA s estimates for the Mars Direct case are comparable, but there are some important, consistent differences in the estimates for: 1) Large Structures and Thermal Control subsystems; 2) System Level Management, Engineering, Product Assurance and Assembly, Integration and Test/Verification activities; 3) Mission Control; 4) Space Agency Program Level

  7. Green light for deployment of ESA's Mars Express radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    ESA's decision to deploy MARSIS follows eight months of intensive computer simulations and technical investigations on both sides of the Atlantic. These were to assess possible harmful boom configurations during deployment and to determine any effects on the spacecraft and its scientific instruments. The three radar booms of MARSIS were initially to have been deployed in April 2004, towards the end of the Mars Express instrument commissioning phase. They consist of a pair of 20-metre hollow cylinders, each 2.5 centimetres in diameter, and a 7-metre boom. No satisfactory ground test of deployment in flight conditions was possible, so that verification of the booms' performance had to rely on computer simulation. Just prior to their scheduled release, improved computer simulations carried out by the manufacturer, Astro Aerospace (California), revealed the possibility of a whiplash effect before they locked in their final outstretched positions, so that they might hit the spacecraft. Following advice from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), which contributed the boom system to the Italian-led MARSIS radar instrument, and the Mars Express science team, ESA put an immediate hold on deployment until a complete understanding of the dynamics was obtained. JPL led a comprehensive investigation, including simulations, theoretical studies and tests on representative booms, the latter to assess potential aging of the boom material. European experts, from ESA and the former spacecraft prime contractor, Astrium SAS, France, worked closely with JPL throughout the entire investigation. An independent engineering review board, composed of ESA and industry experts, met in January to evaluate the findings and advise on ‘if and when’ to proceed with deployment. The ESA review board, at its final meeting on 25 January, recommended deployment of the MARSIS booms. The rationale for the decision was based on the results of the analyses, which showed the possible impact scenarios

  8. Are you ready for Mars? - Main media events surrounding the arrival of ESA's Mars Express at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Launched on 2 June 2003 from Baikonur (Kazakhstan) on board a Russian Soyuz launcher operated by Starsem, the European probe -built for ESA by a European team of industrial companies led by Astrium - carries seven scientific instruments that will perform a series of remote-sensing experiments designed to shed new light on the Martian atmosphere, the planet’s structure and its geology. In particular, the British-made Beagle 2 lander, named after the ship on which Charles Darwin explored uncharted areas of the Earth in 1830, will contribute to the search for traces of life on Mars through exobiology experiments and geochemistry research. On Christmas Eve the Mars Express orbiter will be steered on a course taking it into an elliptical orbit, where it will safely circle the planet for a minimum of almost 2 Earth years. The Beagle 2 lander - which will have been released from the mother craft a few days earlier (on 19 December) - instead will stay on a collision course with the planet. It too should also be safe, being designed for atmospheric entry and geared for a final soft landing due to a sophisticated system of parachutes and airbags. On arrival, the Mars Express mission control team will report on the outcome of the spacecraft's delicate orbital insertion manoeuvre. It will take some time for Mars Express to manouvre into position to pick communications from Beagle 2. Hence, initially, other means will be used to check that Beagle 2 has landed: first signals from the Beagle 2 landing are expected to be available throughout Christmas Day, either through pick-up and relay of Beagle 2 radio signals by NASA’s Mars Odyssey, or by direct pick-up by the Jodrell Bank radio telescope in the UK. Mars Express will then pass over Beagle 2 in early January 2004, relaying data and images back to Earth. The first images from the cameras of Beagle 2 and Mars Express are expected to be available between the end of the year and the beginning of January 2004. The key dates

  9. The European space exploration programme: current status of ESA's plans for Moon and Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Messina, Piero; Vennemann, Dietrich

    2005-01-01

    After a large consultation with the scientific and industrial communities in Europe, the Aurora Space Exploration Programme was unanimously approved at the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at ministerial level in Edinburgh in 2001. This marked the start of the programme's preparation phase that was due to finish by the end of 2004. Aurora features technology development robotic and crewed rehearsal missions aimed at preparing a human mission to Mars by 2033. Due to the evolving context, both international and European, ESA has undertaken a review of the goals and approach of its exploration programme. While maintaining the main robotic missions that had been conceived during Aurora, the European Space Exploration Programme that is currently being proposed to the Aurora participating states and other ESA Member States has a reviewed approach and will feature a greater synergy with other ESA programmes. The paper will present the process that led to the revision of ESA's plans in the field of exploration and will give the current status of the programme.

  10. Identification and Analysis of Landing sites for the ESA ExoMars Rover (2018)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balme, Matthew; Bridges, John; Fawdon, Peter; Grindrod, Peter; Gupta, Sanjeev; Michalski, Joe; Conway, Susan

    2014-05-01

    The exploration and search for life on Mars forms a cornerstone of international solar system exploration. In 2018, the European Space agency will launch the ExoMars Rover and Lander to further this exploration. The key science objectives of the ExoMars Rover are to: 1) search for signs of past and present life on Mars; 2) investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface; and 3) to characterise the surface environment. To meet these objectives ExoMars will drill into the sub-surface to look for indicators of past life using a range of complementary techniques, including assessment of morphology (potential fossil organisms), mineralogy (past environments) and a search for organic molecules and their chirality (biomarkers). The choice of landing site is vital if ExoMars' scientific objectives are to be met. The landing site must: (i) be ancient (≥3.6 Ga); (ii) show abundant morphological and mineral evidence for long-term, or frequently reoccurring, aqueous activity; (iii) include numerous sedimentary outcrops that (iv) are distributed over the landing region (the typical Rover traverse range is only a few km, but the uncertainty in the location of the landing site forms an elliptical of size ~ 100 by 15 km); and (v) have little dust coverage. In addition, in order to land and operate safely, various 'engineering constraints' apply, including: (i) latitude limited to 5º S to 25º N; (ii) maximum altitude of the landing site 2 km below Mars's datum, (iii) few steep slopes within the uncertainty ellipse. These constraints are onerous. In particular, the objective to drill into sediments, the requirement for distributed targets within the ellipse, and the ellipse size, make ExoMars site selection extremely challenging. To meet these challenges, we have begun an intensive study of the martian landscape to identify as many possible ExoMars landing sites as possible. We have converted the current engineering constraints into

  11. The 2009 ESA/Danish Mars Simulation Wind Tunnel Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nornberg, P.; Merrison, J. P.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.

    2009-04-01

    Simulation of the dynamic environment in immediate proximity to the surface of Mars requires access to simulation facilities which can reproduce the atmospheric properties (pressure, temperature, gas composition, UV-VIS light conditions, wind flow etc.). It also requires access to analogue Martian surface material (soil and dust). Simulations can be carried out in a wind tunnel placed in a tank which can be pumped out, like the 400 mm Ø, 1500 mm long wind tunnel that has operated in the Mars Simulation Laboratory at University of Aarhus, Denmark since 2000 (1). A wide range of applications have taken place, from development, test and calibration of instruments, over tests of solar panels, and aerodynamic studies of granular transport to studies of physical properties of dust materials such as grain electrification, aggregation and magnetic properties (2,3). The Salten Skov I analogue (4) and other Martian regolits and dust analogues have been used in the wind tunnel experiments. With the view to future instrument development, solar panel optimization and future research on Martian surface processes a new ESA supported wind tunnel has been constructed at University of Aarhus, Denmark and is now under building. This wind tunnel will have a cross section of close to 1 x 2 m and be able to reach a wind speed of close to 30 m/s under Martian pressure conditions and with samples cooled down to Martian temperatures. The facility is planned to be finally tested and ready for use in July 2009. ESA, ExoMars use of this facility will have priority. However, research projects in collaboration with external users will also be welcome in the future. Later this year information on access possibilities will be announced at the Mars Simulation Laboratory home page: www.marslab.dk. References: (1) Merrison, J., Bertelsen, P., Frandsen, C., Gunnlaugsson, H.P., Knudsen, J.M., Madsen, M.B., Mossin, L., Nielsen, J., Nørnberg, P., Rasmussen, K.R., Uggerhøj, E. and Weyer, G. 2002

  12. ESA ExoMars program: The next step in exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vago, J.; Witasse, O.; Svedhem, H.; Baglioni, P.; Haldemann, A.; Gianfiglio, G.; Blancquaert, T.; McCoy, D.; de Groot, R.

    2015-12-01

    The ExoMars program is an ESA-Roscosmos cooperation with some NASA contributions. ExoMars consists of two missions, one in 2016 and one in 2018. The 2016 mission includes an orbiting satellite dedicated to the study of atmospheric trace gases to acquire information on possible on-going geological or biological processes, and a European entry, descent, and landing demonstrator module (EDM) to achieve a successful soft landing on Mars. The orbiter can also provide data communication services for all surface missions landing on Mars until the end of 2022. The 2018 mission is planned to deliver a 300-kg-class rover and an instrumented landing platform to the Martian surface using a landing system developed by Roscosmos. The 2018 mission is to pursue one of the most outstanding questions of our time by attempting to establish whether life ever existed, or is still present, on Mars today. The article gives an overview of the ExoMars program.

  13. ESA ExoMars: Pre-launch PanCam Geometric Modeling and Accuracy Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D.; Li, R.; Yilmaz, A.

    2014-08-01

    ExoMars is the flagship mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) Aurora Programme. The mobile scientific platform, or rover, will carry a drill and a suite of instruments dedicated to exobiology and geochemistry research. As the ExoMars rover is designed to travel kilometres over the Martian surface, high-precision rover localization and topographic mapping will be critical for traverse path planning and safe planetary surface operations. For such purposes, the ExoMars rover Panoramic Camera system (PanCam) will acquire images that are processed into an imagery network providing vision information for photogrammetric algorithms to localize the rover and generate 3-D mapping products. Since the design of the ExoMars PanCam will influence localization and mapping accuracy, quantitative error analysis of the PanCam design will improve scientists' awareness of the achievable level of accuracy, and enable the PanCam design team to optimize its design to achieve the highest possible level of localization and mapping accuracy. Based on photogrammetric principles and uncertainty propagation theory, we have developed a method to theoretically analyze how mapping and localization accuracy would be affected by various factors, such as length of stereo hard-baseline, focal length, and pixel size, etc.

  14. ExoMars: ESA's mission to search for signs of life on the red planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardini, B.; Vago, J. L.; Baglioni, P.; Kminek, G.; Gianfiglio, G.

    In the framework of its Aurora Exploration Program in 2011 the European Space Agency ESA plans to launch the ExoMars mission ExoMars will deliver two science elements to the Martian surface a Rover carrying the Pasteur scientific payload and a small fixed surface station ---the Geophysics Environment Package GEP The Rover s scientific objectives are 1 To search for signs of past and present life and 2 To characterise in the shallow subsurface the vertical distribution profile for water and geochemical composition The science goals of GEP are 1 to measure geophysics parameters necessary to understand the planet s long-term internal evolution and habitability and 2 to characterise the local environment and identify hazards to future human missions Over its planned 6-month lifetime the Rover will travel a few kilometres searching for traces of past and present signs of life It will do this by collecting and analysing samples from within surface rocks and from underground ---down to 2-m depth The very powerful combination of mobility with the capability to access locations where organic molecules might be well preserved is unique to this mission ExoMars will have the right tools to try to answer the question of whether life ever arose on the red planet The ExoMars mission contains two other elements a Carrier and a Descent Module The Carrier will bring the Descent Module to Mars and release it from the hyperbolic arrival trajectory The Descent Module s objective is to safely deploy the Rover and the GEP ---developing a robust

  15. UK and ESA announce Beagle 2 inquiry - Investigation to learn lessons from Mars Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-02-01

    Today, the UK Science Minister Lord Sainsbury and the European Space Agency (ESA) announced that an ESA/UK inquiry would be held into the failure the Beagle 2 lander. Lord Sainsbury, of the Department of Trade and Industry, said: "I believe such an inquiry will be very useful. The reasons identified by the Inquiry Board will allow the experience gained from Beagle 2 to be used for the benefit of future European planetary exploration missions." The ESA Director General, Jean-Jacques Dordain, said : "ESA is a partnership of its Member States and sharing the lessons learnt from good and bad experiences is fundamental in cooperation." The Inquiry Board is to be chaired by the ESA Inspector General, René Bonnefoy. The UK deputy chairman will be David Link MBE. The inquiry will investigate whether it can be established why Beagle 2 may have failed and set out any lessons which can be learnt for future missions. Such inquiries are routine in the event of unsuccessful space missions and this one will help inform future ESA robotic missions, to Mars and other bodies in the solar system. The Inquiry Board will be set up under normal ESA procedures by the Inspector General. Because the inquiry is into a British-built lander, it will report to Lord Sainsbury as well as to the Director General of ESA. Its terms of reference are as follows: 1. Technical Issues · Assess the available data/documentation pertaining to the in-orbit operations, environment and performance characterisation, and to the on-ground tests and analyses during development; · Identify possible issues and shortcomings in the above and in the approach adopted, which might have contributed to the loss of the mission; 2. Programmatics · Analyse the programmatic environment (i.e. decision-making processes, level of funding and resources, management and responsibilities, interactions between the various entities) throughout the development phase; · Identify possible issues and shortcomings which might have

  16. An ESA Robotic Package to Search for Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; Brack, A.; Clancy, P.; Hofmann, B.; Horneck, G.; Kurat, G.; Maxwell, J.; Ori, G. G.; Pillinger, C.; Raulin, F.

    1999-01-01

    Similarities in the early histories of Mars and Earth suggest that life may have arisen on Mars as it did on Earth. The early life forms on Mars were probably simple organisms, similar to terrestrial prokaryotes. In fact, given the early deterioration of the Martian climate, it is unlikely that life on Mars could ever have reached more sophisticated evolution. Based on the present knowledge of Mars, the possibility of extant life at the surface is small. However, given the adaptability of terrestrial prokaryotes under adverse conditions, it is not excluded. Any extant life is hypothesized to reside in the permafrost in a dormant state until "reanimated" by impact-caused hydrothermal activity. Using this rationale, a group of European scientists worked together to conceive a hypothetical strategy to search for life on Mars. A possible configuration for a lander/rover is outlined.

  17. ESA Press Event: See Mars Express before its departure to the Red Planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-09-01

    Media representatives are invited to INTESPACE on Wednesday 18 September to learn about the mission and attend a ceremony at which a container filled with Ferrari's distinctive 'Rosso Corsa' red paint will be integrated with the spacecraft. Mr Antonio Rodotà (ESA Director General), Professor David Southwood (ESA Director of Science), senior representatives of the space industry and a representative from Ferrari will be giving presentations. Together with the ESA Mars Express project manager and project scientist, they will be available for interviews. Representatives of the media wishing to attend this media day at INTESPACE on Wednesday 18 September are kindly requested to complete the accreditation form and fax it to: Franco Bonacina, Head of Media Relations ESA/HQ, Paris, France Tel. +33 (0) 1 53697155 Fax. +33 (0) 1 53697690 Notes for Editors: 1. On 18 September at INTESPACE, Toulouse, ESA will integrate a sample of Ferrari's 'Rosso Corsa' red paint with the Mars Express spacecraft. This event is part of a new ESA communication policy aimed mainly at the general public. Ferrari have much to celebrate: the outstanding success of the Scuderia Ferrari, winning their fourth consecutive Formula One constructors' championship and Michael Schumacher his fifth Formula One drivers' championship. Responding to an ESA proposal, Ferrari have agreed to send the symbol of their winning formula on the ESA mission to the Red Planet. When Mars Express blasts into orbit next summer at 10 800 kilometres per hour, it will be the fastest that Ferrari's distinctive red paint has ever travelled. Following successful completion of a series of rigorous tests, the Ferrari red paint sample will be officially certified 'space qualified' at a ceremony at INTESPACE. Housed in a specially constructed glass globe known as FRED, it will then be formally integrated with the Mars Express craft. 2. The main objective of the Mars Express mission is to detect the presence of water below the

  18. MIMA: Mars Infrared MApper - The Fourier spectrometer for the ESA Pasteur/ExoMars rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzo, G. A.; Bellucci, G.; Fonti, S.; Saggin, B.; Alberti, E.; Altieri, F.; Politi, R.; Zasova, L.; Mima Team

    The MIMA team is developing a FT-IR miniaturized spectrometer to be mounted on the mast of the ExoMars rover Such instrument shall make remote measurements typically a few tens of meters away searching for evidence of water and of water-related processes e g carbonates sulfates clay minerals and if possible organics A survey instrument of this type will be extremely important for any rover mission on Mars especially for the Pasteur payload on the ExoMars mission whose scientific objective is to search for life and or hazards to humans Survey instruments on rover mast could provide necessary guidance if they can identify water evidence of long standing-water clay minerals carbonates sulfates so that detailed studies and drilling can be conducted at the right location The MIMA design is based on the peculiar pendulum optical design already successfully used on ESA PFS for Mars Express and Venus Express missions The wide spectral range 2-25 micron is not covered by means of a double channel as in PFS but using an innovative architecture two different detectors on the same focal plane sharing the same optical path in order to strongly reduce mass and size In this work MIMA technical and scientific issues will be discussed The MIMA team is Giancarlo Bellucci Team Coordinator Francesca Altieri Maria Blecka Roberto Bonsignori Sergio Fonti Giuseppe A Marzo Sandro Meli Jose Juan Lopez Moreno Boris Moshkin GianGabriele Ori Vincenzo Orofino Romolo Politi Giampaolo Preti Andrea Romoli Ted L Roush Bortolino Saggin Maria

  19. Lunar PanCam: Adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Schmitz, N.; Barnes, D. P.; Josset, J.-L.; Hancock, B. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Paar, G.; Bauer, A.; the PanCam Team

    2012-12-01

    A scientific camera system would provide valuable geological context from the surface for lunar lander missions. Here, we describe the PanCam instrument from the ESA ExoMars rover and its possible adaptation for the proposed ESA lunar lander. The scientific objectives of the ESA ExoMars rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The ExoMars PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for that mission. We describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, and atmospheric science, and 3D vision objectives. We also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench (OB) and electrical interface is provided via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). Additional hardware items include a PanCam Calibration Target (PCT). We also briefly discuss some PanCam testing during field trials. In addition, we examine how such a 'Lunar PanCam' could be adapted for use on the Lunar surface on the proposed ESA lunar lander.

  20. Searching for life on Mars: selection of molecular targets for ESA's aurora ExoMars mission.

    PubMed

    Parnell, John; Cullen, David; Sims, Mark R; Bowden, Stephen; Cockell, Charles S; Court, Richard; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Gaubert, Francois; Grant, William; Parro, Victor; Rohmer, Michel; Sephton, Mark; Stan-Lotter, Helga; Steele, Andrew; Toporski, Jan; Vago, Jorge

    2007-08-01

    The European Space Agency's ExoMars mission will seek evidence of organic compounds of biological and non-biological origin at the martian surface. One of the instruments in the Pasteur payload may be a Life Marker Chip that utilizes an immunoassay approach to detect specific organic molecules or classes of molecules. Therefore, it is necessary to define and prioritize specific molecular targets for antibody development. Target compounds have been selected to represent meteoritic input, fossil organic matter, extant (living, recently dead) organic matter, and contamination. Once organic molecules are detected on Mars, further information is likely to derive from the detailed distribution of compounds rather than from single molecular identification. This will include concentration gradients beneath the surface and gradients from generic to specific compounds. The choice of biomarkers is informed by terrestrial biology but is wide ranging, and nonterrestrial biology may be evident from unexpected molecular distributions. One of the most important requirements is to sample where irradiation and oxidation are minimized, either by drilling or by using naturally excavated exposures. Analyzing regolith samples will allow for the search of both extant and fossil biomarkers, but sequential extraction would be required to optimize the analysis of each of these in turn.

  1. ESAS-Derived Earth Departure Stage Design for Human Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flaherty, Kevin; Grant, Michael; Korzun, Ashley; Malo-Molina, Faure; Steinfeldt, Bradley; Stahl, Benjamin; Wilhite, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration has set the nation on a course to have humans on Mars as early as 2030. To reduce the cost and risk associated with human Mars exploration, NASA is planning for the Mars architecture to leverage the lunar architecture as fully as possible. This study takes the defined launch vehicles and system capabilities from ESAS and extends their application to DRM 3.0 to design an Earth Departure Stage suitable for the cargo and crew missions to Mars. The impact of a propellant depot in LEO was assessed and sLzed for use with the EDS. To quantitatively assess and compare the effectiveness of alternative designs, an initial baseline architecture was defined using the ESAS launch vehicles and DRM 3.0. The baseline architecture uses three NTR engines, LH2 propellant, no propellant depot in LEO, and launches on the Ares I and Ares V. The Mars transfer and surface elements from DRM 3.0 were considered to be fixed payloads in the design of the EDS. Feasible architecture alternatives were identified from previous architecture studies and anticipated capabilities and compiled in a morphological matrix. ESAS FOMs were used to determine the most critical design attributes for the effectiveness of the EDS. The ESAS-derived FOMs used in this study to assess alternative designs are effectiveness and performance, affordability, reliability, and risk. The individual FOMs were prioritized using the AHP, a method for pairwise comparison. All trades performed were evaluated with respect to the weighted FOMs, creating a Pareto frontier of equivalently ideal solutions. Additionally, each design on the frontier was evaluated based on its fulfillment of the weighted FOMs using TOPSIS, a quantitative method for ordinal ranking of the alternatives. The designs were assessed in an integrated environment using physics-based models for subsystem analysis where possible. However, for certain attributes such as engine type, historical, performance-based mass estimating

  2. Beagle 2: a proposed exobiology lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission.

    PubMed

    Sims, M R; Pillinger, C T; Wright, I P; Dowson, J; Whitehead, S; Wells, A; Spragg, J E; Fraser, G; Richter, L; Hamacher, H; Johnstone, A; Meredith, N P; de la Nougerede, C; Hancock, B; Turner, R; Peskett, S; Brack, A; Hobbs, J; Newns, M; Senior, A; Humphries, M; Keller, H U; Thomas, N; Lingard, J S; Ng, T C

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the proposed Beagle 2 small lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission is to search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars and to study the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will have a total mass of 60kg including entry, descent, and landing system. Experiments will be deployed on the surface using a robotic arm. It will use a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks, and inside rocks. Sample analysis by a mass spectrometer will include isotopic analysis. An optical microscope, an X-ray spectrometer and a Mossbauer spectrometer will conduct in-situ rock studies.

  3. Beagle 2: a proposed exobiology lander for ESA's 2003 Mars express mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, M. R.; Pillinger, C. T.; Wright, I. P.; Dowson, J.; Whitehead, S.; Wells, A.; Spragg, J. E.; Fraser, G.; Richter, L.; Hamacher, H.; Johnstone, A.; Meredith, N. P.; de La Nougerede, C.; Hancock, B.; Turner, R.; Peskett, S.; Brack, A.; Hobbs, J.; Newns, M.; Senior, A.; Humphries, M.; Keller, H. U.; Thomas, N.; Lingard, J. S.; Underwood, J. C.; Sale, N. M.; Neal, M. F.; Klingelhofer, G.; Ng, T. C.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the proposed Beagle 2 small lander for ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission is to search for organic material on and below the surface of Mars and to study the inorganic chemistry and mineralogy of the landing site. The lander will have a total mass of 60kg including entry, descent, and landing system. Experiments will be deployed on the surface using a robotic arm. It will use a mechanical mole and grinder to obtain samples from below the surface, under rocks, and inside rocks. Sample analysis by a mass spectrometer will include isotopic analysis. An optical microscope, an X- ray spectrometer and a Mossbauer spectrometer will conduct in-situ rock studies.

  4. Mars Express - ESA sets ambitious goals for the first European mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    Mars has always fascinated human beings. No other planet has been visited so many times by spacecraft. And still, it has not been easy to unveil its secrets. Martian mysteries seem to have increased in quantity and complexity with every mission. When the first spacecraft were sent - the Mariner series in 1960s - the public was expecting an Earth ‘twin’, a green, inhabited planet full of oceans. Mariner shattered this dream by showing a barren surface. This was followed by the Viking probes which searched for life unsuccessfully in 1976. Mars appeared dry, cold and uninhabited: the Earth’s opposite. Now, two decades later, modern spacecraft have changed that view, but they have also returned more questions. Current data show that Mars was probably much warmer in the past. Scientists now think that Mars had oceans, so it could have been a suitable place for life in the past. “We do not know what happened to the planet in the past. Which process turned Mars into the dry, cold world we see today?” says Agustin Chicarro, ESA’s Mars Express project scientist. “With Mars Express, we will find out. Above all, we aim to obtain a complete global view of the planet - its history, its geology, how it has evolved. Real planetology!” Mars Express will reach the Red Planet by the end of December 2003, after a trip of just over six months. Six days before injection into its final orbit, Mars Express will eject the lander, Beagle 2, named after the ship on which Charles Darwin found inspiration to formulate his theory of evolution. The Mars Express orbiter will observe the planet and its atmosphere from a near-polar orbit, and will remain in operation for at least a whole Martian year (687 Earth days). Beagle 2 will land in an equatorial region that was probably flooded in the past, and where traces of life may have been preserved. The Mars Express orbiter carries seven advanced experiments, in addition to the Beagle 2 lander. The orbiter’s instruments have been

  5. Planetary Exploration in ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwehm, Gerhard H.

    2005-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on planetary exploration in the European Space Agency is shown. The topics include: 1) History of the Solar System Material; 2) ROSETTA: The Comet Mission; 3) A New Name For The Lander: PHILAE; 4) The Rosetta Mission; 5) Lander: Design Characteristics; 6) SMART-1 Mission; 7) MARS Express VENUS Express; 8) Planetary Exploration in ESA The Future.

  6. Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and Maurizio Cheli, representing European Space Agency (ESA),

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronauts Jeffrey A. Hoffman (left) and Maurizio Cheli, representing European Space Agency (ESA), set up an experiment at the glovebox on the Space Shuttle Columbias mid-deck. The two mission specialists joined three other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia.

  7. A system for generating multi-resolution Digital Terrain Models of Mars based on the ESA Mars Express and NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yershov, V.

    2015-10-01

    We describe a processing system for generating multiresolution digital terrain models (DTM) of Mars within the the iMars project of the European Seventh Framework Programme. This system is based on a non-rigorous sensor model for processing highresolution stereoscopic images obtained fromthe High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera and Context Camera (CTX) onboard the NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft. The system includes geodetic control based on the polynomial fit of the input CTX images with respect to to a reference image obtained from the ESA Mars Express High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC). The input image processing is based on the Integrated Software for Images and Spectrometers (ISIS) and the NASA Ames stereo pipeline. The accuracy of the produced CTX DTM is improved by aligning it with the reference HRSC DTMand the altimetry data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) onboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft. The higher-resolution HiRISE imagery data are processed in the the same way, except that the reference images and DTMs are taken from the CTX results obtained during the first processing stage. A quality assessment of image photogrammetric registration is demonstrated by using data generated by the NASA Ames stereo pipeline and the BAE Socet system. Such DTMs will be produced for all available stereo-pairs and be displayed asWMS layers within the iMarsWeb GIS.

  8. Media event at ESOC: closest encounter between ESA's comet chaser Rosetta and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-02-01

    The critical close swingby of Mars is needed to use the gravity of Mars to modify the spacecraft’s speed and direction. Rosetta will emerge from its martian encounter pointed towards its next target, Earth ! It arrives for a second swingby of our home planet on 13 November (the first having already taken place on 4 March 2005). To take advantage of this upcoming closest of encounters with the Red Planet, Rosetta’s instruments - as well as those on its lander - will be switched on over predefined time slots to perform a series of scientific observations, including planetary imaging. Flight controllers at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) have already set everything ready for this crucial manoeuvre. Launched on 2 March 2004 on an Ariane 5 rocket, Rosetta is the first probe ever designed to enter orbit around a comet’s nucleus and release a lander onto its surface. Arriving at comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, the probe will take over a year to conduct a thorough scientific study of this remnant of the primitive nebula which gave birth to our solar system some 4.6 billion years ago. By the end of its epic journey, Rosetta will have performed three Earth and one Mars swingbys in all. It will also have studied asteroids Steins and Lutetia, in September 2008 and July 2010 respectively. Media representatives wishing to follow this Rosetta Mars swingby from the ESOC control centre in Darmstadt/Germany are requested to complete and return the attached reply form. For further information, please contact : ESA Communication Department Media Relations Office Tel: +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Programme Rosetta Mars swingby 25 February 2007, 2 a.m. start 02:00 - Doors open & Filming opportunity in Mission Control Room 02:40 - Welcome by David Southwood, ESA Director of Science Programme 02:50 - Rosetta Mars swingby the manoeuvres and flight dynamics, Uwe Feucht, Head of Flight Dynamics Division/Team 03:00 - En route science, first images

  9. 3D Vision on Mars: Stereo processing and visualizations for NASA and ESA rover missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Three dimensional (3D) vision processing is an essential component of planetary rover mission planning and scientific data analysis. Standard ground vision processing products are digital terrain maps, panoramas, and virtual views of the environment. Such processing is currently developed for the PanCam instrument of ESA's ExoMars Rover mission by the PanCam 3D Vision Team under JOANNEUM RESEARCH coordination. Camera calibration, quality estimation of the expected results and the interfaces to other mission elements such as operations planning, rover navigation system and global Mars mapping are a specific focus of the current work. The main goals of the 3D Vision team in this context are: instrument design support & calibration processing: Development of 3D vision functionality Visualization: development of a 3D visualization tool for scientific data analysis. 3D reconstructions from stereo image data during the mission Support for 3D scientific exploitation to characterize the overall landscape geomorphology, processes, and the nature of the geologic record using the reconstructed 3D models. The developed processing framework PRoViP establishes an extensible framework for 3D vision processing in planetary robotic missions. Examples of processing products and capabilities are: Digital Terrain Models, Ortho images, 3D meshes, occlusion, solar illumination-, slope-, roughness-, and hazard-maps. Another important processing capability is the fusion of rover and orbiter based images with the support of multiple missions and sensors (e.g. MSL Mastcam stereo processing). For 3D visualization a tool called PRo3D has been developed to analyze and directly interpret digital outcrop models. Stereo image products derived from Mars rover data can be rendered in PRo3D, enabling the user to zoom, rotate and translate the generated 3D outcrop models. Interpretations can be digitized directly onto the 3D surface, and simple measurements of the outcrop and sedimentary features

  10. Planetary protection and humans missions to Mars: summary results from two workshops sponsored by NASA and NASA/ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, M. S.; Kminek, G.; Rummel, J. D.; Nasa; Nasa/Esa Workshop Participants

    Planetary Protection PP requirements will strongly influence mission and spacecraft designs for future human missions to Mars particularly those related to the operation of advanced life support systems ALS extravehicular activities EVA laboratory and in situ sampling operations and systems for environmental monitoring and control EMC In order to initiate communication understanding and working relations between the ALS EVA EMC and PP communities in both NASA and ESA two separate workshops were held to focus on mission-specific PP issues during future human missions to Mars The NASA Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop was held in Houston TX Center for Advanced Space Studies April 2005 and The Mars PP and Human Systems Research and Technology Joint NASA ESA Workshop was held at ESA ESTEC Noordwijk Netherlands May 2005 This poster presentation summarizes the findings of both workshops and their associated recommendations which are summarized as follows The NASA workshop developed a tentative conceptual approach consistent with current PP requirements to provide preliminary guidance in the assessment of EVA ALS EMC and other aspects of human missions The workshop report identified the need for development of a comprehensive classification and zoning system for Mars to minimize contamination and guide operations particularly in relation to COSPAR Special Region and protection of science and environmental conditions Critical research and technology

  11. [Interior] Configuration options, habitability and architectural aspects of the transfer habitat module (THM) and the surface habitat on Mars (SHM)/ESA's AURORA human mission to Mars (HMM) study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, Barbara

    2007-02-01

    This paper discusses the findings for [Interior] configuration options, habitability and architectural aspects of a first human spacecraft to Mars. In 2003 the space architecture office LIQUIFER was invited by the European Space Agency's (ESA) AURORA Program committee to consult the scientists and engineers from the European Space and Technology Center (ESTEC) and other European industrial communities with developing the first human mission to Mars, which will take place in 2030, regarding the architectural issues of crewed habitats. The task was to develop an interior configuration for a transfer vehicle (TV) to Mars, especially a transfer habitation module (THM) and a surface habitat module (SHM) on Mars. The total travel time Earth—Mars and back for a crew of six amounts to approximately 900 days. After a 200-day-flight three crewmembers will land on Mars in the Mars excursion vehicle (MEV) and will live and work in the SHM for 30 days. For 500 days before the 200-day journey back the spacecraft continues to circle the Martian orbit for further exploration. The entire mission program is based on our present knowledge of technology. The project was compiled during a constant feedback-design process and trans-disciplinary collaboration sessions in the ESA-ESTEC concurrent design facility. Long-term human space flight sets new spatial conditions and requirements to the design concept. The guidelines were developed from relevant numbers and facts of recognized standards, interviews with astronauts/cosmonauts and from analyses about habitability, sociology, psychology and configuration concepts of earlier space stations in combination with the topics of the individual's perception and relation of space. Result of this study is the development of a prototype concept for the THM and SHM with detailed information and complete plans of the interior configuration, including mass calculations. In addition the study contains a detailed explanation of the development of

  12. The effect of space radiation on immunoassay reagents: Implications for the Life Marker Chip Experiment for ESA's ExoMars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derveni, Mariliza

    In recent years, the rise of interest in planetary exploration and the emergence of Astrobiology as a promising field of research have lead to a number of programmes aiming to develop sensitive instruments for the detection of the molecular signatures of life in extreme environments. An antibody assay-based life detection instrument, the Life Marker Chip (LMC), is currently under development by a UK-lead consortium, commissioned for the ExoMars mission, the European Space Agency's (ESA) flagship mission to Mars, in collaboration with NASA. The molecular reagents at the core of instruments such as the LMC have no heritage of interplanetary mission use. Therefore, the design of such instruments for space missions must take into account a number of risk factors, among which the intense radiation environment that will be encountered en route to and on the surface of planets. In order to study the effects of space radiation on lyophilised immunoassay reagents, including antibodies and fluorescent dyes, a number of ground-based and space studies were carried out, the latter in the form of ESA's 2007 BIOPAN-6 low-earth orbit (LEO) space exposure platform. These experiments demonstrated the ability of antibodies and dyes to survive radiation doses up to ten times those expected for the ExoMars mission and remain functional after exposure to the physical environment of spacecraft launch and atmosphere re-entry, provided the samples were appropriately pre-treated and packaged. The combined ground and space radiation campaign lead to the conclusion that the radiation dose levels envisaged for the ExoMars mission will not be an insurmountable problem for the immunoassay components of the Life Marker Chip instrument.

  13. European Space Agency (ESA) Landsat MSS/TM/ETM+ Archive Bulk-Processing: processor improvements and data quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascon, F.; Biasutti, R.; Ferrara, R.; Fischer, P.; Galli, L.; Hoersch, B.; Hopkins, S.; Jackson, J.; Lavender, S.; Mica, S.; Northrop, A.; Paciucci, A.; Paul, F.; Pinori, S.; Saunier, S.

    2014-09-01

    The Landsat program is a joint United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enterprise for Earth Observation (EO), that represents the world's longest running system of satellites for moderate-resolution optical remote sensing. The European Space Agency (ESA) has acquired Landsat data over Europe through the ESA ground stations over the last 40 years, in co-operation with USGS and NASA. A new ESA Landsat Multi-Spectral Scanner (MSS), Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) processor has been developed. This enhanced processor aligns the historical Landsat products to the highest quality standards that can be achieved with the current knowledge of the instruments. The updated processor is mainly based on the USGS algorithm; however the ESA processor has some different features that are detailed in this paper. Using this upgraded processor, ESA is currently performing for the first time a bulk-processing of its entire Landsat series MSS/TM/ETM+ historical archive to make all products available to users. Current achievements include the processing and online distribution of approximately 290 000 new Landsat 5 TM high-quality products acquired at the Kiruna ground station between 1983 and 2011. The Landsat 5 TM bulk-processed products are made available for direct download after registration at: https://earth.esa.int/web/guest/pi-community/apply for-data/fast-registration. The remainder of the ESA's Landsat data, dating back more than 40 years, will gradually become available for all users during the course of 2014. The ESA Landsat processor algorithm enhancement, together with the results of the ESA archive bulk-processing, and an overview on the data quality on a subset of the Landsat 5 TM data are herein presented.

  14. critcial human health issues in connection with future human missions to mMars: the HUMEX study of ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Humex Team

    ESA has recently initiated a study of the human responses, limits and needs with regard to the stress environments of interplanetary and planetary missions. Emphasis was laid on human health and performance care as well as Advanced Life Support Developments including Bioregenerative Life Support Systems and environmental monitoring. The overall study goals were as follows: (i) to define reference scenarios for a European participation in human exploration and to estimate their influence on the Life Sciences and Life Support requirements; (ii) for selected mission scenarios, to critically assess the limiting factors for human health, wellbeing, and performance and to recommend relevant countermeasures; (iii) for selected mission scenarios, to critically assess the potential of Advanced Life Support Developments and to pro-pose a European strategy including terrestrial applications; (iv) to critically assess the feasibility of existing facilities and technologies on ground and in space as test-beds in preparation for human exploratory missions and to develop a test plan for ground and ISS campaigns; (v) to develop a roadmap for a future European strategy towards human exploratory missions, including preparatory activities and terrestrial applications and benefits. Two scenarios for a Mars mission were selected: (i) with a 30 days stay on Mars, and (ii) with about 500 days stay on Mars. The impact on human health, perform-ance and well being has been investigated from the view point of (i) the effects of microgravity (during space travel), reduced gravity (on Mars) and abrupt gravity changes (during launch and landing), (ii) the effects of cosmic radiation including solar particle events, (iii) psychological issues as well as general health care. Coun-termeasures as well as necessary research using ground-based testbeds and/or the ISS have been defined. The need for highly intelligent autonomous diagnostic and therapy systems was emphasized. Advanced life support

  15. Farewell to the Earth and the Moon -ESA's Mars Express successfully tests its instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    The routine check-outs of Mars Express's instruments and of the Beagle-2 lander, performed during the last weeks, have been very successful. "As in all space missions little problems have arisen, but they have been carefully evaluated and solved. Mars Express continues on its way to Mars performing beautifully", comments Chicarro. The views of the Earth/Moon system were taken on 3 July 2003 by Mars Express's High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), when the spacecraft was 8 million kilometres from Earth. The image taken shows true colours; the Pacific Ocean appears in blue, and the clouds near the Equator and in mid to northern latitudes in white to light grey. The image was processed by the Instrument Team at the Institute of Planetary Research of DLR, Berlin (Germany). It was built by combining a super resolution black and white HRSC snap-shot image of the Earth and the Moon with colour information obtained by the blue, green, and red sensors of the instrument. “The pictures and the information provided by the data prove the camera is working very well. They provide a good indication of what to expect once the spacecraft is in its orbit around Mars, at altitudes of only 250-300 kilometres: very high resolution images with brilliant true colour and in 3D,” says the Principal Investigator of the HRSC, Gerhard Neukum, of the Freie Universität of Berlin (Germany). This camera will be able to distinguish details of up to 2 metres on the Martian surface. Another striking demonstration of Mars Express's instruments high performance are the data taken by the OMEGA spectrometer. Once at Mars, this instrument will provide the best map of the molecular and mineralogical composition of the whole planet, with 5% of the planetary surface in high resolution. Minerals and other compounds such as water will be charted as never before. As the Red Planet is still too far away, the OMEGA team devised an ingenious test for their instrument: to detect the Earth’s surface

  16. Payload operations management of a planned European SL-Mission employing establishments of ESA and national agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joensson, Rolf; Mueller, Karl L.

    1994-01-01

    Spacelab (SL)-missions with Payload Operations (P/L OPS) from Europe involve numerous space agencies, various ground infrastructure systems and national user organizations. An effective management structure must bring together different entities, facilities and people, but at the same time keep interfaces, costs and schedule under strict control. This paper outlines the management concept for P/L OPS of a planned European SL-mission. The proposal draws on the relevant experience in Europe, which was acquired via the ESA/NASA mission SL-1, by the execution of two German SL-missions and by the involvement in, or the support of, several NASA-missions.

  17. SINBAD electronic models of the interface and control system for the NOMAD spectrometer on board of ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerónimo Zafra, José M.; Sanz Mesa, Rosario; Gómez López, Juan M.; Rodríguez Gómez, Julio F.; Aparicio del Moral, Beatriz; Morales Muñoz, Rafael; Candini, Gian Paolo; Pastor Morales, M. Carmen; Robles Muñoz, Nicolás.; López-Moreno, José Juan; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Neefs, Eddy; Drummond, Rachel; Delanoye, Sofie; Berkenbosch, Sophie; Clairquin, Roland; Ristic, Bojan; Maes, Jeroen; Bonnewijn, Sabrina; Patel, Manish R.; Leese, Mark

    2016-07-01

    NOMAD is a spectrometer suite: UV-visible-IR spectral ranges. NOMAD is part of the payload of ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter Mission. SINBAD boards are in charge of the communication and management of the power and control between the spacecraft and the instrument channels. SINBAD development took four years, while the entire development and test required five years, a very short time to develop an instrument devoted to a space mission. The hardware of SINBAD is shown in the attached poster: developed boards, prototype boards and final models. The models were delivered to the ESA in order to testing and integration with the spacecraft.

  18. Planetary entry vehicle design for planned and potential ESA missions to Titan, Mars, and Earth return (FGE TN 51/92)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Arthur

    1993-04-01

    Design of ballistic planetary entry probes for planned ESA/NASA Titan, Mars, and Earth-Return missions is discussed with emphasis on the common design constraints. The choice of aeroshell configuration and some of the simple design rules are outlined which are used initially at pre-feasibility stages. These include the influence of body dynamics, conventional aerodynamics, and aerothermodynamics. Prediction of the aerothermodynamic environment and influence of uncertainties in the basic physics and chemistry are seen to dominate. Analysis methodology and some of the ESA sponsored experimental program which was initiated to tackle the lack of basic chemistry data is discussed.

  19. Towards a cooperation between the arts, space science research and the European Space Agency - Preliminary findings of the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pell, Sarah Jane; Imhof, Anna Barbara; Waldvogel, Christian; Kotler, J. Michelle; Peljhan, Marko

    2014-12-01

    The arts offer alternative insights into reality, which are explored by science in general, and broadened by the activities conducted by the European Space Agency [4] and other space agencies. Similar to the way the members of ESA are ambassadors for spaceflight and science, artists and cultural professionals are ambassadors for human expression, experimentation, and exploration. In June 2011, the ESA Topical Team Arts and Sciences (ETTAS) held a three-day workshop at the European Astronaut Centre in Cologne, Germany. During this workshop, topics and ideas were discussed to develop initiatives between the arts, sciences and ESA. The aim was to foster and expand the human and cultural aspects of space exploration, and at the same time offer a means of communication that aims to reach audiences beyond the scope of traditional space-related channels. The consensus of the team was that establishing and sustaining a transdisciplinary professional community consisting of ESA representatives, scientists and artists would fuel knowledge transfer, and mutual inspiration. Potential ways to provide a sustainable cooperation within and between the various groups were discussed. We present the preliminary findings including a number of measures and mechanisms to initiate and conduct such an initiative. Plausible organisational measures, procedures and consequences, as well as a proposition on how to proceed are also discussed. Overall, the involvement and cooperation between the arts, space science research and ESA will enhance in the citizens of the ESA member states the sense of public ownership of ESA results, and participation in ESA's research.

  20. Automated science target selection for future Mars rovers: A machine vision approach for the future ESA ExoMars 2018 rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2013-04-01

    The ESA ExoMars 2018 rover is planned to perform autonomous science target selection (ASTS) using the approaches described in [1]. However, the approaches shown to date have focused on coarse features rather than the identification of specific geomorphological units. These higher-level "geoobjects" can later be employed to perform intelligent reasoning or machine learning. In this work, we show the next stage in the ASTS through examples displaying the identification of bedding planes (not just linear features in rock-face images) and the identification and discrimination of rocks in a rock-strewn landscape (not just rocks). We initially detect the layers and rocks in 2D processing via morphological gradient detection [1] and graph cuts based segmentation [2] respectively. To take this further requires the retrieval of 3D point clouds and the combined processing of point clouds and images for reasoning about the scene. An example is the differentiation of rocks in rover images. This will depend on knowledge of range and range-order of features. We show demonstrations of these "geo-objects" using MER and MSL (released through the PDS) as well as data collected within the EU-PRoViScout project (http://proviscout.eu). An initial assessment will be performed of the automated "geo-objects" using the OpenSource StereoViewer developed within the EU-PRoViSG project (http://provisg.eu) which is released in sourceforge. In future, additional 3D measurement tools will be developed within the EU-FP7 PRoViDE2 project, which started on 1.1.13. References: [1] M. Woods, A. Shaw, D. Barnes, D. Price, D. Long, D. Pullan, (2009) "Autonomous Science for an ExoMars Rover-Like Mission", Journal of Field Robotics Special Issue: Special Issue on Space Robotics, Part II, Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 358-390. [2] J. Shi, J. Malik, (2000) "Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Volume 22. [3] D. Shin, and J.-P. Muller (2009

  1. ESA strategic planning for space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufenbach, B.; Reiter, T.; Sourgens, E.

    2014-08-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) is pursuing an independent strategic planning process for consolidating a destination driven (LEO, Moon, Mars) space exploration strategy. ESA's space exploration strategy is driven by the goals to maximise knowledge gain and to contribute to economic growth. International cooperation is a key pillar of ESA's strategy as it is considered both, an enabler for achieving common goals and a benefit, opening new perspective for addressing future challenges. The achievement of ESA's space exploration strategy is enabled through international partnerships. The interagency coordination process conducted within the framework of the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) plays an important role in laying the foundations for future partnerships. It has achieved so far the development of a common vision for space exploration, a common plan for implementing the vision in the form of the Global Exploration Roadmap, as well as a common approach for articulating the value of global space exploration. ESA has been a strong promoter and supporter of the interagency coordination process conducted within ISECG and thanks to its unique expertise in international cooperation the Agency has contributed to its success.

  2. Building toward Mars: a vision for the future.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elachi, C.; Friedman, L. D.

    1999-04-01

    The authors examine the technological feasibility and the scientific prospects for a robotic sample-return mission to Mars. Moreover, they describe an international effort to coordinate the future exploration of Mars - the Mars Architecture Team. This group conducted its work during the summer of 1998 and presented detailed recommendations for research in the first two decades of the new millennium to NASA, CNES (French Space Agency), ASI (Italian Space Agency), ESA (European Space Agency), and numerous science advisory councils.

  3. EXPOSE - the ESA exposure facility on the ISS, exobiology research activity in support to the future missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglioni, P.; von Heise-Rotenburg, R.

    2004-03-01

    EXPOSE will be installed on the external balconies of the International Space Station (ISS). EXPOSE will host nine experiments prepared by scientists from various European Research Institutes. Experiment specimen will be located in hundreds of tiny cells, pressurized or vented, protected with windows and filters of various geometries and materials. Most of the experiments deal with the understanding of the influence of the radiation environment, in all its different components, on selected biological samples and organic compounds. Some of them are part of a research programme that has, among its targets, the understanding of the survivability of organics matters to extra terrestrial conditions, such as on Mars. EXPOSE is planned to stay in orbit for 3 years.

  4. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Espinasse, S.; Hufenbach, B.

    2013-09-01

    Lunar exploration continues to be a priority for the European Space Agency (ESA) and is recognized as the next step for human exploration beyond low Earth orbit. The Moon is also recognized as an important scientific target providing vital information on the history of the inner solar system; Earth and the emergence of life, and fundamental information on the formation and evolution of terrestrial planets. The Moon also provides a platform that can be utilized for fundamental science and to prepare the way for exploration deeper into space and towards a human Mars mission, the ultimate exploration goal. Lunar missions can also provide a means of preparing for a Mars sample return mission, which is an important long term robotic milestone. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. These include activities on the ISS and participation with US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017. Future activities planned activities also include participation in international robotic missions. These activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future. We present ESA's plans for Lunar exploration and the current status of activities. In particular we will show that this programme gives rise to unique scientific opportunities and prepares scientifically and technologically for future exploratory steps.

  5. Survivability of immunoassay reagents exposed to the space radiation environment on board the ESA BIOPAN-6 platform as a prelude to performing immunoassays on Mars.

    PubMed

    Derveni, Mariliza; Allen, Marjorie; Sawakuchi, Gabriel O; Yukihara, Eduardo G; Richter, Lutz; Sims, Mark R; Cullen, David C

    2013-01-01

    The Life Marker Chip (LMC) instrument is an immunoassay-based sensor that will attempt to detect signatures of life in the subsurface of Mars. The molecular reagents at the core of the LMC have no heritage of interplanetary mission use; therefore, the design of such an instrument must take into account a number of risk factors, including the radiation environment that will be encountered during a mission to Mars. To study the effects of space radiation on immunoassay reagents, primarily antibodies, a space study was performed on the European Space Agency's 2007 BIOPAN-6 low-Earth orbit (LEO) space exposure platform to complement a set of ground-based radiation studies. Two antibodies were used in the study, which were lyophilized and packaged in the intended LMC format and loaded into a custom-made sample holder unit that was mounted on the BIOPAN-6 platform. The BIOPAN mission went into LEO for 12 days, after which all samples were recovered and the antibody binding performance was measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The factors expected to affect antibody performance were the physical conditions of a space mission and the exposure to space conditions, primarily the radiation environment in LEO. Both antibodies survived inactivation by these factors, as concluded from the comparison between the flight samples and a number of shipping and storage controls. This work, in combination with the ground-based radiation tests on representative LMC antibodies, has helped to reduce the risk of using antibodies in a planetary exploration mission context.

  6. On the control of magnetic perturbing field onboard landers: the Magnetometer Protection program for the ESA ExoMars/Humboldt MSMO magnetometer experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menvielle, M.; Primdahl, F.; Brauer, P.; Falkenberg, T. V.; Jensen, P. A.; Merayo, J. M.; Vennerstrom, S.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic field observations at a planetary surface have a wide potential of scientific applications, ranging from processes in the dynamic interaction between the planet environment and the solar wind, to determining the structure and thermal evolution of the interior of the planet as well as characterizing its sub-surface. Magnetic fields are generated by electric currents in the planetary space environment, induced currents in the planetary interior and possibly remanent magnetism. In consequence, hardly any other single physical quantity can be used in such a variety of studies related to planetary research. The major difficulty in implementing a magnetometer experiment onboard a lander is to achieve at acceptable costs a good Magnetometer Protection, namely to control the perturbing magnetic field generated by the lander during operations at the planetary surface, so as to achieve the least magnetic contamination of the magnetometer data by lander generated magnetic perturbations, and thus the best possible magnetic signal to magnetic noise ratio, thus ensuring the best possible magnetometer experiment science return. The purpose of this talk is to show that simple and non-expensive solutions enable one to limit the intensity of lander generated perturbing magnetic fields to levels that are compliant with the science based measurement requirements. The presented solutions are based upon ‘best effort' to being critically concerned with magnetic noise reduction, with emphasis on good and simple engineering techniques enabling minimization of and control over the magnetic perturbations at the magnetometer sensor during the surface operations phase. The presentation deals with the case history of the ongoing preparation of the MSMO magnetometer experiment, which is part the Humboldt scientific payload in the frame of the ESA ExoMars mission. Experience from previous missions constitutes the background for the MSMO Magnetometer Protection strategy. DC and AC

  7. Life on Mars: New strategies to detect life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, Jeffrey L.; Sephton, Mark A.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Mathies, Richard A.; Skelley, Allison M.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Zent, Aaron P.; Quinn, Richard C.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Robert, François; Botta, Oliver; Glavin, Daniel P.

    2005-12-01

    The quest to determine whether life existed, or still exists, on Mars continues with several missions planned for the red planet by both the European Space Agency (ESA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the next few decades. One instrument designed for these missions is the Mars Organic Detector (MOD), which uses a new approach to achieve exceptionally high detection sensitivities and analysis capabilities for key bio-organic compounds. MOD is scheduled to fly in the ESA ExoMars mission early next decade and will attempt to answer the question of whether we are alone in the solar system. Here the MOD team explains why we have reason to be optimistic about uncovering the organic secrets of Mars.

  8. ECOM - ESA's cost modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatelnig, Peter K.

    1996-01-01

    ESA, as an international procurement agency dealing with more than 1200 companies at the same time, must have the ability to assess the price for a product independently from other sources. Especially in the today's environment of flat or even declining budgets ESA has to ensure the value of the contributions coming from their member states. The paper presents a software tool developed by the Cost Analysis Division of ESTEC/ESA, which fits exactly the need for precise and retracable cost estimates for space business projects and components. As an introduction the driving needs and basic cost estimation techniques are presented. ECOM was conceived as a tool for independent price assessment and cost estimation. The gem within ECOM is the database, it contains historical data from ESA projects. The items are grouped in classes and the available data comprises the cost breakdown and the technical description, which are the main performance parameter, number of models, design status and beside the comments, also pictures are available. On the estimate part of ECOM it features all the well-known cost estimation techniques, like estimating using analogy, cost estimating relationship, parametric cost modelling, and includes links to commercial products (PCM, Price-H) as well. ECOM is capable of escalating for any given economical condition and any member state. To prepare reliable prize estimates, the cost analysts need the product tree, the work-package description, the technical description and the HW-matrix. The paper shows examples for the important steps of producing an estimate and is enhanced with authentical screen prints. ECOM is used by the Cost Analysis Division as an expert tool for professional cost estimation for space business projects.

  9. The New ESA Planetary Science Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Gonzalez, J.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Martinez, S.; Grotheer, E.; Lim, T.; Besse, S.; Heather, D.; Fraga, D.; Barthelemy, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's planetary missions, making them accessible to the world-wide scientific community.With the advent of new ESA planetary missions, currently in development Bepi Colombo (Mercury) and ExoMars16 (Mars), and later on ExoMars18 (Mars Rover) and JUICE (Jupiter and moons), the PSA faces the need of supporting new functionalities and requirements.Within this scenario there is a need for a new concept of the PSA, supporting both the evolution of the PDS standard (PDS4), and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications toward a better science exploitation. We introduce the new PSA layout, conceived for better data discovery and retrieval, with special emphasis on GIS technology, interoperability and visualization capabilities.

  10. News and Views: ESA's lunar lander; Last chance for JENAM; M101 celebrating IYA2009; Shaken but not stirred; Mars useful at Obama's speech; A new UK satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    Astronomers working with the Hubble Space Telescope have a new method of estimating the dark matter contribution to galaxies, from a group of objects unaffected by galaxy collisions all around. Technology developed to make the most of images collected by NASA's Mars rovers was used to produce a striking image of the crowd at President Obama's inauguration.

  11. Future ESA missions in biology.

    PubMed

    Bonting, S L

    1984-01-01

    A survey is given of the life sciences research program sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA). This program rests on a number of facilities originated by ESA: Spacelab, Space sled, Biorack, Anthrorack, Eureca and its Botany - and Protein Crystallization facilities. They are all to be brought into space and returned by one of the NASA Space Shuttles. With these facilities a wide range of space biology research will be covered: cell biology, developmental biology, botany, human physiology, radiobiology, exobiology and biotechnology. Information is given on how to prepare, submit and execute an experiment proposal.

  12. Future ESA Missions in Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1984-12-01

    A survey is given of the life sciences research program sponsored by the European Space Agency (ESA). This program rests on a number of facilities originated by ESA: Spacelab, Space sled, Biorack, Anthrorack, Eureca and its Botany — and Protein Crystallization facilities. They are all to be brough into space and returned by one of the NASA Space Shuttles. With these facilities a wide range of space biology research will be covered: cell biology, developmental biology, botany, human physiology, radio-biology, exobiology and biotechnology. Information is given on how to prepare, submit and execute an experiment proposal.

  13. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status and Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Manaud, Nicolas; Martinez, Santa; Szumlas, Marek; Vazquez, Jose Luis; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; PSA Development Team

    2013-04-01

    Scientific and engineering data from ESA's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. The PSA currently holds data from Mars Express, Venus Express, SMART-1, Huygens, Rosetta and Giotto, as well as several ground-based cometary observations. It will be used for archiving on ExoMars, BepiColombo and for the European contributions to Chandrayaan-1. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Advanced Search Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. - The Map-based Interface is currently operational only for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA data. This interface allows an end-user to specify a region-of-interest by dragging a box onto a base map of Mars. From this interface, it is possible to directly visualize query results. The Map-based and Advanced interfaces are linked and cross-compatible. If a user defines a region-of-interest in the Map-based interface, the results can be refined by entering more detailed search parameters in the Advanced interface. - The FTP Browser Interface is designed for more experienced users, and allows for direct browsing and access of the data set content through ftp-tree search. Each dataset contains documentation and calibration information in addition to the scientific or engineering data. All PSA data are prepared by the corresponding instrument teams, and are made to comply with the internationally recognized PDS standards. PSA supports the instrument teams in the full archiving process, from the definition of the data products, meta-data and product labels through to

  14. The exobiology exploration of Mars: a survey of the European approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brack, André

    2000-09-01

    The similarities between the early histories of Mars and Earth raise the concomitant basic question: does our knowledge of primitive terrestrial life and of the early history of Mars allow us to expect life to have developed on Mars? The paper by McKay et al. (1996. Science 273, 924-930.) reported possible relic biogenic activity in a Martian meteorite. Although this discovery is certain to be controversial, it gave a new impetus to the search for fossil life on Mars. American, European and Japanese space agencies have planned a very intensive exploration of Mars with a great emphasis on exobiology. Here are summarized the European approaches including the European Space Agency (ESA) Exobiology Multi-user Facility and the Beagle 2 exobiology lander of the ESA Mars Express mission.

  15. Writing the History of Space Missions: Rosetta and Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coradini, M.; Russo, A.

    2011-10-01

    Mars Express is the first planetary mission accomplished by the European Space Agency (ESA). Launched in early June 2003, the spacecraft entered Mars's orbit on Christmas day of that year, demonstrating the new European commitment to planetary exploration. Following a failed attempt in the mid-­-1980s, two valid proposals for a European mission to Mars were submitted to ESA's decision-­-making bodies in the early 1990s, in step with renewed international interest in Mars exploration. Both were rejected, however, in the competitive selection process for the agency's Science Programme. Eventually, the Mars Express proposal emerged during a severe budgetary crisis in the mid-­-1990s as an exemplar of a "flexible mission" that could reduce project costs and development time. Its successful maneuvering through financial difficulties and conflicting scientific interests was due to the new management approach as well as to the public appeal of Mars exploration. In addition to providing a case study in the functioning of the ESA's Science Programme, the story of Mars Express discussed in this paper provides a case study in the functioning of the European Space Agency's Science Programme and suggests some general considerations on the peculiar position of space research in the general field of the history of science and technology.

  16. ESA extends solar observatory mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-06-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) announced on 24 May that it would extend the life of its Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) from April 2007 to December 2009. Since it was launched in December 1995, SOHO has provided scientists with a view of the Sun's surface. ``This mission extension will allow SOHO to cement its position as the most important spacecraft in the history of solar physics,'' said SOHO project scientist Bernhard Fleck.

  17. Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidics in a miniaturized antibody micro-array system for life detection in the NASA/ESA ExoMars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prak, A.; Leeuwis, H.; Heideman, R. G.; Leinse, A.; Borst, G.

    2011-02-01

    Novel developments in antibody micro-array technology allow the development of very sensitive instrument that is capable of detecting a wide variety of different biomarkers from a sample liquid. An international consortium led by the UK is currently developing the Life Marker Chip as an analytical instrument for the ExoMars mission in 2018 based on the use of immunoassay technique. In this paper it will be discussed how micro/nano system hardware has been designed and the connected fabrication technology has been developed, compatible with the requirements of a Mars mission instrument and allowing a seamless integration in the instrument. A microfluidic fused silica chip integrates all the relevant components for the analysis/assay procedure (except the pumping, which is performed by a syringe-type bellows pump). The fluidic chip therefore contains an entries for intake of the pretreated sample, chambers for the solution of preloaded reagents and the hybridization reaction, liquid front sensors, inputs and output ports for the selector valve and a channel structure connecting these components. Moreover, the design has three parallel fluidic pathways in order to allow for three different classes of assays. The whole fluidic design is driven by the requirement that the dead volumes and the total liquid volume are as small as possible. It appeared that a miniaturized and integrated selector valve has far better properties than a system with numerous integrated and externally, often pneumatically actuated on-off valves. Next to this, the connected volume and mass of the whole fluid management system is lower. An optical array chip incorporates integrated waveguides, which allow for excitation of the fluorescent labels by the evanescent field of the guided light wave. The system had to be designed in such a way that the light of a single fibercoupled lightsource is distributed over all the spots (10 x 10) of the array. The LioniX proprietary waveguide technology Tri

  18. Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    There is direct geomorphological evidence that in the past Mars had large amounts of liquid water on its surface. Atmospheric models would suggest that this early period of hydrological activity was associated with the presence of a thick atmosphere and warmer temperatures. It is possible that at some time in the future we might recreate a habitable climate on Mars, returning it to the life-bearing state it may have enjoyed early in its history. Our studies of Mars are still in a preliminary state but everything we have learned suggests that it may be possible to restore Mars to a habitable climate. Mars' current scientific value is indisputable but it is certainly true that extensive exploration followed by a careful and studied program of introducing life would yield an even greater scientific harvest. The scientific knowledge gained by studying the ways in which a biosphere could be introduced on Mars may inform us as to the preservation of the one on Earth.

  19. Europe is going to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    The Agency's Science Programme Committee (SPC) approved Mars Express after ESA's Council, meeting at ministerial level in Brussels on 11 and 12 May, had agreed the level of the science budget for the next 4 years, just enough to make the mission affordable. "Mars Express is a mission of opportunity and we felt we just had to jump in and do it. We are convinced it will produce first-rate science", says Hans Balsiger, SPC chairman. As well as being a first for Europe in Mars exploration, Mars Express will pioneer new, cheaper ways of doing space science missions. "With a total cost of just 150 million euros, Mars Express will be the cheapest Mars mission ever undertaken", says Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science. Mars Express will be launched in June 2003. When it arrives at the red planet six months later, it will begin to search for water and life. Seven instruments, provided by space research institutes throughout Europe, will make observations from the main spacecraft as it orbits the planet. Just before the spacecraft arrives, it will release a small lander, provided by research institutes in the UK, that will journey on to the surface to look for signs of life. The lander is called Beagle 2 after the ship in which Charles Darwin sailed round the world in search of evidence supporting his theory of evolution. But just as Darwin had to raise the money for his trip, so the search is on for public and private finance for Beagle 2. "Beagle 2 is an extremely important element of the mission", says Bonnet. Europe's space scientists have envisaged a mission to Mars for over fifteen years. But limited funding has prevented previous proposals from going ahead. The positioning of the planets in 2003, however, offers a particularly favourable passage to the red planet - an opportunity not to be missed. Mars Express will be joined by an international flotilla of spacecraft that will also be using this opportunity to work together on scientific questions and pave the way

  20. 78 FR 18585 - FIFRA Pesticide Registration Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Stakeholder Input; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-27

    ... AGENCY FIFRA Pesticide Registration Review and ESA Consultation Processes; Stakeholder Input; Notice of... pesticide registrations under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) and associated... facilitate ESA pesticide consultations and coordination across these Federal agencies, and calls for...

  1. ESA innovation rescues Ultraviolet Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-10-01

    Astrophysicist Freeman J. Dyson from the Institute for Advanced Studies in Princeton characterizes IUE as "A little half-meter mirror sitting in the sky, unnoticed by the public, pouring out results". By use of the IUE satellite, astronomers obtain access to the ultraviolet radiation of celestial bodies in unique ways not available by any other means, neither from the ground nor by any other spacecraft currently in orbit. IUE serves a wide community of astronomers all over Europe, the United States and many other parts of the world. It allows the acquisition of critical data for fundamental studies of comets and their evaporation when they approach the Sun, of the mechanisms driving the stellar winds which make many stars lose a significant fraction of their mass (before they die slowly as White Dwarfs or in sudden Supernova explosions), as well as in the search to understand the ways in which black holes possibly power the violent nuclei of Active galaxies. One year ago the project was threatened with termination and serious concern was expressed by astronomers about the potential loss of IUE's capabilities, as a result of NASA not continuing to operate the spacecraft. Under the leadership of ESA, the three Agencies involved in the operations of IUE (ESA, NASA and the United Kingdom's Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, PPARC), reviewed the operations agreements of the Project. A minor investment allowing the implementation of modern management and engineering techniques as well as a complete revision of the communication infrastructure of the project and continuous improvements in efficiency in the ESA management, also taking advantage of today's technologies, both in computing and communications, have made it possible to continue IUE operations within the financial means available, with ESA taking up most of NASA's share in the operations. According to Dr. Willem Wamsteker, ESA's Dutch IUE Project Scientist, "it was a extremely interesting

  2. PRE-ADAMO: a multi-step approach for the identification of life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, J. R.; Vázquez, L.; Rotundi, A.; Cataldo, F.; Palomba, E.; Saladino, R.; di Mauro, E.; Baratta, G.; Barbier, B.; Battaglia, R.; Colangeli, L.; Costanzo, G.; Crestini, C.; della Corte, V.; Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Esposito, F.; Ferrini, G.; Gómez Elvira, J.; Isola, M.; Keheyan, Y.; Leto, G.; Martinez Frias, J.; Mennella, V.; Negri, R.; Palumbo, M. E.; Palumbo, P.; Strazzulla, G.; Falciani, P.; Adami, G.; Guizzo, G. P.; Campiotti, S.

    2004-03-01

    It is of paramount importance to detect traces of life on Mars surface. Organic molecules are highly polar and if present on Mars require to be extracted from the dust sample, separated, concentrated, processed and analysed by an appropriate apparatus. PRE-ADAMO (PRebiotic Experiment - Activity of Dust And bioMolecules Observation) is a multi-steps approach for the identification of possible polar substances present on Mars. It was proposed as instrument of Pasteur payload for the ESA (European Space Agency) ExoMars rover mission. Main scientific objectives and experimental approach of PRE-ADAMO are here presented.

  3. ExoMars 2016 arrives at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Hakan; Vago, Jorge L.; ExoMars Team

    2016-10-01

    The Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and the Schiaparelli Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Model (EDM) will arrive at Mars on 19 October 2016. The TGO and the EDM are part of the first step of the ExoMars Programme. They will be followed by a Rover and a long lived Surface Platform to be launched in 2020.The EDM is attached to the TGO for the full duration of the cruise to Mars and will be separated three days before arrival at Mars. After separation the TGO will perform a deflection manoeuvre and, on 19 October (during the EDM landing), enter into a highly elliptical near equatorial orbit. TGO will remain in this parking orbit until January 2017, when the orbital plane inclination will be changed to 74 degrees and aerobraking to the final 400 km near circular orbit will start. The final operational orbit is expected to be reached at the end of 2017.The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector for search of subsurface hydrogen. The mass of the TGO is 3700 kg, including fuel. The EDM, with a mass of 600 kg, is mounted on top of the TGO as seen in its launch configuration. The main objective of the EDM is to demonstrate the capability of performing a safe entry, descent and landing on the surface, but it does carry a descent camera and a small battery powered meteorological package that may operate for a few days on the surface.The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency(ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and Schiaparelli (EDM) and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2020 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and

  4. Examining Mars with SPICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, Charles H.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Bytof, Jeff A.; Semenov, Boris V.; Taber, William; Turner, F. Scott; Wright, Edward D.

    1999-01-01

    The International Mars Conference highlights the wealth of scientific data now and soon to be acquired from an international armada of Mars-bound robotic spacecraft. Underlying the planning and interpretation of these scientific observations around and upon Mars are ancillary data and associated software needed to deal with trajectories or locations, instrument pointing, timing and Mars cartographic models. The NASA planetary community has adopted the SPICE system of ancillary data standards and allied tools to fill the need for consistent, reliable access to these basic data and a near limitless range of derived parameters. After substantial rapid growth in its formative years, the SPICE system continues to evolve today to meet new needs and improve ease of use. Adaptations to handle landers and rovers were prototyped on the Mars pathfinder mission and will next be used on Mars '01-'05. Incorporation of new methods to readily handle non-inertial reference frames has vastly extended the capability and simplified many computations. A translation of the SPICE Toolkit software suite to the C language has just been announced. To further support cartographic calculations associated with Mars exploration the SPICE developers at JPL have recently been asked by NASA to work with cartographers to develop standards and allied software for storing and accessing control net and shape model data sets; these will be highly integrated with existing SPICE components. NASA specifically supports the widest possible utilization of SPICE capabilities throughout the international space science community. With NASA backing the Russian Space Agency and Russian Academy of Science adopted the SPICE standards for the Mars 96 mission. The SPICE ephemeris component will shortly become the international standard for agencies using the Deep Space Network. U.S. and European scientists hope that ESA will employ SPICE standards on the Mars Express mission. SPICE is an open set of standards, and

  5. ESA Gaia and GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Hudec, Rene; Simon, Vojtech; Hudec, Lukas

    2008-05-22

    Albeit focusing on astrometry, the ESA Gaia space mission will also provide spectrophotometry for all objects down to mag 20 over 5 years operation period. Typically 50 to 200 measurements per object including optical counterparts of celestial high-energy sources can be expected during this time interval. Also optical afterglows and optical transients of GRBs can be detected and investigated this way.

  6. ESA safety requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedeman, L.

    1988-10-01

    The ESA safety policy, designed to protect human life, investments, and the environment is outlined. A risk assessment procedure which recognizes the lack of objective statistical data is discussed. It considers the consequences, frequency, and probability of an undesirable hazardous event. This risk assessment is applied as an iterative process during all project phases.

  7. Future lunar exploration activities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdou, B.; Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Koschny, D.; Pradier, A.; di Pippo, S.; Gardini, B.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the Moon and various recent and coming orbital missions including Smart-1, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter are advancing our understanding. In 2004 the US announced a new Vision for Space Exploration [1], whose objectives are focused towards human missions to the Moon and Mars. The European Space Agency has established similar objectives for Europe, described in [2] and approved at the ESA ministerial council (2009). There is considerable potential for international cooperation in these activities, as formulated in the recently agreed Global Exploration Strategy [3]. Present lunar exploration activities at ESA emphasise the development of European technologies and capabilities, to enable European participation in future international human exploration of the Moon. A major element in this contribution has been identified as a large lunar cargo lander, which would fulfill an ATV-like function, providing logistical support to human activities on the Moon, extending the duration of sorties and the capabilities of human explorers. To meet this ultimate goal, ESA is currently considering various possible development approaches, involving lunar landers of different sizes. Lunar Lander Mission Options A high capacity cargo lander able to deliver consumables, equipment and small infrastructure, in both sortie and outpost mission scenarios, would use a full Ariane 5 launch and is foreseen in the 2020-2025 timeframe. ESA is also considering an intermediate, smaller-scale mission beforehand, to mature the necessary landing technologies, to demonstrate human-related capabilities in preparation of human presence on the Moon and in general to gain experience in landing and operating on the lunar surface. Within this frame, ESA is currently leading several feasibility studies of a small lunar lander mission, also called "MoonNEXT". This mission is foreseen to be to be launched from Kourou with a

  8. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2016-03-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) selected gravitational-wave astrophysics as the science theme for its third large mission opportunity, known as `L3,' under its Cosmic Vision Programme. NASA is seeking a role as an international partner in L3. NASA is: (1) participating in ESA's early mission activities, (2) developing potential US technology contributions, (3) participating in ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission, (4) and conducting a study of how NASA might participate. This talk will survey the status of these activities.

  9. Aerothermodynamics in Europe: ESA Achievements and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muylaert, J.-M.

    2005-02-01

    Europe is faced with challenging aerothermodynamic problems for several of ESA's human space flight and exploration, science, application and launcher programmes. The Aerothermodynamic section at ESA/ESTEC provided technical support to these programmes and implemented research and development programmes to improve industrial tools for design in a way to strengthen the co-operation between universities, research establishments and industry. The ESA programmes involving Aerothermodynamics are: • Human space flight and exploration: CARV, PARES, IRDT, EXPERT, EVD, ATV, COLUMBUS • Science programmes : Huygens, MARS, VEX • Launcher programmes: ARIANE, VEGA, Future Launchers Preparatory Programme (FLPP). • Satellite telecommunication and earth observation programmes: MSG, EOLUS, CRYOSAT, GOCE • Technological Research programmes: improvements of the tools for design and analysis of space vehicles (ground-based facilities, flight test and measurement techniques and numerical/physical modelling validation activities) The paper will review past ESA aerothermodynamic activities by highlighting achievements obtained on the occasion of the past 4 Aerothermodynamics symposia. Critical aerothermodynamic issues for the design of reentry space vehicles and launchers will be addressed. A number of analysis and test results will be presented, the need for advanced numerical tools will be addressed and the importance of flight-testing will be identified for the validation of the methods and procedures for flight extrapolation of results obtained from ground-based facilities.

  10. The ExoMars 2016 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Håkan; Vago, Jorge; de Groot, Rolf

    2015-11-01

    The ExoMars programme is a joint activity by the European Space Agency (ESA) and ROSCOSMOS, Russia. It consists of the ExoMars 2016 mission with the Trace Gas Orbiter, TGO, and the Entry Descent and Landing Demonstrator, Schiaparelli, and the Exomars 2018 mission which carries a lander and a rover.The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector for search of subsurface hydrogen. ESA is providing the TGO spacecraft and the Schiaparelli Lander demonstrator and two of the TGO instruments and ROSCOSMOS is providing the launcher and the other two TGO instruments.After the arrival of the ExoMars 2018 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle the communication between the Earth and the Rover and lander through its UHF communication system. The 2016 mission will be launched by a Russian Proton rocket from Baikonur in January 2016 and will arrive at Mars in October the same year. This presentation will cover a description of the 2016 mission, including the spacecraft, its payload and science and the related plans for scientific operations and measurements.

  11. Mars Earth Return Vehicle (MERV) Propulsion Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Fincannon, James; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Parkey, Thomas; Colozza, Tony; Fittje, Jim; Martini, Mike; Packard, Tom; Hemminger, Joseph; Gyekenyesi, John

    2010-01-01

    The COMPASS Team was tasked with the design of a Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The current Mars sample return mission is a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and European Space Agency (ESA) mission, with ESA contributing the launch vehicle for the Mars Sample Return Vehicle. The COMPASS Team ran a series of design trades for this Mars sample return vehicle. Four design options were investigated: Chemical Return /solar electric propulsion (SEP) stage outbound, all-SEP, all chemical and chemical with aerobraking. The all-SEP and Chemical with aerobraking were deemed the best choices for comparison. SEP can eliminate both the Earth flyby and the aerobraking maneuver (both considered high risk by the Mars Sample Return Project) required by the chemical propulsion option but also require long low thrust spiral times. However this is offset somewhat by the chemical/aerobrake missions use of an Earth flyby and aerobraking which also take many months. Cost and risk analyses are used to further differentiate the all-SEP and Chemical/Aerobrake options.

  12. Operation IceBridge/ESA Collaboration Benefits All

    NASA Video Gallery

    For the second straight year, NASA's Operation IceBridge is collaborating with the European Space Agency's CryoVEx program, flying aircraft low over Arctic sea ice while ESA's CryoSat satellite orb...

  13. "Cosmic Vision": the new ESA Science Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    The outcome of the ESA Council at Ministerial level held in Edinburgh in November 2001 was not as positive as expected for the Agency's Science Programme. It appeared that the money made available would not be sufficient to carry out the Long Term Programme approved by the Science Programme Committee in October 2000, based on financial assumptions approved by the same Committee in Bern in May 1999. The resources granted in Edinburgh taken at their face value meant the cancellation of a mission (e.g. GAIA). At the conclusion of the exercise, following extensive consultations with all its partners, the Executive could propose a revised plan, which not only maintained the missions approved in October 2000, but added the Eddington mission in addition. The new plan, strongly endorsed by the Science Programme Committee on the occasion of its 99th meeting, contains the following missions, listed by production groups: Astrophysics Group 1: XMM-Newton (1999), INTEGRAL (2002). X and Gamma Ray Observatories (studying the 'violent' universe) Group 2: Herschel, exploring the infrared and microwave universe; Planck, to study the cosmic microwave background; Eddington, searching for extra-solar planets and studying the stellar seismology. (The three missions will be launched in the 2007-2008 timeframe.) Group 3: GAIA, the ultimate galaxy mapper (to be launched no later than 2012). Missions will follow in the same group after 2012. Solar System Science: Group 1:Rosetta, a trip to a comet (2003); Mars Express, a Mars orbiter carrying the Beagle2 lander (2003); (Venus Express, a Venus orbiter, would have been in this group.) Group 2: SMART-1, which will demonstrate solar propulsion technology while on its way to the Moon (2003); BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, Solar Orbiter, a mission to take a closer look at the Sun (missions to be launched in 2011-2012). Fundamental Physics missions: (one group only) STEP (2005) the 'equivalence principle' test, SMART2, a technology

  14. European students explore possible mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The Russian Yuri Gagarin was the first man in orbit, the American Neil Armstrong the first man on the Moon, on 21 July, 1969. Is there a chance that the first human being to set foot on Mars will be a European? Attendants at the 1999 Alpbach Summer School will be putting their minds to this challenging question. Seventy-four students from member states of the European Space Agency will be attending the Summer School from 3 to 12 August in the small mountain village of Alpbach in the Austrian Tyrol. They will be set the task of defining a future Mars Exploration Mission. 25 European experts will provide them with an overview of all aspects of the Red Planet. Basic questions such as the chemical and mineralogical composition of its surface, its geophysics and geochemistry or the search for life on Mars will be addressed. A review of past, present and future exploration of Mars will be presented. The annual Summer School is co-organised by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Science and Transport, the European Space Agency and the Austrian Space Agency. ESA's Director of Science, Prof. Roger Bonnet, will open this year's at 9 a.m. on 3 August, in Alpbach Secondary School with a lecture on "Mars Exploration: For What Purpose? How?" Media representatives are most welcome.

  15. ESA's satellite communications programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholome, P.

    1985-02-01

    The developmental history, current status, and future plans of the ESA satellite-communications programs are discussed in a general survey and illustrated with network diagrams and maps. Consideration is given to the parallel development of national and European direct-broadcast systems and telecommunications networks, the position of the European space and electronics industries in the growing world market, the impact of technological improvements (both in satellite systems and in ground-based networks), and the technological and commercial advantages of integrated space-terrestrial networks. The needs for a European definition of the precise national and international roles of satellite communications, for maximum speed in implementing such decisions (before the technology becomes obsolete), and for increased cooperation and standardization to assure European equipment manufacturers a reasonable share of the market are stressed.

  16. Exploring Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  17. ESA chairs the International Living With a Star programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-02-01

    The Sun is a variable star. The amount of radiation it releases changes constantly, especially at wavelengths that we cannot see, such as ultraviolet. It also releases a stormy ‘wind’ of particles known as the solar wind that buffets the Earth’s magnetic field. Sudden changes in the solar wind can disable communications satellites, disrupt power stations on Earth, and affect passengers in high-flying aircraft. Slow variation in the solar output and even in the solar wind could contribute to climatic changes. Knowing more about these phenomena is therefore very important in different and sometimes unexpected ways. There will be various ILWS mission launches over an approximately ten-year period, starting in 2003. Pooling the resources of the largest fleet of spacecraft in history, the ILWS programme will provide a first global view of the Sun-Earth interaction and lead to a real understanding of it. It will look at the Sun’s effects on other planets also. ESA’s missions form a vital part of ILWS. SOHO and Cluster are leading the way. In 2003, in collaboration with China, a space mission called Double Star will be launched to complement Cluster. In a decade’s time, ESA’s Solar Orbiter will be the centre of interest. It will go closer to the Sun than any solar mission ever before. In between, ESA will assist in exploiting other agency’s missions to the full; it is also currently negotiating to provide ground stations for Japan’s Solar-B mission (launch 2005), and is considering the part it may play in NASA’s STEREO (launch 2005) and Solar Dynamics Orbiter (launch 2007) missions. In addition, ESA’s missions to the other terrestrial planets, Mars Express (launching 2003), Venus Express (launching 2005), and the mission to Mercury, BepiColombo (launching 2011/2012), will carry experiments that look at solar-wind interactions with their respective planets. Hermann Opgenoorth, ESA’s newly appointed Head of Solar and Solar-Terrestrial Missions, is

  18. ESA's Planetary Science Archive: International collaborations towards transparent data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the central repository for science data returned by all ESA planetary missions. Current holdings include data from Giotto, SMART-1, Cassini-Huygens, Mars Express, Venus Express, and Rosetta. In addition to the basic management and distribution of these data to the community through our own interfaces, ESA has been working very closely with international partners to globalize the archiving standards used and the access to our data. Part of this ongoing effort is channelled through our participation in the International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA), whose focus is on allowing transparent and interoperable access to data holdings from participating Agencies around the globe. One major focus of this work has been the development of the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP) that will allow for the interoperability of archives and sharing of data. This is already used for transparent access to data from Venus Express, and ESA are currently working with ISRO and NASA to provide interoperable access to ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 data through our systems using this protocol. Close interactions are ongoing with NASA's Planetary Data System as the standards used for planetary data archiving evolve, and two of our upcoming missions are to be the first to implement the new 'PDS4' standards in ESA: BepiColombo and ExoMars. Projects have been established within the IPDA framework to guide these implementations to try and ensure interoperability and maximise the usability of the data by the community. BepiColombo and ExoMars are both international missions, in collaboration with JAXA and IKI respectively, and a strong focus has been placed on close interaction and collaboration throughout the development of each archive. For both of these missions there is a requirement to share data between the Agencies prior to public access, as well as providing complete open access globally once the proprietary periods have

  19. The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkrad, H.; Beltrami, P.; Hauptmann, S.; Martin, C.; Sdunnus, H.; Stokes, H.; Walker, R.; Wilkinson, J.

    2004-01-01

    The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002 was jointly produced by an industrial consortium and ESA, under an ESA contract. The Handbook is a non-regulatory, self-standing document, providing technical information in support of European debris mitigation standards. The necessity of debris mitigation is illustrated in the context of historic launch activities and operational practices, which led to the current debris environment, with corresponding collision flux levels. Based on detailed population evolution models, this initial population is analyzed with respect to its growth and stability under different traffic assumptions. The implementation of debris mitigation measures, in particular the de-orbiting of spacecraft and upper stages, is shown to reduce the debris growth to an acceptable level within a few decades. The risk on ground due to re-entering space objects, its assessment, and its control is also analyzed. For on-orbit systems, collision risk reduction by avoidance manoeuvres, and passive protection by shielding is outlined. ESA's Handbook also compares recommended debris mitigation and risk reduction practices proposed by several other space agencies. The Handbook will be available at the begin of 2003.

  20. The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkrad, H.; Beltrami, P.; Hauptmann, S.; Martin, C.; Sdunnus, H.; Stokes, H.; Walker, R.; Wilkinson, J.

    The ESA Space Debris Mitigation Handbook 2002 was jointly produced by an industrial consortium and ESA, under an ESA contract. The Handbook is a non-regulatory, self-standing document, providing technical information in support of European debris mitigation standards. The necessity of debris mitigation is illustrated in the context of historic launch activities and operational practices, which led to the current debris environment, with corresponding collision flux levels. Based on detailed population evolution models, this initial population is analysed with respect to its growth and stability under different traffic assumptions. The implementation of debris mitigation measures, in particular the de-orbiting of spacecraft and upper stages, is shown to reduce the debris growth to an acceptable level within a few decades. The risk on ground due to re-entering space objects, its assessment, and its control is also analysed. For on-orbit systems, collision risk reduction by avoidance manoeuvres, and passive protection by shielding is outlined. ESA's Handbook also compares recommended debris mitigation and risk reduction practices proposed by several other space agencies. The Handbook will be available by the end of 2002.

  1. ESA Technologies for Space Debris Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormnes, K.; Le Letty, R.; Summerer, L.; Schonenborg, R.; Dubois-Matra, O.; Luraschi, E.; Cropp, A.; Krag, H.; Delaval, J.

    2013-08-01

    Space debris is an existing and growing problem for space operations. Studies show that for a continued use of LEO, 5 - 10 large and strategically chosen debris need to be removed every year. The European Space Agency (ESA) is actively pursuing technologies and systems for space debris removal under its Clean Space initiative. This overview paper describes the activities that are currently ongoing at ESA and that have already been completed. Additionally it outlines the plan for the near future. The technologies under study fall in two main categories corresponding to whether a pushing or a pulling manoeuvre is required for the de-orbitation. ESA is studying the option of using a tethered capture system for controlled de-orbitation through pulling where the capture is performed using throw-nets or alternatively a harpoon. The Agency is also studying rigid capture systems with a particular emphasis on tentacles (potentially combined with a robotic arm). Here the de-orbitation is achieved through a push-manoeuvre. Additionally, a number of activities will be discussed that are ongoing to develop supporting technologies for these scenarios, or to develop systems for de-orbiting debris that can be allowed to re-enter in an uncontrolled manner. The short term goal and main driver for the current technology developments is to achieve sufficient TRL on required technologies to support a potential de-orbitation mission to remove a large and strategically chosen piece of debris.

  2. Research recommendations of the ESA Topical Team on Artificial Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clément, Gilles; Bukley, Angie

    Many experts believe that artificial gravity will be required for an interplanetary mission. However, despite its attractiveness as an efficient, multi-system countermeasure and its potential for simplifying operational activities, much still needs to be learned regarding the human response to rotating environments before artificial gravity can be successfully implemented. The European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team on Artificial Gravity recommended a comprehensive program to determine the gravity threshold required to reverse or prevent the detrimental effects of microgravity and to evaluate the effects of centrifugation on various physiological functions. Part of the required research can be accomplished using animal models on a dedicated centrifuge in low Earth orbit. Studies of human responses to centrifugation could be performed during ambulatory, short- and long-duration bed rest, and in-flight studies. Artificial-gravity scenarios should not be a priori discarded in Moon and Mars mission designs. One major step is to determine the relationship between the artificial gravity dose level, duration, and frequency and the physiological responses of the major body functions affected by spaceflight. Once its regime characteristics are defined and a dose-response curve is established, artificial gravity should serve as the standard against which all other countermeasure candidates are evaluated, first on Earth and then in space.

  3. ESA uncovers Geminga's `hot spot'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-07-01

    16 July 2004 Astronomers using ESA’s X-ray observatory XMM-Newton have detected a small, bright ‘hot spot’ on the surface of the neutron star called Geminga, 500 light-years away. The hot spot is the size of a football field and is caused by the same mechanism producing Geminga’s X-ray tails. This discovery identifies the missing link between the X-ray and gamma-ray emission from Geminga. hi-res Size hi-res: 1284 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot This figure shows the effects of charged particles accelerated in the magnetosphere of Geminga. Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of particles kicked out by Geminga’s strong magnetic field, trail the neutron star as it moves about in space. Panel (b) shows how electrically charged particles interact with Geminga’s magnetic field. For example, if electrons (blue) are kicked out by the star, positrons (in red) hit the star’s magnetic poles like in an ‘own goal’. Panel (c) illustrates the size of Geminga’s magnetic field (blue) compared to that of the star itself at the centre (purple). The magnetic field is tilted with respect to Geminga’s rotation axis (red). Panel (d) shows the magnetic poles of Geminga, where charged particles hit the surface of the star, creating a two-million degrees hot spot, a region much hotter than the surroundings. As the star spins on its rotation axis, the hot spot comes into view and then disappears, causing the periodic colour change seen by XMM-Newton. An animated version of the entire sequence can be found at: Click here for animated GIF [low resolution, animated GIF, 5536 KB] Click here for AVI [high resolution, AVI with DIVX compression, 19128 KB] hi-res Size hi-res: 371 kb Credits: ESA, P. Caraveo (IASF, Milan) Geminga's hot spot, panel (a) Panel (a) shows an image taken with the EPIC instrument on board the XMM-Newton observatory. The bright tails, made of

  4. Urey: Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, J.

    2006-12-01

    Mars lies at the frontier of planetary exploration science and the question of whether life arose on Mars has been widely debated. One of the fundamental challenges facing the scientific community as we enter this new century of Mars research is to understand in a rigorous manner the biotic potential both past and present of this outermost terrestrial-like planet in our solar system. Urey: Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector has been selected for the Pasteur payload in the European Space Agency's (ESA's) ExoMars rover mission and is considered a fundamental instrument to achieve the mission's scientific objectives. The instrument is named Urey in recognition of Harold Clayton Urey's seminal contributions to cosmochemistry, geochemistry and the study of the origin of life. The overall goal of Urey is to search for organic compounds directly in the regolith of Mars and to assess their origin. Urey will perform a groundbreaking investigation of the Martian environment that will involve searching for organic compounds indicative of life and prebiotic chemistry at a sensitivity many orders of magnitude greater than Viking or other in situ organic detection systems. Urey will perform the first in situ search for key classes of organic molecules using state-of-the-art analytical methods that provide part- per-trillion sensitivity. It will ascertain whether any of these molecules are abiotic or biotic in origin and will evaluate the survival potential of organic compounds in the environment using state-of-the-art chemoresistor oxidant sensors.

  5. ESA SnowLab project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmann, Andreas; Caduff, Rafael; Frey, Othmar; Werner, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Retrieval of the snow water equivalaent (SWE) from passive microwave observations dates back over three decades to initial studies made using the first operational radiometers in space. However, coarse spatial resolution (25 km) is an acknowledged limitation for the application of passive microwave measurements. The natural variability of snow cover itself is also notable; properties such as stratigraphy and snow microstructure change both spatially and over time, affecting the microwave signature. To overcome this deficit, the satellite mission COld REgions Hydrology High-resolution Observatory (CoReH2O) was proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in 2005 in response to the call for Earth Explorer 7 candidate missions. CoReH2O was a dual frequency (X- and Ku-band) SAR mission aimed to provide maps of SWE over land and snow accumulation on glaciers at a spatial resolution of 200 to 500 meters with an unprecedented accuracy. Within the frame of preparatory studies for CoReH2O Phase A, ESA undertook several research initiatives from 2009 to 2013 to study the mission concept and capabilities of the proposed sensor. These studies provided a wealth of information on emission and backscattering signatures of natural snow cover, which can be exploited to study new potential mission concepts for retrieval of snow cover properties and other elements of the cryosphere. Currently data related to multi-frequency, multi-polarisation, multitemporal of active and passive microwave measurements are still not available. In addition, new methods related to e.g. tomography are currently under development and need to be tested with real data. Also, the potential of interferometric and polarimetric measurements of the snow cover and its possible impact for novel mission/retrieval concepts must be assessed. . The objective of the SnowLab activity is to fill this gap and complement these datasets from earlier campaigns by acquiring a comprehensive multi-frequency, multi

  6. Automation and robotics for Human MARS Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Richter, L. A. J.; Griethe, W.; Hofmann, P.; Putz, P.

    2002-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are currently considered as a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. Since September 2000 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich (Germany) leads a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program.. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. This paper presents a summary of the results of this Mars A&R study. The AROMA study is conducted in parallel with two other Mars Exploration Studies, which are: All three studies focus on the design of co-operative European missions within an international human Mars exploration initiative and are funded by ESA. The mission architectures study defines the overall human Mars exploration scenario on which the AROMA study and the Power study is based. The AROMA study is performed in order to identify European A&R development goals for the Human Mars Exploration. Special emphasis is given to A&R technologies and systems which promise to provide particular strategic technological importance and a leadership role for Europe. On the basis of the Mars exploration scenario outline adopted in the Mission Architectures Study the human mission to Mars can be divided into two different phases. Initially the mission starts with a Robotic Outpost Phase. The Robotic outpost system will be landed at pre-selected sites in order to search for life forms and the existence of water and to analyse the composition of the Martian surface, geology and atmosphere. A&R systems i.e. rovers, autonomous instrument packages will perform a number of missions with scientific and technology development objectives and explore the surface of Mars as part of preparations

  7. The ExoMars 2016 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svedhem, Håkan; Vago, Jorge; de Groot, Rolf; McCoy, Don

    2016-04-01

    ExoMars is a joint programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) and Roscosmos, Russia. It consists of the ExoMars 2016 mission with the Trace Gas Orbiter, TGO, and the Entry Descent and Landing Demonstrator, EDM, named Schiaparelli, and the ExoMars 2018 mission, which carries a lander and a rover. The TGO scientific payload consists of four instruments. These are: ACS and NOMAD, both infrared spectrometers for atmospheric measurements in solar occultation mode and in nadir mode, CASSIS, a multichannel camera with stereo imaging capability, and FREND, an epithermal neutron detector to search for subsurface hydrogen (as proxy for water ice and hydrated minerals). The mass of the TGO is 3700 kg, including fuel. The EDM, with a mass of 600 kg, is mounted on top of the TGO as seen in its launch configuration. The EDM is carried to Mars by the TGO and is separated three days before arrival at Mars. In addition to demonstrating the landing capability two scientific investigations are included with the EDM. The AMELIA investigation aims at characterising the Martian atmosphere during the entry and descent using technical and engineering sensors of the EDM, and the DREAMS suite of sensors that will characterise the environment of the landing site for a few days after the landing. ESA provides the TGO spacecraft and the Schiaparelli Lander demonstrator, ESA member states provide two of the TGO instruments and Roscosmos provides the launcher and the other two TGO instruments. After the arrival of the ExoMars 2018 mission at the surface of Mars, the TGO will handle all communications between the Earth and the Rover. The communication between TGO and the rover/lander is done through a UHF communications system, a contribution from NASA. The 2016 mission will be launched by a Russian Proton rocket from Baikonur in March 2016 (launch window 14-25 March) and will arrive at Mars on 19 October. This presentation will cover a description of the 2016 mission, including the spacecraft

  8. Aspects of ESA s public outreach programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maree, H.

    The Science Programme Communication Service is currently implementing a new policy to increase the overall public interest in ESA Science Programme by adopting new ways of promoting its activities, accordingly to the simple principle that "different target audiences have different needs". It is clear that the general public (i.e. "the man in the street" / "the average tax- payer") rarely has the knowledge and the background to understand what exactly a space mission is, what it does and why it does it ("Mission oriented approach"). The experience has shown that a space mission becomes "popular" amongst this target audience when the relevant communication is done by passing generic/bas ic/simple messages ("Thematic oriented approach"). The careful selection of adequate supports together with efficient distribution and promotion networks are also key parameters for success of the latter approach. One should also note that the overall objective of this new policy, is to raise people's interest in space in general. By presenting the information under the ESA brand, the public will start more and more to associate this brand and Europe to space exploration. Within the next twelve months, four scientific missions will be launched. Interestingly, tree of them (SMART-1, ROSETTA and MARS EXPRESS) offer a unique opportunity to implement the new communication policy under the single thematic : Europe is exploring the Solar System. Nevertheless, the study of the various mission profiles and their potential communication impact lead us to choose to reach out the general public primarily via the sub-thematic : Europe goes to Mars.

  9. Venus within ESA probe reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-03-01

    Venus Express mission controllers at the ESA Space Operations Centre (ESOC) in Darmstadt, Germany are making intensive preparations for orbit insertion. This comprises a series of telecommands, engine burns and manoeuvres designed to slow the spacecraft down from a velocity of 29000 km per hour relative to Venus, just before the first burn, to an entry velocity some 15% slower, allowing the probe to be captured into orbit around the planet. The spacecraft will have to ignite its main engine for 50 minutes in order to achieve deceleration and place itself into a highly elliptical orbit around the planet. Most of its 570 kg of onboard propellant will be used for this manoeuvre. The spacecraft’s solar arrays will be positioned so as to reduce the possibility of excessive mechanical load during engine ignition. Over the subsequent days, a series of additional burns will be done to lower the orbit apocentre and to control the pericentre. The aim is to end up in a 24-hour orbit around Venus early in May. The Venus orbit injection operations can be followed live at ESA establishments, with ESOC acting as focal point of interest (see attached programme). In all establishments, ESA specialists will be on hand for interviews. ESA TV will cover this event live from ESOC in Darmstadt. The live transmission will be carried free-to-air. For broadcasters, complete details of the various satellite feeds are listed at http://television.esa.int. The event will be covered on the web at venus.esa.int. The website will feature regular updates, including video coverage of the press conference and podcast from the control room at ESA’s Operations Centre. Media representatives wishing to follow the event at one of the ESA establishments listed below are requested to fill in the attached registration form and fax it back to the place of their choice. For further information, please contact: ESA Media Relations Division Tel : +33(0)1.53.69.7155 Fax: +33(0)1.53.69.7690 Venus Express

  10. Hurry along please, for the Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    Why the hurry? The deadline is set in the form of a favourable launch opportunity just five years from now. The positions of Earth and Mars in their orbits at that time will mean that a spacecraft can reach Mars more quickly, carrying a greater weight of instruments, than from any other launch date in the next decade. A decision to proceed taken towards the end of 1998 would leave less than five years to create, test and launch a complex spacecraft and meet that deadline. Most judgements about Mars Express and its instruments have therefore to be made in advance if the engineers and scientists are to make sure that everything is ready for lift-off in June 2003. The brisk pace is also fitting for the prototype of a new class of Flexi (flexible) missions. Mars Express is the first of what should become a series of relatively inexpensive and quick projects introduced into ESA's space science, to seize special opportunities to broaden the programme. At about one-quarter of the cost of the major Cornerstone missions, which have long lead-times, the Flexi missions replace the previous class of Medium missions, in ESA's forward planning. Streamlined management procedures for the Flexi missions help to keep down the costs to ESA while placing more responsibility on the industrial contractors and the participating scientists. Space scientists advising ESA recognized the special opportunity for Mars Express after the failure of the Russian Mars 96 mission, in November 1996. It left a gap in the international programme for the exploration of Mars, and some of the key instruments which fell into the Pacific Ocean with Mars 96 had been devised by space scientists in ESA member states. The strong scientific interest in Mars within Europe, and the predicted advantage of the mid-2003 launch, led to the proposal to add Mars Express to ESA's programme. A distinctive role in exploring Mars The search for water is one of the main tasks foreseen for Mars Express. The discovery of

  11. ATLID, ESA Atmospheric LIDAR Developement Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira do Carmo, João; Hélière, Arnaud; Le Hors, L.; Toulemont, Y.; Lefebvre, A.

    2016-06-01

    The ATmospheric LIDAR ATLID[1] is part of the payload of the Earth Cloud and Aerosol Explorer[2] (EarthCARE) satellite mission, the sixth Earth Explorer Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) Living Planet Programme. EarthCARE is a joint collaborative satellite mission conducted between ESA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (JAXA) that delivers the Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR) instrument. The payload consists of four instruments on the same platform with the common goal to provide a picture of the 3D-dimensional spatial and the temporal structure of the radiative flux field at the top of atmosphere, within the atmosphere and at the Earth's surface. This paper is presenting an updated status of the development of the ATLID instrument and its subsystem design. The instrument has recently completed its detailed design, and most of its subsystems are already under manufacturing of their Flight Model (FM) parts and running specific qualification activities. Clouds and aerosols are currently one of the biggest uncertainties in our understanding of the atmospheric conditions that drive the climate system. A better modelling of the relationship between clouds, aerosols and radiation is therefore amongst the highest priorities in climate research and weather prediction.

  12. The ESA's Space Trajectory Analysis software suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    The European Space Agency (ESA) initiated in 2005 an internal activity to develop an open source software suite involving university science departments and research institutions all over the world. This project is called the "Space Trajectory Analysis" or STA. This article describes the birth of STA and its present configuration. One of the STA aims is to promote the exchange of technical ideas, and raise knowledge and competence in the areas of applied mathematics, space engineering, and informatics at University level. Conceived as a research and education tool to support the analysis phase of a space mission, STA is able to visualize a wide range of space trajectories. These include among others ascent, re-entry, descent and landing trajectories, orbits around planets and moons, interplanetary trajectories, rendezvous trajectories, etc. The article explains that STA project is an original idea of the Technical Directorate of ESA. It was born in August 2005 to provide a framework in astrodynamics research at University level. As research and education software applicable to Academia, a number of Universities support this development by joining ESA in leading the development. ESA and Universities partnership are expressed in the STA Steering Board. Together with ESA, each University has a chair in the board whose tasks are develop, control, promote, maintain, and expand the software suite. The article describes that STA provides calculations in the fields of spacecraft tracking, attitude analysis, coverage and visibility analysis, orbit determination, position and velocity of solar system bodies, etc. STA implements the concept of "space scenario" composed of Solar system bodies, spacecraft, ground stations, pads, etc. It is able to propagate the orbit of a spacecraft where orbital propagators are included. STA is able to compute communication links between objects of a scenario (coverage, line of sight), and to represent the trajectory computations and

  13. French Participation in Mars Sample Return (and MARS Exploration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Counil, Jean-Louis

    2000-10-01

    This presentation focused on high level contribution to the first MARS Sample Return mission. It further discusses leadership of the European Netlander project, Payload Instruments on the ESA-mission MARS-Express, Contribution to US Micro-missions, Instruments on Landers (PALOMA, Ma-FLUX), and Co-Is.

  14. Raman Laser Spectrometer for 2020 ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, A. G.; Rull, F.; Maurice, S.; Hutchinson, I. B.; Canora, C. P.; López, G.; Canchal, R.; Gallego, P.; Seoane, L.; Prieto, J. A. R.; Santiago, A.; Santamaría, P.; Colombo, M.; Belenguer, T.; Ramos, G.; Parot, Y.; Ingley, R.; Woodward, S.; Shulte, W.

    2016-10-01

    The Raman Laser Spectrometer (RLS) is one of the scientific payloads on the ExoMars 2020 mission, within ESA's Aurora Exploration Program. It will perform Raman spectroscopy on crushed powdered samples, obtained from two meters depth under Mars surface.

  15. The new Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Santa; Besse, Sebastien; Heather, Dave; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; De Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Rios, Carlos; Vallejo, Fran; Saiz, Jaime; ESDC (European Space Data Centre) Team

    2016-10-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standard, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation. The newly designed PSA will enhance the user experience and will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data promoting one-click access to the scientific datasets with more specialised views when needed. This includes a better integration with Planetary GIS analysis tools and Planetary interoperability services (search and retrieve data, supporting e.g. PDAP, EPN-TAP). It will be also up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's ExoMars and upcoming BepiColombo missions. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). This contribution will introduce the new PSA, its key features and access interfaces.

  16. Mars Surface Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørnberg, Per; Merrison, Jonathan P.; Gunnlaugsson, Haraldur P.

    2010-05-01

    Laboratory simulations of the Martian surface are of importance to broaden scientific understanding of the physical processes, but also in order to develop the technology necessary for exploration of the planet. The Mars Simulation Laboratory at Aarhus University [1] has been involved in such simulations for around ten years and has developed several experimental facilities for carrying out science or instrument testing under conditions similar to those at the Martian surface, specifically low pressure, low temperature and importantly recreating the wind flow environment and dust suspension (reproducing the Martian dusty aerosol) using Mars analogue material [2]. The science involved in this simulation work has covered a broad spectrum including, erosion induced mineralogy/chemistry, particulate electrification, magnetic properties of Martian dust, biological survival, UV induced chemistry/mineralogy (using a solar simulator), adhesion/cohesion processes and the wind driven transport of dust and sand [3,4]. With regard to technology the wind tunnel facilities have been used in the development of the latest wind and dust sensing instrumentation [5,6]. With support from the European Space Agency (ESA) and Danish national funding an advanced Mars simulation facility has recently been constructed (2009). This wind tunnel facility has a cross section of 2 x 1 m and a length of 8 m, a temperature range down to below -120C, wind speeds in excess of 20m/s, and automated dust control. With a range of (specialised) sensing instrumentation it provides the opportunity to perform a new generation of scientific experiments and allow testing and technology development in the most realistic and rigorous environment. As well as being available for the space agencies, this facility will be open to all potential scientific collaborators. Also European planetary scientists may benefit from support through the EU Europlanet FP7 networking programme. For more information on access

  17. Mars Express: exploration of Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duxbury, T. C.

    2001-01-01

    The ESA Mars Express Orbiter will be nearly polar and have an initial orbital period of 7.6 hours for the first 440 days and then will reduce its period to 6.7 hours. As periapsis of the elliptical orbit walks around Mars every 2 years, the ascending and descending nodes of the Mars Express orbit on the Mars equatorial plane will have the same radius as the orbit of Phobos and close encounters of Phobos will occur when Phobos is near the node as Mars Express passes.

  18. Technology validation of the PLATO CCD at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Lemmel, Frederic; Smit, Hans; Blommaert, Sander; Oosterbroek, Tim; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Visser, Ivo; Heijnen, Jerko; Butler, Bart

    2016-07-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz. The manufacture of such large device in large quantity constitutes an unprecedented effort. To de-risk the PLATO CCD procurement and aid the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation team is characterizing the electro-optical performance of a number of PLATO devices before and after proton irradiation.

  19. ESA's CCD test bench for the PLATO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Bloemmaert, Sander; Lemmel, Frederic; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Smit, Hans; Butler, Bart; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Heijnen, Jerko; Visser, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz and at -70 C. To de-risk the PLATO CCD qualification programme initiated in 2014 and support the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section from the Future Missions Office has developed a dedicated test bench.

  20. NASA's Preparations for ESA's L3 Gravitational Wave Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2016-01-01

    In November 2013, the European Space Agency (ESA) selected the science theme, the "Gravitational Universe," for its third large mission opportunity, known as 'L3,' under its Cosmic Vision Programme. The planned launch date is 2034. NASA is seeking a role as an international partner in L3. NASA is supporting: (1) US participation in early mission studies, (2) US technology development, (3) pre-decadal preparations, (4) ESA's LISA Pathfinder mission and (5) the ST7 Disturbance Reduction System project. This talk summarizes NASA's preparations for a future gravitational-wave mission.

  1. Urey: Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bada, J. L.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Grunthaner, F.; Blaney, D.; Coleman, M.; Farrington, A.; Yen, A.; Mathies, R.; Amudson, R.; Quinn, R.; Zent, A.; Ride, S.; Barron, L.; Botta, O.; Clark, B.; Glavin, D.; Hofmann, B.; Josset, J. L.; Rettberg, P.; Robert, F.; Sephton, M.

    One of the fundamental challenges facing the scientific community as we enter this new century of Mars research is to understand, in a rigorous manner, the biotic potential both past and present of this outermost terrestrial-like planet in our solar system. Urey: Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector has been selected for the Pasteur payload of the European Space Agency's (ESA's) ExoMars rover mission and is considered a fundamental instrument to achieve the mission's scientific objectives. The instrument is named Urey in recognition of Harold Clayton Urey's seminal contributions to cosmochemistry, geochemistry, and the study of the origin of life. The overall goal of Urey is to search for organic compounds directly in the regolith of Mars and to assess their origin. Urey will perform a groundbreaking investigation of the Martian environment that will involve searching for organic compounds indicative of life and prebiotic chemistry at a sensitivity many orders of magnitude greater than Viking or other in situ organic detection systems. Urey will perform the first in situ search for key classes of organic molecules using state-of-the-art analytical methods that provide part-per-trillion sensitivity. It will ascertain whether any of these molecules are abiotic or biotic in origin and will evaluate the survival potential of organic compounds in the environment using state-of-the-art chemoresistor oxidant sensors.

  2. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. L.; Mavris, C.; Michalski, J. R.; Rumsey, M. S.; Russell, S. S.; Jones, C.; Schroeven-Deceuninck, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  3. Starting a European Space Agency Sample Analogue Collection for Robotic Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Sutcliffe, C. N.; Ballentine, C. J.; Onstott, T. C.; Lau, C. Y. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Slater, G.; Moser, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Natural History Museum is working closely with the European Space Agency (ESA) and the UK Space Agency to develop a European collection of analogue materials with appropriate physical/mechanical and chemical (mineralogical) properties which can support the development and verification of both spacecraft and scientific systems for potential science and exploration missions to Phobos/Deimos, Mars, C-type asteroids and the Moon. As an ESA Collection it will be housed at the ESA Centre based at Harwell, UK. The "ESA Sample Analogues Collection" will be composed of both natural and artificial materials chosen to (as closely as possible) replicate the surfaces and near-surfaces of different Solar System target bodies of exploration interest. The analogue samples will be fully characterised in terms of both their physical/mechanical properties (compressive strength, bulk density, grain shape, grain size, cohesion and angle of internal friction) and their chemical/mineralogical properties (texture, modal mineralogy, bulk chemical composition - major, minor and trace elements and individual mineralogical compositions). The Collection will be fully curated to international standards including implementation of a user-friendly database and will be available for use by engineers and scientists across the UK and Europe. Enhancement of the initial Collection will be possible through collaborations with other ESA and UK Space Agency supported activities, such as the acquisition of new samples during field trials.

  4. Characterizing atmospheric waves on Venus, Earth, and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Colin F.; Piccialli, Arianna

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric Waves Workshop; Noordwijk, Netherlands, 9-10 November 2011 Experts in observations and modeling of atmospheric waves from the Earth and planetary atmospheric science communities came together at a November 2011 workshop held at the European Space Agency's (ESA) European Space Research and Technology Centre ( ESTEC) site in the Netherlands to discuss the nature of waves observed in Venus's atmosphere and their comparison to those on Earth and Mars. ESA's Venus Express (VEx) satellite and ground-based observers find atmospheric waves at many scales. Migrating solar tides and other planetary- scale waves are observed in cloud- tracking wind vectors and temperature fields. Mesoscale gravity waves (GWs) can also be seen at a variety of levels from the cloud base up to the thermosphere, evident in imagery and in vertical profiles of temperature, density, and aerosol abundance. This workshop focused particularly on GWs, as their role in the atmospheric circulation is still poorly understood.

  5. ESA on RAINEWS24: A Case Study of Television Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandrelli, S.

    2005-12-01

    In May 2000, ESRIN, the Italian establishment of the European Space Agency (ESA), started a collaboration with the television channel Rainews24. Rainews24 is the "allnews" channel of Italian public television (RAI) and is now about 10 years old. It transmits 24 hours a day and is the most watched all-news satellite channel in Italy. Each Thursday an ESA representative (Stefano Sandrelli) is interviewed by a professional RAI journalist in a 5-6 minute long slot that follows the 5 pm news bulletin. The broadcast is repeated late at night or in the early hours of Thursday and Friday. Interviews are strictly linked to the weekly news and are prepared on the morning of the same day by the ESA representative in collaboration with a RAI journalist. The subject is chosen from the most topical news items of the week: video, images and animations are provided by the ESA television service and by press agencies (Reuters etc.). The interviews are largely informal and resemble a dialogue rather than an academic discussion "from space". Even though they focus on ESA activities, they are not advertisements: space science and research is dealt with as a human activity, so both the positive and negative aspects of space exploration and exploitation may emerge. Although this outreach activity began as an experiment, the ESA interviews have become a fixed feature. As a result of five years of uninterrupted collaboration, over 200 interviews have been recorded, with about 30% of the interviews dedicated to pure astronomy. A welcome positive feature is that the interviews are seen by Rainews24 as an open source of daily news.

  6. ESA is now a major player in global space science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-07-01

    longer than ISO's. Planck Surveyor was recently selected as a medium-scale project, to chart the cosmic microwave background carefully enough to trace the origin of the galaxies. ESA is now examining the option of combining these two missions in a single spacecraft, for launching in 2005. Prominent among other enticing possibilities is Mars Express, a high-level, low-cost mission that could set off for the Red Planet in 2003. It would give Europe an important stake in the exploration of Mars, by remote sensing from an orbiter and by experiments in landers. The latter can exploit ESA=s experience in preparing for the Huygens mission to Titan. Some of the Mars experiments should be readily adaptable from instruments prepared for other missions. -4- ESA is also considering SMART missions, using small satellites to test key technologies. Solar-electric propulsion, long seen as a much-needed advance in spacecraft engines, could take a small spacecraft to the Moon and then onwards to an asteroid. A second candidate for a SMART mission would develop Adrag free@ technologies for testing Einstein=s theory of gravity. Other possibilities under review include participation in a replacement for the Hubble Space Telescope, and opportunities for science associated with the International Space Station. In addition, three major projects have been selected by Europe=s space scientists as long-term goals. A spacecraft to orbit the hot planet Mercury, barely explored till now, will shed new light on the history of the Solar System. An astronomical interferometric mission using two or more telescopes in combination will observe the stars and galaxies more accurately by visible or infrared light. And a novel kind of astronomy is promised by an ambitious gravitational-wave mission to detect radiation predicted by Einstein's theory of gravity, which supposedly stretches and squeezes space itself. In short, ESA is delivering superb space science and, if future funding allows, has exciting ideas

  7. Operational Experience with Autonomous Star Trackers on ESA Interplanetary Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, Mathias; Jauregui, Libe; Kielbassa, Sabine

    2007-01-01

    Mars Express (MEX), Rosetta and Venus Express (VEX) are ESA interplanetary spacecrafts (S/C) launched in June 2003, March 2004 and November 2005, respectively. Mars Express was injected into Mars orbit end of 2003 with routine operations starting in spring 2004. Rosetta is since launch on its way to rendezvous comet Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. It has completed several test and commissioning activities and is performing several planetary swingbys (Earth in spring 2005, Mars in spring 2007, Earth in autumn 2007 and again two years later). Venus Express has also started routine operations since the completion of the Venus orbit insertion maneuver sequence beginning of May 2006. All three S/C are three axes stabilized with a similar attitude and orbit control system (AOCS). The attitude is estimated on board using star and rate sensors and controlled using four reaction wheels. A bipropellant reaction control system with 10N thrusters serves for wheel off loadings and attitude control in safe mode. Mars Express and Venus Express have an additional 400N engine for the planetary orbit insertion. Nominal Earth communication is accomplished through a high gain antenna. All three S/C are equipped with a redundant set of autonomous star trackers (STR) which are based on almost the same hardware. The STR software is especially adapted for the respective mission. This paper addresses several topics related to the experience gained with the STR operations on board the three S/C so far.

  8. ESA Venus Entry Probe Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vandenBerg, M. L.; Falkner, P.; Phipps, A.; Underwood, J. C.; Lingard, J. S.; Moorhouse, J.; Kraft, S.; Peacock, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Venus Entry Probe is one of ESA s Technology Reference Studies (TRS). The purpose of the Technology Reference Studies is to provide a focus for the development of strategically important technologies that are of likely relevance for future scientific missions. The aim of the Venus Entry Probe TRS is to study approaches for low cost in-situ exploration of Venus and other planetary bodies with a significant atmosphere. In this paper, the mission objectives and an outline of the mission concept of the Venus Entry Probe TRS are presented.

  9. MARS GLOB: creation of an international network of Mars surface landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galeev, A.; Moroz, V.; Linkin, V.; Kremnev, R.; Rogovsky, G.; Pichkhadze, K.; Martynov, B.; Papkov, O.; Eremenko, A.; Galimov, E.; Surkov, Y.; Elachi, C.; Bourke, R.; McNamee, J.

    Program MARS GLOB provides step-by-step deployment of an international network of Mars surface stations by association the MESUR NETWORK (USA), INTERMARS-NET (ESA) programs with the network of small stations and penetrators now under developing in Russia jointly with international cooperation in frameworks of the MARS-96 Project. It is offering also delivery on Mars surface two penetrators and Mars Rover. Now penetrators and Rover are developing by Russia with participation of other countries in frameworks of the MARS-98 (or MARS TOUR) Project.

  10. Relays from Mars demonstrate international interplanetary networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    On 4 August at 14:24 CEST, as Mars Express flew over one of NASA’s Mars exploration rovers, Opportunity, it successfully received data previously collected and stored by the rover. The data, including 15 science images from the rover's nine cameras, were then downlinked to ESA’s European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt (Germany) and immediately relayed to the Mars Exploration Rovers team based at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, USA. NASA orbiters Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor have so far relayed most of the data produced by the rovers since they landed in January. Communication compatibility between Mars Express and the rovers had already been demonstrated in February, although at a low rate that did not convey much data. The 4 August session, at a transmit rate of 42.6 megabits in about six minutes, set a new mark for international networking around another planet. The success of this demonstration is the result of years of groundwork and was made possible because both Mars Express and the Mars rovers use the same communication protocol. This protocol, called Proximity-1, was developed by the international Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems, an international partnership for standardising techniques for handling space data. Mars Express was 1400 kilometres above the Martian surface during the 4 August session with Opportunity, with the goal of a reliable transfer of lots of data. Engineers for both agencies plan to repeat this display of international cooperation today, 10 August, with another set of Opportunity images. “We're delighted how well this has been working, and thankful to have Mars Express in orbit,” said Richard Horttor of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, project manager for NASA's role in Mars Express. JPL engineer Gary Noreen of the Mars Network Office said: “the capabilities that our international teamwork is advancing this month could be important in future exploration of Mars

  11. ESA Unveils Its New Comet Chaser.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    The objective is to study one of these primordial objects at close quarters by placing a lander on its surface and chasing, with an orbiter, the comet for millions of kilometres through space. Comets - among the oldest (4.6 billion years!) and last altered objects in the solar system - are regarded as the building blocks from which the planets formed. Thus the Rosetta's discoveries will allow the scientists to learn more about birth and evolution of the planets and about the origin of life on the Earth. The final design of the Rosetta orbiter will be revealed for the first time at the Royal Society in London on 1 July when a 1:4 scale model will be unveiled by ESA's Director of Science, Prof.. Roger Bonnet. (The full size version of the spacecraft is 32 metres across, so large that it would stretch the entire width of a football pitch. Almost 90 of this is accounted for by the giant solar panels which are needed to provide electrical power in the dark depths of the Solar System). "Rosetta is a mission of major scientific importance," said Prof. Bonnet. "It will build on the discoveries made by Giotto and confirm ESA's leading role in the exploration of the Solar System and the Universe as a whole." The timing of this event has been chosen to coincide with the London meeting of the Rosetta Science Working Team and the second Earth flyby of the now non-operational Giotto spacecraft. In addition, the opening of the British Museum's 'Cracking Codes' Exhibition, for which the Rosetta Stone is the centrepiece, is set to take place on 10 July. The Rosetta mission. Rosetta is the third Cornerstone in ESA's 'Horizon 2000' long-term scientific programme. It will be launched by Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana in January 2003. In order to gain sufficient speed to reach the distant comet, Rosetta will require gravity assists from the Earth (twice) and Mars. After swinging around Mars in May 2005, Rosetta will return to Earth's vicinity in October 2005 and

  12. ESA's Earth Observation Programmes in the Changing Anthropocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-07-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation programmes and their relevance to studying the anthropocene. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. The Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. The Earth Explorers also aim at learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The Sentinel missions provide accurate, timely, long term and uninterrupted data to provide key information services, improving the way the environment is managed, and helping to mitigate the effects of climate change. The operational Sentinel satellites can also be exploited for scientific studies of the anthropocene. In the anthropocene human activities affect the whole planet and space is a very efficient means to measure their impact, but for relevant endeavours to be successful they can only be carried out in international cooperation. ESA maintains long-standing partnerships with other space agencies and institutions worldwide. In running its Earth observation programmes, ESA responds to societal needs and challenges and to requirements resulting from political priorities set by decision makers. Activities related to Climate Change are a prime example. Within ESA's Climate Change Initiative, 13 Essential Climate Variables are constantly monitored to create a long-term record of key geophysical parameters.

  13. ESA's SMART-1 Mission: Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, G.; Foing, B. H.; SMART-1 Project Team

    SMART-1 is the first of Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology as part of ESA science programme ``Cosmic Vision''. Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been launched on 27 sept. 2003, as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. SMART-1 orbit pericenter is now outside the inner radiation belt. The current status of SMART-1 will be given at the symposium. After a 15 month cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit.

  14. ESA announces its Future Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-10-01

    The announcement will be made at ESA's Head Office, 8-10 rue Mario Nikis in Paris, during a press breakfast starting at 08:30. Media representatives wishing to attend the event are kindly requested to fill out the attached accreditation from and fax it back to ESA Media Relations Office - Paris. Note to editors The announcement will follow a two-day meeting of ESA's Space Science Committee (SPC), composed of Delegates from all ESA's Member States, in Paris on 11 and 12 October. The SPC will decide - on the basis of the Space Science Advisory Committee's (SSAC) recommendations formulated earlier in September - about the next Cornerstone (CS) and Flexi (F) Missions that will be implemented in the framework of ESA's Horizons 2000 Programme. Further information about the Future Mission candidates and the ESA Science Programme can be found at: http://sci.esa.int. In particular the SSAC recommendations to SPC can be found at: http://sci.esa.int/structure/content/index.cfm?aid=1&cid=2304 Further information on ESA at : http//www.esa.int

  15. Safety risk management for ESA space systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K. M.

    1991-08-01

    ESA's safety program as defined in ESA PSS-01-40, system safety requirements for ESA space systems, comprise the systematic identification and evaluation of space system hazardous characteristics and their associated risks, together with a process of safety optimization through hazard and risk reduction, and implementation verification. This safety optimization and verification process is termed safety risk management. The fundamental principles of safety risk management are discussed.

  16. Distribution of ESA's planetary mission data via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Barthelemy, Maud; Arviset, Christophe; Osuna, Pedro; Ortiz, Inaki

    Scientific and engineering data from the European Space Agency's planetary missions are made accessible to the world-wide scientific community via the Planetary Science Archive (PSA). The PSA consists of online services incorporating search, preview, download, notification and delivery basket functionality. All data in the PSA are compatible with the Planetary Data System (PDS) Standard of NASA, and the PSA staff work in close collaboration with the PDS staff. One major part of the ongoing development of the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance) has been to draw upon the lessons learned on both sides of this working relationship in order to refine and streamline the Standards. This is driving towards ‘interoperability' of the data systems maintained at all Agencies archiving planetary data, and it is hoped that in the long-run any data can be obtained from any of the co-operating archives using the same protocol. Currently, the PSA contains data from the GIOTTO spacecraft, several ground-based cometary observations, and the Mars Express, Smart-1, and Huygens missions. Independent reviews for the first Venus Express data are schedule for Spring 2008 and the first Venus Express data should be released on the PSA in late spring 2008. The first data release from the ROSETTA mission is also expected to be released on the PSA by spring 2008. Preparation for the release of data from the SMART-1 spacecraft is ongoing. Future missions such as ExoMars and Bepi- Colombo will also aim to work with the PSA to distribute their data to the community. The focus of the PSA activities is on the long-term preservation of data and knowledge from ESA's planetary missions. Scientific users can access the data online using several interfaces: - The Classical Interface allows complex parameter based queries, providing the end user with a facility to complete very specific searches on meta-data and geometrical parameters. By nature, this interface requires careful use and heavy

  17. From ESAS to Ares: A Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout my career, I have observed many launch vehicle efforts come and go. Although it may appear on the surface that those were dead-end streets, the knowledge we gained through them actually informs the work in progress. Following the tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia's crew, the administration took the Columbia Accident Investigation Board's findings to heart and united the Agency behind the Vision for Space Exploration, with clear goals and objectives, including fielding a new generation of safe, reliable, and affordable space transportation. The genesis of the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle activities now under way by a nationwide Government and industry team was the confirmation of the current NASA Administrator in April 2005. Shortly thereafter, he commissioned a team of aerospace experts to conduct the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), which gave shape to launch vehicles that will empower America's resurgence in scientific discovery through human and robotic space exploration. In October 2005, I was asked to lead this effort, building the team and forming the partnerships that will, in turn, build America's next human-rated space transportation system. In November 2006, the Ares I team began conducting the System Requirements Review milestone, just 1 year after its formation. We are gaining momentum toward the first test flight of the integrated vehicle system in 2009, just a few short years away. The Agency is now poised to deliver on the commitment this nation has made to advance our interests in space. In its inaugural year, the Ares team has conducted the first human-rated launch vehicle major milestone in over 30 years. Using the Exploration Systems Architecture Study recommendations as a starting point, the vehicle designs have been evolved to best meet customer and stakeholder requirements to fulfill the strategic goals outlined in the Vision for Space Exploration.

  18. ESA Intermediate Experimental Vehicle. Independent Aerothermodynamic Characterization And Aerodatabase Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufolo, Giuseppe C.; Di Benedetto, Sara; Walpot, Louis; Roncioni, Pietro; Marini, Marco

    2011-05-01

    In the frame of the Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) project, the European Space Agency (ESA) is coordinating a series of technical assistance activities aimed at verifying and supporting the IXV industrial design and development process. The technical assistance is operated with the support of the Italian Space Agency (ASI), by means of the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA), and the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) under the super visioning and coordination of ESA IXV team. One of the purposes of the activity is to develop an independent capability for the assessment and verification of the industrial results with respect to the aerothermodynamic characterization of the IXV vehicle. To this aim CIRA is developing and independent AeroThermodynamics DataBase (ATDB), intended as a tool generating in output the time histories of local quantities (heat flux, pressure, skin friction) for each point of the IXV vehicle and for each trajectory (in a pre-defined envelope), together with an uncertainties model. The reference Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions needed for the development of the tool have been provided by ESA-ESTEC (with the CFD code LORE) and CIRA (with the CFD code H3NS).

  19. Assessment of a 2016 Mission Concept: The Search for Trace Gases in the Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zurek, Richard W.; Chicarro, Augustin; Allen, Mark A.; Bertauz, Jean-Loup; Clancy, R. Todd; Daerden, Frank; Formisano, Vittorio; Garvin, James B.; neukum, Gerhard; Smith, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The reported detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars as well as its potentially large seasonal spatial variations challenge our understanding of both the sources and sinks of atmospheric trace gases. The presence of methane suggests ongoing exchange between the subsurface and the atmosphere of potentially biogenic trace gases, while the spatial and temporal variations cannot be accounted for with current knowledge of martian photochemistry. A Joint Instrument Definition Team (JIDT) was asked to assess concepts for a mission that might follow up on these discoveries within the framework of a series of joint missions being considered by ESA and NASA for possible future exploration of Mars. The following is based on the report of the JIDT to the space agencies (Zurek et al., 2009); a synopsis of the report was presented at the Workshop on Mars Methane held in Frascati, Italy, in November 2009. To summarize, the JIDT believed that a scientifically exciting and credible mission could be conducted within the evolving capabilities of the science/telecommunications orbiter being considered by ESA and NASA for possible launch in the 2016 opportunity for Mars.

  20. ESA's Living Planet Programme: The Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achache, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA's) Living Planet Programme marks the beginning of a new chapter in European led Earth Observation, based on focussed science user-driven missions. The Earth Explorer missions seek to advance the understanding of complex Earth system processes in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere. Each of the Explorer missions is adapted to address a specific scientific problem whilst at the same time building on the heritage of, and the experience gained from a decade of successful continuous scientific obervations made by the larger ERS-1, and -2 and Envisat missions. The Living Planet Programme's Explorer line of smaller and focused missions is also complemented by a parallel line of applications-driven Earth Watch missions address mature operational applications and the provision of services. Specifically, the science-driven Explorer missions are designed to further the demonstration of new satellite-based observing techniques that will allow us to develop our knowledge of the Earth system. Four new missions are currently under development, that will soon begin a sequence of launches beginning in 2004 with CryoSat. Several new mission concepts are also undergoing detailed study, with subsequent consideration for approval. The existing approved missions seek to measure: climate-induced changes in polar terrestrial and sea ice masses; a high resolution Earth gravity field; vertical wind vector profiles; and soil moisture and ocean salinity. Mission concepts under study address a broad array of Earth processes from Earth's magnetic field through stratospheric chemistry to terrestrial vegetation. The Explorers employ a wide array of technologies such as lidars for the sensing of clouds, winds, water vapour and other atmospheric constituents; radars for ice and ocean topography, land and ocean monitoring, cloud profiling and rain monitoring; passive instruments covering the UV through far infrared, including

  1. ESA Sentinel-1 Mission and Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floury, Nicolas; Attema, Evert; Davidson, Malcolm; Levrini, Guido; Rommen, Björn; Rosich, Betlem; Snoeij, Paul

    The global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES) space component relies on existing and planned space assets by European States, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), and the European Space Agency (ESA), as well as new complementary developments by ESA. The new developments are implemented in terms of five families of satellites called Sentinels. The Sentinel-1 mission is an imaging synthetic aperture radar (SAR) mission at C-band designed to supply all-weather day-and-night imagery to a number of operational Earth observation based services. Three priorities (fasttrack services) for the mission have been identified by user consultation working groups of the European Union: Marine Core Services, Land Monitoring and Emergency Services. These cover applications such as: - monitoring sea ice zones and the arctic environment, - surveillance of marine environment, - monitoring land surface motion risks, - mapping of land surfaces: forest, water and soil, agriculture, - mapping in support of humanitarian aid in crisis situations. Sentinel-1 has been designed to address medium resolution applications. It includes a main mode of operation that features a wide swath (250 km) and a medium resolution (5 m x 20 m). The two-satellite constellation offers six days exact repeat and the conflict-free operations based on the main operational mode allow exploiting every single data take. This paper describes the Sentinel-1 mission, provides an overview of the mission requirements, and presents some of the key user driven information products, the crucial requirements for operational sustainable services being continuity of data supply, frequent revisit, geographical coverage and timeliness. As data products from the Agency‘s successful ERS-1, ERS-2 and Envisat missions form the basis for many of the pilot GMES services, Sentinel-1 data products need to maintain and in some ways to improve data quality levels of the Agency

  2. Swarm: ESA's Magnetic Field Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinkwater, M. R.; Haagmans, R.; Floberghagen, R.; Plank, G.; Menard, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Swarm is the fifth Earth Explorer mission in ESA's Living Planet Programme, and is scheduled for launch in 2012. The objective of the Swarm mission is to provide the best-ever survey of the geomagnetic field and its temporal evolution using a constellation of 3 identical satellites. The Mission shall deliver data that allow access to new insights into the Earth system by improved scientific understanding of the Earth's interior and near-Earth electromagnetic environment. After launch and triple satellite release at an initial altitude of about 490 km, a pair of the satellites will fly side-by-side with slowly decaying altitude, while the third satellite will be lifted to 530 km to complete the Swarm constellation. High-precision and high-resolution measurements of the strength, direction and variation of the magnetic field, complemented by precise navigation, accelerometer and electric field measurements, will provide the observations required to separate and model various sources of the geomagnetic field and near-Earth current systems. The mission science goals are to provide a unique view into Earth core dynamics, mantle conductivity, crustal magnetisation, ionospheric and magnetospheric current systems and upper atmosphere dynamics - ranging from understanding the geodynamo to contributing to space weather. The scientific objectives and results from recent scientific studies will be presented. In addition the current status of the project, which is presently approaching the final stage of the development phase, will be addressed. A consortium of European scientific institutes is developing a distributed processing system to produce geophysical (Level 2) data products to the Swarm user community. The setup of Swarm ground segment and the contents of the data products will be addressed. More information on the Swarm mission can be found at the mission web site (see URL below).

  3. Public Outreach and Archiving of Data from the High Resolution Stereo Camera Onboard Mars Express: 2004 The First Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, U.; Neukum, G.; Gasselt, S. v.; Jaumann, R.; Roatsch, Th.; Hoffmann, H.; Zender, J.; Acton, C.; Drigani, F.

    2005-01-01

    During the first year of operation, corresponding to the calendar year 2004, the HRSC imaging experiment onboard ESA's Mars Express mission recorded 23 Gigabyte of 8-bit compressed raw data. After processing, the amount of data increased to more than 344 Gigabyte of decompressed and radiometrically calibrated scientifically useable image products. Every six months these HRSC Level 2 data are fed into ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA) that sends all data also to the Planetary Data System (PDS) to ensure easy availability to the interested user. On their respective web portals, the European Space Agency published in cooperation with the Principal Investigator-Group at Freie Universitat Berlin and the German Space Agency (DLR) almost 40 sets of high-level image scenes and movies for PR needs that have been electronically visited many hundred thousand times.

  4. Golden legacy from ESA's observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    'milestone number' of 1000 scientific papers was reached. Even now ISO's data archive remains a valuable source of new results. For example, some of the latest papers describe the detection of water in 'protostars', which are stars in the process of being born, and studies of numerous nearby galaxies. "Of course we were confident ISO was going to do very well, but its actual productivity has been far beyond our expectations. The publication rate does not even seem to have peaked yet! We expect many more results," Salama says. Note for editors ISO's data archive contains scientific data from about 30 000 observations. Astronomers from all over the world have downloaded almost eight times the equivalent of the entire scientific archive. As much as 35% of all ISO observations have already been published at least once in prestigious scientific journals. ESA is now preparing to continue its infrared investigation of the Universe. The next generation of infrared space observatories is already in the pipeline. ISO is to be followed by the NASA SIRTF observatory to be launched later this year. Then, in 2007, ESA will follow up the pioneering work of ISO with the Herschel Space Observatory, which will become the largest imaging telescope ever put into space. ISO The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) was launched in 1995 and operated from November that year to May 1998, when it ran out of the coolant needed to keep its detectors working. At the time it was the most sensitive infrared satellite ever launched and made particularly important studies of the dusty regions of the Universe, where visible light telescopes can see nothing. ESA will reopen its examination of the infrared Universe when Herschel is launched in 2007. Herschel Herschel will be the largest space telescope when, in 2007, it is launched on an Ariane-5 rocket, together with ESA’s cosmology mission, Planck. Herschel’s 3.5-metre diameter mirror will collect longwave infrared radiation from some of the coolest and most

  5. ESA astronauts assigned to Tethered Satellite System mission - STS-75

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-01-01

    The TSS project is a joint NASA/ASI (Italian Space Agency) effort. On STS-75, the five-foot diameter (1.6 metre) Italia built satellite is scheduled to be deployed on the end of a 1 mile long (20 kilometre) conductive tether to study the electrodynamic effects of moving such a tether through the Earth's magnetic field. The experiment will also test techniques for managing the tethered spacecraft at great distances. Throughout the 13-day flight, additional experiments housed in the orbiter's payload bay will give scientists access to s for microgravity and fundamental science investigations. The USMP is designed to provide the foundation for advanced scientific investigations similar to those planned aboard the International Space Station. Claude Nicollier, who is Swiss, was selected by ESA in 1978 as one of three European payload specialists to train for the SPACELAB-1 mission. He was a mission specialist on STS- 46 (31 July-8 August 1992), during which the crew members deployed ESA's retrievable science platform (EURECA) and conducted the first TSS test flight. A few months after his return from this mission Claude Nicollier was selected as mission specialist for STS-61 (2-13 December 1993). He contributed considerably to the complete success of the Hubble Space Telescope repair and refurbishment mission and in particular the replacement of the ESA-provided solar arrays. Maurizio Cheli, an Italian, was selected by ESA in May 1992 along with five other young candidates to expand the corps of ESA astronauts. He has been in Houston since mid-1992 and has qualified as mission specialist at NASA's Johnson Space Center there. STS-75 will be his first Shuttle flight. Marine Corps Lt. Col. Andrew M. Allen will command Space Shuttle Columbia's STS-75 mission. Joining Allen are Air Force Major Scott J. Horowitz, pilot; payload commander Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Ph. D; Italian Space Agency (ASI) TSS payload specialist Umberto Guidoni, Ph.D; mission specialist Jeffrey A

  6. ESA Fire CCI product assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heil, Angelika; Yue, Chao; Mouillot, Florent; Storm, Thomas; Chuvieco, Emilio; Kaiser, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    Vegetation fires are a major disturbance in the Earth System. Fires change the biophysical properties and dynamics of ecosystems and alter terrestrial carbon pools. By altering the atmosphere's composition, fire emissions exert a significant climate forcing. To realistically model past and future changes of the Earth System, fire disturbances must be taken into account. Related modelling efforts require consistent global burned area observations covering at least 10 to 20 years. Guided by the specific requirements of a wide range of end users, the ESA fire_cci project is currently computing a new global burned area dataset. It applies a newly developed spectral change detection algorithm upon the full ENVISAT-MERIS archive (2002 to 2012). The algorithm relies on MODIS active fire information as "seed". A first, formally validated version has been released for the period 2006 to 2008. It comprises a pixel burned area product (spatial resolution of 333 m) with date detection information and a biweekly grid product at 0.5 degree spatial resolution. We compare fire_cci burned area with other global burned area products (MCD64, GFED4(s), GEOLAND) and a set of active fires data (hotspots from MODIS, TRMM, AATSR and fire radiative power from GFAS). Output from the ongoing processing of the full MERIS timeseries will be incorporated into the study, as far as available. The analysis of patterns of agreement and disagreement between fire_cci and other products provides a better understanding of product characteristics and uncertainties. The intercomparison of the 2006-2008 fire_cci time series shows a close agreement with GFED4 data in terms of global burned area and the general spatial and temporal patterns. Pronounced differences, however, emerge for specific regions or fire events. Burned area mapped by fire_cci tends to be notably higher in regions where small agricultural fires predominate. The improved detection of small agricultural fires by fire_cci can be related to

  7. An Interaction Region Near the Top of the Ionosphere Observed at Mars and Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frahm, R. A.; Winningham, J.; Sharber, J. R.; Duru, F.; Gurnett, D. A.; Lundin, R.; Coates, A. J.; Tsang, S. M.; Delva, M.; Zhang, T.

    2009-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) currently operates spacecraft at both Mars (Mars Express - MEx) and at Venus (Venus Express - VEx). On both MEx and VEx is the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) experiment, which measures the electron spectrum with the Electron Spectrometer (ELS) and the ion spectrum with the Ion Mass Analyzer (IMA). The MEx spacecraft also contains the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) which can derive the thermal electron density and magnetic field magnitude from its ionograms. The VEx spacecraft also contains a magnetometer (MAG) experiment. At the top of the ionosphere of Mars and Venus is a region where there is mixing between plasma from the ionosphere and plasma from the solar wind. ASPERA-3 data shows high energy strahl from the solar wind penetrating through the bow shock and magnetosheath, and into the dayside ionosphere. At the same time, plasma showing electron peaks generated by the ionization of carbon dioxide and atomic oxygen by solar He 30.4 nm penetrates into the magnetosheath. This overlap region is located where the thermal electron density at Mars derived by MARSIS decreases. This region marks the beginning of ion acceleration as ions begin to flow down the tail. This region is also observed at Venus. All three experiments show turbulence near and through the ionosphere/solar wind interaction region. In this presentation we will show examples of this transition region from both Mars and Venus.

  8. Relay Support for the Mars Science Laboratory and the Coming Decade of Mars Relay Network Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Arnold, Bradford W.; Bell, David J.; Bruvold, Kristoffer N.; Gladden, Roy E.; Ilott, Peter A.; Lee, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, an evolving network of Mars relay orbiters has provided telecommunication relay services to the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and to the Mars Phoenix Lander, enabling high-bandwidth, energy-efficient data transfer and greatly increasing the volume of science data that can be returned from the Martian surface, compared to conventional direct-to-Earth links. The current relay network, consisting of NASA's Odyssey and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and augmented by ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, stands ready to support the Mars Science Laboratory, scheduled to arrive at Mars on Aug 6, 2012, with new capabilities enabled by the Electra and Electra-Lite transceivers carried by MRO and MSL, respectively. The MAVEN orbiter, planned for launch in 2013, and the ExoMars/Trace Gas Orbiter, planned for launch in 2016, will replenish the on-orbit relay network as the current orbiter approach their end of life. Currently planned support scenarios for this future relay network include an ESA EDL Demonstrator Module deployed by the 2016 ExoMars/TGO orbiter, and the 2018 NASA/ESA Joint Rover, representing the first step in a multimission Mars Sample Return campaign.

  9. Bold ideas shortlisted for future ESA science projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    ESA's science programme introduced flexi-missions in 1997, to achieve greater flexibility. They replace the medium-scale projects, of which Huygens (Titan lander) and Integral (gamma-ray astronomy) are current examples. The aim is to have two flexi-missions for the price of one medium mission. Mars Express, already under construction for launch in 2003, is the first flexi-mission, or F1. Now under consideration are F2 and F3, each with a cost to ESA of no more than 176 million euros at 1999 prices. The frontrunner in the astronomy field for one of these slots is European participation with NASA in the Next Generation Space Telescope, successor to the NASA-ESA Hubble Space Telescope. Although a formal decision will not be taken until later this year, much European effort has already gone into preparing for this NGST project, due for launch in 2008. That intensifies the competition for the other slot. An embarrassment of riches - of ideas Multinational teams of scientists from Europe's universities and research institutes are backing each of the proposals selected for assessment, half of which concern the Solar System and the Earth's space environment. STORMS is a scheme to use three spacecraft to investigate a source of big trouble for technological systems, after solar eruptions. The "ring current" of energetic charged particles circulates around the equator at altitudes of several times the Earth's radius, and when its intensity varies during solar storms it causes magnetic perturbations at the Earth's surface. Three identical spacecraft, orbiting out to 50,000 kilometres and equally spaced around the equator, could clear up several remaining mysteries of the ring current -- and also provide real-time monitoring of magnetic storms. SOLAR ORBITER would fly on an extended orbit taking it at intervals to within about 30 million kilometres of the Sun -- much closer than the innermost planet, Mercury. At its closest approach the spacecraft would round the Sun at

  10. ARIEL: an ESA M4 mission candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig, L.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Heske, A.; Escudero Sanz, I.; Crouzet, P.-E.

    2016-07-01

    The Atmospheric Remote sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large survey (ARIEL) mission is an M-class mission candidate within the science program Cosmic Vision of the European Space Agency (ESA). It was selected in June 2015 as one of three candidates to enter an assessment phase (phase 0/A). This process involves the definition of science and mission requirements as well as a preliminary model payload, and an internal Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study providing the input to parallel industrial studies (in progress since 2016). After this process, the three candidates will be reviewed and in mid-2017 one of them will be selected as the M4 mission for launch in 2026. ARIEL is a survey-type mission dedicated to the characterisation of exoplanetary atmospheres. Using the differential technique of transit spectroscopy, ARIEL will obtain transmission and/or emission spectra of the atmospheres of a large and diverse sample of known exoplanets (~500) covering a wide range of masses, densities, equilibrium temperatures, orbital properties and host-star characteristics. This will include hot Jupiters to warm Super-Earths, orbiting M5 to F0 stars. This paper describes critical requirements, and reports on the results of the Concurrent Design Facility (CDF) study that was conducted in June / July 2015, providing a description of the resulting spacecraft design. It will employ a 0.7 m x 1.1 m off-axis three mirror telescope, feeding four photometric channels in the VNIR range (0.5-1.95 μm) and an IR spectrometer covering 1.95-7.8 μm.

  11. Moon and Mars gravity environment during parabolic flights: a new European approach to prepare for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Clervoy, Jean-Fran; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe; Rosier, Patrice

    Aircraft parabolic flights provide repetitively up to 20 seconds of reduced gravity during ballis-tic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The European Space Agency (ESA) has organized since 1984 more than fifty parabolic flight campaigns for microgravity research experiments utilizing six different airplanes. More than 600 experiments were conducted spanning several fields in Physical Sciences and Life Sciences, namely Fluid Physics, Combustion Physics, Ma-terial Sciences, fundamental Physics and Technology tests, Human Physiology, cell and animal Biology, and technical tests of Life Sciences instrumentation. Since 1997, ESA uses the Airbus A300 'Zero G', the largest airplane in the world used for this type of experimental research flight and managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the French space agency CNES. From 2010 onwards, ESA and Novespace will offer the possibility of flying Martian and Moon parabolas during which reduced gravity levels equivalent to those on the Moon and Mars will be achieved repetitively for periods of more than 20 seconds. Scientists are invited to submit experiment proposals to be conducted at these partial gravity levels. This paper presents the technical capabilities of the Airbus A300 Zero-G aircraft used by ESA to support and conduct investigations at Moon-, Mars-and micro-gravity levels to prepare research and exploration during space flights and future planetary exploration missions. Some Physiology and Technology experiments performed during past ESA campaigns at 0, 1/6 an 1/3 g are presented to show the interest of this unique research tool for microgravity and partial gravity investigations.

  12. Mars Express releases Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    At 9:31 CET, the crucial sequence started to separate the Beagle 2 lander from Mars Express. As data from Mars Express confirm, the pyrotechnic device was fired to slowly release a loaded spring, which gently pushed Beagle 2 away from the mother spacecraft. An image from the onboard visual monitoring camera (VMC) showing the lander drifting away is expected to be available later today. Since the Beagle 2 lander has no propulsion system of its own, it had to be put on the correct course for its descent before it was released. For this reason, on 16 December the trajectory of the whole Mars Express spacecraft had to be adjusted to ensure that Beagle 2 would be on course to enter the atmosphere of Mars. This manoeuvre, called "retargeting'' was critical: if the entry angle is too steep, the lander could overheat and burn up in the atmosphere; if the angle is too shallow, the lander might skim like a pebble on the surface of a lake and miss its target. This fine targeting and today's release were crucial manoeuvres for which ESA's Ground Control Team at ESOC (European Space Operations Centre) had trained over the past several months. The next major milestone for Mars Express will be the manoeuvre to enter into orbit around Mars. This will happen at 3:52 CET on Christmas morning, when Beagle 2 is expected to land on the surface of Mars. "Good teamwork by everybody - ESA, industry and the Beagle 2 team - has got one more critical step accomplished. Mars, here comes Europe!" said David Southwood, ESA Director of Science.

  13. ESA and the arts: A programme in the making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitt, David

    2007-01-01

    Space exploration is arguably the greatest voyage of discovery ever undertaken and just as artists have traditionally accompanied the great ocean and land voyages of the past, so artists have been and are at the forefront of space voyages of the future. Increasingly, the European Space Agency (ESA) is being asked to support or participate in artistic and cultural events, largely as a result of its study into science fiction literature and artwork. The paper first gives an overview of the relationship between space and art by discussing art that has been sent into space, orbital sculptures, art on Earth seen from space, and performance art and dance in zero gravity. The paper then provides an update on ESA's involvement in some activities in this domain including the organization of science fiction and space art exhibitions, workshops and competitions, and a recently launched study into how ESA might use the European components of the International Space Station for artistic and cultural events to enable the public to better share the human experience of space missions and interact with the sights and sounds of space.

  14. ESA space spin-offs benefits for the health sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalai, Bianca; Detsis, Emmanouil; Peeters, Walter

    2012-11-01

    Humanity will be faced with an important number of future challenges, including an expansion of the lifespan, a considerable increase of the population (estimated 9 billion by 2050) and a depletion of resources. These factors could trigger an increase of chronic diseases and various other health concerns that would bear a heavy weight on finances worldwide. Scientific advances can play an important role in solving a number of these problems, space technology; in general, can propose a panoply of possible solutions and applications that can make life on Earth easier and better for everyone. Satellites, Earth Observation, the International Space Station (ISS) and the European Space Agency (ESA) may not be the first tools that come to mind when thinking of improving health, yet there are many ways in which ESA and its programmes contribute to the health care arena. The research focuses on quantifying two ESA spin-offs to provide an initial view on how space can contribute to worldwide health. This quantification is part of the present strategy not only to show macroeconomic return factors for space in general, but also to identify and describe samples of 'best practice' type of examples close to the general public's interest. For each of the 'best practices' the methodology takes into account the cost of the space hardware/software, a number of tangible and intangible benefits, as well as some logical assumptions in order to determine the potential overall returns. Some of the hindering factors for a precise quantification are also highlighted. In conclusion, the study recommends a way in which ESA's spin-offs can be taken into account early on in the development process of space programmes in order to generate higher awareness with the general public and also to provide measurable returns.

  15. Mars-Next - a Future Step in the European Exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    2008-09-01

    The Mars-NEXT concept represents a new mission to Mars within the Aurora Exploration Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Mars-NEXT is planned after ExoMars and before the Mars Sample Return (MSR) and includes a number of landers to establish a network on the surface of Mars, to investigate the interior of the planet, its atmospheric dynamics and the geology of each landing site. The mission would be launched in 2016 onboard a Russian Soyuz rocket from Kourou. The Mars-NEXT mission includes a spacecraft carrying three (or four) lander probes to be released from an hyperbolic arrival trajectory to establish a Network of stations on the surface of Mars. The carrier spacecraft would be placed into orbit and carry a few instruments to complement the Network. Such network-orbiter combination represents a unique tool to perform new investigations of Mars which could not be addressed by other means. In particular, i) the internal geophysical aspects concern the structure and dynamics of the interior of Mars including the state of the core and composition of the mantle; the fine structure of the crust including its paleomagnetic anomalies; the rotational parameters (axis tilt, precession, nutation, etc) that define both the state of the interior and the climate evolution; ii) the atmospheric physics aspects concern the general circulation and its forcing factors; the time variability cycles of the transport of volatiles, water and dust; surface-atmosphere interactions and overall meteorology and climate; iii) the geology of each landing site concerns the full characterization of the surrounding area including petrological rock types, chemical and mineralogical sample analysis, erosion, oxidation and weathering processes to infer the geological history of the region, as well as the astrobiological potential of each site. Characterization of the landing site area from a geosciences point of view requires a degree of mobility (instrument deployment device or robotic

  16. Mars-NEXT - A future step in the European exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, Agustin

    The Mars-NEXT concept represents a new mission to Mars within the Aurora Exploration Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Mars-NEXT is planned after ExoMars and before the Mars Sample Return (MSR) and includes a number of landers to establish a network on the surface of Mars, to investigate the interior of the planet, its atmospheric dynamics and the geology of each landing site. The mission would be launched in 2016 onboard a Russian Soyuz rocket from Kourou. The Mars-NEXT mission includes a spacecraft carrying three (or four) lander probes to be released from an hyperbolic arrival trajectory to establish a Network of stations on the surface of Mars. The carrier spacecraft would be placed into orbit and carry a few instruments to complement the Network. Such network-orbiter combination represents a unique tool to perform new investigations of Mars which could not be addressed by other means. In particular, i) the internal geophysical aspects concern the structure and dynamics of the interior of Mars including the state of the core and composition of the mantle; the fine structure of the crust including its paleomagnetic anomalies; the rotational parameters (axis tilt, precession, nutation, etc) that define both the state of the interior and the climate evolution; ii) the atmospheric physics aspects concern the general circulation and its forcing factors; the time variability cycles of the transport of volatiles, water and dust; surface-atmosphere interactions and overall meteorology and climate; iii) the geology of each landing site concerns the full characterization of the surrounding area including petrological rock types, chemical and mineralogical sample analysis, erosion, oxidation and weathering processes to infer the geological history of the region. Characterization of the landing site area from a geosciences point of view requires a degree of mobility (instrument deployment device or robotic sampling arm). To complement the science gained from

  17. Mars-NEXT - A future major step in the European exploration of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Mars-NEXT concept represents a new mission to Mars within the Exploration Programme of the European Space Agency (ESA). Mars-NEXT is planned after ExoMars and before the Mars Sample Return (MSR) and includes a number of landers to establish a network on the surface of Mars, to investigate the interior of the planet, its atmospheric dynamics and the geology of each landing site. The mission would be launched in 2018 onboard a Russian Soyuz rocket from Kourou. The Mars-NEXT mission includes a spacecraft carrying three (or four) lander probes to be released from an hyperbolic arrival trajectory to establish a Network of stations on the surface of Mars. The carrier spacecraft would be placed into orbit and carry a few instruments to complement the Network. Such network-orbiter combination represents a unique tool to perform new investigations of Mars which could not be addressed by other means. In particular, i) the internal geophysical aspects concern the structure and dynamics of the interior of Mars including the state of the core and composition of the mantle; the fine structure of the crust including its paleomagnetic anomalies; the rotational parameters (axis tilt, precession, nutation, etc) that define both the state of the interior and the climate evolution; ii) the atmospheric physics aspects concern the general circulation and its forcing factors; the time variability cycles of the transport of volatiles, water and dust; surface-atmosphere interactions and overall meteorology and climate; iii) the geology of each landing site concerns the full characterization of the surrounding area including petrological rock types, chemical and mineralogical sample analysis, erosion, oxidation and weathering processes to infer the geological history of the region, as well as the astrobiological potential of each site. Characterization of the landing site area from a geosciences point of view requires a degree of mobility (instrument deployment device or robotic

  18. Mars Express wins unanimous support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    "The green light for Mars Express shows that Europe is perfectly capable of seizing special chances in exploring space," said Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "At a cost to ESA of 150 million ECU, Mars Express is the cheapest Mars mission ever, yet its importance and originality are far greater than the price tag suggests." Bonnet continued: "Mars Express has been advertised by the Science Programme Committee as a test case for new approaches in procuring and managing future science projects, with a view to achieving major savings. In the international arena, Mars Express will confirm Europe's interest in a major target for space research in the new century, when we make our forceful debut at the Red Planet. In fact, Mars Express is designed to be a pivotal element of an international multi-mission, global effort for the exploration of Mars." Development of the spacecraft will now proceed swiftly, to meet the deadline of an exceptionally favourable launch window early in June 2003. Mars Express will go into orbit around Mars at Christmas 2003. Seven scientific instruments on board will include a high-resolution camera, a range of spectrometers, and a radar to penetrate below the surface. For the first time in the history of the exploration of the Red Planet, scientists can hope to detect sub-surface water, whether it exists in the form of undergound rivers, pools, glaciers or permafrost. Signs of life on Mars, whether extinct or continuing today, may reveal themselves to a lander carried by Mars Express. This is Beagle 2, a project led by the Open University in the United Kingdom, with contributions from many other European countries. The lander also promises invaluable information about the chemistry of the Martian surface and atmosphere. Beagle 2 is to be independently funded. Some of the necessary funds have already been raised and ESA has agreed with the principal investigator to keep a place for Beagle 2 aboard Mars Express. The financial situation

  19. ESA's planning and coordination of the OLYMPUS propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbesser-Rastburg, B.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of the organization of the OLYMPUS propagation experimenters group (OPEX) is given. Preparations, participation, and experiments are described. Some examples for first statistical results are also reported. OLYMPUS, a 3-axis stabilized communications satellite was launched in 1989 for providing experimental telecommunications payloads and a propagation beacon payload at 12, 20, and 30 GHz to the European Space Agency. From previous experience (OTS), the Agency undertook to carry out extensive preparations with an eye on obtaining the statistical results needed within the limited available lifetime of the spacecraft. The OLYMPUS propagation experiment was conceived as part of ESA's space telecommunications applications program (ESA/IPC/(79)83) with the emphasis on exploring the possibilities and limitations of Ka-band satellite communications. The objectives of the OLYMPUS propagation campaign were: (1) characterization of the slant-path propagation conditions at 20/30 GHz in the various climatic regions of Europe; (2) improvement of the understanding of the link between atmospheric observable (rain rate, cloud thickness, etc.) to propagation impairments such as attenuation, depolarization, scintillation, etc.; and (3) arrive at improved propagation prediction methods.

  20. The Janus faces of ESAs: caveat Chimaera!

    PubMed

    Penny, Hugo; Leckström, Daniel; Goldsmith, David

    2013-06-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a Janus quality as they look back whence they came in developing CKD and, in some cases, also look forwards to a potential kidney transplant with the attendant promise of improvement in quality and often quantity of life. Making the most of this often unique opportunity is key-maximising the chance that the engraftment starts as a success, and then later, preserving good kidney transplant function for as long as possible. Two recently published, independently conceived and executed studies are relevant to both aspects of this quest and thus to all kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Both trials also simultaneously stoke and quench the continuing, heated debates over target haemoglobin (Hb) levels, and the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), in CKD patients. One study--of acute, high-dose ESA administration--adds to the plethora of adverse safety signals swirling around the use of ESAs while surprisingly also showing renal function benefits at 12 months. The other study features chronic lower-dose ESA use in stable KTRs with anaemia and impaired renal function and not only purports to show a salutary effect on 2-year renal function outcomes (and thus reducing "return to dialysis" rates), but also rebuts the now widely accepted current notion that by chronic use of ESAs to target full Hb correction/higher Hb values in anaemic CKD patients, we are potentially causing harm.

  1. Analysis of Moessbauer Data from Mars: A Database and Artificial Neural Network for Identification of Iron-bearing Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; deSouza, P. A.; Morris, R. V.; Klingelhoefer, G.

    2003-01-01

    The exploration of the planet Mars is one of the major goals within the Solar system exploration programs of the US-American space agency NASA and the European Space Agency ESA. In particular the search for water and life and understanding of the history of the surface and atmosphere will be the major tasks of the upcoming space missions to Mars. The miniaturized Moessbauer spectrometer MIMOS II has been selected for the NASA Mars-Exploration-Rover twin-mission to Mars in 2003 and the ESA 2003 Mars-Express Beagle 2 mission. Reduced in size and weight, in comparison to ordinary laboratory setup, the sensor head just weights approximately 400 g, with a volume of (50x50x90) cu mm, and holds two gamma-ray sources: the stronger for experiments and the weaker for calibrations. The collimator (in sample direction) also shields the primary radiation off the detectors. Around the drive four detectors are mounted. The detectors are made of Si-PIN-photodiodes in chip form (100 sq mm, thickness of 0.5 mm). The control unit is located in a separate electronics board. This board is responsible for the power supply, generation of the drive's velocity reference signal, read of the detector pulses to record the spectrum, data storage and communication with the host computer. After more than four decades from the discovery of the Moessbauer effect, more than 400 minerals were studied at different temperatures. Their Moessbauer parameters were reported in the literature, and have been recently collected in a data bank. Previous Mars-missions, namely Viking and Mars Pathfinder, revealed Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, Ti, S and Cl to be the major constituents in soil and rock elemental composition of the red planet. More than 200 minerals already studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy contain significant amounts of these elements. A considerable number of Moessbauer studies were also carried out on meteorites and on Moon samples. Looking backward in the studies of the whole Moessbauer community

  2. Joint NASA-ESA Outer Planet Mission study overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.-P.; Niebur, C.; Cutts, J.; Falkner, P.; Greeley, R.; Lunine, J.; Blanc, M.; Coustenis, A.; Pappalardo, R.; Matson, D.; Clark, K.; Reh, K.; Stankov, A.; Erd, C.; Beauchamp, P.

    2009-04-01

    evaluated by each agency between November 2008 and January 2009, and a joint decision as to which destination has been selected is expected to be announced in February 2009. The ESA Cosmic Vision selection process includes two additional competitive steps (that include two competing astronomy missions) before its contribution to the selected Outer Planet Mission is confirmed in 2012. NASA expects to proceed with the initial implementation of the mission in FY2009, while full implementation will start in FY2013, in line with ESA Cosmic Vision schedule. Should ESA select an astronomy mission instead, NASA would proceed in 2013 with the implementation of a NASA-only mission concept. This presentation will provide an overview of the selected Outer Planet Mission and outline the next steps towards its implementation.

  3. The Urey instrument: an advanced in situ organic and oxidant detector for Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Aubrey, Andrew D; Chalmers, John H; Bada, Jeffrey L; Grunthaner, Frank J; Amashukeli, Xenia; Willis, Peter; Skelley, Alison M; Mathies, Richard A; Quinn, Richard C; Zent, Aaron P; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Amundson, Ron; Glavin, Daniel P; Botta, Oliver; Barron, Laurence; Blaney, Diana L; Clark, Benton C; Coleman, Max; Hofmann, Beda A; Josset, Jean-Luc; Rettberg, Petra; Ride, Sally; Robert, François; Sephton, Mark A; Yen, Albert

    2008-06-01

    The Urey organic and oxidant detector consists of a suite of instruments designed to search for several classes of organic molecules in the martian regolith and ascertain whether these compounds were produced by biotic or abiotic processes using chirality measurements. These experiments will also determine the chemical stability of organic molecules within the host regolith based on the presence and chemical reactivity of surface and atmospheric oxidants. Urey has been selected for the Pasteur payload on the European Space Agency's (ESA's) upcoming 2013 ExoMars rover mission. The diverse and effective capabilities of Urey make it an integral part of the payload and will help to achieve a large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of cosmochemistry and the origin of life.

  4. The Urey Instrument: An Advanced In Situ Organic and Oxidant Detector for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubrey, Andrew D.; Chalmers, John H.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Amashukeli, Xenia; Willis, Peter; Skelley, Alison M.; Mathies, Richard A.; Quinn, Richard C.; Zent, Aaron P.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Amundson, Ron; Glavin Daniel P.; Botta, Oliver; Barron, Laurence; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Coleman, Max; Hofmann, Beda A.; Josset, Jean-Luc; Rettberg, Petra; Ride, Sally; Musée, François Robert; Sephton, Mark A.; Yen, Albert

    2008-06-01

    The Urey organic and oxidant detector consists of a suite of instruments designed to search for several classes of organic molecules in the martian regolith and ascertain whether these compounds were produced by biotic or abiotic processes using chirality measurements. These experiments will also determine the chemical stability of organic molecules within the host regolith based on the presence and chemical reactivity of surface and atmospheric oxidants. Urey has been selected for the Pasteur payload on the European Space Agency's (ESA's) upcoming 2013 ExoMars rover mission. The diverse and effective capabilities of Urey make it an integral part of the payload and will help to achieve a large portion of the mission's primary scientific objective: "to search for signs of past and present life on Mars." This instrument is named in honor of Harold Urey for his seminal contributions to the fields of cosmochemistry and the origin of life.

  5. The Challenges and Opportunities for International Cooperative Radio Science; Experience with Mars Express and Venus Express Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Dwight P.; Thompson, Tommy; Simpson, Richard; Tyler, G. Leonard; Dehant, Veronique; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Hausler, Bernd; Patzold, Martin; Goltz, Gene; Kahan, Daniel; Valencia, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Radio Science is an opportunistic discipline in the sense that the communication link between a spacecraft and its supporting ground station can be used to probe the intervening media remotely. Radio science has recently expanded to greater, cooperative use of international assets. Mars Express and Venus Express are two such cooperative missions managed by the European Space Agency with broad international science participation supported by NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and ESA's tracking network for deep space missions (ESTRAK). This paper provides an overview of the constraints, opportunities, and lessons learned from international cross support of radio science, and it explores techniques for potentially optimizing the resultant data sets.

  6. ESA's Earth Observation in Support of Geoscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebig, Volker

    2016-04-01

    The intervention will present ESA's Earth Observation Programme and its contribution to Geoscience. ESA's Earth observation missions are mainly grouped into three categories: The Sentinel satellites in the context of the European Copernicus Programme, the scientific Earth Explorers and the meteorological missions. Developments, applications and scientific results for the different mission types will be addressed, along with overall trends and strategies. A special focus will be put on the Earth Explorers, who form the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme and focus on the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere and Earth's interior. In addition the operational Sentinel satellites have a huge potential for Geoscience. Earth Explorers' emphasis is also on learning more about the interactions between these components and the impact that human activity is having on natural Earth processes. The process of Earth Explorer mission selection has given the Earth science community an efficient tool for advancing the understanding of Earth as a system.

  7. The Gravitational Universe - ESA's L3 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Guido; Ando, Masaki; Binetruy, Pierre; Bouyer, Philippe; Cacciapuoti, Luigi; Cruise, Mike; Favata, Fabio; Gehler, Martin; Genzel, Reinhard; Jennrich, Oliver; Kasevich, Mark; Klipstein, Bill; Perryman, Michael; Safa, Frederic; Schutz, Bernard; Stebbins, Robin; Vitale, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Following the advice of ESA's Senior Survey Committee (SSC) the Science Programme Committee (SPC) decided in November 2013 to select the science theme ``The Gravitational Universe'' for their L3 mission. The Director of Science and Robotic Exploration (D/SRE) has established a Gravitational Observatory Advisory Team (GOAT) to advise on the scientific and technological approaches for a gravitational wave observatory with a planned launch date in 2034. Our team is comprised of scientists from Europe and the US as well as scientists and engineers from ESA and observers from NASA and JAXA. We meet about every ten weeks, evaluate the technical readiness of all necessary technologies, study the science impact of different mission designs, and will advise ESA on the required future technology development. We will report on our progress and plans forward to a future space-based gravitational-wave observatory. For JAXA.

  8. Mars is just around the corner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-12-01

    At 9:31 CET, ESA's ground control team at Darmstadt (Germany) will send the command for the Beagle 2 lander to separate from Mars Express. A pyrotechnic device will be fired to slowly release a loaded spring, which will gently push Beagle 2 away from the mother spacecraft. Data on the spacecraft's position and speed will be used by mission engineers to assess whether the lander was successfully released. In addition, the onboard Visual Monitoring Camera (VMC) should provide an image showing the lander slowly moving away. The image is expected to be available mid-afternoon. Beagle 2 will then continue its journey towards the surface of Mars, where it is expected to land on 25 December, early in the morning. At the same time, the Mars Express orbiter should be manoeuvring to enter into orbit around Mars. In view of the complexity of this operation, the Mars Express control team has been trained to deal with the eventuality that separation might not be achieved at the first attempt. If that did turn out to be the case, there is a series of procedures that has already been set up and tested for completing the manoeuvre successfully within the subsequent 40 hours. The "separation" event can be followed live at ESA/ESOC on Friday 19 December from 8:30 to 15:00. A videoconference will link the control centre at Darmstadt with ESA Headquarters in Paris (F), and ESA/ESRIN at Frascati (I). Media wishing to attend are asked to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. Every day throughout December, you can follow the countdown to arrival at Mars at: http://mars.esa.int Here you will find live streaming of key events, news, features, images, videos and more.

  9. Mars Odyssey Seen by Mars Global Surveyor (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This stereoscopic picture of NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft was created from two views of that spacecraft taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The camera's successful imaging of Odyssey and of the European Space Agency's Mars Express in April 2005 produced the first pictures of any spacecraft orbiting Mars taken by another spacecraft orbiting Mars.

    Mars Global Surveyor acquired this image of Mars Odyssey on April 21, 2005. The stereoscopic picture combines one view captured while the two orbiters were 90 kilometers (56 miles) apart with a second view captured from a slightly different angle when the two orbiters were 135 kilometers (84 miles) apart. For proper viewing, the user needs '3-D' glasses with red over the left eye and blue over the right eye.

    The Mars Orbiter Camera can resolve features on the surface of Mars as small as a few meters or yards across from Mars Global Surveyor's orbital altitude of 350 to 405 kilometers (217 to 252 miles). From a distance of 100 kilometers (62 miles), the camera would be able to resolve features substantially smaller than 1 meter or yard across.

    Mars Odyssey was launched on April 7, 2001, and reached Mars on Oct. 24, 2001. Mars Global Surveyor left Earth on Nov. 7, 1996, and arrived in Mars orbit on Sept. 12, 1997. Both orbiters are in an extended mission phase, both have relayed data from the Mars Exploration Rovers, and both are continuing to return exciting new results from Mars. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages both missions for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C.

  10. MNSM - A Future Mars Network Science Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    2012-04-01

    Following ESA' s successful Mars Express mission, European efforts in Mars Exploration are now taking place within the joint ESA-NASA Mars Exploration Programme, starting in 2016 with the Trace Gases Orbiter (TGO) focusing on atmospheric trace gases and in particular methane, and with the Entry and Descent Module (EDM). In 2018, a joint NASA-ESA rover will perform sample caching as well as geological, geochemical and exobiological measurements of the surface and the subsurface of Mars. A number of missions for 2020 and beyond are currently under study. Among those, a possible candidate is a Mars Network Science Mission (MNSM) of 3-6 surface stations, to investigate the interior of the planet, its rotational parameters and its atmospheric dynamics. These important science goals have not been fully addressed by Mars exploration so far and can only be achieved with simultaneous measurements from a number of landers located on the surface of the planet such as a Mars Network mission. In addition, the geology, mineralogy and astrobiological significance of each landing site would be addressed, as three new locations on Mars would be reached. Such Mars Network Science Mission has been considered a significant priority by the planetary science community worldwide for the past two decades. In fact, a Mars Network mission concept has a long heritage, as it was studied a number of times by ESA, NASA and CNES (e.g., Marsnet, Intermarsnet, Netlander and MarsNEXT mission studies) since 1990. Study work has been renewed in ESA recently with MNSM Science and Engineering Teams being set up to update the scientific objectives of the mission and to evaluate its technical feasibility, respectively. The current mission baseline includes three ESA-led small landers with a robotic arm to be launched with a Soyuz rocket and direct communications to Earth (no need of a dedicated orbiter). However, a larger network could be put in place through international collaboration, as several

  11. ESA MS Nicollier, assisted by technicians, dons EMU lower torso in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, seated and wearing a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG), pulls on the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) lower torso as a technician straightens the EMU leg. Nicollier is preparing for an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation and familiarization session in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  12. ExoMars: Overview of scientific programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, Daniel; Witasse, Olivier; Vago, Jorge L.

    The ExoMars Programme is a joint project between the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). The project consists of two missions with launches in 2016 and 2018. The scientific objectives of ExoMars are: begin{itemize} To search for signs of past and present life on Mars. To investigate the water/geochemical environment as a function of depth in the shallow subsurface. To study Martian atmospheric trace gases and their sources. To characterize the surface environment. The 2016 mission will be launched (January 2016) on a Proton rocket. It includes the Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and an Entry, descent and landing Demonstrator Module (EDM), both contributed by ESA. The TGO will carry European and Russian scientific instruments for remote observations, while the EDM will have a European payload for in-situ measurements during descent and on the Martian surface. The TGO scientific payload includes:begin{itemize} NOMAD. Suite of 2 Infrared (IR) and 1 Ultraviolet (UV) spectrometer. ACS. Suite of 2 IR echelle-spectrometers (near and middle IR) and 1 Fourier spectrometer. FREND. Neutron spectrometer with a collimation module. CaSSIS. High-resolution camera. The EDM payload includes a set of accelerometers and heat shield sensors (AMELIA), to study the Martian atmosphere and obtain images throughout the EDM’s descent, and an environmental station (DREAMS), to conduct a series of short meteorological observations at the EDM’s landing location. The 2018 mission will land a Rover, provided by ESA, making use of a Descent Module (DM) contributed by Roscosmos. The mission will be launched on a Proton rocket (May 2018). The ExoMars rover will have a nominal lifetime of approximately 6 months. During this period, it will ensure a regional mobility of several kilometres, relying on solar array electrical power. The rover’s Pasteur payload will produce self-consistent sets of measurements capable to provide reliable evidence, for or against

  13. MOMA: the challenge to search for organics and biosignatures on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, W.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Arevalo, R.; Freissinet, C.; Getty, S.; Glavin, D. P.; Siljeström, S.; Buch, A.; Stalport, F.; Grubisic, A.; Li, X.; Pinnick, V.; Danell, R.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Goesmann, F.; Steininger, H.; Grand, N.; Raulin, F.; Szopa, C.; Meierhenrich, U.; Brucato, J. R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes strategies to search for, detect, and identify organic material on the surface and subsurface of Mars. The strategies described include those applied by landed missions in the past and those that will be applied in the future. The value and role of ESA's ExoMars rover and of her key science instrument Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) are critically assessed.

  14. Status of the ESA L1 mission candidate ATHENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rando, N.; Martin, D.; Lumb, D.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Bavdaz, M.; Fransen, S.; Linder, M.; Peyrou-Lauga, R.; Voirin, T.; Braghin, M.; Mangunsong, S.; van Pelt, M.; Wille, E.

    2012-09-01

    ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) was an L class mission candidate within the science programme Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 of the European Space Agency, with a planned launch by 2022. ATHENA was conceived as an ESA-led project, open to the possibility of focused contributions from JAXA and NASA. By allowing astrophysical observations between 100 eV and 10 keV, it would represent the new generation X-ray observatory, following the XMM-Newton, Astro-H and Chandra heritage. The main scientific objectives of ATHENA include the study of large scale structures, the evolution of black holes, strong gravity effects, neutron star structure as well as investigations into dark matter. The ATHENA mission concept would be based on focal length of 12m achieved via a rigid metering tube and a twoaperture, x-ray telescope. Two identical x-ray mirrors would illuminate fixed focal plane instruments: a cryogenic imaging spectrometer (XMS) and a wide field imager (WFI). The S/C is designed to be fully compatible with Ariane 5 ECA. The observatory would operate at SE-L2, with a nominal lifetime of 5 yr. This paper provides a summary of the reformulation activities, completed in December 2011. An overview of the spacecraft design and of the payload is provided, including both telescope and instruments. Following the ESA Science Programme Committee decision on the L1 mission in May 2012, ATHENA was not selected to enter Definition Phase.

  15. The ESA TTP and Recent Spin-off Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raitt, D.; Brisson, P.

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of its research and development activities, the European Space Agency (ESA) spends some 250m each year and, recognizing the enormous potential of the know-how developed within its R&D activities, set up a Technology Transfer Programme (TTP) some twelve years ago. Over the years, the Programme has achieved some remarkable results with 120 successful transfers of space technologies to the non-space sector; over 120m received by companies making the technologies available; some 15 new companies established as a direct result of exploiting technologies; nearly 2500 jobs created or saved in Europe; and a portfolio of some 300 (out of over 600) active space technologies available for transfer and licencing. Some of the more recent technologies which have been successfully transferred to the non-space sector include the Mamagoose baby safety pyjamas; a spectrographic system being used to compare colours in fabrics and textiles; Earth observation technology employed to assess remotely how much agrochemicals are being used by farmers; and the Dutch solar car, Nuna, which, using European space technologies, finished first in the 2001 World Solar Challenge breaking all records. The paper will give a brief overview of the ESA Technology Transfer Programme and describe some of its recent successful technology transfers.

  16. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  17. Foton 11: ESA investigates further the space environment and its impact on organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-10-01

    Scientific research conducted under space conditions can provide new insight into how processes occur on Earth and organisms function. The unmanned Foton spacecraft has been used since 1988 to conduct such investigations. Now on its 11th mission and the fifth in which ESA has taken part, Foton is carrying some 80 kg of ESA payload: two ESA research facilities (an incubator and an experiment holder on the outside of the spacecraft) are on board along with 12 scientific experiments. The French space agency (CNES) and the German space agency (DARA) also have payload on the spacecraft. ESA's space-qualified incubator, called Biobox, keeps organisms at predefined conditions. During this mission, the three Biobox experiments are looking at the reaction of bone cells in microgravity. The second ESA facility, a pan-shaped container called Biopan attached to the outside of Foton, is used to expose experiment samples directly to the space environment in order to study the impact of space's extreme temperatures, ultraviolet and cosmic radiation, and near-perfect vacuum. On this mission, the six Biopan experiments are concentrating on exobiology, radiation biology and material science. Biopan has a motor-driven, hinged lid and is equipped with devices and sensors that measure the various aspects of the environment to which the experiments are subjected. Once Foton is in orbit, a telecommand is sent from ground and the lid opens to expose the samples to the environment. At the end of the mission, another command is sent and the lid closes. Since Biopan is on the outside of Foton, it also has its own ablative heat shield to protect the facility and samples during the spacecraft's re-entry and landing. Other ESA experiments on board Foton are looking into the effects of weightlessness on bacteria, the biological clocks of beetles and the aging of fruitflies. The scientific investigators responsible for the ESA experiments are from research institutes and universities in Belgium

  18. A Martian Telecommunications Network: UHF Relay Support of the Mars Exploration Rovers by the Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Barbieri, A.; Brower, E.; Estabrook, P.; Gibbs, R.; Horttor, R.; Ludwinski, J.; Mase, R.; McCarthy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Theisinger, P.; Thorpe, T.; Waggoner, B.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and ESA have established an international network of Mars orbiters, outfitted with relay communications payloads, to support robotic exploration of the red planet. Starting in January, 2004, this network has provided the Mars Exploration Rovers with telecommunications relay services, significantly increasing rover engineering and science data return while enhancing mission robustness and operability. Augmenting the data return capabilities of their X-band direct-to-Earth links, the rovers are equipped with UHF transceivers allowing data to be relayed at high rate to the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey, and Mars Express orbiters. As of 21 July, 2004, over 50 Gbits of MER data have been obtained, with nearly 95% of that data returned via the MGS and Odyssey UHF relay paths, allowing a large increase in science return from the Martian surface relative to the X-band direct-to-Earth link. The MGS spacecraft also supported high-rate UHF communications of MER engineering telemetry during the critical period of entry, descent, and landing (EDL), augmenting the very low-rate EDL data collected on the X-band direct-to-Earth link. Through adoption of the new CCSDS Proximity-1 Link Protocol, NASA and ESA have achieved interoperability among these Mars assets, as validated by a successful relay demonstration between Spirit and Mars Express, enabling future interagency cross-support and establishing a truly international relay network at Mars.

  19. Science Operations For Esa's Smart-1 Mission To The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, M.; Foing, B.; Heather, D.; Marini, A.; Lumb, R.; Racca, G.

    The primary objective of the European Space Agency's SMART-1 mission to the Moon is to test and validate a new electric propulsion engine for potential use on other larger ESA Cornerstone missions. However, the SMART-1 spacecraft will also carry a number of scientific instruments and experiments for use en-route to and in orbit about the Moon. SMART-1's major operational constraint is that it will be only contacted twice per week. As a result, there will be a stronger emphasis on mid-term planning, and the spacecraft will be operated using a large list of telecommands sent during the communication windows. This approach leads to a higher probability of there being resource and/or instruments conflicts. To eliminate these, two software tools were developed: the Experiment Planning System (EPS), and the Project Test Bed (PTB). These tools will also allow us to predict the lunar coverage of the scien- tific instruments, and to simulate target selections.

  20. ESA'S Biomass Mission System And Payload Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcioni, M.; Bensi, P.; Fois, F.; Gabriele, A.; Heliere, F.; Lin, C. C.; Massotti, L.; Scipal, K.

    2013-12-01

    Earth Explorers are the backbone of the science and research element of ESA's Living Planet Programme, providing an important contribution to the understanding of the Earth system. Following the User Consultation Meeting held in Graz, Austria on 5-6 March 2013, the Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) has recommended implementing Biomass as the 7th Earth Explorer Mission within the frame of the ESA Earth Observation Envelope Programme. This paper will give an overview of the satellite system and its payload. The system technical description presented here is based on the results of the work performed during parallel Phase A system studies by two industrial consortia led by EADS Astrium Ltd. and Thales Alenia Space Italy. Two implementation concepts (respectively A and B) are described and provide viable options capable of meeting the mission requirements.

  1. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the Russian led science payload, focusing on developing an characterising the resource opportunities offered at the lunar surface. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. In the frame of a broader future international programme under discussion through the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) future missions are under investigation that would provide access to the lunar surface through international cooperation and human-robotic partnerships.

  2. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Houdou, Bérengère; Fisackerly, Richard; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernardo; Schiemann, Jens; Hufenbach, Bernhard; Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the exploration missions of the future.

  3. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Foing, Bernard H.; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; De Rosa, Diego; Patti, Bernado; Schiemann, Jens

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the abundance, composition and isotopes of lunar volatiles in polar regions, and their associated chemistry. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterise and utilise polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensable partner in the

  4. SOHO Mission Interruption Joint NASA/ESA Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Contact with the SOlar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft was lost in the early morning hours of June 25, 1998, Eastern Daylight Time (EDT), during a planned period of calibrations, maneuvers, and spacecraft reconfigurations. Prior to this the SOHO operations team had concluded two years of extremely successful science operations. A joint European Space Agency (ESA)/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engineering team has been planning and executing recovery efforts since loss of contact with some success to date. ESA and NASA management established the SOHO Mission Interruption Joint Investigation Board to determine the actual or probable cause(s) of the SOHO spacecraft mishap. The Board has concluded that there were no anomalies on-board the SOHO spacecraft but that a number of ground errors led to the major loss of attitude experienced by the spacecraft. The Board finds that the loss of the SOHO spacecraft was a direct result of operational errors, a failure to adequately monitor spacecraft status, and an erroneous decision which disabled part of the on-board autonomous failure detection. Further, following the occurrence of the emergency situation, the Board finds that insufficient time was taken by the operations team to fully assess the spacecraft status prior to initiating recovery operations. The Board discovered that a number of factors contributed to the circumstances that allowed the direct causes to occur. The Board strongly recommends that the two Agencies proceed immediately with a comprehensive review of SOHO operations addressing issues in the ground procedures, procedure implementation, management structure and process, and ground systems. This review process should be completed and process improvements initiated prior to the resumption of SOHO normal operations.

  5. ESA airborne campaigns in support of Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tania; Davidson, Malcolm; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Perrera, Andrea; Bianchi, Remo

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of its Earth Observation Programmes the European Space Agency (ESA) carries out ground based and airborne campaigns to support geophysical algorithm development, calibration/validation, simulation of future spaceborne earth observation missions, and applications development related to land, oceans and atmosphere. ESA has been conducting airborne and ground measurements campaigns since 1981 by deploying a broad range of active and passive instrumentation in both the optical and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum such as lidars, limb/nadir sounding interferometers/spectrometers, high-resolution spectral imagers, advanced synthetic aperture radars, altimeters and radiometers. These campaigns take place inside and outside Europe in collaboration with national research organisations in the ESA member states as well as with international organisations harmonising European campaign activities. ESA campaigns address all phases of a spaceborne missions, from the very beginning of the design phase during which exploratory or proof-of-concept campaigns are carried out to the post-launch exploitation phase for calibration and validation. We present four recent campaigns illustrating the objectives and implementation of such campaigns. Wavemill Proof Of Concept, an exploratory campaign to demonstrate feasibility of a future Earth Explorer (EE) mission, took place in October 2011 in the Liverpool Bay area in the UK. The main objectives, successfully achieved, were to test Astrium UKs new airborne X-band SAR instrument capability to obtain high resolution ocean current and topology retrievals. Results showed that new airborne instrument is able to retrieve ocean currents to an accuracy of ± 10 cms-1. The IceSAR2012 campaign was set up to support of ESA's EE Candidate 7,BIOMASS. Its main objective was to document P-band radiometric signatures over ice-sheets, by upgrading ESA's airborne POLARIS P-band radar ice sounder with SAR capability. Campaign

  6. ESA' s novel gravitational modeling of irregular planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Guillermo

    A detailed understanding and modeling of the gravitational modeling is required for realistic investigation of the dynamics of orbits close to irregularly shaped bodies. Gravity field modelling up to a certain maximum spherical harmonic degree N involves N2 unkown spherical harmonic coefficients or complex harmonics. The corresponding number of matrix entries reaches till N4 . For missions like CHAMP, GRACE or GOCE, the maximum degree of resolution is 75, 150 and 300 respectively. Therefore, the number of unknowns for a satellite like GOCE will be around 100.000. Since these missions usually fly for a period of time of several years, the number of observations is huge. Hence, gravity field recovery from these missions is a high demanding task. The classical approaches like spherical expansion of the potential lead generally to a high number of coefficients, which reduce the software computational efficiency of the orbit propagation and which have mostly a limited physical meaning. One of the main targets of the activity is the modelling of asteroids, small moons, and cometary bodies. All celestial bodies are irregular by definition. However, the scope of the activity is broad enough as to be able to use the models and the software in quasy-regular bodies as well. Therefore the models and tools could be used for bodies such as the Moon, Mars, Venus, Deimos, Europa, Eros, Mathilda, and Churyumov-Gerasimenko, etc., being these applications relevant for scientific (Rosetta, Bepi Colombo), exploration (Exo-Mars), NEO mitigation (Don Quijote) and Earth observation (GOCE) missions of ESA.

  7. Ducted electromagnetic waves in the Martian ionosphere detected by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenfei; Orosei, Roberto; Huang, Qian; Zhang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    In the data of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding on board the European Space Agency (ESA) mission Mars Express (MEX), a distinctive type of signals (called the "epsilon signature"), which is similar to that previously detected during radio sounding of the terrestrial F region ionosphere, is found. The signature is interpreted to originate from multiple reflections of electromagnetic waves propagating along sounder pulse-created, crustal magnetic field-aligned plasma bubbles (waveguides). The signatures have a low (below 0.5%) occurrence rate and apparent cutoff frequencies 3-5 times higher than the theoretical one for an ordinary mode wave. These properties are explained by the influence of the perpendicular ionospheric plasma density gradient and the sounder pulse frequency on the formation of waveguides.

  8. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  9. Cost considerations in database selection - A comparison of DIALOG and ESA/IRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that there are many factors which affect the decision-making process in determining which databases should be selected for conducting the online search on a given topic. In many cases, however, the major consideration will be related to cost. The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of the costs involved in making use of DIALOG and the European Space Agency's Information Retrieval Service (ESA/IRS). The two services are very comparable in many respects. Attention is given to pricing structure, telecommunications, the number of databases, prints, time requirements, a table listing online costs for DIALOG and ESA/IRS, and differences in mounting databases. It is found that ESA/IRS is competitively priced when compared to DIALOG, and, despite occasionally higher telecommunications costs, may be even more economical to use in some cases.

  10. A new ESA educational initiative: Euro Space Center class teachers in microgravity during parabolic flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Paulis, Pierre Emmanuel; Loosveldt, Edwin; Gering, Dominique; Body, Mireille; Schewijck, Robert

    2005-12-01

    Since 1984, the European Space Agency (ESA) has organized 30 aircraft parabolic flight campaigns in the frame of its Microgravity Programme to perform short duration scientific and technological experiments. On each campaign, ESA invites journalists to report to the general public on the research work conducted in weightlessness. A new initiative was launched in 2000 with the introduction of pedagogical experiments aiming at educating youngsters and the general public on weightlessness effects. In November 2000, four secondary school teachers detached to the Euro Space Center (ESC) participated in the 29th ESA campaign. The ESC in Belgium provides recreational and educational activities for the general public and organizes space classes targeted at primary and secondary school pupils. The four teachers performed simple experiments with gyroscopes, yo-yos, magnetic balls, pendulum and food to explain their different behaviour in weightlessness, to show characteristics and possibilities of the microgravity environment and the difficulties that astronauts encounter in their daily life in orbit.

  11. Second space Christmas for ESA: Huygens to begin its final journey to Titan/ Media activities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-12-01

    At 1.25 billion km from Earth, after a 7-year journey through the Solar system, ESA’s Huygens probe is about to separate from the Cassini orbiter to enter a ballistic trajectory toward Titan, the largest and most mysterious moon of Saturn, in order to dive into its atmosphere on 14 January. This will be the first man-made object to explore in-situ this unique environment, whose chemistry is assumed to be very similar to that of the early Earth just before life began, 3.8 billion years ago. The Cassini-Huygens pair, a joint mission conducted by NASA, ESA and the Italian space agency (ASI), was launched into space on 15 October 1997. With the help of several gravity assist manoeuvres during flybys of Venus, Earth and Jupiter, it took almost 7 years for the spacecraft to reach Saturn. The Cassini orbiter, carrying Huygens on its flank, entered an orbit around Saturn on 1 July 2004, and began to investigate the ringed planet and its moons for a mission that will last at least four years. The first distant flyby of Titan took place on 2-3 July 2004. It provided data on Titan's atmosphere which were confirmed by the data obtained during the first close flyby on 26 October 2004 at an altitude of 1174 km. These data were used to validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. A second close flyby of Titan by Cassini-Huygens at an altitude of 1200 km is scheduled on 13 December and will provide additional data to further validate the entry conditions of the Huygens probe. On 17 December the orbiter will be placed on a controlled collision course with Titan in order to release Huygens on the proper trajectory, and on 21 December (some dates and times are subject to minor adjustment for operational reasons, except the entry time on 14 January which is know to within an accuracy of under 2 minutes) all systems will be set up for separation and the Huygens timers will be set to wake the probe a few hours before its arrival at Titan. The Huygens probe is due to separate on

  12. Challenging design and development of Ma_Miss, a miniaturised spectrometric instrument for Mars sub-soil analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistelli, E.; Coradini, A.; Mugnuolo, R.; Capanni, A.; Paolinetti, R.; Re, E.; Magnani, P.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes Ma_Miss (Mars Multispectral Imager for Subsurface Studies), the miniaturized instrument for spectrometric and stratigraphic analysis of sub-soil developed by SELEX Galileo in the context of ESA ExoMars mission. The Ma_Miss experiment is coordinated by the Principal Investigator Angioletta Coradini (IFSI-INAF, Rome) and is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The exploration of Mars requires a detailed in-situ investigation of the Martian surface and sub-surface. Determining the composition of the Martian subsoil will provide a direct indication of the steps through which the sample material evolved along geological timescales. Ma_Miss is an instrument fully integrated in the Drill system (developed by SELEX Galileo) hosted by a Rover operating on Mars surface; Ma_Miss illuminates the wall of the drill borehole and acquires its reflectance signal in the Visible and Infrared (0.4-2.2 micron) range, analyzes it through a miniaturized spectrometer (20nm spectral resolution), and transmits the digital data to the Rover. The innovative instrument concept was driven by several key needs, related to challenging scientific requirements and extreme environmental constraints. Implementation of the concept has required a deep interdisciplinary concurrent development in order to solve critical aspects of engineering and manufacturing, covering miniaturized monolithic optics and novel concept for fiberoptic connectors capable to automatically mate/de-mate during the robotic assembly of the Drill elements on Mars.

  13. Identifying Surface Changes on HRSC Images of the Mars South Polar Residual CAP (sprc)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putri, Alfiah Rizky Diana; Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-06-01

    The surface of Mars has been an object of interest for planetary research since the launch of Mariner 4 in 1964. Since then different cameras such as the Viking Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS), Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX) and High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) have been imaging its surface at ever higher resolution. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board of the European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express, has been imaging the Martian surface, since 25th December 2003 until the present-day. HRSC has covered 100 % of the surface of Mars, about 70 % of the surface with panchromatic images at 10-20 m/pixel, and about 98 % at better than 100 m/pixel (Neukum et. al., 2004), including the polar regions of Mars. The Mars polar regions have been studied intensively recently by analysing images taken by the Mars Express and MRO missions (Plaut et al., 2007). The South Polar Residual Cap (SPRC) does not change very much in volume overall but there are numerous examples of dynamic phenomena associated with seasonal changes in the atmosphere. In particular, we can examine the time variation of layers of solid carbon dioxide and water ice with dust deposition (Bibring, 2004), spider-like channels (Piqueux et al., 2003) and so-called Swiss Cheese Terrain (Titus et al., 2004). Because of seasonal changes each Martian year, due to the sublimation and deposition of water and CO2 ice on the Martian south polar region, clearly identifiable surface changes occur in otherwise permanently icy region. In this research, good quality HRSC images of the Mars South Polar region are processed based on previous identification as the optimal coverage of clear surfaces (Campbell et al., 2015). HRSC images of the Martian South Pole are categorized in terms of quality, time, and location to find overlapping areas, processed into high quality Digital Terrain

  14. Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs: PEX.2/ICEUM12B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard H.

    2016-07-01

    The session COSPAR-16-PEX.2: "Human Exploration on the Moon, Mars and NEOs", co-sponsored by Commissions B, F will include solicited and contributed talks and poster/interactive presentations. It will also be part of the 12th International Conference on Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon ICEUM12B from the ILEWG ICEUM series started in 1994. It will address various themes and COSPAR communities: - Sciences (of, on, from) the Moon enabled by humans - Research from cislunar and libration points - From robotic villages to international lunar bases - Research from Mars & NEOs outposts - Humans to Phobos/Deimos, Mars and NEOS - Challenges and preparatory technologies, field research operations - Human and robotic partnerships and precursor missions - Resource utilisation, life support and sustainable exploration - Stakeholders for human exploration One half-day session will be dedicated to a workshop format and meetings/reports of task groups: Science, Technology, Agencies, Robotic village, Human bases, Society & Commerce, Outreach, Young Explorers. COSPAR has provided through Commissions, Panels and Working Groups (such as ILEWG, IMEWG) an international forum for supporting and promoting the robotic and human exploration of the Moon, Mars and NEOS. Proposed sponsors : ILEWG, ISECG, IKI, ESA, NASA, DLR, CNES, ASI, UKSA, JAXA, ISRO, SRON, CNSA, SSERVI, IAF, IAA, Lockheed Martin, Google Lunar X prize, UNOOSA

  15. Detection of pigments of halophilic endoliths from gypsum: Raman portable instrument and European Space Agency's prototype analysis.

    PubMed

    Culka, Adam; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Hutchinson, Ian; Ingley, Richard; McHugh, Melissa; Oren, Aharon; Edwards, Howell G M; Jehlička, Jan

    2014-12-13

    A prototype instrument, under development at the University of Leicester, for the future European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars mission, was used for the analysis of microbial pigments within a stratified gypsum crust from a hypersaline saltern evaporation pond at Eilat (Israel). Additionally, the same samples were analysed using a miniaturized Raman spectrometer, featuring the same 532 nm excitation. The differences in the position of the specific bands, attributed to carotenoid pigments from different coloured layers, were minor when analysed by the ESA prototype instrument; therefore, making it difficult to distinguish among the different pigments. The portable Delta Nu Advantage instrument allowed for the discrimination of microbial carotenoids from the orange/green and purple layers. The purpose of this study was to complement previous laboratory results with new data and experience with portable or handheld Raman systems, even with a dedicated prototype Raman system for the exploration of Mars. The latter is equipped with an excitation wavelength falling within the carotenoid polyene resonance region. The ESA prototype Raman instrument detected the carotenoid pigments (biomarkers) with ease, although further detailed distinctions among them were not achieved.

  16. Detection of pigments of halophilic endoliths from gypsum: Raman portable instrument and European Space Agency's prototype analysis

    PubMed Central

    Culka, Adam; Osterrothová, Kateřina; Hutchinson, Ian; Ingley, Richard; McHugh, Melissa; Oren, Aharon; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Jehlička, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A prototype instrument, under development at the University of Leicester, for the future European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars mission, was used for the analysis of microbial pigments within a stratified gypsum crust from a hypersaline saltern evaporation pond at Eilat (Israel). Additionally, the same samples were analysed using a miniaturized Raman spectrometer, featuring the same 532 nm excitation. The differences in the position of the specific bands, attributed to carotenoid pigments from different coloured layers, were minor when analysed by the ESA prototype instrument; therefore, making it difficult to distinguish among the different pigments. The portable Delta Nu Advantage instrument allowed for the discrimination of microbial carotenoids from the orange/green and purple layers. The purpose of this study was to complement previous laboratory results with new data and experience with portable or handheld Raman systems, even with a dedicated prototype Raman system for the exploration of Mars. The latter is equipped with an excitation wavelength falling within the carotenoid polyene resonance region. The ESA prototype Raman instrument detected the carotenoid pigments (biomarkers) with ease, although further detailed distinctions among them were not achieved. PMID:25368354

  17. CERN, ESA and ESO Launch "Physics On Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    Physics is everywhere . The laws of physics govern the Universe, the Sun, the Earth and even our own lives. In today's rapidly developing society, we are becoming increasingly dependent on high technology - computers, transport, and communication are just some of the key areas that are the result of discoveries by scientists working in physics. But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! [Go to Physics On Stage Website] Beginning in February 2000, three major European research organisations are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) , the European Space Agency (ESA) and the European Southern Observatory (ESO) , with support from the European Union. Other partners are the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, on the CERN premises at the French-Swiss border near Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge about physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European

  18. 76 FR 4133 - National Environmental Policy Act; Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission AGENCY... consideration of possible changes in the potential environmental impacts of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL... spacecraft technical and testing challenges. Launch opportunities for Mars missions occur approximately...

  19. Planetary environment protection ID no: F3.3-M.1.05 implications for the development of a network of surface stations on Mars.

    PubMed

    Scoon, G E; Chicarro, A; Schwehm, G H; Spiero, F

    1995-03-01

    The European Space Agency's studies of a Comet Nucleus Sample Return mission (ROSETTA) as its Planetary Cornerstone in its long-term programme 'Horizon 2000' and the Marsnet mission, a potential contribution of the Agency to an international network of surface stations on Mars, has revived the interest in the present state of Planetary Protection requirements. MARSNET was one of the four candidate missions selected in April 1991 for further Design Feasibility (Phase A) Studies. Furthermore, of all space agencies participating in planetary exploration activities only the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration had a well established Planetary Protection Policy on Viking and other relevant planetary missions, whereas ESA is considering the feasibility and potential impact of a planetary protection policy on its Marsnet mission, within the framework of a tight budgetary envelope applicable to ESA's medium (M) class missions. This paper will discuss in general terms the impact of Planetary Protection measures, its implications for Marsnet and the issues arising from this for the implementation of the mission in ESA's scientific programme.

  20. Mars Landscapes

    NASA Video Gallery

    Spacecraft have studied the Martian surface for decades, giving Earthlings insights into the history, climate and geology of our nearest neighbor, Mars. These images are from "Mars Landscapes," a v...

  1. Portuguese Participation In The Mars Express/beagle2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, E. I.; Portuguese Mx Teams

    Three Portuguese groups responded to the European Space Agency (ESA) second an- nouncement of opportunities for the Mars Express Mission. Projects were submitted in the fields Atmosphere and Surface/Atmosphere Interaction, Exobiology and Geologi- cal Evolution. Contacts among the groups revealed large areas of potential interaction and a necessity of active data, methods and analysis interchange. The projects will be executed in the period 2002-2006, and aim to analyse the information that will be conveyed by instruments aboard the Mars Express Orbiter and Beagle 2 Lander. Our combined projects propose to yield seven products: the Mars Orbital Viewer U MOVie U ; an apparent thermal inertia (ATI) map; a high-resolution water stability map; a lithostructural map; a hydrological potential map; a local assessment of poten- tial biomarkers; a geological map of Mars. MOVie will be a virtual-reality addressable map of Mars, based on stereoscopic images from the HSRC camera. The ATI map will draw on data from both the OMEGA (VNIR band) and PFS (NIR/TIR band) instru- ments. This map will enrich the existing atmospheric circulation models and help in the discrimination of lithotypes and hydric potential. One of our main objectives is to address the question whether water release does occur in the present epoch, which will be done by analysing the water vapour content in the low atmosphere. Data ar- riving from Beagle 2 will also be the basis for the assessment of methane contents on low martian atmosphere and soil-adsorbed gases. Atmosphere, soil and rock compo- sition data from the lander will allow for the correction of remotely sensed spectra. Classification will proceed in two phases: first an expert system will evaluate point lithologies from mineral and rock spectra; then those point lithologies will be mapped onto the planetary surface by a self-organising neural network. Mathematical mor- phology operators will also be used to perform the classification of Mars

  2. The ESA Space Situational Awareness Preparatory Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrinsky, Nicolas

    A new ESA Programme on Space Situational Awareness (SSA) has been approved during the ESA Council at Ministerial level in November 2008. A preparatory phase is in progress, covering the timeframe 2009 -2012. It concentrates on the architectural design of the SSA System, its governance and data policy, as well as on the provision of precursor services based on the federation of existing National and European assets. A continuation of the SSA programme will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council for the years 2012 and onwards. The SSA Preparatory Programme covers three distinct segments, namely: -Space Surveillance and Tracking of artificial objects orbiting the Earth -Space Weather -Near Earth Objects Each of the above segments has a strong relation with Science and is supported by specific RD Programmes at National, EC and ESA levels. In this paper, the scientific aspects of the three SSA Segments are outlined and the following main topics developed: • Space Surveillance: statistical models of the evolution of the space debris population in Earth-bound orbits, study of active mitigation measures, impact analysis, tracking and char-acterisation principles based on radar and optical techniques. • Space Weather: awareness of the natural space environment, detection and forecasting of space weather effects and interferences, analysis of appropriate ground and space-based sensors for the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. • Near Earth Objects (NEOs): methods for determination of physical characteristics of newly discovered objects, study of appropriate sensors based on radar and optical techniques, iden-tification and ranking of collision risks of NEOs with the Earth, study of possible mitigation measures (e.g. Don Quichotes project). The research topics undertaken during the preparatory programme, as well as those foreseen during the next phase, possibly with a strong international cooperation

  3. The ESA earth observation polar platform programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rast, M.; Readings, C. J.

    1991-08-01

    The overall scenario of ESA earth observation polar platform program is reviewed with particular attention given to instruments currently being considered for flight on the first European polar platforms. The major objectives of the mission include monitoring the earth's environment on various scales; management and monitoring of the earth's resources; improvement of the service provided to the worldwide operational meteorological community, investigation of the structure and dynamics of the earth's crust and interior. The program encompasses four main elements: an ERS-1 follow-on mission (ERS-2), a solid earth gravity mission (Aristoteles), a Meteosat Second Generation, and a series of polar orbit earth observation missions.

  4. Lunar Exploration and Science Opportunities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Schiemann, J.; Patti, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavour. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  5. Lunar Exploration and Science in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J.; Houdou, B.; Fisackerly, R.; De Rosa, D.; Patti, B.; Schiemann, J.; Hufenbach, B.; Foing, B.

    2014-04-01

    ESA seeks to provide Europe with access to the lunar surface, and allow Europeans to benefit from the opening up of this new frontier, as part of a global endeavor. This will be best achieved through an exploration programme which combines the strengths and capabilities of both robotic and human explorers. ESA is preparing for future participation in lunar exploration through a combination of human and robotic activities, in cooperation with international partners. Future planned activities include the contribution of key technological capabilities to the Russian led robotic missions, Luna-Glob, Luna-Resurs orbiter and Luna-Resurs lander. For the Luna-Resurs lander ESA will provide analytical capabilities to compliment the already selected Russian led payload, focusing on the composition and isotopic abundances of lunar volatiles in polar regions. This should be followed by the contributions at the level of mission elements to a Lunar Polar Sample Return mission. This partnership will provide access for European investigators to the opportunities offered by the Russian led instruments on the missions, as well as providing Europe with a unique opportunity to characterize and utilize polar volatile populations. Ultimately samples of high scientific value, from as of yet unexplored and unsampled locations shall be made available to the scientific community. These robotic activities are being performed with a view to enabling a future more comprehensive programme in which robotic and human activities are integrated to provide the maximum benefits from lunar surface access. Activities on the ISS and ESA participation to the US led Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, which is planned for a first unmanned lunar flight in 2017, are also important steps towards achieving this. All of these activities are performed with a view to generating the technologies, capabilities, knowledge and heritage that will make Europe an indispensible partner in the exploration missions of the future

  6. Transportation: Destination Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eoff, Bill

    1998-01-01

    As the agency space transportation lead center, Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting transportation assessments for future robotic and human Mars missions to identify critical technologies. Five human Mars options are currently under assessment with each option including all transportation requirements from Earth to Mars and return. The primary difference for each option is the propulsion source from Earth to Mars. In case any of the options require heavy launch capability that is not currently projected as available, an in-house study has been initiated to determine the most cost effective means of providing such launch capability. This assessment is only considering launch architectures that support the overall human Mars mission cost goal of $25B. The guidelines for the launch capability study included delivery of 80 metric ton (176 KLB) payloads, 25 feet diameter x 92 feet long, to 220 nmi orbits at 28.5 degrees. The launch vehicle concept of the study was designated "Magnum" to differentiate from prior heavy launch vehicle assessments. This assessment along with the assessment of options for all transportation phases of a Mars mission are on-going.

  7. Transportation: Destination Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eoff, Bill

    1998-01-01

    As the agency space transportation lead center, Marshall Space Flight Center has been conducting transportation assessments for future robotic and human Mars missions to identify critical technologies. Five human Mars options are currently under assessment with each option including all transportation requirements from Earth to Mars and return. The primary difference for each option is the propulsion source from Earth to Mars. In case any of the options require heavy launch capability that is not currently projected as available, an in-house study has been initiated to determine the most cost effective means of providing such launch capability. This assessment is only considering launch architectures that support the overall human Mars mission cost goal of 25B. The guidelines for the launch capability study included delivery of 80 metric ton (176 KLB) payloads, 25 feet diameter x 92 feet long, to 220 nmi orbits at 28.5 degrees. The launch vehicle concept of the study was designated "Magnum" to differentiate from prior heavy launch vehicle assessments. This assessment along with the assessment of options for all transportation phases of a Mars mission are on-going.

  8. Isidis Basin, Mars: Geology and Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesinger, H.; Head, J. W., III

    2003-04-01

    ) the rim of Isidis exhibits a wide range of elevations of ~7500-8000 m. The floor of the Isidis basin has been chosen by the European Space Agency (ESA) as the landing site for the first European lander on Mars, named Beagle, and is under consideration as a potential landing site for one of the NASA MER rovers. While Beagle will investigate the characteristics of the uppermost surface layers, the Mars Express spacecraft will orbit the planet to acquire global high-resolution remote sensing data and to ensure data downlink from the lander to Earth.

  9. MarsQuest: Bringing the Excitement of Mars Exploration to the Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dusenbery, P. B.; Morrow, C. A.; Harold, J. B.

    2005-08-01

    We are in the midst of an extraordinary era of Mars exploration with missions like NASA's Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor and ESA's Mars Express spacecraft along with NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers returning results that expand our knowledge and understanding of the Red Planet. To bring the excitement of Mars exploration to the public, the Space Science Institute (SSI) of Boulder, CO, has developed a comprehensive Mars Education Program that includes: 1) large and small traveling exhibits, 2) workshops for educators and docents, and 3) an interactive Web site called MarsQuest Online (in partnership with TERC and JPL). This program will be presented and offered as a good model for actively involving scientists and their discoveries to improve science education. The centerpiece of SSI's Mars Education Program is the 5,000-square-foot traveling exhibition, MarsQuest: Exploring the Red Planet, which was developed with support from the National Science Foundation (NSF), NASA, and several corporate donors. The MarsQuest exhibit is on a six-year tour that began in 1998. The exhibit is currently at the Life Science Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. The Institute has also developed Destination: Mars, a mini-version of MarsQuest that is designed for smaller venues. Workshops for educators and docents are conducted at host sites. They are designed to inspire and empower participants to extend the excitement and science content of the exhibitions to students and museum visitors. MarsQuest Online is a Web site that uses the MarsQuest exhibit as a framework for online interactives that delve deeper into Mars science. The Mars Education Program also provides a context for educational research on effective educational programming and web-based versus exhibit delivery of interactives. The results of this research inform subsequent exhibit projects, (e.g. Giant Planets) and are disseminated to the broader informal science community.

  10. ESA situational awareness of space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Keil, Ralf; Kraft, Stefan; Lupi, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    ESA SSA Period 2 started at the beginning of 2013 and will last until the end of 2016. For the Space Weather Segment, transition to Period 2 introduced an increasing amount of development of new space weather service capability in addition to networking existing European assets. This transition was started already towards the end of SSA Period 1 with the initiation of the SSA Space Weather Segment architecture definition studies and activities enhancing existing space weather assets. The objective of Period 2 has been to initiate SWE space segment developments in the form of hosted payload missions and further expand the federated service network. A strong focus has been placed on demonstration and testing of European capabilities in the range of SWE service domains with a view to establishing core products which can form the basis of SWE service provision during SSA Period 3. This focus has been particularly addressed in the SSA Expert Service Centre (ESC) Definition and Development activity that was started in September 2015. This presentation will cover the current status of the SSA SWE Segment and the achievements during SSA Programme Periods 1 and 2. Particular attention is given to the federated approach that allow building the end user services on the best European expertise. The presentation will also outline the plans for the Space Weather capability development in the framework of the ESA SSA Programme in 2017-2020.

  11. The ESA Space Weather Applications Pilot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glover, A.; Hilgers, A.; Daly, E.

    Following the completion in 2001 of two parallel studies to consider the feasibility of a European Space Weather Programme ESA embarked upon a space weather pilot study with the goal of prototyping European space weather services and assessing the overall market for such within Europe This pilot project centred on a number of targeted service development activities supported by a common infrastructure and making use of only existing space weather assets Each service activity included clear participation from at least one identified service user who was requested to provide initial requirements and regular feedback during the operational phase of the service These service activities are now reaching the end of their 2-year development and testing phase and are now accessible each with an element of the service in the public domain see http www esa-spaceweathet net swenet An additional crucial element of the study was the inclusion of a comprehensive and independent analysis of the benefits both economic and strategic of embarking on a programme which would include the deployment of an infrastructure with space-based elements The results of this study will be reported together with their implication for future coordinated European activities in this field

  12. Optical and dark characterization of the PLATO CCD at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhoeve, Peter; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Oosterbroek, Tim; Duvet, Ludovic; Beaufort, Thierry; Blommaert, Sander; Butler, Bart; Heijnen, Jerko; Lemmel, Frederic; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Smit, Hans; Visser, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    PLATO - PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars - is the third medium-class mission (M3) to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. It is due for launch in 2025 with the main objective to find and study terrestrial planets in the habitable zone around solar-like stars. The payload consists of >20 cameras; with each camera comprising 4 Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), a large number of flight model devices procured by ESA shall ultimately be integrated on the spacecraft. The CCD270 - specially designed and manufactured by e2v for the PLATO mission - is a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) back-illuminated device operating at 4 MHz pixel rate and coming in two variants: full frame and frame transfer. In order to de-risk the PLATO CCD procurement and aid the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section is currently validating the PLATO CCD270. This validation consists in demonstrating that the device achieves its specified electrooptical performance in the relevant environment: operated at 4 MHz, at cold and before and after proton irradiation. As part of this validation, CCD270 devices have been characterized in the dark as well as optically with respect to performance parameters directly relevant for the photometric application of the CCDs. Dark tests comprise the measurement of gain sensitivity to bias voltages, charge injection tests, and measurement of hot and variable pixels after irradiation. In addition, the results of measurements of Quantum Efficiency for a range of angles of incidence, intra- pixel response (non-)uniformity, and response to spot illumination, before and after proton irradiation. In particular, the effect of radiation induced degradation of the charge transfer efficiency on the measured charge in a star-like spot has been studied as a function of signal level and of position on the pixel grid, Also, the effect of various levels of background light on the

  13. Beagle 2 and NASA's Mars 2003 Orbiter: A Unique Exobiology Opportunity with an Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Thatcher, John; Westall, Frances

    2000-01-01

    With the exploration strategy for Mars undergoing reexamination, the opportunity exists for the incorporation of the 60 kg Beagle 2 lander, developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on ESA's 2003 Mars Express mission, with NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter derived from the Mars Global Orbiter. The combination of Beagle 2 with a Mars orbiter would result in a unique mission which could obtain information on Mars' life, climate and resources both from orbit as well as on the surface of the planet. Beagle 2 has been developed in the LJK for ESA as a low-cost opportunity to study the exobiology of Mars and the spacecraft is in its final stages of manufacture. Only limited modifications to the Beagle 2 package would be required for inclusion on NASA's Mars 2003 orbiter. With the ESA Mars Express mission launch in 2003 and a potential NASA Mars orbiter in 2003, both Beagle 2 landers on Mars would offer a low-cost, decreased risk and increased science return opportunity for the exploration of Mars at two distinct geologically interesting sites.

  14. ESA MS Nicollier, assisted by technicians, dons EMU upper torso in JSC's WETF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, wearing liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) and extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) lower torso, crouches under EMU upper torso. Technicians extend the sleeves enabling Nicollier to insert his arms into the armholes. Once fully suited in the EMU, Nicollier will be lowered via the platform into JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool for an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simulation and familiarization session.

  15. ESA MS Nicollier extends mockup tetherline prior to JSC WETF simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, turning a crank, extends a tetherline from a reel mounted on a mockup of the forward payload bay (PLB) bulkhead. Nicollier familiarizes himself with the operation of the safety tether system prior to donning an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) and participating in an underwater extravehicular activity (EVA) simu- lation in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29 pool.

  16. The geological mapping project of the Mars Express mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ori, G. G.; di Iorio, A.

    2003-04-01

    The ESA mission Mars Express will send three instruments with geological mapping capability: HRSC, OMEGA, and MARSIS. The HRSC is a camera that will provide medium to high-resolution images (about 10m/pixel to 2m/pixel) in colour and stereo. OMEGA will provide maps of the surface mineralogy. MARSIS is a subsurface penetrating radar that will bring back data at depth in excess of 2000 metres. The data of Mars Express will provide a good opportunity to match different geological data sets including the subsurface geology. ESA through a peer-reviewed open competition has selected a project dealing with the geological mapping of the Mars Express data and their distribution in electronic formats. The aim of the project is to perform the geological mapping of the surface and subsurface data from HRSC, OMEGA, and MARSIS. The mapping operations will be coordinated by a scientific panel that will take care of the distribution among the scientific community of the tasks, the standardization of the geological nomenclature and of the interpretation of the data sets, and the evaluation and validation of the final products. The distribution of the tasks to the mapping teams will be done through a peer-reviewed process by the scientific panel. In order to have in Europe a community ready for such a kind of large-scale planetary project, a continuing educational programme is under way. This programme is financed by the Commission of the European Union, the European Space Agency, and the Italian Space Agency. Short Courses, summer schools, and workshop have been organized in 2001 and 2002 and more will be held in the next two years. The response to this activity has been positive and the interested community has grown up to cover a large number of scientists from State members of the European Union and other European Countries. The current activity of the project deals with two tasks. The first one is to provide the proper electronic configurations and formats (hardware and

  17. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  18. The new Planetary Science Archive: A tool for exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Besse, Sebastien; Barbarisi, Isa; Arviset, Christophe; de Marchi, Guido; Barthelemy, Maud; Docasal, Ruben; Fraga, Diego; Grotheer, Emmanuel; Lim, Tanya; Macfarlane, Alan; Martinez, Santa; Rios, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Introduction: The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces (e.g. FTP browser, Map based, Advanced search, and Machine interface): http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. Updating the PSA: The PSA is currently implementing a number of significant changes, both to its web-based interface to the scientific community, and to its database structure. The new PSA will be up-to-date with versions 3 and 4 of the PDS standards, as PDS4 will be used for ESA's upcoming ExoMars and BepiColombo missions. The newly designed PSA homepage will provide direct access to scientific datasets via a text search for targets or missions. This will significantly reduce the complexity for users to find their data and will promote one-click access to the datasets. Additionally, the homepage will provide direct access to advanced views and searches of the datasets. Users will have direct access to documentation, information and tools that are relevant to the scientific use of the dataset, including ancillary datasets, Software Interface Specification (SIS) documents, and any tools/help that the PSA team can provide. A login mechanism will provide additional functionalities to the users to aid / ease their searches (e.g. saving queries, managing default views). Queries to the PSA database will be possible either via the homepage (for simple searches of missions or targets), or through a filter menu for more tailored queries. The filter menu will offer multiple options to search for a particular dataset or product, and will manage queries for both in-situ and remote sensing instruments. Parameters such as start-time, phase angle, and heliocentric distance will be emphasized. A further

  19. NASA/ESA CV-990 spacelab simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Due to interest in the application of simplified techniques used to conduct airborne science missions at NASA's Ames Research Center, a joint NASA/ESA endeavor was established to conduct an extensive Spacelab simulation using the NASA CV-990 airborne laboratory. The scientific payload was selected to perform studies in upper atmospheric physics and infrared astronomy with principal investigators from France, the Netherlands, England, and several groups from the United States. Communication links between the 'Spacelab' and a ground based mission operations center were limited consistent with Spacelab plans. The mission was successful and provided extensive data relevant to Spacelab objectives on overall management of a complex international payload; experiment preparation, testing, and integration; training for proxy operation in space; data handling; multiexperimenter use of common experimenter facilities (telescopes); multiexperiment operation by experiment operators; selection criteria for Spacelab experiment operators; and schedule requirements to prepare for such a Spacelab mission.

  20. The role of physiotherapy in the European Space Agency strategy for preparation and reconditioning of astronauts before and after long duration space flight.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Gunda; Petersen, Nora; Weerts, Guillaume; Pruett, Casey; Evetts, Simon; Stokes, Maria; Hides, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Spaceflight and exposure to microgravity have wide-ranging effects on many systems of the human body. At the European Space Agency (ESA), a physiotherapist plays a key role in the multidisciplinary ESA team responsible for astronaut health, with a focus on the neuro-musculoskeletal system. In conjunction with a sports scientist, the physiotherapist prepares the astronaut for spaceflight, monitors their exercise performance whilst on the International Space Station (ISS), and reconditions the astronaut when they return to Earth. This clinical commentary outlines the physiotherapy programme, which was developed over nine long-duration missions. Principles of physiotherapy assessment, clinical reasoning, treatment programme design (tailored to the individual) and progression of the programme are outlined. Implications for rehabilitation of terrestrial populations are discussed. Evaluation of the reconditioning programme has begun and challenges anticipated after longer missions, e.g. to Mars, are considered.

  1. Mars Radar Opens a Planet's Third Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Radar sounder instruments orbiting Mars have looked beneath the Martian surface and opened up the third dimension for planetary exploration. The technique's success is prompting scientists to think of all the other places in the Solar System where they would like to use radar sounders.

    The first radar sounder at Mars was the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) on the European Space Agency's Mars Express Orbiter. It has been joined by the complementary Shallow Subsurface Radar (SHARAD), operating at a different wavelength aboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The data in this animation are from SHARAD.

  2. The Mars Express limbs observations database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondet, Brigitte; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Montmessin, Franck; Giuranna, Marco; Hoffmann, Harald; Cardesin, Alejandro

    2015-04-01

    The capability to orient Mars Express allows a great diversity of observations modes, in particular nadir and limb. During day and night limb's observations, 4 out of 7 MEX instruments (the spectrometers: SPICAM, OMEGA, PFS and the high-resolution camera HRSC) work together to provide spectra (.12 µm to 45 µm) of the Martian atmosphere, at each altitude step, with the associated image. We will present the limbs database of more than 10 years in orbit with striking results (dust and clouds detached layers, day and night emissions). The database is now accessible to the scientific community via the ESA/PSA website (www.rssd.esa.int/PSA).

  3. Rosetta performs ESA's closest-ever Earth fly-by

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    The passage through the Earth-Moon system allowed ground controllers to test Rosetta's 'asteroid fly-by mode' (AFM) using the Moon as a 'fake' asteroid, rehearsing the fly-bys of asteroids Steins and Lutetia due in 2008 and 2010 respectively. The AFM test started at 23:01 GMT and ran for nine minutes during which the two onboard navigation cameras successfully tracked the Moon, allowing Rosetta's attitude to be automatically adjusted. Before and after closest approach, the navigation cameras also acquired a series of images of the Moon and Earth; these data will be downloaded early today for ground processing and are expected to be available by 8 March. In addition, other onboard instruments were switched on, including ALICE (ultraviolet imaging spectrometer), VIRTIS (visible and infrared mapping spectrometer) and MIRO (microwave instrument for the Rosetta orbiter), for calibration and general testing using the Earth and Moon as targets. The fly-by manoeuvre swung the three-tonne spacecraft around our planet and out towards Mars, where it will make a fly-by on 26 February 2007. Rosetta will return to Earth again in a series of four planet fly-bys (three times with Earth, once with Mars) before reaching Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014, when it will enter orbit and deliver a lander, Philae, onto the surface. The fly-bys are necessary to accelerate the spacecraft so as to eventually match the velocity of the target comet. They are a fuel-saving way to boost speed using planetary gravity. Yesterday's fly-by came one year and two days after launch and highlights the valuable opportunities for instrument calibration and data gathering available during the mission's multi-year voyage. In just three months, on 4 July, Rosetta will be in a good position to observe and gather data during NASA's spectacular Deep Impact event, when the Deep Impact probe will hurl a 380 kg projectile into Comet Tempel 1, revealing data on the comet's internal structure. Certain of

  4. The ExoMars DREAMS scientific data archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipani, P.; Marty, L.; Mannetta, M.; Esposito, F.; Molfese, C.; Aboudan, A.; Apestigue-Palacio, V.; Arruego-Rodríguez, I.; Bettanini, C.; Colombatti, G.; Debei, S.; Genzer, M.; Harri, A.-M.; Marchetti, E.; Montmessin, F.; Mugnuolo, R.; Pirrotta, S.; Wilson, C.

    2016-08-01

    DREAMS (Dust Characterisation, Risk Assessment, and Environment Analyser on the Martian Surface) is a payload accommodated on the Schiaparelli Entry and Descent Module (EDM) of ExoMars 2016, the ESA - Roscosmos mission to Mars successfully launched on 14 March 2016. The DREAMS data will be archived and distributed to the scientific community through the ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA). All data shall be compliant with NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS4) standards for formatting and labelling files. This paper summarizes the format and content of the DREAMS data products and associated metadata. The pipeline to convert the raw telemetries to the final products for the archive is sketched as well.

  5. A Moessbauer spectrometer for the mineralogical analysis of the Mars surface: First temperature dependent tests of the detector and drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Held, P.; Teucher, R.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Foh, J.; Jaeger, H.; Kankeleit, E.

    1993-01-01

    Part of the scientific payload of the Mars-96 mission is a Fe-(57)Mossbauer (MB) spectrometer installed on a small rover to be placed on the surface of Mars. The instrument is under development at the University of Darmstadt. This instrument, with some modifications, is also included in the scientific payload of the proposed MARSNET mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). A similar instrument is currently under development in the US. The reason for developing a Mossbauer spectrometer for space applications is the high abundance of the element iron, especially on the surface of Mars. The elemental composition of Martian soil was determined during the Viking mission in 1976 but not it's mineralogical composition. One believes that it is composed mainly of iron-rich clay minerals, with an iron content of about 14 (plus or minus 2) wt-percent, partly magnetic. Of extremely great interest are the oxidation state of the iron, the magnetic phases and the mineral composition of the Mars surface. To these questions MB spectroscopy can provide important information, which are not available by other methods. We report on first tests of the experimental setup in the temperature range plus 20 C to -70 C, roughly corresponding to the temperature range on the surface of Mars. Also questions concerning the signal/noise ratio (S/N) are discussed.

  6. The europa initiative for esa's cosmic vision: a potential european contribution to nasa's Europa mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Michel; Jones, Geraint H.; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Sterken, Veerle J.

    2016-04-01

    The assessment of the habitability of Jupiter's icy moons is considered of high priority in the roadmaps of the main space agencies, including the decadal survey and esa's cosmic vision plan. the voyager and galileo missions indicated that europa and ganymede may meet the requirements of habitability, including deep liquid aqueous reservoirs in their interiors. indeed, they constitute different end-terms of ocean worlds, which deserve further characterization in the next decade. esa and nasa are now both planning to explore these ice moons through exciting and ambitious missions. esa selected in 2012 the juice mission mainly focused on ganymede and the jupiter system, while nasa is currently studying and implementing the europa mission. in 2015, nasa invited esa to provide a junior spacecraft to be carried on board its europa mission, opening a collaboration scheme similar to the very successful cassini-huygens approach. in order to define the best contribution that can be made to nasa's europa mission, a europa initiative has emerged in europe. its objective is to elaborate a community-based strategy for the proposition of the best possible esa contribution(s) to nasa's europa mission, as a candidate for the upcoming selection of esa's 5th medium-class mission . the science returns of the different potential contributions are analysed by six international working groups covering complementary science themes: a) magnetospheric interactions; b) exosphere, including neutrals, dust and plumes; c) geochemistry; d) geology, including expressions of exchanges between layers; e) geophysics, including characterization of liquid water distribution; f) astrobiology. each group is considering different spacecraft options in the contexts of their main scientific merits and limitations, their technical feasibility, and of their interest for the development of esa-nasa collaborations. there are five options under consideration: (1) an augmented payload to the europa mission main

  7. Overview of ESA life support activities in preparation of future exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasseur, Christophe; Paille, Christel

    2016-07-01

    Since 1987, the European Space Agency has been active in the field of Life Support development. When compare to its international colleagues, it is clear that ESA started activities in the field with a "delay of around 25 years. Due to this situation and to avoid duplication, ESA decided to focus more on long term manned missions and to consider more intensively regenerative technologies as well as the associated risks management ( e.g. physical, chemical and contaminants). Fortunately or not, during the same period, no clear plan of exploration and consequently not specific requirements materialized. This force ESA to keep a broader and generic approach of all technologies. Today with this important catalogue of technologies and know-how, ESA is contemplating the different scenario of manned exploration beyond LEO. In this presentation we review the key scenario of future exploration, and identify the key technologies who loo the more relevant. An more detailed status is presented on the key technologies and their development plan for the future.

  8. THERMAP: the mid-infrared (8-16 µm) spectro-imager of the ESA Marco Polo R mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groussin, O.; Licandro, J.; Helbert, J.; Alí Lagoa, V.; Brageot, E.; Davidsson, B.; Delbó, M.; Delsanti, A.; Garcia-Talavera, M. R.; Green, S.; Jorda, L.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; Lamy, P.; Lellouch, E.; Levacher, P.; Reynaud, J.-L.; Rozitis, B.; Sunshine, J.; Vernazza, P.

    2013-09-01

    THERMAP is a mid-infrared (8-16 μm) spectroimager, selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) in February 2013 for the scientific payload of the Marco Polo R M-class mission. We present in this paper the instrument and its scientific objectives.

  9. Critical laser technology developments and ESA space qualification approach in support of ESA's Earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahir, Mustapha; Durand, Yannig

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, ESA's approach to lasers and detectors space evaluation and qualification will be explored. ESA has its own international qualification system, the ESCC system. This system guarantees reliability, assurance and quality of components, and hence a successful space mission. An overview of the ESCC (European Space Component Coordination) system, as well as the relevant ECSS (European Cooperation for Space Standards) related standards addressing components and hybrid qualification will be given. These standards are being constantly updated, through well structured working groups, constantly coming up with new ways of qualifying space components. These components are themselves constantly changing in terms of material, technology, and manufacturing processes. The development of advanced Lidar systems for space applications and their evaluation by airborne or ground based test campaigns is an important strategic element of the ESA Earth Observation Programme. These systems depend on robust and reliable lasers and detector at their core function. Since the early eighties, ESA has been supporting the development of the critical subsystems of any Lidar, i.e. lasers and detectors. Several missions, involving different kinds of lidars, provide the requirements to be addressed in the Lidar risk mitigation activities. They also present a challenge concerning their space qualification and reliability assurance. These missions are: ADM-Aeolus flying ALADIN a Doppler Wind Lidar; EarthCARE embarking ATLID an Atmospheric Backscatter Lidar; three missions studied for their feasibilities: WALES, A-SCOPE and ACCURATE, all using Differential Absorption Lidar in different ways to measure respectively profiles of water vapour, total column of CO2 and greenhouse gases in an occultation geometry.

  10. Space Tweetup - from a participant to a Mars Tweetup organizer and a new format of space communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, O.; Groemer, G.

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the German Space Agency (DLR) organized the first European SpaceTweetup during the German Aerospace day. One of the authors was one of 60 participants at this SpaceTweetup in Cologne and experienced the concept of a Tweetup and the engagement of the participants from the inside view. Building upon this experience, the Austrian Space Forum (OeWF) organized the first Austrian MarsTweetup during the “Dachstein Mars analog simulation”. Between 27 Apr,2001 and May,2012, a five day Mars simulation was conducted by the Austrian Space Forum and international research partners at the Giant Ice caves at the Dachstein region in Austria. During this field test, the Aouda.X spacesuit simulator and selected geophysical and life-science related experiments were conducted. In this paper we outline the potential and limitations of social media and how to engage the general public to participate and communicate about space projects through their own experience. We show examples of material SpaceTweetup participants produced e.g. hundreds of tweets during the actual event, blog entries, photo galleries and how space communication can benefit from it. Our considerations on organizing a SpaceTweetup are complemented with a section on lessons learned.

  11. Aerothermodynamics Feasibility Assessment of a Mars Atmoshperic Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferracina, L.; Larranaga, J.; Falkner, P.

    2011-02-01

    ESA's optional Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation (MREP) programme is based on a long term collaboration with NASA, by taking Mars exploration as global objective, and Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission as long term goal to be achieved by the mid 2020's. Considering today's uncertainties, different missions are envisaged and prepared by ESA as possible alternative missions to MSR in the timeframe of 2020- 2026, in case the required technology readiness is not reached by 2015 or landed mass capabilities are exceeded for any of the MSR mission elements. One of the ESA considered missions within this framework is the Mars Atmospheric Sample Return Mission. This mission has been recently assessed by ESA using its Concurrent Design Facility (CDF), aiming to enter with a probe at Mars low altitudes (≈50 km), collect a sample of airborne atmosphere (gas and dust) and return the sample back to Earth. This paper aim at reporting the preliminary aerothermodynamic assessment of the design of the Martian entry probe conducted within the CDF study. Special attention has been paid to the selection of aerodynamically efficient vehicle concepts compare to blunt bodies and to the effect of the hot-temperature shock to the cavity placed at stagnation point and used in the atmospheric sampling system.

  12. Europe goes to Mars - preparations are well under way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-04-01

    Under the umbrella of the European Space Agency, at least 25 companies from 15 European countries are building hardware or software for the spacecraft, or otherwise contributing their expertise; and more than 200 scientists from research institutes in all ESA member states and beyond are contributing towards the scientific payload. "The Mars Express project is providing about 1000 jobs throughout Europe," estimates Rudi Schmidt, Mars Express Project Manager at ESTEC, the European Space Agency's technical centre in the Netherlands. Preparations are well under way and on schedule for a May/June 2003 launch sending the spacecraft on its six-month voyage. The structure is taking shape under the guidance of the prime contractor Astrium, Toulouse (France), and the scientific teams are on target with scientific instrument development. Water and life ESA's Mars Express mission consists of an orbiter, carrying seven scientific experiments, and a lander, Beagle 2. The two vehicles will play key roles in an international Mars exploration programme spanning the next two decades. The instruments on board the orbiter will provide remote sensing of the atmosphere, the surface and up to 5km below the surface, to a degree of accuracy never before achieved. The information gleaned will help answer many questions outstanding about Mars. One concerns the fate of water that once flowed freely on the planet’s surface; another is whether life ever evolved on Mars. Beagle-2 will be the first lander since NASA’s two Viking probes in the 1970s to look specifically for evidence of past or present life on Mars. No other Mars probe planned so far is making exobiology so central to its mission. When the spacecraft arrives at the Red Planet around Christmas 2003, the Mars Express orbiter will jettison Beagle 2 and then move into a near-polar orbit from which it will observe the whole planet over the next Martian year (equivalent to two Earth years). The lander will make its own way to a

  13. ESA unveils Spanish antenna for unique space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-05-01

    The newly refurbished antenna, which is located at the Villafranca del Castillo Satellite Tracking Station site (VILSPA) near Madrid, has been selected as the prime communication link with the Cluster II spacecraft. The VIL-1 antenna will play a vital role in ESA's Cluster mission by monitoring and controlling the four spacecraft and by receiving the vast amounts of data that will be returned to Earth during two years of operations. Scheduled for launch in summer 2000, the Cluster quartet will complete the most detailed investigation ever made into the interaction between our pl0anet's magnetosphere - the region of space dominated by Earth's magnetic field - and the continuous stream of charged particles emitted by the Sun - the solar wind. This exciting venture is now well under way, following completion of the satellite assembly and test programme and two successful verification flights by the newly developed Soyuz-Fregat launch vehicle. The ESA Flight Acceptance Review Board has accordingly given the go-ahead for final launch preparations at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. VILSPA, ESA and Cluster II Built in 1975, after an international agreement between the European Space Agency and the Spanish government, VILSPA is part of the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) Tracking Station Network (ESTRACK). In the last 25 years, VILSPA has supported many ESA and international satellite programmes, including the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), EXOSAT and the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to supporting the Cluster II mission, it has been designated as the Science Operations Centre for ESA's XMM Newton mission and for the Far-Infrared Space Telescope (FIRST), which is due to launch in 2007. There are now more than half a dozen large dish antennae installed at VILSPA. One of these is the VIL-1 antenna, a 15 metre diameter dish which operates in the S-band radio frequency (1.8 - 2.7 GHz). This antenna has been modernised recently in order

  14. An ESA roadmap for geobiology in space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Claire R.; Cockell, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Geobiology, and in particular mineral-microbe interactions, has a significant role to play in current and future space exploration. This includes the search for biosignatures in extraterrestrial environments, and the human exploration of space. Microorganisms can be exploited to advance such exploration, such as through biomining, maintenance of life-support systems, and testing of life-detection instrumentation. In view of these potential applications, a European Space Agency (ESA) Topical Team "Geobiology in Space Exploration" was developed to explore these applications, and identify research avenues to be investigated to support this endeavour. Through community workshops, a roadmap was produced, with which to define future research directions via a set of 15 recommendations spanning three key areas: Science, Technology, and Community. These roadmap recommendations identify the need for research into: (1) new terrestrial space-analogue environments; (2) community level microbial-mineral interactions; (3) response of biofilms to the space environment; (4) enzymatic and biochemical mineral interaction; (5) technical refinement of instrumentation for space-based microbiology experiments, including precursor flight tests; (6) integration of existing ground-based planetary simulation facilities; (7) integration of fieldsite biogeography with laboratory- and field-based research; (8) modification of existing planetary instruments for new geobiological investigations; (9) development of in situ sample preparation techniques; (10) miniaturisation of existing analytical methods, such as DNA sequencing technology; (11) new sensor technology to analyse chemical interaction in small volume samples; (12) development of reusable Lunar and Near Earth Object experimental platforms; (13) utility of Earth-based research to enable the realistic pursuit of extraterrestrial biosignatures; (14) terrestrial benefits and technological spin-off from existing and future space

  15. Radar sounder performances for ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berquin, Y. P.; Kofman, W. W.; Heggy, E.; Hérique, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Jupiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) is the first Large-class mission chosen as part of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The mission will study Jovian icy moons Ganymede and Europa as potential habitats for life, addressing two key themes of Cosmic Vision namely the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life, and the Solar System interactions. The radar sounder instrument on this mission will have great potential to address specific science questions such as the presence of subsurface liquid water and ice shell geophysical structures. One major constraint for radar sounding is the roughness of the planetary surface. The work presented will focus on the characterization of Ganymede's surface topography to better understand its surface properties from a radar point of view. These results should help to put constraints on the design of JUICE's radar sounder. We use topographic data derived from the Voyager and Galileo missions images to try to characterize the surface structure and to quantify its geometry (in terms of slopes and RMS heights mainly). This study will help us evaluating the radar budget in a statistical approach. In addition, deterministic simulations of surface radar echoes conducted on synthetic surfaces -extrapolated from Digital Elevation Models- will be presented to better assess radar sounding performances.

  16. Euclid - an ESA Medium Class Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joachimi, B.

    2016-10-01

    Euclid is an ESA Medium Class mission in the Cosmic Visions program to be launched in 2020. With its 1.2 m telescope, Euclid is going to survey 15,000 deg2 of extragalactic sky in a broad optical band with outstanding image quality fit for weak gravitational lensing measurements. It will also provide near-infrared slitless spectroscopy of more than 107 emission-line galaxies with the main goal of measuring galaxy clustering. Imaging in three near-infrared bands by Euclid will be complemented by ground-based follow-up in optical bands to supply high-quality photometric redshift estimates out to z=2. In combination, its primary cosmological science drivers, weak gravitational lensing and galaxy clustering, will yield unprecedented constraints on the properties of dark matter and dark energy, as well as the validity of Einstein gravity on large scales. Euclid's rich datasets will facilitate further cosmological probes such as statistics of galaxy clusters or the study of galactic dark matter haloes, and a vast array of legacy science. In the following a brief overview on the Euclid mission and its key science is provided.

  17. APEX - the Hyperspectral ESA Airborne Prism Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Itten, Klaus I.; Dell'Endice, Francesco; Hueni, Andreas; Kneubühler, Mathias; Schläpfer, Daniel; Odermatt, Daniel; Seidel, Felix; Huber, Silvia; Schopfer, Jürg; Kellenberger, Tobias; Bühler, Yves; D'Odorico, Petra; Nieke, Jens; Alberti, Edoardo; Meuleman, Koen

    2008-01-01

    The airborne ESA-APEX (Airborne Prism Experiment) hyperspectral mission simulator is described with its distinct specifications to provide high quality remote sensing data. The concept of an automatic calibration, performed in the Calibration Home Base (CHB) by using the Control Test Master (CTM), the In-Flight Calibration facility (IFC), quality flagging (QF) and specific processing in a dedicated Processing and Archiving Facility (PAF), and vicarious calibration experiments are presented. A preview on major applications and the corresponding development efforts to provide scientific data products up to level 2/3 to the user is presented for limnology, vegetation, aerosols, general classification routines and rapid mapping tasks. BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) issues are discussed and the spectral database SPECCHIO (Spectral Input/Output) introduced. The optical performance as well as the dedicated software utilities make APEX a state-of-the-art hyperspectral sensor, capable of (a) satisfying the needs of several research communities and (b) helping the understanding of the Earth's complex mechanisms. PMID:27873868

  18. Multihued Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at JPL shows the panoramic camera used onboard both Mars Exploration Rovers. The panel to the lower right highlights the multicolored filter wheel that allows the camera to see a rainbow of colors, in addition to infrared bands of light. By seeing Mars in all its colors, scientists can gain insight into the different minerals that constitute its rocks and soil.

  19. ESA's Hipparcos finds rebels with a cause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 20Kb Credits: S. Kerroudj, B. Famaey & A. Jorissen (Université Libre de Bruxelles) Artist's impression of the Milky Way Artist's impression of our galaxy, the Milky Way, an aggregate of thousands of millions of stars. The spiral arms are clearly visible. They are regions of enhanced density of stars and gas. The Sun is located near the edge of one arm, about half-way from the galactic centre. Spiral arms can impart a kick on stars orbiting close to them. These stars are then forced unto streams running inwards or outwards, whereas the bulk of stars in the Milky Way move in circular orbits around the galactic centre. Using data from ESA’s Hipparcos satellite, astronomers have now identified three such streams, reaching into the solar neighbourhood. High-resolution version (TIFF) Low-resolution version (JPG) The Sun and most stars near it follow an orderly, almost circular orbit around the centre of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Using data from ESA's Hipparcos satellite, a team of European astronomers has now discovered several groups of 'rebel' stars that move in peculiar directions, mostly towards the galactic centre or away from it, running like the spokes of a wheel. These rebels account for about 20% of the stars within 1000 light-years of the Sun, itself located about 25 000 light-years away from the centre of the Milky Way. The data show that rebels in the same group have little to do with each other. They have different ages so, according to scientists, they cannot have formed at the same time nor in the same place. Instead, they must have been forced together. "They resemble casual travel companions more than family members," said Dr Benoit Famaey, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium. Famaey and his colleagues believe that the cause forcing the rebel stars together on their unusual trajectory is a 'kick' received from one of the Milky Way's spiral arms. The spiral arms are not solid structures but rather regions of higher density of

  20. The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System for ESA's Trace Gas Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nicolas; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) is an 11 μrad/px imaging system ready to launch on the European Space Agency's (ESA) ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) on 14 March 2016 from Baikonur. CaSSIS is based around an 880 mm focal length carbon-fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) telescope with a 135 mm primary mirror and a 2k x 2k CMOS hybrid detector with 10 micron pixel pitch providing 4.6 m/px imaging from the nominal 400 km circular orbit. The telescope is a slightly modified three mirror anastigmat optical configuration with no central obscuration. The instrument is designed to operate in "push-frame" mode where 2048 x 256 images are acquired at a repetition rate which matches the ground-track velocity (~3 km/s) allowing sufficient overlap for co-registration thereby building image strips along the surface. A filter strip assembly (FSA) is mounted directly above the detector providing images in 4 wavelength bands. Two of these (480.5nm and 676.5nm prior to convolution with the rest of the instrument) correspond closely to bands used by the HiRISE instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter [4]. Two other filters split the NIR wavelengths with centres at 838 nm and close to 985 nm. Analyses show that the filters provide good differentiation between expected surface minerals, particularly Fe-bearing phases (Tornabene et al. LPSC, 2016). CaSSIS is designed to produce stereo from images acquired ~30 s apart by using a rotation drive. The telescope points 10 degrees off-nadir. The drive aligns the telescope with the ground-track direction so that the telescope is pointing forward. After image acquisition, the telescope is rapidly rotated by 180 degrees to point in the opposite direction and the second image of the stereo pair is acquired. CaSSIS will extend the monitoring of past missions to future years allowing the tracking of longer-term changes. It will also provide contemporaneous imaging of regions that may produce unique signatures detected by

  1. Battery development and testing at ESA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verniolle, Jean

    1987-01-01

    The principal activities of the Energy Storage Section of the Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC) of the European Space Agency are presented. Nickel-hydrogen and fuel cell systems development are reported. The European Space Battery Test Center (ESBTC) facilities are briefly described along with the current test programs and results obtained.

  2. Search for life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Brack, A; Clancy, P; Fitton, B; Hoffmann, B; Horneck, G; Kurat, G; Maxwell, J; Ori, G; Pillinger, C; Raulin, F; Thomas, N; Westall, F

    1998-06-01

    A multi-user integrated suite of instruments designed to optimize the search for evidence of life on Mars is described. The package includes: -Surface inspection and surface environment analysis to identify the potential Mars landing sites, to inspect the surface geology and mineralogy, to search for visible surficial microbial macrofossils, to study the surface radiation budget and surface oxidation processes, to search for niches for extant life. -Subsurface sample acquisition by core drilling -Analysis of surface and subsurface minerals and organics to characterize the surface mineralogy, to analyse the surface and subsurface oxidants, to analyse the mineralogy of subsurface aliquots, to analyse the organics present in the subsurface aliquots (elemental and molecular composition, isotopes, chirality). -Macroscopic and microscopic inspection of subsurface aliquots to search for life's indicators (paleontological, biological, mineralogical) and to characterize the mineralogy of the subsurface aliquots. The study is led by ESA Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity Directorate.

  3. Planetary protection and Mars: requirements and constraints on the 2016 and 2018 missions, and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J.; Kminek, G.; Conley, C.

    2011-10-01

    The suite of missions being planned currently by NASA and ESA as a partnership under the name "ExoMars" include an orbiter and an entry, descent, and landing demonstrator module (EDM) for the 2016 "ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter" mission (ExoMars TGO), as well as a highly capable rover to be launched in 2018 to address the original ExoMars objectives (including the Pasteur payload). This 2018 ExoMars rover is expected to begin a series of missions leading to the first sample return mission from Mars, also conducted jointly between NASA, ESA, and their partners (JMSR). Each of these missions and mission components has a role in enabling future Mars exploration, including the search for life or life-related compounds on Mars, and each of them has the potential to carry confounding biological and organic materials into sensitive environments on Mars. Accordingly, this suite of missions will be subjected to joint planetary protection requirements applied by both ESA and NASA to their respective components, according to the COSPAR-delineated planetary protection policy to protect Mars from contamination, and eventually to provide for the protection of the Earth from potential life returned in a martian sample. This paper will discuss the challenges ahead for mission designers and the mission science teams, and will outline some of the potential pitfalls involved with different mission options.

  4. Exomars orbiter science and data-relay mission / looking for trace gases on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fratacci, Olivier

    EXOMARS Orbiter Module: looking for trace gas on Mars and providing data relay support for future Mars Surface assets O.Fratacci, M.Mesrine, H.Renault, Thales Alenia Space France B.Musetti, M.Montagna, Thales Alenia Space Italy M.Kesselmann, M.Barczewski OHB P.Mitschdoerfer, D.Dellantonio Euro-pean Space Agency / ESTEC The European Space Agency (ESA) in a joint cooperation with NASA, will launch in 2016 the EXOMARS spacecraft composite to develop European landing technologies and provide a science orbiter with data-relay capability around Mars until end 2022. The spacecraft composite is composed of the Orbitr Module (OM), provided by TAS-France, an entry descent and landing demonstrator module (EDM) provided by TAS-Italy, and a set of six scientific payloads to be selected by the JPL during 2010. Recent observations of the planet Mars have indicated detection of methane as well as temporal, perhaps spatial variability in the detected signal while current photochemical models cannot explain the presence of methane in the atmosphere of Mars nor its reported rapid variations in space and time. The triple scientific objectives that drive the selection of these six instruments for the Exomars 2016 mission is to detect trace gases in Mars atmosphere, to characterise their spatial and temporal variation and to explore the source of the key trace gases (e.g. methane) on the surface. The launch is scheduled in January 2016 from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using an ATLAS V 421 launcher with a total launch mass of 4.4 tons. After release of the EDM on Mars, the OM will perform the Mars Orbit Insertion manoeuvre and then reduce its elliptic orbit by implementing the first European Aerobraking around Mars for about 6 to 9 months, to finally end on a circular 400x400km orbit with an altitude in the range of 350km to 420km. From this orbit, a science phase will follow lasting 2 years in which the Mars atmosphere and surface is continuously observed. Science instruments composed of

  5. Assessment Of The Impact Of ESA CCI Land Cover Information For Global Climate Model Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystova, Iryna G.; Loew, A.; Hangemann, S.; Defourny, P.; Brockmann, C.; Bontemps, S.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing the issues of climate change, the European Space Agency has recently initiated the Global Monitoring of an Essential Climate Variables program (ESA Climate Change Initiative). The main objective is to realize the full potential of the long-term global Earth Observation archives that ESA has established over the last thirty years. Due to well organized data access and transparency for the data quality, as well as long-term scientific and technical support, the provided datasets have become very attractive for the use in Earth System Modeling. The Max Plank Institute for Meteorology is contributing to the ESA CCI via the Climate Modeler User Group (CMUG) activities and is responsible for providing a modeler perspective on the Land Cover and Fire Essential Climate Variables. The new ESA land cover ECV has recently released a new global 300-m land cover dataset. This dataset is supported by an interactive tool which allows flexible horizontal re-scaling and conversion from currently accepted satellite specific land classes to the model- specific Plant Functional Types (PFT) categorization. Such a dataset is an ideal starting point for the generation of the land cover information for the initialization of model cover fractions. In this presentation, we show how the usage of this new dataset affects the model performance, comparing it to the standard model set-up, in terms of energy and water fluxes. To do so, we performed a number of offline land-system simulations with original standard JSBACH land cover information and with the new ESA CCI land cover product. We have analyzed the impact of land cover on a simulated surface albedo, temperature and energy fluxes as well as on the biomass load and fire carbon emissions.

  6. ESA activities in the use of microwaves for the remote sensing of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccoll, D.

    1984-01-01

    The program of activities under way in the European Space Agency (ESA) directed towards Remote Sensing of the oceans and troposphere is discussed. The initial project is the launch of a satellite named ERS-1 with a primary payload of microwave values in theee C- and Ku-bands. This payload is discussed in depth. The secondary payload includes precision location experiments and an instrument to measure sea surface temperature, which are described. The important topic of calibration is extensively discussed, and a review of activities directed towards improvements to the instruments for future satellites is presented. Some discussion of the impact of the instrument payload on the spacecraft design follows and the commitment of ESA to the provision of a service of value to the ultimate user is emphasized.

  7. System concepts and enabling technologies for an ESA low-cost mission to Jupiter / Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, P.; Koeck, C.; Kemble, Steve; Atzei, Alessandro; Falkner, Peter

    2004-11-01

    The European Space Agency is currently studying the Jovian Minisat Explorer (JME), as part of its Technology Reference Studies (TRS), used for its development plan of technologies enabling future scientific missions. The JME focuses on the exploration of the Jovian system and particularly of Europa. The Jupiter Minisat Orbiter (JMO) study concerns the first mission phase of JME that counts up to three missions using pairs of minisats. The scientific objectives are the investigation of Europa's global topography, the composition of its (sub)surface and the demonstration of existence of a subsurface ocean below its icy crust. The present paper describes the candidate JMO system concept, based on a Europa Orbiter (JEO) supported by a communications relay satellite (JRS), and its associated technology development plan. It summarizes an analysis performed in 2004 jointly by ESA and the EADS-Astrium Company in the frame of an industrial technical assistance to ESA.

  8. NASA and ESA Collaboration on Hexavalent Chrome Alternatives: Pretreatments Only Final Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (hex chrome or CR(VI)) is a widely used element within applied coating systems because of its self-healing and corrosion-resistant properties. The replacement of hex chrome in the processing of aluminum for aviation and aerospace applications remains a goal of great significance. Aluminum is the major manufacturing material of structures and components in the space flight arena. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the European Space Agency (ESA) are engaged in a collaborative effort to test and evaluate alternatives to hexavalent chromium containing corrosion coating systems. NASA and ESA share common risks related to material obsolescence associated with hexavalent chromium used in corrosion-resistant coatings.

  9. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  10. NASA's mars surveyor program: 1996-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleese, Daniel J.

    1997-05-01

    Mars Surveyor is a continuing program of Mars exploration employing investigations conducted from landed and orbiting platforms. The program focuses on the themes of life, climate and resources. These themes are connected by the common throad of water on Mars. From the perspective of the research disciplines, studies of past and present atmosphere of Mars form a central element of Mars Surveyor. The first mission of the program is the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), an orbiter to be launched in 1996 which recovers much of the science lost with the failure of Mars Observer. MGS has a strong component of the atmospheric science. In the 1998 opportunity, a lander will be placed on the layered terrain of the south polar region of Mars. Its investigations focus on understanding the form, quantity and behavior of surface volatiles. In orbit an atmospheric sounder and camera will map the structure of the atmosphere, and the sources and sinks of volatiles. This mission initiates the US/Russian Mars Together Program. Mars Surveyor mission plans also include an orbiter and lander launched in 2001 and a joint NASA/ESA mission which would, in 2003, provide a small network of three landers, carrying meteorology packages, supported by an orbiter carrying an atmospheric sounder. Experiments on landers in the 2001 or 2003 opportunities may include measurements of the abundances of minor, trace and isotopic gases. The return of a sample from the surface of Mars is planned for 2005. It is probable that samples of the atmosphere and perhaps water bearing minerals will be returned in this mission.

  11. ESA unveils its big XMM spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-02-01

    have to imagine the big tube of XMM filled with focused X-rays en route to the detectors », says Robert Lainé, ESA's project manager for XMM. « That is the whole purpose of the mission, and our chief preoccupation has been with the three multi-mirror modules that accomplish it. Critics thought we were too ambitious, trying to nest 58 precisely formed mirrors together in each module. No one had ever attempted such a feat before. It was not easy, but thanks to excellent innovative work by European industry, XMM's telescopes are even better than we hoped ». X-rays are focused by glancing them off a carefully shaped mirror, like a bucket without a bottom. In a single-mirror telescope, most of the incoming X-rays miss the mirror. To catch more of them, designers nest multiple mirrors inside one another. Before XMM, astronomers had to choose between many mirrors with relatively poor focusing, or a very few mirrors with a sharp focus. With 58 precision-made mirrors in each of its three X-ray telescopes, XMM combines enormous gathering power with accurate focusing. Carl Zeiss in Germany made shaped and polished mandrels (moulds) for mirrors of 58 different diameters, up to 70 cm for the widest. Media Lario in Italy made the mirrors by electrodeposition of nickel on the mandrels, coated their inner surfaces with gold, and carefully assembled them in their nested configuration, in a framework fabricated by APCO in Switzerland. The performance of each XMM mirror module has been verified in special facilities of the Centre Spatial de Liège in Belgium and the Max-Planck Institut für extraterrestriche Physik in Germany. The first flight model conformed with the specification, and the second and third were even better. Some facts about XMM The total surface area of the extremely thin mirror that gathers X-rays in XMM's three multi-mirror telescopes (taken together) is larger than 200 m2. Two of the three X-ray telescopes are fitted with reflection grating spectrometers for the

  12. ExoMars Mission 2016 Planetary Protection status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margheritis, Diana Beatriz

    The ExoMars 2016 mission is an ESA lead mission scheduled for a 2016 launch by a Roscosmos supplied Proton-M/Breeze-M rocket. The system consists of an ExoMars Orbiter which accommodate scientific instruments and an Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM) that will land in a non-special region on Mars, agreed to by the ESA Planetary Protection Officer. The project has been categorized by ESA as COSPAR Planetary Protection Category III for the Orbiter and Planetary Protection Category IVa for the EDM. The implementation of the planetary protection requirements for ExoMars comprises restrictions on impact probabilities for flight hardware not intended to directly contact Mars and biological contamination control for the other parts of the spacecraft. Planetary Protection activities have begun with the start of flight system manufacturing and assembly. ExoMars has completed and approved Planetary Protection Plan and a Planetary Protection Implementation document. This presentation will provide an update of the current Planetary Protection implementation issues and the status of the Planetary Protection activities.

  13. ESA's Integral satellite ready for lift-off from Baikonur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-10-01

    ESA's INTEGRAL (International Gamma Ray Astrophysics Laboratory) satellite, will be launched by a Proton launcher from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on 17 October at 06:41 CEST (Central European Summer Time). The most sensitive gamma-ray observatory ever launched, INTEGRAL is a truly international mission involving all ESA member states plus the USA and Russia. It carries four instruments from teams led by scientists in Italy, France, Germany, Denmark and Spain to gather and analyse gamma-rays, X-rays and visible light from celestial objects. INTEGRAL will give astronomers across the world their clearest views yet of the most extreme environments in the Universe. It will detect radiation from the most violent events far away and from processes that made the Universe inhabitable. Media representatives in Europe can follow the videotransmission of the launch at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands, ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy or ESA/Villafranca (VILSPA) in Spain. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are requested to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide video news releases and live coverage of the launch between 06:15-07:00 and 08:00-08:30 CEST. Details of the transmission schedule for the various Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int The launch can also be followed live on the internet at www.esa.int/integrallaunch starting at 06:15 hrs.

  14. ESA activities on satellite laser ranging to non-cooperative objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin; Jilete, Beatriz; Mancas, Alexandru

    2016-07-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to non-cooperative objects is an emerging technology that can contribute significantly to operational, modelling and mitigation needs set by the space debris population. ESA is conducting various research and development activities in SLR to non-cooperative objects. ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program supports specific activities in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment. Research and development activities with operational aspects are run by ESA's Space Debris Office. At ESA SSA/SST comprises detecting, cataloguing and predicting the objects orbiting the Earth, and the derived applications. SST aims at facilitating research and development of sensor and data processing technologies and of related common components while staying complementary with, and in support of, national and multi-national European initiatives. SST promotes standardisation and interoperability of the technology developments. For SLR these goals are implemented through researching, developing, and deploying an expert centre. This centre shall coordinate the contribution of system-external loosely connected SLR sensors, and shall provide back calibration and expert evaluation support to the sensors. The Space Debris Office at ESA is responsible for all aspects related to space debris in the Agency. It is in charge of providing operational support to ESA and third party missions. Currently, the office studies the potential benefits of laser ranging to space debris objects to resolve close approaches to active satellites, to improve re-entry predictions of time and locations, and the more general SLR support during contingency situations. The office studies the determination of attitude and attitude motion of uncooperative objects with special focus on the combination of SLR, light-curve, and radar imaging data. Generating sufficiently precise information to allow for the acquisition of debris objects by a SLR sensor in a stare

  15. 78 FR 55762 - National Environmental Policy Act; Mars 2020 Mission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act; Mars 2020 Mission AGENCY: National Aeronautics... (EIS) for the Mars 2020 mission and to conduct scoping for the EIS. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National... prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Mars 2020 mission. NASA is seeking input...

  16. Rippled Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    29 July 2004 Hundreds of large ripples or small dunes cover the landscape in the Terra Tyrrhena region of Mars in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. The winds responsible for these dunes blew from the north-northwest (top/upper left). This scene is located near 8.8oS, 252.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the terrain from the left.

  17. Mars Underground News.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgett, K.

    Contents: Next entry to Mars (Mars Pathfinder and the microrover Sojourner). Hello, Mars, we're back! Mars Global Surveyor update. The Mars program - 2001 and beyond. Schedule of missions to Mars (as of June 11, 1997). Mars on the Web.

  18. ESA joins forces with Japan on new infrared sky surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    analysis. This second phase will end with the depletion of the liquid helium needed to cool down the spacecraft telescope and its instruments to only a few degrees above absolute zero. ASTRO-F will then start its third operations phase and continue to make observations of selected celestial targets with its infrared camera only, in a few specific infrared wavelengths. ESA’s involvement: Only two decades have passed since the birth of space-based infrared astronomy; since then, each decade has been marked by the launch of innovative infrared satellites that have revolutionised our very perception of the cosmos. In fact, infrared satellites make possible the detection of cool objects, including planetary systems, interstellar dust and gas, or distant galaxies, all of which are most difficult to study in the visible part of the light spectrum. With infrared astronomy, it is also possible to study the birth of stars and galaxies, the ‘creation’ energy of which peaks in the infrared range. The European Space Agency and Europe have a strong tradition in infrared astronomy, which is now being continued by the participation of the UK, the Netherlands and ESA in ASTRO-F. ESA is providing network support through its ground station in Kiruna (Sweden) for a few passes per day. ESA is also providing expertise and support for the sky-survey data processing. This includes ‘pointing reconstruction’ - which means measuring exactly where the observed objects are in the sky, to help accelerate the production of sky catalogues and ultimately produce a census of the infrared universe. In return, ESA has obtained ten percent of the observing opportunities during the second and third operational phases of the ASTRO-F mission, which is being allocated to European astronomers to perform their proposed observations. “The cooperation offered to ESA by Japan in ASTRO-F will help keep up momentum for European astronomers as they build on their past work with ISO, and look forward to the

  19. Deployment of the MARSIS Radar Antennas On-Board Mars Express

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denis, Michel; Moorhouse, A.; Smith, A.; McKay, Mike; Fischer, J.; Jayaraman, P.; Mounzer, Z.; Schmidt, R.; Reddy, J.; Ecale, E.; Horttor, R.; Adams, D.; Flamini, E.

    2006-01-01

    On the first European planetary mission, the deployment of the two 20-meter long MARSIS antennas onboard the ESA Mars Express spacecraft has represented an unprecedented technological challenge, in the middle of a successful science mission. While Mars Express was already performing regular observations at Mars, a complex process has been performed on Earth, involving the ESA Project, coordination between ESA, NASA and ASI, the Mars Science community, the spacecraft manufacturer EADS Astrium and the Mission Control Centre at ESOC. This paper describes the steps that led from an initial nogo in 2004 to deployment one year later, as well as the conditions and difficulties encountered during the actual deployment. It provides insights in the technical and managerial processes that made it a success, and analyses the rationale behind the decisions.

  20. Mars Bowling

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 140 fourth and fifth graders from Kraft Elementary School in Hampton learned how Newton's laws of motion apply to bowling and the Mars Curiosity rover during "The Science of Bowling," an ...

  1. What Scientific Objectives Have Been Defined by the French Scientific Community for Mars Exploration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotin, Christophe

    2000-07-01

    Every four or five years, the French scientific community is invited by the French space agency (CNES) to define the scientific priorities of the forthcoming years. The last workshop took place in March 98 in Arcachon, France. During this three-day workshop, it was clear that the study of Mars was very attractive for everyone because it is a planet very close to the Earth and its study should allow us to better understand the chemical and physical processes which drive the evolution of a planet by comparing the evolution of the two planets. For example, the study of Mars should help to understand the relationship between mantle convection and plate tectonics, the way magnetic dynamo works, and which conditions allowed life to emerge and evolve on Earth. The Southern Hemisphere of planet Mars is very old and it should have recorded some clues on the planetary evolution during the first billion years, a period for which very little is known for the Earth because both plate tectonics and weathering have erased the geological record. The international scientific community defined the architecture of Mars exploration program more than ten years ago. After the scientific discoveries made (and to come) with orbiters and landers, it appeared obvious that the next steps to be prepared are the delivery of networks on the surface and the study of samples returned from Mars. Scientific objectives related to network science include the determination of the different shells which compose the planet, the search for water in the subsurface, the record of atmospheric parameters both in time and space. Those related to the study of samples include the understanding of the differentiation of the planet and the fate of volatiles (including H2O) thanks to very accurate isotopic measurements which can be performed in laboratories, the search for minerals which can prove that life once existed on Mars, the search for present life on Mars (bacteria). Viking landers successfully landed on

  2. Mars resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B.

    1986-01-01

    The most important resources of Mars for the early exploration phase will be oxygen and water, derived from the Martian atmosphere and regolith, which will be used for propellant and life support. Rocks and soils may be used in unprocessed form as shielding materials for habitats, or in minimally processed form to expand habitable living and work space. Resources necessary to conduct manufacturing and agricultural projects are potentially available, but will await advanced stages of Mars habitation before they are utilized.

  3. Mars Pathfinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    First of NASA's Discovery missions. Launched in December 1996 and arrived at Mars on 4 July 1997. Mainly intended as a technology demonstration mission. Used airbags to cushion the landing on Mars. The Carl Sagan Memorial station returned images of an ancient flood plain in Ares Vallis. The 10 kg Sojourner rover used an x-ray spectrometer to study the composition of rocks and travelled about 100 ...

  4. Raman Laser Spectrometer Development for ExoMars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, C.; Colombo, M.; Díaz, C.; Santamaría, P.; Ingley, R.; Parrot, Y.; Maurice, S.; Popp, J.; Tarcea, N.; Edwards, H. G. M.

    2013-09-01

    The Raman Laser Spectrometer is one of the Pasteur Payload instruments, within the ESA's ExoMars mission. The aim of the work presented here is to provide a summary of the instrument design and performances. For that the instrument current characteristics and performances, and its technological ass assessment program main results are presented and discussed.

  5. Lidar instruments for ESA Earth observation missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hélière, Arnaud; Armandillo, Errico; Durand, Yannig; Culoma, Alain; Meynart, Roland

    2004-06-01

    The idea of deploying a lidar system on an Earth-orbiting satellite stems from the need for continuously providing profiles of our atmospheric structure with high accuracy and resolution and global coverage. Interest in this information for climatology, meteorology and the atmospheric sciences in general is huge. Areas of application range from the determination of global warming and greenhouse effects, to monitoring the transport and accumulation of pollutants in the different atmospheric regions (such as the recent fires in Southeast Asia), to the assessment of the largely unknown microphysical properties and the structural dynamics of the atmosphere itself. Spaceborne lidar systems have been the subject of extensive investigations by the European Space Agency since mid 1970's, resulting in mission and instrument concepts, such as ATLID, the cloud backscatter lidar payload of the EarthCARE mission, ALADIN, the Doppler wind lidar of the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission (ADM) and more recently a water vapour Differential Absorption Lidar considered for the WALES mission. These studies have shown the basic scientific and technical feasibility of spaceborne lidars, but they have also demonstrated their complexity from the instrument viewpoint. As a result, the Agency undertook technology development in order to strengthen the instrument maturity. This is the case for ATLID, which benefited from a decade of technology development and supporting studies and is now studied in the frame of the EarthCARE mission. ALADIN, a Direct Detection Doppler Wind Lidar operating in the Ultra-Violet, will be the 1st European lidar to fly in 2007 as payload of the Earth Explorer Core Mission ADM. WALES currently studied at the level of a phase A, is based upon a lidar operating at 4 wavelengths in near infrared and aims to profile the water vapour in the lower part of the atmosphere with high accuracy and low bias. Lastly, the European Space Agency is extending the lidar instrument field

  6. ESA's Support To Science Element (STSE): A New Opportunity for the Science Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, D.; Herland, E.-A.

    2009-04-01

    In 1998, the document ESA SP-1227: "The Science and Research Elements of ESA's Living Planet Programme", laid out the research objectives for the scientific component of the Living Planet Program. These were formulated around four themes: Earth Interior, Physical Climate, Geosphere/Biosphere and Atmosphere & Marine Environment: Anthropogenic Impact. These themes encompassed the full scope of Earth Science. Although no specific area of Earth Science was prioritised, the document emphasised the need to move towards an integrated Earth System Model, where the role of internationally coordinated scientific programmes and coordination with national programmes and other agencies and organisations were recognised as being a key aspect of the science strategy. In 2006, the EO Science Strategy was updated (ESA/PB-EO(2006)89) under the auspices of the ESA's Earth Science Advisory Committee (ESAC) in wide consultation with the scientific community. The resulting document: "The Changing Earth - New Scientific Challenges for ESA's Living Planet Programme" (ESA/SP-1304) outlines the new scientific direction for the future progress of the ESA Living Planet Programme. In particular, the document set out the 25 major challenges for our understanding of the Earth System with especial focus on those areas of knowledge where satellite data may make a major contribution. Achieving those challenges will require a large international effort involving, novel observation, enhanced data sets, improved models and coordinated research. ESA is contributing to those efforts through its missions (e.g., the ERS1 and 2, ENVISAT, the Meteorological satellites and the coming Earth Explorers and Sentinel series) and exploitation programs. However, in order to further reinforce the ESA support to the scientific community, a dedicated element of the Envelop program was launched in 2008, the Support To Science Element (STSE). STSE aims at providing "scientific support for both future and on

  7. ESA's SMART-1 satellite ready for lift-off

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-09-01

    During the night of Saturday 27/Sunday 28 September, ESA’s SMART-1 satellite will be launched by an Ariane 5 rocket from Europe’s spaceport at Kourou at 20:02 hrs local time (01:02 hrs Central European Summer Time, 23:02 hrs GMT). SMART-1 is the first of a series of ‘Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology’ designed to test key technologies for future spacecraft. It is Europe’s first mission to the Moon. Among the new technologies to be tested is the solar-electric propulsion which will power the spacecraft to its target. SMART-1 will help solve such questions as how the Moon came into being and whether there is water there. Media representatives in Europe can follow the launch and initial orbital operations at ESA/Darmstadt (ESOC) in Germany, which will be acting as the main European press centre, ESA/Noordwijk (ESTEC) in the Netherlands or ESA/Frascati (ESRIN) in Italy. At each site ESA specialists will be available for interviews. Media representatives wishing to attend are asked to complete the attached reply form and fax it to the Communication Office at the establishment of their choice. The ESA TV Service will provide live televised coverage of the launch and initial orbital operations with English commentary, between 00:40 and 02:00 CEST. Satellite: Astra 2C at 19 degrees East Transponder 57, horizontal, MPEG-2, MCPC Reception frequency: 10832 MHz Polarisation: Horizontal Symbol rate: 22000 MS/sec FEC: 5/6 Service name: ESA Details of the transmission schedule and the various pre-launch Video News Releases can be found on http://television.esa.int. On the ESA SMART-1 special website at: http://www.esa.int/smart1 you can also find news, press releases, videos, images and more about the mission.

  8. ESA to launch six scientific satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-09-01

    ship to Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. Since then, all the satellite subsystems and scientific instruments have been thoroughly tested and found to be in order. ISO is now waiting its turn to be mated with the Ariane 44P launcher. The launch campaign will resume in early October for a launch on 3 November. Preparations for flight operations by ESA's space operation centre, ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany and the flight control centre at Villafranca, near Madrid, Spain are also in the final stages. Most of the work in the last two months before a launch involves training and performing simulations to prove flight readiness. The scientific community is eagerly awaiting the preliminary results of ISO's first look into space in November. SOHO SOHO arrived at Kennedy Space Centre on 1 August. It was given a welcome by hurricane ERIN, which forced an immediate transfer to its reserved NASA facility just after its transport plane had safely landed. Spacecraft preparation for launch has started with a thorough check of all the systems and instruments onboard SOHO and will proceed with an end-to-end test with the NASA control station at Goddard Spaceflight Centre. Parallel activities are proceeding in Europe on the final testing and inspection of the four reaction wheels which the spacecraft control system uses to keep all its instruments pointed very precisely at the sun. At the end of its preparation, the spacecraft will be mated to its Atlas IIAS launcher, which is due to lift off in the first week of December. CLUSTER All four Cluster spacecraft, together with all ancillary equipment, have now arrived at Europe's spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. The spacecraft have been set up for final electrical testing in the Final Assembly Building , a new Ariane 5 facility. Major milestones in the campaign are the start of spacecraft fuelling operations at the beginning of November and the start of integration of the spacecraft with the launch vehicle in mid- December. The

  9. mkESA: enhanced suffix array construction tool.

    PubMed

    Homann, Robert; Fleer, David; Giegerich, Robert; Rehmsmeier, Marc

    2009-04-15

    We introduce the tool mkESA, an open source program for constructing enhanced suffix arrays (ESAs), striving for low memory consumption, yet high practical speed. mkESA is a user-friendly program written in portable C99, based on a parallelized version of the Deep-Shallow suffix array construction algorithm, which is known for its high speed and small memory usage. The tool handles large FASTA files with multiple sequences, and computes suffix arrays and various additional tables, such as the LCP table (longest common prefix) or the inverse suffix array, from given sequence data.

  10. Mars CO2 ice clouds: results of 5 Martian years of monitoring by OMEGA/Mars Express

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondet, B.; Bibring, J.-P.; Vincendon, M.

    2012-09-01

    An important achievement of the ESA/MarsExpress mission is the detection of mesospheric CO2 ice clouds, by indirect (PFS [1] and SPICAM [2]) and direct (OMEGA [3,4] and HRSC [5]) observations, as suggested by Clancy et al. [6]. These clouds have been recently detected by CRISM [7] and MCS [8] on board MRO.

  11. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA).

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field.

  12. The ESA mission to Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhard, R.

    1981-01-01

    The Europeon Space Agency's approximately Giotto mission plans for a launch in July 1985 with a Halley encounter in mid-March 1986 4 weeks after the comet's perihelion passage. Giotto carries 10 scientific experiments, a camera, neutral, ion and dust mass spectrometers, a dust impact detector system, various plasma analyzers, a magnetometer and an optical probe. The instruments are described, the principles on which they are based are described, and the experiment key performance data are summarized. The launch constraints the helicentric transfer trajectory, and the encounter scenario are analyzed. The Giotto spacecraft major design criteria, spacecraft subsystem and the ground system are described. The problem of hypervelocity dust particle impacts in the innermost part of the coma, the problem of spacecraft survival, and the adverse effects of impact-generated plasma aroung the spacecraft are considered.

  13. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier and PLC Hoffman pose on OV-104's aft flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier (left) and MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Jeffrey A. Hoffman pose in front of the onorbit station controls on the aft flight deck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. The overhead windows W7 and W8 appear above their heads and the aft flight deck viewing windows W9 and W10 behind them. Hoffman and Nicollier have been training together for a dozen years at JSC. Hoffman was an astronaut candidate in 1978 and Nicollier accompanied a group of trainees in 1980. Note the partially devoured chocolate Space Shuttle floating near the two.

  14. X-38 NASA/DLR/ESA-Dassault Aviation Integrated Aerodynamic and Aerothermodynamic Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labbe, Steve G.; Perez, Leo F.; Fitzgerald, Steve; Longo, Jose; Rapuc, Marc; Molina, Rafael; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The characterization of the aeroshape selected for the X-38 [Crew Return Vehicle (CRV) demonstrator] is presently being performed as a cooperative endeavour between NASA, DLR (through its TETRA Program), and European Space Agency (ESA) with Dassault Aviation integrating the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic activities. The methodologies selected for characterizing the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic environment of the X-38 are presented. Also, the implications for related disciplines such as Guidance Navigation and Control (GN&C) with its corresponding Flight Control System (FCS), Structural, and Thermal Protection System (TPS) design are discussed. An attempt is made at defining the additional activities required to support the design of a derived operational CRV.

  15. STS-46 ESA MS Nicollier conducts IFM on OV-104's waste collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 European Space Agency (ESA) Mission Specialist (MS) Claude Nicollier, wearing goggles, face mask, and rubber gloves, reviews inflight maintenance (IFM) checklist procedures before starting waste collection system (WCS) fan separator repair. One of two fan separators used to transfer waster water from the waste management compartment (WMC) to the waste water tank has failed. The suspected accumulation of water in the separator was believed to have occurred during a test dumping of waste water at a lower than normal pressure to evaluate the performance of new nozzles. The WMC is located on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104.

  16. Opportunity for cooperation in space remote sensing technology between ESA and CAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Shiju; Cui, Shaochun; Zhang, Bangning

    1998-12-01

    This paper details the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST) position and recent development in space remote sensing activities nd gives the author's view of the accomplishment of European Space Agency (ESA) in this field. Space remote sensing technology is a useful scientific and technical means to realize sustainable development of the society of mankind now and future. Peace and development are the common desires of the people across the world and become the current of the present era. Nowadays, cooperation in scientific research and technical works among different countries has been the trend. 'Open the door to the outside world' policy adopted by the Chinese Government gives great warranty and strong motivation for cooperation and communication between China and the world. CAST as a leading space group of China has a strong willing to cooperate with ESA, NASA and other nation's space bodies. At the last part of this paper, author's view about the opportunity of cooperation in space remote sensing technology between ESA and CAST is put forth.

  17. Benefits of ESA Gravity-Related Hands-on Programmes for University Students' Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callens, Natacha; Ha, Lily; Galeone, Piero

    2016-10-01

    The Education Office of the European Space Agency (ESA) offers university students, from ESA Member and Cooperating States, the opportunity to perform investigations in physical sciences, life sciences, and technology, under different gravity conditions through three educational programmes. The "Fly Your Thesis!" (FYT) programme makes use of parabolic flights and the "Drop Your Thesis!" (DYT) programme utilizes a drop tower as microgravity carriers, while the "Spin Your Thesis!" (SYT) programme uses a large centrifuge to create hypergravity. To date, more than hundred university students had the chance to participate in the design, development, and performance of one or more experiments during dedicated campaigns. In the following paper, we examine demographics of past participants of the ESA Education Office gravity-related opportunities over the past seven years and evaluate the benefits of these educational programmes for the participants' studies and careers. Student teams that participated in one of the programmes between 2009 and 2013 were contacted to fill in a questionnaire. The feedback from the students demonstrate significant benefits extending far beyond the primary educational objectives of these programmes.

  18. Phoenix Lander on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this artist's depiction of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Managing Cooperation and Complexity in Education: The Case of Educational Service Agencies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Janet A.; And Others

    Educational Service Agencies (ESA's) are public education agencies that provide specialized programs and services to a group of school districts in a specified geographical region and to the state department of education. Most states have encouraged the development of ESA's that have either evolved out of county districts or have been created to…

  20. NOMAD on the ExoMars TGO 2016 mission: MAIT and characterisation testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, Ann C.; Neefs, Eddy; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez Gomez, Julio; Drummond, Rachel; Patel, Manish; Thomas, Ian; Gissot, Samuel; Depiesse, Cedric; Ben Moussa, Ali; Giordanengo, Boris; Bellucci, Giancarlo

    NOMAD, the “Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery” spectrometer suite has been selected by ESA and NASA to be part of the payload of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission 2016. This instrument suite will conduct a spectroscopic survey of Mars’ atmosphere in the UV, visible and IR regions covering the 0.2-0.65 and 2.2-4.3 μm spectral ranges. NOMAD’s observation modes include solar occultation, nadir and limb observations. The NOMAD instrument is composed of 3 channels: a solar occultation only channel (SO) operating in the infrared wavelength domain, a second infrared channel capable of observing nadir, solar occultation and limb observations (LNO), and an ultraviolet/visible channel (UVIS) that can work in all observation modes. The spectral resolution of SO and LNO surpasses previous surveys in the infrared by more than one order of magnitude. NOMAD offers an integrated instrument combination of a flight-proven concept (SO is a copy of SOIR on Venus Express), and innovations based on existing and proven instrumentation (LNO is based on SOIR/VEX and UVIS has heritage from the ExoMars lander), that will provide mapping and vertical profile information at high spatio-temporal resolution. The three channels have each their own ILS and optical bench, but share the same single interface to the S/C. The NOMAD flight model is due for delivery to ESA in January 2015. We will present results so far of the manufacturing, assembly and especially testing of the various components. The UV CCDs have been characterised in thermal-vacuum; optical fibres have been studied with UV exposure to look at transmission degradation; the IR AOTFs have been tested for their transfer functions; lifetime and vibration testing has been carried out on the flip mirror mechanism. These are all vital inputs to the scientific results from NOMAD. Acknowledgements - The research program was supported by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office and the European Space Agency (ESA PRODEX

  1. ESA Experiments with the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brillouet, Claude; Briganti, Luca; Schwarzwalder, Achim

    2008-06-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is an ESA developed facility dedicated to gravitational biology and especially to plant research. However, experiments using small animals, like insects and small invertebrates are also possible. EMCS is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) since July 2006 and four experiments, including two from ESA, have been already performed. Several others are in their final development phase and shall be flown within the next following years.

  2. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio Rossi, Angelo; Cecconi, Baptiste; Fraenz, Markus; Hagermann, Axel; Heather, David; Rosenblatt, Pascal; Svedhem, Hakan; Widemann, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug. The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa References: Heather, D., Barthelemy, M., Manaud, N., Martinez, S., Szumlas, M., Vazquez, J. L., Osuna, P. and the PSA Development Team (2013) ESA's Planetary Science Archive: Status, Activities and Plans. EuroPlanet Sci. Congr. #EPSC2013-626

  3. Coronal sounding with three ESA spacecraft during solar conjunction: Radial dependence of radio signal fluctuation spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efimov, Anatoli; Lukinina, L. A.; Samoznaev, L. N.; Rudash, V. K.; Chashei, I. V.; Bird, Michael; Paetzold, Martin

    Coronal radio sounding experiments were carried out using the coherent dual-frequency carrier signals of the three ESA spacecraft Mars Express (MEX), Venus Express (VEX) and Rosetta (ROS) during their solar conjunctions in 2004, 2006 and 2008/2009. The measurements ana-lyzed in this work are the signal frequency and amplitude recorded at both the NASA and ESA ground tracking stations (sample rate: 1 Hz). The solar activity was quite low during these measurement opportunities, particularly for the conjunction in 2008/2009 (average sunspot number = 2.3). Spectral analysis of the frequency records provides two quantities used to characterize coronal turbulence: the intensity of the differential frequency fluctuations σf and the spectral index of the temporal frequency fluctuation spectra αf . The mean frequency fluctuation can be described by a radial power-law σf ∝ R-a . The spectral index, roughly constant at αf ≈ 0.67 for heliocentric distances beyond a certain solar offset distance RKOL , decreases gradually toward smaller solar offset distances. An unexplained discrepancy is found between the observed difference in amplitude fluctuations from S-Band to X-Band and the difference expected from theory.

  4. The ESA Polar Platform: A work-horse for future Earth Observation Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibaldi, G. G.; Cendral, J. L.

    1993-09-01

    In the frame of the European Space Agency (ESA) Long Term Plan, the Earth Observation Missions play a very important role in contributing to a better knowledge and monitoring of the Earth Environment. Within the range of future Earth Observation missions, the low altitude sun synchronous polar orbit is of special interest because it offers a repeated coverage of the complete surface of the Earth. For this type of mission, a large number of instruments having different technology and application objectives have been developed or are under development in Europe. To cope with those needs, ESA has initiated the development of the Polar Platform as part of its infrastructure to become the work-horse of future Earth Observation Missions in the Polar orbits. This spacecraft bus, through its design modularity, can cope with a wide range of payload complements and instrument requirements so that the future development emphasis in Europe can be placed on payload and observations rather than repeated satellite developments. The Polar Platform design makes maximum use of the SPOT and ERS programmes experience and design in order to reduce development risk and minimize costs. The modular design can cope with different payload accommodation, power and mass requirements as well as different orbit altitudes. The development is well advanced and is now well into the detailed design and development programme, with components and long lead hardware procurement already initiated. The development of the payload complement for the first mission has been initiated in parallel via the POEM-1 Programme. The Polar Platform will also make use of the other ESA's future infrastructure, such as the Ariane 5 Launcher as well as the Data Relay Satellite System in order to ensure global coverage of observations. The launch of the first ESA Polar Platform Mission carrying the POEM-1 Mission is planned for mid-1988. The performance requirements, design and status of development of the Polar Platform

  5. Space Environment Forecasting with Neutron Monitors: Establishing a novel service for the ESA SSA Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Athanasios; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Souvatzoglou, George; Paschalis, Pavlos; Sarlanis, Christos; Dimitroulakos, John; Gerontidou, Maria

    2013-04-01

    High-energy particles released at the Sun during a solar flare or a very energetic coronal mass ejection, result to a significant intensity increase at neutron monitor measurements known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs). Due to their space weather impact (i.e. risks and failures at communication and navigation systems, spacecraft electronics and operations, space power systems, manned space missions, and commercial aircraft operations) it is crucial to establish a real-time operational system that would be in place to issue reliable and timely GLE Alerts. Currently, the Cosmic Ray group of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens is working towards the establishment of a Neutron Monitor Service that will be made available via the Space Weather Portal operated by the European Space Agency (ESA), under the Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Program. To this end, a web interface providing data from multiple Neutron Monitor stations as well as an upgraded GLE Alert will be provided. Both services are now under testing and validation and they will probably enter to an operational phase next year. The core of this Neutron Monitor Service is the GLE Alert software, and therefore, the main goal of this research effort is to upgrade the existing GLE Alert software, to minimize the probability of a false alarm and to enhance the usability of the corresponding results. The ESA Neutron Monitor Service is building upon the infrastructure made available with the implementation of the High-Resolution Neutron Monitor Database (NMDB). In this work the structure of the Neutron Monitor Service for ESA SSA Program and the impact of the novel GLE Alert Service that will be made available to future users via ESA SSA web portal will be presented and further discussed.

  6. Cracky Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    21 September 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows cracked, layered plains-forming material in the western part of Utopia Planitia, Mars. Investigators have speculated that ice might be -- or might once have been -- present in the ground, and changes in temperature and the amount of ice over time may have led to the formation of these cracks. But no one is certain just how these features formed.

    Location near: 45.0oN, 276.1oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  7. Mars Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These maps are global false-color topographic views of Mars at different orientations from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA). The maps are orthographic projections that contain over 200,000,000 points and about 5,000,000 altimetric crossovers. The spatial resolution is about 15 kilometers at the equator and less at higher latitudes. The vertical accuracy is less than 5 meters. The right hand image view features the Hellas impact basin (in purple, with red annulus of high standing material). The left hand features the Tharsis topographic rise (in red and white). Note also the subtle textures associated with resurfacing of the northern hemisphere lowlands in the vicinity of the Utopia impact basin. These data were compiled by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) Team led by David Smith at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD.

  8. ExoMars Entry, Descent, and Landing Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatekin, Özgür; Forget, Francois; Withers, Paul; Colombatti, Giacomo; Aboudan, Alessio; Lewis, Stephen; Ferri, Francesca; Van Hove, Bart; Gerbal, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Schiaparelli, the Entry Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ESA ExoMars Program will to land on Mars on 19th October 2016. The ExoMars Atmospheric Mars Entry and Landing Investigations and Analysis (AMELIA) team seeks to exploit the Entry Descent and Landing (EDL) engineering measurements of Schiaparelli for scientific investigations of Mars' atmosphere and surface. ExoMars offers a rare opportunity to perform an in situ investigation of the martian environment over a wide altitude range. There has been only 7 successfully landing on the surface of Mars, from the Viking probes in the 1970's to the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) in 2012. ExoMars EDM is equipped with an instrumented heat shield like MSL. These novel flight sensors complement conventional accelerometer and gyroscope instrumentation, and provide additional information to reconstruct atmospheric conditions with. This abstract outlines general atmospheric reconstruction methodology using complementary set of sensors and in particular the use of surface pressure and radio data. In addition, we discuss the lessons learned from previous EDL and the plans for ExoMars AMELIA data analysis.

  9. Planetary Protection Issues in the Human Exploration of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Race, M. S.; Rummel, J. D.; Baker, A.

    2005-01-01

    This workshop report, long delayed, is the first 21st century contribution to what will likely be a series of reports examining the effects of human exploration on the overall scientific study of Mars. The considerations of human-associated microbial contamination were last studied in a 1990 workshop ("Planetary Protection Issues and Future Mars Missions," NASA CP-10086, 1991), but the timing of that workshop allowed neither a careful examination of the full range of issues, nor an appreciation for the Mars that has been revealed by the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Pathfinder missions. Future workshops will also have the advantage of Mars Odyssey, the Mars Exploration Rover missions, and ESA's Mars Express, but the Pingree Park workshop reported here had both the NCR's (1992) concern that "Missions carrying humans to Mars will contaminate the planet" and over a decade of careful study of human exploration objectives to guide them and to reconcile. A daunting challenge, and one that is not going to be simple (as the working title of this meeting, "When Ecologies Collide?" might suggest), it is clear that the planetary protection issues will have to be addressed to enable human explorers to safely and competently extend out knowledge about Mars, and its potential as a home for life whether martian or human.

  10. First results of ESA's IMPRESS Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heppener, Marc; Minster, Olivier; Jarvis, David John

    2008-07-01

    IMPRESS is an acronym for Intermetallic Materials Processing in Relation to Earth and Space Solidification. This 5-year project was selected by the European Commission in 2004 and is being coordinated by the European Space Agency. The main scientific objective of IMPRESS is to gain a better understanding of the links between materials processing routes, structure and final properties of novel intermetallic alloys. From a technical standpoint, the project aims to develop and test two distinct prototypes based on intermetallic materials; namely (i) gas turbine blades and (ii) Raney-type catalytic powders. Numerous material processing routes are being investigated within the project with a strong emphasis on solidification. For turbine blade manufacturing the main processes under study are casting and heat treatment. For catalytic powder production the focus is placed on gas atomisation and vapour condensation processes. IMPRESS combines a wide range of fundamental studies of solidification both on ground and in space, as well as industrial process development. This paper will describe some of the different facets related to solidification and the benchmark space experiments.

  11. Mars Express - a new view of the planet Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A.

    The ESA Mars Express mission was successfully launched on 02 June 2003 from Baikonur Kazakhstan onboard a Russian Soyuz rocket with a Fregat upper stage The mission comprises an orbiter spacecraft which has been placed in a polar martian orbit and the small Beagle-2 lander due to land in Isidis Planitia but whose fate remains uncertain In addition to global studies of the surface subsurface and atmosphere of Mars with an unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution the unifying theme of the mission is the search for water in its various states everywhere on the planet A summary of scientific results from all experiments after more than one Martian year in orbit 687 days is given below The High-Resolution Stereo Colour Imager HRSC has shown breathtaking views of the planet in particular of the Northern hemisphere pointing to very young ages for both glacial and volcanic processes from hundreds of thousands to a few million years old respectively The IR Mineralogical Mapping Spectrometer OMEGA has provided unprecedented maps of H 2 O ice and CO 2 ice in the polar regions and determined that the alteration products phyllosilicates in the early history of Mars correspond to abundant liquid water while the post-Noachian products sulfates suggest a colder drier planet with only episodic water on the surface The Planetary Fourier Spectrometer PFS has confirmed the presence of methane for the first time which would indicate current volcanic activity and or biological processes The UV and IR Atmospheric Spectrometer

  12. The ESA Lunar Lander and the search for Lunar Volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Pillinger, J. M.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Gibson, E. K.; Merrifield, J. A.; Waltham, N. R.; Waugh, L. J.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2011-10-01

    Following the Apollo era the moon was considered a volatile poor body. Samples collected from the Apollo missions contained only ppm levels of water formed by the interaction of the solar wind with the lunar regolith [1]. However more recent orbiter observations have indicated that water may exist as water ice in cold polar regions buried within craters at concentrations of a few wt. % [2]. Infrared images from M3 on Chandrayaan-1 have been interpreted as showing the presence of hydrated surface minerals with the ongoing hydroxyl/water process feeding cold polar traps. This has been supported by observation of ephemeral features termed "space dew" [3]. Meanwhile laboratory studies indicate that water could be present in appreciable quantities in lunar rocks [4] and could also have a cometary source [5]. The presence of sufficient quantities of volatiles could provide a resource which would simplify logistics for long term lunar missions. The European Space Agency (ESA's Directorate of Human Spaceflight and Operations) have provisionally scheduled a robotic mission to demonstrate key technologies to enable later human exploration. Planned for launch in 2018, the primary aim is for precise automated landing, with hazard avoidance, in zones which are almost constantly illuminated (e.g. at the edge of the Shackleton crater at the lunar south pole). These regions would enable the solar powered Lander to survive for long periods > 6 months, but require accurate navigation to within 200m. Although landing in an illuminated area, these regions are close to permanently shadowed volatile rich regions and the analysis of volatiles is a major science objective of the mission. The straw man payload includes provision for a Lunar Volatile and Resources Analysis Package (LVRAP). The authors have been commissioned by ESA to conduct an evaluation of possible technologies to be included in L-VRAP which can be included within the Lander payload. Scientific aims are to demonstrate the

  13. Telecommunications Relay Support of the Mars Phoenix Lander Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D., Jr.; Erickson, James K.; Gladden, Roy E.; Guinn, Joseph R.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jai, Benhan; Johnston, Martin D.; Kornfeld, Richard P.; Martin-Mur, Tomas J.; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Thomas, Reid C.; Varghese, Phil; Signori, Gina; Schmitz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Phoenix Lander, first of NASA's Mars Scout missions, arrived at the Red Planet on May 25, 2008. From the moment the lander separated from its interplanetary cruise stage shortly before entry, the spacecraft could no longer communicate directly with Earth, and was instead entirely dependent on UHF relay communications via an international network of orbiting Mars spacecraft, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft, as well as ESA's Mars Express (MEX) spacecraft. All three orbiters captured critical event telemetry and/or tracking data during Phoenix Entry, Descent and Landing. During the Phoenix surface mission, ODY and MRO provided command and telemetry services, far surpassing the original data return requirements. The availability of MEX as a backup relay asset enhanced the robustness of the surface relay plan. In addition to telecommunications services, Doppler tracking observables acquired on the UHF link yielded an accurate position for the Phoenix landing site.

  14. "The Moon Village and Journey to Mars enable each other"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beldavs, Vidvuds

    2016-07-01

    NASA has proposed the Journey to Mars, a multi-decade collaborative international effort to establish permanent manned operations on the Martian surface as well as in orbit, most likely on the Martian moons. NASA's proposed the Journey to Mars has come under politically motivated attack as illusory, as beyond NASA's capabilities and anticipated NASA budgets in the foreseeable future. [1]. Other concerns come from various communities of researchers concerned about securing sustaining funding for their largely robotic research missions. ESA's Director General Dietrich Woerner's proposed Moon Village faces challenges ESA member states concerned about sustaining funding for projects already underway or in planning. Both the Journey to Mars and Moon Village raise the question - who will or who can pay for it? The 2013 US Research Council study suggested potential benefits to a mission to Mars from activities on the Moon [2]. The NASA funded Flexible Lunar Architecture study came to similar conclusions using a different methodology [3]. A logistics analysis by an MIT team suggested the possibility of cost savings through use of lunar water for propellant to reach Mars [4]. The highly promising private-public financing approach has been examined for potential application to funding the costs of reaching Mars [5]. Insofar as the feasibility of utilization of lunar water has not been determined these conclusions are speculative. This study will examine the following alternative scenarios for establishing sustainable, manned operations on Mars and permanent manned operations on the Moon: A. NASA-led Journey to Mars without an ESA-led Moon Village B. ESA-led Moon Village without NASA-led Journey to Mars C. NASA-led Journey to Mars with an ESA-led Moon Village D. Shared Infrastructure scenario - NASA-led Journey to Mars with ESA-led Moon Village and with a potential JAXA-led space-based-solar power initiative E. Space Industrialization scenario - Shared Infrastructure scenario

  15. The ESA Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, A. P.; Cecconi, B.; Fraenz, M.; Hagermann, A.; Heather, D.; Rosenblatt, P.; Svedhem, H.; Widemann, T.

    2014-04-01

    ESA has established a Planetary Science Archive User Group (PSA-UG), with the task of offering independent advice to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (e.g. Heather et al., 2013). The PSA-UG is an official and independent body that continuously evaluates services and tools provided by the PSA to the community of planetary data scientific users. The group has been tasked with the following top level objectives: a) Advise ESA on future development of the PSA. b) Act as a focus for the interests of the scientific community. c) Act as an advocate for the PSA. d) Monitor the PSA activities. Based on this, the PSA-UG will report through the official ESA channels. Disciplines and subjects represented by PSA-UG members include: Remote Sensing of both Atmosphere and Solid Surfaces, Magnetospheres, Plasmas, Radio Science and Auxilliary data. The composition of the group covers ESA missions populating the PSA both now and in the near future. The first members of the PSA-UG were selected in 2013 and will serve for 3 years, until 2016. The PSA-UG will address the community through workshops, conferences and the internet. Written recommendations will be made to the PSA coordinator, and an annual report on PSA and the PSA-UG activities will be sent to the Solar System Exploration Working Group (SSEWG). Any member of the community and planetary data user can get in touch with individual members of the PSA-UG or with the group as a whole via the contacts provided on the official PSA-UG web-page: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa/psa-ug The PSA is accessible via: http://archives.esac.esa.int/psa

  16. Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Voute, Sara; Irwin, Stacy; Foing, Bernard H.; Stoker, Carol R.; Westenberg, Artemis

    The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks (20 Feb to 6 Mar 2010) and were guided externally by mission support, called "Earth" within the simulation. Crew 91, an international, mixed-gender, and multidisciplinary group, has completed several studies during the first mission of the EuroMoonMars campaign. The crew is composed of an Italian designer and human factors specialist, a Dutch geologist, an American physicist, and three French aerospace engineering students from Ecole de l'Air, all with ages between 21 and 31. Each crewmember worked on personal research and fulfilled a unique role within the group: commander, executive officer, engineer, health and safety officer, scientist, and journalist. The expedition focused on human factors, performance, communication, health and safety pro-tocols, and EVA procedures. The engineers' projects aimed to improve rover manoeuvrability, far-field communication, and data exchanges between the base and the rover or astronaut. The crew physicist evaluated dust control methods inside and outside the habitat. The geologist tested planetary geological sampling procedures. The crew designer investigated performance and overall habitability in the context of the Mars Habitability Experiment from the Extreme-Design group. During the mission the crew also participated in the Food Study and in the Ethospace study, managed by external groups. The poster will present crew dynamics, scientific results and daily schedule from a Human Factors perspective. Main co-sponsors and collaborators: ILEWG, ESA ESTEC, NASA Ames, Ecole de l'Air, SKOR, Extreme

  17. First Prototype of a Web Map Interface for ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manaud, N.; Gonzalez, J.

    2014-04-01

    We present a first prototype of a Web Map Interface that will serve as a proof of concept and design for ESA's future fully web-based Planetary Science Archive (PSA) User Interface. The PSA is ESA's planetary science archiving authority and central repository for all scientific and engineering data returned by ESA's Solar System missions [1]. All data are compliant with NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) Standards and are accessible through several interfaces [2]: in addition to serving all public data via FTP and the Planetary Data Access Protocol (PDAP), a Java-based User Interface provides advanced search, preview, download, notification and delivery-basket functionality. It allows the user to query and visualise instrument observations footprints using a map-based interface (currently only available for Mars Express HRSC and OMEGA instruments). During the last decade, the planetary mapping science community has increasingly been adopting Geographic Information System (GIS) tools and standards, originally developed for and used in Earth science. There is an ongoing effort to produce and share cartographic products through Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Services, or as standalone data sets, so that they can be readily used in existing GIS applications [3,4,5]. Previous studies conducted at ESAC [6,7] have helped identify the needs of Planetary GIS users, and define key areas of improvement for the future Web PSA User Interface. Its web map interface shall will provide access to the full geospatial content of the PSA, including (1) observation geometry footprints of all remote sensing instruments, and (2) all georeferenced cartographic products, such as HRSC map-projected data or OMEGA global maps from Mars Express. It shall aim to provide a rich user experience for search and visualisation of this content using modern and interactive web mapping technology. A comprehensive set of built-in context maps from external sources, such as MOLA topography, TES

  18. Mars exploration.

    PubMed

    Carr, M H; Garvin, J

    2001-07-12

    An international flotilla of spacecraft are to be sent to Mars over the next decade in an effort to understand the planet's geology and climate history, and to determine whether some form of life ever started there. At least two spacecraft will be sent at each launch opportunity, and at times up to four spacecraft may be operating simultaneously at the planet.

  19. Mars 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-402, 25 June 2003

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) experiment consists of 3 different cameras: a narrow angle imager that provides the black-and-white high resolution views (up to 1.4 meters per pixel) of Mars, and 2 wide angle cameras, observing in red and blue wavelengths, from which color views of the entire planet are assembled each day. The wide angle cameras provide a daily record of changes in martian weather and surface frost as the seasons progress. MGS MOC has obtained a record of martian weather spanning a little over 2 martian years since it began systematic observations in March 1999.

    The view of Mars shown here was assembled from MOC daily global images obtained on May 12, 2003. At that time, the northern hemisphere was in early autumn, and the southern hemisphere in early spring. At the left/center of this view are the four large Tharsis volcanoes: Olympus Mons, Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons, and Arsia Mons. Stretching across the center of the globe is the 5,000 kilometers (3,000 miles) long Valles Marineris trough system. The seasonal south polar carbon dioxide frost cap is visible at the bottom of this view. A dust storm sweeps across the plains of northern Acidalia at the upper right. North is up, east is right, sunlight illuminates the planet from the left.

  20. Packet utilisation definitions for the ESA XMM mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nye, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    XMM, ESA's X-Ray Multi-Mirror satellite, due for launch at the end of 1999 will be the first ESA scientific spacecraft to implement the ESA packet telecommand and telemetry standards and will be the first ESOC-controlled science mission to take advantage of the new flight control system infrastructure development (based on object-oriented design and distributed-system architecture) due for deployment in 1995. The implementation of the packet standards is well defined at packet transport level. However, the standard relevant to the application level (the ESA Packet Utilization Standard) covers a wide range of on-board 'services' applicable in varying degrees to the needs of XMM. In defining which parts of the ESA PUS to implement, the XMM project first considered the mission objectives and the derived operations concept and went on to identify a minimum set of packet definitions compatible with these aspects. This paper sets the scene as above and then describes the services needed for XMM and the telecommand and telemetry packet types necessary to support each service.

  1. ESA's Drop Tower Utilisation Activities 2000 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kufner, Ewald; Blum, J.; Callens, N.; Eigenbrod, Ch.; Koudelka, O.; Orr, A.; Rosa, C. C.; Vedernikov, A.; Will, S.; Reimann, J.; Wurm, G.

    2011-11-01

    The European Space Research and Technology Center ESTEC, ESA's premises in Noordwijk, The Netherlands, has a long lasting cooperation with the ZARM-FAB (Centre of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity—Drop Tower Operation and Service Company) in Bremen on the utilization of the Drop Tower for ground-based microgravity research and space hardware development studies. During the period January 2000 to December 2011 ESA will have procured in total some 840 drops addressing a variety of scientific and technological disciplines. The experiments are usually carried out in campaigns of 15 to 20 drops each, with an annual average of about 5 campaigns. The cooperation agreement between ESA and the ZARM-FAB includes experiment preparation advice by ZARM's experts, the integration of the hardware into the drop capsule, dedicated safety reviews, the execution of the drop or catapult experiments, the post-flight payload de-integration as well as the handover of acquired data to the experimenters. The experiment hardware itself is provided by the scientists or has to be procured from sources outside of ESA's drop tower utilization contract. ESA appreciates the cooperation of the ZARM-FAB in Bremen whose drop- and catapult facility provides excellent microgravity quality, is operated by a highly competent, flexible and extremely supportive expert team, allows campaign integration at relatively short notice throughout the entire year, offers real-time experiment operations and immediately after each drop delivers experiment results and provides on-site hardware modification possibilities.

  2. NASA's Deep Space Network and ESA's Tracking Network Collaboration to Enable Solar System Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmar, Sami; Accomazzo, Andrea; Firre, Daniel; Ferri, Paolo; Liebrecht, Phil; Mann, Greg; Morse, Gary; Costrell, Jim; Kurtik, Susan; Hell, Wolfgang; Warhaut, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Planetary missions travel vast distances in the solar system to explore and answer important scientific questions. To return the data containing their discoveries, communications challenges have to be overcome, namely the relatively low transmitter power, typically 20 Watts at X-band, and the one-over-the-square of the distance loss of the received power, among other factors. These missions were enabled only when leading space agencies developed very large communications antennas to communicate with them as well as provide radio-metric navigation tools. NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) and ESA's ESTRACK network are distributed geographically in order to provide global coverage and utilize stations ranging in size from 34 m to 70 m in diameter. With the increasing number of missions and significant loading on networks' capacity, unique requirements during critical events, and long-baseline interferometry navigation techniques, it became obvious that collaboration between the networks was necessary and in the interest of both agencies and the advancement of planetary and space sciences. NASA and ESA established methods for collaboration that include a generic cross-support agreement as well as mission-specific memoranda of understanding. This collaboration also led to the development of international inter-operability standards. As a result of its success, the DSN-ESTRACK cross support approach is serving as a model for other agencies with similar stations and an interest in collaboration. Over recent years, many critical events were supported and some scientific breakthroughs in planetary science were enabled. This paper will review selected examples of the science resulting from this work and the overall benefits for deep space exploration, including lessons learned, from inter-agency collaboration with communications networks.

  3. Cross-cultural issues in space operations: A survey study among ground personnel of the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandal, Gro Mjeldheim; Manzey, Dietrich

    2009-12-01

    Today's space operations involve co-working of people with different ethnical, professional and organisational backgrounds. The aim of this study was to examine the implications of cultural diversity for efficient collaboration within the European Space Agency (ESA), and between ESA employees and representatives from other agencies. ESA employees from European countries ( N=576) answered to the CULT Ground Survey. The results showed that differences in relation to leadership and decision making were the most important issues thought to interfere with efficient co-working within ESA, and between ESA employees and colleagues from other agencies. Employees who collaborated with more than three nationalities within ESA indicated most challenges in co-working due to differences in compliance, behavioural norms and competitiveness. Challenges in co-working differed between agencies, and these differences were consistent with value differences in the national populations. The results may have applied value for training of European employees working in international space program teams.

  4. ESA's Venus Express to reach final destination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    . During the nominal science phase, images of the atmosphere will need to be built up in mosaics. The analyser of space plasma and energetic atoms (ASPERA) will have an unprecedented opportunity to study from great distances the unperturbed solar wind and to gather data on the atmospheric escape processes on a planet which has no magnetic protection. In the capture orbit, all the instruments (except the VeRA radio science experiment and PFS spectrometer) may perform observations for a few hours a day on selected dates. …and plenty of science to come Venus Express is designed to carry out scientific observations over two Venusian days, corresponding to 486 Earth days. The mission could be extended to double the nominal duration. Notwithstanding the intense previous exploration (Venus is the third most visited celestial body in our solar system after the Moon and Mars), a plethora of mysteries still surround this planet. Venus Express’s unique instruments for planetary investigation are tailored to taking advantage of clues from previous missions and investigating the planet’s oddities with unprecedented precision. The instruments onboard, the spacecraft’s ‘eyes’, include a combination of spectrometers (the PFS planetary fourier spectrometer and the SpicaV/SOIR ultraviolet and infrared atmospheric spectrometer), spectro-imagers (VIRTIS ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared mapping spectrometer) and imagers (VMC Venus monitoring Camera). They are extremely sensitive in a wide range of electromagnetic wavelengths from ultraviolet to infrared and will allow detailed study of the Venusian atmosphere and its interaction with the surface. Also onboard are the MAG magnetometer, the ASPERA analyser of space plasma & energetic atoms and the VeRA radio science experiment, to study all interaction between the atmosphere and the ever-blowing solar wind. Venus Express will take advantage, for the first time ever, of the so-called ‘infrared windows’, which are narrow

  5. ESA's Cluster solved an auroral puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-05-01

    information about how the solar wind affects our planet in 3D. The solar wind is the perpetual stream of subatomic particles given out by the Sun and it can damage communications satellites and power stations on the Earth. The Cluster mission is expected to continue until at least 2005. Cluster is part of the International Living with a Star programme (ILWS), in which space agencies worldwide get together to investigate how variations in the Sun affect the environment of Earth and the other planets. In particular, ILWS concentrate on those aspects of the Sun-Earth system that may affect mankind and society. ILWS is a collaborative initiative between Europe, the United States, Russia, Japan and Canada.

  6. Relay Telecommunications for the Coming Decade of Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, C.; DePaula, R.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, an evolving network of relay-equipped orbiters has advanced our capabilities for Mars exploration. NASA's Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), as well as ESA's Mars Express Orbiter, have provided telecommunications relay services to the 2003 Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, and to the 2007 Phoenix Lander. Based on these successes, a roadmap for continued Mars relay services is in place for the coming decade. MRO and Odyssey will provide key relay support to the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, including capture of critical event telemetry during entry, descent, and landing, as well as support for command and telemetry during surface operations, utilizing new capabilities of the Electra relay payload on MRO and the Electra-Lite payload on MSL to allow significant increase in data return relative to earlier missions. Over the remainder of the decade a number of additional orbiter and lander missions are planned, representing new orbital relay service providers and new landed relay users. In this paper we will outline this Mars relay roadmap, quantifying relay performance over time, illustrating planned support scenarios, and identifying key challenges and technology infusion opportunities.

  7. Operational support to collision avoidance activities by ESA's space debris office

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, V.; Flohrer, T.; Krag, H.; Merz, K.; Lemmens, S.; Bastida Virgili, B.; Funke, Q.

    2016-09-01

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) Space Debris Office provides a service to support operational collision avoidance activities. This support currently covers ESA's missions Cryosat-2, Sentinel-1A and -2A, the constellation of Swarm-A/B/C in low-Earth orbit (LEO), as well as missions of third-party customers. In this work, we describe the current collision avoidance process for ESA and third-party missions in LEO. We give an overview on the upgrades developed and implemented since the advent of conjunction summary messages (CSM)/conjunction data messages (CDM), addressing conjunction event detection, collision risk assessment, orbit determination, orbit and covariance propagation, process control, and data handling. We pay special attention to the effect of warning thresholds on the risk reduction and manoeuvre rates, as they are established through risk mitigation and analysis tools, such as ESA's Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis (DRAMA) software suite. To handle the large number of CDMs and the associated risk analyses, a database-centric approach has been developed. All CDMs and risk analysis results are stored in a database. In this way, a temporary local "mini-catalogue" of objects close to our target spacecraft is obtained, which can be used, e.g., for manoeuvre screening and to update the risk analysis whenever a new ephemeris becomes available from the flight dynamics team. The database is also used as the backbone for a Web-based tool, which consists of the visualization component and a collaboration tool that facilitates the status monitoring and task allocation within the support team as well as communication with the control team. The visualization component further supports the information sharing by displaying target and chaser motion over time along with the involved uncertainties. The Web-based solution optimally meets the needs for a concise and easy-to-use way to obtain a situation picture in a very short time, and the support for

  8. The Arctic Mars Analogue Svalbard Expedition 2010. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, A.; Benning, L. G.; Fogel, M. L.; Amundsen, H.; Schmitz, N.; Amase 2010 Team

    2010-12-01

    The Arctic Mars Analogue Svalbard Expeditions (AMASE) 2010 was the latest of a series of expeditions that are NASA ASTEP and ESA funded and have as their primary goals 1) testing portable instruments for their robustness as field instruments for life detection, 2) assessing Mars analogue environments for abiosignatures and biosignatures, 3) refining protocols for contamination reduction, 4) defining a minimal instrument suite for Astrobiology science on Mars and 5) sample acquisition, collection and caching of suitable samples by rover platforms containing sample acquisition hardware: first Cliffbot, then Athena. As well as testing ESA instrumentation for the ExoMars mission and NASA instruments for Mars Science Laboratory, the goals and technologies used during this 2010 campaign are very similar to that proposed by the current MEPAG MAX-C mission concept and therefore set the stage for future sample return missions. As such the field-tested technologies, procedures and protocols can be used to address specific science objectives proposed for the 2018 Mars mission opportunity. As NASA and ESA enter a new era of collaboration, AMASE has provided and will continue to provide, a test bed for both current in-situ robotic missions and Mars Sample Return mission architectures. AMASE has proved to be a unique platform to build understanding and collaboration amongst scientists and engineers from Europe and the USA. AMASE 2010 team (other than those mentioned above): Ivar Midtkandal, Kjell Ove Storvik, Garret Huntress, Verena Starke, Pan Conrad, Francis McCubbin, Tor Viscor, Antonio Sensano, Laureline Josset, Jean-Luc Josset, Mihaela Glamoclija, Steve Squyres, Inge Loes Ten Kate, Kyong Hou, Jen Stern, Amy McAdam, Dave Blake, Dick Morris, Claire Cousins, Arnold Bauer, Carole Phillippon, Eckhard Steinmetz, Dave Potts, Dominique Tobler, Guillermo Lopez.

  9. From LEO, to the Moon and then Mars: Developing a Global Strategy for Exploration Risk Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Most nations currently involved in human spaceflight, or with such ambitions, believe that space exploration will capture the imagination of our youth resulting in future engineers and scientists, advance technologies which will improve life on earth, increase the knowledge of our solar system, and strengthen bonds and relationships across the globe. The Global Exploration Strategy, published in 2007 by 14 space agencies, eloquently makes this case and presents a vision for space exploration. It argues that in order for space exploration to be sustainable, nations must work together to address the challenges and share the burden of costs. This paper will examine Mars mission scenarios developed by NASA, ESA and other agencies and show resulting conclusions regarding key challenges, needed technologies and associated mission risks. It will discuss the importance of using the International Space Station as a platform for exploration risk reduction and how the global exploration community will develop lunar exploration elements and architectures that enable the long term goal of human missions to Mars. The International Space Station (ISS) is a critical first step both from a technology and capability demonstration point of view, but also from a partnership point of view. There is much work that can be done in low earth orbit for exploration risk reduction. As the current "outpost at the edge of the frontier", the ISS is a place where we can demonstrate certain technologies and capabilities that will substantially reduce the risk of deploying an outpost on the lunar surface and Mars mission scenarios. The ISS partnership is strong and has fulfilled mission needs. Likewise, the partnerships we build on the moon will provide a strong foundation for establishing partnerships for the human Mars missions. On the moon, we build a permanently manned outpost and deploy technologies and capabilities to allow humans to stay for long periods of time. The moon is interesting from

  10. ESA-SSA Review of Space Weather Measurement Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain

    2012-07-01

    The ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space. The first phase of the ESA SSA system development will be finished in 2012 and the next phase is foreseen to be started after the ESA Ministerial Council meeting in November 2012. The definition of measurement requirements for the Space Weather Segment (SWE) of the ESA SSA system has been based on the space weather service requirements defined the by expected users of the system. This document, SSA SWE Customer Requirements Document (CRD), has been defined in a iterative process together with the members of the SSA User Representative Group (URG) and the delegates representing the European states participating the programme. Based on the SWE CRD, ESA with the support of the European industry has produced two documents: SSA SWE System Requirements Document (SRD) and SSA SWE Product Specification (PS). SWE PS contains the requirements for the measurements data required by the SSA SWE system. The SWE PS document has been recently rigorously reviewed by the SSA URG in the framework of the SSA System Requirements Review (SRR). The support provided by the Steering Board of the ESA Space Weather Working Team (SWWT) in this review was extremely useful. The members of the SWWT SB representing the scientific community and the provisional service providers were able to give very detailed comments regarding the measurement requirements for accuracy, cadence, timeliness, etc. As these parameters will be provisional design and cost drivers for the ESA SSA system, definition of the appropriate values at this point in the programme is crucial. This paper provides an overview of the measurement requirements for the SWE Segment of the ESA SSA Programme. The paper discusses the requirement definition process, the customer and service provider inputs, and the critical requirements as they have

  11. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, Dale; Barnes, Timothy; Bryant, Woody; Chowdhury, Parveen; Dillard, Joe; Gardner, Vernadette; Gregory, George; Harmon, Cheryl; Harrell, Brock; Hilton, Sherrill

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a conceptual design for a permanently manned, self-sustaining Martian facility, to accommodate a crew of 20 people. The goal is to incorporate the major functions required for long term habitation in the isolation of a barren planet into a thriving ecosystem. These functions include living, working, service, and medical facilities as well as a green house. The main design task was to focus on the internal layout while investigating the appropriate structure, materials, and construction techniques. The general concept was to create a comfortable, safe living environment for the crew members for a stay of six to twelve months on Mars. Two different concepts were investigated, a modular assembly reusable structure (MARS) designated Lavapolis, and a prefabricated space frame structure called Hexamars. Both models take into account factors such as future expansion, radiation shielding, and ease of assembly.

  12. Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    To mark the 10th anniversary of the Apollo-Soyuz joint space mission, a recent conference examined the prospects for human exploration of Mars and for international cooperation in space. Most of the participants at the conference, which was jointly sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and The Planetary Society, seemed to agree that some sort of collaboration like that between the United States and Soviet Union a decade ago would be desirable, and probably necessary, if humans are ever to reach Mars. Sen. Spark Matsunaga (D-Hawaii) extended the idea by saying that to gain the support of Congress, plans for future space exploration should be tied to international cooperation.

  13. Short duration microgravity experiments in physical and life sciences during parabolic flights: the first 30 ESA campaigns.

    PubMed

    Pletser, Vladimir

    2004-11-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights provide repetitively up to 20 s of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences, to test instrumentation and to train astronauts before a space flight. The European Space Agency (ESA) has organized since 1984 thirty parabolic flight campaigns for microgravity research experiments utilizing six different airplanes. More than 360 experiments were successfully conducted during more than 2800 parabolas, representing a cumulated weightlessness time of 15 h 30 m. This paper presents the short duration microgravity research programme of ESA. The experiments conducted during these campaigns are summarized, and the different airplanes used by ESA are shortly presented. The technical capabilities of the Airbus A300 'Zero-G' are addressed. Some Physical Science, Technology and Life Science experiments performed during the last ESA campaigns with the Airbus A300 are presented to show the interest of this unique microgravity research tool to complement, support and prepare orbital microgravity investigations.

  14. MARS15

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, Nikolai

    2016-07-15

    MARS is a Monte Carlo code for inclusive and exclusive simulation of three-dimensional hadronic and electromagnetic cascades, muon, heavy-ion and low-energy neutron transport in accelerator, detector, spacecraft and shielding components in the energy range from a fraction of an electronvolt up to 100 TeV. Recent developments in the MARS15 physical models of hadron, heavy-ion and lepton interactions with nuclei and atoms include a new nuclear cross section library, a model for soft pion production, the cascade-exciton model, the quark gluon string models, deuteron-nucleus and neutrino-nucleus interaction models, detailed description of negative hadron and muon absorption and a unified treatment of muon, charged hadron and heavy-ion electromagnetic interactions with matter. New algorithms are implemented into the code and thoroughly benchmarked against experimental data. The code capabilities to simulate cascades and generate a variety of results in complex media have been also enhanced. Other changes in the current version concern the improved photo- and electro-production of hadrons and muons, improved algorithms for the 3-body decays, particle tracking in magnetic fields, synchrotron radiation by electrons and muons, significantly extended histograming capabilities and material description, and improved computational performance. In addition to direct energy deposition calculations, a new set of fluence-to-dose conversion factors for all particles including neutrino are built into the code. The code includes new modules for calculation of Displacement-per-Atom and nuclide inventory. The powerful ROOT geometry and visualization model implemented in MARS15 provides a large set of geometrical elements with a possibility of producing composite shapes and assemblies and their 3D visualization along with a possible import/export of geometry descriptions created by other codes (via the GDML format) and CAD systems (via the STEP format). The built-in MARS-MAD Beamline

  15. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_21_2004_s_en.html

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    X-ray brightness map hi-res Size hi-res: 38 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. X-ray brightness map This map shows "surface brightness" or how luminous the region is. The larger of the two galaxy clusters is brighter, shown here as a white and red spot. A second cluster resides about "2 o'clock" from this, shown by a batch of yellow surrounded by green. Luminosity is related to density, so the densest regions (cluster cores) are the brightest regions. The white color corresponds to regions of the highest surface brightness, followed by red, orange, yellow, green, blue and purple. High resolution version (JPG format) 38 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 525 Kb Temperature map Credits: NASA Artist’s impression of cosmic head on collision The event details what the scientists are calling the perfect cosmic storm: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions, tossing galaxies far from their paths and churning shock waves of 100-million-degree gas through intergalactic space. The tiny dots in this artist's concept are galaxies containing thousand million of stars. Animated GIF version Temperature map hi-res Size hi-res: 57 Kb Credits: ESA/ XMM-Newton/ Patrick Henry et al. Temperature map This image shows the temperature of gas in and around the two merging galaxy clusters, based directly on X-ray data. The galaxies themselves are difficult to identify; the image highlights the hot ‘invisible’ gas between the clusters heated by shock waves. The white colour corresponds to regions of the highest temperature - million of degrees, hotter than the surface of the Sun - followed by red, orange, yellow and blue. High resolution version (JPG format) 57 Kb High resolution version (TIFF format) 819 Kb The event details what the scientists are calling the ‘perfect cosmic storm’: galaxy clusters that collided like two high-pressure weather fronts and created hurricane-like conditions

  16. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars.

    PubMed

    Durante, Marco

    2014-04-01

    National space agencies are planning a human mission to Mars in the XXI century. Space radiation is generally acknowledged as a potential showstopper for this mission for two reasons: a) high uncertainty on the risk of radiation-induced morbidity, and b) lack of simple countermeasures to reduce the exposure. The need for radiation exposure mitigation tools in a mission to Mars is supported by the recent measurements of the radiation field on the Mars Science Laboratory. Shielding is the simplest physical countermeasure, but the current materials provide poor reduction of the dose deposited by high-energy cosmic rays. Accelerator-based tests of new materials can be used to assess additional protection in the spacecraft. Active shielding is very promising, but as yet not applicable in practical cases. Several studies are developing technologies based on superconducting magnetic fields in space. Reducing the transit time to Mars is arguably the best solution but novel nuclear thermal-electric propulsion systems also seem to be far from practical realization. It is likely that the first mission to Mars will employ a combination of these options to reduce radiation exposure.

  17. Space radiation protection: Destination Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    2014-04-01

    National space agencies are planning a human mission to Mars in the XXI century. Space radiation is generally acknowledged as a potential showstopper for this mission for two reasons: a) high uncertainty on the risk of radiation-induced morbidity, and b) lack of simple countermeasures to reduce the exposure. The need for radiation exposure mitigation tools in a mission to Mars is supported by the recent measurements of the radiation field on the Mars Science Laboratory. Shielding is the simplest physical countermeasure, but the current materials provide poor reduction of the dose deposited by high-energy cosmic rays. Accelerator-based tests of new materials can be used to assess additional protection in the spacecraft. Active shielding is very promising, but as yet not applicable in practical cases. Several studies are developing technologies based on superconducting magnetic fields in space. Reducing the transit time to Mars is arguably the best solution but novel nuclear thermal-electric propulsion systems also seem to be far from practical realization. It is likely that the first mission to Mars will employ a combination of these options to reduce radiation exposure.

  18. Phoenix Mars Lander in Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Phoenix Mars Lander, was partway through assembly and testing at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in September 2006, progressing toward an August 2007 launch from Florida. In this photograph, spacecraft specialists work on the lander after its fan-like circular solar arrays have been spread open for testing. The arrays will be in this configuration when the spacecraft is active on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. It will dig into the surface, test scooped-up samples for carbon-bearing compounds and serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars.

    Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. A Comparison of ESA and NASA Space Debris Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauptmann, S.

    1996-12-01

    NASA recently developed a new orbital debris environment model for spacecraft design and observations in low earth orbit. This model has been implemented at ESA/ESTEC in an application which is able to assess debris flux distributions according to target and impactor orbital parameters as well as the directional dependencies of the impactor fluxes. In this paper, the following three models are compared: the above mentioned NASA model, the ESA MASTER Analyst Application, developed under ESA/ESOC contract in 1995 and the current NASA space debris reference model, which was developed in 1989. The conceptual designs of the three models are discussed and their quantitative predictions are compared for various target orbit characteristics, including more detailed analysis of the orbits of ERS-1, LDEF and ISSA (International Space Station Alpha). It is shown in particular that considerable discrepancies of more than one order of magnitude exist between the predictions of the different models in the region of sub-mm sized particles as well as for diameters greater than 1cm. Refined predictions of the debris flux given by the different models taking into account the orientation of the surface are investigated in the case of LDEF and ISSA. For further information on ESA and NASA space debris modelling activities have a look at the following sites:

    • Space Debris Activities at ESOC
    • Modelling the Space Environment at ESTEC
    • UNO Office of Outer Space Affairs
    • NASA-JSC Space Science Branch

  20. Plans for coordinated measurements around Mars with the Mars Express and MAVEN spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witasse, O. G.; Cardesin-Moinelo, A.; Jakosky, B. M.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Lillis, R. J.; Opgenoorth, H. J.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA MAVEN spacecraft will launch in November, 2013, will arrive at Mars in September, 2014, and will begin its year-long primary science mission at the start of November, 2014. Its main goals are to characterize in detail the state of the Mars' upper atmosphere and to determine the role that loss of atmospheric gas to space played in changing the Martian climate through time. The ESA Mars Express mission is in orbit since December 2003. It includes a comprehensive payload suite for the study of the Mars' aeronomy. Hence, scientific investigations with both missions are very complementary. From the end of 2014 onwards, both spacecraft will be able to perform coordinated measurements. There is significant overlap in instrumentation between MAVEN and Mars Express (e.g., with measurements of electrons and ions), yet also significant differences (mass spectrometer and magnetometer on MAVEN, solar/stellar occultations and some energetic neutrals on Mars Express). This allows a combination of measurements that are more extensive, and therefore more valuable, than the complete data set from either mission. In addition, the orbits are complementary, and will provide a number of interesting geometrical configurations that will allows exploring the atmosphere with two points and thus separating time-varying from spatially varying phenomena. This paper will describe preliminary plans for coordinated measurements with the two platforms.

  1. ESA Parabolic Flight, Drop Tower and Centrifuge Opportunities for University Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callens, Natacha; Ventura-Traveset, Javier; Zornoza Garcia-Andrade, Eduardo; Gomez-Calero, Carlos; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Pletser, Vladimir; Kufner, Ewald; Krause, Jutta; Lindner, Robert; Gai, Frederic; Eigenbrod, Christian

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Education Office was established in 1998 with the purpose of motivating young people to study science, engineering and technology subjects and to ensure a qualified workforce for ESA and the European space sector in the future. To this end the ESA Education Office is supporting several hands-on activities including small student satellites and student experiments on sounding rockets, high altitude balloons as well as microgravity and hypergravity platforms. This paper is intended to introduce three new ESA Education Office hands-on activities called "Fly Your Thesis!", "Drop Your Thesis!" and "Spin Your Thesis!". These activities give re-spectively access to aircraft parabolic flight, drop tower and centrifuge campaigns to European students. These educational programmes offer university students the unique opportunity to design, build, and eventually perform, in microgravity or hypergravity, a scientific or techno-logical experiment which is linked to their syllabus. During the "Fly Your Thesis!" campaigns, the students accompany their experiments onboard the A300 Zero-G aircraft, operated by the company Novespace, based in Bordeaux, France, for a series of three flights of 30 parabolas each, with each parabola providing about 20s of microgravity [1]. "Drop Your Thesis!" campaigns are held in the ZARM Drop Tower, in Bremen, Germany. The installation delivers 4.74s of microgravity in dropping mode and 9.3s in the catapulting mode [2]. Research topics such as fluid physics, fundamental physics, combustion, biology, material sciences, heat transfer, astrophysics, chemistry or biochemistry can greatly benefit from using microgravity platforms. "Spin Your Thesis!" campaigns take place in the Large Diameter Centrifuge (LDC) facility, at ESTEC, Noordwijk, in the Netherlands. This facility offers an acceleration from 1 to 20 times Earth's gravity [3]. The use of hypergravity allows completing the scientific picture of how gravity has an

  2. NASA Mars Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Reiber, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Papers about Mars and Mars exploration are presented, covering topics such as Martian history, geology, volcanism, channels, moons, atmosphere, meteorology, water on the planet, and the possibility of life. The unmanned exploration of Mars is discussed, including the Phobos Mission, the Mars Observer, the Mars Aeronomy Observer, the seismic network, Mars sample return missions, and the Mars Ball, an inflatable-sectored-tire rover concept. Issues dealing with manned exploration of Mars are examined, such as the reasons for exploring Mars, mission scenarios, a transportation system for routine visits, technologies for Mars expeditions, the human factors for Mars missions, life support systems, living and working on Mars, and the report of the National Commission on Space.

  3. Mission to the Public: A Journalist's Experiences with European Astronomers and Space Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzen, D. H.

    January 2004: NASA lands two rovers on Mars. The landings are covered worldwide live by CNN with millions of people watching it. January 2005: ESA lands a probe on Titan. The landing is covered live in the ESOC control room with a few scientists and VIPs on site. The first pictures of the unknown world are presented to the public hours later. June 2006: NASA continues to publish magnificent views of Saturn and its moons and rings taken by the Cassini spacecraft on a daily basis. ESA - having a spacecraft in orbit around Mars - continues to publish new views of the red plant on a biweekly basis. June 2006: The Hubble Space Telescope is fascinating the public worldwide with marvellous pictures almost on a weekly basis. Europe operates the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile, considered the world's most powerful observatory. In 2005, the VLT published as few as six "Hubble class" pictures. These are a few random examples of a lack of proper communication of Europe's space and astronomy activities. The talk will address a few key issues on what's going wrong in Europe: - Why are many scientists so reluctant to communicate their research to the public? - Why isn't public relations work an integral part of any project financed by the European taxpayer? - What are the constraints of a public outreach officer's professional routine? - Is a scientific observation or a scientific paper really more important than a good picture making the front page of newspapers throughout Europe? Europe is doing great scientifically and technologically - but for some reason, this is not communicated properly. Can we change the attitude of scientists and agencies towards public communication?

  4. Mars @ ASDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carraro, Francesco

    "Mars @ ASDC" is a project born with the goal of using the new web technologies to assist researches involved in the study of Mars. This project employs Mars map and javascript APIs provided by Google to visualize data acquired by space missions on the planet. So far, visualization of tracks acquired by MARSIS and regions observed by VIRTIS-Rosetta has been implemented. The main reason for the creation of this kind of tool is the difficulty in handling hundreds or thousands of acquisitions, like the ones from MARSIS, and the consequent difficulty in finding observations related to a particular region. This led to the development of a tool which allows to search for acquisitions either by defining the region of interest through a set of geometrical parameters or by manually selecting the region on the map through a few mouse clicks The system allows the visualization of tracks (acquired by MARSIS) or regions (acquired by VIRTIS-Rosetta) which intersect the user defined region. MARSIS tracks can be visualized both in Mercator and polar projections while the regions observed by VIRTIS can presently be visualized only in Mercator projection. The Mercator projection is the standard map provided by Google. The polar projections are provided by NASA and have been developed to be used in combination with APIs provided by Google The whole project has been developed following the "open source" philosophy: the client-side code which handles the functioning of the web page is written in javascript; the server-side code which executes the searches for tracks or regions is written in PHP and the DB which undergoes the system is MySQL.

  5. Space qualification of an automotive microcontroller for the DREAMS-P/H pressure and humidity instrument on board the ExoMars 2016 Schiaparelli lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkanen, T.; Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Genzer, M.; Hieta, M.; Haukka, H.; Kemppinen, O.

    2015-10-01

    Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) has developed a novel kind of pressure and humidity instrument for the Schiaparelli Mars lander, which is a part of the ExoMars 2016 mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) [1]. The DREAMS-P pressure instrument and DREAMS-H humidity instrument are part of the DREAMS science package on board the lander. DREAMS-P (seen in Fig. 1 and DREAMS-H were evolved from earlier planetary pressure and humidity instrument designs by FMI with a completely redesigned control and data unit. Instead of using the conventional approach of utilizing a space grade processor component, a commercial off the shelf microcontroller was selected for handling the pressure and humidity measurements. The new controller is based on the Freescale MC9S12XEP100 16-bit automotive microcontroller. Coordinated by FMI, a batch of these microcontroller units (MCUs) went through a custom qualification process in order to accept the component for spaceflight on board a Mars lander.

  6. Mars habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The College of Engineering & Architecture at Prairie View A&M University has been participating in the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program since 1986. The interdisciplinary nature of the program allowed the involvement of students and faculty throughout the College of Engineering & Architecture for the last five years. The research goal for the 1990-1991 year is to design a human habitat on Mars that can be used as a permanent base for 20 crew members. The research is being conducted by undergraduate students from the Department of Architecture.

  7. Known Locations of Carbonate Rocks on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Green dots show the locations of orbital detections of carbonate-bearing rocks on Mars, determined by analysis of targeted observations by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) acquired through January 2008. The spectrometer is on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    The base map is color-coded global topography (red is high, blue is low) overlain on mosaicked daytime thermal infrared images. The topography data are from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The thermal infrared imagery is from the Thermal Emission Imaging System camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

    The CRISM team, led by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Md., includes expertise from universities, government agencies and small businesses in the United States and abroad. Arizona State University, Tempe, operates the Thermal Emission Imaging System, which the university developed in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey projects for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the orbiters.

  8. Automatic rock detection for in situ spectroscopy applications on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, Pooja; Foing, Bernard H.

    detection accuracy, and the number of ellipses are counted. Since geometry and illumination have the least effect on small rocks, the proposed algorithm is effective in detecting small rocks (or bigger rocks at larger distances from the camera) that consist of a small fraction of image pixels. Acknowledgements: The first author would like to express her gratitude to the European Space Agency (ESA/ESTEC) and the International Lunar Exploration Working Group (ILEWG) for their support of this work.

  9. Is there life out there ? - A new series for the ESA's Web TV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clervoy, J. F.; Coliolo, F.

    2012-09-01

    The European Space Agency, ESA, is preparing a new outreach project: a series of short videos for the ESA's Web TV dedicated to the search for life in the Universe. The rationale behind this pilot project is to use stunning images to attract the attention together with a scientific content accessible to people of varying ages, education levels and cultural outlook. We intent to work with scientists across Europe in order to bring the public on a journey from the boundaries of the Cosmos to the core of the Earth looking for the ingredients necessary for life to form and evolve. Our main objectives are: to share discovery, curiosity and sense of adventure in order to make the public a player in the quest of knowledge about who we are, and where do we come from; to educate and engage different target audiences about European space science and exploration activities; encourage international partnerships. I will present you the first trailer that we have realised with two scientists: André Brack, Astrobiologist, Honorary Director of Research at the CNRS, Orleans, France and Gian Gabriele Ori, Research professor in Geology, and Director of the IRSPS, International Reaserch School of Planetary Science, Pescara, Italy. This first presentation gives an overview of the « exobiological » places beyond the Earth and highlights the importance of comparative planetology for better understand our planet. We would like to share with you ideas and advices in order to produce and diffuse this series in the most efficient way.

  10. Development of SCIAMACHY operational ESA level 2 version 5 products and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichmann, Kai-Uwe; Bovensmann, H.; Noül, S.; Richter, A.; Buchwitz, M.; von Savigny, C.; Rozanov, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Lichtenberg, G.; Doicu, A.; Schreier, F.; Hrechanyy, S.; Kretschel, K.; Meringer, M.; Hess, M.; Gottwald, M.; Gimeno-Garcia, S.; van Gijsel, J. A. E.; Tilstra, L. G.; Snel, R.; Lerot, C.; van Roozendael, M.; Dehn, A.; Fehr, T.

    Since the foundation of the SCIAMACHY Quality Working Group (SQWG) in a joint inter-agency effort in late 2006 the ESA operational Level 2 processor was significantly improved with respect to data quality and product range. During the last two years the product list was sub-stantially enhanced by new (total columns of SO2, BrO, OClO, H2O, and CO; profiles of BrO, and Limb cloud flags) and improved products (total columns of O3, NO2, Absorbing Aerosol Index; Limb O3 and NO2 profiles). For example, important improvements were achieved in the O3 and NO2 profile retrieval by implementing an upgraded retrieval scheme and now using Level 1 data with appropriate pointing information. Nadir products of total column O3 and the Absorbing Aerosol Index were improved by applying a radiometric degradation correction in the Level 1 to 2 processing step. This paper will summarize on the new Level 2 version 5 ESA products as released in February 2010 and the expected data quality. An outlook on the next product version 6 currently under preparation within the SQWG will also be presented.

  11. How Thick is the North Polar Ice Cap on Mars?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This map shows the thickness of the north polar layered deposits on Mars as measured by the Shallow Radar instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

    The Shallow Radar instrument was provided by the Italian Space Agency. Its operations are led by the University of Rome and its data are analyzed by a joint U.S.-Italian science team. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington

  12. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Mars Mission Systems Analysis and Requirements Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulqueen, Jack; Chiroux, Robert C.; Thomas, Dan; Crane, Tracie

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the Mars transportation vehicle design concepts developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office. These vehicle design concepts provide an indication of the most demanding and least demanding potential requirements for nuclear thermal propulsion systems for human Mars exploration missions from years 2025 to 2035. Vehicle concept options vary from large "all-up" vehicle configurations that would transport all of the elements for a Mars mission on one vehicle. to "split" mission vehicle configurations that would consist of separate smaller vehicles that would transport cargo elements and human crew elements to Mars separately. Parametric trades and sensitivity studies show NTP stage and engine design options that provide the best balanced set of metrics based on safety, reliability, performance, cost and mission objectives. Trade studies include the sensitivity of vehicle performance to nuclear engine characteristics such as thrust, specific impulse and nuclear reactor type. Tbe associated system requirements are aligned with the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) Reference Mars mission as described in the Explorations Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) report. The focused trade studies include a detailed analysis of nuclear engine radiation shield requirements for human missions and analysis of nuclear thermal engine design options for the ESAS reference mission.

  13. Opening Plenary Presentations from the Agencies at the 5th ESA Workshop

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and its federal partner held a two-day meeting that provided a forum for stakeholder suggestions for refining some of the interim scientific methods used in the recently released draft Biological Evaluations for three pilot chemicals

  14. Agency and Structure: Dialectics in the Administration of Education. ESA844, Administrative Context of Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Peter

    This volume is part of a series of monographs from Australia devoted to outlining an alternative approach, based on neo-Marxist concepts, to educational administration. The introductory essay in this volume attempts to develop and clarify the basis for an alternative, dialectical approach to educational administration, which emphasizes the…

  15. Performances of the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) GC-MS suite aboard ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Grand, N.; Pinnick, V. T.; Szopa, C.; Humeau, O.; Danell, R.; van Amerom, F. H. W.; Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Belmahdi, I.; Coll, P. J.; Lustrement, B.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Arevalo, R. D., Jr.; Stalport, F.; Steininger, H.; Goesmann, F.; Raulin, F.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) aboard the ExoMars rover (Pasteur) will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples collected by the rover, with a particular focus on the characterization of the organic content. Samples will be extracted as deep as 2 meters below the martian surface to minimize effects of radiation and oxidation on organic materials. The core of the MOMA instrument is a dual source UV laser desorption / ionization (LDI) and pyrolysis gas chromatography (pyr-GC) ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS) which provides the unique capability to characterize a broad range of compounds, including both of volatile and non-volatile species. Samples which undergo GC-ITMS analysis may be submitted to a derivatization process, consisting of the reaction of the sample components with specific reactants (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]) which increase the volatility of complex organic species. With the goal to optimize this instrumentation, and especially the GC-ITMS coupling, a series of tests is currently being carried out with prototypes of MOMA instrumentation and with the ETU models wich is similar to the flight model. The MOMA oven and tapping station are also part of these end-to-end experiments. Qualitative and quantitative tests has been done on gas, liquid and solid samples. The results obtained demonstrate the current status of the end-to-end performance of the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry mode of operation. Both prototypes individually meet the performance requirements, but this work particularly demonstrates the capabilities of the critical GC-MS interface. References: [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet et al. (2011) J Chrom A, 1306, 59-71. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459. Acknowledgements: Funding provided by the Mars Exploration Program (point of contact, George Tahu, NASA/HQ). MOMA is a collaboration between NASA and ESA (PI

  16. ExoMars: Planetary Protection Status and Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarnieri, Vincenzo

    The ExoMars Program will demonstrate key flight and in situ enabling technologies in support of the European ambitions for future exploration missions, as outlined in the Aurora Decla-ration and will pursue fundamental scientific investigations. Two missions are foreseen within the ExoMars program for 2016 and 2018 launch opportunities to Mars: 2016 mission with ESA Orbiter Module (OM) providing communication with the Earth and carrying NASA scientific instruments and the ESA Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator (EDM, 600kg); NASA lead 2018 mission with an ESA Rover Module (RM, 300 kg) accommodated in the Sky Crane together with NASA rover. The EDM will test the Entry, Descent and Landing of a payload on the surface of Mars. The ESA RM will travel several kilometers performing environmental investigations and looking for traces of past and present life signs, by collecting and analyzing samples from within surface rocks and from the subsurface. The planetary protection pol-icy of the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the particular sensitivity of the life detection investigations establish stringent contamination control constraints for the two Exo-Mars missions. Particulate, molecular and bioburden contamination control beyond the level of standard spacecraft is required for the flight system as well as for the assembly, test, and launch environment. The ExoMars mission can be classified as Planetary Protection Category III for the OM and Category IVa for the EDM in 2016. The Rover Module in 2018 is part of a Category IVb mission. Main scientific objective of the 2018 mission is searching for traces of past or extant life in terms of amino acids and other organic molecules by using on board instruments characterized by an extremely high sensitivity. This mission would hence permit a great improvement of the knowledge about the Red Planet environment and the identification of possible surface hazards for future human exploration missions. During the

  17. http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_11_2004_s_en.html

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    surface of the moon and, most importantly, the presence of layers of dark material at the top of crater walls. "The imaging team is in hot debate at the moment on the interpretations of our findings," said Dr Carolyn Porco, Cassini imaging team leader at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, USA. "Based on our images, some of us are leaning towards the view that has been promoted recently, that Phoebe is probably ice-rich and may be an object originating in the outer solar system, more related to comets and Kuiper Belt objects than to asteroids." The high-resolution images of Phoebe show a world of dramatic landforms, with landslides and linear structures such as grooves, ridges and chains of pits. Craters are ubiquitous, with many smaller than one kilometre. "This means, besides the big ones, lots of projectiles smaller than 100 metres must have hit Phoebe," said Prof. Gerhard Neukum, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Germany, and a member of the imaging team. Whether these projectiles came from outside or within the Saturn system is debatable. There is a suspicion that Phoebe, the largest of Saturn's outer moons, might be parent to the other, much smaller retrograde outer moons that orbit Saturn. They could have resulted from the impact ejecta that formed the many craters on Phoebe. Besides these stunning images, the instruments on board Cassini collected a wealth of other data, which will allow scientists to study the surface structures, determine the mass and composition of Phoebe and create a global map of it. "If these additional data confirm that Phoebe is mostly ice, covered by layers of dust, this may well mean that we are looking at a 'leftover' from the formation of the Solar System about 4600 million years ago," said Dr Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA Huygens Project Scientist. Phoebe might indeed be an icy wanderer from the distant outer reaches of the Solar System, which, like a comet, was dislodged from the Kuiper Belt and captured by Saturn when the planet was

  18. Status and progress in the Space Surveillance and Tracking Segment of ESA's Space Situational Awareness Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, E.

    2010-09-01

    In November 2008, the European Space Agency (ESA) Council at Ministerial level approved the start of ESA’s Space Situational Awareness programme. Between 2009 and 2012 a preparatory phase will run that will develop the architectural design of the system, the governance and data policy and the provision of precursor services in the areas of: Space Surveillance and Tracking, Space Weather and Near Earth Objects. This paper will concentrate on the first of these segments: Space Surveillance and Tracking. It will develop the following main topics: Customer requirements and their integration, the initiation of an integrated catalogue, extension of correlated data to service provision and international cooperation and data fusion The development of the services resulting from these points will be a key driver in the final architecture. This architecture will be proposed at the next Ministerial Council to further develop a full SSA system from 2012 onwards.

  19. Demonstrating xLuna on ESA EXOMADER Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present xLuna [1] and its successful demonstration on the ESA EXOMArs DEmonstration Rover (EXOMADER) [2]. xLuna is a Linux-specific hypervisor extension for RTEMS, a Real-time Executive already used on ESA missions. On xLuna, RTEMS runs natively and directly on top of the hardware providing all its native services to real- time control applications. On top of the hypervisor runs a Linux kernel para-virtualised specifically for the system that provides all the well known POSIX based services and an endless set of software libraries to payload applications. On the demonstration, the complete navigation software of the rover (with stereo image processing and path processing) that was being tested ran on xLuna's Linux subsystem, while the RTEMS components were running control tasks. Due to impossibilities of integration, the RTEMS tasks running were simulated. The control was performed by existing HW.

  20. ESA's X-ray space observatory XMM takes first pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-02-01

    Under the aegis of Prof. Roger Bonnet, ESA Director of Science, the mission's Principal Investigators will be presenting these spectacular first images at a press conference to be held on 9 February at the ESA Vilspa facility at Villafranca/Madrid in Spain, where the XMM Science Operations Centre is located. The event will also be the occasion for several major announcements concerning the XMM mission. In particular Professor Bonnet will launch the third XMM competition "Stargazing" - previously announced in September 1999. This will address European youngsters, 16 to 18 years old, who will be offered the unique opportunity of winning observing time using the X-ray telescope. Commissioning phase starts After a successful launch from Kourou on Ariane 504 on 10 December 1999, XMM was brought to its final operational orbit in the following week. The telescope doors on the X-ray Mirror Modules and on the Optical Monitor telescope were opened on 17/18 December. The Radiation Monitor was activated on 19 December and the spacecraft was put into a quiet mode over the Christmas and New Year period. The mission's scientific data is being received, processed and dispatched to astronomers by the XMM Science Operations Centre in Villafranca. Operations with the spacecraft restarted there on 4 January when, as part of the commissioning phase, all the science payloads were switched on one after the other for initial verifications. By the week of 17 January functional tests had begun on the Optical Monitor, the EPIC pn, the two EPIC MOS and the two RGS instruments. The internal doors of the EPIC cameras were opened whilst keeping the camera filter wheels closed. Astounding first images After a series of engineering exposures, all three EPIC cameras were used in turn, between 19-24 January, to take several views of two different extragalactic regions of the Universe. These views, featuring a variety of extended and X-ray point sources, were chosen to demonstrate the full

  1. Scientific investigations of the Mars Express mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    2003-04-01

    The ESA Mars Express mission will be launched in May 2003 from Baikonur onboard a Russian Soyuz/Fregat launcher. The mission comprises an orbiter spacecraft to be placed in a quasi-polar martian orbit, with closest approach at 250 km and a mission lifetime of one martian year (687 days), and the small Beagle-2 probe to land at Isidis Planitia in December 2003 and operate on the martian surface for about six months. In addition to studying the surface, subsurface and atmosphere of Mars, the main themes of the mission are the search for water at present and the search for possible signs of life in the history of the planet. The specific scientific objectives and experiments of the orbiter are: global high-resolution imaging and imaging of selected areas with super-resolution (HRSC), global IR mineralogical mapping (OMEGA), sounding of the subsurface structure down to a few km (MARSIS), global atmospheric circulation study and mapping of the atmospheric composition (PFS, SPICAM), study of the interaction of the interplanetary medium with the upper atmosphere (ASPERA), as well as radio science (MaRS). The goals of the Beagle-2 lander are: geology, geochemistry, meteorology and exobiology of the landing site. Beagle-2 will use a suite of imagers, organic and mineral chemistry analysers, environmental sensors and robotic devices to sample soil and rocks on and below the surface. Collaboration with the Japanese Nozomi mission will diversify the scope and enhance the scientific return of both missions, as they are complementary to each other in terms of orbits and science goals. For more details on Mars Express and its Beagle-2 lander: http://sci.esa.int/marsexpress/ and http://www.beagle2.com

  2. NASA/ESA CV-990 Spacelab Simulation (ASSESS 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Androes, G. M.; Reeves, J. F.

    1978-01-01

    To test the validity of the ARC approach to Spacelab, several missions simulating aspects of Spacelab operations have been conducted as part of the ASSESS Program. Each mission was designed to evaluate potential Shuttle/Spacelab concepts in increasing detail. For this mission, emphasis was placed on development and exercise of management techniques planned for Spacelab using management participants from NASA and ESA who have responsibilities for Spacelab 1 which will be launched in 1980.

  3. Ozone profile retrievals from the ESA GOME instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Rosemary; Kerridge, Brian J.; Burrows, John P.; Chance, Kelly

    1994-01-01

    The potential of the ESA Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) to produce ozone profile information has been examined by carrying out two sample retrievals using simulated GOME data. The first retrieval examines the potential of the GOME instrument to produce stratospheric ozone profiles using the traditional back-scatter ultraviolet technique, while the second examines the possibility of obtaining tropospheric profile information, and improving the quality of the stratospheric profile retrievals, by exploiting the temperature dependence of the ozone Huggins bands.

  4. Mars Exploration Rovers: 4 Years on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    This January, the Mars Exploration Rovers "Spirit" and "Opportunity" are starting their fifth year of exploring the surface of Mars, well over ten times their nominal 90-day design lifetime. This lecture discusses the Mars Exploration Rovers, presents the current mission status for the extended mission, some of the most results from the mission and how it is affecting our current view of Mars, and briefly presents the plans for the coming NASA missions to the surface of Mars and concepts for exploration with robots and humans into the next decade, and beyond.

  5. ESRO/ESA and Denmark. Participation by research and industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmandsen, Preben

    2003-09-01

    These notes are prepared to give an impression of considerations and activities in Denmark related to ESRO and ESA, roughly in the period 1964 to 1990. In a number of chapters we consider early space-related research in Denmark, the initial phase of the ESRO era and the following period, including the phase of transition from ESRO to ESA when Denmark seriously considered leaving the space co-operation. A chapter gives examples of activities in the ESA era within space science and astronomy, Earth Observation and microgravity, followed by a final one dealing with the national management of optional programmes and the involvement by industry. In drafting the notes we have taken advantage of the work carried out in the Introductory Studies carried out to secure and place in order the archives of the Danish Space Research Advisory Committee. In this connection excerpts of individual documents (mostly minutes of meetings, letters and reports) were taken. To a great extent they form the basis for many of the points made in the notes.

  6. SNAP (Sentinel Application Platform) and the ESA Sentinel 3 Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhlke, Marco; Fomferra, Norman; Brockmann, Carsten; Peters, Marco; Veci, Luis; Malik, Julien; Regner, Peter

    2015-12-01

    ESA is developing three new free open source Toolboxes for the scientific exploitation of the Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 missions. The Toolboxes are based on a common software platform, namely the Sentinel Application Platform (SNAP). SNAP is an evolution of the proven ESA BEAM/NEST architecture inheriting all current BEAM and NEST functionality including multi-mission support for SAR and optical missions to support ESA and third party missions for years to come. The Sentinel-3 Toolbox includes generic function for visualisation and analysis of Sentinel-3 OLCI and SLSTR Level 1 and Level 2 data, as well as specific processing tools such as cloud screening, water constituent retrieval and SST retrieval. The Toolbox will put emphasis on access to remote in-situ databases such as Felyx or MERMAID, and exploitation of the data-uncertainty information which is included in the Sentinel-3 data products. New image classification, segmentation and filtering methods, as well as interoperability with the ORFEO Toolbox and the GDAL libraries will be additional new tools. New challenges stemming from Sentinel-3 sensors, such as raster data in different resolutions within a single dataset, will be supported gracefully. The development of SNAP and the Sentinel Toolboxes is funded through the “Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM)” programme, a new programme element of ESA’s fourth period of the Earth Observation Envelope Programme (2013-2017).

  7. Mars Public Engagement Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars public engagement goal to understand and protect our home planet, explore the Universe and search for life, and to inspire the next generation of explorers. Teacher workshops, robotics education, Mars student imaging and analysis programs, MARS Student Imaging Project (MSIP), Russian student participation, MARS museum visualization alliance, and commercialization concepts are all addressed in this project.

  8. ESA's Hipparcos satellite revises the scale of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-02-01

    Sun, called parallaxes, give the first direct measurements of the distances of large numbers of stars. With the overall calculations completed, the harvest of scientific discoveries has begun. Among those delighted with the immediate irruption into cosmology, from this spacecraft made in Europe, is ESA's director of science, Roger Bonnet. "When supporters of the Hipparcos project argued their case," Bonnet recalls, "they were competing with astrophysical missions with more obvious glamour. But they promised remarkable consequences for all branches of astronomy. And already we see that even the teams using the Hubble Space Telescope will benefit from a verdict from Hipparcos on the distance scale that underpins all their reckonings of the expansion of the Universe." The pulse-rates of the stars Cepheid stars alternately squeeze themselves and relax, like a beating heart. They wax and wane rhythmically in brightness, every few days or weeks, at a rate that depends on their luminosity. Henrietta Leavitt at the Harvard College Observatory discovered in the early years of this century that bigger and more brilliant Cepheids vary with a longer period, according to a strict rule. It allows astronomers to gauge relative distances simply by taking the pulse-rates of the Cepheids and measuring their apparent brightnesses. Nearby Cepheids are typically 1000-2000 light-years away. They are too far for even Hipparcos to obtain very exact distance measurements, but by taking twenty-six examples and comparing them, Michael Feast and his colleague Robin Catchpole of RGO Cambridge arrive at consistent statistics. These define the relationship between the period and the luminosity, needed to judge the distances of Cepheids. The zero point is for an imaginary Cepheid pulsating once a day. This would be a star 300 times more luminous than the Sun, according to the Hipparcos data. The slowest Cepheid in the sample, l Carinae, has a period of 36 days and is equivalent to 18,000 suns

  9. Overview on calibration and validation activities for ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, Susanne; Bouzinac, Catherine; Delwart, Steven

    2010-05-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, launched on 2 November 2009, is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the current lack of global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations will also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. A major undertaking in any environmental science related satellite mission are the calibration and validation activities. Calibration is an important prerequisite to the performance verification, which demonstrates that the instrument meets its requirements. It is also important for the validation of geophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity. The validation of the data will be handled through a combination of ESA led activities and national efforts. The SMOS Validation and Retrieval Team (SVRT) comprises the scientific contributions that will be made by the projects selected in response to the SMOS calibration and validation Announcement of Opportunity in 2005 as well as the two level 2 Expert Support Laboratories being involved in the development of the soil moisture and sea surface salinity data products. For the validation of the soil moisture data products ESA's activities will focus on two main sites, the Valencia Anchor Station, located in the East of Spain, and the Upper Danube Catchment, located in the South of Germany. In preparation to the SMOS commissioning phase, airborne rehearsal campaigns were conducted in spring 2008 over both aforementioned key sites and will be repeated, in collaboration with the French Space Agency CNES, in spring 2010. These will be coupled with a SMOS matchup generation

  10. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element, first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Pinnock, Simon; Foumelis, Michael; Ramoino, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan is established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. During 2015 SEOM, Science users consultation workshops have been organized for Sentinel1/3/5P ( Fringe, S3 Symposium and Atmospheric science respectively) , new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels have been launched ( S3 for Science SAR Altimetry and Ocean Color , S2 for Science,) , open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes have been launched (in particular the SNAP/S1-2-3 Toolbox). In addition two advanced international training courses have been organized in Europe to exploit the new S1-A and S2-A data for Land and Ocean remote sensing (over 120 participants from 25 countries) as well as activities for promoting the first scientific results ( e.g. Chili Earthquake) . In addition the First EO Open Science 2.0 was organised at ESA in October 2015 with 225 participants from 31 countries bringing together young EO scientists and data scientists. During the conference precursor activities in EO Open Science and Innovation were presented, while developing a Roadmap preparing for future ESA scientific exploitation activities. Within the conference, the first

  11. The Software Architecture of the Upgraded ESA DRAMA Software Suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebschull, Christopher; Flegel, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Mockel, Marek; Braun, Vitali; Radtke, Jonas; Wiedemann, Carsten; Vorsmann, Peter; Sanchez-Ortiz, Noelia; Krag, Holger

    2013-08-01

    In the beginnings of man's space flight activities there was the belief that space is so big that everybody could use it without any repercussions. However during the last six decades the increasing use of Earth's orbits has lead to a rapid growth in the space debris environment, which has a big influence on current and future space missions. For this reason ESA issued the "Requirements on Space Debris Mitigation for ESA Projects" [1] in 2008, which apply to all ESA missions henceforth. The DRAMA (Debris Risk Assessment and Mitigation Analysis) software suite had been developed to support the planning of space missions to comply with these requirements. During the last year the DRAMA software suite has been upgraded under ESA contract by TUBS and DEIMOS to include additional tools and increase the performance of existing ones. This paper describes the overall software architecture of the ESA DRAMA software suite. Specifically the new graphical user interface, which manages the five main tools ARES (Assessment of Risk Event Statistics), MIDAS (MASTER-based Impact Flux and Damage Assessment Software), OSCAR (Orbital Spacecraft Active Removal), CROC (Cross Section of Complex Bodies) and SARA (Re-entry Survival and Risk Analysis) is being discussed. The advancements are highlighted as well as the challenges that arise from the integration of the five tool interfaces. A framework had been developed at the ILR and was used for MASTER-2009 and PROOF-2009. The Java based GUI framework, enables the cross-platform deployment, and its underlying model-view-presenter (MVP) software pattern, meet strict design requirements necessary to ensure a robust and reliable method of operation in an environment where the GUI is separated from the processing back-end. While the GUI framework evolved with each project, allowing an increasing degree of integration of services like validators for input fields, it has also increased in complexity. The paper will conclude with an outlook on

  12. MarsSat: assured communication with Mars.

    PubMed

    Gangale, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    The author developed the MarsSat concept during the 1990s. For this task, he designed a class of orbits to solve the problem of communicating with crews on Mars when the planet is in solar conjunction as seen from Earth, a planetary configuration that occurs near the midpoint of a conjunction class mission to Mars. This type of orbit minimizes the distance between Mars and the communications satellite; thus, minimizing the size, weight, and power requirements, while providing a simultaneous line-of-sight to both Earth and Mars. The MarsSat orbits are solar orbits that have the same period as Mars, but are inclined a few degrees out of the plane of the Mars orbit and also differ in eccentricity from the orbit of Mars. These differences cause a spacecraft in this orbit to rise North of Mars, then fall behind Mars, then drop South of Mars, and then pull ahead of Mars, by some desired distance in each case-typically about 20 million kilometers-in order to maintain an angular separation of a couple of degrees as seen from a point in the orbit of Earth on the opposite side of the Sun. A satellite in this type of orbit would relay communications between Earth and Mars during the period of up to several weeks, when direct communication is blocked by the Sun. These orbits are far superior for this purpose when compared to stationing a satellite at one of the Sun-Mars equilateral Lagrangian points, L(4) or L(5), for two reasons. First, L(4) and L(5) are 228 million kilometers from Mars, about 10 times the distance of a spacecraft in one of the MarsSat orbits, and by virtue of the inverse-square law, all other things being equal, the signal strength received at L(4) or L(5) would be one percent of the signal strength received by a spacecraft in one of the MarsSat orbits. Thus, a relay satellite stationed at L(4) or L(5) would have to be that much more powerful to receive data at the same rate, with concomitant increases in spacecraft size and weight. Second, a number of

  13. Mars Ionospheric Response to Solar Wind Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opgenoorth, H. J.; Edberg, N.; Lester, M.; Williams, A.; Fränz, M.; Witasse, O.; Duru, F.; Morgan, D.

    2011-10-01

    At planets with induced magnetospheres the coupling between the ionosphere, the small draped magnetosphere and the solar wind is in a way much more direct than at Earth. On the other hand it is also much more complicated as the magnetosphere itself is created and in its total shape and strength dynamically depending on the prevailing Solar wind conditions. In early 2010 Mars was located behind Earth in the Solar wind. In this study we have utilized coordinated data from multiple near-Earth spacecraft (Stereo, ACE, Cluster, and even Earth groundbased data) to evaluate what kind of Solar wind disturbances have passed by Earth and might hit Mars consecutively (and when). We use plasma data from the ESA Mars- Express mission (mainly from the ASPERA particle instrument and the MARSIS topside ionospheric sounder) to investigate what kind of ionospheric and magnetospheric response is triggered at Mars in response to Solar wind variability in the magnetic field, density and velocity for a number of isolated events in March and April 2010.

  14. Mission Design Considerations for Mars Cargo of the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team's Evolvable Mars Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjauw, Waldy K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Freeh, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent NASA interest in human missions to Mars has led to an Evolvable Mars Campaign by the agency's Human Architecture Team. Delivering the crew return propulsion stages and Mars surface landers, SEP based systems are employed because of their high specific impulse characteristics enabling missions requiring less propellant although with longer transfer times. The Earth departure trajectories start from an SLS launch vehicle delivery orbit and are spiral shaped because of the low SEP thrust. Previous studies have led to interest in assessing the divide in trip time between the Earth departure and interplanetary legs of the mission for a representative SEP cargo vehicle.

  15. ExoHab Pilot Project & Field Tests for Moon-Mars Human Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    We studied concepts for a minimal Moon-Mars habitat, in focussing on the system aspects and coordinating every different part as part an evolving architecture. We validated experimentally the Habitat and Laboratory ExoHab concept constraints during EuroGeoMars campaign in Utah desert research station (from 24 Jan. to 28 Feb. 2009) and EuroMoonMars/DOMMEX campaigns in Nov 2009 and February-April 2010. We discuss from the ILEWG ExoHab concept studies and field simulations the specifics of human exploration, with focus on habitability and human performance. In the ExoHab pilot concept project (supported by ILEWG, ESA NASA), we justify the case for a scientific and exploration outpost allowing experiments, sample analysis in laboratory (relevant to the origin and evolution of planets and life, geophysical and geo-chemical studies, astrobiology and life sciences, observation sciences, technology demonstration, resource utilisation, human exploration and settlement). In this modular concept, we consider various infra structure elements: core habitat, Extra Vehicular activity (EVA), crew mobility, energy supply, recycling module, communication, green house and food production, operations. We review some studies space agencies' architecture proposals, with landers, orbiters, rovers, habitats, surface operations and protocols. We focus on the easiest and the soonest way in settling a minimal base immediately operational in scientific experimentation and exploration, but not immediately autonomous. Through a modular concept, this outpost will be possibly evolved into a long duration or permanent base. We will analyse the possibilities of settling such a minimal base by means of the current and near term propulsion technology, as a full Ariane 5 ME carrying 1.7 T of gross payload to the surface of the Moon (Integrated Exploration Study, ESA ESTEC [1,2]). The low solar rays incidence may permit having ice in deep craters, which will be beneficial for the evolution of the

  16. Relay Support for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Charles D. Jr,; Bell, David J.; Gladden, Roy E.; Ilott, Peter A.; Jedrey, Thomas C.; Johnston, M. Daniel; Maxwell, Jennifer L.; Mendoza, Ricardo; McSmith, Gaylon W.; Potts, Christopher L.; Schratz, Brian C.; Shihabi, Mazen M.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Varghese, Phillip; Sanders, Stephen S.; Denis, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission landed the Curiosity Rover on the surface of Mars on August 6, 2012, beginning a one-Martian-year primary science mission. An international network of Mars relay orbiters, including NASA's 2001 Mars Odyssey Orbiter (ODY) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO), and ESA's Mars Express Orbiter (MEX), were positioned to provide critical event coverage of MSL's Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL). The EDL communication plan took advantage of unique and complementary capabilities of each orbiter to provide robust information capture during this critical event while also providing low-latency information during the landing. Once on the surface, ODY and MRO have provided effectively all of Curiosity's data return from the Martian surface. The link from Curiosity to MRO incorporates a number of new features enabled by the Electra and Electra-Lite software-defined radios on MRO and Curiosity, respectively. Specifically, the Curiosity-MRO link has for the first time on Mars relay links utilized frequency-agile operations, data rates up to 2.048 Mb/s, suppressed carrier modulation, and a new Adaptive Data Rate algorithm in which the return link data rate is optimally varied throughout the relay pass based on the actual observed link channel characteristics. In addition to the baseline surface relay support by ODY and MRO, the MEX relay service has been verified in several successful surface relay passes, and MEX now stands ready to provide backup relay support should NASA's orbiters become unavailable for some period of time.

  17. Comparative Analysis of the ESA and NASA Interplanetary Meteoroid Enviroment Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grun, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf; Horanyi, Mihaly; Kruger, Harald; Soja, Rachel; Sterken, Veerle; Sternovsky, Zotan; Strub, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Meteoroid environment models are used to assess the hazard arising from meteoroid impacts onto space structures. We have analyzed the current meteoroid models of ESA (IMEM) and of NASA (MEM). These models are based on different sets of measurements. MEM is based on radar meteor observations, lunar impact cratering rate, and on zodiacal light observations while IMEM is based on orbital element distributions of comets and asteroids, the lunar impact cratering rate, thermal radiation observations, and on in situ dust measurements. Both models describe the cratering flux at 1AU quite well; however, the flux of mm-sized meteoroids differs by a factor two due to the different assumed relative speeds. At other heliocentric distances from Mercury to Mars the predicted fluxes differ by up to 2 orders of magnitude between the two models. The current knowledge of the interplanetary meteoroid environment as exemplified by these meteoroid models is insufficient to provide reliable assessment of the risk of meteoroid impacts for human travel in interplanetary space.

  18. EsaD, a secretion factor for the Ess pathway in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Butler, Emily K; Missiakas, Dominique M

    2011-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus encodes the Sec-independent Ess secretion pathway, an ortholog of mycobacterial T7 secretion systems which is required for the virulence of this Gram-positive microbe. The Ess (ESX secretion) pathway was previously defined as a genomic cluster of eight genes, esxA, esaA, essA, essB, esaB, essC, esaC, and esxB. essABC encode membrane proteins involved in the stable expression of esxA, esxB, and esaC, genes specifying three secreted polypeptide substrates. esaB, which encodes a small cytoplasmic protein, represses the synthesis of EsaC but not that of EsxA and EsxB. Here we investigated a hitherto uncharacterized gene, esaD, located downstream of esxB. Expression of esaD is activated by mutations in esaB and essB. EsaD, the 617-amino-acid product of esaD, is positioned in the membrane and is also accessible to EsaD-specific antibodies on the bacterial surface. S. aureus mutants lacking esaD are defective in the secretion of EsxA. Following intravenous inoculation of mice, S. aureus esaD mutants generate fewer abscesses with a reduced bacterial load compared to wild-type parent strain Newman. The chromosomes of Listeria and Bacillus species with Ess pathways also harbor esaD homologues downstream of esxB, suggesting that the contributory role of EsaD in Ess secretion may be shared among Gram-positive pathogens.

  19. ESA research and development activity on SSA-NEO preliminary definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, R.

    2010-10-01

    The paper gives an account of goals, prospects, and planning of the first ESA research associated with definition of the SSA-NEO segment and puts it in the context of ESA system engineering practices of ESA (as defined in ESA’s ECSS standards).

  20. Extracting Tree Height from Repeat-Pass PolInSAR Data : Experiments with JPL and ESA Airborne Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavalle, Marco; Ahmed, Razi; Neumann, Maxim; Hensley, Scott

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present our latest developments and experiments with the random-motion-over-ground (RMoG) model used to extract canopy height and other important forest parameters from repeat-pass polarimetricinterferometric SAR (Pol-InSAR) data. More specifically, we summarize the key features of the RMoG model in contrast with the random-volume-over-ground (RVoG) model, describe in detail a possible inversion scheme for the RMoG model and illustrate the results of the RMoG inversion using airborne data collected by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the European Space Agency (ESA).

  1. Status of the French Mars Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, R.; Counil, J.-L.; Rocard, F.

    2002-01-01

    The French Mars exploration initiative named PREMIER (Programme de Retour d'Echantillons Martiens et Installation d'Expériences en Réseau) is a long term, multiform co- operative program including as its two main components : - the development with a consortium of European partners (Finland, Germany, Belgium) and the deployment of a network of 4 small Mars ground stations for performing geophysical measurements (NetLander project) ; - a participation to the future Mars Sample Return mission (MSR) in cooperation with NASA including the development and the operation of the orbiter vehicle of this mission. Its additional elements are : - instrument contributions to ESA's Mars Express mission ; - payload contributions to the orbiters and landers &rovers of the future missions to Mars, and especially to NASA's "smart lander" mission dedicated to in situ investigations. This program wants to ensure the complementarity between its three poles : (i) global investigations from the orbit, (ii) landed science with both network science (NetLanders) and in situ investigations, and (iii) sample return. A major step in the PREMIER program will be the 2007 orbiter mission ; this precursor vehicle developed by CNES and launched by Ariane 5 in September 2007 will first deliver the 4 NetLanders at Mars and then will be inserted in Mars orbit. This orbiter will perform technological tests aiming at preparing the future Mars Sample Return mission, it will ensure a telecommunication relay function for the NetLanders and it will be used for an additional orbital science mission. While the NetLanders will study the internal structure of Mars and its climate, with the goal to operate a full Martian year, the primary objectives of the orbital science mission will be complementary of those of the NetLanders, with an emphasis on the study of the Martian atmosphere. In a first phase, the orbiter will be on a 500 km x 500 km circular, near polar, Sun-synchronous orbit around 12 am local time

  2. Mars Odyssey from Two Distances in One Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Why There are Two Images of Odyssey

    NASA's Mars Odyssey spacecraft appears twice in the same frame in this image from the Mars Orbiter Camera aboard NASA's Mars Global Surveyor. The camera's successful imaging of Odyssey and of the European Space Agency's Mars Express in April 2005 produced the first pictures of any spacecraft orbiting Mars taken by another spacecraft orbiting Mars.

    Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey are both in nearly circular, near-polar orbits. Odyssey is in an orbit slightly higher than that of Global Surveyor in order to preclude the possibility of a collision. However, the two spacecraft occasionally come as close together as 15 kilometers (9 miles).

    The images were obtained by the Mars Global Surveyor operations teams at Lockheed Martin Space System, Denver; JPL and Malin Space Science Systems.

    The two views of Mars Odyssey in this image were acquired a little under 7.5 seconds apart as Odyssey receded from a close flyby of Mars Global Surveyor. The geometry of the flyby (see Figure 1) and the camera's way of acquiring an image line-by-line resulted in the two views of Odyssey in the same frame. The first view (right) was taken when Odyssey was about 90 kilometers (56 miles) from Global Surveyor and moving more rapidly than Global Surveyor was rotating, as seen from Global Surveyor. A few seconds later, Odyssey was farther away -- about 135 kilometers (84 miles) -- and appeared to be moving more slowly. In this second view of Odyssey (left), the Mars Orbiter Camera's field-of-view overtook Odyssey.

    The Mars Orbiter Camera can resolve features on the surface of Mars as small as a few meters or yards across from Mars Global Surveyor's orbital altitude of 350 to 405 kilometers (217 to 252 miles). From a distance of 100 kilometers (62 miles), the camera would be able to resolve features substantially smaller than 1 meter or yard across.

    Mars Odyssey

  3. Recognizing, Determining, and Addressing Entrepreneurial Innovations by Superintendents of Emerging or Established Educational Service Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arfstrom, Kari M.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation describes how entrepreneurial superintendents of educational service agencies (ESAs) recognize, determine and address common and distinct innovative characteristics within emerging or established regional educational environments. Because internal and external factors assist in recognizing innovative practices, this study…

  4. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Regner, Peter; Delwart, Steven; Benveniste, Jerome; Engdahl, Marcus; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Bojkov, Bojan; Gascon, Ferran; Donlon, Craig; Davidson, Malcolm; Goryl, Philippe; Pinnock, Simon

    2015-04-01

    SEOM is a program element within the fourth period (2013-2017) of ESA's Earth Observation Envelope Programme (http://seom.esa.int/). The prime objective is to federate, support and expand the international research community that the ERS,ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 25 years. It aims to further strengthen the leadership of the European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address new scientific research that are opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. Based on community-wide recommendations for actions on key research issues, gathered through a series of international thematic workshops and scientific user consultation meetings, a work plan has been established and is approved every year by ESA Members States. The 2015 SEOM work plan is covering the organisation of three Science users consultation workshops for Sentinel1/3/5P , the launch of new R&D studies for scientific exploitation of the Sentinels, the development of open-source multi-mission scientific toolboxes, the organisation of advanced international training courses, summer schools and educational materials, as well as activities for promoting the scientific use of EO data. The first SEOM projects have been tendered since 2013 including the development of Sentinel toolboxes, advanced INSAR algorithms for Sentinel-1 TOPS data exploitation, Improved Atmospheric Spectroscopic data-base (IAS), as well as grouped studies for Sentinel-1, -2, and -3 land and ocean applications and studies for exploiting the synergy between the Sentinels. The status and first results from these SEOM projects will be presented and an outlook for upcoming SEOM studies will be given.

  5. ESA SSA Space Weather Services Supporting Space Surveillance and Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Hilgers, Alain; Fletcher, Emmet

    2012-07-01

    ESA Space Situational Awareness (SSA) Preparatory Programme was started in 2009. The objective of the programme is to support the European independent utilisation of and access to space research or services. This will be performed through providing timely and quality data, information, services and knowledge regarding the environment, the threats and the sustainable exploitation of the outer space surrounding the planet Earth. SSA serves the implementation of the strategic missions of the European Space Policy based on the peaceful uses of the outer space by all states, by supporting the autonomous capacity to securely and safely operate the critical European space infrastructures. The Space Weather (SWE) Segment of the SSA will provide user services related to the monitoring of the Sun, the solar wind, the radiation belts, the magnetosphere and the ionosphere. These services will include near real time information and forecasts about the characteristics of the space environment and predictions of space weather impacts on sensitive spaceborne and ground based infrastructure. The SSA SWE system will also include establishment of a permanent database for analysis, model development and scientific research. These services are will support a wide variety of user domains including spacecraft designers, spacecraft operators, human space flights, users and operators of transionospheric radio links, and space weather research community. The precursor SWE services to be established starting in 2010. This presentation provides an overview of the ESA SSA SWE services focused on supporting the Space Surveillance and Tracking users. This services include estimates of the atmospheric drag and archive and forecasts of the geomagnetic and solar indices. In addition, the SSA SWE system will provide nowcasts of the ionospheric group delay to support mitigation of the ionospheric impact on radar signals. The paper will discuss the user requirements for the services, the data

  6. Science objectives and performances of NOMAD, a spectrometer suite for the ExoMars TGO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Neefs, E.; Drummond, R.; Thomas, I. R.; Daerden, F.; Lopez-Moreno, J.-J.; Rodriguez, J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.; Allen, M.; Altieri, F.; Bolsée, D.; Clancy, T.; Delanoye, S.; Depiesse, C.; Cloutis, E.; Fedorova, A.; Formisano, V.; Funke, B.; Fussen, D.; Geminale, A.; Gérard, J.-C.; Giuranna, M.; Ignatiev, N.; Kaminski, J.; Karatekin, O.; Lefèvre, F.; López-Puertas, M.; López-Valverde, M.; Mahieux, A.; McConnell, J.; Mumma, M.; Neary, L.; Renotte, E.; Ristic, B.; Robert, S.; Smith, M.; Trokhimovsky, S.; Vander Auwera, J.; Villanueva, G.; Whiteway, J.; Wilquet, V.; Wolff, M.

    2015-12-01

    The NOMAD spectrometer suite on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter will map the composition and distribution of Mars' atmospheric trace species in unprecedented detail, fulfilling many of the scientific objectives of the joint ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission. The instrument is a combination of three channels, covering a spectral range from the UV to the IR, and can perform solar occultation, nadir and limb observations. In this paper, we present the science objectives of the instrument and how these objectives have influenced the design of the channels. We also discuss the expected performance of the instrument in terms of coverage and detection sensitivity.

  7. Happy families - cutting the cost of ESA Mission Ground Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merri, Mario; Ercolani, Alessandro; Guerrucci, Damiano; Reggestad, Vemund; Verrier, David; Emanuelli, Pier Paolo; Ferri, Paolo

    2007-05-01

    In recent years, ESA has adopted a new approach to reduce cost and risk in the development and operation of ground software. The "mission family" concept is the basis for cost-effective mission control systems for monitoring and controlling spacecraft, and operational simulators for testing and training. This concept is complemented by exploiting reusable software using a "delta" approach. Since families of missions have lifetimes much longer than the individual projects, the challenges of evolving ground software and hardware platforms over ten or more years must be met.

  8. The ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desnos, Yves-Louis; Benveniste, Jerome; Delwart, Steven; Engdahl, Marcus; Regner, Peter; Zehner, Claus; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Arino, Olivier; Bojkov, Bojan; Ferran, Gaston; Donlon, Craig; Kern, Michael; Scipal, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The prime objective of the ESA Scientific Exploitation of Operational Missions (SEOM) programme element is to federate, support and expand the large international research community that the ERS, ENVISAT and the Envelope programmes have built up over the last 20 years. It aims to further strengthen the international leadership of European Earth Observation research community by enabling them to extensively exploit observations from future European operational EO missions. SEOM will enable the science community to address many new avenues of scientific research that will be opened by free and open access to data from operational EO missions. As a preparation for the SEOM element a series of international science users consultation has been organized by ESA in 2012 covering Sentinel 1 (FRINGE /SEASAR ), Sentinel 2 ( S2 symposium), Sentinel 3 (COAST-ALT workshop , 20 Years Progress in Radar Altimetry, Sentinel 3 OLCI/SLSTR 2012 workshop) and Sentinel 4-5 (Atmospheric Science Confrence). The science users recommendations have been gathered and form the basis for the work plan 2013 for the SEOM element. The SEOM element is organized along the following action lines: 1. Developing, validating and maintaining open-source, multi-mission, scientific software toolboxes capable to handle the Sentinels data products 2. Stimulating the development and validation of advanced EO methods and observation strategies in particular the new TOpS mode on Sentinel 1, the new band settings on Sentinel 2, the new geometry/bands of Sentinel 3 OLCI ,SLSTR intruments and the advanced delay-doppler (SAR) altimeter exploitation. 3. Continuing to federate, support and expand the multi-disciplinary expert EO research communities by organizing thematic workshops and ensuring high-quality scientific publications linked to these research domains. Promoting widespread scientific use of data. 4. Training the next generation of European EO scientists on the scientific exploitation of Sentinel s data

  9. Aristoteles - An ESA mission to study the earth's gravity field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambeck, K.

    In preparing for its first Solid-Earth Program, ESA has studied a satellite concept for a mission dedicated to the precise determination of the earth's geopotential (gravitational and magnetic) fields. Data from such a mission are expected to make substantial contributions to a number of research and applications fields in solid-earth geophysics, oceanography and global-change monitoring. The impact of a high-resolution gravity-field mission on studies of the various earth-science problems is assessed. The current state of our knowledge in this area is discussed and the ability of low-orbit satellite gradiometry to contribute to their solution is demonstrated.

  10. The first Spacelab payload - A joint NASA/ESA venture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R.; Pace, R.; Collet, J.; Sanfourche, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Planning for the 1980 qualification flight of Spacelab, which will involve a long module and one pallet, is discussed. The mission will employ two payload specialists, one sponsored by NASA and the other by ESA. Management of the Spacelab mission functions, including definition and execution of the on-board experiments, development of the experimental hardware and training of the payload specialists, is considered; studies proposed in the areas of atmospheric physics, space plasma physics, solar physics, earth observations, astronomy, astrophysics, life sciences and material sciences are reviewed. Analyses of the Spacelab environment and the Spacelab-to-orbiter and Spacelab-to-experiment interactions are also planned.

  11. Mission to the Moon: An ESA study on future exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing worldwide interest in the continuation of lunar exploration has convinced ESA to carry out an investigation of the motivations to return to the Moon to establish a permanent or a semi-permanent manned lunar base. This study also considers the possible role Europe could play in the future exploration and possible utilization of the Moon. The study concentrated in this first phase mainly on scientific questions, leaving technological issues such as transportation, the role of humans, infrastructure, and policy matters to a later phase. It only partially considered questions relating to the exploitation of lunar resources and the impact of human activities on science.

  12. Antenna pointing mechanism for ESA ENVISAT polar platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serrano, J.; SanMillan, J.; Santiago, R.

    1996-01-01

    INTA is currently developing a two-degree-of-freedom antenna pointing mechanism (APM) as part of the ESA ENVISAT POLAR PLATFORM (PPF) program. This mechanism will drive a Ka-band antenna within the Data-Relay Satellite System (DRS) on board the Polar Platform satellite. The first mission using PPF is ENVISAT, which is expected to be flown in 1998. This paper describes the main requirements, design, and test results of this pointing system, as well as the main technical problems from customer requirements and how those have been faced to achieve a final design.

  13. NASA/ESA CV-990 Spacelab Simulation (ASSESS 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Cost effective techniques for addressing management and operational activities on Spacelab were identified and analyzed during a ten day NASA-ESA cooperative mission with payload and flight responsibilities handled by the organization assigned for early Spacelabs. Topics discussed include: (1) management concepts and interface relationships; (2) experiment selection; (3) hardware development; (4) payload integration and checkout; (5) selection and training of mission specialists and payload specialists; (6) mission control center/payload operations control center interactions with ground and flight problems; (7) real time interaction during flight between principal investigators and the mission specialist/payload specialist flight crew; and (8) retrieval of scientific data and its analysis.

  14. MEMOS - Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, T.; Barabash, S.; von Schéele, F.; Clacey, E.; Pokrupa, N.

    2007-08-01

    The Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF) in cooperation with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) has conducted first studies on a Mars Environment Monitoring Satellite (MEMOS). The MEMOS microsatellite (mass < 20 kg) will accommodate four scientific instruments: solar EUV/UV monitor (SEM), solar wind monitor (SWIM), magnetometer (MAG) and radiation environment monitor (REM). The payload monitors the solar conditions at Mars and characterizes the Mars environment to support other missions and science investigations. Monitoring of the solar wind parameters (velocity, density, and field) is the key for any aeronomy and solar wind interaction mission at Mars. The solar EUV / UV (HeII 30.4 nm and HII 121.6 nm) flux monitoring is required for upper atmosphere / ionosphere studies. The radiation environment monitoring is needed to study space weather effects on the near-Mars environment as well as for the preparations for man-flights. MEMOS follows the design philosophy of a detached and autonomously flying instrument for achieving the mentioned objectives. It is intended to be carried "piggy-back" to Mars on a suitable mission. Potential missions are: ESA Mars orbiters within the NEXT or Cosmic Vision programs, NASA Mars orbiters, national / bilateral Mars missions. At Mars MEMOS is separated from its carrier (parent satellite) via the release mechanism implemented in the dual formation flight mission PRISMA. The separation will take place during the orbit insertion scenario of the parent satellite at Mars thus placing MEMOS in a highly elliptical orbit guarantying sufficient observation time in the solar wind. In orbit MEMOS will autonomously detumble and spin-up to ~1 rpm for reasons of stabilization and to fulfill instrument requirements. Such a low spin-rate is sufficient for a required inertial pointing accuracy of 2.5° because of the small external disturbance torques (< 10-7 Nm) predominant at Mars responsible for nutation and precession of the spin-axis. The

  15. Mars scouts: an overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matousek, S.

    2001-01-01

    The Mars program institutes the Mars Scout Missions in order to address science goals in the program not otherwise covered in the baseline Mars plan. Mars Scout Missions will be Principle-Investigator (PI) led science missions. Analogous to the Discovery Program, PI led investigations optimize the use of limited resources to accomplish the best focused science and allow the flexibility to quickly respond to discoveries at Mars. Scout missions also require unique investments in technology and reliance upon Mars-based infrastructure such as telecom relay orbiters.

  16. Missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.; Science Team

    2002-10-01

    This presentation started with a historical perspective of the astronomical discovery of Mars and followed by an overview of previous missions to Mars by the United States and the Soviet Union. Recently launched missions, such as Nozomi, Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey were addressed in more detailed, as well as a few other missions soon to be launched. Among these, Mars Express is particularly relevant as the first European mission towards the red planet, and the talk concentrated on it, including both the Mars Express orbiter spacecraft and the Beagle-2 lander to be launched in 2003.

  17. Overview on calibration and validation activities for ESA's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mecklenburg, S.; Bouzinac, C.; Delwart, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission is the European Space Agency's (ESA) second Earth Explorer Opportunity mission. The scientific objectives of the SMOS mission directly respond to the current lack of global observations of soil moisture and ocean salinity, two key variables used in predictive hydrological, oceanographic and atmospheric models. SMOS observations will also provide information on the characterisation of ice and snow covered surfaces and the sea ice effect on ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes and dynamics, which affects large-scale processes of the Earth's climate system. The SMOS launch is foreseen for summer 2009. A major undertaking in any environmental science related satellite mission are the calibration and validation activities. Calibration is an important prerequisite to the performance verification, which demonstrates that the instrument meets its requirements. It is also important for the validation of geophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and sea surface salinity. The validation of the data will be handled through a combination of ESA led activities and national efforts. The SMOS Validation and Retrieval Team (SVRT) comprises the scientific contributions that will be made by the projects selected in response to the SMOS calibration and validation Announcement of Opportunity in 2005 as well as the two level 2 Expert Support Laboratories being involved in the development of the soil moisture and sea surface salinity data products. For the validation of the soil moisture data products ESA's activities will focus on two main sites, the Valencia Anchor Station, located in the East of Spain, and the Upper Danube Catchment, located in the South of Germany. In preparation to the SMOS commissioning phase, airborne rehearsal campaigns were conducted in spring 2008 over both aforementioned key sites. These will be coupled with a SMOS matchup generation exercise to verify that the methodology proposed actually meets the foreseen

  18. Mars integrated transportation system multistage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    In accordance with the objective of the Mars Integrated Transport System (MITS) program, the Multistage Mars Mission (MSMM) design team developed a profile for a manned mission to Mars. The purpose of the multistage mission is to send a crew of five astronauts to the martian surface by the year 2019. The mission continues man's eternal quest for exploration of new frontiers. This mission has a scheduled duration of 426 days that includes experimentation en route as well as surface exploration and experimentation. The MSMM is also designed as a foundation for a continuing program leading to the colonization of the planet Mars.

  19. Phoenix Lander on Mars (Stereo)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander monitors the atmosphere overhead and reaches out to the soil below in this stereo illustration of the spacecraft fully deployed on the surface of Mars. The image appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-green stereo glasses.

    Phoenix has been assembled and tested for launch in August 2007 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., and for landing in May or June 2008 on an arctic plain of far-northern Mars. The mission responds to evidence returned from NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter in 2002 indicating that most high-latitude areas on Mars have frozen water mixed with soil within arm's reach of the surface.

    Phoenix will use a robotic arm to dig down to the expected icy layer. It will analyze scooped-up samples of the soil and ice for factors that will help scientists evaluate whether the subsurface environment at the site ever was, or may still be, a favorable habitat for microbial life. The instruments on Phoenix will also gather information to advance understanding about the history of the water in the icy layer. A weather station on the lander will conduct the first study Martian arctic weather from ground level.

    The vertical green line in this illustration shows how the weather station on Phoenix will use a laser beam from a lidar instrument to monitor dust and clouds in the atmosphere. The dark 'wings' to either side of the lander's main body are solar panels for providing electric power.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen (Denmark), the Max Planck Institute (Germany) and the Finnish Meteorological institute. JPL is a division of the California

  20. The Sodankylä in situ soil moisture observation network: an example application of ESA CCI soil moisture product evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, Jaakko; Vehviläinen, Juho; Rautiainen, Kimmo; Smolander, Tuomo; Lemmetyinen, Juha; Bircher, Simone; Pulliainen, Jouni

    2016-04-01

    During the last decade there has been considerable development in remote sensing techniques relating to soil moisture retrievals over large areas. Within the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) a new soil moisture product has been generated, merging different satellite-based surface soil moisture based products. Such remotely sensed data need to be validated by means of in situ observations in different climatic regions. In that context, a comprehensive, distributed network of in situ measurement stations gathering information on soil moisture, as well as soil temperature, has been set up in recent years at the Finnish Meteorological Institute's (FMI) Sodankylä Arctic research station. The network forms a calibration and validation (CAL-VAL) reference site and is used as a tool to evaluate the validity of satellite retrievals of soil properties. In this paper we present the Sodankylä CAL-VAL reference site soil moisture observation network, its instrumentation as well as its areal representativeness over the study area and the region in general as a whole. As an example of data utilization, comparisons of spatially weighted average top-layer soil moisture observations between the years 2012 and 2014 against ESA CCI soil moisture data product estimates are presented and discussed. The comparisons were made against a single ESA CCI data product pixel encapsulating most of the Sodankylä CAL-VAL network sites. Comparisons are made with daily averaged and running weekly averaged soil moisture data as well as through application of an exponential soil moisture filter. The overall achieved correlation between the ESA CCI data product and in situ observations varies considerably (from 0.479 to 0.637) depending on the applied comparison perspective. Similarly, depending on the comparison perspective used, inter-annual correlation comparison results exhibit even more pronounced variation, ranging from 0.166 to 0.840.

  1. Perspectives: A Journal of Research and Opinion about Educational Service Agencies, 1995-1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, William G., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the first four volumes of the annual serial publication "Perspectives: A Journal of Research and Opinion about Educational Service Agencies." Educational service agencies (ESAs) have various names and characteristics across states, but all provide services to local education agencies in a specific geographic region. ESAs…

  2. The Science Operations of the ESA JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altobelli, Nicolas; Cardesin, Alejandro; Costa, Marc; Frew, David; Lorente, Rosario; Vallat, Claire; Witasse, Olivier; Christian, Erd

    2016-10-01

    The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission was selected by ESA as the first L-Class Mission in the Cosmic Vision Programme. JUICE is an ESA-led mission to investigate Jupiter, the Jovian system with particular focus on habitability of Ganymede and Europa.JUICE will characterise Ganymede and Europa as planetary objects and potential habitats, study Ganymede, Europa, Callisto and Io in the broader context of the system of Jovian moons, and focus on Jupiter science including the planet, its atmosphere and the magnetosphere as a coupled system.The Science Operation Centre (SOC) is in charge of implementing the science operations of the JUICE mission. The SOC aims at supporting the Science Working Team (SWT) and the Science Working Groups (WGs) performing studies of science operation feasibility and coverage analysis during the mission development phase, high level science planning during the cruise phase, and routine consolidation of instrument pointing and commanding timeline during the nominal science phase.We will present the current status of the SOC science planning activities with an overview of the tools and methods in place in this early phase of the mission.

  3. The ESA-ESTEC New Large EMC Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suchail, J.; de Groot, H.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the new ESA -ESTEC large EMC facility, called Maxwell. The net dimensions between the absorber tips of this EMC chamber (14.5m x 10.7m x 11m) make it compatible with Ariane-5 single passenger launch configuration satellites, in line with the other Environmental Test Facilities already existing at ESA - ESTEC, complementing the mechanical vibration (HYDRA), acoustic (LEAF), thermal vacuum (LSS) and antenna/payload radio-frequency test facilities (CPTR). Access for the specimen to the EMC chamber is made possible through a large dimension door (6m wide x 11m high), using a non-conductive 5m x 5m air cushion pallet sliding on an anti-static epoxy coated floor. A specially designed air cooled high power dissipation wall provides the possibility of testing high power telecommunication satellites with a dissipation capability for RF spots up to densities of 3W/cm2. High cleanliness absorbers lining the ceiling, the floor and the man doors have been installed as well as state of the art fire detection and suppression systems in order to ensure a safe testing of Flight Model satellites.

  4. The Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation (MREP) Programme: Missions and related technology developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geelen, K.; Vijendran, S.; Rebuffat, D.; Larranaga, J.; Falkner, P.

    2013-09-01

    The European Mars Robotic Exploration Preparation (MREP) programme was widely supported by ESA participating states at the last Council at Ministerial level. The general approach of MREP is to consider a Mars Sample Return mission as a long-term objective and to progress step by step towards this ambitious mission through short and medium term technology developments. In parallel, long term generic enabling technologies are being developed with respect to propulsion and nuclear power systems. Intermediate missions would validate these technologies wherever possible. Mission candidates considered in the current technology development plan, currently under review, are (1) Mars network science mission (INSPIRE), (2) Phobos sample return mission (PHOOTPRINT), (3) Mars precision lander with a small rover and (4) Mars Sample Return. Missions 1 to 3 are scientifically rewarding alternatives to cope with possible MSR delays, while mission 4, and possibly mission 3, may become MSR segments under Europe lead. These missions involve a wide range of enabling capabilities which development is well ongoing, such as: - Mars Entry, Descent and Landing of small or medium-sized landers, including GNC (hazard avoidance, high precision), aerothermodynamics, airbag-based or soft landing, etc., - Sampling, fetching and sample transfer techniques, - Precision landing on low-gravity bodies, - High-speed Earth re-entry, including thermal protection system and aerothermodynamics, etc. - Autonomous rendezvous and capture in Mars orbit, including GNC, capture mechanisms, etc. - Planetary protection, including bio-sealing, monitoring, etc. The ongoing systems studies and technology development relating to the ESA MREP candidates missions are presented here.

  5. Monitoring of the reflectors of ESA's Planck telescope by close-range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parian, Jafar Amiri; Gruen, Armin; Cozzani, Alessandro

    2007-11-01

    The Planck mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) is designed to image the anisotropies of the Cosmic Background Radiation Field over the whole sky. Planck's objective is to analyze, with the highest accuracy ever achieved, the remnants of the radiation that filled the universe immediately after the Big Bang, which we observe today as the cosmic microwave background. To achieve this aim well-manufactured reflectors are used as parts of the Planck telescope receiving system. The system consists of the Secondary and Primary Reflectors which are sections of two different ellipsoids of revolution with diameters of 1.1 and 1.9 meters. Deformations of the reflectors which influence the optical parameters and the gain of receiving signals are investigated in vacuum and at temperatures down to 95K, using close-range photogrammetric techniques. We have designed an optimal close-range photogrammetric network by heuristic simulation for the Primary and Secondary Reflectors with a mean relative precision better than 1:1,000,000 and 1:400,000, respectively, to achieve the requested accuracies. Special considerations have been taken into account in different steps of design, such as the determinability of additional parameters under the given network configuration, datum definition, reliability and precision issues as well as workspace limits and propagating errors from different sources of errors. A least squares best-fit ellipsoid was developed to determine the optical parameters of the reflector. We present our procedure and the results of processing the photogrammetric measurements of the Flight Models of the Primary and Secondary Reflectors which were executed by Thales Alenia Space France under ESA-ESTEC contract in vacuum and at very low temperatures.

  6. MarcoPolo-R: Near Earth Asteroid Sample Return Mission in ESA assessment study phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brucato, John Robert; Barucci, Antonella; Michel, Patrick; Böhnhardt, Hermann; Dotto, Elisabetta; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Franchi, Ian; Green, Simon; Lara, Luisa; Marty, Bernard; Romstedt, Jens; Agnolon, David; Koschny, Detlef

    2013-04-01

    MarcoPolo-R is an European-led sample return mission to a primitive Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) selected in February 2011 for the Assessment Study Phase at ESA in the framework of ESA's Cosmic Vision 2 program. MarcoPolo-R will rendezvous with a unique kind of target, a primitive NEA, scientifically characterize it at multiple scales, and return a unique pristine sample to Earth unaltered by the atmospheric entry process or terrestrial weathering. The baseline target of MarcoPolo-R is the primitive (341843) 2008 EV5, which offers a very efficient operational and technical mission profile. MarcoPolo-R will allow us to study the most primitive materials available to investigate early solar system formation processes and it will provide a sample from a known target with known geological context. Direct investigation of both the regolith and fresh interior fragments is also impossible by any means other than sample return. Primitive material, having experienced less alteration on the asteroid, will be more friable and would not survive atmospheric entry in any discernible amount. Only in the laboratory can instruments with the necessary precision and sensitivity be applied to individual components of the complex mixture of materials that forms an asteroid regolith, to determine their precise chemical and isotopic composition. Such measurements are vital for revealing the evidence of stellar, interstellar medium, pre-solar nebula and parent body processes that are retained in primitive asteroidal material, unaltered by atmospheric entry or terrestrial contamination. It is no surprise therefore that sample return missions are considered a priority by a number of the leading space agencies.

  7. Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration (AROMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Peter; von Richter, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) systems are a key technology for Mars exploration. All over the world initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. From December 2000 to February 2002 Kayser-Threde GmbH, Munich, Germany lead a study called AROMA (Automation and Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals of this effort is to initiate new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. c2003 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  8. Possibilities of Terraforming Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, M. K.

    2007-07-01

    Diminished internally produced energy of early Mars would have resulted in cold mantle, causing gradual submersion of surface water with dissolved gases. Therefore, to terraform or revive Mars, it is necessary to reactivate its diminished internally produced energy.

  9. MAVEN's Trajectory to Mars

    NASA Video Gallery

    This movie shows the cruise trajectory of NASA's Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission, which was launched on Nov. 18, 2013. It will arrive at Mars on Sept. 21, 2014, to explore th...

  10. Mars Meteorolgical Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, H. L.; Spann, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring and ultimately establishing a permanent presence on the surface of Mars will necessitate an understanding the weather conditions and the ability to forecast its dynamic behavior. The meteorology of Mars will need to be developed. This abstract puts forth a concept for a Mars Meteorological Network that will be used to investigate the Mars atmosphere behavior, explore the surface environment, and prepare for operational activities. It is proposed that the long term and the dynamic nature of the lower atmosphere and surface of Mars be observed with a distributed global array of simple automated surface nodes. The data would be ingested into the Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) and other research tools for analyses to gain a better understanding of the atmospheric conditions on Mars.

  11. The Mars Chamber

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Mars chamber is a box about the size of a refrigerator that re-creates the temperatures, pressures, and atmosphere of the Martian surface, essentially creating a Mars environment on Earth! Scie...

  12. Mars - Water Ice Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  13. Rotorcrafts for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaram, J.; Tokumaru, P. T.

    2014-06-01

    Rotorcraft mobility provides a number of useful capabilities to potential Mars missions. We present some recent results relating to the design and test of Mars rotorcraft mobility elements, and aspects of rotorcraft system and mission design.

  14. Applications of Surface Penetrating Radar for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Li, C.; Ran, S.; Feng, J.; Zuo, W.

    2015-12-01

    Surface Penetrating Radar (SPR) is a geophysical method that uses electromagnetic field probe the interior structure and lithological variations of a lossy dielectric materials, it performs quite well in dry, icy and shallow-soil environments. The first radar sounding of the subsurface of planet was carried out by Apollo Lunar Sounder Experiment (ALSE) of the Apollo 17 in 1972. ALSE provided very precise information about the moon's topography and revealed structures beneath the surface in both Mare Crisium and Mare Serenitatis. Russian Mars'92 was the first Mars exploration mission that tried to use SPR to explore martian surface, subsurface and ionosphere. Although Mars'96 launch failed in 1996, Russia(Mars'98, cancelled in 1998; Phobos-Grunt, launch failed in 2011), ESA(Mars Express, succeeded in 2003; Netlander, cancelled in 2003; ExoMars 2018) and NASA(MRO, succeeded in 2005; MARS 2020) have been making great effects to send SPR to Mars, trying to search for the existence of groundwater and life in the past 20 years. So far, no Ground Penetrating Radar(GPR) has yet provided in situ observations on the surface of Mars. In December 2013, China's CE-3 lunar rover (Yuto) equipped with a GPR made the first direct measurement of the structure and depth of the lunar soil, and investigation of the lunar crust structure along the rover path. China's Mars Exploration Program also plans to carry the orbiting radar sounder and rover GPR to characterize the nature of subsurface water or ices and the layered structure of shallow subsurface of Mars. SPR can provide diversity of applications for Mars exploration , that are: to map the distribution of solid and liquid water in the upper portions of the Mars' crust; to characterize the subsurface geologic environment; to investigate the planet's subsurface to better understand the evolution and habitability of Mars; to perform the martain ionosphere sounding. Based on SPR's history and achievements, combined with the

  15. True Colors of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's color calibration target, also known as the MarsDial. The target's mirror and the shadows cast on it by the Sun help scientists determine the degree to which dusty martian skies alter the panoramic camera's perception of color. By adjusting for this effect, Mars can be seen in all its true colors.

  16. Can We Power Future Mars Missions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Sturm, Erick J., II; Woolley, Ryan C.; Jordan, James F.

    2006-01-01

    The Vision for Space Exploration identified the exploration of Mars as one of the key pathways. In response, NASAs Mars Program Office is developing a detailed mission lineup for the next decade that would lead to future explorations. Mission architectures for the next decade include both orbiters and landers. Existing power technologies, which could include solar panels, batteries, radioisotope power systems, and in the future fission power, could support these missions. Second and third decade explorations could target human precursor and human in-situ missions, building on increasingly complex architectures. Some of these could use potential feed forward from earlier Constellation missions to the Moon, discussed in the ESAS study. From a potential Mars Sample Return mission to human missions the complexity of the architectures increases, and with it the delivered mass and power requirements also amplify. The delivered mass at Mars mostly depends on the launch vehicle, while the landed mass might be further limited by EDL technologies, including the aeroshell, parachutes, landing platform, and pinpoint landing. The resulting in-situ mass could be further divided into payload elements and suitable supporting power systems. These power systems can range from tens of watts to multi-kilowatts, influenced by mission type, mission configuration, landing location, mission duration, and season. Regardless, the power system design should match the power needs of these surface assets within a given architecture. Consequently, in this paper we will identify potential needs and bounds of delivered mass and architecture dependent power requirements to surface assets that would enable future in-situ exploration of Mars.

  17. Mars ionospheric response to solar wind variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opgenoorth, H. J.; Andrews, D. J.; Fränz, M.; Lester, M.; Edberg, N. J. T.; Morgan, D.; Duru, F.; Witasse, O.; Williams, A. O.

    2013-10-01

    planets with induced magnetospheres, the coupling between the ionosphere, the weak draped magnetosphere, and the solar wind is very direct in comparison to Earth. The weak induced magnetosphere itself is created by the prevailing Solar wind conditions and therefore in its shape and strength dynamically depending on it. In early 2010, Mars was located behind Earth in the Solar wind; thus, we can use coordinated data from multiple near-Earth spacecraft (Stereo, Wind) to evaluate what kind of Solar wind disturbances have passed by Earth and might consecutively hit Mars, and when. We employ plasma data from the ESA Mars-Express mission, the ASPERA-3 particle instrument, and the MARSIS Active Ionospheric Sounder (AIS) to investigate, for a number of isolated events in March and April 2010, how the ionosphere and the induced magnetosphere at Mars develop and decay in response to Solar wind variability in the magnetic field, density, and velocity. In a dedicated campaign mode, we use frequent long-duration MARSIS AIS operations for several consecutive orbits, to monitor for the first time the long-term development of the Martian plasma environment during solar wind disturbances. We find that the magnetosphere and ionosphere of Mars can become considerably compressed by solar wind dynamic pressure variations, which usually are also associated with changes in the magnetic draping of the interplanetary magnetic field around the planet. These are typically associated with corotating interaction regions and coronal mass ejections, and can last for several days. During such episodes of compression, we see signatures of increased plasma transport over the terminator and enhanced ion outflow from the upper atmosphere.

  18. Rotorcraft as Mars Scouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, L. A.; Aiken, E. W.; Gulick, V.; Mancinelli, R.; Briggs, G. A.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for the robotic exploration of Mars is detailed in this paper: the use of small, ultralightweight, autonomous rotary-wing aerial platforms. Missions based on robotic rotorcraft could make excellent candidates for NASA Mars Scout program. The paper details the work to date and future planning required for the development of such 'Mars rotorcraft.'

  19. 1 Main Street, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Located outside StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center, 1 Main Street Mars is a model of how a habitat on Mars might look. Complete with thermometers, scales and clocks set to Martian equivalents, this exhibit shows how very different life on Mars can be.

  20. Tectonic Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    1992-01-01

    The Final Technical Report on tectonic evolution of Mars is presented. Two papers and an abstract are included. Topics addressed include: scientific rationale and requirements for a global seismic network on Mars, permanent uplift in magmatic systems with application to the Tharsis Region of Mars, and the geophysical signal of the Martian global dichotomy.

  1. Planetary protection considerations for MarsNet and Mars sample return missions.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, C; Horneck, G

    1995-03-01

    The ESA MarsNet mission proposal consists most probably of a trio of Mars landers. These landers each contain a variety of scientific equipment. The network of stations demands for a definition of its planetary protection requirements. With respect to the MarsNet mission only forward contamination problems will be considered. Future involvement of European efforts in planetary exploration including sample returns will also raise the problem of back contamination. A tradeoff study for the overall scientific benefit with respect to the approximative cost is necessary. Planetary protection guide-lines will be proposed by an interdisciplinary and international board of experts working in the fields of both biology and planetary science. These guide-lines will have to be flexible in order to be modified with respect to new research results, e.g. on adaptation of microorganisms to extreme (space) conditions. Experiments on the survival of microorganisms at conditions of simulated Mars surface and subsurface will have to be conducted in order to obtain a baseline data collection as a reference standard for future guide-lines.

  2. Missions to Mars: Characterisation of Mars analogue rocks for the International Space Analogue Rockstore (ISAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bost, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Ramboz, Claire; Foucher, Frédéric; Pullan, Derek; Meunier, Alain; Petit, Sabine; Fleischer, Iris; Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Vago, Jorge L.

    2013-07-01

    Instruments for surface missions to extraterrestrial bodies should be cross-calibrated using a common suite of relevant materials. Such work is necessary to improve instrument performance and aids in the interpretation of in-situ measurements. At the CNRS campus in Orléans, the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers en région Centre (OSUC) has created a collection of well-characterised rocks and minerals for testing and calibrating instruments to be flown in space missions. The characteristics of the analogue materials are documented in an accompanying online database. In view of the recent and upcoming rover missions to Mars (NASA's 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and ESA/Roscosmos' 2018 ExoMars), we are concentrating initially on materials of direct relevance to the red planet. The initial collection consists of 15 well-studied rock and mineral samples, including a variety of basalts (ultramafic, weathered, silicified, primitive), sediments (volcanic sands, chert, and a banded iron formation -BIF-), and the phyllosilicate nontronite (a clay). All the samples were characterised petrographically, petrologically, and geochemically using the types of analyses likely to be performed during in-situ missions, in particular ExoMars: hand specimen description; optical microscopy; mineralogical analysis by XRD, Raman and IR spectrometry; iron phase analysis by Mössbauer spectroscopy (MBS), elemental analysis by Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), microprobe, Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS); and reduced carbon analysis by Raman spectrometry.

  3. HUMEX, a study on the survivability and adaptation of humans to long-duration exploratory missions, part II: Missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Facius, R.; Reichert, M.; Rettberg, P.; Seboldt, W.; Manzey, D.; Comet, B.; Maillet, A.; Preiss, H.; Schauer, L.; Dussap, C. G.; Poughon, L.; Belyavin, A.; Reitz, G.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Gerzer, R.

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration programmes, currently under discussion in the US and in Europe, foresee human missions to Mars to happen within the first half of this century. In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) has conducted a study on the human responses, limits and needs for such exploratory missions, the so-called HUMEX study (ESA SP-1264). Based on a critical assessment of the limiting factors for human health and performance and the definition of the life science and life support requirements performed in the frame of the HUMEX study, the following major critical items have been identified: (i) radiation health risks, mainly occurring during the interplanetary transfer phases and severely augmented in case of an eruption of a solar particle event; (ii) health risks caused by extended periods in microgravity with an unacceptable risk of bone fracture as a consequence of bone demineralisation; (iii) psychological risks as a consequence of long-term isolation and confinement in an environment so far not experienced by humans; (iv) the requirement of bioregenerative life support systems complementary to physico-chemical systems, and of in situ resource utilisation to reach a closure of the life support system to the highest degree possible. Considering these constraints, it has been concluded that substantial research and development activities are required in order to provide the basic information for appropriate integrated risk managements, including efficient countermeasures and tailored life support. Methodological approaches should include research on the ISS, on robotic precursors missions to Mars, in ground-based simulation facilities as well as in analogue natural environments on Earth.

  4. Analysis and Optimization of the Recovered ESA Huygens Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazeminejad, Bobby

    2002-06-01

    The Huygens Probe is the ESA-provided element of the joint NASA/ESA Cassini - Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. A recently discovered design flaw in the Huygens radio receiver onboard Cassini led to a significantly different mission geometry, redesigned and implemented by both the ESA Huygens and NASA Cassini project teams. A numerical integration of the Orbiter trajectory and the Huygens descent profile with simplified assumptions for Probe attitude and correlated aerodynamic aspects offered the opportunity to re-calculate key mission parameters, which depend on the relative geometry and motion of the bodies. This was a crucial step to assess whether science-imposed constraints were not violated. A review of existing Titan wind and atmosphere models and their physical background led to a subsequent parametric study of their impact on the supersonic entry phase, the parachute descent and finally the bodyfixed landing coordinates of the Probe. In addition to the deterministic (nominal) Probe trajectory, it is important to quantify the influence of various uncertainties that enter into the equations of motion on the results (e.g., state vectors, physical parameters of the environment and the Probe itself). This was done by propagating the system covariance matrix together with the nominal state vectors. A sophisticated Monte Carlo technique developed to save up computation time was then used to determine statistical percentiles of the key parameters. The Probe Orbiter link geometry was characterized by evaluating the link budget and received frequency at receiver level. In this calculation the spin of the Probe and the asymmetric gain pattern of the transmitting antennas was taken into account. The results were then used in a mathematical model that describes the tracking capability of the receiver symbol synchronizer. This allowed the loss of data during the mission to be quantified. A subsequent parametric study of different sets of mission parameters with the

  5. Entry System Design Considerations for Mars Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, Mary Kae; Powell, Richard W.; Graves, Claude A.; Carman, Gilbert L.

    2001-01-01

    The objective for the next generation or Mars landers is to enable a safe landing at specific locations of scientific interest. The 1st generation entry, descent and landing systems, ex. Viking and Pathfinder, provided successful landing on Mars but by design were limited to large scale, 100s of km, landing sites with minimal local hazards. The 2 nd generation landers, or smart landers, will provide scientists with access to previously unachievable landing sites by providing precision landing to less than 10 km of a target landing site, with the ability to perform local hazard avoidance, and provide hazard tolerance. This 2nd generation EDL system can be utilized for a range of robotic missions with vehicles sized for science payloads from the small 25-70 kg, Viking, Pathfinder, Mars Polar Lander and Mars Exploration Rover-class, to the large robotic Mars Sample Return, 300 kg plus, science payloads. The 2nd generation system can also be extended to a 3nd generation EDL system with pinpoint landing, 10's of meters of landing accuracy, for more capable robotic or human missions. This paper will describe the design considerations for 2nd generation landers. These landers are currently being developed by a consortium of NASA centers, government agencies, industry and academic institutions. The extension of this system and additional considerations required for a 3nd generation human mission to Mars will be described.

  6. Urey: Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    Some key components of a NASA-funded instrument being developed for the payload of the European Space Agency's ExoMars mission stand out in this illustration of the instrument.

    The instrument is the Urey: Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector. It can check for the faintest traces of life's molecular building blocks. If those are present, it can assess whether they were produced by anything alive. It can also evaluate harsh environmental conditions that could be erasing those molecular clues.

    ExoMars is planned as a rover to be launched in 2013 and search on Mars for signs of life.

    Samples of Martian soil collected by a drill on the rover will be delivered to the Urey instrument. The instrument component called the sub-critical water extractor adds water and heats the sample, getting different types of organic compounds to dissolve into the water at different temperatures. The Mars organic detector uses a fluorescent reagent and laser to detect organic chemicals. The micro-capillary electrophoresis component separates different types of organic chemicals from each others for identifying which ones are present in the sample. The Mars oxidant instrument, part of which is on a separately mounted deck unit not pictured, assesses how readily organic material would be broken down by the radiation, atmosphere and soil chemistry of the site.

  7. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Roars Away

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    With the Atlantic Ocean as a backdrop, an Atlas V launch vehicle, 19 stories tall, with a two-ton Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) on top, roars away from Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 7:43 a.m. EDT. All systems performed nominally for NASA's first launch of an Atlas V on an interplanetary mission. MRO established radio contact with controllers 61 minutes after launch and within four minutes of separation from the upper stage. Initial contact came through an antenna at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Uchinoura Space Center in southern Japan. Mars is 72 million miles from Earth today, but the spacecraft will travel more than four times that distance on its outbound-arc trajectory to intercept the red planet on March 10, 2006. The orbiter carries six scientific instruments for examining the surface, atmosphere and subsurface of Mars in unprecedented detail from low orbit. NASA expects to get several times more data about Mars from MRO than from all previous Martian missions combined. Researchers will use the instruments to learn more about the history and distribution of Mars' water. That information will improve understanding of planetary climate change and will help guide the quest to answer whether Mars ever supported life. The orbiter will also evaluate potential landing sites for future missions.

  8. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Lifts Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    At 7:43 a.m. EDT an Atlas V launch vehicle, 19 stories tall, with a two-ton Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) on top, lifts off the pad on Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. All systems performed nominally for NASA's first launch of an Atlas V on an interplanetary mission. MRO established radio contact with controllers 61 minutes after launch and within four minutes of separation from the upper stage. Initial contact came through an antenna at the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Uchinoura Space Center in southern Japan. Mars is 72 million miles from Earth today, but the spacecraft will travel more than four times that distance on its outbound-arc trajectory to intercept the red planet on March 10, 2006. The orbiter carries six scientific instruments for examining the surface, atmosphere and subsurface of Mars in unprecedented detail from low orbit. NASA expects to get several times more data about Mars from MRO than from all previous Martian missions combined. Researchers will use the instruments to learn more about the history and distribution of Mars' water. That information will improve understanding of planetary climate change and will help guide the quest to answer whether Mars ever supported life. The orbiter will also evaluate potential landing sites for future missions.

  9. a Carbon Dioxide Collection and Pressure Generation Breadboard System for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gully, Ph.; Ercolani, E.; Guillemet, L.; Sirbi, A.; Linder, M.

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of development programs for future European Space Agency (ESA) missions aimed at Mars exploration, a breadboard propulsion system has been developed at Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA-INAC/SBT). The objective is to design a system that can produce a thrust sufficient to move the whole device on the planet surface. In order to reduce the cost and the mass launched, the system uses the particular properties of the planet atmosphere which contains 98% of carbon dioxide (CO2). First the CO2 atmospheric gas is collected in a very high density storage tank using a cryopumping process (condensation of gas at around 140 K). Then an applied heat load allows generation of a continuous high pressure and high flow rate CO2 discharge, which will be used to feed the future nozzles of the system. The present system is designed to study the cryopumping process in a 0.6 liter collection tank and the discharge through an exhaust line. The design principles are presented, and the breadboard is described. Some preliminary results are then presented and discussed. As an example, the presented design allows the collection of 220 g of solid CO2 during a one shot 3 hr cryopumping process. This amount has been increased to 440 g by performing several thermal cycles. The discharge is achieved with 10 g/s maximum flow rate at 5 MPa maximum.

  10. The ESA Meteoroid Model 2010: Enhanced Physical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikarev, Valeri; Mints, Alexey; Drolshagen, Gerhard

    The orbital distributions of meteoroids in interplanetary space are revised in the ESA meteoroid model. In the present update, the chemical composition of the meteoroids is simulated in more detail than in the previous meteoroid models. Silicate and carbonaceous fractions are introduced for all meteoroid populations, and in addition to asteroids and Jupiter-crossing comets, comet 2P/Encke is added as a source. The orbital evolution under planetary gravity, Poynting-Robertson effect and mutual collisions is simulated using analytical approximations. Infrared observations of the zodiacal cloud by the COBE DIRBE instrument, in situ flux measurements by the dust detectors on board Galileo, Ulysses, Pioneer 11 and Helios-1 spacecraft, and the crater size distributions on lunar rock samples retrieved by the Apollo missions are incorporated in the model.

  11. THOR - a mission candidate for ESA M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaivads, Andris

    2015-04-01

    We present a mission concept THOR (http://thor.irfu.se) that was proposed in the response to the ESA M4 Call. The scientific theme of the THOR mission is turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization. The main focus is on turbulence and shock processes, however areas where the different fundamental processes interact, such as reconnection in turbulence or shock generated turbulence, is also of high importance. The THOR mission aims to address such fundamental questions as how energy is dissipated at kinetic scales, how energy is partitioned among different plasma components, what is the relative importance of waves and coherent structures in the dissipation processes. To reach the goal a careful design work of the THOR mission and its payload has been done and it is based on the earlier mission concepts of Tor, EIDOSCOPE and Cross-Scale. We present the basic concepts of the THOR mission, THOR's payload and the major science questions to be addressed.

  12. Some psychophysiological and behavioral aspects of adaptation to simulated autonomous Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gushin, V.; Shved, D.; Vinokhodova, A.; Vasylieva, G.; Nitchiporuk, I.; Ehmann, B.; Balazs, L.

    2012-01-01

    Mars-105” experiment was executed in March-July 2009 in Moscow, at the Institute for Bio-Medical Problems (IBMP) with participation of European Space Agency (ESA) to simulate some specific conditions of future piloted Mars mission. In the last 35 days of isolation, in order to simulate autonomous flight conditions, some serious restrictions were established for the crew resupply and communication with Mission Control (MC). The objective of the study was to investigate psychophysiological and behavioral aspects (communication) of adaptation during this period of “high autonomy”. We used computerized analysis of the crew written daily reports to calculate the frequencies of utilization of certain semantic units, expressing different psychological functions. To estimate the level of psycho-physiological stress, we measured the concentration of urinal cortisol once in two weeks. To investigate psycho-emotional state, we used the questionnaire SAN, estimating Mood, Activity and Health once in two weeks.During the simulation of autonomous flight, we found out the different tendencies of communicative behavior. One group of subjects demonstrated the tendency to “activation and self-government” under “high autonomy” conditions. The other subjects continued to use communicative strategy that we called “closing the communication channel”. “Active” communication strategy was accompanied by increasing in subjective scores of mood and activity. The subjects, whose communication strategy was attributed as “closing”, demonstrated the considerably lower subjective scores of mood and activity. Period of high autonomy causes specific changes in communication strategies of the isolated crew.

  13. Mars Express and Venus Express Data Retention In-Flight Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrédonchel, J.; Rombeck, F.-J.

    2007-08-01

    Venus, Mars and Earth, three out of the four inner or 'rocky' planets of the Solar System, have a lot in common: a solid surface you could walk on, a comparable surface composition, an atmosphere and a weather system. European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express (MEx) and Venus Express (VEx) pioneer scientific missions aim at exploring these two neighbours of the Earth, in order to enrich our knowledge of our planet and of the Solar System. Both projects are based on the same spacecraft bus, and in particular on 'sister' Solid State Mass Memory (SSMM) units, in charge of the acquisition, storage and retrieval of all on board data, relevant both to the platform and to the instruments. This paper recalls the common SSMM design and the inner fault tolerant memory array module architecture based on Computer Off The Shelf (COTS) Samsung 64 Mbit Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) chips, and presents the comparative in-flight data retention performance for both MEx and Vex units, since their respective June 2003 and November 2005 launches. Both units have shown to successfully withstand the radiative deep space environment, including during the outstanding October 2003 solar flare, and no uncorrectable data corruption was ever reported. Beyond this stable retention performance over time, the memory scrubbing correctable error accounting feedback allows evaluating the deep space Single Event Upset (SEU) rates, to be compared with the theoretical SSMM radiation assessment as well as with other previous missions in-flight qualitative reference performance records, and finally enables to derive a couple of recommendations from the lessons' learnt.

  14. Reference payload of the ESA L1 mission candidate ATHENA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Didier; Rando, Nicola; Lumb, David; Verhoeve, Peter; Oosterbroek, Tim; Bavdaz, Marcos

    2012-09-01

    The Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (ATHENA) is one of the three candidates that competed for the first large-class mission (L1) in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme, with a launch planned by 2022 and is the result of the IXO reformulation activities. ATHENA is an ESA-led project and is conceived as the next generation X-ray observatory. It is meant to address fundamental questions about accretion around black-holes, reveal the physics underpinning cosmic feedback, trace the large scale structure of baryons in galaxy clusters and the cosmic as well as a large number of astrophysics and fundamental physics phenomena. The observatory consists of two identical mirrors each illuminating a fixed focal plane instrument, providing collectively 1 m2 effective area at 1 keV. The reference payload consists of a medium resolution wide field imager (WFI) and a high resolution X-ray micro-calorimeter spectrometer (XMS). The WFI is based on a monolithic Si DepFET array providing imaging over a 24 × 24 arcmin2 field of view and a good PSF oversampling. The sensor will measure X-rays in the range 0.1-15 keV and provides near Fano limited energy resolution (150eV at 6keV). The XMS is based on a micro-calorimeter array operating at its transition temperature of ~100mK and provides <3eV resolution. The detector array consists of 32 × 32 pixels covering a 2.3 × 2.3 arcmin2 field of view, co-aligned with the WFI. This paper summarizes the results of the reformulation exercise and provides details on the payload complement and its accommodation on the spacecraft. Following the ESA Science Programme Committee decision on the L1 mission in May 2012, ATHENA was not selected to enter Definition Phase.

  15. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  16. Solar Power on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This chart illustrates the variation in available solar power for each of NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers over the course of approximately two Mars years. Two factors affect the amount of available power: the tilt of Mars' axis and the eccentricity of the Mars' orbit about the sun.

    The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after the Jan. 4, 2004, (Universal Time) landing of Spirit at Mars' Gusev Crater. The vertical scale on the right indicates the amount of available solar power as a ratio of the amount available at the equator when Mars is closest to the sun (perihelion). The red line indicates power availability at Spirit's landing site (Gusev). The blue line indicates power availability at Opportunity's landing site (Meridiani).

    The vertical scale on the right applies to the dotted line, indicating the latitude north or south of Mars' equator where the noon sun is overhead at different times of the Martian year.

  17. A predictive wheel-soil interaction model for planetary rovers validated in testbeds and against MER Mars rover performance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Ellery, A.; Gao, Y.; Michaud, S.; Schmitz, N.; Weiss, S.

    Successful designs of vehicles intended for operations on planetary objects outside the Earth demand, just as for terrestrial off-the-road vehicles, a careful assessment of the terrain relevant for the vehicle mission and predictions of the mobility performance to allow rational trade-off's to be made for the choice of the locomotion concept and sizing. Principal issues driving the chassis design for rovers are the stress-strain properties of the planetary surface soil, the distribution of rocks in the terrain representing potential obstacles to movement, and the gravity level on the celestial object in question. Thus far, planetary rovers have been successfully designed and operated for missions to the Earth's moon and to the planet Mars, including NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers (MER's) `Spirit' and `Opportunity' being in operation on Mars since their landings in January 2004. Here we report on the development of a wheel-soil interaction model with application to wheel sizes and wheel loads relevant to current and near-term robotic planetary rovers, i.e. wheel diameters being between about 200 and 500 mm and vertical quasistatic wheel loads in operation of roughly 100 to 200 N. Such a model clearly is indispensable for sizings of future rovers to analyse the aspect of rover mobility concerned with motion across soils. This work is presently funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) as part of the `Rover Chassis Evaluation Tools' (RCET) effort which has developed a set of S/W-implemented models for predictive mobility analysis of rovers in terms of movement on soils and across obstacles, coupled with dedicated testbeds to validate the wheel-soil models. In this paper, we outline the details of the wheel-soil modelling performed within the RCET work and present comparisons of predictions of wheel performance (motion resistance, torque vs. slip and drawbar pull vs. slip) for specific test cases with the corresponding measurements performed in the RCET single wheel

  18. ESA's STSE WACMOS Project: Towards a Water Cycle Multimission Observation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Prieto, Diego; Su, Bob

    2010-05-01

    synergic manner; • Develop robust methodologies to integrate and assimilate space observations and in situ measurements into advance coupled models being able to describe biophysical processes and interactions between ocean, land and atmosphere describing the water cycle and hydrological processes; In this context, the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with the Global Energy and Water Experiment (GEWEX) of the World Climate Research Program (WCRP) launched the project Water Cycle Multi-mission Observation Strategy (WACMOS) early in 2009. The project, funded under the ESA's Support To Science Element, address the first of the above objectives. In particular, the project objective is twofold: • On the one hand, developing and validating a Product Portfolio of novel geo-information products responding to the GEWEX scientific priorities and exploiting the synergic capabilities between ESA EO data and other non-ESA missions. • Exploring and assessing different methodologies to exploit in a synergic manner different observations towards the development of long-term consistent datasets of key (essential) variables describing the water cycle. In this context, WACMOS is focused on four components of the above cycle that are also thematic priorities identified in close collaboration with the GEWEX scientific community: Evapotranspiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour. The product portfolio comprises: 1) AATSR-MERIS based evapotranspiration modelling approach; 2) Merged passive and active microwave first multi-decade soil moisture data set; 3) Novel MSG SEVIRI-SCIAMACHY cloud products and 4) Synergic SEVIRI-IASI and SEVIRI-MERIS water vapour products. In this paper, the methodologies and preliminary results of WACMOS are introduced. In the next phase of the project, consolidated methods, data products and validation results will be generated, so that a global water cycle product of evapotranpiration, soil moisture, clouds and water vapour with quantified

  19. ESA's Rosetta mission and the puzzles that Hale-Bopp left behind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-04-01

    The scientific payload was confirmed by ESA's Science Programme Committee in February. Now the scientists must perfect the full range of ultra-sensitive yet spaceworthy instruments in good time for Rosetta's despatch by an Ariane 5 launcher in January 2003. And even as most of the world was admiring Comet Hale-Bopp at its brightest, dedicated astronomers were examining the comet that will be Rosetta's target. Although too faint to be seen with the naked eye, Comet Wirtanen made its closest approach to the Sun on 14 March and a fairly close approach to the Earth on 24 March. This comet comes back every 5.5 years. Rosetta will dance attendance on Comet Wirtanen, not at the next return in 2002, nor even in 2008, but in 2013. The project is an ambitious and patient effort to achieve the most thorough investigation of a comet ever attempted. As the successor to ESA's highly successful Giotto mission to Halley's Comet and Comet Grigg-Skjellerup (which took seven years) Rosetta will spend eight years positioning itself. It will manoeuvre around the planets until it is shadowing Comet Wirtanen far beyond Mars, on nearly the same path around the Sun. In 2011 it will rendezvous with the comet and fly near it. In April 2012 Rosetta will go into a near orbit around Comet Wirtanen, and escort it for 17 busy months, as it flies in to make its closest approach to the Sun in September 2013, at the climax of the mission. "The Giotto mission placed us at the forefront of cometary exploration," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "The motivation came from European scientists with a sharp sense of the special importance of comets for understanding the Solar System. The same enthusiasm drives us onward to Rosetta, which will ensure our continued leadership in this important branch of space science." Scientific tasks During its prolonged operations in very close company with the comet's nucleus, Rosetta will map and examine its entire surface from distances of 10 to 50

  20. G. Marconi: A Data Relay Satellite for Mars Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionisio, C.; Marcozzi, M.; Landriani, C.

    2002-01-01

    Ascent Vehicle launch and Orbiting Sample Canister detection for the Mars Sample Return mission. The GMO mission is a close collaboration between the Italian and American national space agencies and two implementing organizations: Alenia Spazio in Italy and JPL in the United States. As the Italian prime contractor, Alenia Spazio is to design and fabricate the spacecraft bus, integrate the Italian and JPL payloads, support integration of the spacecraft with the launch vehicle, support launch, and conduct mission operations. GMO will use Alenia' s PRIMA spacecraft bus in a deep space configuration. The PRIMA bus is a new design concept, developed under ASI funding, that combines flexibility, low cost and high efficiency. Its modular design makes it adaptable for several classes of missions, including interplanetary.

  1. On the Raman Detectability of Biomarkers in Geological Matrices in preparation for Mars Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malherbe, Cedric; Hutchinson, Ian B.; DEMARET, Lucas; INGLEY, Richard; EDWARDS, Howell G. M.; EPPE, Gauthier; ExoMars Raman Team at the University of Leicester, Group of Inorganic Analytical Chemsitry at the University of Liege

    2016-10-01

    In 2020, Raman spectrometers will be launched to Mars as part of the ESA/ROSCOSMOS's ExoMars 2020 mission and the NASA's Mars 2020 mission. The miniaturized Raman instrument on board the ExoMars rover has two scientific goals: characterize the geochemistry of the surface and subsurface of Mars, and search for molecular evidence of past and present life. Raman spectrometers have indeed the capability to characterize non-destructively the geology of the rocky surface of Mars. Information on the nature and the molecular composition of the surface and subsurface of Mars will provide valuable information about the habitability of the red planet. In addition, Raman spectrometers have the ability to detect potential molecular biomarkers which are substances obtained by biochemical processes or their derivatives preserved in a protective geological niche. In preparation for Mars mission, studying the detection capability of miniaturized Raman spectrometers (specifically developed for space missions and therefore compromised by the associated challenging constraints) is highly important, on both lab synthetic samples and natural terrestrial analogues samples. We present here an analytical strategy to determine the limit of detection achievable based on Raman spectral images. Raman data were recorded with benchtop instruments and a Raman Laser Spectrometer prototype developed at the University of Leicester to optimize/characterize the camera system that will be used for the ExoMars mission.

  2. On-orbit demonstration of automated closure and capture using ESA-developed proximity operations technologies and an existing, serviceable NASA Explorer Platform spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohwiesner, Bill; Claudinon, Bernard

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has been working to develop an autonomous rendezvous and docking capability since 1984 to enable Hermes to automatically dock with Columbus. As a result, ESA with Matra, MBB, and other space companies have developed technologies that are also directly supportive of the current NASA initiative for Automated Rendezvous and Capture. Fairchild and Matra would like to discuss the results of the applicable ESA/Matra rendezvous and capture developments, and suggest how these capabilities could be used, together with an existing NASA Explorer Platform satellite, to minimize new development and accomplish a cost effective automatic closure and capture demonstration program. Several RV sensors have been developed at breadboard level for the Hermes/Columbus program by Matra, MBB, and SAAB. Detailed algorithms for automatic rendezvous, closure, and capture have been developed by ESA and CNES for application with Hermes to Columbus rendezvous and docking, and they currently are being verified with closed-loop software simulation. The algorithms have multiple closed-loop control modes and phases starting at long range using GPS navigation. Differential navigation is used for coast/continuous thrust homing, holdpoint acquisition, V-bar hopping, and station point acquisition. The proximity operation sensor is used for final closure and capture. A subset of these algorithms, comprising the proximity operations algorithms, could easily be extracted and tailored to a limited objective closure and capture flight demonstration.

  3. ESA and iron therapy in chronic kidney disease: a balance between patient safety and hemoglobin target.

    PubMed

    Hung, Szu-Chun; Tarng, Der-Cherng

    2014-10-01

    Optimal treatment algorithms for erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) and iron therapy in anemic CKD patients are lacking. Kuragano et al. evaluated hemodialysis patients over two years and report increased mortality risk and/or adverse events in those with high serum ferritin levels and high ferritin fluctuations, and an increase in adverse events in iron users. Clinical practice should avoid disproportionately high ESA or iron doses to achieve hemoglobin targets, particularly in those with significant comorbidity or ESA resistance.

  4. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    ,9), M. Cross (6,7), V. Maivald (10), C. Orgel (6), A. Elsaesser (4), S.O.L. Direito (2,4), W.F.M. Röling (2), G.R. Davies (2); EuroGeoMars2009 Team, DOMMEX-ILEWG EuroMoonMars 2010-2013 Teams (1) ESA/ ESTEC, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwik, NL; (2) Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, NL; (3) NASA Ames Research Centre; US; (4) Leiden U. , NL; (5) Space Policy Institute, GWU, Washington D.C., USA; (6) ILEWG; (7) CPSX; (8) Cerberus Blackshore, ESIC Noordwijk, NL; (9) ENSC Bordeaux; (10) DLR, Bremen

  5. Can we expect habitable niches for cyanobacteria on Mars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre Paul; Lorek, Andreas; Koncz, Alexander; Billi, Daniela; Baqué, Mickael; Leya, Thomas; Brown, Sarah; Cockell, Charles

    2013-04-01

    The most resistant cyanobacteria can be found in tropic deserts and in polar and alpine habitats. The reason for their resistance can be explained by their occurrence in intensely irradiated, very dry and/or cold environments which are supposed to be as close as possible similar to Martian surface conditions. A systematically approach comparing measurements on photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria in relation to measured environmental parameters obtained in Mars analog field sites with data collected from space exposed samples or during Mars simulation experiments will show differences and common results after analyzing the investigated organisms. Some of the investigated species are foreseen to be exposed during the next ESA-space-exposure experiment BIOMEX either directly to real space conditions on space exposure platforms like EXPOSE-R2 on the International Space Station or to Mars simulation conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. Some of the species were still exposed to both of the extreme environmental conditions and some of the results will be presented and might serve for future investigations as references. We will emphasize that in parallel monitoring of environmental parameters on Mars analog field sites was performed as well as partly in space and in the simulation chambers. This experimental combination might help to get a better impression about the influence of each of the tested parameters on metabolic activity of the tested cyanobacteria in complete different planetary environments comparing characterized habitats on our home planet Earth with those we might expect according to recently observed data on Mars. The outcome of this work could be relevant to classify e.g. Mars as a habitable planet by a new combination of different experimental and biological approaches and to evaluate and discuss the likelihood of terra forming Mars in the far future.

  6. Methanogenic Archaea as Potential Candidates for Life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, D.

    Within our solar system, Mars has been considered as a prime candidate for extraterrestrial life beyond Earth. Various paleo-climate models of the early Mars showed that prior 3.8 Ga ago Mars was characterised by moderate temperatures, the presence of liquid water and an anoxic atmosphere comparable to those on early Earth, where the evolution of microorganisms had already started. Assuming that early life developed on Mars as well, Martian life must have adapted to drastically changing environmental conditions or became extinct. Within the scope of a project in the DFG (German Research Foundation) Priority Program "Mars and the Terrestrial Planets" the tolerances of methanogenic archaea under unfavourable life conditions of terrestrial or extraterrestrial permafrost (Mars simulation) were studied. The borders of growth influenced by desiccation, temperature extremes, radiation and high salt concentration were analyzed for the organisms in pure cultures obtained from permafrost soils as well as in their natural environment of Siberian permafrost. The presented results show the high survival capability of methanogenic archaea from Siberian permafrost under unfavourable environmental conditions exhibiting metabolic activity even below the freezing point. Furthermore, Methanosarcina SMA21 is also extremely resistant against UV radiation and high salinity. It survives three weeks of simulated Martian diurnal changes in temperature and humidity nearly completely. Our studies demonstrate for the first time the possible survival of methanogenic archaea under present Martian conditions. These results in connection with the finding of methane in the Martian atmosphere by the ESA mission "Mars Express" supported the hypothesis that methanogens are the most likely candidates for life on Mars.

  7. Hubble gets new ESA-supplied solar arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-12-01

    Derek Eaton, ESA project manager, was overjoyed with the success of the day's spacewalk. "To build two such massive arrays some years apart to such tight tolerances and have one replace the other with so few problems is a tribute to the design and manufacturing skills of ESA and British Aerospace, the prime contractor for the arrays", he said. "The skill of Kathy and Tom contributed greatly to this success". The astronauts began their spacewalk at 09h30 p.m. CST (04h30 a.m. CET, Monday). Their first task was to jettison the troublesome solar array that failed to retract yesterday. Perched on the end of the shuttle's robot arm, 7.5 metres above the cargo bay, Thornton carefully released the array. ESA astronaut Claude Nicollier then pulled the arm away from the free-floating panel and mission commander Dick Covey fired the shuttle's thrusters to back away. Endeavour and the discarded array are moving apart at a rate of 18.5 kilometres each 90-minute orbit of the Earth. The array is expected to burn up in the Earth's atmosphere harmlessly within a year or so. The astronauts had no problems installing the new arrays and stowing the left-hand wing in the cargo bay for the return to Earth. The new arrays will remain rolled-up against the side of the telescope until the fifth spacewalk on Wednesday/Thursday. The telescope itself will be deployed on Saturday. The telescope's first set of arrays flexed in orbit because of the sudden swing in temperature as the craft moved in and out of sunlight. The movement, or "jitter", affected the telescope's pointing system and disrupted observations at times. The Space Telescope Operations Control Centre largely compensated for the problem with special software but this occupied a large amount of computer memory. The new arrays incorporate three major changes to eliminate the problem. The metal bi-stem booms, which support the solar blankets, is protected from extreme temperature changes by a concertina-style sleeve made up of one

  8. N° 15-2000: ESA, CERN and ESO launch "Physics on Stage"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-03-01

    But how much do the citizens of Europe really know about physics? Here is a unique opportunity to learn more about this elusive subject! Beginning in February 2000, three major European research establishments [1] are organising a unique Europe-wide programme to raise the public awareness of physics and related sciences. "Physics on Stage" is launched by the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), with support from the European Union (EU). Other partners include the European Physical Society (EPS) and the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE). This exciting programme is part of the European Week for Science and Technology and will culminate in a Science Festival during November 6-11, 2000, at CERN, Geneva. Why "Physics on Stage"? The primary goal of "Physics on Stage" is to counteract the current decline in interest and knowledge of physics among Europe's citizens by means of a series of highly visible promotional activities. It will bring together leading scientists and educators, government bodies and the media, to confront the diminishing attraction of physics to young people and to develop strategies to reverse this trend. The objective in the short term is to infuse excitement and to provide new educational materials. In the longer term, "Physics on Stage" will generate new developments by enabling experts throughout Europe to meet, exchange and innovate. "Physics on Stage" in 22 European Countries. "Physics on Stage" has been initiated in 22 European countries [2]. In each country, a dedicated National Steering Committee (NSC) is being formed which will be responsible for their own national programme. A list of contact addresses is attached below. "Physics on Stage" is based on a series of high-profile physics-related activities that will inform the European public in general, and European high school physics teachers and media representatives in particular

  9. Deployment of Mars Express Radar Antenna Sections (Artist's Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This animation portrays the unfolding of all three booms making up the antenna for the radar instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The first boom was deployed in May 2005. The other two were deployed in June 2005. The animation is based on calculated simulations of how each boom could have extended itself from the folded position in which it had been stored. Now the instrument is ready to begin its work of looking below Mars's surface for buried features, possibly including water-bearing layers, and examining the ionized layer at the top of Mars' atmosphere. The instrument, Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding, was jointly funded by NASA and the Italian Space Agency. It was developed by the University of Rome, Italy, in partnership with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The University of Iowa, Iowa City, built the transmitter for the instrument, JPL built the receiver, and Astro Aerospace, Carpinteria, Calif., built the antenna.

  10. Earth Observation Training and Education with ESA LearnEO!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byfield, Valborg; Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Dobson, Malcolm; Rosmorduc, Vinca; Del Frate, Fabio; Banks, Chris; Picchiani, Matteo

    2013-04-01

    For society to benefit fully from its investment in Earth observation, EO data must be accessible and familiar to a global community of users who have the skills, knowledge and understanding to use the observations appropriately in their work. Achieving this requires considerable education effort. LearnEO! (www.learn-eo.org) is a new ESA education project that contributes towards making this a reality. LearnEO! has two main aims: to develop new training resources that use data from sensors on ESA satellites to explore a variety of environmental topics, and to stimulate and support members of the EO and education communities who may be willing to develop and share new education resources in the future. The project builds on the UNESCO Bilko project, which currently supplies free software, tutorials, and example data to users in 175 countries. Most of these users are in academic education or research, but the training resources are also of interest to a growing number of professionals in government, NGOs and private enterprise. Typical users are not remote sensing experts, but see satellite data as one of many observational tools. They want an easy, low-cost means to process, display and analyse data from different satellite sensors as part of their work in environmental research, monitoring and policy development. Many of the software improvements and training materials developed in LearnEO! are in response to requests from this user community. The LearnEO! tutorial and peer-reviewed lessons are designed to teach satellite data processing and analysis skills at different levels, from beginner to advanced - where advanced lessons requires some previous experience with Earth observation techniques. The materials are aimed at students and professionals in various branches of Earth sciences who have not yet specialised in specific EO technologies. The lessons are suitable for self-study, university courses at undergraduate to MSc level, or for continued professional

  11. In-situ Observations of Space Debris at ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drolshagen, G.

    Information on the small size (millimetre or smaller) space debris and meteoroid population in space can only be obtained by in-situ detectors or the analysis of retrieved hardware. Past, ongoing and planned ESA activities in this field are presented. In 1996 the GORID impact detector was launched into a geostationary orbit on-board the Russian Express-2 telecommunication satellite. This impact ionisation detector had a sensor surface of 0.1 m2. Until July 2002 when the spacecraft was shut down it recorded more than 3000 impacts in the micrometre size range. Inter alia, GORID measured numerous clusters of events, believed to result from debris clouds, and indicated that debris fluxes in GEO are larger than predicted by present models. Another in-situ detector, DEBIE-1, was launched in October 2001 and is operating on-board the small technology satellite PROBA in a low polar orbit. It has two sensors, each of 0.01m2 size, pointing in different directions. A second detector of this type, DEBIE-2 with 3 sensors, is ready for flight on the EuTEF carrier (external payload to ISS). The data from GORID and DEBIE-1 are stored on-line in EDID (European Detector Impact Database). Post-flight impact analyses of retrieved hardware provide detailed information on the encountered meteoroid and debris fluxes over a large range of sizes. ESA initiated several analyses in the past ((EURECA, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) solar arrays). The most recent impact analysis was performed for the HST solar arrays retrieved in March 2002. Measured crater sizes in solar cells ranged from about 1 micron to 7 mm. A total of 175 complete penetrations of the 0.7 mm thick arrays were observed. A chemical analysis of impact residues allowed the distinction between space debris and natural meteoroids. Space debris was found to dominate for sizes smaller than 10 microns and larger than about 1 mm. For intermediate sizes impacts are mainly from meteoroids. Results of the analysis and comparisons with

  12. ESA's Integral detects closest cosmic gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    5 August 2004 A gamma-ray burst detected by ESA's Integral gamma-ray observatory on 3 December 2003 has been thoroughly studied for months by an armada of space and ground-based observatories. Astronomers have now concluded that this event, called GRB 031203, is the closest cosmic gamma-ray burst on record, but also the faintest. This also suggests that an entire population of sub-energetic gamma-ray bursts has so far gone unnoticed... Gamma ray burst model hi-res Size hi-res: 22 KB Credits: CXC/M. Weiss Artist impression of a low-energy gamma-ray burst This illustration describes a model for a gamma-ray burst, like the one detected by Integral on 3 December 2003 (GRB 031203). A jet of high-energy particles from a rapidly rotating black hole interacts with surrounding matter. Observations with Integral on 3 December 2003 and data on its afterglow, collected afterwards with XMM-Newton, Chandra and the Very Large Array telescope, show that GRB 031203 radiated only a fraction of the energy of normal gamma-ray bursts. Like supernovae, gamma-ray bursts are thought to be produced by the collapse of the core of a massive star. However, while the process leading to supernovae is relatively well understood, astronomers still do not know what happens when a core collapses to form a black hole. The discovery of 'under-energetic' gamma-ray bursts, like GRB 031203, should provide valuable clues as to links between supernovae, black holes and gamma-ray bursts. Lo-res JPG (22 Kb) Hi-res TIFF (5800 Kb) Cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays that can last from less than a second to a few minutes and occur at random positions in the sky. A large fraction of them is thought to result when a black hole is created from a dying star in a distant galaxy. Astronomers believe that a hot disc surrounding the black hole, made of gas and matter falling onto it, somehow emits an energetic beam parallel to the axis of rotation. According to the simplest picture, all GRBs

  13. THE JOINT ESA-NASA EUROPA JUPITER SYSTEM MISSION (EJSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Blanc, M.; Bunce, E. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Erd, C.; Grasset, O.; Greeley, R.; Johnson, T. V.; Clark, K. B.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The joint "Europa Jupiter System Mission" (EJSM) is an international mission under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. Its goal is to study Jupiter and its magnetosphere, the diversity of the Galilean satellites, the physical characteristics, composition and geology of their surfaces. Europa and Ganymede are two primary targets of the mission. The reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The two primary goals of the mission are i) to determine whether the Jupiter system harbors habitable worlds and ii) to characterize the processes within the Jupiter system. The science objectives addressing the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressing the second goal are to: i) understand the Jovian satellite system, especially as context for Europa and Ganymede; ii) evaluate the structure and dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere; iii) characterize processes of the Jovian magnetodisk/magnetosphere; iv) determine the interactions occurring in the Jovian system; and v) constrain models for the origin of the Jupiter system. Both spacecraft would carry a complement of 11-12 instruments launch separately in 2020 and use a Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA

  14. Status of the ESA Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, H. R.; Schumann, W.

    2004-11-01

    Following on from the first generation of Meteosat, the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) programme promises to provide advanced and more frequent data for short-range and medium-range weather forecasting and climate monitoring for at least the next 12 years. The MSG programme is a cooperation between ESA and EUMETSAT, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites organisation. ESA has been responsible for designing and developing the first of the four satellites in the MSG programme, whilst EUMETSAT has overall responsibility for defining the end-user requirements, developing the ground segment and operating the system. The first MSG satellite, called MSG-1 (METEOSAT 8), was successfully launched on 28August 2002 by an Ariane 5 launcher together with its co-passenger Atlantic Bird. ESOC took over control of the satellite after separation and placed the satellite from the Ariane injection orbit to a quasi-geostationary orbit drifting slowly towards the commissioning longitude at 10.5 deg West. Subsequently EUMETSAT started the satellite commissioning testing. Except the in-orbit failure of an on-board amplifier, with its consequences for the dissemination service, the achieved results show a high degree of compliance with respect to the satellite specification and show very good overall performance of the satellite, in particular for the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) instrument to be outstanding. METEOSAT-8 entered routine operations on 29 January 2004. In parallel with the MSG-1 commissioning activities, the integration and test phases on the other MSG satellites has well progressed. Begin March 2004, EUMETSAT took the decision to take the MSG-2 satellite out of storage, resuming testing and work on it towards its final preparation for launch with a launch period now defined between February and April 2005. MSG-3 is entered into storage in summer this year. It is an intermediate storage configuration, after the

  15. The SCD - Stem Cell Differentiation ESA Project: Preparatory Work for the Spaceflight Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versari, Silvia; Barenghi, Livia; van Loon, Jack; Bradamante, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Due to spaceflight, astronauts experience serious, weightlessness-induced bone loss because of an unbalanced process of bone remodeling that involves bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), as well as osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. The effects of microgravity on osteo-cells have been extensively studied, but it is only recently that consideration has been given to the role of BMSCs. Previous researches indicated that human BMSCs cultured in simulated microgravity (sim-μg) alter their proliferation and differentiation. The spaceflight opportunities for biomedical experiments are rare and suffer from a number of operative constraints that could bias the validity of the experiment itself, but remain a unique opportunity to confirm and explain the effects due to microgravity, that are only partially activated/detectable in simulated conditions. For this reason, we carefully prepared the SCD - STEM CELLS DIFFERENTIATION experiment, selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) and now on the International Space Station (ISS). Here we present the preparatory studies performed on ground to adapt the project to the spaceflight constraints in terms of culture conditions, fixation and storage of human BMSCs in space aiming at satisfying the biological requirements mandatory to retrieve suitable samples for post-flight analyses. We expect to understand better the molecular mechanisms governing human BMSC growth and differentiation hoping to outline new countermeasures against astronaut bone loss.

  16. Long-term laser irradiation tests of optical elements for ESA mission ADM-Aeolus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinhos, Uwe; Mann, Klaus; Bayer, Armin; Endemann, Martin; Wernham, Denny; Pettazzi, Federico; Thibault, Dominique

    2010-08-01

    The European Space Agency ESA is running a series of earth observation missions. In order to perform global windprofile observation based on Doppler-LIDAR, the satellite ADM-Aelolus will be launched in April 2011 and injected into an orbit 400 km above Earth's surface. ADM-Aeolus will be the first satellite ever that is equipped with a UV-laser (emitting at 355 nm) and a reflector telescope. At LLG, a setup was developed that allows monitoring transmission, reflection and fluorescence of laser-irradiated optical components, in order to assess their possible optical degradation due to radiation-induced contaminant deposition in orbit. For both a high-reflecting mirror and an anti-reflective coated window long-term irradiation tests (up to 500 million laser pulses) were performed at a base pressure < 10-9 mbar, using a XeF excimer laser (wavelength 351 nm, repetition rate 1kHz). At this, samples of polymers used inside the satellite (insulators for cabling, adhesives, etc.) were installed into the chamber, and the interaction of their degassing with the sample surfaces under laser irradiation was investigated. Various paramters were varied including pulse repetition rate, view factor and coatings. Optical degradation associated with contaminant adsorption was detected on the irradiated sample sites.

  17. Moving from Temporal Coherence to Decorrelation Time of Interferometric Measurements Exploiting ESA's SAR Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foumelis, Michael; Mitraka, Zina; Cuccu, Roberto; Desnos, Yves-Louis; Engdahl, Marcus

    2015-05-01

    Interferometric coherence can be considered as an expression of temporal decorrelation. It is understood that interferometric coherence decreases with time between SAR acquisitions because of changes in surface reflectivity, reducing the quality of SAR phase measurements. This is an intrinsic characteristic of the design of SAR systems that has a significant contribution at longer time scales. Although in the past there was not sufficient amount of SAR data to extract robust statistical metrics for decorrelation, in the present study it is demonstrated that tailored analysis of interferometric coherence exploiting the large SAR archive available by the European Space Agency (ESA), enables the accurate quantification of temporal decorrelation. A methodology to translate the observed rate of coherence loss into decorrelation times over a volcanic landscape, namely the Santorini volcanic complex is the subject treated in this study. Specifically, a sensitivity analysis was performed on a large data stack of interferometric pairs to quantify at a pixel level the time beyond which the interferometric phase becomes practically unusable due to the effect of decorrelation. Though the dependence of decorrelation on various land cover/use types is already documented the provision of additional information regarding the expected time of decorrelation is of practical use especially when EO data are utilized in operational activities. The performed analysis is viewed within the improved capacity of current and future SAR systems, while underlining the necessity for exploitation of archive data.

  18. TEMPO: an ESA-funded project for uncovering significant features of the South Atlantic Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; De Santis, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    In this work we provide the last results of the ESA (European Space Agency) funded project TEMPO ("Is The Earth's Magnetic field POtentially reversing? New insights from Swarm mission"). The mail goal of this project is to analyse the time and spatial evolution of one of the most important features of the present geomagnetic field, i.e. the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The region covered by this anomaly is characterized by values of geomagnetic field intensity around 30% lower than expected for those latitudes and extends over a large area in the South Atlantic Ocean, South America, South Africa and the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This large depression of the geomagnetic field strength has its origin in a prominent patch of reversed polarity flux in the Earth's outer core. The study of the SAA is an important challenge nowadays not only for the geomagnetic and paleomagnetic community, but also for other areas focused on the Earth Observation due to the protective role of this potential field against the charged particles forming the solar wind. A further increase of the SAA surface extent could have dramatic consequences for human health and technologies because a larger number of solar charged particles could reach the Earth's surface.

  19. Beagle 2: Seeking the Signatures of Life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Pillinger, Colin T.; Wright, Ian P.; Morse, Andy; Stewart, Jenny; Morgan, G.; Praine, Ian; Leigh, Dennis; Sims, Mark R.; Pullan, Derek

    2003-01-01

    Beagle 2 is a 60 kg probe (with a 30 kg lander) developed in the United Kingdom for inclusion on the European Space Agency s 2003 Mars Express. Beagle 2 will deliver to the Martian surface a payload which consists of a high percentage of science instruments to landed spacecraft mass. Beagle 2 will be launched in June 2003 with Mars Express on a Soyuz-Fregat rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Beagle 2 will land on Mars in December 2003 in Isidis Planitia (approx. 11.5 deg.N and 275 deg.W), a large sedimentary basin that overlies the boundary between ancient highlands and northern plains. Isidis Planitia, the third largest basin on Mars, which is possibly filled with sediment deposited at the bottom of long-standing lakes or seas, offers an ideal environment for preserving traces of life. Beagle 2 is completed and undergoing integration with the Mars Express orbiter prior to launch.

  20. Quick trips to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornung, R.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a Mars Mission Vehicle that would have to be launched by two very heavy lift launch vehicles is described along with plans for a mission to Mars. The vehicle has three nuclear engine for rocket vehicle application (NERVA) boosters with a fourth in the center that acts as a dual mode system. The fourth generates electrical power while in route, but it also helps lift the vehicle out of earth orbit. A Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV), a Mars transfer vehicle stage, and a Mars Excursion Vehicle (MEV) are located on the front end of this vehicle. Other aspects of this research including aerobraking, heat shielding, nuclear thermal rocket engines, a mars mission summary, closed Brayton cycle with and without regeneration, liquid hydrogen propellant storage, etc. are addressed.

  1. Mars Solar Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Scheiman, David A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA missions to Mars, both robotic and human, rely on solar arrays for the primary power system. Mars presents a number of challenges for solar power system operation, including a dusty atmosphere which modifies the spectrum and intensity of the incident solar illumination as a function of time of day, degradation of the array performance by dust deposition, and low temperature operation. The environmental challenges to Mars solar array operation will be discussed and test results of solar cell technology operating under Mars conditions will be presented, along with modeling of solar cell performance under Mars conditions. The design implications for advanced solar arrays for future Mars missions is discussed, and an example case, a Martian polar rover, are analyzed.

  2. Mars Surface Habitability Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howe, A. Scott; Simon, Matthew; Smitherman, David; Howard, Robert; Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on current habitability concepts for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) prepared by the NASA Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT). For many years NASA has investigated alternative human Mars missions, examining different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies; the combinations of which have been referred to as reference missions or architectures. At the highest levels, decisions regarding the timing and objectives for a human mission to Mars continue to evolve while at the lowest levels, applicable technologies continue to advance. This results in an on-going need for assessments of alternative system designs such as the habitat, a significant element in any human Mars mission scenario, to provide meaningful design sensitivity characterizations to assist decision-makers regarding timing, objectives, and technologies. As a subset of the Evolvable Mars Campaign activities, the habitability team builds upon results from past studies and recommends options for Mars surface habitability compatible with updated technologies.

  3. Cars on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2002-01-01

    Mars is one of the most fascinating planets in the solar system, featuring an atmosphere, water, and enormous volcanoes and canyons. The Mars Pathfinder, Global Surveyor, and Odyssey missions mark the first wave of the Planet Earth's coming invasion of the red planet, changing our views of the past and future of the planet and the possibilities of life. Scientist and science-fiction writer Geoffrey A. Landis will present experiences on the Pathfinder mission, the challenges of using solar power on the surface of Mars, and present future missions to Mars such as the upcoming Mars Twin Rovers, which will launch two highly-capable vehicles in 2003 to explore the surface of Mars.

  4. Mars elevation distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Howington-Kraus, Annie E.; Ablin, Karyn K.

    1991-01-01

    A Digital Terrain Model (DTM) of Mars was derived with both Mercator and Sinusoidal Equal-Area projections from the global topographic map of Mars (scale 1:15 million, contour interval 1 km). Elevations on the map are referred to Mars' topographic datum that is defined by the gravity field at a 6.1-millibar pressure surface with respect to the center of mass of Mars. The DTM has a resolution at the equator of 1/59.226 degrees (exactly 1 km) per pixel. By using the DTM, the volumetric distribution of Mars topography above and below the datum has previously been calculated. Three types of elevation distributions of Mars' topography were calculated from the same DTM: (1) the frequency distribution of elevations at the pixel resolution; (2) average elevations in increments of 6 degrees in both longitude and latitude; and (3) average elevations in 36 separate blocks, each covering 30 degrees of latitude and 60 degrees of longitude.

  5. Operational radiation protection for astronauts and cosmonauts and correlated activities of ESA Medical Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Fuglesang, Christer; Reiter, Thomas; Damann, Volker; Tognini, Michel

    2010-04-01

    Since the early times of human spaceflight radiation has been, besides the influence of microgravity on the human body, recognized as a main health concern to astronauts and cosmonauts. The radiation environment that the crew experiences during spaceflight differs significantly to that found on earth due to particles of greater potential for biological damage. Highly energetic charged particles, such as protons, helium nuclei ("alpha particles") and heavier ions up to iron, originating from several sources, as well as protons and electrons trapped in the Earth's radiation belts, are the main contributors. The exposure that the crew receives during a spaceflight significantly exceeds exposures routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Astronaut Center (EAC) in Cologne, Germany, is home of the European Astronaut Corps. Part of the EAC is the Crew Medical Support Office (CMSO or HSF-AM) responsible for ensuring the health and well-being of the European Astronauts. A sequence of activities is conducted to protect astronauts and cosmonauts health, including those aiming to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. All health related activities are part of a multinational Medical Operations (MedOps) concept, which is executed by the different Space Agencies participating in the human spaceflight program of the International Space Station (ISS). This article will give an introduction to the current measures used for radiation monitoring and protection of astronauts and cosmonauts. The operational guidelines that shall ensure proper implementation and execution of those radiation protection measures will be addressed. Operational hardware for passive and active radiation monitoring and for personal dosimetry, as well as the operational procedures that are applied, are described.

  6. New Interface for Accessing Archived European Space Agency Planetary Science Data, Such as the New Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotheer, E.; Barbarisi, I.; Rios, C.; Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Arviset, C.; Besse, S.; Heather, D.; Gonzalez, J.; De Marchi, G.; Martinez, S.; Lim, T.; Fraga, D.

    2015-12-01

    All Venus Express (VEX) instruments delivered their data products according to the Planetary Data System version 3 (PDS3) standard, and the atmospheric drag experiment (ADE) data was no exception. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Planetary Science Archive (PSA), which can be accessed at www.rssd.esa.int/PSA, is being upgraded to make PDS4 data available from newer missions such as ExoMars and BepiColombo. Thus, the PSA development team has been working to ensure that the legacy PDS3 data will be accessible via the new interface as well. We will preview some of the new methods of accessing legacy VEX data via the new interface, with a focus being placed on the ADE data set. We will show how the ADE data can be accessed using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and our plans for making this and other data sets compatible with the Virtual European Solar and Planetary Access (VESPA) project for creating a virtual observatory. From February 2010 through March 2014, ESA's Venus Express mission conducted 11 ADE campaigns. During these observation campaigns, VEX's pericenter was in the range of 165 to 190 km, while the spacecraft was near Venus' North pole, and the entire spacecraft was used to make in situ measurements of the atmospheric density. This was done by rotating the solar panels in a manner that somewhat resembles a windmill. Also, VEX 's attitude and orbit control system was tasked with maintaining the spacecraft in a 3-axis stabilized mode during these pericenter passes. The torques that the reaction wheels had to exert to maintain this attitude were then analyzed to yield density readings.

  7. Status of ESA's EarthCARE mission, passive instruments payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Kotska; Hélière, Arnaud; Lefebvre, Alain; Eisinger, Michael; Wehr, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    EarthCARE is ESA's third Earth Explorer Core Mission, with JAXA providing one instrument. The mission allows unique data product synergies to improve understanding of atmospheric cloud-aerosol interactions and Earth's radiation balance. Retrieved data will be used to improve climate and numerical weather prediction models. EarthCARE accommodates two active instruments: an ATmospheric LIDar (ATLID) and a Cloud Profiling Radar (CPR), and two passive instruments: a Multi Spectral Imager (MSI) and a BroadBand Radiometer (BBR). The instruments will provide simultaneous, collocated imagery, allowing both individual and common data products. The active instruments provide data on microscopic levels, measured through the atmospheric depth. 3-D models of the atmospheric interactions are constructed from the data, which can be used to calculate radiation balance. The large footprint of the MSI provides contextual information for the smaller footprints of the active instruments. Data from the BBR allows the loop to be closed by providing a macroscopic measurement of the radiation balance. This paper will describe the passive instruments development status. MSI is a compact instrument with a 150 km swath providing 500 m pixel data in seven channels, whose retrieved data will give context to the active instrument measurements, as well as providing cloud and aerosol information. BBR measures reflected solar and emitted thermal radiation from the scene. To reduce uncertainty in the radiance to flux conversion, three independent view angles are observed for each scene. The combined data allows more accurate flux calculations, which can be further improved using MSI data.

  8. M⁴ - a mission candidate for ESA M4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retino, A.; Vaivads, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present a mission concept that will be proposed in the response to the upcoming ESA M4 Call. The working name of the mission is M⁴. The scientific theme of the M⁴ mission is turbulent energy dissipation and particle energization. The main focus is on turbulence and shock processes, however areas where the different fundamental processes interact, such as reconnection in turbulence or shock generated turbulence, is also of high importance. The M⁴ mission aims to address such fundamental questions as how energy is dissipated at kinetic scales, how energy is partitioned among different plasma components, what is the relative importance of waves and coherent structures in the dissipation processes. To reach the goal a careful design work of the M⁴ mission and its payload has been done and it is based on the earlier mission concepts of Tor, EIDOSCOPE and Cross-Scale. We present the basic concepts of the M⁴ mission and its payload as well as illustrate how it will help to address the science questions posed.

  9. The Dark UNiverse Explorer (DUNE): proposal to ESA's cosmic vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refregier, A.

    2009-03-01

    The Dark UNiverse Explorer (DUNE) is a wide-field space imager whose primary goal is the study of dark energy and dark matter with unprecedented precision. For this purpose, DUNE is optimised for the measurement of weak gravitational lensing but will also provide complementary measurements of baryonic accoustic oscillations, cluster counts and the Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect. Immediate auxiliary goals concern the evolution of galaxies, to be studied with unequalled statistical power, the detailed structure of the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, and the demographics of Earth-mass planets. DUNE is an Medium-class mission which makes use of readily available components, heritage from other missions, and synergy with ground based facilities to minimise cost and risks. The payload consists of a 1.2 m telescope with a combined visible/NIR field-of-view of 1 deg2. DUNE will carry out an all-sky survey, ranging from 550 to 1600 nm, in one visible and three NIR bands which will form a unique legacy for astronomy. DUNE will yield major advances in a broad range of fields in astrophysics including fundamental cosmology, galaxy evolution, and extrasolar planet search. DUNE was recently selected by ESA as one of the mission concepts to be studied in its Cosmic Vision programme.

  10. ESA's new European Hubble Science Archive at ESAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Deborah

    2015-12-01

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC) has recently launched a new version of the European Hubble Space Telescope science archive. The new and enhanced archive offers several new features, some of which are not available anywhere else. The new web-based archive has been completely re-engineered and is now faster, more accurate and more robust than ever. Several of its unique features will be presented: the possibility of seeing the exact footprint of each observations on top of an optical all-sky image, the online visualization and inspection of FITS headers, imaging and spectral observation previews without downloading files or the possibility to search for data that has not yet been published in refereed journals. This state-of-the-art science data archive will be the new main access point to HST data for the European astronomical community and will be enhanced in the near-future to include the Hubble Source Catalogue or other high-level data products as required.

  11. ESA hardware for plant research on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinckmann, E.

    The long awaited launch of the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) will provide a platform on which long-term and shorter experiments with plants will be performed on the International Space Station (ISS). EMCS is equipped with two centrifuge rotors (600 mm diameter), which can be used for in-flight 1 g controls and for studies with acceleration levels from 0.001 g to 2.0 g. Several experiments are in preparation investigating gravity relating to gene expression, gravisensing and phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana and lentil roots. The experiment-specific hardware provides growth chambers for seedlings and whole A. thaliana plants and is connected to the EMCS Life Support System. Besides in-flight video observation, the experiments will be evaluated post-flight by means of fixed or frozen material. EMCS will have for the first time the possibility to fix samples on the rotating centrifuge, allowing a detailed analysis of the process of gravisensing. About two years after the EMCS launch, ESA's Biolab will be launched in the European "Columbus" Module. In a similar way as in EMCS, Biolab will accommodate experiments with plant seedlings and automatic fixation processes on the centrifuge. The hardware concepts for these experiments are presented in this communication.

  12. Mars at Opposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    On January 29, Mars will reach opposition, a point along its orbit around the Sun where Mars will be directly opposite from the Sun in a two-planet and Sun line-up with the Earth in between. At this opposition, the Earth and Mars will be separated by nearly 100 million km. An opposition is similar to a full Moon in that the planet at opposition…

  13. Instrumentation for Mars Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1997-01-01

    The main portion of the project was to support the "MAE" experiment on the Mars Pathfinder mission and to design instrumentation for future space missions to measure dust deposition on Mars and to characterize the properties of the dust. A second task was to analyze applications for photovoltaics in new space environments, and a final task was analysis of advanced applications for solar power, including planetary probes, photovoltaic system operation on Mars, and satellite solar power systems.

  14. Mars: The Viking discoveries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the Viking Mars probe is presented. The Viking spacecraft is described and a brief history of the earlier observations and exploration of Mars is provided. A number of the Viking photographs of the Martian surface are presented and a discussion of the experiments Viking performed including a confirmation of the general theory of relativity are reported. Martian surface chemistry is discussed and experiments to study the weather on Mars are reported.

  15. The High-resolution Stereo Color Imager (HiSCI) on ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, A. S.; Thomas, N.; Bridges, J.; Byrne, S.; Cremonese, G.; Delamere, W.; Hansen, C.; Hauber, E.; Ivanov, A.; Kestay, L.; Kirk, R.; Mangold, N.; Markiewicz, W.; Massironi, M.; Mattson, S.; Okubo, C.; Wray, J.

    2011-10-01

    HiSCI has been chosen for the payload of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO), a joint ESA/NASA mission scheduled to arrive at Mars in 2016 [1]. There are 3 major HiSCI partners: (1) the telescope assembly will be built in Switzerland overseen by the University of Bern; (2) the overall design, electronics, and integration will be by Ball Aerospace in Colorado; and (3) operations will be joint with MRO's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) [2] at the University of Arizona. HiSCI will acquire the best-ever colour and stereo images over significant areas of Mars.

  16. NOMAD, a spectrometer suite for Nadir and Solar Occultation observations on the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandaele, A. C.; López-Moreno, J. J.; Patel, M. R.; Bellucci, G.; Daerden, F.; Drummond, R.; Neefs, E.; Rodriguez Gomez, J.

    2011-10-01

    NOMAD, the "Nadir and Occultation for MArs Discovery" spectrometer suite has been selected by ESA and NASA to be part of the payload of the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission 2016. This instrument suite will conduct a spectroscopic survey of Mars' atmosphere in the UV, visible and IR regions covering the 0.2-0.65 and 2.2-4.3 μm spectral ranges. NOMAD's observation modes include solar occultation, nadir and limb observations. The nadir mode will provide detailed trace gas mapping. (see also Daerden et al., same session)

  17. ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED AT IPSL AND ESA TO SUPPORT A CO2 DIAL SPACE MISSION FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ISSUE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flamant, P. H.; Gibert, F.; Édouart, D.; Cuesta, J.; Bruneau, D.

    2009-12-01

    Since 2002, the Institut-Pierre-Simon-Laplace (IPSL) is involved in several projects addressing CO2 monitoring by Dial lidar for environmental science and space borne applications. The activity started with the development of a 2-µm CO2 heterodyne DiAL project. The first instrumental activity gave rise to two new programs to develop a transportable CO2 DiAL in a container using fiber technologies and then an airborne system. In 2006, “A-SCOPE” a proposal aiming at a space borne Integrated Path CO2 DiAL mission has been submitted to the European Space Agency (ESA) in response to a Call for Ideas in the framework of the Earth Explorer Mission program. The IPDA technique makes use of signal returns from the surface. Accordingly canopy height and surface information will be provided as spin-off products in addition to dry CO2 mixing ratio as the main products. A-SCOPE has been selected with 5 other missions for phase “0” study and preliminary feasibility assessments by 2 European industrial consortia. A Mission Assessment Group has been formed by ESA to support the mission definition and write a Report for Assessment (ESA SP-1313/1). A-SCOPE and the 5 other potential missions have been presented and discussed during the Users Consultation Meeting (UMC) in Lisbon, Portugal, 20-21 January 2009. The A-SCOPE Report for Assessment, the discussion during UMC and on-going activities will be presented at the conference to support a future mission like “A-SCOPE”.

  18. The Greenhouse Gas Project of ESA's Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): Phase 2 Achievements and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Aben, I.; Alexe, M.; Armante, R.; Bergamaschi, P.; Bovensmann, H.; Brunner, D.; Buchmann, B.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Chavallier, F.; Chedin, A.; Crevoisier, C. D.; De Maziere, M.; De Wachter, E.; Detmers, R.; Dils, B.; Frankenberg, C.; Gonzi, S.; Hahne, P.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Hewson, W.; Heymann, J.; Houweling, S.; Hilker, M.; Kaminski, T.; Kuhlmann, G.; Laeng, A.; Leeuwen, T. T. V.; Lichtenberg, G.; Marshall, J.; Noel, S.; Notholt, J.; Palmer, P. I.; Parker, R.; Somkuti, P.; Scholze, M.; Stiller, G. P.; Warneke, T.; Zehner, C.

    2015-11-01

    The GHG-CCI project (http://www.esa-ghg-cci.org/) is one of several projects of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI). The goal of the CCI is to generate and deliver data sets of various satellite-derived Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) in line with GCOS (Global Climate Observing System) requirements. The "ECV Greenhouse Gases" (ECV GHG) is the global distribution of important climate relevant gases – namely atmospheric CO2 and CH4 - with a quality sufficient to obtain information on regional CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks. The main goal of GHG-CCI is to generate long-term highly accurate and precise time series of global near-surface-sensitive satellite observations of CO2 and CH4, i.e., XCO2 and XCH4, starting with the launch of ESA's ENVISAT satellite. These products are currently retrieved from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT (2002-2012) and TANSO- FTS/GOSA T (2009-today) nadir mode observations in the near-infrared/shortwave-infrared spectral region. In addition, other sensors (e.g., IASI and MIPAS) are also considered and in the future also data from other satellites. The GHG-CCI data products and related documentation are freely available via the GHG-CCI website. Here we present an overview about the latest data set (Climate Research Data Package No. 2 (CRDP#2)) focusing on the GHG-CCI core products and present a short overview about GHG-CCI-related achievements in terms of scientific publications.

  19. ESA sees stardust storms heading for Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    The Sun's galactic environment Credits: P.C. Frisch, University of Chicago The Sun's galactic environment The Sun and the nearest stars move through filaments of galactic clouds. Ulysses and the heliosphere hi-res Size hi-res: 1337 kb Credits: ESA (image by D. Hardy) Ulysses and the heliosphere Over more than 17 years of observations above and below the poles of the Sun, the ESA/NASA Ulysses mission has made fundamental contributions to our understanding of the Sun itself, its sphere of influence (the heliosphere), and our local interstellar neighbourhood. The mission provided the first-ever map of the heliosphere in the four dimensions of space and time. Ulysses was launched by Space Shuttle Discovery in October 1990. It headed out to Jupiter, arriving in February 1992 for the gravity-assist manoeuvre that swung the craft into its unique solar orbit. It orbited the Sun three times and performed six polar passes. The mission concludes on 1 July 2008. Since its launch in 1990, Ulysses has constantly monitored how much stardust enters the Solar System from the interstellar space around it. Using an on-board instrument called DUST, scientists have discovered that stardust can actually approach the Earth and other planets, but its flow is governed by the Sun's magnetic field, which behaves as a powerful gate-keeper bouncing most of it back. However, during solar maximum - a phase of intense activity inside the Sun that marks the end of each 11-year solar cycle - the magnetic field becomes disordered as its polarity reverses. As a result, the Sun's shielding power weakens and more stardust can sneak in. What is surprising in this new Ulysses discovery is that the amount of stardust has continued to increase even after the solar activity calmed down and the magnetic field resumed its ordered shape in 2001. Scientists believe that this is due to the way in which the polarity changed during solar maximum. Instead of reversing completely, flipping north to south, the Sun

  20. Phoenix Mars Lander with Solar Arrays Open

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's next Mars-bound spacecraft, the Phoenix Mars Lander, was partway through assembly and testing at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, in September 2006, progressing toward an August 2007 launch from Florida. In this photograph, spacecraft specialists work on the lander after its fan-like circular solar arrays have been spread open for testing. The arrays will be in this configuration when the spacecraft is active on the surface of Mars.

    Phoenix will land in icy soils near the north polar permanent ice cap of Mars and explore the history of the water in these soils and any associated rocks, while monitoring polar climate. It will dig into the surface, test scooped-up samples for carbon-bearing compounds and serve as NASA's first exploration of a potential modern habitat on Mars.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  1. Digital cartography of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.

    1987-01-01

    A medium-resolution Digital Image Model (DIM) of Mars is being compiled. A DIM is a mosaic of radiometrically corrected, photometrically modelled spacecraft images displaying accurate reflectance properties at uniform resolution, and geometrically tied to the best available control. The Mars medium-resolution DIM contains approximately 4700 Viking Orbiter image frames that were used to compile the recently completed 1:2,000,000-scale controlled photomosaic series of Mars. This DIM provides a planimetric control base to which all other Mars maps will be registered. A similar control base of topographic elevations (Digital Terrain Model, or DTM) is also being compiled. These products are scheduled for completion in 1989.

  2. Mars - Destination and challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.

    A general evaluation is conducted of the challenges associated with prospective Mars exploration efforts. The technical challenge posed stems from the unforgiving physical environment of space travel, and such peculiarities of Mars as its great orbital eccentricity and 15-year cyclic variation in transfer energy. Additional considerations arise from the 'architecture' of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative, encompassing the determination of a Mars exploration effort's purpose, scope, and schedule. Finally, numerous unresolved issues arise from the definition of detailed scientific experimentation that is to be done for the sake of the greatest long-term benefit to an understanding of Mars, and the rallying of political support behind a major new exploration initiative.

  3. Mars - Destination and challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, Arnold D.

    1992-01-01

    A general evaluation is conducted of the challenges associated with prospective Mars exploration efforts. The technical challenge posed stems from the unforgiving physical environment of space travel, and such peculiarities of Mars as its great orbital eccentricity and 15-year cyclic variation in transfer energy. Additional considerations arise from the 'architecture' of NASA's Space Exploration Initiative, encompassing the determination of a Mars exploration effort's purpose, scope, and schedule. Finally, numerous unresolved issues arise from the definition of detailed scientific experimentation that is to be done for the sake of the greatest long-term benefit to an understanding of Mars, and the rallying of political support behind a major new exploration initiative.

  4. 2001 Mars Odyssey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, C. T.

    2004-04-01

    Mars, the most habitable of our sister planets, holds a special place in our imaginations and in our space exploration program. Fully half of NASA's planetary exploration effort is now devoted to Mars. Key questions include: Has Mars ever harbored life? Is there life on Mars now? Will humans be able to survive on the Martian surface? Answers to these questions lie in determining the present location of water on Mars and its likely inventory in the past, and in determining the present radiation environment of Mars. The 2001 Mars Odyssey Mission contributes greatly these answers by detecting near-surface water through measurements of neutron flux, from the detection of carbonates, and the quantification of its radiation environment. This book captures the objectives, the design of the mission and the details of the instruments carried to Mars. It should be of interest to every scientist interested in participating in the on-going exploration of Mars from graduate students to senior scientists as it provides the background information essential to interpret the many exciting results now appearing from the mission. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1696-4

  5. Mars Museum Visualization Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sohus, A. M.; Viotti, M. A.; de Jong, E. M.

    2004-11-01

    The Mars Museum Visualization Alliance is a collaborative effort funded by the Mars Public Engagement Office and supported by JPL's Informal Education staff and the Solar System Visualization Project to share the adventure of exploration and make Mars a real place. The effort started in 2002 with a small working group of museum professionals to learn how best to serve museum audiences through informal science educators. By the time the Mars Exploration Rovers landed on Mars in January 2004, over 100 organizations were partners in the Alliance, which has become a focused community of Mars educators. The Alliance provides guaranteed access to images, information, news, and resources for use by the informal science educators with their students, educators, and public audiences. Thousands of people have shared the adventure of exploring Mars and now see it as a real place through the efforts of the Mars Museum Visualization Alliance partners. The Alliance has been lauded for "providing just the right inside track for museums to do what they do best," be that webcasts, live presentations with the latest images and information, high-definition productions, planetarium shows, or hands-on educational activities. The Alliance is extending its mission component with Cassini, Genesis, Deep Impact, and Stardust. The Mars Exploration and Cassini Programs, as well as the Genesis, Deep Impact, and Stardust Projects, are managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California.

  6. Mars Stratigraphy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  7. A Mars base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, Veronique

    1989-01-01

    This study was initiated to provide an approach to the development of a permanently manned Mars base. The objectives for a permanently manned Mars base are numerous. Primarily, human presence on Mars will allow utilization of new resources for the improvement of the quality of life on Earth, allowing for new discoveries in technologies, the solar system, and human physiology. Such a mission would also encourage interaction between different countries, increasing international cooperation and leading to a stronger unification of mankind. Surface studies of Mars, scientific experiments in the multiple fields, the research for new minerals, and natural resource production are more immediate goals of the Mars mission. Finally, in the future, colonization of Mars will ensure man's perpetual presence in the universe. Specific objectives of this study were: (1) to design a Mars habitat that minimizes the mass delivered to the Mars surface, provides long-stay capability for the base crew, and accommodates future expansion and modification; (2) to develop a scenario of the construction of a permanently manned Mars base; and (3) to incorporate new and envisioned technologies.

  8. Exobiology and Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Davis, Wanda, L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Scientific questions associated with exobiology on Mars were considered and how these questions should be addressed on future Mars missions was determined. The mission that provided a focus for discussions was the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission.

  9. Design issues for Mars planetary rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Gordon K. F.; Dejarnette, Fred R.; Walberg, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents some of the design issues and vehicle requirements that need to be addressed for the Mars planetary rovers. Some of the designs currently being investigated, including the JPL rover, the Martin Marietta vehicle, and the French Space Agency's VAP project, are examined. The rover must satisfy such mission requirements as surveying the terrain, preparing the landing sites, loading and unloading components for base operations, and aiding in the recovery of in situ materials.

  10. A vista of new knowledge from ESA's Hipparcos astronomy mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-05-01

    Hipparcos is a milestone in the history of astronomy. In 1985 the American physicist Freeman J. Dyson hailed Hipparcos as the first major new development in space science to come from outside the United States. The spacecraft operated in orbit 1989-93, measuring the angles between stars in the sky. Over a further three years, computing teams across Europe generated a consistent, high-precision plot of 118,000 stars in the Hipparcos Catalogue and somewhat less accurate (but still unprecedented) data on a million stars in the Tycho Catalogue. The distances, motions, pairings and variability of stars are now known far more accurately than ever before. Hipparcos will make an impact on every branch of astronomy, from the Solar System to the history of the Universe, and especially on theories of stars and their evolution. For almost a year, astronomers most closely associated with the mission have had an early view of the completed catalogues and in Venice they will summarize their initial results. The Hipparcos data will be published in June, as an extraordinary contribution from Europe to astronomy all around the world. The success of Hipparcos has created problems for the organizers of Venice symposium. Altogether 190 scientific papers were offered for presentation by various groups of astronomers. With three mornings and three afternoons available for the main scientific sessions, 67 oral presentations are accommodated, by restricting speakers to 10-15 minutes each. For the rest, there will a generous display of results in the form of posters. Thus Hipparcos will be celebrated by a vista of new knowledge. The stars are looking younger Already Hipparcos seems to cure a headache concerning the ages of stars. As recently as last year, astronomers were perplexed by a contradiction between their estimates of the age of the Universe, and stars that seemed to be older. An early Hipparcos result announced in February 1997 (ESA Information Note 04/97) concerned the winking

  11. Government Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    manufacturers. The Navy has a major in- house design capability for ships; the government does not possess such a capability for aircraft or other weapon systems...the Coast Guard, government agencies acquire a wide variety of ships, ranging from sophisticated submarines and nuclear aircraft carriers to much...the initial phase a review was made of written material relating to government procedures in U.S. Government agencies for acquiring vessels, aircraft

  12. The shadow position sensors (SPS) formation flying metrology subsystem for the ESA PROBA-3 mission: present status and future developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Focardi, M.; Noce, V.; Buckley, S.; O'Neill, K.; Bemporad, A.; Fineschi, S.; Pancrazzi, M.; Landini, F.; Baccani, C.; Capobianco, G.; Loreggia, D.; Casti, M.; Romoli, M.; Massone, G.; Nicolini, G.; Accatino, L.; Thizy, C.; Servaye, J. S.; Mechmech, I.; Renotte, E.

    2016-07-01

    PROBA-3 [1] [2] is a Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) composed of two formation-flying satellites, planned for their joint launch by the end of 2018. Its main purposes have a dual nature: scientific and technological. In particular, it is designed to observe and study the inner part of the visible solar corona, thanks to a dedicated coronagraph called ASPIICS (Association of Spacecraft for Polarimetric and Imaging Investigation of the Corona of the Sun), and to demonstrate the in-orbit formation flying (FF) and attitude control capability of its two satellites. The Coronagraph payload on-board PROBA-3 consists of the following parts: the Coronagraph Instrument (CI) with the Shadow Position Sensor (SPS) on the Coronagraph Spacecraft (CSC), the Occulter Position Sensor (OPSE) [3] [4] and the External Occulting (EO) disk on the Occulter Spacecraft (OSC). The SPS subsystem [5] is one of the main metrological devices of the Mission, adopted to control and to maintain the relative (i.e. between the two satellites) and absolute (i.e. with respect to the Sun) FF attitude. It is composed of eight micro arrays of silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) [6] that shall be able to measure, with the required sensitivity and dynamic range as asked by ESA, the penumbral light intensity on the Coronagraph entrance pupil. With the present paper we describe the testing activities on the SPS breadboard (BB) and Development Model (DM) as well as the present status and future developments of this PROBA-3 metrological subsystem.

  13. A multi-satellite concept in support of high latitude permafrost modelling and monitoring - The ESA DUE Permafrost project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Annett; Duguay, Claude; Schmullius, Christiane; Strozzi, Tazio; Heim, Birgit

    2010-05-01

    A number of remotely sensed products have been developed in the past which provide information relevant to permafrost distribution on circumpolar scale. They comprise parameters such as land surface temperature, land cover, soil moisture, disturbances, snow and terrain. A monitoring system of high latitude permafrost requires regular and multiscale observation of all these parameters. Further on, the datasets need to meet requirements of permafrost models as well as support related research in geomorphology, botany and hydrology. Such a comprehensive database is setup within the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) program. The ESA DUE Permafrost project establishes a monitoring system on local to pan-boreal/arctic scale based on satellite data. Within this project permafrost relevant remotely sensed products are assessed and eventually provided to users. The complexity of the phenomenon permafrost requires the close cooperation with the scientific community working in this field. The consortium is led by I.P.F, Vienna University of Technology and supported by four partners: Gamma Remote Sensing, University of Waterloo, Jena University and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research. www.ipf.tuwien.ac.at/permafrost

  14. Ground Ice on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martineau, N.; Pollard, W.

    2003-12-01

    directly related to the aggradation and degradation of ground ice. This paper examines ice stability as a function of climate and geomorphology, and offers suggestions for the exploration of Martian ground ice. It also describes the exploration strategies included in RIGID, a proposal for a capacitive-coupled instrumentation submitted to the Canadian Space Agency's Announcements of Opportunity during the summer of 2003. Bell, J., Tip of the Martian Iceberg? Science, 297, 60-61, 2002. Published online 30 May 2002, 10.1126/science.1074025. Carr, M., Water on Mars, Oxford University Press, New York., 229pp., 1996. Clifford S. M., A Model for the Hydrologic and Climatic Behavior of Water on Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 10 973-11 016, 1993. Clifford et al., The state and future of Mars polar science and exploration, Icarus, 144, 210-242, 2000. Fanale, F.P., J.R. Salvail, A.P. Zentand, and S. E. Postawko, Global Distribution and Migration of Subsurface Ice on Mars, Icarus, 67, 1-18, 1986. Kieffer, H., and A. Zent, Quasi-periodic climate change on Mars, in Mars, edited by H.H. Kieffer et al., pp. 1135-1179, Univ. Arizona Press, Tucson, 1992. Lanagan, P.D., A.S. McEwen, L.P. Keszthelyi, and T. Thordarson, Rootless cones on Mars indicating the presence of shallow equatorial ground ice in recent times, GRL, 28, 2365-2368, 2001. Lucchitta, B., Mars and Earth: Comparison cold climate features. Icarus 45, 264-303, 1981. Squyres, S., and M. Carr, Geomorphic evidence for the distribution of ground ice on Mars, Science, 231, 249-252, 1986.

  15. CarbonSat: ESA's Earth Explorer 8 Candidate Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, Y. J.; Ingmann, P.; Löscher, A.

    2012-04-01

    The CarbonSat candidate mission is part of ESA's Earth Explorer Programme. In 2010, two candidate opportunity missions had been selected for feasibility and preliminary definition studies. The missions, called FLEX and CarbonSat, are now in competition to become ESA's eighth Earth Explorer, both addressing key climate and environmental change issues. In this presentation we will provide a mission overview of CarbonSat with a focus on science. CarbonSat's primary mission objective is the quantification and monitoring of CO2 and CH4 sources and sinks from the local to the regional scale for i) a better understanding of the processes that control carbon cycle dynamics and ii) an independent estimate of local greenhouse gas emissions (fossil fuel, geological CO2 and CH4, etc.) in the context of international treaties. A second priority objective is the monitoring/derivation of CO2 and CH4 fluxes on regional to global scale. These objectives will be achieved by a unique combination of frequent, high spatial resolution (2 x 2 km2) observations of XCO2 and XCH4 coupled to inverse modelling schemes. The required random error of a single measurement at ground-pixel resolution is of the order of between 1 and 3 ppm for XCO2 and between 9 and 17 ppb for XCH4. High spatial resolution is essential in order to maximize the probability for clear-sky observations and to identify flux hot spots. Ideally, CarbonSat shall have a wide swath allowing a 6-day global repeat cycle. The CarbonSat observations will enable CO2 emissions from coal-fired power plants, localized industrial complexes, cities, and other large emitters to be objectively assessed at a global scale. Similarly, the monitoring of natural gas pipelines and compressor station leakage will become feasible. The detection and quantification of the substantial geological greenhouse gas emission sources such as seeps, volcanoes and mud volcanoes will be achieved for the first time. CarbonSat's Greenhouse Gas instrument will

  16. The ESA Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre - Phase 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poedts, Stefaan

    The ESA ITT project (AO/1-6738/11/NL/AT) to develop Phase 1 of a Virtual Space Weather Modelling Centre has the following objectives and scope: 1. The construction of a long term (~10 yrs) plan for the future development of a European virtual space weather modelling centre consisting of a new ‘open’ and distributed framework for the coupling of physics based models for space weather phenomena; 2. The assessment of model capabilities and the amount of work required to make them operational by integrating them in this framework and the identification of computing and networking requirements to do so. 3. The design of a system to enable models and other components to be installed locally or geographically distributed and the creation of a validation plan including a system of metrics for testing results. The consortium that took up this challenge involves: 1)the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Prime Contractor, coordinator: Prof. S. Poedts); 2) the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB); 3) the Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB); 4) the Von Karman Institute (VKI); 5) DH Consultancy (DHC); 6) Space Applications Services (SAS). The project started on May 14 2012, and will finish in May 2014. Thus, by the time of the meeting, both Phase 1A and Phase 1B (the development of the prototype) will be finished. The final report will be presented incl. the architecture decisions made, the framework, the current models integrated already as well as the model couplers installed. The prototype VSWMC will be demonstrated.

  17. Status of esa smart-1 mission to the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. R.; Marini, A.; SMART-1 Technology Working Team

    2003-04-01

    SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA’s Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology . Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been readied for launch in spring 2003 as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. After a cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit. SMART-1's science payload, with a total mass of some 19 kg, features many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition and evolution of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of planets, and the origin of the

  18. Aerosol Climate Time Series Evaluation In ESA Aerosol_cci

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Pinnock, S.

    2015-12-01

    Within the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Aerosol_cci (2010 - 2017) conducts intensive work to improve algorithms for the retrieval of aerosol information from European sensors. By the end of 2015 full mission time series of 2 GCOS-required aerosol parameters are completely validated and released: Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from dual view ATSR-2 / AATSR radiometers (3 algorithms, 1995 - 2012), and stratospheric extinction profiles from star occultation GOMOS spectrometer (2002 - 2012). Additionally, a 35-year multi-sensor time series of the qualitative Absorbing Aerosol Index (AAI) together with sensitivity information and an AAI model simulator is available. Complementary aerosol properties requested by GCOS are in a "round robin" phase, where various algorithms are inter-compared: fine mode AOD, mineral dust AOD (from the thermal IASI spectrometer), absorption information and aerosol layer height. As a quasi-reference for validation in few selected regions with sparse ground-based observations the multi-pixel GRASP algorithm for the POLDER instrument is used. Validation of first dataset versions (vs. AERONET, MAN) and inter-comparison to other satellite datasets (MODIS, MISR, SeaWIFS) proved the high quality of the available datasets comparable to other satellite retrievals and revealed needs for algorithm improvement (for example for higher AOD values) which were taken into account for a reprocessing. The datasets contain pixel level uncertainty estimates which are also validated. The paper will summarize and discuss the results of major reprocessing and validation conducted in 2015. The focus will be on the ATSR, GOMOS and IASI datasets. Pixel level uncertainties validation will be summarized and discussed including unknown components and their potential usefulness and limitations. Opportunities for time series extension with successor instruments of the Sentinel family will be described and the complementarity of the different satellite aerosol products

  19. Review of NASA's Planned Mars Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Contents include the following: Executive Summary; Introduction; Scientific Goals for the Exploration of Mars; Overview of Mars Surveyor and Others Mars Missions; Key Issues for NASA's Mars Exploration Program; and Assessment of the Scientific Potential of NASA's Mars Exploration Program.

  20. The ExoMars science data archive: status and plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heather, David; Barbarisi, Isa; Besse, Sebastien; Brumfitt, Jon; Lim, Tanya; Metcalfe, Leo; Villacorta, Antonio; PSA Team

    2016-10-01

    The ExoMars program is a co-operation between ESA and Roscosmos comprising two missions: the first, launched on 14 March 2016, includes the Trace Gas Orbiter and Schiaparelli lander; the second, due for launch in 2020, will be a Rover and Surface Platform (RSP). The Schiaparelli lander for the 2016 mission is due to land on 19th October, during this conference. The status of that landing will be included as part of this presentation.The archiving and management of the science data to be returned from ExoMars will require a significant development effort for the new Planetary Science Archive (PSA). These are the first data in the PSA to be formatted according to the new PDS4 Standards, and there are also significant differences in the way in which a scientist will want to query, retrieve, and use data from a suite of rover instruments as opposed to remote sensing instrumentation from an orbiter. NASA has a strong user community interaction for their rovers, and a similar approach to their 'Analysts Notebook' will be needed for the future PSA.In addition to the archiving interface itself, there are differences with the overall archiving process being followed for ExoMars compared to previous ESA planetary missions. The first level of data processing for the 2016 mission, from telemetry to raw, is completed by ESA at ESAC in Madrid, where the archive itself resides. Data continuously flow direct to the PSA, where after the given proprietary period, they will be released to the community via the user interfaces. For the rover mission, the data pipelines are being developed by European industry, in close collaboration with ESA PSA experts and with the instrument teams. The first level of data processing will be carried out for all instruments at ALTEC in Turin where the pipelines are developed, and from where the rover operations will also be run.This presentation will focus on the challenges involved in archiving the data from the ExoMars Program, and will outline the

  1. ESA's new view of the Milky Way - in gamma rays!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-11-01

    Integral's gamma-ray map of the galaxy hi-res Size hi-res: 430 kb Credits: ESA/SPI team A portion of Integral's gamma-ray map of the galaxy A portion of Integral's gamma-ray map of the galaxy. This false colour picture was taken by the spectrometer on board Integral (SPI) between December 2002 and March 2003. The yellow dots correspond to bright known gamma-rays sources, whilst blue areas indicate regions of low emission. Data similar to these, but in a higher energy range, have been used to study where aluminium and iron are produced in the Galaxy. Since its formation from a cloud of hydrogen and helium gas, around 12 000 million years ago, the Milky Way has gradually been enriched with heavier chemical elements. This has allowed planets and, indeed, life on Earth to form. Today, one of those heavier elements - radioactive aluminium - is spread throughout the Galaxy and, as it decays into magnesium, gives out gamma rays with a wavelength known as the '1809 keV line'. Integral has been mapping this emission with the aim of understanding exactly what is producing all this aluminium. In particular, Integral is looking at the aluminium 'hot spots' that dot the Galaxy to determine whether these are caused by individual celestial objects or the chance alignment of many objects. Astronomers believe that the most likely sources of the aluminium are supernovae (exploding high-mass stars) and, since the decay time of the aluminium is around one million years, Integral's map shows how many stars have died in recent celestial history. Other possible sources of the aluminium include 'red giant' stars or hot blue stars that give out the element naturally. To decide between these options, Integral is also mapping radioactive iron, which is only produced in supernovae. Theories suggest that, during a supernova blast, aluminium and iron should be produced together in the same region of the exploding star. Thus, if the iron's distribution coincides with that of the aluminium, it

  2. ESA NEOCC effort to eliminate high Palermo Scale virtual impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, M.; Koschny, D.; Hainaut, O.; Bernardi, F.

    2014-07-01

    At the moment of this writing about 4 % of the known near-Earth objects are known to have at least one future close approach scenario with a non-negligible collision probability within the next century, as routinely computed by the NEODyS and Sentry systems. The most straightforward way to improve the knowledge of the future dynamics of an NEO in order to exclude (or possibly confirm) some of these possible future impact is to obtain additional astrometric observations of the object as soon as it becomes observable again. In particular, since a large fraction (>98 %) of the known objects currently recognized as possible future impactors have been observed during a single opposition, this usually corresponds to obtaining a new set of observations during a second opposition, a so called ''recovery''. However, in some cases the future observability windows for the target after the discovery apparition may be very limited, either because the object is intrinsically small (and therefore requires a very close and consequently rare approach to become observable) or because its orbital dynamic prevents the observability from the ground for a long timespan (as in the case of quasi-resonant objects with a long synodic period). When this happens, the only short-term way to clarify an impact scenario is to look toward the past, and investigate the possibility that unrecognized detections of the object are already present in the databases of old astronomical images, which are often archived by professional telescopes and made available to the community a few months to years after they are exposed. We will here present an effort lead by the newly formed ESA NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) in Frascati to pursue both these avenues with the intent of improving the orbital knowledge of the highest-rated possible impactors, as defined by the Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale (PS in the following). As an example of our ongoing observational activities, we will first present our

  3. ExoMars 2016, Orbiter module bus a GNC development update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renault, H.; Sergent, N.; Chevallier, M.; Kutrowski, N.; Bacchetta, A.; Temperanza, D.

    2015-06-01

    ExoMars programme is part of a cooperation between ESA and Roscosmos. It foresees two missions to Mars that aim to searching for signs of past and present life on Mars, investigating the Martian atmosphere and surface and demonstrating the technologies needed to land on Mars and perform robotic exploration. The first spacecraft launched in early 2016 is composed of an Orbiter module (the Trace Gas Orbiter, TGO) carrying an entry descent and landing demonstration module (EDM) The Orbiter GNC design shall allow the spacecraft composite to cruise towards Mars, to accurately release the EDM, to make orbit insertion in Mars orbit with chemical propulsion system, to circularise the orbit by aerobraking and perform atmosphere observation with the four payloads instruments while relaying communication from assets on Mars surface. After a brief presentation of the ExoMars mission and constraints, the paper first provides an overview of the TGO GNC design (in term of mode and sensor/actuator), then an updated status of development is given. A special emphasis is given to the GNC level implementation of the aerobraking strategies and on specific FDIR features.

  4. Human outposts on Mars: engineering and scientific lessons learned from history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruenwald, J.

    2014-06-01

    There are several planned projects that aim to send humans to Mars which are currently developed by the ESA, the NASA or by initiatives from the private sector (e.g. The Mars One Project). Some of these projects include long-term stays or even permanent human outposts on the red planet. To achieve the necessary habitats on Mars, a vast amount of different engineering and scientific problems has to be solved. This paper identifies some of the most important issues by analyzing a similar endeavor from human history—the colonization of the American continent by the Europeans. This might seem to be an unconventional approach, but some valuable insights can be gathered by studying the significant dangers and drawbacks experienced by the early settlers in America. These historical records can help scientists and engineers to set up some guidelines for avoiding some of the risks for the first human beings on Mars.

  5. The Geophysics and Environmental Package (GEP) of the ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biele, J.; Ulamec, S.; Block, J.; Mimoun, D.; Lognonne, P.; Spohn, T.

    2007-08-01

    ExoMars will be the first Mission in the ESA Aurora Program, and is currently foreseen to be launched to Mars in 2013 (backup 2015). The payload is to be distributed between a rover and a stationary, long-living Geophysics Environmental Package (GEP), the latter adressing the habitability (past and present) of the planet. The GEP has been proposed with a core payload consisting of a seismometer, a meteorological package, an atmospheric probe, a heat flow and physical properties package, and a magnetometer. Additional payload elements were recommended following the ESA coordinated ExoMars Payload Confirmation Review. The accommodation of the whole suite of 11proposed instruments (9 kg) has been shown to be feasible, leading to a total mass of ca. 30 kg; a final payload selection is foreseen in the frame of the ExoMars Implementation Review, June 2007. The GEP will be integrated into the Lander platform and consists of several units containing the necessary support equipment (power system, central data management system, communications units, thermal control system) as well as the instruments and deployment mechanisms. The proposed system design is based on a solar generator and radiothermal heaters to allow long term (>2 years) operations on the surface of Mars. The landing areas for the mission are currently foreseen between 15° South and 45° Northern latitude, leading to a challenging power design, keeping in mind the extreme cases in winter, combined with the assumed dust environment. The GEP will be contributed to the ESA-ExoMars Mission by an international consortium, under German lead and with major contributions from France, Denmark, Belgium and the UK. In this paper, the final payload, its scientific objectives and capabilities will be discussed along with the technical realization of the package.

  6. Rat on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's rock abrasion tool, also known as 'rat' (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  7. Microscope on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken at Meridiani Planum, Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the rover's microscopic imager (circular device in center), located on its instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The image was acquired on the ninth martian day or sol of the rover's mission.

  8. Is Mars Red Hot?

    NASA Video Gallery

    What would it feel like if you could stand on Mars – toasty warm, or downright chilly? Find out more about the temperature on Mars in this 60-second video from NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  9. The Mars Millennium Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The countdown to a new century provides a unique opportunity to engage America's youth in charting a course for the future. The Mars Millennium Project challenges students across the nation to design a community yet to be imagined for the planet Mars. This interdisciplinary learning project aims to encourage K-12 students in classrooms and youth…

  10. Mars Exploratory Vehicles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canizo, Thea L.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students learn about the characteristics of the planet Mars. Challenges students to design and build a model of a robotic vehicle that can travel on the surface of Mars and accomplish an assigned task that will provide information useful for future manned trips to the planet. Outlines mission task cards and progress…

  11. The channels of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1988-01-01

    The geomorphology of Mars is discussed, focusing on the Martian channels. The great flood channels of Mars, the processes of channel erosio